oH V SC AV ER O M A I S IO P L L A N IA BL S N T E TISP7072F3,TISP7082F3 *R LOW-VOLTAGE TRIPLE ELEMENT BIDIRECTIONAL THYRISTOR OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTORS TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Patented Ion-Implanted Breakdown Region - Precise DC and Dynamic Voltages VDRM V(BO) Device V V ‘7072F3 ‘7082F3 58 66 D Package (Top View) 72 82 Planar Passivated Junctions Low Off-State Current..................................<10 µA GR-1089-CORE IEC 61000-4-5 FCC Part 68 FCC Part 68 ITU-T K.20/21 FCC Part 68 GR-1089-CORE 10/700 10/560 10/1000 8 G NC 2 7 NU NC 3 6 NU R 4 5 G NC - No internal connection. NU - Non-usable; no external electrical connection should be made to these pins. Specified ratings require connection of pins 5 and 8. Rated for International Surge Wave Shapes - Single and Simultaneous Impulses ITSP Waveshape Standard A 2/10 8/20 10/160 1 T SL Package (Top View) 85 80 65 50 T 1 G 2 R 3 45 40 MD1XAB Device Symbol ............................................. UL Recognized Component T R Description The TISP7xxxF3 series are 3-point overvoltage protectors designed for protecting against metallic (differential mode) and simultaneous longitudinal (common mode) surges. Each terminal pair has the same voltage limiting values and surge current capability. This terminal pair surge capability ensures that the protector can meet the simultaneous longitudinal surge requirement which is typically twice the metallic surge requirement. Each terminal pair has a symmetrical voltage-triggered thyristor characteristic. Overvoltages are initially clipped by breakdown clamping until the voltage rises to the breakover level, which causes the device to crowbar into a low-voltage on state. This low-voltage on state causes the current resulting from the overvoltage to be safely diverted through the device. SD7XAB G Terminals T, R and G correspond to the alternative line designators of A, B and C How To Order For Standard Termination Finish Order As For Lead Free Termination Finish Order As Device Package Carrier TISP70xxF3 D, Small-Outline Tape and Reel Tube TISP70xxF3DR TISP70xxF3D TISP70xxF3DR-S TISP70xxF3D-S Tube TISP70xxF3SL TISP70xxF3SL-S TISP70xxF3 SL, Single-in-Line *RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC Jan 27 2003 including Annex MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Description (continued) The high crowbar holding current prevents d.c. latchup as the diverted current subsides. These protectors are guaranteed to voltage limit and withstand the listed lightning surges in both polarities. These low voltage devices are guaranteed to suppress and withstand the listed international lightning surges on any terminal pair. Nine similar devices with working voltages from 100 V to 275 V are detailed in the TISP7125F3 thru TISP7380F3 data sheet. Absolute Maximum Ratings, TA = 25 °C (Unless Otherwise Noted) Rating Symbol Value Unit VDRM 58 66 V Repetitive peak off-state voltage, 0 °C < TA < 70 °C ‘7072F3 ‘7082F3 Non-repetitive peak on-state pulse current (see Notes 1 and 2) 1/2 (Gas tube differential transient, 1/2 voltage wave shape) 240 2/10 (Telcordia GR-1089-CORE, 2/10 voltage wave shape) 85 1/20 (ITU-T K.22, 1.2/50 voltage wave shape, 25 Ω resistor) 45 8/20 (IEC 61000-4-5, combination wave generator, 1.2/50 voltage wave shape) 80 10/160 (FCC Part 68, 10/160 voltage wave shape) IPPSM 4/250 (ITU-T K.20/21, 10/700 voltage wave shape, simultaneous) 0.2/310 (CNET I 31-24, 0.5/700 voltage wave shape) 65 60 50 5/310 (ITU-T K.20/21, 10/700 voltage wave shape, single) 50 5/320 (FCC Part 68, 9/720 voltage wave shape, single) 50 10/560 (FCC Part 68, 10/560 voltage wave shape) 45 10/1000 (Telcordia GR-1089-CORE, 10/1000 voltage wave shape) 40 Non-repetitive peak on-state current, 0 °C < TA < 70 °C (see Notes 1 and 