```AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
One Technology Way • P.O. Box 9106 • Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. • Tel: 781.329.4700 • Fax: 781.461.3113 • www.analog.com
High Speed Differential ADC Driver Design Considerations
by John Ardizzoni and Jonathan Pearson
INTRODUCTION
Most modern high performance ADCs use differential inputs to
reject common-mode noise and interference, increase dynamic
range by a factor of 2, and improve overall performance due to
balanced signaling. Though ADCs with differential inputs can
accept single-ended input signals, optimum ADC performance
is achieved when the input signal is differential. ADC drivers—
circuits often specifically designed to provide such signals—perform
many important functions, including amplitude scaling, singleended-to-differential conversion, buffering, common-mode offset
differential ADC drivers have become essential signal conditioning
elements in data acquisition systems.
VA
VON –
VOCM
– VIN
RG2
VOUT, dm
VA
VOP +
RF2
08263-001
VIN, dm
RG1
The differential-mode input voltage, VIN, dm, and the commonmode input voltage, VIN, cm, are defined in Equation 1 and
Equation 2.
VIN, dm = VIP – VIN
(1)
VIP + VIN
2
(2)
VIN, cm =
This common-mode definition is intuitive when applied to
balanced inputs, but it is also valid for single-ended inputs.
RF1
+ VIP
For the discussions that follow, some definitions are in order.
If the input signal is balanced, VIP and VIN are nominally equal
in amplitude and opposite in phase with respect to a common
reference voltage. When the input is single-ended, one input is
at a fixed voltage, and the other varies with respect to it. In either
case, the input signal is defined as VIP – VIN.
The output also has a differential mode and a common mode,
defined in Equation 3 and Equation 4.
VOUT, dm = VOP – VON
(3)
VOP + VON
2
(4)
Figure 1. Differential Amplifier
A basic fully differential voltage-feedback ADC driver is shown
in Figure 1. Two differences from a traditional op-amp feedback
output terminal (VON) and an additional input terminal (VOCM).
These terminals provide great flexibility when interfacing
signals to ADCs that have differential inputs.
produces a balanced differential output, with respect to VOCM,
between VOP and VON. (P indicates positive and N indicates
negative.) The VOCM input controls the output common-mode
voltage. As long as the inputs and outputs stay within their
specified limits, the output common-mode voltage must equal
the voltage applied to the VOCM input. Negative feedback and
high open-loop gain cause the voltages at the amplifier input
terminals, VA+ and VA–, to be essentially equal.
VOUT, cm =
Note the difference between the actual output common-mode
voltage, VOUT, cm, and the VOCM input terminal, which establishes
the output common-mode level.
The analysis of differential ADC drivers is considerably more
complex than that of traditional op amps. To simplify the algebra, it
is expedient to define two feedback factors, β1 and β2, as given
in Equation 5 and Equation 6.
β1 =
RG1
RF1 + RG1
(5)
β2 =
RG 2
RF 2 + RG 2
(6)
Rev. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1 Noise ...............................................................................................7 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 Supply Voltage ...............................................................................9 Terminating the Input to an ADC Driver ................................. 3 Harmonic Distortion ................................................................. 10 Input Common-Mode Voltage Range (ICMVR)......................... 5 Bandwidth and Slew Rate .......................................................... 11 Input and Output Coupling: AC or DC .................................... 6 Stability ........................................................................................ 11 Output Swing ................................................................................ 7 PC Board Layout ........................................................................ 12 REVISION HISTORY
11/09—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 16
APPLICATION NOTE
AN-1026
When β1 ≠ β2, the differential output voltage depends on VOCM,
which is an undesirable outcome because it produces an offset and
excess noise in the differential output. The gain bandwidth product
of the voltage-feedback architecture is constant. Interestingly,
the gain in the gain bandwidth product is the reciprocal of the
averages of the two feedback factors.
When β1 = β2 ≡ β, Equation 7 reduces to Equation 8.
VOUT , dm
VIN , dm
⎤
⎡
⎥
⎡ RF ⎤ ⎢
1
=⎢ ⎥⎢
⎥
1
⎥
⎣ RG ⎦ ⎢ 1 +
A(s)(β ) ⎥⎦
⎣⎢
ADC drivers are frequently used in systems that process high
speed signals. Devices separated by more than a small fraction
of a signal wavelength must be connected by electrical transmission
lines with controlled impedance to avoid losing signal integrity.
Optimum performance is achieved when a transmission line is
terminated at both ends in its characteristic impedance. The driver
is generally placed close to the ADC, so controlled-impedance
connections are not required between them; however, the incoming
signal connection to the ADC driver input is often long enough
to require a controlled-impedance connection, terminated in
the proper resistance.
The input resistance of the ADC driver, whether differential or
single-ended, must be greater than or equal to the desired
termination resistance so that a termination resistor, RT, can be
added in parallel with the amplifier input to achieve the required
resistance. All ADC drivers in the examples considered here are
designed to have balanced feedback ratios, as shown in Figure 2.
RF
(8)
RG
RIN, dm
This is a more familiar-looking expression; the ideal closed-loop
gain becomes simply RF/RG when A(s) → ∞ . The gain bandwidth
product is also more familiar looking, with the noise gain equal
to 1/β, just as with a traditional op amp.
The ideal closed-loop gain for a differential ADC driver with
matched feedback factors is seen in Equation 9.
AV =
VOUT , dm
VIN , dm
=
RF
RG
(9)
Output balance, an important performance metric for differential
ADC drivers, has two components: amplitude balance and phase
balance. Amplitude balance is a measure of how closely the two
outputs are matched in amplitude; in an ideal amplifier, they are
exactly matched. Output phase balance is a measure of how close
the phase difference between the two outputs is to 180°. Any
imbalance in output amplitude or phase produces an undesirable
common-mode component in the output. The output balance
error (Equation 10) is the log ratio of the output common-mode
voltage produced by a differential input signal to the output
differential-mode voltage produced by the same input signal,
expressed in decibels.
