ATMEL AT88SA102S-TSU-T

Features
• Secure authentication & key exchange
• Superior SHA-256 Hash Algorithm
• Best in class 256-bit key length
• Guaranteed Unique 48-bit Serial Number
• High speed single wire interface
• Supply Voltage: 2.7 – 5.25V
• 1.8 – 5.5 V Communications
• <100nA Sleep Current
• 4KV ESD protection
Atmel
CryptoAuthentication
• Multi-level hardware security
• Secure personalization
• Green compliant (exceeds RoHS) 3-pin SOT-23 and 8-pin TSSOP or SOIC packages
Atmel AT88SA102S
Applications
Product
Authentication Chip
• Authentication of Replaceable Items
• Software anti-piracy
• Network & Computer Access control
• Portable Media Player & GPS System
• Key exchange for encrypted downloads
• Prevention of clones for demo and eval boards
• Authenticated communications for control networks
• Anti-clone authentication for daughter cards
• Physical access control (electronic lock & key)
1.
Introduction
The Atmel® AT88SA102S is a member of the Atmel CryptoAuthentication family of
cost-effective authentication chips designed to securely authenticate an item to
which it is attached. It can also be used to exchange session keys with some
remote entity so that the system microprocessor can securely encrypt/decrypt data.
Each AT88SA102S chip contains a pre-programmed serial number which is
guaranteed to be unique. In addition, it has been designed to permit secure
personalization so that third parties can build devices containing an OEM secret
without concern for the theft of that secret.
It is the first small standard product to implement the SHA-256 hash algorithm,
which is part of the latest set of recommended algorithms by the US Government.
The 256-bit key space renders any exhaustive attacks impossible.
The CryptoAuthentication family uses a standard challenge response protocol to
simplify programming. The system generates a random number challenge and
sends it to the Atmel® AT88SA102S chip. The chip hashes that with a 256-bit key
using the SHA-256 algorithm to generate a keyed 256-bit response which is sent
back to the system.
8584F–SMEM–8/10
The chip includes 128-single bit one time programmable fuses that can be used for personalization, status or
consumption logging. Atmel® programs 40 of these bits prior to the chip leaving the factory, leaving 88 for user
purposes. Refer to Section 1.3 for more information.
Note:
1.1.
The chip implements a failsafe internal watchdog timer that forces it into a very low power mode after a certain time
interval regardless of any command execution or IO transfers that may be happening at the time the timer expires.
System programming must take this into consideration. Refer to Section 4.5 for more details
Usage
There are many different ways in which Atmel AT88SA102S can add an authentication capability to a system. For
more information, refer to the “Atmel CryptoAuthentication Usage Examples” Applications Note.
In general, however, all these security models usually employ one of two general key management strategies:
• Fixed challenge response number pair stored in the host. In this case, the host sends its particular challenge
and only an authentic AT88SA102S can generate the correct response. Since no secret is stored on the host,
there is no security cost on the host. Depending on the particulars of the system, each host may have a
different challenge response pair and/or each client may have the same key.
• Host computes the response that should be provided for a particular client against a random challenge and/or
include the client ID number in the calculation. In this case, the host needs to have the capability to securely
store the secret from which diversified response will be computed. One way to do this is to use a
CryptoAuthentication host chip. Since each client is unique, the host can maintain a dynamic black list of
clients that have been found to be fraudulent.
1.2.
2
Memory Resources
Fuse
Block of 128-fuse bits that can be written through the one wire interface. Fuse[1] and
Fuse[87] have special meanings, refer to Section 1.3 for more details. Fuse[88:95] are part of
the manufacturing ID value fixed by Atmel. Fuse[96:127] are part of the serial number
programmed by Atmel which is guaranteed to be unique. See Section 1.4 for more details on
the Manufacturing ID and Serial Number.
ROM
Metal mask programmed memory. Unrestricted reads are permitted on the first 64-bits of this
array. The physical ROM will be larger and will contain other information that cannot be read.
ROM MfrID
2-bytes of ROM that specifies part of the manufacturing ID code. This value is assigned by
Atmel and is always the same for all chips of a particular model number. For the
AT88SA102S, this value is 0x23 01. (Appears on the bus: 0x01 23) ROM MfrID can be read
by accessing ROM bytes zero and one of Address zero.
ROM SN
2-bytes of ROM that can be used to identify chips among others on the wafer. These bits
reduce the number of fuses necessary to construct a unique serial number. The ROM SN is
read by accessing ROM bytes two and three of Address zero. ROM SN can always be read
by the system and is optionally included in the message digested by the MAC command.
RevNum
4-bytes of ROM that are used by Atmel to identify the model mask and/or design revision of
the AT88SA102S chip. These bytes can be freely read as the four bytes returned ROM
address one, however system code should not depend on this value as it may change from
time to time.
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
1.3.
Fuse Map
The Atmel® AT88SA102S incorporates 128 one-time fuses within the chip. Once burned, there is no way to reset
the value of a fuse. Fuses, with the exception of the manufacturer ID and serial number bits initialized by Atmel
have a value of one when shipped from the Atmel factory and transition to a zero when they are burned. Bits 0-63
can never be read, while bits 64-128 can always be read.
Table 1-1.
The 128 fuses in the Atmel AT88SA102S chip are arranged in the following manner
Fuse #
Name
Description
1
BurnFuse Enable
If this fuse is one, then the BurnFuse command is enabled. If it is burned to zero, then
the BurnFuse command is disabled
0 & 2  63
Secret Fuses
These fuses can be securely written by the BurnSecure command but can never be
read directly with the Read command
64  86
Status Fuses
These fuses can be written with the BurnSecure command and can always be read
with the Read command
87
Fuse Disable
The MAC command ignores the values of Fuse[0-86] while this fuse is an one
Once it is burned to zero, the BurnSecure command is disabled
88  95
Fuse MfrID
See Section 1.4. Set by Atmel; can’t be modified in the field
96  127
Fuse SN
See Section 1.4. Set by Atmel; can’t be modified in the field
BurnFuse Enable This fuse is used to prevent operation of the BurnFuse command in the application. This fuse
may only be burned to 0 using the BurnSecure command.
