Download AN15484 - USB Flash Drive Controller Using SPI (EZ-Host USB Host).pdf

USB Flash Drive Controller Using SPI
AN15484
Author: Ernie Buterbaugh
Associated Project: Yes
Associated Part Family: CY7C67300
Software Version: CY3663 EZ-Host Development Kit V1.1, CY4640
Associated Application Notes: None
Application Note Abstract
This Application Note describes using the EZ-Host™ USB Host to access a USB flash drive. An SPI bus is used as the
interface to connect the EZ-Host to an embedded processor. All of the necessary commands to access the USB Flash drive
including read and write file are described.
this function. This design uses the following signals to the
embedded processor:
Introduction
USB Flash drives, also referred as thumb-drive, pen-drive,
have become an important device for storing various
amounts of data. Floppy disks and ZIP drives are a thing
of the past because of the USB Flash drives. They are
easy to use and nearly all computers with a USB port can
read and write them.
But what about those systems that do not have a Windows
or Linux OS and a USB host? There are many embedded
systems that would like easy access to data and what
could be easier or ubiquitous as the USB Flash drive?
However, these embedded systems need a way to easily
interface to the USB flash drive without adding excessive
hardware and software.
SPI to USB Flash Drive
The EZ-Host is a programmable USB host controller and
can be used to control any full speed USB peripheral with
the appropriate firmware. There are two modes of
operation for the device: coprocessor and standalone. In
coprocessor mode, the EZ-Host provides the low level
control on the USB interface and passes the data to a
processor attached to one of its interfaces. This processor
is responsible for the overall USB operation and the
device drivers. In standalone mode, the EZ-Host is a self
contained USB system and no external processor is
required to support a USB device. This is the mode used
for the USB Flash drive controller.







SPI MOSI
SPI MISO
SPI SS
SPI Clock
GPIO24
GPIO25
Reset
The four SPI signals are the standard SPI bus interface
controls. GPIO24 and GPIO25 are outputs from the EZHost that signal the completion of various events. Reset is
an input to the EZ-Host and allows the embedded
processor to restart the code if necessary.
Figure 1. USB Memory Block Diagram
SRAM
USB Memory Stick
The SPI interface is simply the interface by which the
embedded system reads and writes data to and from the
flash drive using a low level protocol.
CY7C67300
SPI Interface
Serial
EEPROM
This application note discusses how to interface a SPI
capable device to read and write to a USB Flash drive.
The main component of this design is the CY7C67300,
also known as the EZ-Host. Figure 1 shows a block
diagram of the logic. Appendix A: Reference Schematic
has a detailed schematic that can be used to implement
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EZ-Host Firmware
As mentioned earlier, firmware is necessary for the EZHost to enumerate and control the USB flash drive. The
code that is used by this application note is in the EZ-Host
Mass Storage Class (MSC) Reference Design (CY4640)
from the Cypress website (www.cypress.com). The code
from version 1.1 of this kit is used with a few modifications.
These changes are described in Appendix B: Changes in
the Code.
About 56 KB of code is used to operate the USB Flash
drive. This is larger than the 16 KB of RAM on the EZ-Host
and hence the need for the external SRAM. Upon poweron, the RAM of the EZ-Host needs to be loaded with this
code. This memory can be loaded automatically from an
external serial EEPROM or it can be loaded directly
across the SPI interface. An advantage of loading directly
across the SPI is it eliminates the serial EEPROM and
allows for easy code management. The advantage of
having the serial EEPROM is the SPI interface control is
simplified since it does not need to manage the booting
process.
environment is provided under the Cypress folder (Start,
All Programs). The QTUI2C is executed in this BASH
environment. The binary file that contains the code
described is this application note is named:
MSC_EEPROM_scan_LCP_v2.bin
This file (or a later version) can be found with this
application note. To load the EEPROM with this file,
simply type the following in the BASH window after
navigating to the project directory containing the .bin file:
qtui2c MSC_EEPROM_scan_LCP_v2.bin f
System Architecture
Before discussing the details of the SPI communications, it
is necessary to describe the architecture of the firmware
that is operating on the EZ-Host.
There are a variety of buffers allocated in the EZ-Host
memory that are used to pass commands, filenames, and
data to and from the SPI device. By reading and writing
these various memory locations, the SPI device has
access to the USB Flash drive contents.
This application note uses the serial EEPROM as the
method of loading the EZ-host memory and uses the SPI
interface for data access.
Figure 2. Main Parameter Table
EEPROM Code
The code that is programmed into the serial EEPROM is in
a format called Link Control Protocol (LCP). This allows
the code in the EEPROM to do more than simply load
memory. It also allows for loading control registers, calling
subroutines, and branching to an address in the code. You
can find more information on LCP Commands in the OTGHost BIOS User Manual which is part of the CY3663
developer’s kit.
Upon power on, the BIOS in the EZ-Host reads GPIO30
(SCL) and GPIO31 (SDA) and if both are high (which they
should be since these I2C™ lines have pull up resistors),
the EZ-Host executes the LCP commands from the
EEPROM.
The LCP commands loads the RAM (both internal to the
EZ-Host and the external SRAM) with the appropriate
data. During this time GPIO25 is high. When the EEPROM
is finished loading, GPIO25 is low. At this point, the
memory is loaded with all of the code and the EZ-Host
processor is waiting for a ‘start’ command from the SPI
interface before it interfaces with the USB Flash drive.
Before moving on, a discussion on how to program the
serial EEPROM could be helpful. There are the standard
methods of programming the part using an external
programmer before placing the part on the board. You can
also program the part while it is on the board through USB
port 2A on the EZ-Host chip. While in BIOS mode (that is
before the EEPROM is programmed or anytime before the
‘start’ command is issued from the SPI interface) the EZHost enumerates as a device on this port. Simply attach
this port to a PC and program the EEPROM with a utility
called QTUI2C. This utility is part of the CY3663
developer’s kit. When this kit is installed, a BASH
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There is one main table (Figure 2) that contains the
pointers to the various buffers as well as status
information. The address for the start of this table is in the
EZ-Host memory at address 0x0310.
