AMD AM188ES

PRELIMINARY
Am186TMES/ESLV and Am188TM ES/ESLV
High Performance, 80C186-/80C188-Compatible and
80L186-/80L188-Compatible, 16-Bit Embedded Microcontrollers
DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS
n E86 family 80C186-/188- and 80L186-/188compatible microcontrollers with enhanced bus
interface
— Lower system cost with higher performance
— 3.3-V ±0.3-V operation (Am186ESLV and
Am188ESLV microcontrollers)
n High performance
— 20-, 25-, 33-, and 40-MHz operating frequencies
— Supports zero-wait-state operation at 25 MHz
with 100-ns static memory (Am186ESLV and
Am188ESLV microcontrollers) and 40 MHz with
70-ns static memory (Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers)
— 1-Mbyte memory address space
— 64-Kbyte I/O space
n Enhanced features provide improved memory
access and remove the requirement for a 2x clock
input
— Nonmultiplexed address bus
— Processor operates at the clock input frequency
— On the Am186ES/ESLV microcontroller, 8-bit or
16-bit memory and I/O static bus option
n Enhanced integrated peripherals provide
increased functionality, while reducing system
cost
— Thirty-two programmable I/O (PIO) pins
— Two full-featured asynchronous serial ports allow
full-duplex, 7-bit, 8-bit, or 9-bit data transfers
— Serial port hardware handshaking with CTS,
RTS, ENRX, and RTR selectable for each port
—
—
—
—
—
—
Multidrop 9-bit serial port protocol
Independent serial port baud rate generators
DMA to and from the serial ports
Watchdog timer can generate NMI or reset
A pulse-width demodulation option
A data strobe, true asynchronous bus interface
option included for DEN
— Pseudo static RAM (PSRAM) controller includes
auto refresh capability
— Reset configuration register
n Familiar 80C186/80L186 peripherals
— Two independent DMA channels
— Programmable interrupt controller with up to
eight external and eight internal interrupts
— Three programmable 16-bit timers
— Programmable memory and peripheral
chip-select logic
— Programmable wait state generator
— Power-save clock divider
n Software-compatible with the 80C186/80L186
and 80C188/80L188 microcontrollers with widely
available native development tools,
applications, and system software
n A compatible evolution of the Am186EM and
Am188EM microcontrollers
n Available in the following packages:
— 100-pin, thin quad flat pack (TQFP)
— 100-pin, plastic quad flat pack (PQFP)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
T h e A m 1 8 6 ES/ESLV and Am188ES /ESLV
microcontrollers are an ideal upgrade for 80C186/188 and
80L186/188 microcontroller designs requiring 80C186/188
and 80L186/188 compatibility, increased performance,
serial communications, and a direct bus interface.
The Am186ES/ESLV and Am188ES/ESLV microcontrollers
ar e p ar t o f th e A MD E 8 6 fa mi l y o f em be dd e d
microcontrollers and microprocessors based on the x86
architecture. The E86 family includes the 16- and 32-bit
microcontrollers and microprocessors described on page 8.
The Am186ES/ESLV and Am188ES/ESLV
microcontrollers have been designed to meet the most
c om mo n r eq ui r e me nt s of e mb ed de d pr o du c ts
developed for the office automation, mass storage, and
communications markets. Specific applications include
disk drives, hand-held and desktop terminals, set-top
controllers, fax machines, printers, photocopiers,
feature phones, cellular phones, PBXs, multiplexers,
modems, and industrial controls.
This document contains information on a product under development at Advanced Micro Devices. The information
is intended to help you evaluate this product. AMD reserves the right to change or discontinue work on this proposed
product without notice.
Publication# 20002 Rev: B Amendment/0
Issue Date: February 1997
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Am186ES MICROCONTROLLER BLOCK DIAGRAM
INT2/INTA0**
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
CLKOUTA
INT1/SELECT
TMROUT0 TMROUT1
PWD**
TMRIN0
TMRIN1
DRQ0**
NMI
INT6–INT4**
INT0
CLKOUTB
X2
X1
VCC
GND
Clock and
Power
Management
Unit
Interrupt
Control Unit
Watchdog
Timer (WDT)
Control
Registers
Pulse
Width
Demodulator
(PWD)
DMA
Unit
0
1
20-Bit Source
Pointers
20-Bit Destination
Pointers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
Timer Control
Unit
0
1
2
Max Count B
Registers
Max Count A
Registers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
RES
ARDY
DRQ1**
Control
Registers
SRDY
Refresh
Control
Unit
PSRAM
Control
Unit
Control
Registers
S2–S0
DT/R
Bus
Interface
Unit
DEN/DS
HOLD
HLDA
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2
UZI
PIO
Unit
Control
Registers
Asynchronous
Serial Port 0
TXD0
RXD0
RTS0/RTR0
CTS0/ENRX0
Asynchronous
Serial Port 1
TXD1
RXD1
RTS1/RTR1**
CTS1/ENRX1**
Chip-Select
Unit
Execution
Unit
PIO31–
PIO0*
RD
WHB
A19–A0
WLB
AD15–AD0
LCS/ONCE0
PCS6/A2
PCS5/A1
MCS3/RFSH
MCS2–MCS0
WR
BHE/ADEN
PCS3–PCS0**
UCS/ONCE1
ALE
Notes:
*All PIO signals are shared with other physical pins. See the pin descriptions beginning on page 27 and Table 2 on page 34 for
information on shared functions.
** PWD, INT5, INT6, RTS1/RTR1, and CTS1/ENRX1 are multiplexed with INT2/INTA0, DRQ0, DRQ1, PCS3, and PCS2 respectively. See the pin descriptions beginning on page 27.
2
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Am188ES MICROCONTROLLER BLOCK DIAGRAM
INT2/INTA0**
INT3/INTA1/IRQ INT1/SELECT
CLKOUTA
TMROUT0 TMROUT1
PWD**
TMRIN0
TMRIN1
DRQ0**
NMI
INT6–INT4**
INT0
CLKOUTB
X2
X1
Clock and
Power
Management
Unit
VCC
GND
Interrupt
Control Unit
Watchdog
Timer (WDT)
Control
Registers
Pulse
Width
Demodulator
(PWD)
DMA
Unit
0
1
20-Bit Source
Pointers
20-Bit Destination
Pointers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
Timer Control
Unit
0
1
2
Max Count B
Registers
Max Count A
Registers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
DRQ1**
RES
Control
Registers
Refresh
Control
Unit
ARDY
SRDY
PSRAM
Control
Unit
Control
Registers
S2–S0
DT/R
Bus
Interface
Unit
DEN/DS
HOLD
HLDA
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2
UZI
PIO
Unit
Control
Registers
Asynchronous
Serial Port 0
TXD0
RXD0
RTS0/RTR0
CTS0/ENRX0
Asynchronous
Serial Port 1
TXD1
RXD1
RTS1/RTR1**
CTS1/ENRX1**
Chip-Select
Unit
Execution
Unit
PIO31–
PIO0*
RD
WB
LCS/ONCE0
PCS6/A2
A19–A0
PCS5/A1
MCS3/RFSH
AO15–AO8
WR
AD7–AD0
RFSH2/ADEN
MCS2–MCS0
PCS3–PCS0**
UCS/ONCE1
ALE
Notes:
*All PIO signals are shared with other physical pins. See the pin descriptions beginning on page 27 and Table 2 on page 34 for
information on shared functions.
** PWD, INT5, INT6, RTS1/RTR1, and CTS1/ENRX1 are multiplexed with INT2/INTA0, DRQ0, DRQ1, PCS3, and PCS2 respectively. See the pin descriptions beginning on page 27.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
3
P R E L I M I N A R Y
ORDERING INFORMATION
Standard Products
AMD standard products are available in several packages and operating ranges. The order number (valid combination) is formed by a
combination of the elements below.
Am186ES
-40
V
C
\W
LEAD FORMING
\W=Trimmed and Formed
TEMPERATURE RANGE
C=ES Commercial (TC =0°C to +100°C)
C=ESLV Commercial (TA =0°C to +70°C)
I=ES Industrial (TA =–40°C to +85°C)
where: TC = case temperature
TA = ambient temperature
PACKAGE TYPE
V=100-Pin Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP)
K=100-Pin Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP)
SPEED OPTION
–20 = 20 MHz
–25 = 25 MHz
–33 = 33 MHz
–40 = 40 MHz
DEVICE NUMBER/DESCRIPTION
Am186ES High-Performance, 80C186-Compatible,
16-Bit Embedded Microcontroller
Am188ES High-Performance, 80C188-Compatible,
16-Bit Embedded Microcontroller
Am186ESLV High-Performance, 80L186-Compatible,
Low-Voltage, 16-Bit Embedded Microcontroller
Am188ESLV High-Performance, 80L188-Compatible,
Low-Voltage, 16-Bit Embedded Microcontroller
Valid Combinations
4
Valid Combinations
Valid combinations list configurations planned to
be supported in volume for this device. Consult the
local AMD sales office to confirm availability of
specific valid combinations and to check on newly
released combinations.
Am186ES–20
Am186ES–25
Am186ES–33
Am186ES–40
VC\W or
KC\W
Am188ES–20
Am188ES–25
Am188ES–33
Am188ES–40
VC\W or
KC\W
Note: The industrial version of the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers, as well as the
Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV, are available in 20
and 25 MHz operating frequencies only.
Am186ES–20
Am186ES–25
KI\W
Am188ES–20
Am188ES–25
KI\W
The Am186ES, Am188ES, Am186ESLV, and
Am188ESLV microcontrollers are all functionally
the same except for their DC characteristics and
available frequencies.