Secret Fuses
These 63-fuses are used to augment the keys stored elsewhere in the chip. Knowledge of
both the internally stored keys and the values of the Secret Fuses are required to generate
the correct response to the Cryptographic command of the AT88SA102S. An arbitrary
selection of these fuses is burned during personalization via the BurnSecure command.
Within this document, “Secret Fuses” is used to refer to the entire array of 64-bits: Fuse[063], even though the value of Fuse[1] is fixed for most applications and its value can be
derived from the operation of the chip.
Status Fuses
These 23-fuses can be used to store information which is not secret, as their value can
always be determined using the Read command. They can be written at the same time as the
secret fuses using the BurnSecure command, or they can be individually burned at a later
time with the BurnFuse command. Two common usage models for these fuses are:
1. Calibration or model number information. In this situation, the 23-bits are written at the
factory. This method can also be used for feature enabling. In this case, the BurnFuse
command should not be run in the field, and the BurnFuse Enable bit should be zero.
2. Consumption logging, i.e. burn one bit after every n uses, the host system keeps track of
the number of uses so far for this serial number. In this case, the BurnFuse command is
necessary to individually burn one of these 23-bits, and the BurnFuse Enable bit should
be a one.
Within this document, “Status Fuses” is used to refer to the entire array of 24-bits: Fuse[6487], even though the value of Fuse[87] is fixed after personalization and cannot be modified
in the field.
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Fuse Disable
1.4.
This fuse is used to disable/enable the ability of the MAC command to read the fuse values
until the BurnSecure command has completed properly. When it has a value of one
(unburned), the bit values in the message that would normally have been filled in with Fuse
values are all set to a one. When FuseDisable is burned, the MAC command fills in the
message with the requested fuse values. Additionally, this bit, when burned, disables the
BurnSecure command to prevent modification of the secret fuses and BurnFuse enable bit in
the end customer application.
Chip Identification
The chip includes a total of 72-bits of information that can be used to distinguish between individual chips in a
reliable manner. The information is distributed between the ROM and fuse blocks in the following manner.
Serial Number
This 48-bit value is composed of ROM SN (16-bits) and Fuse SN (32-bits). Together they
form a serial number that is guaranteed to be unique for all devices ever manufactured within
the Atmel® CryptoAuthentication family. This value is optionally included in the MAC
calculation.
Manufacturing ID This 24-bit value is composed of ROM MfrID (16-bits) and Fuse MfrID (8-bits). Typically this
value is the same for all chips of a given type. It is always included in the cryptographic
computations.
1.5.
Key Values
The values stored in the Atmel AT88SA102S internal key array are hardwired into the masking layers of the chip
during wafer manufacture. All chips have the same keys stored internally, though the value of a particular key
cannot be determined externally from the chip. For this reason, customers should ensure that they program a
unique (and secret) number into the 64-secret fuses and they should store the Atmel provided key values
securely.
Individual key values are made available to qualified customers upon request to Atmel and are always transmitted
in a secure manner.
When the serial number is included in the MAC calculation then the response is considered to be diversified and
the host needs to know the base secret in order to be able to verify the authenticity of the client. A diversified
response can also be obtained by including the serial number in the computation of the value written to the secret
fuses. A CryptoAuthentication host chip provides a secure hardware mechanism to validate responses to
determine if they are authentic.
1.6.
SHA-256 Computation
AT88SA102S performs only one cryptographic calculation – a keyed digest of an input challenge. It includes
optionally various other information stored on the chip within the digested message.
AT88SA102S computes the SHA-256 digest based on the algorithm documented here:
http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips180-2/fips180-2.pdf
Throughout this document, the complete message processed by the AT88SA102S chip is documented. According
to the above specification, this always includes a single bit of ‘1’ pad after the message, followed by a 64-bit value
representing the total number of bits being hashed (less pad and length). If the length is less than 447 (512-64-1),
then the necessary number of ‘0’ bits are included between the ‘1’ pad and ‘length’ to stretch the last message
block out to 512-bits.
When using standard libraries to calculate the SHA-256 digest, these pad and length bits should probably not be
passed to the library as most standard software implementations of the algorithm add them in automatically.
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Atmel AT88SA102S
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Atmel AT88SA102S
1.6.1. SHA Computation Example
In order to ensure that there is no ambiguity, the following example vector is provided in addition to the sample
vectors in the NIST document. In this example, all values are listed in hex format. For all but the key, bytes are
listed in the order that they appear on the bus – first on the bus is listed on the left side of the page. The key value
below is listed in the same order as the challenge, so the 01 at the left of the key string corresponds to the first
byte in the SHA-256 document.
Key
01030507090B0D0F11131517191B1D1F21232527292B2D2F31333537393B3D3F
Challenge
020406080A0C0E10121416181A1C1E20222426282A2C2E30323436383A3C3E40
Opcode
08
Mode
50
KeyID
FFFF
Secret Fuses
0000111122223333
Status Fuses
445566
Fuse MfrID
77
Fuse SN
8899AABB
ROMMfrID
CCDD
ROM SN
EEFF
(all optional information included in message)
The 88-bytes over which the digest is calculated are:
0103…3D3F0204…3E400850FFFF00001111…EEFF
And the resulting digest is:
6CA7129C8DA9CE80EA6357DDCFB1DDCBBBD89ED373419A5A332D728B42642C62
1.7.
Security Features
The Atmel® AT88SA102S incorporates a number of physical security features designed to protect the keys from
release. These include an active shield over the entire surface of the part, internal memory encryption, internal
clock generation, glitch protection, voltage tamper detection and other physical design features.