During the Initialization process, memory location 0x0310
is read to get the starting memory address of the
Parameter Table. Memory location 0x310 is a fixed
location; however, the pointer to the parameter table can
change depending on how the EZ-Host MSC code is
compiled.
With
code
in
the
file
MSC_EEPROM_scan_LCP_v2.bin which accompanies
this application note, the value at 0x0310 is 0x24E8.
For reference, the addresses in parenthesis that are
associated
with
the
code
in
the
file
MSC_EEPROM_scan_LCP_v2.bin are shown in Figure 2
and throughout the remainder of this application note.
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Figure 3. SPI Byte Transfer
The following is a brief description of the values in this
table.
Table 1. Main Parameters Table: Value, Size, and
Description
Value
Size
Description
Return
Value
32 bit
Gives status and information regarding
an executed command. The values are
dependant on the specific command.
Command
Buffer
Pointer
16 bit
Points to a location in memory where the
various commands (e.g. open file) are
loaded. For reference, this value is
0x24FA in v2 of the code.
Data
Buffer
Pointer
16 bit
Points to a location in memory where the
various data values (e.g. filenames) are
loaded. For reference, this value is
0x256A in v2 of the code.
Callback
Buffer
Pointer
16 bit
Points to a location in memory where the
special return values are loaded. For
reference, this value is 0x2D6A in v2 of
the code.
Buffer
Size
16 bit
Specifies the size of memory allocated in
the EZ-Host for each of the three buffers.
This value is 0x0800 in v2 of the code.
Data
Count
16 bit
Indicates the maximum number of bytes
in the current transaction.
Command
Flag
16 bit
Indicates the command buffer has a valid
command loaded and the EZ-Host
should process the command.
Callback
Flag
16 bit
Indicates that some event (e.g. USB
Flash drive was removed) occurred that
needs servicing.
In order to read and write the USB Flash drive, it is simply
a matter of reading and writing the various buffers and
flags.
SPI Interface
The necessary commands to control the USB flash drive
can be broken down into four elements:




SPI signals
Read/Write Memory
Disk Operations
High Level Functions
This structure makes it easier to describe, and also follows
how one would write the interface code on an embedded
processor for the SPI master.
SPI Signals
Timing on the SPI interface uses the standard SPI bus
signals: MOSI, MISO, SS, and SCLK. Figure 3 shows the
timing waveform for a SPI transaction. Note that SS must
toggle for every byte transferred. When sending and
receiving data, the most significant bit (MSB) is the first bit
clocked. The data sent from the SPI Master to the EZ-Host
slave is 0x09 in Figure 3.
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NSSI
SCLK
MOSI
MISO
The maximum SPI clock rate is 2 MHz. It is recommended
that a small delay be placed between the de-assertion of
Slave Select of one byte and the assertion of Slave Select
for the next byte in order to allow the SPI slave on the EZHost to recognize and capture the incoming byte.
Read Memory
The read memory protocol allows the SPI master to read
any memory in the EZ-Host. It contains a structure to
specify the address and returned data. It also provides an
acknowledgement control and checksum word to ensure
data integrity. The following shows the structure for
Reading Memory:
MOSI: 10 00 <Addr> <Len> 00 00
MISO: 18 00 <Addr> <Len> <CS> <Data>
MOSI: 18 00 <Addr> <Len> <CS>
In the first transaction where the SPI master is sending out
data, the 16 bit command 0x0010 to read memory is sent.
Note that the least significant byte (LSB) is sent first and
then the most significant byte (MSB) of each 16 bit word
on the SPI bus is sent. The next two bytes are the address
of the memory location to be read. The two byte LEN field
specifies how many bytes are to be returned. The address
is automatically incremented and therefore the LEN can
be any even number of bytes. And finally two bytes of 00’s
are sent to make the complete transaction eight bytes
long.
Before the master can begin reading the data back from
the EZ-Host slave, it must first wait for GPIO24 to pulse.
This signals that the buffer has been read and the EZ-Host
is ready to return data.
In the second transaction, the EZ-Host slave returns a
read acknowledge of 0x0018 followed by the same Addr
and Len as provided by the master. The next two bytes
contain the checksum of the data being returned. The data
bytes follow the checksum. The number of data bytes
transferred is equal to the value specified by the Len field.
Again, the SPI Master must wait for GPIO24 to pulse
before sending the final transaction.
The last transaction is simply an acknowledgement by the
SPI Master back to the EZ-Host slave that the data was
received. Note that these are the same eight bytes that the
EZ-Host previously sent without the data bytes.
Here is a specific example where two bytes of memory
address 0x310 is read and 0x24E8 is the value at that
location. Note the byte ordering.
MOSI: 10 00 10 03 02 00 00 00
MISO: 18 00 10 03 02 00 17 DB E8 24
MOSI: 18 00 10 03 02 00 17 DB
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The checksum that is inserted is a 1’s complement form.
The algorithm used adds each of the 16 bit values to form
a 32 bit result. The upper 16 bits of the 32 bit result is
added to the lower 16 bits to form a new 16 bit value. This
value is then inverted. The C code used to implement this
algorithm is in Appendix C: Checksum Algorithm
Implemented in C.
Write Memory
The write memory protocol allows the SPI master to write
any memory in the EZ-Host. It contains a structure not
only to specify the address and the data, but it also
provides an acknowledgement control and checksum word
to ensure data integrity just like the read memory
operation. The following shows the structure for Writing
Memory:
Disk Operations
There are a variety of commands used to control the USB
Flash drive that the EZ-Host supports, and each follows a
similar pattern. First an OPCODE and a few parameters
are written to the Command Buffer. Then depending on
the command, data may be written to the Data Buffer. The
Command Flag is set to tell the EZ-Host to go execute that
command. When the EZ-Host is finished processing the
command, GPIO25 toggles. This tells the SPI Master that
it can read the status bytes and data buffers depending on
the particular command.