Am186ESLV–20
Am186ESLV–25
VC\W or
KC\W
Am188ESLV–20
Am188ESLV–25
VC\W or
KC\W
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Distinctive Characteristics ............................................................................................................ 1
General Description ..................................................................................................................... 1
Am186ES Microcontroller Block Diagram..................................................................................... 2
Am188ES Microcontroller Block Diagram..................................................................................... 3
Ordering Information .................................................................................................................... 4
Related AMD Products ................................................................................................................ 8
Key Features and Benefits ........................................................................................................ 10
Comparing the ES to the 80C186 .............................................................................................. 11
Comparing the ES to the EM ..................................................................................................... 11
TQFP Connection Diagrams and Pinouts .................................................................................. 13
PQFP Connection Diagrams and Pinouts ................................................................................. 19
Logic Symbol—Am186ES Microcontroller ................................................................................. 25
Logic Symbol—Am188ES Microcontroller ................................................................................. 26
Pin Descriptions ......................................................................................................................... 27
Pins That Are Used by Emulators .................................................................................. 27
Pin Terminology ............................................................................................................. 27
A19–A0 .......................................................................................................................... 27
AD15–AD8 (Am186ES Microcontroller) .......................................................................... 27
AO15–AO8 (Am188ES Microcontroller) ........................................................................ 27
AD7–AD0 ....................................................................................................................... 27
ALE ................................................................................................................................ 27
ARDY ............................................................................................................................. 27
BHE/ADEN (Am186ES Microcontroller Only) ................................................................ 28
CLKOUTA ...................................................................................................................... 28
CLKOUTB ...................................................................................................................... 28
CTS0/ENRX0/PIO21 ...................................................................................................... 28
DEN/DS/PIO5 ................................................................................................................ 29
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12 ......................................................................................................... 29
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13 ......................................................................................................... 29
DT/R/PIO4 ..................................................................................................................... 29
GND ............................................................................................................................... 29
HLDA ............................................................................................................................. 29
HOLD ............................................................................................................................. 29
INT0 ............................................................................................................................... 30
INT1/SELECT ................................................................................................................ 30
INT2/INTA0/PWD/PIO31 ............................................................................................... 30
INT3/INTA1/IRQ ............................................................................................................. 30
INT4/PIO30 .................................................................................................................... 31
LCS/ONCE0 ................................................................................................................... 31
MCS0 (MCS0/PIO14) .................................................................................................... 31
MCS2–MCS1 (MCS2/PIO24, MCS1/PIO15) ................................................................. 31
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25 ....................................................................................................... 31
NMI ................................................................................................................................ 32
PCS1–PCS0 (PCS1/PIO17, PCS0/PIO16) .................................................................... 32
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1/PIO18 ........................................................................................... 32
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/PIO19 .............................................................................................. 32
PCS5/A1/PIO3 ............................................................................................................... 33
PCS6/A2/PIO2 ............................................................................................................... 33
PIO31–PIO0 (Shared) .................................................................................................... 33
RD .................................................................................................................................. 35
RES ................................................................................................................................ 35
RFSH2/ADEN (Am188ES Microcontroller Only) ............................................................ 35
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
5
P R E L I M I N A R Y
RTS0/RTR0/PIO20 ........................................................................................................ 35
RXD0/PIO23 .................................................................................................................. 35
RXD1/PIO28 .................................................................................................................. 35
S2–S0 ............................................................................................................................ 35
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2/PIO29 ............................................................................................. 36
SRDY/PIO6 .................................................................................................................... 36
TMRIN0/PIO11 .............................................................................................................. 36
TMRIN1/PIO0 ................................................................................................................ 36
TMROUT0/PIO10 .......................................................................................................... 36
TMROUT1/PIO1 ............................................................................................................ 36
TXD0/PIO22 ................................................................................................................... 36
TXD1/PIO27 ................................................................................................................... 36
UCS/ONCE1 .................................................................................................................. 36
UZI/PIO26 ...................................................................................................................... 37
VCC ................................................................................................................................ 37
WHB (Am186ES Microcontroller Only) .......................................................................... 37
WLB (Am186ES Microcontroller Only) ........................................................................... 37
WB (Am188ES Microcontroller Only) ............................................................................. 37
WR ................................................................................................................................. 37
X1 ................................................................................................................................... 37
X2 ................................................................................................................................... 37
Functional Description ................................................................................................................ 38
Bus Operation ............................................................................................................................ 39
Bus Interface Unit ...................................................................................................................... 41
Peripheral Control Block (PCB) ................................................................................................. 42
Clock and Power Management .................................................................................................. 44
Chip-Select Unit ......................................................................................................................... 46
Refresh Control Unit .................................................................................................................. 47
Interrupt Control Unit ................................................................................................................. 48
Timer Control Unit ...................................................................................................................... 48
Direct Memory Access (DMA) ................................................................................................... 49
Pulse Width Demodulation ........................................................................................................ 51
Asynchronous Serial Ports ........................................................................................................ 51
Programmable I/O (PIO) Pins .................................................................................................... 52
Absolute Maximum Ratings ....................................................................................................... 53
Operating Ranges ...................................................................................................................... 53
DC Characteristics Over Commercial Operating Ranges .......................................................... 53
Commercial Switching Characteristics and Waveforms ............................................................ 61
TQFP Physical Dimensions ........................................................................................................ 98
PQFP Physical Dimensions ...................................................................................................... 100
6
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14
Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18
Am186ES Microcontroller Example System Design .............................................. 10
80C186 Microcontroller Example System Design ................................................. 11
Two-Component Address ...................................................................................... 38
Am186ES Microcontroller Address Bus — Normal Operation................................ 39
Am186ES Microcontroller—Address Bus Disable In Effect ................................... 40
Am188ES Microcontroller Address Bus — Normal Operation ............................... 40
Am188ES Microcontroller— Address Bus Disable In Effect................................... 41
Am186ES and Am188ES Microcontrollers Oscillator Configurations .................... 44
Clock Organization ................................................................................................ 45
DMA Unit Block Diagram ....................................................................................... 50
Typical Icc Versus Frequency for the Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV ................... 54
Typical Icc Versus Frequency for the Am186ES and Am188ES............................. 54
Thermal Resistance(°C/Watt) ................................................................................ 55
Thermal Characteristics Equations ........................................................................ 55
Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 2-Layer Board ............................ 57
Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 2-Layer Board ............................ 58
Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board .......... 59
Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board ........... 60
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4
Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10
Table 11
Table 12
Table 13
Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Data Byte Encoding ............................................................................................... 28
Numeric PIO Pin Designations .............................................................................. 34
Alphabetic PIO Pin Designations ........................................................................... 34
Bus Cycle Encoding ............................................................................................... 35
Segment Register Selection Rules ........................................................................ 38
Programming Am186ES Microcontroller Bus Width .............................................. 42
Peripheral Control Block Register Map .................................................................. 43
Am186ES Microcontroller Maximum DMA Transfer Rates .................................... 49
Typical Power Consumption for the Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV...................... 54
Thermal Characteristics (°C/Watt) ......................................................................... 55
Typical Power Consumption Calculation ............................................................... 56
Junction Temperature Calculation ......................................................................... 56
Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 2-Layer Board ............................ 57
Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 2-Layer Board ............................ 58
Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board .......... 59
Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board ........... 60
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
7
P R E L I M I N A R Y
K86™
Future
Microprocessors
AMD-K5™
Microprocessor
AT Peripheral
Microcontrollers
Am486DX
Microprocessor
186 Peripheral
Microcontrollers
32-bit Future
ÉlanSC400
Microcontroller
Am386SX/DX
Microprocessors
Am186ER and
Am188ER
Microcontrollers
ÉlanSC310
Microcontroller
Am186 and
Am188 Future
Am186ES and
Am188ES
Microcontrollers
ÉlanSC300
Microcontroller
80C186 and 80C188
Microcontrollers
Am486
Future
Am186EM and
Am188EM
Microcontrollers
Am186ESLV &
Am188ESLV
Microcontrollers
Am186EMLV &
Am188EMLV
Microcontrollers
80L186 and 80L188
Microcontrollers
Time
The E86 Family of Embedded Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
RELATED AMD PRODUCTS
E86 Family Devices
Device
80C186
80C188
80L186
80L188
Am186EM
Am188EM
Am186EMLV
Am188EMLV
Description
16-bit microcontroller
16-bit microcontroller with 8-bit external data bus
Low-voltage, 16-bit microcontroller
Low-voltage, 16-bit microcontroller with 8-bit external data bus
High-performance, 80C186-compatible, 16-bit embedded microcontroller
High-performance, 80C188-compatible, 16-bit embedded microcontroller with 8-bit external data bus
High-performance, 80C186-compatible, low-voltage, 16-bit embedded microcontroller
High-performance, 80C188-compatible, low-voltage, 16-bit embedded microcontroller with 8-bit
external data bus
Am186ES
High-performance, 80C186-compatible, 16-bit embedded microcontroller
Am188ES
High-performance, 80C188-compatible, 16-bit embedded microcontroller with 8-bit external data bus
Am186ESLV High-performance, 80C186-compatible, low-voltage, 16-bit embedded microcontroller
Am188ESLV High-performance, 80C188-compatible, low-voltage, 16-bit embedded microcontroller with 8-bit
external data bus
Am186ER
High-performance, 80C186-compatible, low-voltage, 16-bit embedded microcontroller with 32 Kbyte
of internal RAM
Am188ER
High-performance, 80C188-compatible, low-voltage, 16-bit embedded microcontroller with 8-bit
external data bus and 32 Kbyte of internal RAM
Élan™SC300
ÉlanSC310
ÉlanSC400
Am386®DX
Am386®SX
Am486®DX
8
High-performance, highly integrated, low-voltage, 32-bit embedded microcontroller
High-performance, single-chip, 32-bit embedded PC/AT microcontroller
Single-chip, low-power, PC/AT-compatible microcontroller
High-performance, 32-bit embedded microprocessor with 32-bit external data bus
High-performance, 32-bit embedded microprocessor with 16-bit external data bus
High-performance, 32-bit embedded microprocessor with 32-bit external data bus
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Related Documents
Corporate Applications Hotline
The following documents provide additional
information regarding the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers:
(800) 222-9323
Toll-free for U.S. and Canada
44-(0) 1276-803-299
U.K. and Europe hotline
n The Am186ES and Am188ES Microcontrollers
User’s Manual, order# 21096
World Wide Web Home Page and FTP Site
n The FusionE86
SM
Catalog, order# 19255
Third-Party Development
Support Products
The FusionE86 S M Program of Partnerships for
Application Solutions provides the customer with an
array of products designed to meet critical time-tomarket needs. Products and solutions available from
the AMD FusionE86 partners include emulators,
hardware and software debuggers, board-level
products, and software development tools, among
others.
In addition, mature development tools and applications
for the x86 platform are widely available in the general
marketplace.
Customer Service
The AMD customer service network includes U.S. offices, international offices, and a customer training center. Expert technical assistance is available from the
AMD worldwide staff of field application engineers and
factory support staff who can answer E86 family hardware and software development questions.
Hotline and World Wide Web Support
To a c c e s s t h e A M D h o m e pa g e g o t o h tt p : / /
www.amd.com.
To downl oad d ocu ments and s oftwar e, ftp t o
ftp.amd.com and log on as anonymous using your
E-mail address as a password. Or via your web
browser, go to ftp://ftp.amd.com.
Questions, requests, and input concerning AMD’s
WWW pages can be sent via E-mail to
[email protected]
Documentation and Literature
Free E86 family information such as data books, user’s
man ual s , data sh eets , ap pl ic ati on n otes , th e
FusionE86 Partner Solutions Catalog, and other literature is available with a simple phone call. Internationally, contact your local AMD sales office for complete
E86 family literature.
Literature Ordering
(800) 222-9323
Toll-free for U.S. and Canada
(512) 602-5651
Direct dial worldwide
(800) 222-9323
AMD Facts-On-Demand™
fax information service,
toll-free for U.S. and Canada
For answers to technical questions, AMD provides a
toll-free number for direct access to our corporate applications hotline. Also available is the AMD World
Wide Web home page and FTP site, which provides
the latest E86 family product information, including
technical information and data on upcoming product releases.
For technical support questions on all E86 products,
send E-mail to [email protected]
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
9
P R E L I M I N A R Y
KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers extend
the AMD family of microcontrollers based on the
industry-standard x86 architecture. The Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers are higher-performance,
mo r e i n te g r a te d v e r s i on s of t he 8 0 C1 8 6/ 1 88
microprocessors, offering an attractive migration path.
In addition, the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers offer application-specific features that
can enhance the system functionality of the Am186EM
and Am188EM microcontrollers. Upgrading to the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers is an
attractive solution for several reasons:
n Minimized total system cost—New peripherals
and on-chip system interface logic on the Am186ES
and Am188ES microcontrollers reduce the cost of
existing 80C186/188 designs.
n x86 software compatibility—80C186/188-compatible and upward-compatible with the other members of the AMD E86 family. The x86 architecture is
the most widely used and supported computer architecture in the world.
n Enhanced performance—The Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers increase the performance of 80C186/188 systems, and the nonmultiplexed address bus offers faster, unbuffered access
to memory.
n Enhanced functionality—The new and enhanced
on-chip peripherals of the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers include two asynchronous serial
ports, 32 PIOs, a watchdog timer, additional interrupt pins, a pulse width demodulation option, DMA
directly to and from the serial ports, 8-bit and 16-bit
static bus sizing, a PSRAM controller, a 16-bit reset
configuration register, and enhanced chip-select
functionality.
Application Considerations
The integration enhancements of the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers provide a highperformance, low-system-cost solution for 16-bit
embedded microcontroller designs. The
nonmultiplexed address bus eliminates the need for
system-support logic to interface memory devices,
while the multiplexed address/data bus maintains the
value of previously engineered, customer-specific
peripherals and circuits within the upgraded design.
Figure 1 illustrates an example system design that
uses the integrated peripheral set to achieve high
performance with reduced system cost.
Clock Generation
The integrated clock generation circuitry of the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers allows the
use of a times-one crystal frequency. The design
10
shown in Figure 1 achieves 40-MHz CPU operation,
while using a 40-MHz crystal.
Memory Interface
The integrated memory controller logic of the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provides a
direct address bus interface to memory devices. It is
not necessary to use an external address latch
controlled by the address latch enable (ALE) signal.
Individual byte-write-enable signals eliminate the need
for external high/low byte-write-enable circuitry. The
maximum bank size that is programmable for the
memory chip-select signals has been increased to
facilitate the use of high-density memory devices.
The improved memory timing specifications for the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers allow nowait-state operation with 70-ns memory access times
at a 40-MHz CPU clock speed. This reduces overall
system cost significantly by allowing the use of a more
commonly available memory speed and technology.
Figure 1 also shows an implementation of an RS-232
console or modem communications port. The RS-232to-CMOS voltage-level converter is required for the
electrical interface with the external device.
Am186ES
Microcontroller
X2
WHB
WLB
40-MHz
Crystal
X1
A19–A0
AD15–AD0
PWD Input
Flash PROM
WE
WE
Address
Data
RD
OE
UCS
CS
Static RAM
PW
WE
WE
RS-232
Level
Converter
Serial Port 0
Serial Port 1
Address
Data
OE
LCS
CS
Figure 1. Am186ES Microcontroller Example
System Design
Direct Memory Interface Example
Figure 1 illustrates the Am186ES microcontroller’s
direct memory interface. The processor A19–A0 bus
connects to the memory address inputs, the AD bus
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
The RD output connects to the SRAM Output Enable
(OE) pin for read operations. Write operations use the
byte-write enables connected to the SRAM Write
Enable (WE) pins.
The example design uses 2-Mbit memory technology
(256 Kbytes) to fully populate the available address
space. Two flash PROM devices provide 512 Kbytes of
nonvolatile program storage, and two static RAM
devices provide 512 Kbytes of data storage area.
40-MHz
Crystal
X2
BHE
A0
COMPARING THE ES TO THE 80C186
Figure 1 shows an example system using a 40-MHz
A m1 86 ES m i cr o c on tr o ll er . Fi gu r e 2 s ho ws a
comparable system implementation with an 80C186.
Because of its superior integration, the Am186ES
microcontroller system does not require the support
devices that are required on the 80C186 example
system. In addition, the Am186ES microcontroller
provides significantly better performance with its 40MHz clock rate.
PAL
connects to the data inputs and outputs, and the chip
selects connect to the memory chip-select inputs.
