AN55427 Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis.pdf

AN55427
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Associated Project: No
Associated Part Family: CY8CPLC10, CY8CPLC20
Software Version: NA
Related Application Notes: None
To get the latest version of this application note, or the associated project file, please visit
http://www.cypress.com/go/AN55427.
This application note describes the on-board circuitry of Cypress’s high voltage 110 V to 240 V AC Powerline
Communication (PLC) boards (CY3274). It describes the filter, coupling circuit, and power supply design. It also explains
the selection of critical components necessary to meet performance and compliance requirements.
Contents
Introduction
Introduction ....................................................................... 1
High Voltage Board Design ............................................... 2
Transmit Signal Path .................................................... 5
Receive Signal Path ..................................................... 6
Signal Path Component Requirements ........................ 6
Power Supply ............................................................... 7
Power Path Component Requirements ........................ 9
PLC Device Interface ................................................. 10
Low Voltage Board Design .............................................. 12
Transmit Signal Path .................................................. 13
Receive Signal Path ................................................... 13
Signal Path Component Requirements ...................... 14
Power Supply ............................................................. 14
PLC Device Interface ................................................. 15
Summary ......................................................................... 17
Worldwide Sales and Design Support ............................. 19
Powerlines are widely available communication media for
PLC technology all over the world. The pervasiveness of
powerline also makes it difficult to predict the
characteristics and operation of PLC products. Because of
the variable quality of powerlines around the world,
implementing robust communication over powerline has
been an engineering challenge for years. The Cypress
PLC solution enables secure and reliable communication
over powerline. The features of Cypress PLC include:

Integrated Powerline PHY modem with optimized
filters and amplifiers to work with lossy high voltage
and low voltage powerlines.

Powerline optimized network protocol that supports
bidirectional communication with acknowledgement
based signaling. In case of data packet loss due to
louder noise on the powerline, the transmitter has the
capability to retransmit the data.

The powerline network protocol supports 8-bit CRC
for error detection and data packet retransmission.

A Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) scheme is
built into the network protocol; it minimizes collision
between packet transmissions on the powerline,
supports multiple masters, and enables reliable
communication on a bigger network.
A block diagram of the PLC solution with the CY8CPLC20
programmable PLC chip is shown in Figure 1. To interface
the device to the powerline, a coupling circuit is required.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
1
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Figure 1. Cypress PLC Solution Block Diagram
The CY3274 kits are used to develop a powerline
controller and embedded host application on the
CY8CPLC20 Programmable PLC device. They contain
many user interface options such as I2C, RS232, GPIO,
analog voltage, LCD display, and LED to develop a full
application.
The following sections describe the design of the filter
circuits and power supplies, including the selection of
critical components for meeting performance and
compliance requirements.
High Voltage Board Design
This section describes the design of the high voltage
(110 V AC to 240 V AC) PLC boardCY3274.
Cypress
provides
the
CY3274
High
Voltage
Programmable PLC Development Kit (DVK)for evaluating
the Cypress PLC solution.
The CY3274 is designed with the filtering and power
supply circuitry to operate on 110-240 V AC powerlines.
They are compliant to the following CENELEC and FCC
standards:


Powerline Signaling (EN50065-1:2001, FCC Part 15)

Safety (EN60950)
Powerline
Immunity
EN61000-3-2/3)
www.cypress.com
(EN50065-2-1:2003,
The design includes all circuitry to meet the requirements
for signaling on high voltage lines according to the
EN50065-1:2001 standard. The high voltage boards
include an isolated offline switch mode power supply
accepting input voltages in the range of 110-240 V AC,
and 50-60 Hz line frequency, operating off the same
powerlines that carry the communication signaling.
The design contains transmit signal filtering and
amplification to meet the conducted emissions
requirements of the CENELEC and FCC standards. It also
has receive signal filtering and signal isolation external to
the Cypress PLC device. This provides a compact and low
cost implementation that is adaptable to a wide variety of
PLC applications.
The schematic in Figure 2 shows the Cypress high voltage
board’s transmit filter and amplification, receive filter, and
coupling circuit to the high voltage powerline. The Bill of
Materials (BOM) of these components is listed in Table 1.
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
2
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Figure 2. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board Signal Filtering, Amplification, and Coupling Circuit
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
3
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Table 1. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board Signal Filtering, Amplification, and Coupling BOM
Description
Designator
Qty.
Value
Manufacturer
Manufacturer Part#
Vendor
VPN
High Voltage Coupling Circuit
Capacitor Metal Poly
Film 0.15uF 300VAC
X1
Isolation
Transformer
Transient Voltage
Suppressor 400W
12V BIDIRECT SMA
C9
1
T1
D10
0.15 µF
Panasonic
ECQ-U3A154MG
Digikey
P11117-ND
1
Precision Components, Inc.