Each of the operations is described in detail following this
example operation. This example executes the Show
Current Directory operation. The directory name that is
returned is capsen~1.
MOSI: 20 00 <Addr> <Len> <CS>
MISO: 28 00 <Addr> <Len> <CS>
MOSI: <Data>
MISO: 28 00 <Addr> <Len> <CS>
In the first transaction where the SPI master is sending out
data, the 16 bit command 0x0020 to write memory is sent.
Again, note that the LSB is sent first and then the MSB of
each 16 bit word on the SPI bus. The next two bytes are
the address of the memory location to write. The LEN field
specifies how many bytes are to be written. And in this
case a 16 bit checksum is sent. As in the read, the
checksum covers the data only and follows the same
algorithm as the read.
First write to the Command Buffer an OPCODE for Show
Current Directory and its associated parameters. From the
previous discussion, the Command Buffer starts at
location 0x24FA in memory (this value is from the Main
Table). The OPCODEs and parameters are described
later. For the Show Current Directory we write these six
bytes:
The address is automatically incremented and therefore
the LEN can be any even number of bytes. This
transaction is always eight bytes long.
Next, write the command flag to indicate the command is
ready to be executed.
Before the master can begin reading the acknowledge
transaction from the EZ-Host slave, it must first wait for
GPIO24 to pulse. This signals that the buffer has been
read and the EZ-Host is ready to return data.
In the second transaction, the EZ-Host slave returns a
write acknowledge of 0x0028, followed by the same Addr,
Len and CS as provided by the master.
Again, the SPI Master must wait for GPIO24 to pulse
before sending the next transaction.
The SPI Master can now send the data bytes to the EZHost Slave. The number of bytes must equal the length
specified in the preceding transactions.
Again, the SPI Master must wait for GPIO24 to pulse
before sending the next transaction.
The last transaction is simply an acknowledgement by the
EZ-Host slave back to the SPI Master that the data was
received. Note that these are the same eight bytes that the
EZ-Host previously sent.
Here is a specific example where two bytes of memory
address 0x24FA is written with 0xC3B6. Again note the
byte ordering.
MOSI:
MISO:
MOSI:
MISO:
28
28
B6
28
00 FA 24 02 00 49 3C
00 FA 24 02 00 49 3C
C3
00 FA 24 02 00 49 3C
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24FA <- F00D
24FC <- 0004
24FE <- 0104
This operation is performed by writing two bytes to the
three respective memory locations, or simply, write six
bytes to address 0x24FA.
24F6 <- C3B6
After writing this command, the SPI Master must wait for
GPIO25 to trigger before reading the status.
The SPI Master then reads the status word (Return Value)
to ensure that it is 0000 indicating success.
24E8 -> 0000
Then read the number of bytes being returned as
indicated in the Data Count (in the Main Table). In this
specific case, 10 bytes are returned:
24F4 -> 000A
Note that these can be two separate memory reads but
since they are in the same table, you could have read
fourteen bytes starting at location 24E8 to get all of the
data.
Since there are 10 (0x0A) bytes being returned, read the
Data Buffer to get the character string of the directory
name. Again with v2 of this code, the Data Buffer starts at
address 0x256A and therefore, read the 10 bytes starting
at this location:
256A -> 632F 7061 6573 7E6E 0031
Notice the several items in the contents of the buffer. First,
the data bytes are swapped again – 2F (‘/’) is really the
first character of the string followed by 63 (“C”) and then
61 (“A”). The string is terminated with a null – 00.
Therefore the buffer returns what we had expected:
/CAPSEN~1
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File Operation Format
Setup Parameters
The following is a list of each OPERATION and the
expected data. For each of the commands, various buffers
and flags are set and then the function is executed. After
execution, various buffers and flags are read. It is
recommended to test the Callback Flag after every File
Operation to determine if the USB device has been
detached. The section titled USB Insertion and Removal
discuses the Callback operation.
Note that only 8.3 filenames are supported. Microsoft long
filenames extensions are not supported.
SHOW CURRENT DIRECTORY
This operation returns the full path of the current working
directory. If the current working directory is the root, a
slash (/) is returned. If the directory is something other
than the root, the string contains the directory name.
Value is the 16 bit File Handle.
ACCESS FILE
The Access File operation, when used with files,
determines whether the file exists and can be accessed.
When used with directories, it determines only whether the
specified directory exists.
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F008, 0000, 00nn
nn equals the number of bytes of the
filename including nulls. This must be an
even number of bytes and therefore there
can be one or two bytes of nulls.
Data Buffer
<String of filename><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
Returned Values
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F00D, 0004, 0104
Command Flag
C3B6
Return Value
FFFF = file not open; otherwise Return Value
is the 16 bit File Handle.
CLOSE FILE
Returned Values
This operation closes the specified file.
Return Value
0000 = OK
Data Count
Number of bytes in Data Buffer
Setup Parameters
Data Buffer
<String of directory name><null
terminated>
Command Buffer
F001, 0000
Data Buffer
File Handle
OPEN FILE
Command Flag
C3B6
This operation opens the specified file for either reading or
writing.
Returned Values
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F000, 0000, 00nn
nn equals the number of bytes of the
filename including nulls. This must be an
even number of bytes and therefore there
can be one or two bytes of nulls.
Data Buffer
<String of filename><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
Returned Values
Return Value
FFFF = file not found; otherwise Return
Value is the 16 bit File Handle.
Return Value
CHANGE DIRECTORY
This Change Directory operation changes the current
working directory to the specified directory. The new
directory must already exist.
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F00C, 0000
Data Buffer
<String of directory name><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
Returned Values
Return Value
CREATE FILE
The Create File operation creates the specified file. If the
filename already exists, it is opened and truncated.
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F005, 0000, 00nn
nn equals the number of bytes of the
filename including nulls. This must be an
even number of bytes and therefore there
can be one or two bytes of nulls.