X1
SRAM
Am29F200
Flash
WE
WE
WE
Address
Address
Data
Data
RD
OE
OE
UCS
CS
CS
AD15–AD0
LATCH
WR
ALE
LCS
LATCH
PCS0
Timer 0–2
PIOs
Serial
Port
RS-232
Level
Converter
INT3
INT2–INT0
DMA 0–1
CLKOUT
20 MHz
Figure 2. 80C186 Microcontroller Example System Design
COMPARING THE ES TO THE EMTABLE1
Compared to the Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers, the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers have the following additional features:
n Two full-featured asynchronous serial ports
n The ability to use DMA to and from the serial ports
n Two additional external interrupt signals
n Enhancements to the watchdog timer to improve its
security and functionality
n A pulse width demodulation option
n A data strobe bus interface option for DEN
n ARDY functionality is changed to allow both edges
of ARDY to be asynchronous to the clock
n An option to have all MCS space asserted through
MCS0
n On the Am186ES microcontroller, static bus sizing
allows UCS space to use a 16-bit data bus, while
LCS space can be either 8-bit or 16-bit. All nonUCS and non-LCS memory and I/O accesses can
be 8-bit or 16-bit. This capability is available only on
the Am186ES microcontroller; the Am188ES microcontroller has a uniform 8-bit access width.
n The synchronous serial interface is removed
n On the ES, row addresses are not driven on DRAM
refreshes
Two Asynchronous Serial Ports
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers have
two identical asynchronous serial ports. Each serial
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
11
P R E L I M I N A R Y
port operates independently and has the following
features:
n Full-duplex operation
n 7-bit, 8-bit, or 9-bit operation
n Even, odd, or no parity
n One stop bit
n Long or short break character recognition
n Parity error, framing error, overrun error, and break
character detection
n Configurable hardware handshaking with CTS,
RTS, ENRX, and RTR
n DMA to and from the serial ports
n Separate maskable interrupts for each port
n Multiprocessor 9-bit protocol
n Independent baud rates for each port
n Maximum baud rate of 1/16th of the CPU clock rate
n Double-buffered transmit and receive
n Programmable interrupt generation for transmit, receive, and/or error detection
DMA and the Serial Ports
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers can
DMA directly to and from the serial ports. DMA and
serial port transfer is accomplished by programming
the DMA controller to perform transfers between a data
source in memory or I/O space and a serial port
transmit or receive register. The two DMA channels
can support one serial port in full-duplex mode or two
serial ports in half-duplex mode.
Two Additional External Interrupts
Two new interrupts, INT5 and INT6, are multiplexed
with the DMA request signals, DRQ0 and DRQ1. If a
DMA channel is not enabled, or if it is not using external
synchronization, then the associated pin can be used
as an external interrupt. INT5 and INT6 can also be
used in conjunction with the DMA terminal count
interrupts.
Enhanced Watchdog Timer
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
a true watchdog timer that can be configured to
generate either an NMI interrupt or a system reset
upon timeout. The watchdog timer supports up to a
1.67-second timeout period in a 40-MHz system.
After reset, the watchdog timer defaults to enabled and
can be modified or disabled only one time. If the timer
is not disabled, the application program must
periodically reset the timer by writing a specific key
sequence to the watchdog timer control register. If the
timer is not reset before it counts down, either an NMI
or a system reset is issued, depending on the
configuration of the timer.
12
Pulse Width Demodulation Option
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
pulse width demodulation by adding a Schmitt trigger
buffer to the INT2 pin. If pulse width demodulation
mode is enabled, timer 0 and timer 1 are used to
determine the pulse width of the signal period.
Separate maskable interrupts are generated on the
rising and falling edge of the pulse input.
In pulse width demodulation mode, the external pins
INT4, TIMERIN0, and TIMERIN1 are available as
PIOs, but not as their normal functionality.
Data Strobe Bus Interface Option
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
a truly asynchronous bus interface that allows the use
of 68K-type peripher als . This implementation
combines a new DS data strobe signal (multiplexed
with DEN) with a truly asynchronous ARDY ready input.
When DS is asserted, the data and address signals are
valid.
A chip-select signal, ARDY, DS, and other control
signals (RD/WR) can control the interface of 68K-type
external peripherals to the AD bus.
MCS0 Asserted for All MCS Option
When the MCS0- onl y mode is enabl ed in the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers, the entire
middle chip-select range is selected through MCS0.
The remaining MCS pins are available as PIOs or
alternate functions.
ARDY Functionality Change
In the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers, the
ARDY signal is changed to allow both edges of ARDY
to be asynchronous to the clock.
On the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers,
proper operation was not guaranteed if ARDY did not
meet the specification relative to the clock for all edges
except the falling edge of a normally-ready system
(relative to the rising edge of CLKOUTA).
To guarantee the number of wait states inserted,
ARDY or SRDY must be synchronized to CLKOUTA. If
the falling edge of ARDY is not synchronized to
CLKOUTA as specified, an additional clock period can
be added.
8-Bit and 16-Bit Bus Sizing Option
The Am186ES microcontroller allows switchable 8-bit
and 16-bit bus sizing based on chip selects for three
chip-select regions. The Am188ES microcontroller
supports only 8-bit data widths.
On the Am186ES microcontroller, the upper chip select
(UCS) region is always 16 bits, so memory used for
boot code at power-on reset must be 16-bit memory.
However, the LCS memory region, memory that is not
UCS or LCS (including memory mapped to MCS and
PCS), and I/O space can be independently configured
as 8-bit or 16-bit.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
PCS3 /RTS1/RTR1
VCC
PCS 5/A1
PCS 6/A2
LCS / ONCE 0
UCS / ONCE1
INT0
INT1/ SELECT
INT2/INTA0/PWD
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
MCS3/ RFSH
MCS2/PIO24
VCC
92
91
86
85
RES
GND
94
93
PCS1
GND
TMROUT1
TMRIN1/PIO0
96
95
88
87
TMRIN0
TMROUT0
98
97
PCS0
DRQ0/INT5
DRQ1/INT6
100
99
90
89
TQFP CONNECTION DIAGRAMS AND PINOUTS
Am186ES Microcontroller
Top Side View—100-Pin Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP)
AD0
AD8
1
2
75
74
AD1
AD9
3
4
73
72
AD2
AD10
5
6
71
70
AD3
AD11
7
8
69
68
SRDY
HOLD
AD4
AD12
9
10
67
66
AD5
GND
11
12
65
64
HLDA
WLB
WHB
AD13
AD6
13
14
V CC
AD14
AD7
AD15
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2
Am186ES Microcontroller
INT4
MCS1
MCS0
DEN/DS
DT/R
NMI
GND
23
24
53
52
A9
A10
TXD0
25
51
A11
30
31
32
33
34
35
S2
S1
S0
28
29
WR
RD
ALE
ARDY
BHE/ADEN
26
27
RTS0/RTR0
50
RXD0
A12
A7
A8
48
49
55
54
A14
A13
21
22
TXD1
RXD1
CTS0/ENRX0
46
47
A5
A6
A16
A15
57
56
44
45
19
20
UZI
VCC
A17
A3
A4
42
43
59
58
40
41
17
18
CLKOUTB
GND
A19
A18
VCC
A2
38
39
61
60
VCC
CLKOUTA
15
16
36
37
A0
A1
GND
X1
X2
63
62
Note:
Pin 1 is marked for orientation.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
13
P R E L I M I N A R Y
TQFP PIN ASSIGNMENTS—Am186ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Number)
Pin No.
14
Name
Pin No.
Name
Pin No.
Name
Pin No.
Name
1
AD0
26
RTS0/RTR0/
PIO20
51
A11
76
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
2
AD8
27
BHE/ADEN
52
A10
77
INT2/INTA0/PWD/
PIO31
3
AD1
28
WR
53
A9
78
INT1/SELECT
4
AD9
29
RD
54
A8
79
INT0
5
AD2
30
ALE
55
A7
80
UCS/ONCE1
6
AD10
31
ARDY
56
A6
81
LCS/ONCE0
7
AD3
32
S2
57
A5
82
PCS6/A2/PIO2
8
AD11
33
S1
58
A4
83
PCS5/A1/PIO3
9
AD4
34
S0
59
A3
84
VCC
10
AD12
35
GND
60
A2
85
PCS3/RTS1/
RTR1/
PIO19
11
AD5
36
X1
61
VCC
86
PCS2/CTS1/
ENRX1/PIO18
12
GND
37
X2
62
A1
87
GND
13
AD13
38
VCC
63
A0
88
PCS1/PIO17
14
AD6
39
CLKOUTA
64
GND
89
PCS0/PIO16
15
VCC
40
CLKOUTB
65
WHB
90
VCC
16
AD14
41
GND
66
WLB
91
MCS2/PIO24
17
AD7
42
A19/PIO9
67
HLDA
92
MCS3/RFSH/
PIO25
18
AD15
43
A18/PIO8
68
HOLD
93
GND
19
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2/
PIO29
44
VCC
69
SRDY/PIO6
94
RES
20
UZI/PIO26
45
A17/PIO7
70
NMI
95
TMRIN1/PIO0
21
TXD1/PIO27
46
A16
71
DT/R/PIO4
96
TMROUT1/PIO1
22
RXD1/PIO28
47
A15
72
DEN/DS/PIO5
97
TMROUT0/PIO10
23
CTS0/ENRX0/PIO21
48
A14
73
MCS0/PIO14
98
TMRIN0/PIO11
24
RXD0/PIO23
49
A13
74
MCS1/PIO15
99
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
25
TXD0/PIO22
50
A12
75
INT4/PIO30
100
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
TQFP PIN DESIGNATIONS—Am186ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Name)
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
A0
63
AD5
11
GND
87
RXD1
22
A1
62
AD6
14
GND
93
S0
34
A2
60
AD7
17
HLDA
67
S1
33
A3
59
AD8
2
HOLD
68
S2
32
A4
58
AD9
4
INT0
79
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2/PIO29
19
A5
57
AD10
6
INT1/SELECT
78
SRDY/PIO6
69
A6
56
AD11
8
INT2/INTA0/
PWD/PIO31
77
TMRIN0/PIO11
98
A7
55
AD12
10
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
76
TMRIN1/PIO0
95
A8
54
AD13
13
INT4/PIO30
75
TMROUT0/
PIO10
97
A9
53
AD14
16
LCS/ONCE0
81
TMROUT1/PIO1
96
A10
52
AD15
18
MCS0/PIO14
73
TXD0/PIO22
25
A11
51
ALE
30
MCS1/PIO15
74
TXD1
21
A12
50
ARDY
31
MCS2/PIO24
91
UCS/ONCE1
80
A13
49
BHE/ADEN
27
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25
92
UZI/PIO26
20
A14
48
CLKOUTA
39
NMI
70
VCC
15
A15
47
CLKOUTB
40
PCS0/PIO16
89
VCC
38
A16
46
CTS0/ENRX0/
PIO21
23
PCS1/PIO17
88
VCC
44
A17/PIO7
45
DEN/DS/PIO5
72
PCS2/CTS1/
ENRX1/PIO18
86
VCC
61
A18/PIO8
43
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
100
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/
PIO19
85
VCC
84
A19/PIO9
42
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
99
PCS5/A1/PIO3
83
VCC
90
AD0
1
DT/R/PIO4
71
PCS6/A2/PIO2
82
WHB
65
AD1
3
GND
12
RD
29
WLB
66
AD2
5
GND
35
RES
94
WR
28
AD3
7
GND
41
RTS0/RTR0/PIO20
26
X1
36
AD4
9
GND
64
RXD0/PIO23
24
X2
37
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
15
P R E L I M I N A R Y
AD0
1
AO8
AD1
2
3
AO9
AD2
4
5
AO10
AD3
6
7
AO11
AD4
8
9
AO12
AD5
GND
10
11
DRQ0/INT5
DRQ1/INT6
TMRIN0
TMROUT0
TMROUT1
TMRIN1
RES
GND
MCS3/ RFSH
MCS2
VCC
PCS 0
PCS 1
GND
PCS 2/CTS1/ENRX1
PCS 3 /RTS1/RTR1
VCC
PCS 5/A1
PCS 6/A2
LCS / ONCE 0
UCS / ONCE1
INT0
INT1/ SELECT
INT2/INTA0/PWD
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
45
46
47
48
49
50
A15
A14
A13
A12
43
44
VCC
A17
A16
A18
41
42
CLKOUTB
GND
A19
VCC
CLKOUTA
39
40
35
36
GND
X1
X2
37
38
33
34
S1
S0
S2
31
32
ARDY
24
25
29
30
RXD1
CTS0/ENRX0
RXD0
TXD0
Am188ES Microcontroller
RD
ALE
TXD1
12
13
Note:
Pin 1 is marked for orientation.
16
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
INT4
MCS1
MCS0
DEN/DS
DT/R
NMI
69
68
SRDY
HOLD
67
66
HLDA
WB
GND
65
64
27
28
AO15
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2
UZI
71
70
RFSH2/ADEN
WR
VCC
AO14
AD7
73
72
26
AD6
75
74
RTS0/RTR0
AO13
100
CONNECTION DIAGRAM
Am188ES Microcontroller
Top Side View—100-Pin Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP)
GND
63
62
A0
A1
61
60
VCC
A2
59
58
A3
A4
57
56
A5
A6
55
54
A7
A8
53
52
A9
A10
51
A11
P R E L I M I N A R Y
TQFP PIN DESIGNATIONS—Am188ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Number)
Pin No.