⎡ ΔVOUT , cm ⎤
⎥
Output Balance Error = 20 log10 ⎢
⎢⎣ ΔVOUT , dm ⎥⎦
VOCM
RG
RF
Figure 2. Differential Amplifier Input Impedance
Because the voltage between the two amplifier inputs is driven
to a null by negative feedback, they are virtually connected, and
the differential input resistance, RIN, is simply 2 × RG. To match
the transmission line resistance, RL, place resistor, RT, as calculated
in Equation 11, across the differential input. Figure 3 shows
typical resistances RF = RG = 200 Ω, desired RL, dm = 100 Ω, and
RT = 133 Ω.
(10)
An internal common-mode feedback loop forces VOUT, cm to
equal the voltage applied to the VOCM input, producing excellent
output balance.
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 16
RT =
1
1
1
−
RL RIN
(11)
200Ω
200Ω
RL, dm = 100Ω
RT
VOCM
200Ω
RT =
200Ω
1
= 133Ω
1
1
−
100Ω
400Ω
Figure 3. Matching a 100 Ω Line
08263-003
VOUT,dm
⎤
⎡
⎡ 2 ⎤ ⎢ VOCM (β1 − β2 ) + VIP (1 − β1 ) − VIN (1 − β2 ) ⎥
=⎢
⎥ (7)
⎥⎢
2
⎥
⎣ β1 + β2 ⎦ ⎢
1+
A( s )(β1 + β2 )
⎥⎦
⎢⎣
TERMINATING THE INPUT TO AN ADC DRIVER
08263-002
In most ADC driving applications, β1 = β2, but the general closedloop equation for VOUT, dm, in terms of VIP, VIN, VOCM, β1, and β2, is
useful to gain insight into how beta mismatch affects performance.
The equation for VOUT, dm, shown in Equation 7, includes the finite
frequency-dependent, open-loop voltage gain of the amplifier, A(s).
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
Terminating a single-ended input requires significantly more
effort. Figure 4 illustrates how an ADC driver operates with a
single-ended input and a differential output.
In Figure 5, a single-ended-to-differential gain of 1, a 50 Ω
input termination, and feedback and gain resistors with values
in the neighborhood of 200 Ω are required to keep noise low.
267Ω
200Ω
200Ω
2.5V
1.5V
200Ω
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
VOCM
RG
500Ω
–2V
1.75V
1.25V
0.75V
RF
500Ω
Figure 5. Single-Ended Input Impedance
Equation 12 provides the single-ended input resistance, 267 Ω.
Equation 13 indicates that the parallel resistance, RT, should be
61.5 Ω to bring the 267 Ω input resistance down to 50 Ω.
3.5V
2.5V
1.5V
Figure 4. Example of Single-Ended Input to ADC Driver
Although the input is single-ended, VIN, dm is equal to VIN.
Because resistors RF and RG are equal and balanced, the gain
is unity, and the differential output, VOP − VON, is equal to the
input, that is, 4 V p-p. VOUT, cm is equal to VOCM = 2.5 V and,
from the lower feedback circuit, input voltages VA+ and VA−
are equal to VOP/2.
Using Equation 3 and Equation 4, VOP = VOCM + VIN/2, an in-phase
swing of ±1 V about 2.5 V. VON = VOCM – VIN/2, an antiphase
swing of ±1 V about 2.5 V. Thus, VA+ and VA− swing ±0.5 V
about 1.25 V. The ac component of the current that must be
supplied by VIN is (2 V – 0.5 V)/500 Ω = 3 mA, so the resistance
to ground that must be matched, looking in from VIN, is 667 Ω.
The general formula for determining this single-ended input
resistance when the feedback factors of each loop are matched
is shown in Equation 12, where RIN, se is the single-ended input
resistance.
RIN , se
⎛
⎞
⎜
⎟
R
G
⎟
=⎜
RF
⎜1−
⎟
⎜
⎟
(
)
2
×
+
R
R
F ⎠
G
⎝
RT =
(12)
This is a starting point for calculating the termination resistance.
However, it is important to note that amplifier gain equations
are based on the assumption of a zero impedance input source. A
significant source impedance that must be matched in the presence
of an imbalance caused by a single-ended input inherently adds
resistance only to the upper RG. To retain the balance, this must
be matched by adding resistance to the lower RG, but this affects
the gain.
1
= 61.5
1
1
−
50 Ω 267 Ω
(13)
Figure 6 shows the circuit with source and termination resistances.
The open-circuit voltage of the source, with its 50 Ω source
resistance, is 2 V p-p. When the source is terminated in 50 Ω,
the input voltage is reduced to 1 V p-p, which is also the
differential output voltage of the unity-gain driver.
200Ω
50Ω
2V p-p
200Ω
RT
61.5Ω
2.5V
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
VOCM
200Ω
08263-006
2.5V
200Ω
Figure 6. Single-Ended Circuit with Source and Termination Resistances
This circuit may initially appear to be complete, but an unmatched
resistance of 61.5 Ω in parallel with 50 Ω has been added to the
upper RG alone. This changes the gain and single-ended input
resistance and mismatches the feedback factors. For small gains, the
change in input resistance is small and neglected for the moment,
but the feedback factors must still be matched. The simplest way
to accomplish this is to add resistance to the lower RG. Figure 7
shows a Thevenin equivalent circuit in which the previously
mentioned parallel combination acts as the source resistance.
RTH
27.6Ω
VTH
1.1V p-p
Figure 7. Thevenin Equivalent of Input Source
With this substitution, a 27.6 Ω resistor, RTS, is added to the
lower loop to match loop feedback factors, as seen in Figure 8.
Although it may be possible to determine a closed-form solution to
the problem of terminating a single-ended signal, an iterative
method is generally used. The need for it will become apparent
in the following example.
RTH
27.6Ω
VTH
1.1V p-p
RG
200Ω
2.5V
RTS
27.6Ω
RF
200Ω
VOCM
RG
200Ω
RF
200Ω
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
08263-008
VIN
0V
200Ω
08263-007
RG
500Ω
08263-004
RF
500Ω
2V
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
VOCM
2.5V
08263-005
3.5V
Figure 8. Balanced Single-Ended Termination Circuit
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 16
APPLICATION NOTE
AN-1026
Note that the Thevenin voltage of 1.1 V p-p is larger than the
properly terminated voltage of 1 V p-p, and the gain resistors
are each increased by 27.6 Ω, decreasing the closed-loop gain.