0505-0821G
http://www.pcitransformers.com
1
Micro Commercial Co
SMAJ12CA-TP
Digikey
SMAJ12CA-TPMSCT-ND
Transmitter Circuit
Transmit Amplification
Capacitor Ceramic
1.0uF 16V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic
0.10uF 10% 16V
X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic
10.0uF 10% 25V
X5R 1206
Capacitor Ceramic
0.01uF 25V X7R
0603
Transistor NPN HV
40V 1A SOT-89
Transistor PNP HV
40V 1A SOT-89
Transistor NPN
SOT-23
Resistor 22.1 1%
1/10W 0603
Resistor 10.0k 1%
1/10W 0603
C12, C13,
C14, C15
4
1.0 µF
Taiyo Yuden
EMK107B7105KA-T
Digikey
587-1241-1-ND
C18, C24
2
0.1 µF
Panasonic
ECJ-1VB1C104K
Digikey
PCC1762CT-ND
C19
1
10.0 µF
Taiyo Yuden
TMK316BJ106KL-T
Digikey
587-1337-1-ND
C36
1
0.01 µF
AVX
06033C103JAT2A
Digikey
06033C103JAT2A-ND
Q1
1
Zetex
FCX491ATA
Digikey
FCX491ACT-ND
Q2
1
Zetex
FCX591ATA
Digikey
FCX591ACT-ND
Q3
1
Fairchild
MMBT3904LT1
Digikey
MMBT3904LT1INCT-ND
R14
1
22.1
Yageo
RC0603FR-0722R1L
Digikey
311-22.1HRCT-ND
R15, R17,
R18, R28,
R29, R30,
R31
7
10.0 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-0710KL
Digikey
311-10.0KHRTR-ND
1
4.02 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-074K02L
Digikey
311-4.02KHRCT-ND
1
4.99
Yageo
RC0603FR-074R99L
Digikey
311-4.99HRCT-ND
1
1.00 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-071KL
Digikey
311-1.00KHRTR-ND
National Semiconductor
LMH6639MF/NOPB
Digikey
LMH6639MFCT-ND
Panasonic
ECJ-1VB1C104K
Digikey
PCC1762CT-ND
AVX
06033A102FAT2A
Digikey
06033A102FAT2A-ND
Resistor 4.02k 1%
R16
1/10W 0603
Resistor 4.99 1%
R23
1/10W 0603
Resistor 1.00k 1%
R25
1/10W 0603
Op-Amp 190MHz
U4
Transmit Filtering for FCC/CENELEC
Capacitor Ceramic
0.10uF 10% 16V
C16, C17
X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic
C20, C21,
1000PF 1% 5V NP0
C22, C23
0603
Resistor 37.4k 1%
R19, R20
1/10W 0603
Resistor 3.83k 1%
R21
1/10W 0603
Resistor 7.50k 1%
1/10W 0603
Resistor 36.5 1%
1/10W 0603
Resistor 41.2 1%
1/10W 0603
Op-Amp 190MHz
1
2
0.1 µF
4
1.0 nF, 1%
2
37.4 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-0737K4L
Digikey
311-37.4KHRCT-ND
1
3.83 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-073K83L
Digikey
311-3.83KHRCT-ND
R22
1
7.50 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-077K5L
Digikey
311-7.50KHRTR-ND
R26
1
36.5
Yageo
RC0603FR-0736R5L
Digikey
311-36.5HRCT-ND
R27
1
41.2
Yageo
RC0603FR-0741R2L
Digikey
311-41.2HRCT-ND
U2, U3
2
National Semiconductor
LMH6639MF/NOPB
Digikey
LMH6639MFCT-ND
C10
2
0.01 µF
AVX
06033C103JAT2A
Digikey
06033C103JAT2A-ND
C41
1
1500 pF
Yageo
CC0603KRX7R9BB152
Digikey
311-1184-2-ND
D6
1
ST Micro
BAT54SFILM
Digikey
497-2522-1-ND
L5
1
1 mH
Taiyo Yuden
CB2518T102K
Digikey
587-2195-1-ND
R10
1
2.0 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-072KL
Digikey
311-2.00KHRCT-ND
R9, R11
2
20.0 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-0720KL
Digikey
311-20.0KHRCT-ND
Receiver Circuit
Capacitor Ceramic
0.01uF 25V X7R
0603
Capacitor Ceramic
1500pF 10% 50V
X7R 0603
Dual Schottky Diode
Inductor 1mH 10%
1007
Resistor 2.0k 1%
1/10W 0603
Resistor 20.0k 1%
1/10W 0603
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
4
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Transmit Signal Path
Transmit Filter
The FSK transmit signal TX is generated on the FSK_OUT
pin of the Cypress PLC device as a low amplitude
(~125 mVp-p), unfiltered signal. This signal is applied to
the input of an external transmit filter block consisting of
opamps U2 and U3, and their related passive
components. The transmit filter is a fourth order
Chebyshev response band pass filter, designed for 1.5 dB
maximum pass band ripple. It provides 16.5 dB of gain at
the center frequency of 133 kHz, suppression of -20 dBc
at the 150 kHz band limit, and -50 dBc and -60 dBc at the
second and third carrier harmonics, respectively. The
transmit filter response is shown graphically in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board Transmit Filter Response
The power supply for the transmit filter opamps is a filtered
version of the VPWR supply. This prevents the relatively
large currents produced by the power amplifier from
feeding back into the high-Q filter circuit through the power
supply and causing oscillations. Hence, it is advisable to
avoid routing the high current transmit signal near the filter
circuit.
T r a n s m i t Am p l i f i c a t i o n
The filtered transmit data signal is applied to the power
amplifier, which consists of opamp U4, transistors Q1 and
Q2, and associated passive components. The power
amplifier provides an additional 12 dB voltage gain, and is
capable of driving low impedance loads presented by the
powerline.
When the device is not actively transmitting, the signal
TX_DISABLE is asserted from the PLC device. This
disables the external power amplification circuitry to save
power and make the transmit amplification circuit have a
high impedance so that the receive signal is not
attenuated. Note that the transmit filter stage amplifiers U2
and U3 are always enabled, so that there is no spurious
noise output on the line due to filter ringing at startup.
High Voltage Coupling
The transmit signal from the power amplifier is driven on to
the powerlines via the isolation transformer T1. Capacitor
C14 provides DC isolation for the transmitter on the device
side, and C9 provides line frequency isolation on the line
side.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
5
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Receive Signal Path
The receive signal is coupled from the line into the kit via
the same isolation transformer, T1, as is used by the
transmitter.
R e c e i ve F i l t e r
Capacitor C10 provides DC isolation. Resistor R10
provides a signal input impedance for the receiver. This
resistor, in combination with D6, provides signal limiting to
protect the receiver circuitry from high amplitude
transmitter signals and any large signals coupled in from
the line. The receive filter comprised of L5 and C41, in
combination with R10, provides some rejection of out-ofband interference, such as AM broadcast signals. This
interference may be coupled from the line and would
otherwise swamp the PLC device’s internal receiver
circuitry. The response of the receive filter is shown in
Figure 4. Resistors R9 and R11 set the VCC/2 bias
voltage required on the receive pin of the PLC device.
