ATMEL TH7887A

Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1024 x 1024 Pixels with Memory Zone
Up to 60 Images/Second
Built-in Antiblooming Device Providing an Electronic Shutter Function
Pixel: 14 µm x 14 µm
Image Zone: 14.34 x 14.34 mm²
Four Outputs (256 x 1024 pixels) at 20 MHz Each
Possible Binning 2 x 2
Optical Shield against Parasitic Reflexions and Stray Light
A/R Window in 400 - 700 nm Bandwidth
Description
The TH7887A is especially designed for high data rate applications (up to 60 pict/s) in
medical and industrial fields.
This area array image sensor consists of a 1024 x 1024 pixels (14 µm x 14 µm) image
zone associated to a memory zone (masked with optical shield).
In order to increase data rate, the image zone is divided into four zones (256 x 1024
each) which are read in parallel through 4 different outputs (readout frequency up to
20 MHz/output leading to a total readout frequency of 80 MHz).
The TH7887A is designed with antiblooming gates.
Moreover, the 2 x 2 binning mode is available on this sensor. In this case, the image
size is 512 x 512 with 28 µm x 28 µm pixels. Each output will read 128 x 512 pixels.
Area Array CCD
Image Sensor
1024 x 1024
Pixels with
Antiblooming
TH7887A
The TH7887A is sealed with a specific anti-reflective window optimized in 400 700 nm bandwidth.
Rev. 2146A–IMAGE–05/02
1
Figure 1. TH7887A Organization
ΦP
1, 2, 3, 4
ΦM
1, 2, 3, 4
ΦA
VA
1024 x 1024
Image Zone
1024 x 1024
Memory Zone
ΦM
Φ L 1,2
VGS
ΦR
VDD1 VS1 VDD2 VS2 VDD3 VS3 VDD4 VS4
VOS1
2
VOS2
VOS3
VOS4
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Pin Identification
AA
ΦR
VSS VDDP N.C
VOS4 VOS3 VOS2 VOS1
Φ L1
VSS VDR VS4
VS3
W
Φ L2 ΦM
VS2
VSS
V
VGS VDD4 VDD3 VDD2 VDD1 VSS
C
ΦA
Φ M4 Φ M3 ΦP3 ΦM2 Φ P2 ΦP1
VA
VSS
Φ M2
Φ P3
VSS
VSS
Φ M1 Φ P4 Φ P1 Φ M4 Φ M1 ΦP4
VSS
8
7
VSS
6
Φ P2 Φ M3
5
4
VSS
3
TOP VIEW
Pin Number
VS1
Symbol
2
B
A
1
A1
Index
Designation
(1)
ΦP4
(1)
B2, C5
ΦP3
B5, C3(1)
ΦP2
A5, C2(1)
ΦP1
(1)
ΦM1
(1)
B7, C4
ΦM2
B4, C6(1)
ΦM3
C7, A4(1)
ΦM4
V7
ΦM
W8
ΦL1
V8
ΦL2
V2
VDD1
V3
VDD2
V4
VDD3
V5
VDD4
W2
VS1
W3
VS2
W4
VS3
W5
VS4
AA6
VDDP
Screen voltage
AA5
NC
Not connected
A2, A6
A3, A7
Image zone clocks
Memory zone clocks
Memory to register clock
Readout register clocks
Output amplifier drain supply
Output amplifier source supply
V6
VGS
Register output gate bias
3
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Pin Number
Symbol
Designation
AA1
VOS1
AA2
VOS2
AA3
VOS3
AA4
VOS4
AA8
ΦR
Reset clock
C8
ΦA
Antiblooming gate clock
W6
VDR
C1
VA
Video output signal
AA7, V1, W1
VSS
W7, A8, B8
VSS
Reset bias
Antiblooming diode bias
Substrate bias
B6, B1, A1, B3
VSS
Note:
1. Short circuited on package.
4
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Geometrical
Characteristics
The image zone features 1024 useful lines (+ 20 extra lines) of 1024 pixels. For readout
only, the full frame is split into 4 blocks of 256 columns.
The video line consists of 256 useful pixels, and 273 elements in total (for each output).
Figure 2. Video Line (on each output)
7 dark reference lines
3 isolation lines
Image zone
1024 useful pixels
1044 line
First pixel
3 isolation lines
1 inactive line
6 dark reference lines
Memory zone
Vos1
Vos2
Vos3
1044 line
Vos4
Pixels 1 to 17 : inactive prescan elements
Pixels 18 to 273 : useful elements
5
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Figure 3. Pixel Layout
ΦA
VA
ΦA
ΦA
VA
ΦA
A
Φ P1
Φ P2
14 µm
Φ P3
Φ P4
Φ P1
A'
Aperture 10.3 µm
14 µm
Figure 4. Cross-section AA’
Φ P1
Φ P2
Φ P3
Φ P4
Φ P1
14 µm
Transfer direction
Potential profile
during integration time
6
Signal charge
for one pixel
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
*NOTICE:
Storage Temperature .................................... -55°C to + 150°C
Operating Temperature...............................