Pre-programmed keys stored on the AT88SA102S are encrypted in such a way as to make retrieval of their
values via outside analysis very difficult.
Both the clock and logic supply voltage are internally generated, preventing any direct attack via the pins on these
two signals.
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2.
IO Protocol
Communications to and from the Atmel® AT88SA102S take place over a single asynchronously timed wire using
a pulse count scheme. The overall communications structure is a hierarchy:
Table 2-1.
IO Hierarchy
Tokens
Implement a single data bit transmitted on the bus, or the wake-up event
Flags
Comprised of eight tokens (bits) which convey the direction and meaning of the next group of bits (if any) which
may be transmitted
Blocks
Of data follow the command and Transmit flags. They incorporate both a byte count and a checksum to ensure
proper data transmission
Packets
Of bytes form the core of the block without the count and CRC. They are either the input or output parameters
of an Atmel AT88SA102S command or status information from the Atmel AT88SA102S
See Applications Notes on Atmel’s website for more details on how to use any microprocessor to easily generate
the signaling necessary to send these values to the chip.
2.2.
IO Tokens
There are a number of IO tokens that may be transmitted along the bus:
Input: (ToAT88SA102S)
Wake
Wake AT88SA102S up from sleep (low power) state
Zero
Send a single bit from system to AT88SA102S with a value of zero
One
Send a single bit from system to AT88SA102S with a value of one
Output: (FromAT88SA102S)
ZeroOut Send a single bit from AT88SA102S to the system with a value of zero
OneOut
Send a single bit from AT88SA102S to the system with a value of one
The waveforms are the same in either direction, however there are some differences in timing based on the
expectation that the host has a very accurate and consistent clock while AT88SA102S has significant part to part
variability in its internal clock generator due to normal manufacturing and environmental fluctuations.
The bit timings are designed to permit a standard UART running at 230.4K baud to transmit and receive the
tokens efficiently. Each byte transmitted or received by the UART corresponds to a single bit received or
transmitted by AT88SA102S. Refer to Applications Notes on Atmel’s website for more details.
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Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
2.3.
AC Parameters
WAKE
data comm
tWLO
tWHI
LOGIC Ø
tSTART
tZHI
tZLO
tBIT
LOGIC 1
tSTART
NOISE
SUPPRESION
tLIGNORE
3.
tHIGNORE
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Operating Temperature...................−40°C to +85°C
Storage Temperature ..................−65°C to + 150°C
Voltage on Any Pin
with Respect to Ground ............... − 0.5 to VCC+0.5V
*NOTICE: Stresses beyond those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent
damage to the device. This is a stress rating only
and functional operation of the device at these or
any other condition beyond those indicated in the
operational sections of this specification is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating
conditions for extended periods of time may
affect device reliability.
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8584F–SMEM–8/10
Table 3-1.
AC Parameters
Parameter
Symbol
Direction
Min
Wake Low Duration
t WLO
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
60
-
Wake Delay to Data
Comm.
t WHI
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
2.5
45
Start pulse duration
t START
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
4.1
4.34
4.56
µs
From Atmel
AT88SA102S
4.6
6.0
8.6
µs
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
4.1
4.34
4.56
µs
From Atmel
AT88SA102S
4.6
6.0
8.6
µs
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
4.1
4.34
4.56
µs
From Atmel
AT88SA102S
4.6
6.0
8.6
µs
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
37
39
-
µs
From Atmel
AT88SA102S
41
54
78
µs
From Atmel
AT88SA102S
28
60
95
µs
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
15µs
Zero transmission
high pulse
t ZHI
Zero transmission low t ZLO
pulse
Bit time
‡
Turn around delay
t BIT
t
TURNAROUND
Max
Unit Notes
µs
Signal can be stable in either high or low
levels during extended sleep intervals.
ms Signal should be stable high for this entire
duration. tWHI must not exceed tTIMEOUT or
the chip will transition to sleep.
46ms
If the bit time exceeds t TIMEOUT then Atmel
AT88SA102S will enter sleep mode and
the Wake token must be resent.
Atmel AT88SA102S will initiate the first low
going transition after this time interval
following the end of the Transmit flag
After Atmel AT88SA102S transmits the last
bit of a block, system must wait this interval
before sending the first bit of a flag
45
ns
Pulses shorter than this in width will be
ignored by the chip, regardless of its state
when active
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
45
ns
Pulses shorter than this in width will be
ignored by the chip, regardless of its state
when active
t LIGNORE_S
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
2
µs
IO Timeout
t TIMEOUT
To Atmel
AT88SA102S
45
65
85
Watchdog reset
t WATCHDOG To Atmel
3
4
5.7
High side glitch filter
@ active
t HIGNORE_A To Atmel
Low side glitch filter
@ active
t LIGNORE_A
Low side glitch filter
@ sleep
AT88SA102S
AT88SA102S
8
Typ
Pulses shorter than this in width will be
ignored by the chip when in sleep mode
ms Refer to Section 4.1.1.
s
Max time from Wake until chip is forced
into sleep mode. Refer to Watchdog
Failsafe Section 4.4
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
4.
DC Parameters
Table 4-1.