Name
Pin No. Name
Pin No. Name
Pin No. Name
1
AD0
26
RTS0/RTR0/
PIO20
51
A11
76
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
2
AO8
27
RFSH2/ADEN
52
A10
77
INT2/INTA0/
PWD/PIO31
3
AD1
28
WR
53
A9
78
INT1/SELECT
4
AO9
29
RD
54
A8
79
INT0
5
AD2
30
ALE
55
A7
80
UCS/ONCE1
6
AO10
31
ARDY
56
A6
81
LCS/ONCE0
7
AD3
32
S2
57
A5
82
PCS6/A2/PIO2
8
AO11
33
S1
58
A4
83
PCS5/A1/PIO3
9
AD4
34
S0
59
A3
84
VCC
10
AO12
35
GND
60
A2
85
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/
PIO19
11
AD5
36
X1
61
VCC
86
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1/
PIO18
12
GND
37
X2
62
A1
87
GND
13
AO13
38
VCC
63
A0
88
PCS1/PIO17
14
AD6
39
CLKOUTA
64
GND
89
PCS0/PIO16
15
VCC
40
CLKOUTB
65
GND
90
VCC
16
AO14
41
GND
66
WB
91
MCS2/PIO24
17
AD7
42
A19/PIO9
67
HLDA
92
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25
18
AO15
43
A18/PIO8
68
HOLD
93
GND
19
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2/PIO29
44
VCC
69
SRDY/PIO6
94
RES
20
UZI/PIO26
45
A17/PIO7
70
NMI
95
TMRIN1/PIO0
21
TXD1/PIO27
46
A16
71
DT/R/PIO4
96
TMROUT1/PIO1
22
RXD1/PIO28
47
A15
72
DEN/DS/PIO5
97
TMROUT0/PIO10
23
CTS0/ENRX0/
PIO21
48
A14
73
MCS0/PIO14
98
TMRIN0/PIO11
24
RXD0/PIO23
49
A13
74
MCS1/PIO15
99
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
25
TXD0/PIO22
50
A12
75
INT4/PIO30
100
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
17
P R E L I M I N A R Y
TQFP PIN DESIGNATIONS—Am188ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Name)
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
A0
63
AD5
11
GND
87
RXD0/PIO23
24
A1
62
AD6
14
GND
93
RXD1/PIO28
22
A2
60
AD7
17
HLDA
67
S0
34
A3
59
ALE
30
HOLD
68
S1
33
A4
58
AO8
2
INT0
79
S2
32
A5
57
AO9
4
INT1/SELECT
78
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2/PIO29
19
A6
56
AO10
6
INT2/INTA0/
PWD/PIO31
77
SRDY/PIO6
69
A7
55
AO11
8
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
76
TMRIN0/PIO11
98
A8
54
AO12
10
INT4/PIO30
75
TMRIN1/PIO0
95
A9
53
AO13
13
LCS/ONCE0
81
TMROUT0/PIO10
97
A10
52
AO14
16
MCS0/PIO14
73
TMROUT1/PIO1
96
A11
51
AO15
18
MCS1/PIO15
74
TXD0/PIO22
25
A12
50
ARDY
31
MCS2/PIO24
91
TXD1/PIO27
21
A13
49
CLKOUTA
39
MCS3/RFSH/
PIO25
92
UCS/ONCE1
80
A14
48
CLKOUTB
40
NMI
70
UZI/PIO26
20
A15
47
CTS0/ENRX0/
PIO21
23
PCS0/PIO16
89
VCC
15
A16
46
DEN/DS/PIO5
72
PCS1/PIO17
88
VCC
38
A17/PIO7
45
DRQ0/INT5/
PIO12
100
PCS2/CTS1/
ENRX1/PIO18
86
VCC
44
A18/PIO8
43
DRQ1/INT6/
PIO13
99
PCS3/RTS1/
RTR1/
PIO19
85
VCC
61
A19/PIO9
42
DT/R/PIO4
71
PCS5/A1/PIO3
83
VCC
84
AD0
1
GND
12
PCS6/A2/PIO2
82
VCC
90
AD1
3
GND
35
RD
29
WB
66
AD2
5
GND
41
RES
94
WR
28
AD3
7
GND
64
RFSH2/ADEN
27
X1
36
AD4
9
GND
65
RTS0/RTR0/
PIO20
26
X2
37
18
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
AD11
AD3
AD10
AD2
AD9
85
83
81
AD12
AD4
87
82
GND
AD5
89
84
AD13
90
86
VCC
AD6
92
88
AD7
AD14
94
91
AD15
95
93
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2
96
97
98
47
NMI
DT/R
50
46
SRDY
49
45
HOLD
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
AD1
AD8
AD0
DRQ0/INT5
DRQ1/INT6
TMRIN0
TMROUT0
TMROUT1
TMRIN1
RES
GND
MCS3/RFSH
MCS2
VCC
PCS0
PCS1
GND
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
VCC
PCS5/A1
PCS6/A2
LCS/ONCE0
UCS/ONCE1
INT0
INT1/SELECT
INT2/INTA0/PWD
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
INT4
MCS1
DEN/DS
MCS0
44
HLDA
48
43
WHB
WLB
42
VCC
A1
A0
GND
41
38
A2
40
37
A3
39
36
A4
A9
35
A19
A18
VCC
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
34
CLKOUTB
GND
Am186ES Microcontroller
A5
X1
X2
VCC
CLKOUTA
33
S0
GND
A6
ARDY
S2
S1
32
RD
ALE
31
TXD0
RTS0/RTR0
BHE/ADEN
WR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
A8
A7
RXD0
99
100
CTS0/ENRX0
RXD1
TXD1
UZI
PQFP CONNECTION DIAGRAMS AND PINOUTS
Am186ES Microcontroller
Top Side View—100-Pin Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP)
Note:
Pin 1 is marked for orientation.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
19
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PQFP PIN DESIGNATIONS—Am186ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Number)
Pin No.
20
Name
Pin No.
Name
Pin No.
Name
Pin No.
Name
1
RXD0/PIO23
26
A13
51
MCS1/PIO15
76
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
2
TXD0/PIO22
27
A12
52
INT4/PIO30
77
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
3
RTS0/RTR0/
PIO20
28
A11
53
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
78
AD0
4
BHE/ADEN
29
A10
54
INT2/INTA0/
PWD/PIO31
79
AD8
5
WR
30
A9
55
INT1/SELECT
80
AD1
6
RD
31
A8
56
INT0
81
AD9
7
ALE
32
A7
57
UCS/ONCE1
82
AD2
8
ARDY
33
A6
58
LCS/ONCE0
83
AD10
9
S2
34
A5
59
PCS6/A2/PIO2
84
AD3
10
S1
35
A4
60
PCS5/A1/PIO3
85
AD11
11
S0
36
A3
61
VCC
86
AD4
12
GND
37
A2
62
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/
PIO19
87
AD12
13
X1
38
VCC
63
PCS2/CTS1/
ENRX1/PIO18
88
AD5
14
X2
39
A1
64
GND
89
GND
15
VCC
40
A0
65
PCS1/PIO17
90
AD13
16
CLKOUTA
41
GND
66
PCS0/PIO16
91
AD6
17
CLKOUTB
42
WHB
67
VCC
92
VCC
18
GND
43
WLB
68
MCS2/PIO24
93
AD14
19
A19/PIO9
44
HLDA
69
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25
94
AD7
20
A18/PIO8
45
HOLD
70
GND
95
AD15
21
VCC
46
SRDY/PIO6
71
RES
96
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2/PIO29
22
A17/PIO7
47
NMI
72
TMRIN1/PIO0
97
UZI/PIO26
23
A16
48
DT/R/PIO4
73
TMROUT1/PIO1
98
TXD1/PIO27
24
A15
49
DEN/DS/PIO5
74
TMROUT0/PIO10
99
RXD1/PIO28
25
A14
50
MCS0/PIO14
75
TMRIN0/PIO11
100
CTS0/ENRX0/PIO21
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PQFP PIN DESIGNATIONS—Am186ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Name)
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
A0
40
AD5
88
GND
70
RXD1/PIO28
99
A1
39
AD6
91
GND
89
S0
11
A2
37
AD7
94
HLDA
44
S1
10
A3
36
AD8
79
HOLD
45
S2
9
A4
35
AD9
81
INT0
56
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2/PIO29
96
A5
34
AD10
83
INT1/SELECT
55
SRDY/PIO6
46
A6
33
AD11
85
INT2/INTA0/
PWD/PIO31
54
TMRIN0/PIO11
75
A7
32
AD12
87
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
53
TMRIN1/PIO0
72
A8
31
AD13
90
INT4/PIO30
52
TMROUT0/
PIO10
74
A9
30
AD14
93
LCS/ONCE0
58
TMROUT1/PIO1
73
A10
29
AD15
95
MCS0/PIO14
50
TXD0/PIO22
2
A11
28
ALE
7
MCS1/PIO15
51
TXD1/PIO27
98
A12
27
ARDY
8
MCS2/PIO24
68
UCS/ONCE1
57
A13
26
BHE/ADEN
4
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25
69
UZI/PIO26
97
A14
25
CLKOUTA
16
NMI
47
VCC
15
A15
24
CLKOUTB
17
PCS0/PIO16
66
VCC
21
A16
23
CTS0/ENRX0/
PIO21
100
PCS1/PIO17
65
VCC
38
A17/PIO7
22
DEN/DS/PIO5
49
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1/
PIO18
63
VCC
61
A18/PIO8
20
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
77
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/
PIO19
62
VCC
67
A19/PIO9
19
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
76
PCS5/A1/PIO3
60
VCC
92
AD0
78
DT/R/PIO4
48
PCS6/A2/PIO2
59
WHB
42
AD1
80
GND
12
RD
6
WLB
43
AD2
82
GND
18
RES
71
WR
5
AD3
84
GND
41
RTS0/RTR0/PIO20
3
X1
13
AD4
86
GND
64
RXD0/PIO23
1
X2
14
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
21
P R E L I M I N A R Y
81
AO10
AD2
AO9
83
82
AO11
AD3
85
84
AO12
AD4
87
86
GND
AD5
89
88
AD6
VCC
92
AO13
AD7
AO14
94
90
AO15
95
91
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2
96
93
UZI
97
98
50
47
NMI
DT/R
49
46
SRDY
DEN/DS
MCS0
45
48
44
HLDA
HOLD
43
42
GND
WB
41
40
A0
GND
39
38
A3
A2
VCC
A1
36
37
35
A4
A9
Am188ES Microcontroller
34
X1
X2
VCC
CLKOUTA
CLKOUTB
GND
A19
A18
VCC
A17
A16
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
33
S0
GND
A5
ALE
ARDY
S2
S1
A6
RD
32
RFSH2/ADEN
WR
31
TXD0
RTS0/RTR0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
A8
A7
RXD0
99
100
CTS0/ENRX0
RXD1
TXD1
CONNECTION DIAGRAM
Am188ES Microcontroller
Top Side View—100-Pin Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP)
Note:
Pin 1 is marked for orientation.
22
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
AD1
AO8
AD0
DRQ0/INT5
DRQ1/INT6
TMRIN0
TMROUT0
TMROUT1
TMRIN1
RES
GND
MCS3/RFSH
MCS2
VCC
PCS0
PCS1
GND
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
VCC
PCS5/A1
PCS6/A2
LCS/ONCE0
UCS/ONCE1
INT0
INT1/SELECT
INT2/INTA0/PWD
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
INT4
MCS1
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PQFP PIN DESIGNATIONS—Am188ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Number)
Pin No.
Name
Pin No.
Name
Pin No.
Name
Pin No.
Name
1
RXD0/PIO23
26
A13
51
MCS1/PIO15
76
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
2
TXD0/PIO22
27
A12
52
INT4/PIO30
77
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
3
RTS0/RTR0/
PIO20
28
A11
53
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
78
AD0
4
RFSH2/ADEN
29
A10
54
INT2/INTA0/
PWD/PIO31
79
AO8
5
WR
30
A9
55
INT1/SELECT
80
AD1
6
RD
31
A8
56
INT0
81
AO9
7
ALE
32
A7
57
UCS/ONCE1
82
AD2
8
ARDY
33
A6
58
LCS/ONCE0
83
AO10
9
S2
34
A5
59
PCS6/A2/PIO2
84
AD3
10
S1
35
A4
60
PCS5/A1/PIO3
85
AO11
11
S0
36
A3
61
VCC
86
AD4
12
GND
37
A2
62
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/
PIO19
87
AO12
13
X1
38
VCC
63
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1/
PIO18
88
AD5
14
X2
39
A1
64
GND
89
GND
15
VCC
40
A0
65
PCS1/PIO17
90
AO13
16
CLKOUTA
41
GND
66
PCS0/PIO16
91
AD6
17
CLKOUTB
42
GND
67
VCC
92
VCC
18
GND
43
WB
68
MCS2/PIO24
93
AO14
19
A19/PIO9
44
HLDA
69
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25
94
AD7
20
A18/PIO8
45
HOLD
70
GND
95
AO15
21
VCC
46
SRDY/PIO6
71
RES
96
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2/PIO29
22
A17/PIO7
47
NMI
72
TMRIN1/PIO0
97
UZI/PIO26
23
A16
48
DT/R/PIO4
73
TMROUT1/PIO1
98
TXD1/PIO27
24
A15
49
DEN/DS/PIO5
74
TMROUT0/PIO10
99
RXD1/PIO28
25
A14
50
MCS0/PIO14
75
TMRIN0/PIO11
100
CTS0/ENRX0/PIO21
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
23
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PQFP PIN DESIGNATIONS—Am188ES Microcontroller
(Sorted by Pin Name)
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
No.