Figure 4. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board Receive Filter Response
Signal Path Component Requirements
The values of the transmit filter passive components are
relatively critical; 1% tolerance parts should be used to
ensure an accurate response. The opamps used in the
transmit filter implementation must meet the following
requirements:





Gain Bandwidth (GBW) > 50 MHz
Voltage feedback
VDD - VSS ≥ 12 V
Power Supply Rejection Ration (PSRR) > 70 dB
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) < -60 dB
www.cypress.com
The coupling transformer T1 must provide a low DC
resistance (<0.5 ), low leakage inductance (<12 H) to
minimize signal loss and isolation, consistent with safety
requirements per EN60950 specification. The signal
coupling transformer, T1, used in the CY3272 provides
3750 V isolation, a DC resistance of <0.35  and a
leakage inductance less than 1 H.
Capacitor C9 must be X1 or X2 rated to accommodate the
turn-on surge, which occurs when power is applied to the
device, as well as surge immunity according to
EN 61000-4-5 and EN 50065-2-1 standards. The capacitor
C9, used in the high voltage board design is a 300 V AC
Panasonic ECQUG series metalized polyethylene film
device, which is rated for direct across-line application,
accommodating the surge requirements of the previously
mentioned specifications.
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
6
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Power Supply
This section describes the power supply design for the
high voltage boards. The schematic of the power supply is
shown in Figure 5. The BOM of the power supply is listed
in Table 2.
The offline switch mode power supply on the high voltage
boards is a standard isolated flyback converter. Bridge
rectifier D7 produces a rectified input from the AC line,
which is used to drive the primary side of the converter.
Capacitors C30 and C31 provide charge storage to
guarantee a sufficiently high input voltage to operate the
converter throughout the entire AC line cycle. C30 and
C31, in combination with T3, minimize the conduction of
power supply switching transients onto the AC line. R41
provides in-rush current limiting.
Inductor L3 and capacitor C29 provide isolation to prevent
the 133 kHz transmitter signal from riding the AC line
voltage into the rectifier, creating harmonic energy on the
AC lines. The inductor also presents a high impedance to
the powerline so that the power supply does not load the
PLC signal. These components provide an additional
measure of protection for both conducted immunity and
conducted radiation.
An iWatt iW1690 power controller manages the power
conversion. Startup current for the device is provided on
its Vin pin via resistors R32 and R34. When it starts
operating, power and regulation voltage sensing is
provided to the controller by the auxiliary secondary
winding of T2.
Figure 5. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board Power Supply Circuit
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
7
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Table 2. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board Power Supply BOM
Description
Capacitor Ceramic 10.0uF 10%
25V X5R 1206
Capacitor Ceramic 0.10uF 10%
16V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 470PF
250VAC X1Y1 RAD
Capacitor Metal Poly Film
0.022uF 300VAC X1
Capacitor Electrolytic 4.7uF,
400V
Designator
Quantity
NPN Silicon Planar Medium
Power High-Gain Transistor
Resistor 750k 1% 1206
Resistor 10.0k 1% 1/10W 0603
Resistor 820k 1% 1206
Resistor 3.9 Ohm 1% 0805
Resistor 68.0k Ohm 1/8W 1%
0805
Resistor 1.00 Ohm 1/10W 1%
0603
Resistor 100k 1/10W 1% 0603
Resistor 12.0K 1/10W 1% 0603
Resistor 6.8k, 1% 0603
RESISTOR 10.0 OHM 5W 5%
WIREWND
Power Trasnsformer EE-16
24mH Common Mode Choke
Voltage Regulator 5 Volt
Off-Line Switcher
Manufacturer
Manufacturer Part#
VPN
2
10.0 µF
Taiyo Yuden
TMK316BJ106KL-T
Digikey
587-1337-1-ND
C27, C34
2
0.1 µF
Panasonic
ECJ-1VB1C104K
Digikey
PCC1762CT-ND
C28
1
470 pF
TDK
CD95-B2GA471KYNS
Digikey
445-2407-ND
C29
1
0.022 µF
Panasonic
ECQ-U3A223MG
Digikey
P11112-ND
C30, C31
2
4.7 µF, 400 V
Nichicon
UVR2G4R7MPD
Digikey
493-1229-ND
4.7 µF, 400 V
United Chemi-Con
EKMG401ELL4R7MJ16S
Digikey
565-1411-ND
C32
1
330 µF, 16 V
Nichicon
UPW1C331MPD
Digikey
493-1784-ND
C35
1
10 µF, 50 V
Nichicon
UPW1H100MDD
Digikey
493-1890-ND
D7
D8, D9
1
2
Fairchild
Diodes Inc
DF10S
B1100-13-F
Digikey
Digikey
DF10SCT-ND
B1100-FDICT-ND
L3
1
1.5 mH
Taiyo Yuden
LHL08TB152J
Digikey
LHL08TB152J-ND
L4
1
22 uH
Taiyo Yuden
CBC3225T220MR
Digikey
587-1626-1-ND
Q4
1
TSC
TS13003HVCT
mouser.com
821-TS13003HVCT
Q4 (2nd Source)
R32
R33
R34
R35
1
1
1
1
750 k, 1%
10.0 k
820 k, 1%
3.9
ST Micro
Yageo
Yageo
Yageo
Yageo
STX616-AP
RC1206FR-07750KL
RC0603FR-0710KL
RC1206FR-07820KL
RC0805FR-073R9L
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
497-7625-1-ND
311-750KFRCT-ND
311-10.0KHRTR-ND
311-820KFRCT-ND
311-3.90CRCT-ND
R36
1
68k, 1%
Yageo
RC0805FR-0768KL
Digikey
311-68.0KCRTR-ND
R37
1
1.0
Yageo
RC0603FR-071RL
Digikey
311-1.00HRCT-ND
R38
R39
R40
1
1
1
100 k
12 k, 1%
6.8 k, 1%
Yageo
Yageo
Yageo
RC0603FR-07100KL
RC0603FR-0712KL
RC0603FR-076K8L
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
311-100KHRTR-ND
311-12.0KHRCT-ND
311-6.80KHRTR-ND
R41
1
10, 5 W
Vishay
AC05000001009JAC00
Digikey
PPC5W10.0CT-ND
T2
T2 (2nd Source)
T3
T3 (2nd Source)
U5
U6
1
3.2 mH
1
24 mH
Shenzen Goldenway
Renco Electronics
Shenzen Goldenway
Renco Electronics
ST Micro
iWatt
EE-16 (5+5) (rev-A)
RLCY-1014
EE8.3(2+2)-hori, (rev-A)
RLCY-1013
LD1117S50CTR
iW1690-07
e-mail:sales@greensmps.com
e-mail:sales@rencousa.com
e-mail:sales@greensmps.com
e-mail:sales@rencousa.com
Digikey
497-1243-1-ND
e-mail:sales@iwatt.com
1
1
Switching transistor Q4 is operated directly by the iW1690.