DC Parameters
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Operating temperature
TA
Power Supply Voltage
Typ
Max
Unit
-40
85
°C
Vcc
2.7
5.25
V
Fuse Burning Voltage
VBURN
3.0
5.25
V
Active Power Supply
Current
ICC
6
mA
Sleep Power Supply
Current @ -40C to 55C
I SLEEP
100
nA
-
Notes
Voltage applied to Vcc pin during BurnSecure
and/or BurnFuse
When chip is in sleep mode, Vcc = 5.25V,
Vsig = 0.0 to 0.5V or
Vsig = Vcc-0.5V to Vcc
Sleep Power Supply
Current @ 85C
1
I SLEEP
µA
When chip is in sleep mode, Vcc = 5.25V,
Vsig = 0.0 to 0.5V or
Vsig = Vcc-0.5V to Vcc
VIL
-0.5
.15 * Vcc
V
Voltage levels for Wake token when chip is in sleep
mode
VIL
-0.5
0.5
V
Voltage levels for Wake token when chip is in sleep
mode
VIH
.25 * Vcc
5.25
V
Voltage levels for Wake token when chip is in sleep
mode
VIH
1.0
3.0
V
Voltage levels for Wake token when chip is in sleep
mode
Input Low Voltage when
Active
VIL
-0.5
0.5
V
When chip is in active mode,
Input High Voltage when
Active
VIH
Output Low voltage
VOL
Input Low Voltage @
Vcc = 5.25V
Input Low Voltage @
Vcc = 2.7V
Input High Voltage @
Vcc = 5.25V
Input High Voltage @
Vcc = 2.7V
Vcc = 2.7 – 5.25V
1.2
5.25
V
When chip is in active mode,
Vcc = 2.7 – 5.25V
0.4
V
When chip is in active mode,
Vcc = 2.7 – 5.25V
Maximum Input Voltage
VMAX
ESD
V ESD
5.25
4
V
KV
Human Body Model, Sig & Vcc pins
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4.1.
IO Flags
The system is always the bus master, so before any IO transaction, the system must send an 8-bit flag to the chip
to indicate the IO operation that is to be performed, as follows:
Value
Name
Meaning
0x77
Command
After this flag, the system starts sending a command block to the chip. The first bit of the block
can follow immediately after the last bit of the flag.
0x88
Transmit
After a turn-around delay, the chip will start transmitting the response block for a previously
transmitted command block.
0xCC
Sleep
Upon receipt of a sleep flag, the chip will enter a low power mode until the next Wake token is
received.
All other values are reserved and will be ignored.
As the single signal wire may be shared with an Atmel® CryptoAuthentication host chip, the Atmel AT88SA102S
chip includes a PauseLong command which causes it to ignore all activity on the signal pin until the expiration of
the watchdog timer.
4.1.1. Command Timing
After a command flag is transmitted, a command block should be sent to the chip. During parsing of the
parameters and subsequent execution of a properly received command, the chip will be busy and not respond to
transitions on the signal pin. The delays for these operations are listed in the table below:
Table 4-1.
Command Timing
Parameter
Symbol
Max
Unit
Notes
Parsing Delay
t PARSE
100
µs
Delay to check CRC and parse opcode and parameters before an error
indication will be available
MacDelay
t EXEC_MAC
30
ms
Delay to execute MAC command
MemoryDelay
t EXEC_READ
3
ms
Delay to execute Read command
Fuse Delay
t EXEC_FUSE
700
µs
Delay to execute BurnFuse command at Vcc > 4.5V
See Section 5.3 for more details.
SecureDelay
t EXEC_SECURE
36
ms
Max delay to execute BurnSecure command at Vcc > 4.5V
See Section 5.5 for more details.
PersonalizeDelay
In this document, t
the chip.
t PERSON
EXEC
13
ms
Delay to execute GenPersonalizationKey
is used as shorthand for the delay corresponding to whatever command has been sent to
4.1.2. Transmit Flag
The Transmit flag is used to turn around the signal so that the Atmel® AT88SA102S can send data back to the
system, depending on its current state. The bytes that the AT88SA102S returns to the system depend on its
current state as follows:
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Atmel AT88SA102S
Table 4-1.
Return Codes
State Description
Error/Status
After Wake, but prior to first
command
0x11
After successful command
execution
–
Description
Indication that a proper Wake token has been received by Atmel
AT88SA102S
Return bytes per “Output Parameters” in Command section of this
document. In some cases this is a single byte with a value of 0x00 indicating
success. The Transmit flag can be resent to Atmel AT88SA102S repeatedly
if a re-read of the output is necessary.
Execution error
0x0F
Command was properly received but could not be executed by Atmel
AT88SA102S. Changes in Atmel AT88SA102S state or the value of the
command bits must happen before it is re-attempted.
After CRC or other
communications error
0xFF
Command was NOT properly received by Atmel AT88SA102S and should
be re-issued by the system. No attempt was made to execute the command
AT88SA102S always transmits complete blocks to the system, so in the above table the status/error bytes result
in 4-bytes going to the system – count, status/error, CRC x 2.
After receipt of a command block, AT88SA102S will parse the command for errors, a process which takes t PARSE
(Refer to Section 4.1.1). After this interval the system can send a Transmit token to AT88SA102S – if there was
an error then AT88SA102S will respond with an error code. If there is no error then AT88SA102S internally
transitions automatically from tPARSE to tEXEC and will not respond to any Transmit tokens until both delays are
complete.
4.1.3. Sleep Flag
The sleep flag is used to transition AT88SA102S to the low power state, which causes a complete reset of
AT88SA102S’ internal command engine and input/output buffer. It can be sent to AT88SA102S at any time when
AT88SA102S will accept a flag.
To achieve the specified ISLEEP, Atmel recommends that the input signal be brought below VIL when the chip is
asleep. To achieve ISLEEP if the sleep state of the input pin is high, the voltage on the input signal should be
within 0.5V of VCC to avoid additional leakage on the input circuit of the chip.
The system must calculate the total time required for all commands to be sent to AT88SA102S during a single
session, including any inter-bit/byte delays. If this total time exceeds tWATCHDOG then the system must issue a partial
set of commands, then a Sleep flag, then a Wake token, and finally after the Wake delay the remaining
commands.
4.1.4. Pause State
The pause state is entered via the PauseLong command and can be exited only when the watchdog timer has
expired and the chip transitions to a sleep state. When in the pause state, the chip ignores all transitions on the
signal pin but does not enter a low power consumption mode.