Pin Name
A0
40
AD5
88
GND
70
RXD0/PIO23
1
A1
39
AD6
91
GND
89
RXD1/PIO28
99
A2
37
AD7
94
HLDA
44
S0
11
A3
36
ALE
7
HOLD
45
S1
10
A4
35
AO8
79
INT0
56
S2
9
A5
34
AO9
81
INT1/SELECT
55
S6/LOCK/
CLKDIV2/PIO29
96
A6
33
AO10
83
INT2/INTA0/
PWD/PIO31
54
SRDY/PIO6
46
A7
32
AO11
85
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
53
TMRIN0/PIO11
75
A8
31
AO12
87
INT4/PIO30
52
TMRIN1/PIO0
72
A9
30
AO13
90
LCS/ONCE0
58
TMROUT0/
PIO10
74
A10
29
AO14
93
MCS0/PIO14
50
TMROUT1/PIO1
73
A11
28
AO15
95
MCS1/PIO15
51
TXD0/PIO22
2
A12
27
ARDY
8
MCS2/PIO24
68
TXD1/PIO27
98
A13
26
CLKOUTA
16
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25
69
UCS/ONCE1
57
A14
25
CLKOUTB
17
NMI
47
UZI/PIO26
97
A15
24
CTS0/ENRX0/
PIO21
100
PCS0/PIO16
66
VCC
15
A16
23
DEN/DS/PIO5
49
PCS1/PIO17
65
VCC
21
A17/PIO7
22
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
77
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1/
PIO18
63
VCC
38
A18/PIO8
20
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
76
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/
PIO19
62
VCC
61
A19/PIO9
19
DT/R/PIO4
48
PCS5/A1/PIO3
60
VCC
67
AD0
78
GND
12
PCS6/A2/PIO2
59
VCC
92
AD1
80
GND
18
RD
6
WB
43
AD2
82
GND
41
RES
71
WR
5
AD3
84
GND
42
RFSH2/ADEN
4
X1
13
AD4
86
GND
64
RTS0/RTR0/PIO20
3
X2
14
24
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
No.
P R E L I M I N A R Y
LOGIC SYMBOL—Am186ES MICROCONTROLLER
X1
X2
Clocks
CLKOUTA
CLKOUTB
RES
DRQ1/INT6
DRQ0/INT5
INT4
*
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
INT2/INTA0/PWD
*
20
A19–A0
16
AD15–AD0
*
Reset Control and
Interrupt Service
INT1/SELECT
INT0
Address and
Address/Data Buses
*
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2
*
UZI
ALE
3
S2–S0
HOLD
HLDA
RD
WR
Bus Control
*
DT/R
*
DEN/DS
NMI
PCS6/A2
*
PCS5/A1
*
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
*
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
*
PCS1–PCS0
2
*
LCS/ONCE0
*
MCS3/RFSH
MCS2–MCS0
Memory and
Peripheral Control
3
*
UCS/ONCE1
ARDY
*
SRDY
BHE/ADEN
DRQ1/INT6
*
DRQ0/INT5
*
TXD0
*
RXD0
*
CTS0/ENRX0
*
RTS0/RTR0
*
TXD1
*
RXD1
*
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
*
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
*
DMA Control
WHB
WLB
Timer Control
Programmable
I/O Control
*
TMRIN0
*
TMROUT0
*
TMRIN1
*
TMROUT1
32
shared
**
PIO32–PIO0
Asynchronous
Serial Port Control
Notes:
* These signals are the normal function of a pin that can be used as a PIO. See Pin Descriptions beginning on page 27 and
Table 2 on page 34 for information on shared function.
** All PIO signals are shared with other physical pins.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
25
P R E L I M I N A R Y
LOGIC SYMBOL—Am188ES MICROCONTROLLER
X1
X2
Clocks
CLKOUTA
CLKOUTB
RES
DRQ1/INT6
DRQ0/INT5
*
INT4
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
INT2/INTA0/PWD
*
Address and
Address/Data Buses
20
A19–A0
8
AO15–AO8
INT0
8
AD7–AD0
NMI
*
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2
*
UZI
ALE
3
S2–S0
HOLD
Bus Control
*
Reset Control and
Interrupt Service
INT1/SELECT
PCS6/A2
*
PCS5/A1
*
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
*
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
*
PCS1–PCS0
HLDA
LCS/ONCE0
RD
MCS3/RFSH
WR
MCS2–MCS0
*
DT/R
UCS/ONCE1
*
DEN/DS
2
*
Memory and
Peripheral Control
*
3
*
ARDY
*
SRDY
DRQ1/INT6
*
DRQ0/INT5
*
TXD0
*
RXD0
*
DMA Control
RFSH2/ADEN
WB
Timer Control
Programmable
I/O Control
*
TMRIN0
*
TMROUT0
*
TMRIN1
*
TMROUT1
**
32
shared
PIO32–PIO0
CTS0/ENRX0
RTS0/RTR0
*
*
TXD1
*
RXD1
*
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
*
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
*
Asynchronous
Serial Port Control
Notes:
* These signals are the normal function of a pin that can be used as a PIO. See Pin Descriptions beginning on page 27 and
Table 2 on page 34 for information on shared function.
** All PIO signals are shared with other physical pins.
26
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Pins That Are Used by Emulators
The following pins are used by emulators: A19–A0,
AO15–AO8, AD7–AD0, ALE, BHE/ADEN (on the 186),
CLKOUTA, RFSH2/ADEN (on the 188), RD, S2–S0,
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2, and UZI.
Emulators require S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2 and UZI to be
configured in their normal functionality as S6 and UZI,
not as PIOs. If BHE/ADEN (on the 186) or RFSH2/
ADEN (on the 188) is held Low during the rising edge
of RES, S6 and UZI are configured in their normal
functionality.
During a power-on reset, the address and data bus
pins (AD15–AD0 for the 186, AO15–AO8 and AD7–
AD0 for the 188) can also be used to load system
configuration information into the internal reset
configuration register.
AO15–AO8—When the address bus is enabled on the
Am188ES microcontroller, via the AD bit in the UMCS
and LMCS registers, the address-only bus (AO15–
AO8) contains valid high-order address bits from bus
cycles t1–t4. These outputs are floated during a bus
hold or reset.
The following terms are used to describe the pins:
On the Am188ES microcontroller, AO15–AO 8
combine with AD7–AD0 to form a complete multiplexed
address bus while AD7–AD0 is the 8-bit data bus.
Input—An input-only pin.
AD7–AD0
Output—An output-only pin.
Address and Data Bus (input/output, three-state,
synchronous, level-sensitive)
Pin Terminology
Input/Output—A pin that can be either input or output.
Synchronous—Synchronous inputs must meet setup
and hold times in relation to CLKOUTA. Synchronous
outputs are synchronous to CLKOUTA.
Asynchronous—Inputs or outputs that are
asynchronous to CLKOUTA.
A19–A0
(A19/PIO9, A18/PIO8, A17/PIO7)
Address Bus (output, three-state, synchronous)
These pins supply nonmultiplexed memory or I/O
addresses to the system one half of a CLKOUTA
period earlier than the multiplexed address and data
bus (AD15–AD0 on the 186 or AO15–AO8 and AD7–
AD0 on the 188). During a bus hold or reset condition,
the address bus is in a high-impedance state.
AD15–AD8 (Am186ES Microcontroller)
AO15–AO8 (Am188ES Microcontroller)
Address and Data Bus (input/output, three-state,
synchronous, level-sensitive)
Address-Only Bus (output, three-state,
synchronous, level-sensitive)
These time-multiplexed pins supply partial memory or
I/O addresses, as well as data, to the system. This bus
supplies the low-order 8 bits of an address to the
system during the first period of a bus cycle (t1), and it
supplies data to the system during the remaining
periods of that cycle (t2, t3, and t4). In 8-bit mode on the
Am188ES microcontroller, AD7–AD0 supplies the
data.
The address phase of these pins can be disabled. See
the ADEN description with the BHE/ADEN pin. When
WLB is deasserted, these pins are three-stated during
t2, t3, and t4.
During a bus hold or reset condition, the address and
data bus is in a high-impedance state.
During a power-on reset, the address and data bus
pins (AD15–AD0 for the 186, AO15–AO8 and AD7–
AD0 for the 188) can also be used to load system
configuration information into the internal reset
configuration register.
ALE
Address Latch Enable (output, synchronous)
AD15–AD8—On the Am186ES microcontroller, these
time-multiplexed pins supply memory or I/O addresses
and data to the system. This bus can supply an
address to the system during the first period of a bus
cycle (t1). It supplies data to the system during the
remaining periods of that cycle (t2, t3, and t4).
This pin indicates to the system that an address appears on the address and data bus (AD15–AD0 for the
186 or AO15–AO8 and AD7–AD0 for the 188). The address is guaranteed to be valid on the trailing edge of
ALE. This pin is three-stated during ONCE mode. This
pin is not three-stated during a bus hold or reset.
The address phase of these pins can be disabled. See
the ADEN description with the BHE/ADEN pin. When
WHB is deasserted, these pins are three-stated during
t2, t3, and t4.
ARDY
During a bus hold or reset condition, the address and
data bus is in a high-impedance state.
Asynchronous Ready (input, asynchronous,
level-sensitive)
This pin is a true asynchronous ready that indicates to
the microcontroller that the addressed memory space
or I/O device will complete a data transfer. The ARDY
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
27
P R E L I M I N A R Y
pin is asynchronous to CLKOUTA and is active High.
To guarantee the number of wait states inserted,
ARDY or SRDY must be synchronized to CLKOUTA. If
the falling edge of ARDY is not synchronized to
CLKOUTA as specified, an additional clock period can
be added.
To always assert the ready condition to the
microcontroller, tie ARDY High. If the system does not
use ARDY, tie the pin Low to yield control to SRDY.
BHE/ADEN
(Am186ES Microcontroller Only)
Bus High Enable (three-state, output,
synchronous)
Address Enable (input, internal pullup)
pullup resistor on BHE/ADEN so no external pullup is
required. This mode of operation reduces power
consumption.
If BHE/ADEN is held Low on power-on reset, the AD
bus drives both addresses and data, regardless of the
DA bit setting. The pin is sampled on the rising edge of
RE S . ( S 6 an d U Z I a l s o a s s u me th e i r n o r m al
functionality in this instance. See Table 2 on page 34.)
Note: On the Am188ES microcontroller, AO15–AO8
are driven during the t2–t4 bus cycle, regardless of the
setting of the DA bit in the UMCS and LMCS registers.
CLKOUTA
Clock Output A (output, synchronous)
BHE—During a memory access, this pin and the leastsignificant address bit (AD0 or A0) indicate to the
system which bytes of the data bus (upper, lower, or
both) participate in a bus cycle. The BHE/ADEN and
AD0 pins are encoded as shown in Table 1.
This pin supplies the internal clock to the system.
Depending on the value of the system configuration
register (SYSCON), CLKOUTA operates at either the
PLL frequency, the power-save frequency, or is threestated. CLKOUTA remains active during reset and bus
hold conditions.
Table 1. Data Byte Encoding
All AC timing specs that use a clock relate to
CLKOUTA.
BHE
AD0
Type of Bus Cycle
0
0
Word Transfer
0
1
High Byte Transfer (Bits 15–8)
1
0
Low Byte Transfer (Bits 7–0)
1
1
Refresh
Clock Output B (output, synchronous)
BHE is asserted during t 1 and remains asserted
through t3 and tW. BHE does not need to be latched.
BHE floats during bus hold and reset.
On the Am186ES microcontroller, WLB and WHB
implement the functionality of BHE and AD0 for high
and low byte-write enables.
BHE/ADEN also signals DRAM refresh cycles when
using the multiplexed address and data (AD) bus. A
refresh cycle is indicated when both BHE/ADEN and
AD0 are High. During refresh cycles, the A bus and the
AD bus are not guaranteed to provide the same
address during the address phase of the AD bus cycle.
For this reason, the A0 signal cannot be used in place
of the AD0 signal to determine refresh cycles. PSRAM
refreshes also provide an additional RFSH signal (see
the MCS3/RFSH pin description on page 31).
ADEN—If BHE/ADEN is held High or left floating
during power-on reset, the address portion of the AD
bus (AD15–AD0 for the 186 or AO15–AO8 and AD7–
AD0 for the 188) is enabled or disabled during LCS and
UCS bus cycles based on the DA bit in the LMCS and
UMCS registers. In this case, the memory address is
accessed on the A19–A0 pins. There is a weak internal
28
CLKOUTB
This pin supplies an additional clock with a delayed
output compared to CLKOUTA. Depending upon the
value of the system configuration register (SYSCON),
CLKOUTB operates at either the PLL frequency, the
power-save frequency, or is three-stated. CLKOUTB
remains active during reset and bus hold conditions.
CLKOUTB is not used for AC timing specs.
CTS0/ENRX0/PIO21
Clear-to-Send 0 (input, asynchronous)
Enable-Receiver-Request 0 (input, asynchronous)
CTS0—This pin provides the Clear to Send signal for
asynchronous serial port 0 when the ENRX0 bit in the
AUXCON register is 0 and hardware flow control is
enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial port 0 control
register is set). The CTS0 signal gates the
transmission of data from the associated serial port
transmit register. When CTS0 is asserted, the
transmitter begins transmission of a frame of data, if
any is available. If CTS0 is deasserted, the transmitter
holds the data in the serial port transmit register. The
value of CTS0 is checked only at the beginning of the
transmission of the frame.