3) 50 Hz, 1 s D Package SL Package Initial rate of rise of on-state current, Linear current ramp, Maximum ramp value < 38 A Junction temperature Storage temperature range A ITSM 4.3 7.1 A diT/dt 250 A/µs TJ -65 to +150 °C Tstg -65 to +150 °C NOTES: 1. Initially, t he TISP® device must be in thermal equilibrium at the specified TA. The surge may be repeated after the TISP® device returns to its initial conditions. The rated current values may be applied singly either to the R to G or to the T to G or to the T . to R terminals. Additionally, both R to G and T to G may have their rated current values applied simultaneously (in this case the total G terminal current will be twice the above rated current values). 2. See Thermal Information for derated IPPSM values 0 °C < TA < 70 °C and Applications Information for details on wave shapes. 3. Above 70 °C, derate ITSM linearly to zero at 150 °C lead temperature. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Electrical Characteristics for all Terminal Pairs, T A = 25 °C (Unless Otherwise Noted) IDRM Parameter Repetitive peak offstate current VD = VDRM, 0 °C < TA < 70 °C V(BO) Breakover voltage dv/dt = ±250 V/ms, RSOURCE = 300 Ω V(BO) Impulse breakover voltage I(BO) VT IH dv/dt ID Coff Breakover current On-state voltage Holding current Critical rate of rise of off-state voltage Off-state current Off-state capacitance Test Conditions Min dv/dt ≤ ±1000 V/µs, Linear voltage ramp, Maximum ramp value = ±500 V di/dt = ±20 A/µs, Linear current ramp, Maximum ramp value = ±10 A dv/dt = ±250 V/ms, RSOURCE = 300 Ω IT = ±5 A, tW = 100 µs IT = ±5 A, di/dt = - /+30 mA/ms Max Unit ±10 µA ‘7072F3 ‘7082F3 ±72 ±82 V ‘7072F3 ‘7082F3 ±90 ±100 V ±0.15 A V A ±5 kV/µs ±0.1 Linear voltage ramp, Maximum ramp value < 0.85VDRM VD = ±50 V f = 1 MHz, f = 1 MHz, f = 1 MHz, f = 1 MHz, f = 1 MHz, Vd = 1 V rms, VD = 0 Vd = 1 V rms, VD = -1 V Vd = 1 V rms, VD = -2 V Vd = 1 V rms, VD = -5 V Vd = 1 V rms, VD = -50 V f = 1 MHz, Vd = 1 V rms, VDTR = 0 (see Note 4) NOTE Typ ±0.8 ±5 53 56 51 43 25 ±10 69 73 66 56 33 29 37 µA pF 4: Three-terminal guarded measurement, unmeasured terminal voltage bias is zero. First six capacitance values, with bias VD, are for the R-G and T-G terminals only. The last capacitance value, with bias VDTR, is for the T-R terminals. Thermal Characteristics Parameter RθJA Junction to free air thermal resistance Test Conditions Ptot = 0.8 W, TA = 25 °C 5 cm2, FR4 PCB Min Typ Max D Package 160 SL Package 135 Unit ° C/W MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Parameter Measurement Information +i Quadrant I ITSP Switching Characteristic ITSM V(BO) I(BO) IH IDRM VDRM -v VD ID ID VD VDRM +v IDRM IH I(BO) V(BO) ITSM Quadrant III ITSP Switching Characteristic -i Figure 1. Voltage-Current Characteristic for T and R Terminals T and G and R and G Measurements are Referenced to the G Terminal T and R Measurements are Referenced to the R Terminal MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. PMXXAAA TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Typical Characteristics - R and G, or T and G Terminals OFF-STATE CURRENT vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE TC7LAC Normalized Breakdown Voltages 100 ID - Off-State Current - µA 10 1 VD = -50 V 0-1 NORMALIZED BREAKDOWN VOLTAGES vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE TC7LAE VD = 50 V 1.2 1.1 V(BO) V(BR)M 1.0 V(BR) 0-01 Normalized to V(BR) I(BR) = 1 mA and 25 ° C Positive Polarity 0-001 0.9 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 -25 TJ - Junction Temperature - ° C 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 TJ - Junction Temperature - °C Figure 2. Figure 3. NORMALIZED BREAKDOWN VOLTAGES vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE TC7LAF OFF-STATE CURRENT vs ON-STATE VOLTAGE 100 TC7LAL 1.2 IT - On-State Current - A Normalized Breakdown Voltages Positive Polarity 1.1 V(BO) 1.0 10 Normalized to V(BR) V(BR) 150 °C I(BR) = 1 mA and 25 °C 25 °C Negative Polarity V(BR)M -40 °C 1 0.9 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 TJ - Junction Temperature - °C Figure 4. 