Data Buffer
<String of filename><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
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0000 = OK
REMOVE DIRECTORY
This Remove Directory operation deletes a directory with
the specified name. The directory must be empty and
must not be the current directory or the root directory.
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F00F, 0000
Data Buffer
<String of directory name><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
Returned Values
Return Value
Returned Values
Return Value
0000 = OK
0000 = OK
FFFF = file not created; otherwise Return
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MAKE DIRECTORY
This Make Directory operation creates a directory with the
specified name.
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F00E, 0000
Data Buffer
<String of directory name><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
Note: The string name of the file or directory starts on the
13th byte in the Data Buffer and is null terminated.
FIND NEXT
This Find Next operation returns file information about the
next instance of a file that matches the file specified.
(Used in conjunction with Find First.)
Setup Parameters
Returned Values
Command Buffer
F017, 0004, <file handle>
Return Value
Command Flag
C3B6
0000 = OK
Returned Values
REMOVE FILE
The Remove File operation erases the specified file. All
handles for the specified file must be closed before it can
be deleted.
Setup Parameters
Return Value
FFFF = file not found; Filehandle if file found.
Data Count
Number of bytes returned in Data Buffer
Note: The string name of the file or directory starts on the
13th byte in the Data Buffer and is null terminated.
FIND CLOSE
Command Buffer
F006, 0000
Data Buffer
<String of filename><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
The Find Close operation closes the specified handle and
releases associated resources.
Setup Parameters
Returned Values
Command Buffer
F018, 0000
Data Buffer
<file handle>
RENAME FILE or DIRECTORY
Command Flag
C3B6
The Rename File operation renames the specified file or
directory. The old name must be an existing file or
directory. The new name must not be the name of an
existing file or directory.
Returned Values
Return Value
0000 = OK
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
Data Buffer
Command Flag
F007, 0000, 00nn
nn equals the number of bytes of the old
filename including nulls. This must be an
even number of bytes and therefore there
can be one or two bytes of nulls.
<String of old filename><null
terminated><String of new filename><null
terminated>
Return Value
END OF FILE
End Of File operation determines whether the end of the
referenced file has been reached.
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F004, 0000
Data Buffer
<file handle>
Command Flag
C3B6
Returned Values
Return Value
C3B6
0000 = OK.
0000 = Not at EOF or 0001 = EOF
Returned Values
Return Value
READ FILE
0000 = OK
FIND FIRST
This Find First operation returns file information about the
first instance of a file that matches the filename specified.
The filename may include wildcards characters * or ?.
Setup Parameters
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F016, 0004, <filename><null terminated>
Command Flag
C3B6
Returned Values
Return Value
FFFF = file not found, otherwise Return
Value is the 16 bit File Handle.
Data Count
Number of bytes returned in Data Buffer
Data Buffer
<String of filename><null terminated>
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This operation reads a maximum number of bytes
(specified by Data Count) into the Data Buffer from the
referenced file. The read operation begins at the current
position of the file pointer. After the read, the file pointer
points to the next unread character.
Command Buffer
F002, 0008, 0000, 0000, <file handle>
Data Count
Max Number of bytes in Data Buffer
Command Flag
C3B6
Returned Values
Return Value
Number of bytes returned in Data Buffer
Data Buffer
<data from file>
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WRITE FILE
This operation writes the number of bytes (specified by
Data Count) from the Data Buffer to the referenced file.
The write operation begins at the current position of the
file pointer. After the write operation completes, the file
pointer increments by the number of bytes actually written
to the file.
Setup Parameters
Command Buffer
F003, 0008, 0000, 0000, <file handle>
Data Count
Max Number of bytes in Data Buffer
Data Buffer
<data for file>
Returned Values
Return Value
Number of bytes written to file
USB Insertion and Removal
When the USB Flash drive is inserted or removed, the
GPIO25 signal pulses. When this occurs, the SPI Master
needs to read the Callback Flag in the Main Parameter
Table. (The address is 0x24F8 in v2 of the code.) If this
value is non zero, then a change of status has occurred.
The first step is to clear the Callback Flag by writing
0x0000 to that memory location. The second step is to
read the Callback Buffer (The address of the buffer is
0x2D6A for v2 of the code.) Twenty six bytes of the
Callback Buffer need to be read. Bytes 25 and 26 contain
a value of either 0x0001 (USB Device Inserted) or 0x0002
(USB Device Unplugged).
If a USB Device was inserted, the first eight bytes of the
Callback Buffer contains the Volume Label string. Here is
an example of the CallBack Buffer Contents:
Callback Buffer:
7375, 3062, 003A, 0000, 0000, 0001, BA60,
0020, 0000, 0000, 0000, CF58, 0001
In this case bytes 25 and 26 contain a 0001 and therefore
indicate the USB device was inserted. The volume label
from the first eight bytes shows the name of: “usb0:”.
The other bytes in the buffer provide additional disk
information.
High Level Functions
Many of the Disk Operations provide meaningful results
(e.g. SHOW CURRENT DIRECTORY) as a standalone
function. However, it is useful to link several of the
operations together to create higher level functions such
as reading or writing a file.
The High Level Functions section describes how to
interact with the USB flash drive as you might from a DOS
or Linux prompt. They allow you to view the contents of a
directory, read a file, create a directory, and many more
functions. Some simply use a single Disk Operation and
others loop through several operations. This application
note describes various High Level Functions most often
used and similar to those found in an OS command line
environment.
October 12, 2010
The following describes the list directory contents
command (i.e. LS for Linux, DIR for DOS) to illustrate the
process that is used. In order to execute this function,
several of the low level disk operations are called:



Find First
Find Next
Find Close
The first operation is the Find First with a filename of *.*.
From the description given above, it is known that *.* is
part of the command string and sent to the EZ-Host. After
the command is executed, the return code is read and if
not 0xFFFF, the file exists. Of course in this case,
wildcards of *.* are being sent and therefore, all files
match. If you only want to list files with an extension of .txt,
you could have pass the filename *.txt to list only those
type of files.