ENRX0—This pin provides the Enable Receiver
Request for asynchronous serial port 0 when the
ENRX0 bit in the AUXCON register is 1 and hardware
flow control is enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial
port 0 control register is set). The ENRX0 signal
enables the receiver for the associated serial port.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
DEN/DS/PIO5
DT/R/PIO4
Data Enable (output, three-state, synchronous)
Data Strobe (output, three-state, synchronous)
Data Transmit or Receive (output, three-state,
synchronous)
DEN—This pin supplies an output enable to an
external data-bus transceiver. DEN is asserted during
memory, I/O, and interrupt acknowledge cycles. DEN
is deasserted when DT/R changes state. DEN floats
during a bus hold or reset condition.
This pin indicates in which direction data should flow
through an external data-bus transceiver. When DT/R
is asserted High, the microcontroller transmits data.
When this pin is deasserted Low, the microcontroller
receives data. DT/R floats during a bus hold or reset
condition.
DS—The data strobe provides a signal where the write
cycle timing is identical to the read cycle timing. When
used with other control signals, DS provides an
interface for 68K-type peripherals without the need for
additional system interface logic.
When DS is asserted, addresses are valid. When DS is
asserted on writes, data is valid. When DS is asserted
on reads, data can be asserted on the AD bus.
Note: This pin resets to DEN.
DRQ0/INT5/PIO12
DMA Request 0 (input, synchronous,
level-sensitive)
Maskable Interrupt Request 5 (input,
asynchronous, edge-triggered)
DRQ0—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
external device is ready for DMA channel 0 to perform a
transfer. DRQ0 is level-triggered and internally synchronized.
DRQ0 is not latched and must remain active until
serviced.
INT5—If DMA 0 is not enabled or DMA 0 is not being
used with external synchronization, INT5 can be used
as an additional external interrupt request. INT5 shares
the DMA 0 interrupt type (0Ah) and register control bits.
INT5 is edge-triggered only and must be held until the
interrupt is acknowledged.
DRQ1/INT6/PIO13
DMA Request 1 (input, synchronous,
level-sensitive)
Maskable Interrupt Request 6 (input,
asynchronous, edge-triggered)
DRQ1—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
external device is ready for DMA channel 1 to perform
a transfer. DRQ1 is level-triggered and internally
synchronized.
DRQ1 is not latched and must remain active until
serviced.
INT6—If DMA 1 is not enabled or DMA 1 is not being
used with external synchronization, INT6 can be used
as an additional external interrupt request. INT6 shares
the DMA 1 interrupt type (0Bh) and register control bits.
INT6 is edge-triggered only and must be held until the
interrupt is acknowledged.
GND
Ground
Ground pins connect the microcontroller to the system
ground.
HLDA
Bus Hold Acknowledge (output, synchronous)
This pin is asserted High to indicate to an external bus
master that the microcontroller has released control of
the local bus. When an external bus master requests
control of the local bus (by asserting HOLD), the
microcontroller completes the bus cycle in progress. It
then relinquishes control of the bus to the external bus
master by asserting HLDA and floating DEN, RD, WR,
S2–S0, AD15–AD0, S6, A19–A0, BHE, WHB, WLB,
and DT/R, and then driving the chip selects UCS, LCS,
MCS3–MCS0, PCS6–PCS5, and PCS3–PCS0 High.
When the external bus master has finished using the
local bus, it indicates this to the microcontroller by
deasserting HOLD. The microcontroller responds by
deasserting HLDA.
If the microcontroller requires access to the bus (for
example, to refresh), it will deassert HLDA before the
external bus master deasserts HOLD. The external bus
master must be able to deassert HOLD and allow the
microcontroller access to the bus. See the timing
diagrams for bus hold on page 97.
HOLD
Bus Hold Request (input, synchronous,
level-sensitive)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an external
bus master needs control of the local bus.
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers’ HOLD
latency time is a function of the activity occurring in the
processor when the HOLD request is received. A
DRAM request will delay a HOLD request when both
requests are made at the same time. In addition, if
locked transfers are performed, the HOLD latency time
is increased by the length of the locked transfer.
For more information, see the HLDA pin description on
page 29.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
29
P R E L I M I N A R Y
INT0
Maskable Interrupt Request 0 (input,
asynchronous)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
interrupt request has occurred. If the INT0 pin is not
masked, the microcontroller transfers program
execution to the location specified by the INT0 vector in
the microcontroller interrupt vector table.
Interrupt requests are synchronized internally and can
be edge-triggered or level-triggered. To guarantee
interrupt recognition, the requesting device must
continue asserting INT0 until the request is
acknowledged.
INT1/SELECT
Maskable Interrupt Request 1 (input,
asynchronous)
Slave Select (input, asynchronous)
INT1—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
interrupt request has occurred. If INT1 is not masked,
the microcontroller transfers program execution to the
location specified by the INT1 vector in the
microcontroller interrupt vector table.
Interrupt requests are synchronized internally and can
be edge-triggered or level-triggered. To guarantee
interrupt recognition, the requesting device must
continue asserting INT1 until the request is
acknowledged.
SELECT—When the microcontroller interrupt control
unit is operating as a slave to an external interrupt
controller, this pin indicates to the microcontroller that
an interrupt type appears on the address and data bus.
The INT0 pin must indicate to the microcontroller that
an interrupt has occurred before the SELECT pin
indicates to the microcontroller that the interrupt type
appears on the bus.
INT2/INTA0/PWD/PIO31
Maskable Interrupt Request 2 (input,
asynchronous)
Interrupt Acknowledge 0 (output, synchronous)
Pulse Width Demodulator (input, Schmitt trigger)
INT2—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
interrupt request has occurred. If the INT2 pin is not
masked, the microcontroller transfers program
execution to the location specified by the INT2 vector in
the microcontroller interrupt vector table.
Interrupt requests are synchronized internally and can
be edge-triggered or level-triggered. To guarantee
interrupt recognition, the requesting device must
continue asserting INT2 until the request is
acknowledged. INT2 becomes INTA0 when INT0 is
configured in cascade mode.
30
INTA0—When the microcontroller interrupt control unit
is operating in cascade mode, this pin indicates to the
system that the microcontroller needs an interrupt type
to process the interrupt request on INT0. The
peripheral issuing the interrupt request must provide
the microcontroller with the corresponding interrupt
type.
PWD—If pulse width demodulation is enabled, PWD
processes a signal through the Schmitt trigger. PWD is
used internally to drive TIMERIN0 and INT2, and PWD
is inverted internally to drive TIMERIN1 and INT4. If
INT2 and INT4 are enabled and timer 0 and timer 1 are
properly configured, the pulse width of the alternating
PWD signal can be calculated by comparing the values
in timer 0 and timer 1.
In P WD m ode , the si gna ls TIME RIN0/ PIO 11 ,
TIMERIN1/PIO0, and INT4/PIO30 can be used as
PIOs. If they are not used as PIOs they are ignored
internally. The level of INT2/INTA0/PWD/PIO31 is
reflected in the PIO data register for PIO 31 as if it was
a PIO.
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
Maskable Interrupt Request 3
(input, asynchronous)
Interrupt Acknowledge 1 (output, synchronous)
Slave Interrupt Request (output, synchronous)
INT3—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
interrupt request has occurred. If the INT3 pin is not
masked, the microcontroller then transfers program
execution to the location specified by the INT3 vector in
the microcontroller interrupt vector table.
Interrupt requests are synchronized internally, and can
be edge-triggered or level-triggered. To guarantee
interrupt recognition, the requesting device must
continue asserting INT3 until the request is
acknowledged. INT3 becomes INTA1 when INT1 is
configured in cascade mode.
INTA1—When the microcontroller interrupt control unit
is operating in cascade mode, this pin indicates to the
system that the microcontroller needs an interrupt type
to process the interrupt request on INT1. The
peripheral issuing the interrupt request must provide
the microcontroller with the corresponding interrupt
type.
IRQ—When the microcontroller interrupt control unit is
operating as a slave to an external master interrupt
controller, this pin lets the microcontroller issue an
interrupt request to the external master interrupt
controller.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
INT4/PIO30
Maskable Interrupt Request 4 (input,
asynchronous)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
interrupt request has occurred. If the INT4 pin is not
masked, the microcontroller then transfers program
execution to the location specified by the INT4 vector in
the microcontroller interrupt vector table.
Interrupt requests are synchronized internally, and can
be edge-triggered or level-triggered. To guarantee
interrupt recognition, the requesting device must
continue asserting INT4 until the request is
acknowledged.
When pulse width demodulation mode is enabled, the
INT4 signal is used internally to indicate a High-to-Low
transition on the PWD signal. When pulse width
demodulation mode is enabled, INT4/PIO30 can be
used as a PIO.
LCS/ONCE0
Lower Memory Chip Select (output, synchronous,
internal pullup)
ONCE Mode Request 0 (input)
LCS—This pin indicates to the system that a memory
access is in progress to the lower memory block. The
base address and size of the lower memory block are
programmable up to 512 Kbytes. On the Am186ES
microcontroller, LCS is configured for 8-bit or 16-bit bus
size by the auxiliary configuration register. LCS is held
High during a bus hold condition.
ONCE0—During reset, this pin and ONCE1 indicate to
the microcontroller the mode in which it should operate.
ONCE0 and ONCE1 are sampled on the rising edge of
RES. If both pins are asserted Low, the microcontroller
enters ONCE mode; otherwise, it operates normally.
In ONCE mode, all pins assume a high-impedance
state and remain in that state until a subsequent reset
occurs. To guarantee that the microcontroller does not
inadvertently enter ONCE mode, ONCE0 has a weak
internal pullup resistor that is active only during reset.
This pin is not three-stated during a bus hold condition.
MCS0
(MCS0/PIO14)
Midrange Memory Chip Select 0 (output,
synchronous, internal pullup)
This pin indicates to the system that a memory access
is in progress to the corresponding region of the
midrange memory block. The base address and size of
the midrange memory block are programmable. On the
Am186ES microcontroller, MCS0 is configured for 8-bit
or 16-bit bus size by the auxiliary configuration register.
MCS0 is held High during a bus hold condition. In
addition, it has weak internal pullup resistors that are
active during reset.
This signal functions like the corresponding signal in
the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers except
that MCS0 can be programmed as the chip select for
the entire middle chip select address range.
MCS2–MCS1
(MCS2/PIO24, MCS1/PIO15)
Midrange Memory Chip Selects (output,
synchronous, internal pullup)
These pins indicate to the system that a memory
access is in progress to the corresponding region of the
midrange memory block. The base address and size of
the midrange memory block are programmable. On the
Am186ES microcontroller, MCS2–MCS1 are
configured for 8-bit or 16-bit bus size by the auxiliary
configuration register. MCS2–MCS1 are held High
during a bus hold condition. In addition, they have weak
internal pullup resistors that are active during reset.
These signals function like the signals in the Am186EM
and Am188EM microcontrollers except that if MCS0 is
programmed to be active for the entire middle chipselect range, then these signals are available as PIOs.
If they are not programmed as PIOs and if MCS0 is
programmed for the whole middle chip-select range,
then these signals operate normally.
MCS3/RFSH/PIO25
Midrange Memory Chip Select 3
(output, synchronous, internal pullup)
Automatic Refresh (output, synchronous)
MCS3—This pin indicates to the system that a memory
access is in progress to the fourth region of the
midrange memory block. The base address and size of
the midrange memory block are programmable. On the
Am186ES microcontroller, MCS3 is configured for 8-bit
or 16-bit bus size by the auxiliary configuration register.
MCS3 is held High during a bus hold condition. In
addition, this pin has a weak internal pullup resistor that
is active during reset.
This signal functions like the corresponding signal in
the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers except
that if MCS0 is programmed for the entire middle chipselect range, then this signal is available as a PIO. If
MCS3 is not programmed as a PIO and if MCS0 is
programmed for the entire middle chip-select range,
then this signal operates normally. Depending on the
chip configuration, this signal can serve as a memory
RFSH.
RFSH—This pin provides a signal timed for auto
refresh to PSRAM or DRAM devices. It is only enabled
to function as a refresh pulse when the PSRAM or
DRAM mode bit is set. An active Low pulse is
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
31
P R E L I M I N A R Y
generated for 1.5 clock cycles with an adequate
deassertion period to ensure that overall auto refresh
cycle time is met.
byte address range, which is twice the address range
covered by peripheral chip selects in the 80C186 and
80C188 microcontrollers.
This signal functions like the RFSH signal in the
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers except that
the DRAM row address is not driven on DRAM
refreshes. This pin is not three-stated during a bus hold
condition.
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1/PIO18
NMI
Nonmaskable Interrupt (input, synchronous,
edge-sensitive)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an
interrupt request has occurred. The NMI signal is the
highest priority hardware interrupt and, unlike the
INT6–INT0 pins, cannot be masked. The
microcontroller always transfers program execution to
the location specified by the nonmaskable interrupt
vector in the microcontroller interrupt vector table when
NMI is asserted.