The pause state provides a mechanism for multiple AT88SA102S chips on the same wire to be selected and to
exchange data with the host microprocessor. The PauseLong command includes an optional address field which
is compared to the values in Fuses 84-87. If the two matches, then the chip enter the pause state, otherwise it
continues to monitor the bus for subsequent commands. The host would selectively put all but one AT88SA102S’
in the pause state before executing the MAC command on the active chip. After the end of the watchdog interval
all the chips will have entered the sleep state and the selection process can be started with a Wake token (which
will then be honored by all chips) and selection of a subsequent chip.
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4.2.
IO Blocks
Commands are sent to the chip, and responses received from the chip, within a block that is constructed in the
following way:
4.3.
Byte
Name
Meaning
0
Count
Number of bytes to be transferred to the chip in the block, including count, packet and
checksum, so this byte should always have a value of (N+1). The maximum size block is 39
and the minimum size block is 4. Values outside this range will cause unpredictable operation.
1 to (N-2)
Packet
Command, parameters and data, or response. Refer to Section 4.1.2 and Section 5 for more
details.
N-1, N
Checksum
CRC-16 verification of the count and packet bytes. The CRC polynomial is 0x8005, the initial
register value should be 0 and after the last bit of the count and packet have been transmitted
the internal CRC register should have a value that matches that in the block. The first byte
transmitted (N-1) is the least significant byte of the CRC value so the last byte of the block is
the most significant byte of the CRC.
IO Flow
The general IO flow for the MAC command is as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
System sends Wake token
System sends Transmit flag
Receive 0x11 value from the Atmel® AT88SA102S to verify proper wakeup synchronization
System sends Command flag
System sends complete command block
System waits tPARSE for the AT88SA102S to check for command formation errors
System sends Transmit flag. If command format is OK, the AT88SA102S ignores this flag because the
computation engine is busy. If there was an error, the AT88SA102S responds with an error code
System waits tEXEC, refer to Section 4.1.1
System sends Transmit flag
Receive output block from the AT88SA102S, system checks CRC
If CRC from the AT88SA102S is incorrect, indication transmission error, system resends Transmit flag
System sends sleep flag to the AT88SA102S
All commands other than MAC have a short execution delay. In these cases, the system should omit steps six,
seven and eight and replace this with a wait of duration tPARSE + tEXEC.
4.4.
Synchronization
Because the communications protocol is half duplex, there is the possibility that the system and AT88SA102S will
fall out of synchronization with each other. In order to speed recovery, AT88SA102S implements a timeout that
forces the chip to sleep.
4.4.1. IO Timeout
After a leading transition for any data token has been received, AT88SA102S will expect the remaining bits of the
token to be properly received by the chip within the tTIMEOUT interval. Failure to send enough bits or the
transmission of an illegal token (a low pulse exceeding tZLO) will cause the chip to enter the sleep state after the
tTIMEOUT interval.
The same timeout applies during the transmission of the command block. After the transmission of a legal
command flag, the IO Timeout circuitry is enabled until the last expected data bit is received.
The timeout counter is reset after every legal token, so the total time to transmit the command may exceed the
tTIMEOUT interval while the time between bits may not.
12
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
In order to limit the active current if Atmel® AT88SA102S is inadvertently awakened, the IO Timeout circuitry is
also enabled when AT88SA102S receives a wake-up. If the first token does not come within the tTIMEOUT interval,
then AT88SA102S will go back to the sleep mode without performing any operations.
The IO Timeout circuitry is disabled when the chip is busy executing a command.
4.4.2. Synchronization Procedures
When the system and the AT88SA102S fall out of synchronization, the system will ultimately end up sending a
Transmit flag which will not generate a response from AT88SA102S. The system should implement its own
timeout which waits for tTIMEOUT during which time AT88SA102S should go to sleep automatically. At this point, the
system should send a Wake token and after tWLO + tWHI, a Transmit token. The 0x11 status indicates that the
resynchronization was successful.
It may be possible that the system does not get the 0x11 code from Atmel® AT88SA102S for one of the following
reasons:
1. The system did not wait a full tTIMEOUT delay with the IO signal idle in which case AT88SA102S may have
interpreted the Wake token and Transmit flag as data bits. Recommended resolution is to wait twice the
tTIMEOUT delay and re-issue the Wake token.
2. AT88SA102S went into the sleep mode for some reason while the system was transmitting data. In this case,
AT88SA102S will interpret the next data bit as a Wake token, but ignore some of the subsequently
transmitted bits during its wake-up delay. If any bytes are transmitted after the wake-up delay, they may be
interpreted as a legal flag, though the following bytes would not be interpreted as a legal command due to an
incorrect count or the lack of a correct CRC. Recommended resolution is to wait the tTIMEOUT delay and reissue the Wake token.
3. There is some internal error condition within AT88SA102S which will be automatically reset after a tWATCHDOG
interval, see below. There is no way to externally reset AT88SA102S – the system should leave the IO pin
idle for this interval and issue the Wake token.
4.5.
Watchdog Failsafe
After the Wake token has been received by AT88SA102S, a watchdog counter is started within the chip. After
tWATCHDOG, the chip will enter sleep mode, regardless of whether it is in the middle of execution of a command
and/or whether some IO transmission is in progress. There is no way to reset the counter other than to put the
chip to sleep and wake it up again.
This is implemented as a fail-safe so that no matter what happens on either the system side or inside the various
state machines of AT88SA102S including any IO synchronization issue, power consumption will fall to the low
sleep level automatically.
4.6.
Byte and Bit Ordering
AT88SA102S is a little-endian chip:
• All multi-byte aggregate elements within this spec are treated as arrays of bytes and are processed in the
order received
• Data is transferred to/from AT88SA102S least significant bit first on the bus
• In this document, the most significant bit and/or byte appears towards the left hand side of the page
13
8584F–SMEM–8/10
5.