150 1 2 13 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 VT - On-State Voltage - V Figure 5. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Typical Characteristics - R and G, or T and G Terminals ON-STATE CURRENT vs ON-STATE VOLTAGE TC7LAM IH, I(BO) - Holding Current, Breakover Current - A 100 I T - On-State Curr ent - A Negative Polarity 10 150 °C 25 °C -40 °C 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 HOLDING CURRENT & BREAKOVER CURRENT vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE TC7LAH 0.6 +I(BO) 0.5 0.4 -I(BO) 0.3 IH 0.2 0.1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -25 VT - On-State Voltage - V 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 TJ - Junction Temperature - °C Figure 6. Figure 7. NORMALIZED BREAKOVER VOLTAGE vs RATE OF RISE PRINCIPLE CURRENT 1.5 SURGE CURRENT vs DECAY TIME TC7LAU 1000 TC7LAA 1.4 Maximum Surge Current - A Normalized Breakover Voltage Negative 1.3 1.2 Positive 1.1 1.0 0-001 100 10 0-01 0-1 1 10 100 di/dt - Rate of Rise of Principle Current - A/µs Figure 8. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. 2 10 100 Decay Time - µs Figure 9. 1000 TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Typical Characteristics - R and T Terminals OFF-STATE CURRENT vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE TC7LAD Normalized Breakdown Voltages 100 10 ID - Off-State Current - µA NORMALIZED BREAKDOWN VOLTAGES vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE TC7LAG 1 0-1 1.2 V(BR)M 1.1 1.0 V(BO) V(BR) 0-01 0-001 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 0.9 150 -25 TJ - Junction Temperature - °C 25 50 75 100 125 150 TJ - Junction Temperature - °C Figure 11. ON-STATE CURRENT vs ON-STATE VOLTAGE HOLDING CURRENT & BREAKOVER CURRENT vs JUNCTION TEMPERATURE TC7LAJ TC7LAK 10 150 °C 25 °C IH, I(BO) - Holding Current, Breakover Current - A Figure 10. 100 IT - On-State Current - A 0 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 I(BO) 0.3 0.2 IH -40 °C 0.1 1 1 2 3 4 5 VT - On-State Voltage - V Figure 12. 6 7 8 9 10 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 TJ - Junction Temperature - °C Figure 13. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Typical Characteristics - R and T Terminals Normalized Breakdown Voltages 1.5 NORMALIZED BREAKOVER VOLTAGE vs. RATE OF RISE OF PRINCIPLE CURRENT TC7LAV 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0-001 0-01 0-1 1 10 100 di/dt - Rate of Rise of Principle Current - A/ µs Figure 14. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Thermal Information VGEN = 250 Vrms RGEN = 10 to 150 Ω SL Package 10 THERMAL RESPONSE Z θJA - Transient Thermal Impedance - °C/W ITRMS - Maximum Non-Recurrent 50 Hz Current - A MAXIMUM NON-RECURRING 50 Hz CURRENT vs. CURRENT DURATION TI7LAA TI7MAB 100 D Package 10 SL Package D Package 1 0-1 1 10 100 t - Current Duration - s Figure 15. 1000 1 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 t - Power Pulse Duration - s Figure 16. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series Thermal Information Non-Repetitive Peak On-state Pulse Derated Values for 0 °C ≤ TA ≤ 70 °C Rating Symbol Value Unit Non-repetitive peak on-state pulse current, 0 °C < TA < 70 °C (see Notes 5, 6 and 7) 1/2 (Gas tube differential transient, 1/2 voltage wave shape) 130 2/10 (Telcordia GR-1089-CORE, 2/10 voltage wave shape) 80 1/20 (ITU-T K.22, 1.2/50 voltage wave shape, 25 Ω resistor) 45 8/20 (IEC 61000-4-5, combination wave generator, 1.2/50 voltage wave shape) 75 10/160 (FCC Part 68, 10/160 voltage wave shape) 