If files do exist, the return code is the file handle which is
used in subsequent operations. The name of the first file
or directory is also returned in the Data. The amount of
data in the Data Buffer is indicated by the Data Count
byte. Note that the actual name of the file or directory
starts on the 13th byte and is null terminated.
Now that the first file/directory name has been retrieved,
loop on the next operation. Use FIND NEXT to retrieve the
names of all the other names.
Pass the filehandle to the FIND NEXT operation and then
execute. If the return code is 0xFFFF then no more
file/directory names exist and we proceed to the FIND
CLOSE operation.
If the return code is equal to the filehandle, then a new
name is in the Data Buffer. As with the FIND FIRST
command, read the Data Count parameter for the number
of valid bytes in the buffer. Again, the actual name of the
file or directory starts on the 13th byte and is null
terminated.
Repeat the FIND NEXT operation until it returns with a
0xFFFF status code indicating no more names.
And finally to end this function a FIND CLOSE operation is
performed. This is accomplished by setting up the
command buffer with the FIND CLOSE opcodes, placing
the filehandle in the Data Buffer and then executing. The
Return Code should be a 0x0000 when complete.
High Level Functions are described in the following format.
The first parameters in parentheses are the relevant
returned data from the File Operation. The File Operation
command is in all caps. And the data provided to the File
Operation are the last parameters in parentheses. The
operation just described is noted as follows.
LIST Contents
(filehandle, name) FIND FIRST (*.*)
(status, name) FIND NEXT (filehandle)
(status) FIND CLOSE (filehandle)
Summary: Get filehandle and the first name using the
FIND FIRST command. Continue with FIND NEXT
commands until no names are found. End the operation
with the FIND CLOSE command.
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The following describes the most often used High Level
Functions. Other functions can be created using the
various disk operations in the same manner. This
application note describes these functions:










Create File
If a file handle is returned, test the file status by executing
the END OF FILE command. Status indicates end
(0x0001) or not at end (0x0000) of file. If at the end of the
file, start the CLOSE FILE operation. If not end of file,
continue with READ FILE. Execute the READ FILE and
the status indicates how many bytes are being returned in
the Data Buffer. After the data is retrieved, continue to
loop through the END OF FILE and READ FILE
operations until an End Of File is reached or the desired
number of bytes are captured. Finish by executing the
CLOSE FILE operation.
Remove File
Write File (Write)
Make Directory
Remove Directory
Rename
(filehandle) CREATE FILE (filename)
(status) WRITE FILE (filehandle, data)
(status) CLOSE FILE (filehandle)
Summary: Create the filename by executing the CREATE
FILE disk operation. If successful, a filehandle is returned.
Note that you may perform an ACCESS FILE or OPEN
FILE command to see if the file does exist in which case
the CREATE FILE is not necessary. Next write a block of
data. This can be as much as 2K bytes but is generally
dictated by the size of the buffer in the controlling
processor. The status indicates successful writes. Finish
by executing the CLOSE FILE operation.
Show Working Directory
List Directory
Change Directory
Read File
Write File
Show Working Directory (CWD)
(status, name) SHOW CURRENT DIRECTORY
Summary: Simply execute the SHOW CURRENT
DIRECTORY disk operation. The name of the directory is
returned in the data buffer starting at byte 0 and null
terminated. See Appendix D: SPI Initialization Sequence
for an example SPI sequence of this function.
Make Directory (MKDIR)
(status) MAKE DIRECTORY (name)
Summary: Simply execute the MAKE DIRECTORY disk
operation. The name of the directory is placed in the data
buffer. Status returns with success or failure.
Remove Directory (RMDIR)
(status) REMOVE DIRECTORY (name)
Summary: Execute the REMOVE DIRECTORY disk
operation. The name of the directory is placed in the data
buffer. Status returns with success or failure.
Rename File (RENAME)
(status) RENAME FILE (old filename, new
filename)
Summary: Execute the RENAME FILE disk operation. The
name of the old filename and the new filename are placed
in the data buffer. Nulls separate the two names and the
string is null terminated. Status returns with success or
failure.
Change Directory (CD)
(status) CHANGE DIRECTORY (name)
Summary: Execute the CHANGE DIRECTORY disk
operation. The name of the directory is placed in the data
buffer. Status returns with success or failure.
Read File (CAT)
(filehandle) OPEN FILE (filename)
(status) END OF FILE (filehandle)
(status, data) READ FILE (filehandle)
(status) CLOSE FILE (filehandle)
Summary: Open the filename by executing the OPEN
FILE disk operation. If successful, a filehandle is returned.
October 12, 2010
Remove File (RM)
(filehandle, name) FIND FIRST (filename)
(status) REMOVE FILE (filehandle)
(status, name) FIND NEXT (filehandle)
(status) FIND CLOSE (filehandle)
Summary: Find the first occurrence of the filename. Note
that the filename can be the full name or a name with
wildcards and hence the need to search the directory for
other occurrences. If found, remove the file by providing
the returned filename and executing the REMOVE FILE
operation. Next perform a FIND NEXT operation to
determine if another file exists. If not, proceed to FIND
CLOSE. If a file does exist, execute REMOVE FILE with
the newly returned file name from the Data Buffer.
Continue the loop of FIND NEXT and REMOVE FILE until
FIND NEXT returns no more names. Finally execute FIND
CLOSE to finish.
Create File (CREATE)
(filehandle) CREATE FILE (filename)
(status) CLOSE FILE (filehandle)
Summary: Create a file whose name is placed in the Data
Buffer using the CREATE FILE Operation. The CREATE
FILE returns with the 16 bit file handle if successful. Close
the file using the CLOSE FILE operation and pass the file
handle from the CREATE FILE operation.