-40°C to + 85°C
Thermal Cycling.........................................................15°C/mm
Stresses above those listed under absolute maximum ratings may cause permanent device failure. Functionality at or above these limits is not
implied. Exposure to absolute maximum ratings
for extended periods may affect device reliability.
Maximum Applied Voltages:
A2, A6, B2, C5, B5, C3, A5, C2, A3, A7, B7, C4
B4, C6, C7, A4, V7, W8, V8, AA8, V6, AA5.......... -0.3V to 15V
V2, V3, V4, V5, W2, W3, W4, W5
W6, C1, AA6 ......................................................-0.3V to 15.5V
C8 ......................................................................... -0.3V to 12V
AA7, V1, W1, W7, A8, B8, B6, B1, A1, B3 ............. Ground 0V
Operating Range
The operating range defines the limits where function is guaranteed.
Electrical limits of applied signals are given in the operating conditions section.
Operating
Precautions
Shorting the video outputs to any other pin, even temporarily, can permanently damage
the on-chip output amplifier.
Operating Conditions
Table 1. DC Characteristics
Value
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
VDD1, VDD2,
VDD3, VDD4
14.5
15
15.5
V
VDDP
14.5
15
15.5
V
VDR
14.5
15
15.5
V
Antiblooming diode bias
VA
14.5
15
15.5
V
Register output gate bias
VGS
2.2
2.5
2.8
V
VS1,2,3,4
–
0
–
V
VSS
–
0
–
V
Output amplifier drain supply
Screen voltage
Reset bias
Output amplifier source supply
Ground
7
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Timing Diagram
The following diagrams are given for:
•
20 MHz readout frequency
•
1.25 MHz vertical transfer frequency
Readout of one image is performed in 2 steps:
•
image zone to memory zone transfer
•
memory zone to register transfer and readout of register
This last step is also an integration period, the duration of which can also be increased
according to the required frame rates.
Figure 5. Frame Timing Diagram
Image to memory zone
Transfer
Integration period
ΦA
Picture readout
Memory zone
Cleaning period (*)
Φ P1
Φ P2
Φ P3
Φ P4
1
5
1044
1044 pulses
Φ M1=Φ M
Φ M2
Φ M3
Φ M4
See fig. 7
1
5
1044
Φ L1
Φ L2
ΦR
See fig. 6
(*) During the cleaning period, memory clocks must be pulsed as during readout time
(specially for high temperature applications).
8
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Figure 6. Line Timing Diagram
Item fig.8
7To
5To
Φ M1=Φ M
Φ M2
5To
3To
Φ M3
Φ M4
3To
See fig. 9
3To
3To
100 ns min.
100 ns min.
Φ L1
Φ L2
ΦR
Vos 1,2,3,4
1
17
18
273 min
1
2
17
1
1
1 : 17 inactive pre-scan elements
2 : 256 useful video pixels
Figure 7. Vertical Transfer During Image to Memory Zone Transfer
20 ns < tr < 2 To
20 ns < tf < 2 To
100 ns min.
100 ns min.
ΦA
1
2
1044
Φ P1
Φ P2
Φ P3
Φ P4
Φ M1= Φ M
Φ M2
Φ M3
Φ M4
See fig. 8
9
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Figure 8. Transfer Period from Image Zone to Memory Zone (ΦP and ΦM)
for 1.25 MHz Vertical Transfer Frequency (Fv = 1/Tv)
Tv=800 ns
Φ P1 =Φ M1
tr
3 To
tf
5 To
25 ns < tr < To/3
25 ns < tf < To/3
Φ P2 =Φ M2
5 To
To = 100 ns
Φ P3 =Φ M3
3 To
5 To
Φ P4 =Φ M4
3 To
To = Tv / 8
Figure 9. Output Diagram for Readout Register and Reset Clock 20 MHz Applications
50 ns
16 ns min
16 ns min
Φ L1
t1
t1
Φ L2
A
12 ns min
0.3A
ΦR
t2
Vos 1,2,3,4
t2
td
td
Signal
level
Reset feedthrough
t1 = 10 ns typ.
t2 = 5 ns typ.
td = 8 ns typical delay time
Cross over of complementary clocks (Φ L1, Φ L2) between 30% and 70% of maximum amplitude.
10
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Binning Mode
Operation
In this mode, the image is composed of 512 x 512 pixels (28 µm x 28 µm each).