These opposing effects tend to cancel each other out for large
resistors (>1 kΩ) and small gains (1 or 2), but are not entirely
canceled out for small resistors or higher gains.
A single iteration of the method described here works well for
closed-loop gains of 1 or 2. For higher gains, the value of RTS
gets closer to the value of RG, and the difference between the
value of RIN, se calculated in Equation 18 and that calculated in
Equation 12 becomes greater. Several iterations are required for
these cases.
The circuit in Figure 8 is now easily analyzed, and the differential
output voltage is calculated in Equation 14.
This should not be arduous: the recently released differential
Calculator™, do all the heavy lifting; they perform the above
calculations in a matter of seconds. See www.analog.com for
⎛ 200 Ω ⎞
⎟ = 0.97 V p - p
VOUT,dm = 1.1 V p - p⎜
⎜ 227.6 Ω ⎟
⎝
⎠
(14)
The differential output voltage is not quite at the desired level of
1 V p-p, but a final independent gain adjustment is available by
modifying the feedback resistance as shown in Equation 15.
⎛ Desired VOUT ,dm ⎞
⎟=
R F = 227.6 Ω ⎜
⎜ 1.1 V p - p ⎟
⎠
⎝
⎛ 1.0 V p - p ⎞
⎟ = 206.9 Ω
227.6 Ω ⎜
⎜ 1.1 V p - p ⎟
⎝
⎠
(15)
Figure 9 shows the completed circuit, implemented with
standard 1% resistor values.
RT
61.9Ω
VOCM
2.5V
RTS
28Ω
RG
200Ω
Vacm or VA ± =
Vacm or V A ± = V IN ,cm + β(VOCM − V ICM )
VON
–
VOUT, dm
+
VOP
RF
205Ω
Figure 9. Complete Single-Ended Termination Circuit
Referring to Figure 9, the single-ended input resistance of the
driver, RIN, se, has changed due to changes in RF and RG. The
gain resistances of the driver are 200 Ω in the upper loop and
200 Ω + 28 Ω = 228 Ω in the lower loop. Calculation of RIN, se
with differing gain resistance values first requires two values of
beta to be calculated, as shown in Equation 16 and Equation 17.
200 Ω
RG
β1 =
=
= 0.494
RF + RG 405 Ω
β2 =
RG + RTS
RF + RG + RTS
=
228 Ω
433 Ω
= 0.527
RG (β1 + β2 )
β1 (β2 + 1 )
= 271Ω
This differs little from the original calculated value of 267 Ω
and does not have a significant effect on the calculation of RT,
because RIN, se is in parallel with RT.
If a more exact overall gain is necessary, higher precision or
series trim resistors can be used.
A
–IN
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
+IN
Figure 10. Simplified Differential Amplifier with Shifted ICMVR
(17)
(18)
(20)
Note that VA is always a scaled-down version of the input signal
(as shown in Figure 4). The input common-mode voltage range
differs among amplifier types. Analog Devices, Inc., high speed
differential ADC drivers have two configurations of input stages,
centered and shifted. The centered ADC drivers have about 1 V of
headroom from each supply rail (hence centered). The shifted input
stages add two transistors to allow the inputs to swing closer to
the –VS rail. Figure 10 shows a simplified input schematic of a
typical differential amplifier (Q2 and Q3).
(16)
The input resistance, RIN, se, is calculated as shown in Equation 18.
RIN , se =
2 β1β2VOCM + VIP β2 (1 − β1 ) + VIN β1 (1 − β2 )
(19)
β1 + β2
08263-010
RG
200Ω
08263-009
2V p-p
ICMVR specifies the range of voltage that can be applied to the
differential amplifier inputs for normal operation. The voltage
appearing at those inputs can be referred to as ICMV, Vacm, or VA±.
This specification is often misunderstood. The most frequent
difficulty is determining the actual voltage at the differential
amplifier inputs, especially with respect to the input voltage.
The amplifier input voltage (VA±) can be calculated when the
variables VIN, cm, β, and VOCM are known, using the general
Equation 19 for unequal βs or the simplified Equation 20 for
equal βs.
RF
205Ω
RIN, se
RS
50Ω
INPUT COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE RANGE (ICMVR)
The shifted input architecture allows the differential amplifier to
process a bipolar input signal, even when the amplifier is powered
from a single supply, making it well suited for single-supply
applications with inputs at or below ground. The additional PNP
transistors (Q1 and Q4) at the input shift the input to the differential
pair up by one transistor Vbe. For example, with –0.3 V applied
at –IN, Point A is 0.7 V, allowing the differential pair to operate
properly. Without the PNPs (centered input stage), –0.3 V at
Point A would reverse-bias the NPN differential pair and halt
normal operation.
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 16
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
Table 1. High Speed ADC Driver Specifications
Supply Voltage (V)
Slew
BW
Rate
(MHz) (V/μs)
350
1200
76
450
ICMVR
VOCM
320
410
1150
800
5
2.25
–4.7 to +3.4
–4 to +4
0.3 to 3.2
1 to 4
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
±3.8
±3.8
1 to 3.8
1 to 3.8
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
2300
5000
1.4
–3.5 to +3.5
1.3 to 3.7
N/A
N/A
±3.5
1.5 to 3.5
N/A
N/A
Output
Swing
from
Rails (V)
±1
Rail to
rail
±1.4
Rail to
rail
±1.2
1000
2800
3.6
–4.8 to +3.2
0.2 to 3.2
N/A
N/A
±3.8
1.2 to 3.2
N/A
N/A
±1
9
1900
6000
2.2
N/A
0.3 to 3
0.3 to 1.2
N/A
N/A
1.2 to 3.8
1.2 to 2.1
N/A
±0.9
40
1000
4700
2.6
–4.7 to +3.4
0.3 to 3.4
N/A
N/A
±3.7
1.3 to 3.7
N/A
N/A
±1.2
37
1400
6800
2.3
N/A
1.1 to 3.9
0.9 to 2.4
N/A
N/A
1.3 to 3.5
1.3 to 1.9
N/A
±0.8
37
Noise
(nV)
8
8.25
±5 V
–4.7 to +3
–4 to +4
+5 V
0.3 to 3
1 to 4
+3.3 V
0.3 to 1.3
1 to 2.3
+3 V
0.3 to 1
1 to 2
±5 V
±3.6
±4
+5 V
1 to 3.7
1 to 4
+3.3 V
N/A
1 to 2.3
+3 V
0.3 to 1
1 to 2
Table 1 provides a quick reference to many specifications of
Analog Devices ADC drivers, including which drivers feature a
shifted ICMVR and which do not.