Initialization Sequence
Now that all of the commands and operations are known,
the last item of importance is how to start the EZ-Host
Mass Storage Code after the EEPROM has loaded the
memory. As mentioned earlier, the code that is with this
application note is booted into the EZ-Host memory on
power on. The EZ-Host then waits for a command
sequence to start.
GPIO25 is held low after the serial EEPROM contents is
loaded into the SRAM. Since this GPIO can glitch at
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power on or at reset, ensure that GPIO25 is low for at
least 100 µs before sending the initialization sequence. If
the EZ-Host is controlled by a microprocessor, it is
recommended to issue a reset to the EZ-Host with the
microprocessor and then monitor GPIO25. This allows the
ability to re-try should something fail during the
initialization sequence.
Once the EEPROM is loaded and the EZ-Host signals it is
ready, send an LCP command to instruct the EZ-Host to
start the code. The LCP command that is sent is a JUMP
to 0x04A4. This is the starting location in memory of the
EZ-Host program.
The SPI master sends the following bytes to the EZ-Host:
MOSI: 04 CE A4 04 00 00 00 00
Note that the documentation for the EZ-Host BIOS
indicates that the SPI Master should continuously read
MISO until the 0x0FED response is returned before
proceeding. However, since this code re-initializes the SPI
hardware, the 0x0FED response is delayed until the
reading of the next status.
Upon successful completion of this command, GPIO25
pulses high and then back to low. The code in the EZ-Host
is now operational.
Before starting, it is recommended to read a memory
location to clear out any extraneous status on the SPI bus
(i.e. the 0x0FED from the JUMP command). Reading two
October 12, 2010
bytes from memory location 0x310 is sufficient. Instead of
getting back 10 bytes of data, you should read 12 bytes of
data. The first two bytes is the status from the LCP JUMP
instruction and should be 0x0FED. The SPI sequence in
Appendix D shows this initialization.
At this point, read memory at 0x310 and get its value. This
is the pointer to the Main Table. As mentioned earlier, the
binary code (MSC_EEPROM_scan_LCP_v2.bin) that is
with this application note should return a value of 0x24E8.
With this pointer now known, you can determine the
location of all of the status registers and each of the
memory buffer locations.
The last step is to read the Command Flag in the Main
Table. The value must be 0x55AA. If it is not, then the
code is not operating correctly. If it is correct, write a
0x0000 to the Command Flag to clear the flag.
Conclusion
USB Flash drives have gained a tremendous amount of
popularity. Most people have them and they are easily
accessible. All PCs with USB ports support the Flash drive
making them very easy to read and write. By using the EZHost with the Mass Storage Code firmware, your
embedded processor can now easily take advantage of
USB Flash drives too. By using a SPI interface and the
appropriate commands, reading and writing data is at your
command.
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Appendix A: Reference Schematic
Figure 4. Reference Schematic for SPI Bus Interface
October 12, 2010
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Appendix B: Changes in the Code
The code that is included in the CY4640 Version 1.1 Mass Storage Class Reference Design was used as the baseline code for
this application note. There are a few changes to this code to allow support for loading the EEPROM and controlling the SPI
interface. A few corrections to the algorithms were also made. The following details the changes made to the source in order
to create the file MSC_EEPROM_scan_LCP_v2.bin.
comm._driver.c (in MSC_API subdirectory)
The CY4640 Version 1.1 Checksum routine is incorrect. It is replaced with the code as shown in Appendix C: Checksum
Algorithm Implemented in C.
app.c (in MSC_API subdirectory)
Added support for the LCP code in the EEPROM to branch to a known place in code. This code enables the SPI hardware,
signals that the code load is complete, and then branches to BIOS to wait for LCP commands from the SPI interface. This
code is located at 0x4E26 in EZ-Host memory. This is an added callable code segment placed directly before app_pre_init.
The last LCP command in the EEPROM code JUMPS to this location.
/*
/*
/*
/*
This function is also called by the EEPROM LCP Functions */
After the EEPROM is loaded via I2C, the last command jumps here */
Then the memory loads and waits for an LCP command */
to jump to 04A4 ---EWB */
void EEPROMLoadReady(void)
{
__asm("call 0xE998");
/* call SPI_GInit */
*(volatile uint16*)(0xc028)|= 0x0200;
/* Lower GPIO25 */
__asm("jmp 0xE0A2");
/* jmp to BIOS exec */
}
app.c (in MSC_API subdirectory)
The raise_interrupt routine has been changed to have added delay for the GPIO25 interrupt line which ensures a true rise and
fall pulse. It also uses drive high and drive low writes to the GPIO port instead of an XOR function.
/**********************************************************************
* FUNCTION
: raise_interrupt
* PURPOSE
: Raise and lower GPIO25
*
* DESCRIPTION : Helper function for signaling external processor
* PARAMS
:
*
* RETURNS
: void
**********************************************************************/
void raise_interrupt(void)
{
/*Raise interrupt for external processor.Raise GPIO25 */
*(volatile uint16*)(0xc028)&= ~0x0200;
counter1 = 0;
while(counter1<100)
{
counter1++;
}
/*Lower the level again .Lower GPIO25*/
*(volatile uint16*)(0xc028)|= 0x0200;
/* Raise it */
}
October 12, 2010
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app.c (in MSC_API subdirectory)
In the app_pre_init routine, the following was added to initialize the SPI hardware engine so SPI commands can be processed.
This routine is not required when booted from the EEPROM but is still in the code to support memory loading from the SPI
when an external EEPROM is not used. The code that was used to create MSC_EEPROM_scan_LCP_v2.bin has this code.