Switch current is sensed across resistor R35. The
switching frequency of the iW1690 is approximately
75 kHz. The basic cycle-by-cycle operation of the power
converter is described briefly in the following paragraph.
The voltage on each of the rectified secondary outputs is
determined by the primary voltage, the turns ratio of the
transformer, and the switch duty cycle, as follows:
Vout 
With Q4 switched ON, current is pulled from the line
through the primary winding of T2. Diodes D8 and D9
ensure that the secondary windings of T2 do not conduct
current during the switch ON time and energy is stored in
the magnetic field of T2. With Q4 switched OFF, the
voltage polarity across the primary and secondary
windings of T2 is reversed, causing D8 and D9 to be
forward biased. Current now flows in the secondary
windings, delivering energy to the loads. Bulk filter
capacitance is provided on the main secondary output by
C32. The auxiliary secondary output is filtered at C35 to
power the controller. The auxiliary secondary voltage is
monitored by the converter at its Vsense pin. This voltage
is used to implement output secondary voltage regulation
by setting the switch duty cycle.
www.cypress.com
Vendor
C26, C33
C30, C31 (2nd
source, 105C)
Capacitor Electrolytic 330uF
16V 20%
Capacitor Electrolytic 10uF 50V
20%
Full Wave Diode Bridge
Schottky Diode 100V 1A SMA
Inductor 1500uH 0.2A 5%
Radial
Inductor 22uH 20% 1210
Value
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
D * N *Vin
(1  D)
Equation 1
8
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Where, N is the secondary or primary turns ratio and D is
the switch duty cycle. The nominal turns ratio for both
secondaries of T2 is 0.13. As the input voltage varies over
the course of an AC line cycle, the power controller varies
D to maintain a constant voltage on the secondary
supplies. Because the voltages of the secondary outputs
are related by the turns ratios, it is possible to regulate
multiple, isolated outputs by monitoring just one of the
secondaries. In this case, the controller regulates the main
output by monitoring its own supply winding. The voltage
produced at C32 is approximately 10 V. This voltage is
filtered via L4/C33 to further reduce switching noise and
produce the VPWR supply, which drives the transmitter
circuitry. The 10 V supply is also applied to the input of
linear regulator U5, which produces a 5 V VDD power
supply for the Cypress PLC device and optionally, an
external controlling device.
Capacitor C29 must be X1 or X2 rated to accommodate
the turn on surge, which occurs when power is applied to
the device, as well as surge immunity according to EN
61000-4-5 and EN 50065-2-1. The capacitor used in the
high voltage board design is a 300 V AC Panasonic
ECQUG series metalized polyethylene film device, which
is rated for direct across-line application. It accommodates
the surge requirements of the specifications mentioned
earlier.
Power Path Component Requirements
It is important to note that a bleeder resistor may need to
be used, depending on the discharge path for the PLC
coupling capacitor C9. When power is disconnected, this
capacitor will still be charged unless it can discharge
through the power supply. In the Cypress high voltage
boards, it was tested that the voltage discharges quickly
enough to meet the safety requirements of CENELEC
EN60950. However, other power supplies may not
discharge the voltage quickly enough and in that case, a
bleeder resistor (> 1 M 0.25 W, working voltage >360 V
DC) should be used.
The power converter is designed for worldwide operation
and is expected to operate from line voltages ranging from
90-240 V AC. This results in peak voltages approaching
350 V DC, and hence, filter capacitors C30 and C31 must
be rated to accommodate these peak voltages.
In the flyback (Q4 OFF) state, the peak voltage generated
on the primary winding of T2 (the collector of Q4), strictly
as a result of the circuit operation, is higher than Vin. This
voltage is given as follows:
Vpk 
Vin
(1  D)
Equation 2
In addition, transformer leakage inductance results in an
additional increase, above Vpk, at Q4 turn off. This results
in peak voltages approaching 500 V being possible at the
collector of Q4.
Resistor R41 should be a high power rated (≥ 3 W), wire
wound resistor that can support the surge requirements of
the system.
L3 should be rated for ≥ 0.2 A of current.
Capacitor C28 must be a Y1-rated safety capacitor. The
capacitor used in the high voltage board design is a
4000 V AC TDK CD series mid-high voltage ceramic
device. This device is rated for direct line-ground
applications and accommodates the surge requirements of
the previously mentioned specifications.