Although NMI is the highest priority interrupt source, it
does not participate in the priority resolution process of
the maskable interrupts. There is no bit associated with
NMI in the interrupt in-service or interrupt request
registers. This means that a new NMI request can
interrupt an executing NMI interrupt service routine. As
with all hardware interrupts, the IF (interrupt flag) is
cleared when the processor takes the interrupt,
disabling the maskable interrupt sources. However, if
maskable interrupts are re-enabled by software in the
NMI interrupt service routine, via the STI instruction for
example, the fact that an NMI is currently in service
does not have any effect on the priority resolution of
maskable interrupt requests. For this reason, it is
strongly advised that the interrupt service routine for
NMI should not enable the maskable interrupts.
An NMI transition from Low to High is latched and
synchronized internally, and it initiates the interrupt at
the next instruction boundary. To guarantee that the
interrupt is recognized, the NMI pin must be asserted
for at least one CLKOUTA period.
PCS1–PCS0
(PCS1/PIO17, PCS0/PIO16)
Peripheral Chip Selects (output, synchronous)
These pins indicate to the system that a memory
access is in progress to the corresponding region of the
peripheral memory block (either I/O or memory
address space). The base address of the peripheral
memory block is programmable. PCS3–PCS0 are held
High during a bus hold condition. They are also held
High during reset.
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs
assert with the multiplexed AD address bus. Note also
that each peripheral chip select asserts over a 256-
32
Peripheral Chip Select 2 (output, synchronous)
Clear-to-Send 1 (input, asynchronous)
Enable-Receiver-Request 1 (input, asynchronous)
PCS2—This pin provides the Peripheral Chip Select 2
signal to the system when hardware flow control is not
enabled for asynchronous serial port 1. The PCS2
signal indicates to the system that a memory access is
in progress to the corresponding region of the
peripheral memory block (either I/O or memory
address space). The base address of the peripheral
memory block is programmable. PCS2 is held High
during a bus hold or reset condition.
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs
assert with the multiplexed AD address bus. Note also
that each peripheral chip select asserts over a 256byte address range, which is twice the address range
covered by peripheral chip selects in the 80C186 and
80C188 microcontrollers.
CTS1—This pin provides the Clear to Send signal for
asynchronous serial port 1 when the ENRX1 bit in the
AUXCON register is 0 and hardware flow control is
enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial port 1 control
register is set). The CTS1 signal gates the
transmission of data from the associated serial port
transmit register. When CTS1 is asserted, the
transmitter begins transmission of a frame of data, if
any is available. If CTS1 is deasserted, the transmitter
holds the data in the serial port transmit register. The
value of CTS1 is checked only at the beginning of the
transmission of the frame.
ENRX1—This pin provides the Enable Receiver
Request for asynchronous serial port 1 when the
ENRX1 bit in the AUXCON register is 1 and hardware
flow control is enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial
port 1 control register is set). The ENRX1 signal
enables the receiver for the associated serial port.
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1/PIO19
Peripheral Chip Select 3 (output, synchronous)
Ready-to-Send 1 (output, asynchronous)
Ready-to-Receive 1 (output, asynchronous)
PCS3—This pin provides the Peripheral Chip Select 3
signal to the system when hardware flow control is not
enabled for asynchronous serial port 1. The PCS3
signal indicates to the system that a memory access is
in progress to the corresponding region of the
peripheral memory block (either I/O or memory
address space). The base address of the peripheral
memory block is programmable. PCS3 is held High
during a bus hold or reset condition.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs
assert with the multiplexed AD address bus. Note also
that each peripheral chip select asserts over a 256byte address range, which is twice the address range
covered by peripheral chip selects in the 80C186 and
80C188 microcontrollers.
RTS1—This pin provides the Ready to Send signal for
asynchronous serial port 1 when the RTS1 bit in the
AUXCON register is 1 and hardware flow control is
enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial port 1 control
register is set). The RTS1 signal is asserted when the
associated serial port transmit register contains data
which has not been transmitted.
RTR1—This pin provides the Ready to Receive signal
for asynchronous serial port 1 when the RTS1 bit in the
AUXCON register is 0 and hardware flow control is
enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial port 1 control
register is set). The RTR1 signal is asserted when the
associated serial port receive register does not contain
valid, unread data.
PCS5/A1/PIO3
Peripheral Chip Select 5 (output, synchronous)
Latched Address Bit 1 (output, synchronous)
PCS5—This pin indicates to the system that a memory
access is in progress to the sixth region of the
peripheral memory block (either I/O or memory
address space). The base address of the peripheral
memory block is programmable. PCS5 is held High
during a bus hold condition. It is also held High during
reset.
covered by peripheral chip selects in the 80C186 and
80C188 microcontrollers.
A2—When the EX bit in the MCS and PCS auxiliary
register is 0, this pin supplies an internally latched
address bit 2 to the system. During a bus hold
condition, A2 retains its previously latched value.
PIO31–PIO0 (Shared)
Programmable I/O Pins (input/output,
asynchronous, open-drain)
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
32 individually programmable I/O pins. Each PIO can
be programmed with the following attributes: PIO
function (enabled/disabled), direction (input/output),
and weak pullup or pulldown. The pins that are
multiplexed with PIO31–PIO0 are listed in Table 2 and
Table 3.
After power-on reset, the PIO pins default to various
configurations. The column titled Power-On Reset
Status in Table 2 and Table 3 lists the defaults for the
PIOs. Most of the PIO pins are configured as PIO
inputs with pullup after power-on reset. The system
initialization code must reconfigure any PIO pins as
required.
The A19–A17 address pins default to normal operation
on power-on reset, allowing the processor to correctly
begin fetching instructions at the boot address
FFFF0h. The DT/R, DEN, and SRDY pins also default
to normal operation on power-on reset.
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs
assert with the multiplexed AD address bus. Note also
that each peripheral chip select asserts over a 256byte address range, which is twice the address range
covered by peripheral chip selects in the 80C186 and
80C188 microcontrollers.
A1—When the EX bit in the MCS and PCS auxiliary
register is 0, this pin supplies an internally latched
address bit 1 to the system. During a bus hold
condition, A1 retains its previously latched value.
PCS6/A2/PIO2
Peripheral Chip Select 6 (output, synchronous)
Latched Address Bit 2 (output, synchronous)
PCS6—This pin indicates to the system that a memory
access is in progress to the seventh region of the
peripheral memory block (either I/O or memory
address space). The base address of the peripheral
memory block is programmable. PCS6 is held High
during a bus hold condition or reset.
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs
assert with the multiplexed AD address bus. Note also
that each peripheral chip select asserts over a 256byte address range, which is twice the address range
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
33
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Table 2. Numeric PIO Pin Designations
PIO No
Associated Pin
Power-On Reset Status
Table 3.
Alphabetic PIO Pin Designations
Associated Pin
PIO No Power-On Reset Status
(1)
7
Normal operation(3)
0
TMRIN1
Input with pullup
A17
1
TMROUT1
Input with pulldown
A18(1)
8
Normal operation(3)
2
PCS6/A2
Input with pullup
A19(1)
9
Normal operation(3)
3
PCS5/A1
Input with pullup
CTS0/ENRX0
21
Input with pullup
DEN/DS
5
Normal operation(3)
Input with pullup
operation(3)
4
DT/R
Normal
5
DEN/DS
Normal operation(3)
DRQ0/INT5
12
operation(4)
SRDY
Normal
DRQ1/INT6
13
Input with pullup
7(1)
6
A17
Normal operation(3)
DT/R
4
Normal operation(3)
8(1)
A18
Normal operation(3)
INT2/INTA0/PWD
31
Input with pullup
A19
Normal
operation(3)
INT4
30
Input with pullup
10
TMROUT0
Input with pulldown
MCS0
14
Input with pullup
11
TMRIN0
Input with pullup
MCS1
15
Input with pullup
12
DRQ0/INT5
Input with pullup
MCS2
24
Input with pullup
13
DRQ1/INT6
Input with pullup
MCS3/RFSH
25
Input with pullup
14
MCS0
Input with pullup
PCS0
16
Input with pullup
15
MCS1
Input with pullup
PCS1
17
Input with pullup
16
PCS0
Input with pullup
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1
18
Input with pullup
17
PCS1
Input with pullup
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
19
Input with pullup
18
PCS2/CTS1/ENRX1 Input with pullup
PCS5/A1
3
Input with pullup
19
PCS3/RTS1/RTR1
Input with pullup
PCS6/A2
2
Input with pullup
20
RTS0/RTR0
Input with pullup
RTS0/RTR0
20
Input with pullup
21
CTS0/ENRX0
Input with pullup
RXD0
23
Input with pullup
22
TXD0
Input with pullup
RXD1
28
Input with pullup
23
RXD0
Input with pullup
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2(1,2)
29
Input with pullup
24
MCS2
Input with pullup
SRDY
6
Normal operation(4)
25
MCS3/RFSH
Input with pullup
TMRIN0
11
Input with pullup
9(1)
(1,2)
UZI
Input with pullup
TMRIN1
0
Input with pullup
27
TXD1
Input with pullup
TMROUT0
10
Input with pulldown
28
RXD1
Input with pullup
TMROUT1
1
Input with pulldown
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2
Input with pullup
TXD0
22
Input with pullup
26
(1,2)
29
30
INT4
Input with pullup
TXD1
27
Input with pullup
31
INT2/INTA0/PWD
Input with pullup
UZI(1,2)
26
Input with pullup
Notes:
The following notes apply to both tables.
1. These pins are used by emulators. (Emulators also use S2–S0, RES, NMI, CLKOUTA, BHE, ALE, AD15–AD0,
and A16–A0.)
2. These pins revert to normal operation if BHE/ADEN (186) or RFSH2/ADEN (188) is held Low during power-on
reset.
3. When used as a PIO, input with pullup option available.
4. When used as a PIO, input with pulldown option available.
34
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
RD
RTS0/RTR0/PIO20
Read Strobe (output, synchronous, three-state)
Ready-to-Send 0 (output, asynchronous)
Ready-to-Receive 0 (output, asynchronous)
RD—This pin indicates to the system that the
microcontroller is performing a memory or I/O read
cycle. RD is guaranteed to not be asserted before the
address and data bus is floated during the address-todata transition. RD floats during a bus hold condition.
RES
Reset (input, asynchronous, level-sensitive)
This pin requires the microcontroller to perform a reset.
When RES is asserted, the microcontroller
immediately terminates its present activity, clears its
internal logic, and transfers CPU control to the reset
address, FFFF0h.
RES must be held Low for at least 1 ms.
RES can be asserted asynchronously to CLKOUTA
because RES is synchronized internally. For proper
initialization, VCC must be within specifications, and
CLKO UTA mus t be stab le for m ore th an four
CLKOUTA periods during which RES is asserted.
The microcontroller begins fetching instructions
approximately 6.5 CLKOUTA periods after RES is
deasserted. This input is provided with a Schmitt
trigger to facilitate power-on RES generation via an RC
network.
RFSH2/ADEN
(Am188ES Microcontroller Only)
Refresh 2 (three-state, output, synchronous)
Address Enable (input, internal pullup)
RFSH2—Asserted Low to signify a DRAM refresh bus
cycle. The use of RFSH2/ADEN to signal a refresh is
not valid when PSRAM mode is selected. Instead, the
MCS3/RFSH signal is provided to the PSRAM.
ADEN—If RFSH2/ADEN is held High or left floating on
power-on reset, the AD bus (AO15–AO8 and AD7–
AD0) is enabled or disabled during the address portion
of LCS and UCS bus cycles based on the DA bit in the
LMCS and UMCS registers. If the DA bit is set, the
memory address is accessed on the A19–A0 pins. This
mode of operation reduces power consumption. For
more information, see the “Bus Operation” section on
page 39. There is a weak internal pullup resistor on
RFSH2/ADEN so no external pullup is required.
If RFSH2/ADEN is held Low on power-on reset, the AD
bus drives both addresses and data, regardless of the
DA bit setting. The pin is sampled one crystal clock
cycle after the rising edge of RES. RFSH2/ADEN is
three-stated during bus holds and ONCE mode.
RTS0—This pin provides the Ready to Send signal for
asynchronous serial port 0 when the RTS0 bit in the
AUXCON register is 1 and hardware flow control is
enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial port 0 control
register is set). The RTS0 signal is asserted when the
associated serial port transmit register contains data
that has not been transmitted.
RTR0—This pin provides the Ready to Receive signal
for asynchronous serial port 0 when the RTS0 bit in the
AUXCON register is 0 and hardware flow control is
enabled for the port (FC bit in the serial port 0 control
register is set). The RTR0 signal is asserted when the
associated serial port receive register does not contain
valid, unread data.
RXD0/PIO23
Receive Data 0 (input, asynchronous)
This pin supplies asynchronous serial receive data
from the system to asynchronous serial port 0.
RXD1/PIO28
Receive Data 1 (input, asynchronous)
This pin supplies asynchronous serial receive data
from the system to asynchronous serial port 1.
S2–S0
Bus Cycle Status (output, three-state,
synchronous)
These pins indicate to the system the type of bus cycle
in progress. S2 can be used as a logical memory or I/
O indicator, and S1 can be used as a data transmit or
receive indicator. S2–S0 float during bus hold and hold
acknowledge conditions. The S2–S0 pins are encoded
as shown in Table 4.
Table 4.