/* --- Initialize SPI interface by EWB ----- */
#ifdef EEPROM_Mode
/* Typecast a function pointer */
typedef void (*VOIDFUNC)(void);
/* Create an instance of the VOIDFUNC and initialize */
/* it to have the address you want to call into. */
VOIDFUNC
my_spi_ginit = (VOIDFUNC) 0xe998;
/* Make the call. */
my_spi_ginit();
/* Set SPI Enable in GPIO Control Reg */
/* *(volatile uint16*)(0xc006)|= 0x0020; */
/* *(volatile uint16*)(0xc03a)= 0x2222; */
/* *(volatile uint16*)(0xc038)= 0x0008; */
/* __asm("sti"); */
#endif /* EEPROM_Mode */
/* ---- end EWB mods ---- */
October 12, 2010
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Appendix C: Checksum Algorithm Implemented in C
/**********************************************************************
* FUNCTION
: checksum
* PURPOSE
: Calculate 1's complement checksum for the given block
**
of data in buffer specified by byte_length
*
* DESCRIPTION :
* PARAMS
: Buffer Array, Length
*
* RETURNS
: 16 bit checksum
**********************************************************************/
static uint16 checksum(char* buffer,uint16 byte_length)
{
uint16 checksum;
uint32 sum = 0;
while( byte_length > 1 )
{
/* This is the inner loop */
sum += * (unsigned short*) buffer++;
buffer++;
byte_length -= 2;
}
/* Add left-over byte, if any */
if( byte_length > 0 )
sum += * (unsigned char *) buffer;
/* Fold 32-bit sum to 16 bits */
while (sum>>16)
sum = (sum & 0xffff) + (sum >> 16);
checksum = ~sum;
return(checksum);
}
#endif /*USE_CHECKSUM*/
October 12, 2010
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Appendix D: SPI Initialization Sequence
After the Main Parameter Table address is known (e.g. 0x24E8), the pointers to the buffers and the location of the flags are
known. Capture these values and then verify the Command Flag contains 0x55AA. Clear the Command Flag and the code is
ready for the USB Flash drive. The clock rate in this design for the SPI bus is 1 MHz.
Index
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
min:sec.ms.us.ns
0:09.658.842.900
0:09.658.910.800
0:09.658.978.700
0:09.659.046.700
0:09.659.114.600
0:09.659.182.500
0:09.659.250.400
0:09.659.318.400
0:09.659.390.200
0:09.659.461.900
0:09.659.533.500
0:09.659.605.100
0:09.659.676.800
0:09.659.748.400
0:09.659.820.000
0:09.659.891.700
0:10.006.775.200
0:10.006.846.800
0:10.006.918.400
0:10.006.990.100
0:10.007.061.700
0:10.007.133.300
0:10.007.205.000
0:10.007.276.600
0:10.060.532.900
0:10.060.609.700
0:10.060.686.600
0:10.060.763.400
0:10.060.840.200
0:10.060.917.100
0:10.060.993.900
0:10.061.070.700
0:10.061.147.600
0:10.061.224.400
0:10.061.301.200
0:10.061.378.100
0:10.114.641.500
0:10.114.714.400
0:10.114.787.400
0:10.114.860.300
0:10.114.933.300
0:10.115.006.200
0:10.115.079.200
0:10.115.152.200
0:10.115.271.000
0:10.115.343.900
0:10.115.416.800
0:10.115.489.700
0:10.115.562.500
0:10.115.635.400
0:10.115.711.400
0:10.115.784.300
0:10.115.922.200
0:10.115.995.200
0:10.116.068.100
0:10.116.141.100
0:10.116.214.100
October 12, 2010
MOSI MISO
FFFF
FFFF
FFFF
FFFF
FFFF
FFFF
FFFF
FFFF
04FF
CEFF
A4FF
04FF
00FF
00FF
00FF
00FF
10FF
00FF
10FF
03FF
02FF
00FF
00FF
00FF
FFED
FF0F
FF18
FF00
FF10
FF03
FF02
FF00
FF17
FFDB
FFE8
FF24
18FF
00FF
10FF
03FF
02FF
00FF
17FF
DBFF
10FF
00FF
10FF
03FF
02FF
00FF
00FF
00FF
FF18
FF00
FF10
FF03
FF02
Comment
Clear SPI Registers
Tell EZ-Host goto 04A4
<= GPIO25 pulses high after this byte. Wait for it.
Read Memory 0x0103 to Get Table Pointer
(Used to sync Status)
0x0FED from ‘goto’ command above
Contents of 0x0103
Read Memory 0x0103 to Get Table Pointer
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58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
0:10.116.287.000
0:10.116.358.000
0:10.116.430.900
0:10.116.503.900
0:10.116.576.900
0:10.117.107.900
0:10.117.180.800
0:10.117.253.700
0:10.117.326.500
0:10.117.402.600
0:10.117.475.400
0:10.117.548.300
0:10.117.621.200
October 12, 2010
FF00
FF17
FFDB
FFE8
FF24
18FF
00FF
10FF
03FF
02FF
00FF
17FF
DBFF
Main Table is at 0x24E8
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Appendix E: SPI Example Sequence for Show Current Directory
This is an actual SPI bus sequence that shows the transactions for a SHOW CURRENT DIRECTORY function. The clock rate
for the SPI bus is 1 MHz. Note the delays betweens each byte transferred. The slave select signal toggles for each byte. Also
note the time between the different command segments (i.e. Write Memory command of eight bytes, the eight byte ACK, etc).