Protection Circuit
Basic protection against line transients is provided by
transient suppressor D1. The high voltage boards employ
a Panasonic ZNR type device with a peak surge current
capability in excess of 1000 A and a voltage rating of
275 V AC. This type of device has the advantage of low
shunt capacitance, 120 pF in this case, which ensures that
it does not degrade the PLC signal. Protection against
catastrophic circuit failure is provided by fuse F1, which is
a 2 A, 250 V AC Slow-Blow device. This protection circuit
is shown in Figure 6 and the BOM is listed in Table 3.
Figure 6. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board AC Line Input Protection Circuit
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
9
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Table 3. Cypress High Voltage PLC Board AC Line Input Protection BOM
Description
Designator
Qty.
Value
Manufacturer
Manufacturer Part#
Vendor
VPN
Transorb Voltage Suppressor 430V 1250A ZNR
D1
1
430 V
Panasonic
ERZ-V07D431
Digikey
P7251-ND
Fuse 2A Slow Blow 250VAC
F1
1
2.0 A
Bel Fuse
RST 2
Digikey
507-1179-ND
PLC Device Interface
This section describes the circuitry that is directly
connected to the Cypress PLC device (U1) and not part of
the transmitter and receiver circuitry described above. In
the schematic shown in Figure 7, there are many
components shown that are not required for the final
system, but are useful for status indication and debugging.
The BOM for this circuit is shown in Table 4.
on page 11. It separates the required components from
the optional components.
The 32.768 kHz crystal (Y2) is required for PLC
communication because it is used for the precise timing of
the network protocol and if selected, is also used for the
timing of the FSK modulator and demodulator. On the
other hand, the 24.00 MHz oscillator (Y1) is not required in
most designs. It is provided as an optional clock source for
timing the FSK modulator and demodulator because it
generates a tighter frequency spectrum, which may help
with designs that are marginal to meeting the FCC or
CENELEC conducted emissions requirements. The
selection between the FSK modem source is made by
setting the CLKSEL pin (‘1’ = 32.768 kHz crystal,
‘0’ = 24.00 MHz oscillator, internal pull-up).
www.cypress.com
Resistor R2 and capacitor C3 form a low pass filter that is
used to filter the received 2400 bps demodulated signal,
which is output on pin RXCOMP+. The filtered signal is
then connected to the pin RXCOMP-, where it is further
filtered and then deserialized.
Capacitors C1 and C2 are used for decoupling noise from
the power supply. Similarly, C5 provides a cleaner signal
from the crystal to the device, and C6 provides a cleaner
internal analog ground reference for the modem.
The I2C interface requires pull-up resistors on the bus. If
the external host does not have pull-up resistors, then R6
and R7 should be used. The recommended value for
these resistors is 2.4-7.5 k.
The LEDs are optional for PLC status indication (DS2 =
receiving, DS3 = transmitting, DS4 = band-in-use
detection) and power indication (DS5). The resistors (R1,
R3, R4, R5) associated with these LEDs are for current
limiting.
The DIP switch bank S1 is optional for setting the device’s
PLC address and I2C address, as well as selecting the
modem’s clock source.
Push-button S2 with current-limiting resistor R8 is optional
and is used to easily reset the device to the default state,
instead of disconnecting and reconnecting power.
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
10
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Figure 7. Cypress PLC Device Interface Circuit (on the High Voltage Board)
Table 4. Cypress PLC Device Interface BOM (on the High Voltage Board)
Description
Designator
Qty.
Value
Capacitor Ceramic 0.10uF 10% 16V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 1.0nF X7R 10% 25V C0603
C1, C5
C2
2
1
Capacitor Ceramic 0.01uF 25V X7R 0603
C3, C4
2
0.01 µF
Capacitor Ceramic 1.0uF 16V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 22pF 100V C0G 0603
C6
C7, C8
1
2
1.0 µF
22 pF
Resistor 2.1k 1% 1/10W 0603
R2
1
2.10 k
Crystal 32.768kHz 12.5pF
Y2
1
32.768 kHz
LED Red Clear 0805
LED Green Clear 0805
LED Yellow Clear 0805
Header 5-Pin Locking 0.1Centers
DS2
DS3
DS4
J1, J2, J3, J4, P1,
P2
J6
Resistor 1.00k 1% 1/10W 0603
R1, R3, R4
3
Resistor 2.70k 1% 1/10W 0603
R6, R7
Resistor 330 1% 1/10W 0603
Resistor 402 1% 1/10W 0603
DIP Switch 5 Position DIP-5
Pushbutton N.O.
Oscillator
R8
R5
S1
S2
Y1
Header 2-Pin 0.1 Centers
Y1 (2nd Source)
www.cypress.com
Manufacturer
Discretes and Crystal
0.1 µF
Panasonic
1.0 nF
Murata
Manufacturer Part#
Vendor
VPN
ECJ-1VB1C104K
GRM033R71E102KA01D
Digikey
Digikey
AVX
06033C103JAT2A
Digikey
Taiyo Yuden
Murata
EMK107B7105KA-T
GRM1885C2A220JA01D
Digikey
Digikey
Yageo
RC0603FR-072K1L
Digikey
ECS Inc.