Figure 10. Summation in the Readout Register of 2 Adjacent Lines.
15 To
Fall times and rise times:
see figures 8 & 9
5To
3To
5To
Φ M1
5To
3To
5To
Φ M2
Φ M3
3To
Φ M1
3To
5To
3T0
3To
5To
3To
3To
Φ M =Φ M1
100 ns min
100 ns min
Φ L1
Φ L2
Figure 11. Summation of 2 Adjacent Pixels
Φ L1
Φ L2
Output reset frequency
divided by 2
ΦR
Vos 1,2,3,4
Pixel i
Useful signal
Pixel i
+
Pixel i+1
In binning mode operation maximum level of elementary pixel (14 x 14 µm) is reduced to Vsat/4.
11
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Exposure Time
Reduction
The TH7887A allows exposure time control (electronic shutter function).
The exposure time reduction is achieved by pulsing all the Φ Pi gates to 0V to continuously remove all photogenerated electrons through antiblooming drain VA.
Figure 12. Timing Diagram for Electronic Shutter
Image period
ΦA
1 µs
1 µs
Φ P1
Φ P2
Φ P3
Φ P4
Obturation
Transfer
Integration
Fall times and rise times: see figures 7 & 8
Table 2. Drive Clock Characteristics
Value
Parameter
Symbol
Typ
Max
Unit
Remarks
ΦP1, 2, 3, 4
Image zone clocks
High level
Low level
8.5
0
9
0.5
9.5
0.8
V
V
Typical input capacitance
15 nF
See Figure 13
8.5
0
9
0.5
9.5
0.8
V
V
Typical input capacitance
15.5 nF
See Figure 13
8.5
0
9
0.5
9.5
0.8
V
V
5.5
0
5.5
0.5
5.5
0.8
V
V
ΦM1, 2, 3, 4
Memory zone clocks
High level
Low level
Memory to register clocks
High level
Low level
ΦM
Antiblooming gate
High level (integration)
Low level (transfer)
ΦA
12
Min
Typical input capacitance
10 nF
Typical input capacitance
14 nF
See Figure 13 and Figure 15
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Table 2. Drive Clock Characteristics (Continued)
Value
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
10
0
11
0.5
12
0.8
V
V
8.5
0
9
0.5
9.5
0.8
V
V
Remarks
ΦR
Reset gate
High level
Low level
Typical input capacitance
10 pF
ΦL1, 2
Readout register clocks
High level
Low level
Φ L1
Φ L2
50 pF
60 pF
75 pF
Maximum readout register
frequency
ΦFH
–
20
23
MHz
See Figure 9
Image zone to memory zone
transfer frequency
ΦFV
–
1.25
1.7
MHz
See Figure 14
Figure 13. Capacitance Network for Drive Clocks
Φ P2
Φ P2
0.7 nF
3.4 nF
ΦA
2.5 nF
Φ P1
3.3 nF
0.5 nF
2.5 nF
Φ P3
VA
Φ P1
1.4 nF
Φ P4
Φ P1
3.2 nF
4.9 nF
4.4 nF
Φ P2
ΦA
2.2 nF
4.4 nF
4.4 nF
2.2 nF
Φ P4
Φ M1
3.9 nF
ΦP3
1.3 nF
0.7 nF
ΦP4
0.5 nF
3.4 nF
Φ P3
4.4 nF
4.4 nF
Φ M2
3.2 nF
4.4 nF
4.4 nF
3.2 nF
Φ M4
3.9 nF
Φ M3
13
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Electrical
Performances
Table 3. Static and Dynamic Electrical Characteritics
Value
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Remarks
Output amplier supply current
IDD
–
8.5
–
mA
per amplifier
Output impedance
ZS
200
225
250
Ω
DC output level
VREF
–
11.5
–
V
Output conversion factor
CVF
7.8
8
8.2
µV/ e-
Electro-optical
Performances
•
General test conditions:
–
Top = 25°C (package back temperature).
–
Light source: 2854K with 2 mm BG38 filter (unless specified) + F/3.5 optical
aperture.
–
60 images per second mode (unless specified).
–
Typical operating conditions.
•
Readout on each output.
•
Measurements exclude dummy elements and blemishes.