INPUT AND OUTPUT COUPLING: AC OR DC
The need for ac or dc coupling can have a significant impact on
the choice of a differential ADC driver. The considerations
differ between input and output coupling.
An ac-coupled input stage is illustrated in Figure 11.
RF
CIN
RG
CIN
RG
RF
08263-011
VOCM
For differential-to-differential applications with ac-coupled inputs,
the dc common-mode voltage appearing at the amplifier input
terminals is equal to the dc output common-mode voltage
because dc feedback current is blocked by the input capacitors.
Also, the feedback factors at dc are matched and exactly equal to
unity. VOCM, and consequently the dc input common mode, is very
often set near midsupply. An ADC driver with a centered input
common-mode range works well in these types of applications,
with the input common-mode voltage near the center of its
specified range.
ISUPPLY
(mA)
12
3.2
20
25
20
AC-coupled, single-ended-to-differential applications are similar to
their differential-input counterparts but have common-mode
ripple, a scaled-down replica of the input signal, at the amplifier
input terminals. An ADC driver with a centered input commonmode range places the average input common-mode voltage
near the middle of its specified range, providing plenty of
margin for the ripple in most applications.
When input coupling is optional, it is worth noting that ADC
drivers with ac-coupled inputs dissipate less power than similar
drivers with dc-coupled inputs because no dc common-mode
current flows in either feedback loop.
requires an input common-mode voltage that differs substantially
from that available at the output of the driver. The drivers have
maximum output swing when VOCM is set near midsupply; this
presents a problem when driving low voltage ADCs with very
low input common-mode voltage requirements. A simple solution
to this predicament is to ac-couple the connection between the
driver output and the ADC input (see Figure 12), removing the
dc common-mode voltage of the ADC from the driver output
and allowing a common-mode level suitable for the ADC to be
applied on its side of the ac coupling. For example, the driver
could be running on a single 5 V supply with VOCM = 2.5 V and
the ADC could be running on a single 1.8 V supply with a required
input common-mode voltage of 0.9 V applied at ADC CMV.
RF
COUT
RG
ROUT
CMV
VOCM
ROUT
RG
RF
COUT
TO
08263-012
Part No.
Figure 12. DC-Coupled Inputs with AC-Coupled Outputs
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 16
APPLICATION NOTE
AN-1026
Table 2 summarizes the most common ADC driver input
stage types used with various input coupling and power supply
combinations. However, these choices may not always be the
best; each system should be analyzed on a case-by-case basis.
Table 2. Coupling and Input Stage Options
Input Coupling
Any
AC
DC
AC
DC
Input Signal
Any
Single-ended
Single-ended
Differential
Differential
Power Supplies
Dual
Single
Single
Single
Single
Input Type
Either
Centered
Shifted
Centered
Centered
OUTPUT SWING
To maximize the dynamic range of an ADC, it should be driven
to its full input range. However, care is needed when driving the
ADC. If the ADC is driven too hard, the input may be damaged;
if it is not driven hard enough, resolution is lost. Driving the
ADC to its full input range does not mean that the amplifier
output must swing to its full range. A major benefit of
differential outputs is that each output must swing only half as
much as a traditional single-ended output. The driver outputs
can stay away from the supply rails, allowing decreased
distortion. However, this is not the case for single-ended drivers.
As the output voltage of the driver approaches the rail, the
amplifier loses linearity and introduces distortion.
For applications where every millivolt of output voltage is
required, see Table 1 for ADC drivers that have rail-to-rail
outputs with typical headroom ranging from a few millivolts to a
few hundred millivolts, depending on the load.
VOUT = 2V p-p
–40
HD2 @ 10MHz
HD3 @ 10MHz
HD2 @ 30MHz
HD3 @ 30MHz
–50
–60
–70
–80
–90
–100
–110
–120
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
VOCM (V)
3.0
3.2
3.4
08263-013
Systems running on dual supplies, with single-ended or differential
inputs and ac coupling or dc coupling, usually work well with either
type of input stage because of the increased headroom.
–20
–30
HARMONIC DISTORTION (dBc)
Drivers with shifted input common-mode ranges generally
work best in dc-coupled systems operating on single supplies.
This is because the output common-mode voltage is divided
down through the feedback loops, and its variable components
can get close to ground, which is the negative rail. With singleended inputs, the input common-mode voltage gets even closer
to the negative rail due to the input-related ripple.
Figure 13. Harmonic Distortion vs. VOCM at Various Frequencies for the
ADA4932 with a 5 V Supply
Figure 13 shows harmonic distortion vs. VOCM at various
frequencies for the ADA4932, which is specified with
a typical output swing to within 1.2 V of each rail (headroom).
The output swing is the sum of VOCM and VPEAK of the signal (1 V).
Note that the distortion starts to accelerate above 2.8 V
(3.8 VPEAK, or 1.2 V below the 5 V rail). At the low end,
distortion is still low at 2.2 V (–1 VPEAK). The same type of
behavior appears in the discussions of bandwidth and slew rate.
NOISE
ADC imperfections include quantization noise, electronic—or
random—noise, and harmonic distortion. Important in most
applications, noise is usually the most important performance
All ADCs inherently have quantization noise, which depends
on the number of bits (n); quantization noise can be decreased
by increasing the number of bits (n). Because even ideal
converters produce quantization noise, it is used as a benchmark
against which to compare random noise and harmonic distortion.
The output noise from the ADC driver should be comparable to
or lower than the random noise and distortion of the ADC.
Beginning with a review of the characterization of ADC noise
and distortion, how to weigh ADC driver noise against the
performance of the ADC will be shown.