ECS-3X8X
Digikey
PCC1762CT-ND
490-3184-1-ND
06033C103JAT2AND
587-1241-1-ND
490-1335-1-ND
311-2.10KHRTRND
X1123-ND
I2C, Jumpers, and LEDs (Optional)
1
Lite-On
1
Lite-On
1
Lite-On
LTST-C170KRKT
LTST-C170KGKT
LTST-C170KSKT
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
160-1415-1-ND
160-1414-1-ND
160-1416-1-ND
6
Sullins
PEC02SAAN
Digikey
S1012E-02-ND
1
Amp/Tyco
640456-5
Digikey
1.00 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-071KL
Digikey
2
2.70 k
Yageo
RC0603FR-072K7L
Digikey
1
1
1
1
1
330
402
24.00 MHz
Yageo
Yageo
E-Switch
E-Switch
Crystek
RC0603FR-07330RL
RC0603FR-07402RL
KAJ05LAGT
TL3301AF160QG
C3290-24.000
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
A19471-ND
311-1.00KHRTRND
311-2.70KHRTRND
311-330HRCT-ND
311-402HRTR-ND
EG4429-ND
EG2526CT-ND
C3290-24.000-ND
24.00 MHz
Citizen
CSX750FCC24.000M-UT
Digikey
300-7214-2-ND
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
11
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Low Voltage Board Design
This section describes the design of the boards meant for
low voltage PLC. These boards are designed to operate
on 12-24 V AC/DC powerlines. They are also designed to
be low cost and robust systems that do not need to meet
any CENELEC or FCC compliance standards. The
schematic in Figure 8 shows the Cypress low voltage
board’s transmit amplification, receive filter, and coupling
circuit to the low voltage powerline. The BOM for
designing such a board is listed in Table 5.
Figure 8. Low Voltage PLC Board Signal Filter, Amplification, and Coupling Circuit
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
12
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Table 5. Low Voltage PLC Board Signal Filter, Amplification, and Coupling Circuit BOM
Description
Designator
Qty.
Value
Manufacturer
Low Voltage Coupling Circuit
Murata
TDK
Pulse
MFGPN
Vendor
VPN
GRM31CR6YA106KA12L
MPZ2012S101A
P0752.474NLT
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
490-5524-1-ND
445-1567-1-ND
553-1071-1-ND
Capacitor Ceramic 10uF 35V X5R 10% 1206
Ferrite Chip 100 Ohm 4A 0805
Inductor Power Unshielded 470uH SMD
C30
L2
L3
1
1
1
10 µF
Capacitor Ceramic 0.1uF 25V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 0.1uF 25V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 10uF 16V X5R 1206
Capacitor Ceramic 1UF 50V Y5V 0805
Diode Ultrafast 100V 1A
Transistor NPN SOT-23
Transistor NPN 45V 3A
Transistor PNP 40V 3A
Resistor 620 OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD
Resistor 4.99 1% 1/10W 0603
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
0.1 µF
0.1 µF
10 µF
1.0 µF
ES1B
MMBT3904
ZXT690B
ZXT790A
620
4.99
AVX
AVX
TDK
Murata
Diodes Inc.
Fairchild
Zetex
Zetex
Rohm
Yageo
06033C104JAT2A
06033C104JAT2A
C3216X5R1C106K
GRM21BF51H105ZA12L
ES1B
MMBT3904LT1
ZXT690BKTC
ZXT790AKTC
MCR03EZPFX6200
RC0603FR-074R99L
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
478-3713-1-ND
478-3713-1-ND
445-4052-1-ND
490-3903-1-ND
ES1B-FDICT-ND
MMBT3904LT1INCT-ND
ZXT690BKCT-ND
ZXT790AKCT-ND
RHM620HCT-ND
311-4.99HRCT-ND
Resistor 10.0k 1% 1/10W 0603
Resistor 4.70K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD
Resistor 0.5 1% 1/4W 0805
C1
C9
C10
C31
D2, D3
Q1
Q2
Q3
R3, R4
R5
R13, R23, R37,
R39, R48
R25
R27, R28
5
1
2
10.0 k
4.7 k
0.5 1/4 W
MCR03EZPFX1002
RC0603FR-074K7L
RL1220S-R50-F
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
RHM10.0KHCT-ND
311-4.70KHRCT-ND
RL12S.50FCT-ND
Op-Amp 190MHz
U1
1
LMH6639MF
Rohm
Yageo
Susumu
National
Semiconductor
LMH6639MF/NOPB
Digikey
LMH6639MFCT-ND
Capacitor Ceramic 1500pF 10% 50V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 0.01uF 25V X7R 0603
Diode Schottky 40V 0.3A SOT-23
Inductor 1mH 10% 1007
Resistor 10.0k 1% 1/10W 0603
Resistor 2.0k 1% 1/10W 0603
C4
C5
D1
L5
R33, R43
R52
1
1
1
1
2
1
1500 pF
0.01 µF
BAT54S
1 mH
10.0 k
2.0 k
CC0603KRX7R9BB152
06033C103JAT2A
BAT54SFILM
CB2518T102K
MCR03EZPFX1002
RC0603FR-072KL
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
311-1184-2-ND
06033C103JAT2A-ND
497-2522-1-ND
587-2195-1-ND
RHM10.0KHCT-ND
311-2.00KHRCT-ND
470 uH
Transmitter Circuit
Receiver Circuit
Yageo
AVX
ST Micro
Taiyo Yuden
Rohm
Yageo
Transmit Signal Path
Receive Signal Path
T r a n s m i t Am p l i f i c a t i o n
The FSK transmit signal TX is generated on the FSK_OUT
pin of the Cypress PLC device as a higher amplitude
(approximately 1.55 Vp-p), unfiltered signal. The low
voltage boards do not have any transmit filtering, which
reduces the BOM cost. There is one output amplification
stage, implemented using op-amp U1 and transistors Q2
and Q3, to drive the low impedance load presented by the
powerline. Resistors R3 and R4 set a gain of 1x.
The receive signal is coupled from the line into the low
voltage boards via the same chip bead L2, as is used by
the transmitter.
When the device is not actively transmitting, it asserts the
signal TX_DISABLE. This disables the external power
amplification circuitry to save power. This also makes the
transmit amplification circuit have a high impedance so
that the receive signal is not attenuated.
L ow V o l t a g e C o u p l i n g
The transmit signal from the power amplifier is driven on to
the powerlines via chip bead L2. Capacitor C6 provides
DC isolation for the transmitter on the device side.