Commands
The command packet is broken down in the following way:
Byte
Name
Meaning
0
Opcode
The Command code
1
Param1
The first parameter – always present
2-3
Param2
The second parameter – always present
4+
Data
Optional remaining input data
If a command fails because the CRC within the block is incorrect or there is some other communications error
then immediately after tPARSE the system will be able to retrieve an error response block containing a single byte
packet. The value of that byte will be all ones. In this situation, the system should re-transmit the command block
including the proceeding Transmit flag – providing there is sufficient time before the expiration of the watchdog
timeout.
If the opcode is invalid, one of the parameters is illegal, or Atmel® AT88SA102S is in an illegal state for the
execution of this command then immediately after tPARSE the system will be able to retrieve an error response
block containing a single byte packet. The value of that byte will be 0x0F. In this situation, the condition must be
corrected before the (modified) command is sent back to AT88SA102S.
If a command is received successfully then after the appropriate execution delay the system will be able to
retrieve the output block as described in the individual command descriptions below.
In the individual command description tables below, the Size column describes the number of bytes in the
parameter documented in each particular row. The total size of the block for each of the commands is fixed,
though that value is different for each command. If the block size for a particular command is incorrect, the chip
will not attempt the command execution and return an error.
5.1.
MAC
Computes a SHA-256 digest of a key stored inside the chip, an input challenge and other information on the chip.
The output of this command is the digest of this message.
If the message includes the serial number of the chip, then the response is said to be diversified. Protocols that
utilize diversified responses may be more secure because two AT88SA102S chips with same key will return
different responses to an identical challenge based on their unique serial number.
Table 5-1.
14
Input Parameters
Name
Size
Notes
Opcode
MAC
1
0x08
Param1
Mode
1
Controls which fields within the chip are used in the message
Param2
KeyID
2
Which internal key is to be used in the message
Data
Challenge
32
Input portion of message to be digested
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
Table 5-2.
Output Parameters
Name
Size
Response
32
Notes
SHA-256 digest
Regardless of the value of <mode> the first 512-bit block of the message that will be hashed with the SHA-256
algorithm will consist of:
256-bits
256-bits
key[KeyID]
challenge
The second block consists of the following information:
8-bits
8-bits
16-bits
64-bits
24-bits
8-bits
32-bits
16-bits
16-bits
Opcode (always 0x08)
Mode
KeyID
Secret Fuses including BurnFuse and BurnSecure enable (or 0’s, see below)
Status Fuses including FuseDisable (or 0’s, see below)
Fuse MfrID fuses, (Fuse[88:95]) (never zero’d out)
Fuse SN, (Fuse[96:127]) (or 0’s, see below)
ROM MfrID (never zero’d out)
ROM SN (or 0’s, see below)
1-bit
255-bit
64-bit
‘1’ pad
‘0’ pad
total length of message in bits (512+192=704), excluding pad and length
Mode is encoded as follows:
Table 5-3.
Mode Encoding
Bits
Meaning
7
Should be zero
6
If set; include the 48-bit serial number (combination of fuses and ROM values) in the message
Otherwise, the corresponding message bits are set to zero
5
If set and Fuse[87] is burned; include the 64-secret fuses (Fuse[0] through Fuse[63]) in the message
Otherwise, the corresponding message bits are set to Zero
If Mode[4] is set, then the value of this mode bit is ignored
4
If set and Fuse[87] is burned; include the 64-secret fuses and 24-status fuses (Fuse[0] through Fuse[87]) in
the message
Ootherwise, the corresponding message bits are set to zero
3-0
Should be zero
15
8584F–SMEM–8/10
5.2.
Read
Reads 4-bytes from Fuse or ROM. Returns an error if an attempt is made to read any fuse address that is illegal.
Table 5-1.
Input Parameters
Name
Size
Opcode
READ
1
0x02
Param1
Mode
1
Fuse or ROM
Param2
Address
2
Which 4-bytes within array. Bits 2-15 should be 0
Data
Ignored
0
Table 5-2.
Output Parameters
Name
Size
Contents
Table 5-3.
4
Notes
The contents of the specified memory location
Mode Encoding
Name
5.3.
Notes
Value
Notes
ROM
0x00
Reads four bytes from the ROM. Bit one of the address parameter must be zero
Fuse
0x01
Reads the value of 32-fuses. Bit one of the address parameter must be one. The input
address parameter << 5 provides the fuse number corresponding to the LSB of the first
returned byte.
BurnFuse
Burns a single one of the 24-status fuse bits (Fuse[64] – Fuse[87]). No other fuses can be burned with this
command – use BurnSecure at personalization time to burn any of the first 88 fuses.
If the BurnFuse Enable bit (Fuse 1) has been burned to a zero, then attempts to run this command will return an
error.
The power supply pin must meet the VBURN specification during the entire BurnFuse command in order to burn
fuses reliably. If VCC is greater than 4.5V, then the BurnTime parameter should be set to 0x00 and the internal
burn time will be up to 250µs. If VCC is less than 4.5V but greater than VBURN then the BurnTime parameter should
be set to 0x8000 and the internal burn time will be up to 190ms. The chip does NOT internally check the supply
voltage level.
There is a very small interval during tEXEC_BURN when the fuse element is actually being burned. The power supply
must not be removed during this interval and the watchdog timer must not be allowed to expire during this
interval, or the fuse may end up in a state where it reads as un-burned but cannot be burned.
Table 5-1.
Input Parameters
Name
16
Size
Notes
Opcode
BURNFUSE
1
0x04
Param1
FuseNum
1
Which bit within fuse array, minimum value is 64, and maximum value is 86
Param2
BurnTime
2
Must be 0x00 00 if Vcc > 4.5V, must be 0x80 00 otherwise
Data
Ignored
0
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
Table 5-2.
Name
Output Parameters
Size
Success
5.4.