Quantization noise occurs because the ADC quantizes analog
signals that have infinite resolution into a finite number of discrete
levels. An n-bit ADC has 2n binary levels. The difference between
one level and the next represents the finest difference that can
be resolved; it is referred to as a least significant bit (LSB), or q,
for the quantum level. One quantum level is therefore 1/2n of
the range of the converter. If a varying voltage is converted by a
perfect n-bit ADC, then converted back to analog and subtracted
from the input of the ADC, the difference looks like noise. It
has an rms value of
RMS Quantization Noise =
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 16
1
q
= n
12 2 12
(21)
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
⎡
⎤
1
SINAD (dB) = 20 log10 ⎢
⎥
⎢⎣ THD + N ⎥⎦
Signal-to-Quantization-Noise Ratio (dB) = 6.02n + 1.76 dB (22)
Random noise in ADCs, a combination of thermal, shot, and
flicker noise, is generally larger than the quantization noise.
Harmonic distortion, resulting from nonlinearities in the ADC,
produces unwanted signals in the output that are harmonically
related to the input signals. Total harmonic distortion and noise
(THD + N) is an important ADC performance metric that
compares the electronic noise and harmonic distortion with an
Electronic noise is integrated over a bandwidth that includes the
frequency of the last harmonic to be considered. In Equation 23,
the total THD includes the first five harmonic distortion
components, which are root-sum-squared along with the noise.
If SINAD is substituted for the signal-to-quantizing-noise ratio
(Equation 22), an effective number of bits (ENOB) that a converter
can have if its signal-to-quantizing-noise ratio is the same as its
SINAD (Equation 25) can be defined.
SINAD(dB) = 6.02(ENOB) + 1.76 dB
ENOB =
VnRG1
RG1
inIN+
+
inIN–
VnIN
β1 + β2
vno , dm due to vnCM =
v no , dm due to i nIN + =
v no, dm due to i nIN − =
vno , dm due to vnRG1 =
VnRG2
vno , dm due to vnRG 2 =
(
) = 0 for β
β1 + β2
1
(
)
2 i nIN + 1 − β1 R G1
β1 + β 2
(
)
2 i nIN − 1 − β 2 RG 2
β1 + β 2
)(
4kTRG1 1 − β1
β1 + β2
(2
RG2
RF2
VnCM
VnRF2
Figure 14. Noise Model of Differential ADC Driver
The contributions to the total output noise density of each of
the eight sources are shown in Equation 27 for the general case
and when β1 = β2 ≡ β.
vnIN
for β1 = β2 = β
β
2 vnCM β1 − β2
(2
Vno, dm
VOCM
The input signal is v1, the first five harmonic distortion products
are v2 through v6, and the ADC electronic noise is vn.
=
VnRF1
RF1
(23)
2 vnIN
(26)
6.02
ENOB can be used to compare noise performance of an ADC
driver with that of the ADC to determine its suitability to drive
that ADC. A differential ADC noise model is shown in Figure 14.
[v2 (rms)]2 + [v3 (rms)]2 + [v4 (rms)]2 + [v5 (rms)]2 + [v6 (rms)]2 + vn2
[v1(rms)]2
vno, dm due to vnIN =
(25)
ENOB can also be expressed in terms of SINAD as shown in
Equation 26.
THD + Noise =
The reciprocal of THD + noise, the signal-to-noise-and-distortion
ratio (SINAD) is usually expressed in decibels (Equation 24).
(24)
08263-014
From this, the logarithmic (dB) formula for the signal-toquantizing-noise ratio of an n-bit ADC over its Nyquist
bandwidth can be derived (Equation 22); it is the best
achievable SNR for an n-bit converter.
)(
β1 + β2
vno, dm due to vnRF1 =
2 β1 4kTRF 1
vno, dm due to vnRF 2 =
2 β1 4kTRF 2
β1 + β2
β1 + β2
= (i nIN + )(R F1 ) for β1 = β 2 = β
= (i nIN − )(R F 2 ) for β1 = β 2 = β
)=
4kTRG 2 1 − β2
= β2 = β
)=
⎛R ⎞
4kTRG1 ⎜⎜ F1 ⎟⎟ for β1 = β2 = β
⎝ RG1 ⎠
⎛R ⎞
4kTRG 2 ⎜⎜ F 2 ⎟⎟ for β1 = β2 = β
⎝ RG 2 ⎠
= 4kTRF1 for β1 = β2 = β
= 4kTRF 2 for β1 = β2 = β
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 16
(27)
APPLICATION NOTE
AN-1026
ADC driver noise performance can now be compared with the
ENOB of an ADC. Take for example, a differential driver with a gain
of 2 for the AD9445 ADC on a 5 V supply with a 2 V full-scale input;
it processes a direct-coupled broadband signal occupying a 50 MHz
(−3 dB) bandwidth, limited with a single-pole filter. From the data
sheet listing of the ENOB specifications for various conditions,
ENOB = 12 bits for a Nyquist bandwidth of 50 MHz.
driver that can be direct coupled. It is a good candidate to drive
the AD9445 with respect to noise. The data sheet recommends
RF = 402 Ω and RG = 200 Ω for a differential gain of approximately
2. A total output voltage noise density for this configuration is
9.7 nV√Hz.
First, calculate the system noise bandwidth, BN, which is the
bandwidth of an equivalent rectangular low-pass filter that
outputs the same noise power as the actual filter that determines
the system bandwidth for a given constant input noise power
spectral density. For a one-pole filter, BN is equal to π/2 times
the 3 dB bandwidth, as shown in Equation 28.
π
BN = ⎛⎜ ⎞⎟ 50 MHz = 78.5 MHz
⎝2⎠
SUPPLY VOLTAGE
Considering supply voltage and current is a quick way to narrow
the choice of ADC drivers. Table 1 provides a compact reference
to ADC driver performance with respect to power supply. The
supply voltage influences bandwidth, signal swing, and ICMVR.
Weighing the specifications and reviewing the trade-offs are
important to differential amplifier selection.
Power-supply rejection (PSR) is another important specification.
The role of power supply pins as inputs to the amplifier is often
ignored. Any noise on the power supply lines or coupled into
them can potentially corrupt the output signal.
For example, consider the ADA4937-1 with 50 mV p-p at 60 MHz
of noise on the power line. Its PSR at 50 MHz is −70 dB. This
means that the noise on the power supply line reduces to
approximately 16 μV at the amplifier output. In a 16-bit system
with a 1 V full-scale input, 1 LSB is 15.3 μV; the noise from the
power supply line therefore swamps the LSB.