Capacitor C30 provides line frequency isolation on the line
side. With inductor L3, capacitor C30 provides a filter to
remove out-of-band noise from entering the receiver.
www.cypress.com
R e c e i ve F i l t e r
Capacitor C5 provides DC isolation. Resistor R52 provides
a signal input impedance for the receiver. This, in
combination with D6, provides signal limiting to protect the
receiver circuitry from the relatively high amplitude
transmitter signals, including any large signals coupled in
from the line. The receive filter comprised of R52, L5, and
C4, provides some rejection of out-of-band interference
such as AM broadcast signals. This interference may be
coupled from the line, and may otherwise swamp the PLC
device’s internal receiver circuitry. Resistors R33 and R43
set the VCC/2 bias voltage required on the receive pin of
the PLC device.
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
13
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Signal Path Component Requirements
Power Supply
The chip bead L2 is designed specifically for powerline
applications and provides a low DC resistance (0.02 )
and high current handling capability (3 A). Its impedance
curve is similar to that of a 0.4 H inductor. The transmit
capacitors C10 and C30 should be sized so that they
match the impedance of the inductor as closely as
possible. This reduces the transmit impedance, which
increases the driving distance of the system. In this case,
C10 and C30 are each 10 F, which yields an equivalent
capacitance of 5 F. At 132 kHz, the impedance of this
equivalent capacitor matches the inductor to within 0.1 .
Capacitor C30 must also be rated to be above the
maximum voltage on the powerline.
This section describes the power supply design for low
voltage boards. The schematic of the power supply is
shown in Figure 9 and the BOM for the power supply is
listed in Table 6.
The opamp U1 used in the transit amplifier section must
provide both high speed to minimize crossover distortion,
and relatively high output currents to drive the output
transistors.
Inductor L4 provides high impedance to the powerline so
that the power supply does not load the PLC signal. It
should be rated to ≥ 200 mA.
Resistor R2 limits in-rush current. It should be rated to
≥ 1 W.
D9 protects the circuit from voltage transients and D10
rectifies the voltage when AC power is present.
Regulator U7 provides a 5 V output, which is used for the
PLC device and the transmit amplifier.
The 100 µF electrolytic capacitor C24, along with a 10 µF
tantalum capacitor and two 0.1 µF ceramic capacitors
provide the necessary decoupling for the PLC device,
considering the 5 V supply is shared with the transmit
amplifier.
Figure 9. Power Supply Circuit while designing Low Voltage PLC Board
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
14
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Table 6. Power Supply BOM for Low Voltage PLC Board
Description
Capacitor Electrolytic 100uF 10V Aluminum Radial
Capacitor Electrolytic 220uF 50V
Diode Transorb 33V 600W BI-DIR SMB
Diode Ultrafast 100V 1A
Inductor Power Unshielded 470uH SMD
Resistor 715 OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD
Resistor 240 OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD
Resistor 10 Ohm 1W 5% Metal Oxide
Voltage Regulator 5 Volt
Designator
C24
C25
D9
D10
L4
R45
R46
R54
U7
Qty.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Value
100 µF
220 µF
ES1B
470 uH
715
240
10, 1 W
LM317MDT
PLC Device Interface
This section describes the circuitry directly connected to
the Cypress PLC device (U2) and not part of the
transmitter and receiver circuitry described above. In the
schematic shown in Figure 10, there are many
components shown that are not required for the final
system. However, they are useful for status indication and
debugging. The BOM for this circuit is shown in Table 7. It
separates the required components from the optional
components. Note that the key components are the same
as for the high voltage board, except that the component
numbering is different.
The 32.768 kHz crystal (Y1) is required for PLC
communication because it is used for the precise timing of
the network protocol and if selected, is also used for the
timing of the FSK modulator and demodulator. On the
other hand, the 24.00 MHz oscillator (Y2) is not required in
most designs. It is provided as an optional clock source for
timing the FSK modulator and demodulator because it
generates a tighter frequency spectrum, which may help
with designs that are marginal to meeting the FCC or
CENELEC conducted emissions requirements. The
selection between the FSK modem source is made by
setting the CLKSEL pin (‘1’ = 32.768 kHz crystal,
‘0’ = 24.00 MHz oscillator, internal pull-up).
www.cypress.com
Manufacturer
PANASONIC
PANASONIC
Littelfuse
Diodes Inc.
Pulse
Rohm
Rohm
Stackpole
ST Micro
MFGPN
ECA-1AM101
ECA-1HM221
SMBJ33CA
ES1B
P0752.474NLT
MCR03EZPFX7150
MCR03EZPFX2400
RSMF 1 10 5% R
LM317MDT-TR
Vendor
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
VPN
P5123-ND
P5183-ND
SMBJ33CALFCT-ND
ES1B-FDICT-ND
553-1071-1-ND
RHM715HCT-ND
RHM240HCT-ND
RSMF110JRCT-ND
497-1574-1-ND
Resistor R9 and capacitor C6 form a low pass filter that is
used to filter the received 2400 bps demodulated signal,
which is output on pin RXCOMP+. The filtered signal is
then connected to the pin RXCOMP-, where it is furthered
filtered and then deserialized.
Capacitors C11, C22, C26, and C39 are used for
decoupling noise from the power supply. Similarly, C7
provides a cleaner signal from the crystal to the device,
and C18 provides a cleaner internal analog ground
reference for the modem.
The I2C interface requires pull-up resistors on the bus. If
the external host does not have pull-up resistors, then R35
and R36 should be used. The recommended value for
these resistors is 2.4-7.5 k.
The LEDs are optional for PLC status indication (DS2 =
receiving, DS3 = transmitting, DS4 = band-in-use
detection). The resistors (R15, R16, and R49) associated
with these LEDs are for current limiting.
The DIP switch bank S2 is optional for setting the device’s
PLC address and I2C address, as well as selecting the
modem’s clock source. Push-button S1 with currentlimiting resistor R2 is optional and is used to easily reset
the device to the default state, instead of disconnecting
and reconnecting power.
