ATMEL TK5561A-PP

Features
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65 ms Cycle Time for Crypto Algorithm Programming
Encryption Time < 10 ms, < 30 ms Optional
Identification Transponder in Plastic Cube
Contactless Read/Write Data Transmission
High-security Crypto Algorithm Optional
Inductive Coupled Power Supply at 125 kHz
Basic Component R/W e5561 IDICâ
Built-in Coil and Capacitor for Circuit Antenna
Starts with Cyclical Data Read Out
Self-adapting Resonance Frequency (Optional)
128-bit User-programmable EEPROM
Typical < 50 ms to Write and Verify a Block
Read/Write Protection by Lock Bits
Options Set by EEPROM:
– Bit Rate (Bit/s): Rf/32, Rf/64
– Modulaton: Manchester, Biphase
Application
Read/Write
Crypto
Transponder for
Short Cycle
Time
• Car Immobilizers with Higher Security Level
• High-security Identification Systems
Description
TK5561A-PP
The TK5561A-PP is a complete transponder integrating all important functions for
immobilizer and identification systems. It consists of a plastic cube which accommodates the crypto IDIC e5561A and the antenna realized as tuned LC-circuit. The
TK5561A-PP is a R/W crypto transponder for applications which demand higher security levels than those which standard R/W transponders can fulfil. For this reason, the
TK5561A-PP has an additional encryption algorithm block which enables a base station to authenticate the transponder. Any attempt to fake the base station with a wrong
transponder will be recognized immediately. For authentication, the base station transmits a challenge to the TK5561A-PP. This challenge is encrypted by both the IC and
the base station. Both should possess the same secret key. Only then can the results
be expected to be equal.
For detailed technical information about functions, configurations etc., please refer to
the e5561 data sheet.
Rev. 4682A–RFID–02/03
1
Figure 1. Transponder and Base Station
Transponder TK5561A-PP
(e5561A + coil + C in plastic cube)
RF field
C
e5561A
Power
ID
Challenge
Coil
Response
Base station
U2270B read/write IC
MARC4 series mc
Figure 2. Block Diagram
MODULATOR
CRYPTO CIRCUIT
Coil 1
CONTROLLER
crypto control
OP-code detect
EEPROM control
read/write control
2
(320 bit EEPROM)
crypto key
64 or 128 bit ID code
TESTLOGIC
VDD VSS
Memory
HV GENERATOR
BIT RATE
GENERATOR
Coil 2
WRITE
DECODER
ADAPT
ANALOG FRONT END
MODE REGISTER
INPUT REGISTER
POR
Test pads
TK5561A-PP
4682A–RFID–02/03
TK5561A-PP
General
The transponder is the mobile part of the closed coupled identification system (see Figure 1), whereas the read/write base station is based on the U2270B or on discrete
solutions, and the read/write transponder is based on the e5561A IDIC.
The transponder is a plastic-cube device consisting of the following parts:
•
The transponder antenna, with a tuned LC-circuit
•
Read/write IDIC (e5561A) with EEPROM
Transponder Antenna
The antenna consists of a coil and a capacitor for tuning the circuit to the nominal carrier
frequency of 125 kHz. The coil has a ferrite core to improve the read, write and programming operation distances.
Read/Write Crypto
Identification
The e5561A is a member of the Atmel's contactless IDentification IC (IDIC) family,
which are used in applications where information has to be transmitted without contacts.
The IDIC is connected to a tuned LC circuit for power supply and bidirectional data communication (Read/Write) to a base station.
The on-chip non-volatile memory of the 320-bit EEPROM (10 blocks, 32 bits each) can
be read and written blockwise by a read/write base station, e.g. based on the U2270B.
Up to four blocks consisting of the user programmable ID code, the crypto key and configurations are stored in six blocks. The crypto key and the ID code can be individually
protected against overwriting.
The typical operational frequency of the TK5561A-PP is 125 kHz. Two data bit rates are
programmable: Rf/32 and Rf/64. During the reading operation the incoming RF field is
dampened bit-wise by an on-chip load. This AM-modulation is detected by the field generating base station unit. Data transmission starts after power-up with the transmission
of the ID code and continues as long as the TK5561A-PP is powered.
Writing is carried out by means of Atmel's patented writing method. To transmit data to
the TK5561A-PP the read/write base station has to interrupt the RF field for a short time
to create a field gap. The information is encoded in the number of clock cycles between
two subsequent gaps.
See the e5561A data sheet for detailed information of the IDIC.
3
4682A–RFID–02/03
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Parameter
Symbol
Value
Unit
Operating temperature range
Tamb
-40 to +85
°C
Storage temperature range
Tstg
-40 to +125
°C
Maximum assembly temperature, t < 5 min
Tass
170
°C
Magnetic field strength at 125 kHz
Hpp
1000
A/m
Operating Characteristics Transponder
Tamb = 25°C, f = 125 kHz unless otherwise specified
Parameters
Test Conditions
Inductance
Symbol
Min.
L
Typ.
Max.