L2, and shunt bypass capacitors, C1 and C2 (see Figure 15).
V+
L1
U1
8
1
L2
vno, dm (rms) = (9.7 nV/√Hz)(√78.5 MHz)= 86 μV rms (29)
(30)
V–
(31)
The peak-to-peak output noise from the driver is comparable to
the LSB of the ADC with respect to 12 bits of the ENOB; the
driver is therefore a good choice to consider in this application
from the standpoint of noise. The final determination must be
–OUT
4
+OUT
C2
10nF
Figure 15. Power Supply Bypassing
At 50 MHz, the ferrite bead has an impedance of 60 Ω and the
10 nF (0.01 μF) capacitor has an impedance of 0.32 Ω. The
attenuator formed by these two elements provides 45.5 dB of
attenuation (see Equation 32).
Now compare the peak-to-peak output noise of the driver with
1 LSB voltage of the AD9445 LSB, based on an ENOB of 12 bits
and full-scale input range of 2 V, as calculated in Equation 31.
One LSB = 2 V/212 = 488 μV
5
6
Next, integrate the noise density over the square root of the system
bandwidth to obtain the output rms noise (see Equation 29).
vno, dm (p-p) ≈ 6(86 μV rms) = 516 μV p-p
C1
10nF
2 V
OCM
(28)
The amplitude of the noise is presumed to have a Gaussian
distribution; therefore, using the common ±3σ limits for the
peak-to-peak noise (noise voltage swings between these limits
about 99.7% of the time), the peak-to-peak output noise is
calculated as
3
08263-015
The total output noise voltage density, vno, dm, is calculated by
computing the root-sum square of these components. Entering
the equations into a spreadsheet is the best way to calculate the
total output noise voltage density. The ADI Diff Amp Calculator,
which quickly calculates noise, gain, and other differential ADC
driver behaviors, is also available at www.analog.com.
0.32 ⎞
Divider Attenuation = 20log ⎛⎜
⎟ = −45.5 dB
⎝ 0.32 + 60 ⎠
The divider attenuation combines with the PSR of –70 dB to
provide approximately 115 dB of rejection. This reduces the
noise to approximately 90 nV p-p, well below 1 LSB.
Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 16
(32)
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
HARMONIC DISTORTION
Low harmonic distortion in the frequency domain is important
in both narrow-band and broadband systems. Nonlinearities in
the drivers generate single-tone harmonic distortion and multitone,
intermodulation distortion products at amplifier outputs.
The same approach used in the noise analysis example can be
applied to distortion analysis, comparing the harmonic distortion
of the ADA4939 with 1 LSB of the AD9445’s ENOB of 12 bits
with a 2 V full-scale output. One ENOB LSB is 488 μV in the
noise analysis.
The distortion data in the specifications table of the ADA4939
is given for a gain of 2, comparing second and third harmonics
at various frequencies. Table 3 shows the harmonic distortion
data for a gain of 2 and differential output swing of 2 V p-p.
Table 3. Second and Third Harmonic Distortion of the ADA4939
Parameter
HD2 @ 10 MHz
HD2 @ 70 MHz
HD2 @ 100 MHz
HD3 @ 10 MHz
HD3 @ 70 MHz
HD3 @ 100 MHz
Harmonic Distortion (dBc)
−102
−83
−77
−101
−97
−91
The data shows that harmonic distortion increases with frequency
and that HD2 is worse than HD3 in the bandwidth of interest
(50 MHz). Harmonic distortion products are higher in frequency
than the frequency of interest, so their amplitude can be reduced
by system band-limiting. If the system had a brick-wall filter at
50 MHz, then only the frequencies higher than 25 MHz are of
concern because all harmonics of higher frequencies are eliminated
by the filter. Nevertheless, the system was evaluated up to 50 MHz
because any filtering that is present may not sufficiently suppress
the harmonics, and distortion products can alias back into the
signal bandwidth. Figure 16 shows the harmonic distortion vs.
frequency of the ADA4939 for various supply voltages with a
2 V p-p output.
–60
VOUT, dm = 2V p-p
HD2,
HD3,
HD2,
HD3,
–70
–75
VS (SPLIT
VS (SPLIT
VS (SPLIT
VS (SPLIT
SUPPLY) = ±2.5V
SUPPLY) = ±2.5V
SUPPLY) = ±1.65V
SUPPLY) = ±1.65V
–80
–85
HD2 ≈ –88dBc @ 50MHz
–90
⎛ −88 ⎞
HD2 = (2 V p - p )⎜⎜10 20 ⎟⎟ ≈ 80 μV p - p
⎝
⎠
Because ADC drivers are negative feedback amplifiers, output
distortion depends on the amount of loop gain in the amplifier
circuit. The inherent open-loop distortion of a negative feedback
amplifier is reduced by a factor of 1/(1 + LG), where LG is the
available loop gain.
The input (error voltage) of the amplifier is multiplied by a large
forward voltage gain, A(s), then passes through the feedback
factor, β, to the input, where it adjusts the output to minimize the
error. Therefore, the loop gain of this type of amplifier is A(s) × β;
as the loop gain (A(s), β, or both) decreases, harmonic distortion
increases. Voltage feedback amplifiers, such as integrators, are
designed to have large A(s) at dc and low frequencies, and then
roll off as 1/f toward unity at a specified high frequency. As A(s)
rolls off, loop gain decreases and distortion increases. Therefore,
the harmonic distortion characteristic is the inverse of A(s).
Current feedback amplifiers use an error current as the feedback
signal. The error current is multiplied by a large forward
transresistance, T(s), which converts it to the output voltage,
then passes through the feedback factor, 1/RF, which converts
the output voltage to a feedback current that tends to minimize
the input error current. The loop gain of an ideal current feedback
amplifier is therefore T(s) × (1/RF) = T(s)/RF. Like A(s), T(s) has
a large dc value and rolls off with increasing frequency, reducing
loop gain and increasing the harmonic distortion.
Loop gain also depends directly upon the feedback factor, 1/RF.