Notes
1
Upon successful execution, a value of 0 will be returned by the Atmel AT88SA102S
GenPersonalizationKey
Loads a personalization key into internal memory and then uses that key along with an input seed to generate a
decryption digest using SHA-256. Neither the key nor the decryption digest can be read from the chip. Upon
completion, an internal bit is set indicating that a secure personalization digest has been loaded and is ready for
use by BurnSecure. This bit is cleared (and the digest lost) when the watchdog timer expires or the power is
cycled.
This command will fail if Fuse[87] has been burned.
Table 5-1.
Input Parameters
Name
Size
Notes
Opcode
GenPers
1
0x20
Param1
Zero
1
Must be 0x00
Param2
KeyID
2
Identification number of the personalization key to be loaded
Data
Seed
16
Seed for digest generation. The least significant bit of the last byte is ignored by
the Atmel AT88SA102S
Table 5-2.
Output Parameters
Name
Size
Success
1
Notes
Upon successful execution of HOST0, a value of 0 will be returned by the Atmel AT88SA102S
The SHA-256 message body used to create the resulting digest internally stored in the chip consists of the
following 512-bits:
256-bits
64-bits
127-bits
1-bits
64-bits
5.5.
PersonalizeKey[KeyID]
Fixed value of all ones
Seed from input stream
‘1’ pad
Length of message in bits, fixed at 447
BurnSecure
Burns any combination of the first 88-fuse bits. Verification that the proper secret fuse bits have been burned must
occur using the MAC command – there is no way to read the values in the first 64-fuses to verify their state. The
24-status fuses can be verified with the Read command.
The fuses to be burned are specified by the 88-bit input map parameter. If a bit in the map is set to a ‘1’, then the
corresponding fuse is burned. If a bit in the map parameter is zero, then the corresponding fuse is left in its
current state. The first bit sent to the Atmel® AT88SA102S corresponds to Fuse[0] and so on up to Fuse[87].
Note:
Since a ‘1’ bit in the Map parameter results in a ‘0’ data value in the actual fuse array, the value in the Map parameter
should generally be the inverse of the desired secret or status value. See Section 1.3 for more details.
17
8584F–SMEM–8/10
To facilitate secure personalization of the AT88SA102S, this map may be encrypted before being sent to the chip.
If this mode is desired, then the Decrypt parameter should be set to one in the input parameter list. The
decryption (transport) key is computed by the GenPersonalizationKey command, which must have been run
immediately prior to the execution of BurnSecure. In this case, prior to burning any fuses, the input Map
parameter is XOR’d with the first 88 bits of that digest from the GenPersonalizationKey command. The
GenPersonalizationKey and BurnSecure commands must be run within a single Wake cycle prior to the expiration
of the watchdog timer.
The power supply pin must meet the VBURN specification during the entire BurnSecure command in order to burn
fuses reliably. If VCC is greater than 4.5V, then the BurnTime parameter should be set to 0x00 and the internal
burn time will be 250µs. If VCC is less than 4.5V but greater than VBURN then the BurnTime parameter should be
set to 0x8000 and the internal burn time will be 190ms per fuse bit burned. The chip does NOT internally check
the supply voltage level.
The total BurnSecure execution delay is directly proportional to the total number of fuses being burned. If VCC is
less than 4.5V, then the total BurnSecure execution time may exceed the interval remaining before the expiration
of the watchdog timer. In this case, the BurnSecure command should be run repeatedly, with each repetition
burning only as many fuses as there is time available. The system software is responsible for counting the
number of ‘1’ bits in the clear-text version of the map parameter sent to the chip – no error is returned if the fuse
burn count is too high. Other than Fuse[87] (see below), the fuses may be burned in any order.
Prior to execution of BurnSecure, the AT88SA102S verifies that Fuse[87] is un-burned. If it has been burned, then
the BurnSecure command will return an error. Fuse[87] can either be burned during the last repetition of
BurnSecure or it can be individually burned with BurnFuse.
There are a series of very small intervals during tEXEC_SECURE when the fuse element is actually being burned. The
power supply must not be removed during this interval and the watchdog timer must not be allowed to expire
during this interval, or the fuse may end up in a state where it reads as un-burned but cannot be burned.
Table 5-2.
Input Parameters
Name
Notes
Opcode
BURNSECURE
1
0x10
Param1
Decrypt
1
If 1, decrypt Map data before usage. If 0, the map is transmitted in plain text
Param2
BurnTime
2
Must be 0x00 00 if VCC > 4.5V, must be 0x80 00 otherwise
Data
Map
11
Which fuses to burn, may be encrypted
Table 5-3.
Name
Success
18
Size
Output Parameters
Size
1
Notes
Upon successful execution, a value of 0 will be returned by the Atmel AT88SA102S.
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
5.6.
PauseLong
Forces the chip into the pause state until the watchdog timer expires, after which it will automatically enter into the
sleep state. During execution of this command and while in the pause state the chip will ignore all activity on the
IO signal. This command is used to prevent bus conflicts in a system that also includes other Atmel®
AT88SA102S chips or an Atmel CryptoAuthentication host chip sharing the same signal wire.
Table 5-1.
Input Parameters
Name
Size
Notes
Opcode
PAUSELONG
1
0x01
Param1
Selector
1
Which chip to put into the pause state, 0x00 for all Atmel AT88SA102S chips
Param2
Zero
2
Must be 0x00 00
Data
Ignored
0
The Selector parameter provides a mechanism to select which device will pause if there are multiple devices on
the bus:
If the Selector parameter is 0x00, then every AT88SA102S chip receiving this command will go into the
pause state and no chip will return a success code.
If any of the bits of the Selector parameter are set, then the chip will read the values of Fuse[84-87] and
go into the pause state only if those fuse values match the least significant 4-bits of the Selector
parameter. If the chip does NOT go into the pause state, it returns an error code of 0x0F. Otherwise it
goes into the pause state and never returns any code.