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
15
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Figure 10. PLC Device Interface Circuit (on the Low Voltage Board)
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
16
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Table 7. PLC Device Interface BOM (on the Low Voltage Board)
Description
Designator
Qty.
Value
Manufacturer
Discretes and Crystal
Capacitor Ceramic 22pF 100V C0G 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 0.01uF 25V C0G 5% 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 0.1uF 25V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 0.01uF 25V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 0.1uF 25V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 1.0uF 16V X7R 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 0.01uF 25V C0G 5% 0603
Capacitor Ceramic 100pF 25V X7R 0603
Capacitor 10uF,10V
Resistor 2.1k 1% 1/10W 0603
C2, C3
C6
C7
C8
C11
C18
C22
C26
C39
R9
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
22 pF
0.01 µF
0.1 µF
0.01 µF
0.1 µF
1.0 µF
0.01 µF
100 pF
10 µF, 10 V
2.10k
Power Line Controller
Crystal 32.768kHz 12.5pF
U2
Y1
1
1
CY8CPLC10
32.768 kHz
LED Blue
LED Green Clear 0805
LED Red Clear 0805
LED Yellow Clear 0805
Header, 2-Pin
Header 2-Pin 0.1 Centers
DS1
DS2
DS3
DS5
J1
J2
J3, J6, J7, J9,
J10
J4
J8
MT1, MT2, MT3,
MT4
R2
R14
R15, R16, R49
R35, R36
S1
S2
Y2
Y2 (2nd Source)
1
1
1
1
1
1
Murata
TDK
AVX
AVX
AVX
PANASONIC
TDK
AVX
Vishay
Rohm
Cypress
Semiconductor
ECS Inc.
MFGPN
Vendor
VPN
GRM1885C2A220JA01D
C1608C0G1E103J
06033C104JAT2A
06033C103JAT2A
06033C104JAT2A
ECJ-1V41E105M
C1608C0G1E103J
06031A101JAT2A
293D106X9010A2TE3
MCR03EZPFX2101
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
490-1335-1-ND
445-2664-1-ND
478-3713-1-ND
06033C103JAT2A-ND
478-3713-1-ND
PCC2354CT-ND
445-2664-1-ND
478-1146-1-ND
718-1121-1-ND
RHM2.10KHCT-ND
CY8CPLC10
ECS-3X8X
Digikey
Digikey
CY8CPLC10-28PVXI-ND
X1123-ND
Rohm
Lite-On
Lite-On
Lite-On
MOLEX
Sullins
SML-E12BC7TT86
LTST-C170KGKT
LTST-C170KRKT
LTST-C170KSKT
09-65-2028
PEC02SAAN
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
511-1589-1-ND
160-1414-1-ND
160-1415-1-ND
160-1416-1-ND
WM18823-ND
S1012E-02-ND
Sullins
CUI, Inc.
Amp/Tyco
PEC02SAAN
PJ-002A-SMT
640456-5
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
S1012E-02-ND
CP-002APJCT-ND
A19471-ND
Yageo
Rohm
ROHM
Rohm
E-Switch
E-Switch
Crystek
Citizen
RC0603FR-07330RL
MCR03EZPFX4020
MCR03EZPFX1001
MCR03EZPFX7501
TL3301AF160QG
KAJ05LAGT
C3290-24.000
CSX750FCC24.000M-UT
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
Digikey
311-330HRCT-ND
RHM402HCT-ND
RHM1.00KHCT-ND
RHM7.50KHCT-ND
EG2526CT-ND
EG4429-ND
C3290-24.000-ND
300-7214-2-ND
I2C, Jumpers, and LEDs (Optional)
Header 2-Pin 0.1 Centers
Power Jack 2.5x5.5mm Male
Header 5-Pin Locking 0.1Centers
Mounting Hole
Resistor 330 1% 1/10W 0603
Resistor 402 OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD
Resistor 1.00k 1% 1/10W 0603
Resistor 7.50k 1% 1/10W 0603
Pushbutton Switch
DIP Switch 5 Position DIP-5
24MHz Oscillator
Blue
LTST-C170KGKT
LTST-C170KRKT
LTST-C170KSKT
5
1
1
4
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
330
402
1.00 k
7.50 k
TL3301AF160QG
24.00 MHz
24.00 MHz
Summary
The on-board circuitry described in this Application note
has to be used for designing both High power and Low
power PLC designs. It provides explanation on selection of
critical components too for meeting performance and
compliance requirements.
www.cypress.com
Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
17
Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis
Document History
Document Title: Cypress Powerline Communication Board Design Analysis - AN55427
Document Number: 001-55427
Revision
ECN
Orig. of
Change
Submission
Date
Description of Change
**
2759493
FRE
09/03/2009
New Spec.
*A
3123303
FRE
12/29/2010
Added the Bill Of Materials for all of the circuits.
Added a description of the components that are not in the TX or RX path, and not
in the power supply.
Added more details for proper selection of critical transmit, receive, and coupling
components.
Updated the low voltage board receive filter and transmit path capacitors.
*B
3366253
ADIY
09/08/2011
Removed reference to CY8CLED16P01, CY3276, and CY3277
Added sub-headings in Transmit Signal Path and Receive Signal Path sections.
Updated Figure 9
*C
4525870
ROIT
10/14/2014
Removed reference to obsolete PLC Kits CY3272, CY3273 and CY3275 in all
instances across the document.
Updated High Voltage Board Design:
Updated Figure 2.
Updated Power Supply:
Updated Figure 5.
Updated Power Path Component Requirements:
Updated Protection Circuit:
Updated Figure 6.
Updated Low Voltage Board Design:
Updated Figure 8.
Updated Signal Path Component Requirements:
Updated description (Replaced L1 with L2).
Updated Power Supply:
Updated Figure 9.
Updated to new template.
Completing Sunset Review.
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Document No. 001-55427 Rev. *C
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