The loop gain of an ideal current feedback amplifier does not
depend on a closed-loop voltage gain; therefore, harmonic
distortion performance does not degrade as the closed-loop
gain increases. In a real current feedback amplifier, loop gain
does have some dependence on the closed-loop gain but not
nearly to the extent that it does in a voltage feedback amplifier.
This makes a current feedback amplifier, such as the ADA4927,
a better choice than a voltage feedback amplifier for applications
requiring high closed-loop gain and low distortion.
–95
–100
–105
–110
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
(33)
This distortion product is only 80 μV p-p, or 16% of 1 ENOB
LSB. Thus, from a distortion standpoint, the ADA4939 is a
08263-016
HARMONIC DISTORTION (dBc)
–65
The HD2 at 50 MHz is approximately −88 dBc, relative to a
2 V p-p input signal. To compare the harmonic distortion level
to 1 ENOB LSB, this level must be converted to a voltage as shown
in Equation 33.
Figure 16. Harmonic Distortion vs. Frequency
Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 16
APPLICATION NOTE
AN-1026
Figure 17 shows how well distortion performance holds up as
the closed-loop gain increases for the ADA4927.
VOUT, dm = 2V p-p
VO = VP sin 2πft
–50
–70
dv
dt
–80
–90
–110
G=1
G = 10
G = 20
–120
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
1k
Figure 17. Distortion vs. Frequency and Gain
BANDWIDTH AND SLEW RATE
Bandwidth and slew rate are especially important in ADC
driver applications. Typically, the small signal bandwidth is the
bandwidth of a device, whereas the slew rate measures the maximum
rate of change at the amplifier output for large signal swings.
Effective usable bandwidth (EUBW), an acronym analogous to
ENOB, describes bandwidth. Many ADC drivers and op amps
boast wide bandwidth specifications; however, not all that bandwidth is usable. For example, −3 dB bandwidth is a conventional
way to measure bandwidth, but it does not mean that all the
bandwidth is usable. The amplitude and phase errors of the
−3 dB bandwidth can be seen a decade earlier than the actual
break frequency. An excellent way to determine the usable
bandwidth is to consult the distortion plots on the data sheet.
Figure 18 shows that to maintain greater than −80 dBc for
second and third harmonics, the ADC driver should not be used
for frequencies greater than 60 MHz. Because each application
is different, the system requirements are a guide to the appropriate
driver with sufficient bandwidth and adequate distortion
performance.
–50
HD2,
HD3,
HD2,
HD3,
–60
G
G
G
G
= 1,
= 1,
= 2,
= 2,
RF = 200Ω
RF = 200Ω
RF = 402Ω
RF = 402Ω
DISTORTION (dBc)
–70
–80
–90
–100
1
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
100
08263-018
–110
–120
max
= 2πfVP
(35)
where:
dv/dt max is the slew rate.
VP is the peak voltage.
f is the full power bandwidth (FPBW). Solving for FPBW,
–100
–130
(34)
The derivative (rate of change) of Equation 34 at the zero crossing,
the maximum rate, is
–60
08263-017
SPURIOUS-FREE DYNAMIC RANGE (dBc)
–40
Slew rate (a large signal parameter) refers to the maximum rate of
change the amplifier output can track the input, without excessive
distortion. Consider the sine wave output at the slew rate.
FPBW =
Slew Rate
2πVp
(36)
Therefore, when selecting an ADC driver, it is important
to consider the gain, bandwidth, and slew rate (FPBW) to
determine if the amplifier is adequate for the application.
STABILITY
Stability considerations for differential ADC drivers are the same as
for op amps. The key specification is phase margin. The phase
margin of a particular amplifier configuration can be determined
from the data sheets; however, in a real system, parasitic effects in the
PC board layout can reduce it significantly.
The stability of a negative voltage, feedback amplifier depends on
the magnitude and sign of its loop gain, A(s) × β. The differential
ADC driver is a bit more complicated than a typical op amp circuit
because it has two feedback factors. Loop gain is seen in the
denominators of Equation 7 and Equation 8. Equation 37 describes
the loop gain for the unmatched feedback factor case (β1 ≠ β2).
Loop Gain =
A(s)(β1 + β2 )
2
(37)
With unmatched feedback factors, the effective feedback factor
is simply the average of the two feedback factors. When they are
matched and defined as β, the loop gain simplifies to A(s) × β.
For a feedback amplifier to be stable, its loop gain must not be
allowed to equal −1 or its equivalent, an amplitude of +1 with
phase shift of −180°. For a voltage feedback amplifier, the point
where the magnitude of loop gain equals 1 (that is, 0 dB) on its
open-loop gain frequency plot is where the magnitude of A(s)
equals the reciprocal of the feedback factor. For basic amplifier
applications, the feedback is purely resistive, introducing no
phase shifts around the feedback loop. With matched feedback
factors, the frequency independent reciprocal of the feedback
factor, 1 + RF/RG, is often referred to as the noise gain. If the
constant noise gain in decibels is plotted on the same graph as
the open-loop gain, A(s), the frequency where the two curves
intersect is where the loop gain is 1, or 0 dB. The difference
between the phase of A(s) at that frequency and −180° is defined as
the phase margin; for stable operation, it should be greater than
or equal to 45°.
Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 16
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
Figure 19 illustrates the unity-loop gain point and phase margin
for the ADA4932 with RF/RG = 1 (noise gain = 2).
90
80
60
PHASE
40
45
(6dB)
0
LOOP
GAIN = 0dB
20
–45
6
0
–90
–20
–135
PHASE
MARGIN ≈ 70°
–40
–180
–60
–225
–80
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
100M
–270
10G
1G
FREQUENCY (Hz)
PHASE (Degrees)
RF
1+
=2
RG
PC BOARD LAYOUT
When a stable ADC driver is designed, it must be realized on a
PC board. Some phase margin is lost because of the parasitic
elements of the board, which must be kept to a minimum. Of
particular concern are load capacitance, feedback loop inductance,
and summing node capacitance. Each of these parasitic reactances
adds lagging phase shift to the feedback loops, thereby reducing
phase margin. A design may lose 20° or more of phase margin
due to poor PC board layout.
08263-019
GAIN
GAIN (dB)
The loop gain is 0 dB where the 300 Ω feedback resistance
horizontal line intersects the transimpedance magnitude curve.