4/250 (ITU-T K.20/21, 10/700 voltage wave shape, dual) 0.2/310 (CNET I 31-24, 0.5/700 voltage wave shape) IPPSM 55 50 A 50 5/310 (ITU-T K.20/21, 10/700 voltage wave shape, single) 50 5/320 (FCC Part 68, 9/720 voltage wave shape) 50 10/560 (FCC Part 68, 10/560 voltage wave shape) 40 10/1000 (Telcordia GR-1089-CORE, 10/1000 voltage wave shape) 40 NOTES: 5. Initially, the TISP ® device must be in thermal equilibrium at the specified T A. The impulse may be repeated after the TISP ® device returns to its initial conditions. The rated current values may be applied either to the R to G or to the T to G or to the T to R terminals. Additionally, both R to G and T to G may have their rated current values applied simultaneously (In this case the total G terminal current will be twice the above rated current values). 6. See Applications Information for details on wave shapes. 7. Above 70 °C, derate IPPSM linearly to zero at 150 °C lead temperature. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Deployment These devices are three terminal overvoltage protectors. They limit the voltage between three points in the circuit. Typically, this would be the two line conductors and protective ground (Figure 17). Th3 Th1 Th2 Figure 17. MULTI-POINT PROTECTION In Figure 17, protective functions Th2 and Th3 limit the maximum voltage between each conductor and ground to their respective ±V(BO) values. Protective function Th1 limits the maximum voltage between the two conductors to its ±V(BO) value. Lightning Surge Wave Shape Notation Most lightning tests, used for equipment verification, specify a unidirectional sawtooth waveform which has an exponential rise and an exponential decay. Wave shapes are classified in terms of rise time in microseconds and a decay time in microseconds to 50% of the maximum amplitude. The notation used for the wave shape is rise time/decay time, without the microseconds quantity and the “/” between the two values has no mathematical significance. A 50 A, 5/310 waveform would have a peak current value of 50 A, a rise time of 5 µs and a decay time of 310 µs. The TISP® surge current graph comprehends the wave shapes of commonly used surges. Generators There are three categories of surge generator type: single wave shape, combination wave shape and circuit defined. Single wave shape generators have essentially the same wave shape for the open circuit voltage and short circuit current (e.g., 10/1000 open circuit voltage and short circuit current). Combination generators have two wave shapes, one for the open circuit voltage and the other for the short circuit current (e.g., 1.2/50 open circuit voltage and 8/20 short circuit current). Circuit specified generators usually equate to a combination generator, although typically only the open circuit voltage wave shape is referenced (e.g., a 10/700 open circuit voltage generator typically produces a 5/ 310 short circuit current). If the combination or circuit defined generators operate into a finite resistance, the wave shape produced is intermediate between the open circuit and short circuit values. ITU-T 10/700 Generator This circuit defined generator is specified in many standards. The descriptions and values are not consistent between standards and it is important to realize that it is always the same generator being used. Figure 18 shows the 10/700 generator circuit defined in ITU-T recommendation K.20 (10/96) “Resistibility of telecommunication switching equipment to overvoltages and overcurrents”. The basic generator comprises of: Capacitor C1, charged to voltage VC, which is the energy storage element. Switch SW to discharge the capacitor into the output shaping network. Shunt resistor R1, series resistor R2 and shunt capacitor C2 form the output shaping network. Series feed resistor R3 to connect to one line