4.2
Unit
mH
LC circuit, Hpp = 20 A/m
Resonance frequency
Tamb = -40 to +85°C
Quality factor
fr
121
125
129
QLC
5
8
11
kHz
Magnetic Field Strength (H)
Max. field strength where
transponder does not modulate
No influence to other transponders
in the field
Hpp not
5
A/m
Tamb = -40°C
Hpp -40
24
A/m
Tamb = 25°C
Hpp 25
18
A/m
Tamb = 85°C
Hpp 85
15
A/m
Tamb = -40°C
Hpp -40
30
A/m
Tamb = 25°C
Hpp 25
35
A/m
Tamb = 85°C
Hpp 85
40
A/m
kHz
Minimum Field Strength (H)
Read mode
Programming mode
Lowest adapt frequency
Highest adapt frequency
Data retention EEPROM
T = 25°C
fLA
118
121
124.5
fHA
125
128
131.5
tretention
10
Programming cycles EEPROM
Programming time/block
Maximum field strength
4
kHz
Years
100,000
RF = 125 kHz
tp
Hpp max
16
ms
600
A/m
TK5561A-PP
4682A–RFID–02/03
TK5561A-PP
Figure 3. Typical Curve for Degree of Modulation
0.5
0.4
DV (V)
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Hpp (A/m)
Figure 4. Measurement of the Degree of Modulation
V1
V2
V1 – V2
m = --------------------V1 + V2
5
4682A–RFID–02/03
Measurement
Assembly
All parameters are measured in a Helmholtz-arrangement, which generates a homogenous magnetic field (see Figure 5 and Figure 6). A function generator drives the field
generating coils, so the magnetic field can be varied in frequency and field strength.
Figure 5. Testing Application
SENSING COILS ( IN PHASE )
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
SUBTRACTOR
AMPLIFIER
1:10
REFERENCE COIL
( IN PHASE )
REFERENCE COIL ( IN PHASE )
TK5561A-PP
FIELD GENERATING
COILS ( IN PHASE )
FUNCTION
GENERATOR
Figure 6. Testing Geometry
l = 30 mm
Transponder
22 mm
d = 60 mm
REFERENCE COIL
REFERENCE COIL
SENSING COIL
SENSING COIL
5 mm
FIELD GENERATING COIL
6
FIELD GENERATING COIL
TK5561A-PP
4682A–RFID–02/03
TK5561A-PP
Writing Data into the
TK5561A-PP
A write sequence of the TK5561A-PP is shown in Figure 7. Writing data into the transponder occurs by interrupting the RF field with short gaps. After the start gap the write
op-code (10) is transmitted. The next 32 bits contain the actual data. The last 4 bits
denote the destination block address. If the correct number of bits have been received,
the actual data is programmed into the specified memory block.
Figure 7. Write Protocol to Program the EEPROM
Standard op-code
RF field
1
32 bit
0
Address bits (e.g. block 2)
1
0
0
0
> 64 clocks
Start gap
Write mode
Read mode
Writing Data
Decoding
The time elapsing between two detected gaps is used to encode the information. As
soon as a gap is detected, a counter starts counting the number of field clock cycles
until the next gap is detected. Depending on how many field clocks elapse, the data is
regarded as 0 or 1. The required number of field clocks is shown in Figure 8. A valid 0 is
assumed if the number of counted clock periods is between 16 and 31, for a valid 1 it is
48 or 63 respectively. Any other value being detected results in an error and the device
exits write mode and returns to read mode.
Figure 8. Write Data Decoding Scheme
Field clock cycles
Write data decoder
1
16
fail
48
32
0
fail
64
1
writing done
EOT
Actual Device
Behavior
The TK5561A-PP detects a gap if the voltage across the coils decreases below a peakto-peak value of about 800 mV. Until then, the clock pulses are counted. The number
given for a valid 0 or 1 (see Figure 8) refers to the actual clock pulses counted by the
device. However, there are always more clock pulses being counted than were applied
by the base station. The reason for this is the fact that an RF field cannot be switched off
immediately. The coil voltage decreases exponentially. So although the RF field coming
from the base station is switched off, it takes some time until the voltage across the coils
reaches the threshold peak-to-peak value of about 800 mV and the device detects the
gap. Referring to the following diagram Figure 9, this means that the device uses the
times t0 internal and t1 internal. The exact times for t0 and t1 are dependent on the application (e.g., field strength, etc.)
Typical time frames are:
t0 = 60 to 140 µs
t1 = 300 to 400 µs
tgap = 150 to 400 µs
Antennas with a high Q-factor require longer times for tgap and shorter time values for t0
and t1.
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4682A–RFID–02/03
Figure 9. Ideal and Actual Signal Behavior
Coil
voltage
t1
tgap t
0
1
0
tgap
t1
Coil
voltage
1
1
0
t1 internal
Gap detect
t0
1
t0 internal
Gap detect
Ideal behavior
Actual behavior
RF level reduces to zero immediately
RF level decreases exponentially
Operating Distance
The maximum distance between the base station and the TK5561A-PP depends mainly
on the base station, the coil geometries and the chosen modulation options. Typical distances are 0 to 3 cm. A general maximum distance value cannot be given. A convenient
way is to measure the TK5561A-PP within its environment. Rules for a correct base-station design can be provided upon request (see Antenna Design Guide).
Application
Figure 10. Complete Transponder System with the U2270B Read/Write IC
5V
5V
VBatt
22 mF
47 nF
DVS
680 pF
Input
4.7 kW
1N4148
110 kW
VEXT VS
VDD
U2270B
M44C260
RF
MS
CFE
OE
Standby
Output
Gain
BP00
BP01
BP02
BP03
BP10
osc IN
32 kHz
osc OUT
COIL2
470 kW
1.5 nF
1.2 nF
1.35 mH
R
Read/Write
circuit
100 nF
Microcontroller
COIL1
Data
Power
C31
e5561A
DGND
VSS
GND
f res=
1
2p
= 125 kHz
LC
Transponde
r
TK5561A-PP
8
TK5561A-PP
4682A–RFID–02/03
TK5561A-PP
Mechanical Specification
Figure 11. Mechanical Drawing of Transponder
Dimensions in mm
Ordering Information
Extended Type Number
TK5561A-PP
Package
–
Remarks
A = Version of e5561 IDIC
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4682A–RFID–02/03
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© Atmel Corporation 2003.
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Printed on recycled paper.
4682A–RFID–02/03
xM