Table 4. Electro-Optical Performance Characteristics
Value
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
VSAT
1.6
2
2.4
V
Responsivity at 640 nm
Responsivity with BG38 filter
R
7
–
8
12
–
–
V/µJ/cm2
mV/lux
Quantum efficiency at 640 nm
QE
–
14
–
%
Gain dispersion between outputs
∆G
–
1
2
%
Photo response non-uniformity
(1σ)
PRNU
–
1.3
1.7
% VOS
Dark signal non-uniformity (1σ)
DSNU
–
0.14
0.2
mV
(2)
VDS
–
–
1
2
1.5
2.8
mV
mV
(3)
Average dark signal
Temporal RMS noise in darkness
(Last line)
VN
–
200
–
µV
(5)
Dynamic range
D
–
80
–
dB
(6)
Saturation output level
14
Remarks
(1)
See Figure 17
(4)
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Table 4. Electro-Optical Performance Characteristics (Continued)
Value
Parameter
Symbol
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Horizontal modulation transfer
function at 500 nm
MTF
–
70
–
%
Vertical charge transfer
inefficiency
VCTI
–
–
2.10-5
(8)
Horizontal charge transfer
inefficiency
HCTI
–
–
7.10-5
(9)
Notes:
Remarks
(7)
1. Pixel saturation (full well) as a function of vertical transfer frequency (see Figure 14) and antiblooming adjustment (see Figure 15).
2. After subtraction of dark signal slope due to memory readout time.
3. First line level referenced from inactive prescan elements (17 samples).
4. Last line level referenced from inactive prescan elements(17 samples).
5. Measured with Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) including 160 µV readout noise and dark current noise in the general test
conditions.
6. Saturation to RMS noise in darkness ratio.
7. At Nyquist frequency.
8. VSAT/2 measurement and 1.25 MHz vertical transfer frequency.
9. VSAT/2 measurement and 20 MHz horizontal transfer frequency.
Figure 14. Saturation Level by full well with antiblooming out (ΦA high = 0V)
vs the Vertical Transfer Frequency
3.5
3
Saturation Output Level (Volts)
Readout stage limit
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
200
700
1200
1700
Vertical Transfer Frequency (KHz)
15
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Figure 15. Saturation Level Limitation by the Antiblooming Effect on the Pixel
3
Saturation Output Level (Volts)
Readout stage limit
2.5
Inefficient
antiblooming
2
Efficient
antiblooming
1.5
1
0.5
1.2 MHz
vertical transfer frequency
0
2
3
4
5
7
6
8
9
ΦA High Clock Level (Volts)
Figure 16. Smearing Effect
100
60 images / sec.
1.2 MHZ vertical tranfer frequency
Smearing/Vsat (%)
80
Vertical smearing
Overillumination
60
100xEsat
40
a
b
20
Smearing level
10xEsat
a,b signal line
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Overilluminated Zone (% Image Height)
16
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Figure 17. Spectral Response
Quantum efficiency (%)
20
15
10
5
0
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100
Lambda (mm)
Image Quality Grade
Blemish
Max area of 2 x 2 defective pixels.
Clusters
Less than 7 contiguous defects in a column.
Columns
More than 7 contiguous defects in a column.
General Measurement
Conditions
Room temperature
25°C
Frequency
60 images/second
typical operating conditions
Considered image zone
1024 x 1024
Light source
2854 K with BG38 filter + F/3.5 optical aperture
Table 5. At VOS = 0.7 Vsat.
Type
White
Black
Blemishes/clusters
α > 20% VosS
êα ï
> 30% Vos
Columns
α > 10% Vos
êα ï
> 10% Vos
Table 6. In darkness, T = 25°C, 60 images/second
Blemishes/clusters
α > 10 mV(1)
Columns
α > 5 mV(1)
Note:
1. Reference is Vo : average darkness signal
17
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
Number of Defects
Total pixel number affected by blemishes and clusters
100
Maximum number of clusters
10
Maximum number of columns
5
α : amplitude of video signal of defect with respect to mean output voltage Vos
Ordering Code
18
TH7887AVRH
TH7887A
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
TH7887A
Outline Drawing
TOP VIEW
55.88
28.5
25
x
2.54±0.25
1.75
y
33.5
42.5
x = 0.45 ± 0.10
y = 7.17 ± 0.10
36.6
Φ0.46
4.6
0.51
3.64±0.40
1.06±0.1
2.54
32.25
Φ 2.2 ± 0.05
(antireflective coating with
400 - 700 nm transmission: 99%)
A1 index
Optical shield
AA
W
V
C
B
A
40.64
BOTTOM VIEW
1st useful pixel - readout through Vos1
Photosensitive area
Glass window thickness: 1.5 ± 0.1 mm
2.54 typ
Φ 2.2 ± 0.04
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
14.25
All values in mm
Tolerance unless specified ± 1%
Reference for first pixel position
Optical distance between photosensitive area and
- external face of the window: 1.93 ± 0.30 mm
- back side of the package: 1.71 ± 0.15 mm
Metal plate connected to VSS
Parallelism between CCD and back side has
a maximum value of 100 µm
19
2146A–IMAGE–05/02
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2146A–IMAGE–05/02
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