6.
Pinout
Table 6-1.
SOT Pin Definitions
Pin #
Name
Description
1
Signal
IO channel to the system, open drain output. It is expected that an external pull-up resistor will be
provided to pull this signal up to VCC for proper communications. When the chip is not in use this
pin can be pulled to either VCC or VSS.
2
VCC
Power supply, 2.7 – 5.25V. This pin should be bypassed with a high quality 0.1µF capacitor close
to this pin with a short trace to VSS
Additional applications information at www.atmel.com
3
VSS
Connect to system ground
19
8584F–SMEM–8/10
7.
Packaging Information
3TS1 – Shrink SOT
3
GND
E1
CL
E
VCC
1
L1
SDA
2
e1
End View
Top View
b
A2
SEATING
PLANE
e
A
A1
D
Side View
Notes:
1. Dimension D does not include mold flash, protrusions or gate burrs.
Mold flash, protrusions or gate burrs shall not exceed 0.25mm per
end. Dimension E1 does not include interlead flash or protrusion.
Interlead flash or protrusion shall not exceed 0.25mm per side.
2. The package top may be smaller than the package bottom.
Dimensions D and E1 are determined at the outermost extremes of
the plastic body exclusive of mold flash, tie bar burrs, gate burrs and
interlead flash, but including any mismatch between the top and
bottom of the plastic body.
3. These dimensions apply to the flat section of the lead between 0.08
mm and 0.15mm from the lead tip.
This drawing is for general information only. Refer to JEDEC Drawing
TO-236, Variation AB for additional information.
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
SYMBOL
MIN
A
A1
A2
D
E
E1
L1
e1
b
0.89
0.01
0.88
2.80
2.10
1.20
MAX
NOM
2.90
1.30
0.54 REF
1.90 BSC
0.30
-
NOTE
1.12
0.10
1.02
3.04
2.64
1.40
1,2
1,2
0.50
3
12/11/09
R
20
Package Drawing Contact:
packagedrawings[email protected]
TITLE
GPC
DRAWING NO.
REV.
3TS1, 3-lead, 1.30mm Body, Plastic Thin
Shrink Small Outline Package (Shrink SOT)
TBG
3TS1
B
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
8A2 – TSSOP
3
2 1
Pin 1 indicator
this corner
E1
E
L1
N
L
Top View
End View
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
SYMBOL
D
A
b
e
NOM
MAX
NOTE
3.00
3.10
2, 5
3, 5
E
A2
D
6.40 BSC
E1
4.30
4.40
4.50
A
–
–
1.20
A2
0.80
1.00
1.05
b
0.19
–
0.30
e
L
Side View
Notes:
MIN
2.90
L1
4
0.65 BSC
0.45
0.60
0.75
1.00 REF
1. This drawing is for general information only. Refer to JEDEC Drawing MO-153, Variation AA, for proper dimensions,
tolerances, datums, etc.
2. Dimension D does not include mold Flash, protrusions or gate burrs. Mold Flash, protrusions and gate burrs shall
not exceed 0.15mm (0.006in) per side.
3. Dimension E1 does not include inter-lead Flash or protrusions. Inter-lead Flash and protrusions shall not exceed
0.25mm (0.010in) per side.
4. Dimension b does not include Dambar protrusion. Allowable Dambar protrusion shall be 0.08mm total in excess
of the b dimension at maximum material condition. Dambar cannot be located on the lower radius of the foot.
Minimum space between protrusion and adjacent lead is 0.07mm.
5. Dimension D and E1 to be determined at Datum Plane H.
5/19/10
TITLE
Package Drawing Contact:
8A2, 8-lead 4.4mm Body, Plastic Thin
[email protected] Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP)
GPC
TNR
DRAWING NO.
8A2
REV.
E
21
8584F–SMEM–8/10
8S1 – SOIC
END VIEW
COMMON DIMENSIONS
(Unit of Measure = mm)
SYMBOL
MIN
NOM
MAX
A
1.35
–
1.75
A1
0.10
–
0.25
b
0.31
–
0.51
C
0.17
–
0.25
D
4.80
–
5.05
E1
3.81
–
3.99
E
5.79
–
6.20
e
Notes: This drawing is for general information only.
Refer to JEDEC Drawing MS-012, Variation AA
for proper dimensions, tolerances, datums, etc.
L
NOTE
1.27 BSC
0.40
–
1.27
0°
–
8°
5/19/10
TITLE
Package Drawing Contact:
8S1, 8-lead (0.150” Wide Body), Plastic Gull
[email protected] Wing Small Outline (JEDEC SOIC)
22
GPC
SWB
DRAWING NO.
8S1
REV.
F
Atmel AT88SA102S
8584F–SMEM–8/10
Atmel AT88SA102S
8.
Ordering Codes
Atmel AT24C256C Ordering Information
Ordering Code
Package Type
AT88SA102S-TSU-T
SOT, Tape & Reel
Voltage Range
Operating Range
2.7V–5.25V
Green compliant
(exceeds RoHS)/Industrial
(−40°C to 85°C)
AT88SA102S-TH-T
TSSOP, Tape & Reel
2.7V–5.25V
Green compliant
(exceeds RoHS)/Industrial
(−40°C to 85°C)
AT88SA102S-SH-T
SOIC, Tape & Reel
2.7V–5.25V
Green compliant
(exceeds RoHS)/Industrial
(−40°C to 85°C)
9.
Revision History
Doc. Rev.
Date
Comments
8584F
08/2010
Update IO Timeout description
8584E
06/2010
Update to Table 3: AC Parameters
8584D
05/2010
Expansion of IO Timeout specification
8584C
04/2010
Added 8ld TSSOP
8584B
02/2010
Updated parameter tables and added 8ld SOIC
8584A
03/2009
Initial document release
23
8584F–SMEM–8/10
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8584F–SMEM–8/10