conductor for single surge. Series feed resistor R4 to connect to the other line conductor for dual surging. In the normal single surge equipment test configuration, the unsurged line is grounded. This is shown by the dotted lines in the top drawing of Figure 18. However, doing this at device test places one terminal pair in parallel with another terminal pair. To check the individual terminal pairs of the TISP7xxxF3, without any paralleled operation, the unsurged terminal is left unconnected. With the generator output open circuit, when SW closes, C1 discharges through R1. The decay time constant will be C1 R 1, or 20 x 50 = 1000 µs. For the 50 % voltage decay time, the time constant needs to be multiplied by 0.697, giving 0.697 x 1000 = 697 µs which is rounded to 700 µs. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Lightning Surge (continued) ITU-T 10/700 Generator (continued) VC 2.8 kV R2 15 Ω SW R3 25 Ω 70 A 5/310 T C1 20 µF R1 50 Ω R R 70 A 5/310 10/700 GENERATOR - SINGLE TERMINAL PAIR TEST G T AND G TEST R3 25 Ω R2 15 Ω R AND G TEST R1 50 Ω C2 200 nF R AND T TEST 95 A 4/250 95 A 4/250 T C1 20 µF T G R4 25 Ω SW R G C2 200 nF VC 5.2 kV T R 190 A 4/250 G 10/700 GENERATOR - DUAL TERMINAL PAIR TEST DUAL T AND G, R AND G TEST Figure 18. The output rise time is controlled by the time constant of R2 and C2, which is 15 x 200 = 3000 ns or 3 µs. Virtual voltage rise times are given by straight line extrapolation through the 30 % and 90 % points of the voltage waveform to zero and 100 %. Mathematically, this is equivalent to 3.24 times the time constant, which gives 3.24 x 3 = 9.73 which is rounded to 10 µs. Thus, the open circuit voltage rises in 10 µs and decays in 700 µs, giving the 10/700 generator its name. When the overvoltage protector switches, it effectively shorts the generator output via the series 25 Ω resistor. Two short circuit conditions need to be considered: single output using R3 only (top circuit of Figure 18) and dual output using R3 and R4 (bottom circuit of Figure 18). For the single test, the series combination of R2 and R3 (15 + 25 = 40 Ω) is in shunt with R 1. This lowers the discharge resistance from 50 Ω to 22.2 Ω, giving a discharge time constant of 444 µs and a 50% current decay time of 309.7 µs, which is rounded to 310 µs. For the rise time, R2 and R 3 are in parallel, reducing the effective source resistance from 15 Ω to 9.38 Ω, giving a time constant of 1.88 µs. Virtual current rise times are given by straight line extrapolation through the 10 % and 90 % points of the current waveform to zero and 100 %. Mathematically, this is equivalent to 2.75 times the time constant, which gives 2.75 x 1.88 = 5.15, which is rounded to 5 µs. Thus, the short circuit current rises in 5 µs and decays in 310 µs, giving the 5/ 310 wave shape. The series resistance from C1 to the output is 40 Ω giving an output conductance of 25 A/kV. For each 1 kV of capacitor charge voltage, 25 A of output current will result. For the dual test, the series combination of R2 plus R3 and R4 in parallel (15 + 12.5 = 27.5 Ω) is in shunt with R1. This lowers the discharge resistance from 50 Ω to 17.7 Ω, giving a discharge time constant of 355 µs and a 50 % current decay time of 247 µs, which is rounded to 250 µs. For the rise time, R2, R3 and R4 are in parallel, reducing the effective source resistance from 15 Ω to 6.82 Ω, giving a time constant of 1.36 µs, which gives a current rise time of 2.75 x 1.36 = 3.75, which is rounded to 4 µs. Thus, the short circuit current rises in 4 µs and decays in 250 µs, giving the 4/250 wave shape. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Lightning Surge (continued) ITU-T 10/700 Generator (continued) The series resistance from C1 to an individual output is 2 x 27.5 = 55 Ω, giving an output conductance of 18 A/kV. For each 1 kV of capacitor charge voltage, 18 A of output current will result. At 25 °C, these protectors are rated at 70 A for the single terminal pair condition and 95 A for the dual condition (R and G terminals and T and G terminals). In terms of generator voltage, this gives a maximum generator setting of 70 x 40 = 2.8 kV for the single condition and 2 x 95 x 27.5 = 5.2 kV for the dual condition. The higher generator voltage setting for the dual condition is due to the current waveform decay being shorter at 250 µs compared to the 310 µs value of the single condition. Other ITU-T recommendations use the 10/700 generator: K.17 (11/88) “Tests on power-fed repeaters using solid-state devices in order to check the arrangements for protection from external interference” and K.21(10/96) “Resistibility of subscriber’s terminal to overvoltages and overcurrents“, K.30 (03/93) “Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors”. Several IEC publications use the 10/700 generator; common ones are IEC 6100-4-5 (03/95) “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques - Section 5: Surge immunity test” and IEC 60950 (04/99) “Safety of information technology equipment”. The IEC 60950 10/700 generator is carried through into other “950” derivatives. Europe is harmonized by CENELEC (Comité Européen de Normalization Electro-technique) under EN 60950 (included in the Low Voltage Directive, CE mark). US has UL (Underwriters Laboratories) 1950 and Canada CSA (Canadian Standards Authority) C22.2 No. 950. FCC Part 68 “Connection of terminal equipment to the telephone network” (47 CFR 68) uses the 10/700 generator for Type B surge testing. Part 68 defines the open circuit voltage wave shape as 9/720 and the short circuit current wave shape as 5/320 for a single output. The current wave shape in the dual (longitudinal) test condition is not defined, but it can be assumed to be 4/250. Several VDE publications use the 10/700 generator; for example: VDE 0878 Part 200 (12/92) “Electromagnetic compatibility of information technology equipment and telecommunications equipment; Immunity of analogue subscriber equipment”. 1.2/50 Generators The 1.2/50 open circuit voltage and 8/20 short circuit current combination generator is defined in IEC 61000-4-5 (03/95) “Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques - Section 5: Surge immunity test”. This generator has a fictive output resistance of 2 Ω, meaning that dividing the open circuit output voltage by the short circuit output current gives a value of 2 Ω (500 A/kV). The combination generator has three testing configurations; directly applied for testing between equipment a.c. supply connections, applied via an external 10 Ω resistor for testing between the a.c. supply connections and ground, and applied via an external 40 Ω resistor for testing all other lines. For unshielded unsymmetrical data or signalling lines, the combination generator is applied via a 40 Ω resistor either between lines or line to ground. For unshielded symmetrical telecommunication lines, the combination generator is applied to all lines via a resistor of n x 40 Ω, where n is the number of conductors and the maximum value of external feed resistance is 250 Ω. Thus, for four conductors, n = 4 and the series resistance is 4 x 40 = 160 Ω. For ten conductors, the resistance cannot be 10 x 40 = 400 Ω and must be 250 Ω. The combination generator is used for short distance lines, long distance lines are tested with the 10/700 generator. When the combination generator is used with a 40 Ω or more, external resistor, the current wave shape is not 8/20, but becomes closer to the open circuit voltage wave shape of 1.2/50. For example, a commercial generator when used with 40 Ω produced an 1.4/50 wave shape. The wave shapes of 1.2/50 and 8/20 occur in other generators as