Index
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
min:sec.ms.us.ns
0:00.000.000.000
0:03.288.410.600
0:03.288.416.500
0:03.288.422.500
0:03.288.428.500
0:03.288.434.400
0:03.288.440.400
0:03.288.446.400
0:03.288.452.400
0:03.288.770.800
0:03.288.776.800
0:03.288.782.800
0:03.288.788.700
0:03.288.794.700
0:03.288.800.700
0:03.288.806.600
0:03.288.812.600
0:03.289.195.100
0:03.289.201.100
0:03.289.207.000
0:03.289.213.000
0:03.289.219.000
0:03.289.224.900
0:03.289.685.500
0:03.289.691.500
0:03.289.697.500
0:03.289.703.400
0:03.289.709.400
0:03.289.715.400
0:03.289.721.300
0:03.289.727.300
0:03.290.242.200
0:03.290.248.100
0:03.290.254.100
0:03.290.260.100
0:03.290.266.000
0:03.290.272.000
0:03.290.278.000
0:03.290.284.000
0:03.290.648.000
0:03.290.654.500
0:03.290.660.500
0:03.290.666.400
0:03.290.672.400
0:03.290.678.400
0:03.290.684.300
0:03.290.690.300
0:03.291.103.700
0:03.291.109.700
0:03.291.578.400
0:03.291.584.400
0:03.291.590.400
0:03.291.596.300
0:03.291.602.300
0:03.291.608.300
0:03.291.614.300
0:03.291.620.200
0:03.292.973.800
October 12, 2010
Data
Comment
MOSI MISO
20FF
Write address command (8 bytes)
00FF
The Write Address is writing 6 bytes
FAFF
to address 0x24FA
24FF
06FF
00FF
EAFF
0EFF
FF28
ACK for the Write address command (8 bytes)
FF00
FFFA
FF24
FF06
FF00
FFEA
FF0E
0DFF
The 6 bytes are F00D, 0004, 0104 --- the CWD Operation
F0FF
04FF
00FF
04FF
01FF
FF28
ACK again for the Write address command (8 bytes)
FF00
FFFA
FF24
FF06
FF00
FFEA
FF0E
20FF
Now write the Command Flag 0x24F6…
00FF
F6FF
24FF
02FF
00FF
49FF
3CFF
FF28
FF00
FFF6
FF24
FF02
FF00
FF49
FF3C
B6FF
with C3B6 --- tells EZ-Host to Execute CWD
C3FF
FF28
FF00
FFF6
FF24
FF02
FF00
FF49
FF3C
Wait for GPIO25 before proceeding after this byte
10FF
Now Read Main Table at 24E8
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58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
0:03.292.979.800
0:03.292.985.800
0:03.292.991.700
0:03.292.997.700
0:03.293.003.700
0:03.293.009.700
0:03.293.015.600
0:03.293.381.300
0:03.293.387.300
0:03.293.393.200
0:03.293.399.200
0:03.293.405.200
0:03.293.411.100
0:03.293.417.100
0:03.293.423.100
0:03.293.816.400
0:03.293.822.400
0:03.293.828.300
0:03.293.834.300
0:03.293.840.300
0:03.293.846.200
0:03.293.852.200
0:03.293.858.200
0:03.293.864.100
0:03.293.870.100
0:03.293.876.100
0:03.293.882.100
0:03.293.888.000
0:03.293.894.000
0:03.293.900.000
0:03.293.905.900
0:03.293.911.900
0:03.293.917.900
0:03.293.923.800
0:03.293.929.800
0:03.294.287.300
0:03.294.293.300
0:03.294.299.300
0:03.294.305.200
0:03.294.311.200
0:03.294.317.200
0:03.294.323.100
0:03.294.329.100
0:03.294.844.500
0:03.294.850.500
0:03.294.856.400
0:03.294.862.400
0:03.294.868.400
0:03.294.874.300
0:03.294.880.300
0:03.294.886.300
0:03.295.272.600
0:03.295.278.500
0:03.295.284.500
0:03.295.290.500
0:03.295.296.400
0:03.295.302.400
0:03.295.308.400
0:03.295.314.300
0:03.295.715.300
0:03.295.721.200
0:03.296.178.100
0:03.296.184.000
0:03.296.190.000
0:03.296.196.000
October 12, 2010
00FF
E8FF
24FF
14FF
00FF
00FF
00FF
FF18
FF00
FFE8
FF24
FF14
FF00
FF21
FF90
FF00
FF00
FF00
FF00
FFFA
FF24
FF6A
FF25
FF6A
FF2D
FF00
FF08
FF02
FF00
FF00
FF00
FF00
FF00
FF0D
FFF0
18FF
00FF
E8FF
24FF
14FF
00FF
21FF
90FF
10FF
00FF
6AFF
25FF
02FF
00FF
00FF
00FF
FF18
FF00
FF6A
FF25
FF02
FF00
FFD0
FFFF
FF2F
FF00
18FF
00FF
6AFF
25FF
Status – 0000 is OK
Data Count – 2 bytes in Data Buffer
Read the 2 bytes from Data Buffer (0x256A)
This is the name of the directory, null terminated.
Since we’re in the root, a slash (/) this there.
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123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
0:03.296.201.900
0:03.296.207.900
0:03.296.213.900
0:03.296.219.800
0:03.296.753.700
0:03.296.759.700
0:03.296.765.600
0:03.296.771.600
0:03.296.777.600
0:03.296.783.500
0:03.296.789.500
0:03.296.795.500
0:03.297.181.800
0:03.297.188.300
0:03.297.194.200
0:03.297.200.200
0:03.297.206.200
0:03.297.212.100
0:03.297.218.100
0:03.297.224.100
0:03.297.619.000
0:03.297.625.000
0:03.298.090.000
0:03.298.095.900
0:03.298.101.900
0:03.298.107.900
0:03.298.113.800
0:03.298.152.400
0:03.298.158.300
0:03.298.164.300
October 12, 2010
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Read Callback Flag (0x24F8)
Make sure 0000, otherwise USB may have been unplugged
Document No. 001-15484 Rev. *A
18
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AN15484
About the Author
Name:
Ernie Buterbaugh
Title:
Principal Field Applications Engineer
Background: BSEE from Pennsylvania State University.
More than 25 years experience with embedded
processors, board level design, ASIC, FPGA ,
and CPLD designs. Has authored a variety of
application notes, articles, and the book Perfect
Timing: A Design Guide for Clock Generation
and Distribution.
Contact:
[email protected]com
Document History
Document Title: USB Flash Drive Controller Using SPI - AN15484
Document Number: 001-15484
Revision
**
*A
ECN
1070141
3056366
Orig. of
Change
NMMA
DBIR
Submission
Date
05/15/2007
10/12/2010
Description of Change
New Application Note
Updated title. Template Updated
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October 12, 2010
Document No. 001-15484 Rev. *A
19
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