At this frequency, the phase of T(s) is approximately −135°,
resulting in a phase margin of +45°. Phase margin and stability
increase as RF increases and decrease as RF decreases. Current
feedback amplifiers should always use purely resistive feedback
with sufficient phase margin.
Figure 19. ADA4932 Open-Loop Gain Magnitude and Phase vs. Frequency
With voltage feedback amplifiers, it is best to use the smallest
possible RF to minimize the phase shift due to the pole formed
by RF and the summing node capacitance. If large RF is required,
that capacitance can compensate with small capacitors, CF, across
each feedback resistor with values such that RFCF equals RG
times the summing node capacitance.
Further examination of Figure 19 shows that the ADA4932 has
approximately 50° of phase margin at a noise gain of 1 (100%
feedback in each loop). Although it is not practical to operate ADC
drivers at zero gain, this observation shows that the ADA4932
can operate stably at fractional differential gains (for example,
RF/RG = 0.25, noise gain = 1.25). This is not true for all differential
driver data sheets.
PC board layout is necessarily one of the last steps in a design.
Unfortunately, it is also one of the most overlooked steps in a
design, even though high speed circuit performance is highly
dependent on layout. A high performance design can be
compromised, or even rendered useless, by a sloppy or poor
layout. Although all aspects of proper high speed PC board
design cannot be covered here, a few key topics will be addressed.
Phase margin for current feedback ADC drivers can also be
determined from open-loop responses. Instead of forward gain,
A(s), current feedback amplifiers use forward transimpedance,
T(s), with an error current as the feedback signal. The loop gain
of a current feedback driver with matched feedback resistors is
T(s)/RF; therefore, the magnitude of the current feedback amplifier
loop gain is equal to 1 (that is, 0 dB) when T(s) = RF. This point
can be easily located on the open-loop transimpedance and phase
plot, in the same way as for the voltage feedback amplifier. Plotting
the ratio of a resistance to 1 kΩ allows resistances to be expressed
on a log plot. Figure 20 illustrates the unity-loop gain point and
phase margin of the ADA4927 current feedback, differential
ADC driver with RF = 300 Ω.
1k
Parasitic elements rob high speed circuits of performance.
Parasitic capacitance is formed by component pads and traces
and ground or power planes. Long traces without ground planes
form parasitic inductances, which can lead to ringing in transient
responses and other unstable behaviors. Parasitic capacitance is
especially dangerous at the summing nodes of an amplifier
because it introduces a pole in the feedback response, causing
peaking and instability. One solution is to make sure that the
areas beneath the ADC driver mounting and feedback
component pads are clear of ground and power planes
throughout all layers of the board.
50
0
PHASE
–50
10
–100
1
–135
–150
0.3
0.1
10
–180
100
1k
10k 100k
1M
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
100M
1G
To minimize undesired parasitic reactances, keep all traces as
short as possible. Outer layer 50 Ω PC board traces on FR-4
contribute roughly 2.8 pF/inch and 7 nH/inch. These parasitic
reactances increase by about 30% for inner layer 50 Ω traces.
Additionally, make sure that there is a ground plane under long
traces to minimize trace inductance. Keeping traces short and small
helps to minimize both parasitic capacitance and inductance and
maintains the integrity of the design.
PHASE
MARGIN ≈ 45°
–200
10G
08263-020
100
IMPEDANCE PHASE (Degrees)
IMPEDANCE MAGNITUDE (kΩ)
MAGNITUDE
Figure 20. ADA4927 Open-Loop Gain Magnitude and Phase vs. Frequency
Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 16
APPLICATION NOTE
AN-1026
Power supply bypassing is another key area of concern for layout;
make sure that the power supply bypass capacitors, as well as the
VOCM bypass capacitor, are located as close to the amplifier pins
as possible. In addition, using multiple bypass capacitors on the
power supplies helps to ensure that a low impedance path is
provided for broadband noise. Figure 21 shows a typical differential
amplifier schematic with power supply bypassing and a low-pass
filter on the output. The low-pass filter limits the bandwidth and
noise entering the ADC. Ideally, the power supply bypassing
capacitor returns are close to the load returns; this helps to reduce
circulating currents in the ground plane and improves ADC driver
performance (see Figure 22).
Use of ground plane, and grounding in general, is a detailed and
complex subject and beyond the scope of this application note.
However, a few key points are as follows (see Figure 22):
•
Connect the analog and digital grounds together at one
point only. This minimizes the interaction of analog and
digital currents flowing in the ground plane, which
ultimately leads to noise in the system.
Terminate the analog power supply into the analog power
plane and the digital power supply into the digital power
plane.
For mixed-signal ICs, terminate the analog ground returns
into the analog ground plane and the digital ground returns
into the digital ground plane and tie the two planes
together using only one small connection to minimize the
mixing of digital and analog currents (see Figure 23.)
•
•
R4
+VS
C2
Refer to A Practical Guide to High-Speed Printed-Circuit-Board
Layout for a detailed discussion about high speed printed
circuit board (PCB) layout at www.analog.com.
C3
R2
RS
VOCM
RT
R1
R6
C6
U1
C1
R7
C7
TO
think about the many considerations that must be taken into
account when you design with ADC drivers. Understanding
differential amplifiers and paying attention to the details of ADC
driver design at the outset of a project minimizes future problems,
lowers risk, and ensures a robust design.
R3
C4
C5
08263-021
–VS
R5
Figure 21. ADC Driver with Power Supply Bypassing and Output Low-Pass Filter
R2
R4
C2
R6
RT
C3
U1
C6
C4
C7
R7
C1
C5
R5
(a)
08263-022
R3
(b)
Figure 22. Component Side (a), Circuit Side (b)
VA
ANALOG
CIRCUITS
SYSTEM
STAR
GROUND
A
ANALOG
CIRCUITS
VD
VD
MIXED
SIGNALS
AGND
DGND
VA
A
D
A
D
ANALOG SUPPLY
DIGITAL
CIRCUITS
D
DIGITAL
CIRCUITS
DIGITAL SUPPLY
Figure 23. Mixed Signal Grounding
Rev. 0 | Page 13 of 16
08263-023
R1
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 14 of 16
APPLICATION NOTE
AN-1026
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 15 of 16
AN-1026
APPLICATION NOTE
NOTES