well. British Telecommunication has a combination generator with 1.2/50 voltage and 8/20 current wave shapes, but it has a fictitious resistance of 1 Ω. ITU-T recommendation K.22 “Overvoltage resistibility of equipment connected to an ISDN T/S BUS” (05/95) has a 1.2/50 generator option using only resistive and capacitive elements, Figure 19. The K.22 generator produces a 1.4/53 open circuit voltage wave. Using 25 Ω output resistors gives a single short circuit current output wave shape of 0.8/18 with 26 A/kV and a dual of 0.6/13 with 20 A/kV. These current wave shapes are often rounded to 1/20 and 0.8/14. There are 8/ 20 short circuit current defined generators. These are usually very high current, 10 kA or more and are used for testing a.c. protectors, primary protection modules and some Gas Discharge Tubes. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Lightning Surge (continued) 1.2/50 Generators (continued) C4 8 nF VC 1 kV C1 1 µF R2 13 Ω SW R1 76 Ω C3 8 nF C2 30 nF NOTE: SOME STANDARDS REPLACE OUTPUT CAPACITORS WITH 25 Ω RESISTORS K.22 1.2/50 GENERATOR Figure 19. Impulse Testing To verify the withstand capability and safety of the equipment, standards require that the equipment is tested with various impulse wave forms. The table in this section shows some common test values. Manufacturers are being increasingly required to design in protection coordination. This means that each protector is operated at its design level and currents are diverted through the appropriate protector, e.g.,the primary level current through the primary protector and lower levels of current may be diverted through the secondary or inherent equipment protection. Without coordination, primary level currents could pass through the equipment only designed to pass secondary level currents. To ensure coordination happens with fixed voltage protectors, some resistance is normally used between the primary and secondary protection (R1a and R1b, Figure 21). The values given in this data sheet apply to a 400 V (d.c. sparkover) gas discharge tube primary protector and the appropriate test voltage when the equipment is tested with a primary protector. Voltage Peak Current Current TISP7xxxF3 Series Value Waveform 25 °C Rating Resistance Waveform A µs A Ω µs 2500 2/10 2 x 500 2/10 2 x 190 GR-1089-CORE 12 1000 10/1000 2 x 100 10/1000 2 x 45 1500 10/160 200 10/160 110 6 800 10/560 100 10/560 50 8 FCC Part 68 1000 9/720 † 25 5/320 † 70 (March 1998) 1500 (SINGLE) 37.5 5/320 † 70 0 1500 (DUAL) 2 x 27 4/250 2 x 95 I 31-24 1500 0.5/700 37.5 0.2/310 70 0 0 70 5/310 25 10/700 1000 0 70 5/310 37.5 (SINGLE) 1500 ITU-T K.20/K.21 17 70 5/310 100 (SINGLE) 4000 0 2 x 95 4/250 2 x 72 (DUAL) 4000 † FCC Part 68 terminology for the waveforms produced by the ITU-T recommendation K.2110/700 impulse generator NA = Not Applicable, primary protection removed or not specified. Standard Peak Voltage Setting V Coordination Resistance Ω (Min.) NA NA NA NA NA 6 6 If the impulse generator current exceeds the protector’s current rating, then a series resistance can be used to reduce the current to the protector’s rated value to prevent possible failure. The required value of series resistance for a given waveform is given by the following calculations. First, the minimum total circuit impedance is found by dividing the impulse generator’s peak voltage by the protector’s rated current. The impulse generator’s fictive impedance (generator’s peak voltage divided by peak short circuit current) is then subtracted from the minimum total circuit impedance to give the required value of series resistance. In some cases, the equipment will require verification over a temperature range. By using the derated waveform values from the thermal information section, the appropriate series resistor value can be calculated for ambient temperatures in the range of 0 °C to 70 °C. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Protection Voltage The protection voltage, (V(BO) ), increases under lightning surge conditions due to thyristor regeneration. This increase is dependent on the rate of current rise, di/dt, when the TISP® device is clamping the voltage in its breakdown region. The V(BO) value under surge conditions can be estimated by multiplying the 50 Hz rate V(BO) (250 V/ms) value by the normalized increase at the surge’s di/dt. An estimate of the di/dt can be made from the surge generator voltage rate of rise, dv/dt, and the circuit resistance. As an example, the ITU-T recommendation K.21 1.5 kV, 10/700 surge has an average dv/dt of 150 V/µs, but, as the rise is exponential, the initial dv/dt is three times higher, being 450 V/µs. The instantaneous generator output resistance is 25 Ω. If the equipment has an additional series resistance of 20 Ω, the total series resistance becomes 45 Ω. The maximum di/dt then can be estimated as 450/45 = 10 A/µs. In practice, the measured di/dt and protection voltage increase will be lower due to inductive effects and the finite slope resistance of the TISP® breakdown region. Capacitance Off-State Capacitance The off-state capacitance of a TISP® device is sensitive to junction temperature, TJ, and the bias voltage, comprising of the dc voltage, VD, and the ac voltage, Vd. All the capacitance values in this data sheet are measured with an ac voltage of 1 Vrms. When VD >> Vd, the capacitance value is independent on the value of Vd. Up to 10 MHz, the capacitance is essentially independent of frequency. Above 10 MHz, the effective capacitance is strongly dependent on connection inductance. For example, a printed wiring (PW) trace of 10 cm could create a circuit resonance with the device capacitance in the region of 80 MHz. Longitudinal Balance Figure 20 shows a three terminal TISP® device with its equivalent “delta” capacitance. Each capacitance, CTG, CRG and CTR, is the true terminal pair capacitance measured with a three terminal or guarded capacitance bridge. If wire R is biased at a larger potential than wire T, then CTG >CRG. Capacitance CTG is equivalent to a capacitance of CRG in parallel with the capacitive difference of (CTG - CRG). The line capacitive unbalance is due to (CTG - CRG) and the capacitance shunting the line is CTR +CRG /2. Figure 20. All capacitance measurements in this data sheet are three terminal guarded to allow the designer to accurately assess capacitive unbalance effects. Simple two terminal capacitance meters (unguarded third terminal) give false readings as the shunt capacitance via the third terminal is included. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. TISP70xxF3 (LV) Overvoltage Protector Series APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Typical Circuits TIP WIRE F1a R1a Th3 GDTa PROTECTED EQUIPMENT Th1 GDTb Th2 F1b R1b RING WIRE AI7XBP TISP7xxxF3 Figure 21. Protection Module R1a Th3 SIGNAL Th1 Th2 R1b AI7XBM TISP7150F3 D.C. Figure 22. ISDN Protection OVERCURRENT PROTECTION TIP WIRE RING/TEST PROTECTION TEST RELAY RING RELAY S3a R1a COORDINATION RESISTANCE SLIC RELAY Th3 S1a SLIC PROTECTION Th4 S2a Th1 SLIC Th2 RING WIRE Th5 R1b S3b TISP7xxxF3 S1b S2b TISP6xxxx, TISPPBLx, 1/2 TISP6NTP2 C1 220 nF TEST EQUIPMENT RING GENERATOR Figure 23. Line Card Ring/Test Protection “TISP” is a trademark of Bourns, Ltd., a Bourns Company, and is Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. “Bourns” is a registered trademark of Bourns, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. MARCH 1994 - REVISED MARCH 2006 Specifications are subject to change without notice. Customers should verify actual device performance in their specific applications. VBAT AI7XBN

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