Bus Cycle Encoding
S2
S1
S0
0
0
0
Interrupt acknowledge
0
0
1
Read data from I/O
0
1
0
Write data to I/O
0
1
1
Halt
1
0
0
Instruction fetch
1
0
1
Read data from memory
1
1
0
Write data to memory
1
1
1
None (passive)
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
Bus Cycle
35
P R E L I M I N A R Y
S6/LOCK/CLKDIV2/PIO29
TMRIN1/PIO0
Bus Cycle Status Bit 6 (output, synchronous)
Bus Lock (output, synchronous)
Clock Divide by 2 (input, internal pullup)
Timer Input 1 (input, synchronous, edge-sensitive)
S6—During the second and remaining periods of a
cycle (t2, t3, and t4), this pin is asserted High to indicate
a DMA-initiated bus cycle. During a bus hold or reset
condition, S6 floats.
LOCK—This signal is asserted Low to indicate to other
system bus masters that they are not to gain control of
the system bus. This signal is only available during t1.
LOCK on the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers does not conform to the timing of the
LOCK signal on the 80C186/188 microcontrollers. This
signal is primarily intended for use by emulators.
CLKDIV2—If S6/CLKDIV2/PIO29 is held Low during
power-on reset, the chip enters clock divided by 2
mode where the processor clock is derived by dividing
the external clock input by 2. If this mode is selected,
the PLL is disabled. The pin is sampled on the rising
edge of RES.
If S6 is to be used as PIO29 in input mode, the device
driving PIO29 must not drive the pin Low during poweron reset. S6/CLKDIV2/PIO29 defaults to a PIO input
with pullup, so the pin does not need to be driven High
externally.
SRDY/PIO6
Synchronous Ready (input, synchronous,
level-sensitive)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that the
addressed memory space or I/O device will complete a
data transfer. The SRDY pin accepts an active High
input synchronized to CLKOUTA.
Using SRDY instead of ARDY allows a relaxed system
timing because of the elimination of the one-half clock
period required to internally synchronize ARDY. To
always assert the ready condition to the
microcontroller, tie SRDY High. If the system does not
use SRDY, tie the pin Low to yield control to ARDY.
TMRIN0/PIO11
Timer Input 0 (input, synchronous, edge-sensitive)
This pin supplies a clock or control signal to the internal
microcontroller timer 0. After internally synchronizing a
Low-to-High transition on TMRIN0, the microcontroller
increments the timer. TMRIN0 must be tied High if not
being used. When PIO11 is enabled, TMRIN0 is pulled
High internally.
TMRIN0 is driven internally by INT2/INTA0/PWD when
pulse width demodulation mode is enabled. The
TMRIN0/PIO11 pin can be used as a PIO when pulse
width demodulation mode is enabled.
36
This pin supplies a clock or control signal to the internal
microcontroller timer 1. After internally synchronizing a
Low-to-High transition on TMRIN1, the microcontroller
increments the timer. TMRIN1 must be tied High if not
being used. When PIO0 is enabled, TMRIN1 is pulled
High internally.
TMRIN1 is driven internally by INT2/INTA0/PWD when
pulse width demodulation mode is enabled. The
TMRIN1/PIO0 pin can be used as a PIO when pulse
width demodulation mode is enabled.
TMROUT0/PIO10
Timer Output 0 (output, synchronous)
This pin supplies the system with either a single pulse
or a continuous waveform with a programmable duty
cycle. TMROUT0 is floated during a bus hold or reset.
TMROUT1/PIO1
Timer Output 1 (output, synchronous)
This pin supplies the system with either a single pulse
or a continuous waveform with a programmable duty
cycle. TMROUT1 floats during a bus hold or reset.
TXD0/PIO22
Transmit Data 0 (output, asynchronous)
This pin supplies asynchronous serial transmit data to
the system from serial port 0.
TXD1/PIO27
Transmit Data 1 (output, asynchronous)
This pin supplies asynchronous serial transmit data to
the system from serial port 1.
UCS/ONCE1
Upper Memory Chip Select (output, synchronous)
ONCE Mode Request 1 (input, internal pullup)
UCS—This pin indicates to the system that a memory
access is in progress to the upper memory block. The
base address and size of the upper memory block are
programmable up to 512 Kbytes. UCS is held High
during a bus hold condition.
After reset, UCS is active for the 64 Kbyte memory
range from F0000h to FFFFFh, including the reset
address of FFFF0h.
ONCE1—During reset, this pin and LCS/ONCE0 indicate to the microcontroller the mode in which it should
operate. ONCE0 and ONCE1 are sampled on the rising edge of RES. If both pins are asserted Low, the microcontroller enters ONCE mode. Otherwise, it
operates normally. In ONCE mode, all pins assume a
high-impedance state and remain in that state until a
subsequent reset occurs. To guarantee that the micro-
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
controller does not inadvertently enter ONCE mode,
ONCE1 has a weak internal pullup resistor that is active only during a reset. This pin is not three-stated during a bus hold condition.
UZI/PIO26
Upper Zero Indicate (output, synchronous)
This pin lets the designer determine if an access to the
interrupt vector table is in progress by ORing it with bits
15–10 of the address and data bus (AD15–AD10 on
the 186 and AO15–AO10 on the 188). UZI is the logical
OR of the inverted A19–A16 bits. It asserts in the first
period of a bus cycle and is held throughout the cycle.
This pin should be allowed to float or it should be pulled
High at reset. This pin has an internal pullup. If this pin
is Low at the negation of reset, the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers will enter a reserved clock
test mode.
VCC
Power Supply (input)
These pins supply power (+5 V) to the microcontroller.
WHB (Am186ES Microcontroller Only)
WR
Write Strobe (output, synchronous)
WR—This pin indicates to the system that the data on
the bus is to be written to a memory or I/O device. WR
floats during a bus hold or reset condition.
X1
Crystal Input (input)
This pin and the X2 pin provide connections for a
fundamental mode or third-overtone, parallel-resonant
crystal used by the internal oscillator circuit. To provide
the microcontroller with an external clock source,
connect the source to the X1 pin and leave the X2 pin
unconnected.
X2
Crystal Output (output)
This pin and the X1 pin provide connections for a
fundamental mode or third-overtone, parallel-resonant
crystal used by the internal oscillator circuit. To provide
the microcontroller with an external clock source, leave
the X2 pin unconnected and connect the source to the
X1 pin.
Write High Byte (output, three-state, synchronous)
This pin and WLB indicate to the system which bytes of
the data bus (upper, lower, or both) participate in a
write cycle. In 80C186 microcontroller designs, this
information is provided by BHE, AD0, and WR.
However, by using WHB and WLB, the standard
system interface logic and external address latch that
were required are eliminated.
WHB is asserted with AD15–AD8. WHB is the logical
OR of BHE and WR. This pin floats during reset.
WLB (Am186ES Microcontroller Only)
WB (Am188ES Microcontroller Only)
Write Low Byte (output, three-state, synchronous)
Write Byte (output, three-state, synchronous)
WLB—This pin and WHB indicate to the system which
bytes of the data bus (upper, lower, or both) participate
in a write cycle. In 80C186 microcontroller designs, this
information is provided by BHE, AD0, and WR.
However, by using WHB and WLB, the standard
system interface logic and external address latch that
were required are eliminated.
WLB is asserted with AD7–AD0. WLB is the logical OR
of AD0 and WR. This pin floats during reset.
WB—On the Am188ES microcontroller, this pin
indicates a write to the bus. WB uses the same early
timing as the nonmultiplexed address bus. WB is
associated with AD7–AD0. This pin floats during reset.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
37
P R E L I M I N A R Y
FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers are
based on the architecture of the original Am186 and
Am188 microcontrollers—the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers. The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers function in the enhanced mode of earlier
generations of Am186 and Am188 microcontrollers.
Enhanced mode includes system features such as
power-save control.
Each of the 8086, 8088, 80186, and 80188 microcontrollers contains the same basic set of registers, instructions, and addressing modes. The Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers are backward compatible
with the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers.
A full description of all the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontroller registers and instructions is included in
the Am186ES and Am188ES Microcontrollers User’s
Manual, order# 21096.
Memory Organization
Shift
Left
4 Bits
1
2
A
4
19
1
15
2
A
0
15
0
2
4 Segment
Logical
0 Base
Address
2 Offset
0
0
0
0
0
15
0
1
2
A
2
6
19
2
0
2
Physical Address
0
To Memory
Memory is organized in sets of segments. Each segment is a linear contiguous sequence of 64K (216) 8-bit
bytes. Memory is addressed using a two-component
address that consists of a 16-bit segment value and a
16-bit offset. The 16-bit segment values are contained
in one of four internal segment registers (CS, DS, SS,
or ES). The physical address is calculated by shifting
the segment value left by 4 bits and adding the 16-bit
offset value to yield a 20-bit physical address (see Figure 3). This allows for a 1-Mbyte physical address size.
All instructions that address operands in memory must
specify the segment value and the 16-bit offset value.
For speed and compact instruction encoding, the seg-
Table 5.
38
ment register used for physical address generation is
implied by the addressing mode used (see Table 5).
Figure 3. Two-Component Address
I/O Space
The I/O space consists of 64K 8-bit or 32K 16-bit ports.
Separate instructions (IN, INS and OUT, OUTS) address the I/O space with either an 8-bit port address
specified in the instruction, or a 16-bit port address in
the DX register. Eight-bit port addresses are zero-extended such that A15–A8 are Low. I/O port addresses
00F8h through 00FFh are reserved.
Segment Register Selection Rules
Memory Reference
Needed
Segment Register Used
Instructions
Code (CS)
Instructions (including immediate data)
Local Data
Data (DS)
All data references
Stack
Stack (SS)
All stack pushes and pops;
any memory references that use BP Register
External Data (Global)
Extra (ES)
All string instruction references that use the DI Register as an index
Implicit Segment Selection Rule
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
BUS OPERATION
The industry-standard 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers use a multiplexed address and data (AD) bus.
The address is present on the AD bus only during the
t1 clock phase. The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers continue to provide the multiplexed AD bus
and, in addition, provide a nonmultiplexed address (A)
bus. The A bus provides an address to the system for
the complete bus cycle (t1–t4).
For systems where power consumption is a concern, it
is possible to disable the address from being driven on
the AD bus on the Am186ES microcontroller and on the
AD and AO buses on the Am188ES microcontroller
during the normal address portion of the bus cycle for
accesses to UCS and/or LCS address spaces. In this
mode, the affected bus is placed in a high-impedance
state during the address portion of the bus cycle. This
feature is enabled through the DA bits in the UMCS and
LMCS registers. When address disable is in effect, the
number of signals that assert on the bus during all normal bus cycles to the associated address space is reduced, decreasing power consumption and reducing
processor switching noise. On the Am188ES microcontroller, the address is driven on A015–A08 during
the data portion of the bus cycle regardless of the setting of the DA bits.
If the ADEN pin is pulled Low during processor reset,
the value of the DA bits in the UMCS and LMCS registers is ignored and the address is driven on the AD bus
t1
for all accesses, thus preserving the industry-standard
80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers’ multiplexed address bus and providing support for existing emulation
tools.
The following diagrams show the Am186ES and
AM188ES microcontroller bus cycles when the address bus disable feature is in effect:
n Figure 4 shows the affected signals during a normal
read or write operation for an Am186ES microcontroller. The address and data are multiplexed onto
the AD bus.
n Figure 5 shows an Am186ES microcontroller bus
cycle when address bus disable is in effect. This results in the AD bus operating in a nonmultiplexed
address/data mode. The A bus has the address
during a read or write operation.
n Figure 6 shows the affected signals during a normal
read or write operation for an Am188ES microcontroller. The multiplexed address/data mode is compatible with the 80C186 and 80C188
microcontrollers and might be used to take advantage of existing logic or peripherals.
n Figure 7 shows an Am188ES microcontroller bus
cycle when address bus disable is in effect. The address and data is not multiplexed. The AD7–AD0
signals have only data on the bus, while the AO bus
has the address during a read or write operation.
t2
Address
Phase
t3
t4
Data
Phase
CLKOUTA
Address
A19–A0
AD15–AD0
(Read)
Address
AD15–AD0
(Write)
Address
Data
Data
LCS or UCS
MCSx, PCSx
Figure 4.
Am186ES Microcontroller Address Bus—Normal Read and Write Operation
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
39
P R E L I M I N A R Y
t1
Address
Phase
t2
t3
Data
Phase
t4
CLKOUTA
A19–A0
Address
AD15–AD0
(Read)
Data
AD15–AD0
(Write)
Data
LCS, UCS
MCSx, PCSx
Figure 5.
Am186ES Microcontroller—Read and Write with Address Bus Disable In Effect
t1
t2
t3
Address
Phase
t4
Data
Phase
CLKOUTA
Address
A19–A0
AD7–AD0
(Read)
Address
AO15–AO8
(Read or Write)
AD7–AD0
(Write)
Data
Address
Address
Data
LCS or UCS
MCSx, PCSx
Figure 6.
40
Am188ES Microcontroller Address Bus—Normal Read and Write Operation
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
t1
t2
Address
Phase
t3
t4
Data
Phase
CLKOUTA
A19–A0
Address
AD7–AD0
(Read)
Data
AO15–AO8
Address
AD7–AD0
(Write)
Data
LCS, UCS
MCSx, PCSx
Figure 7.
Am188ES Microcontroller—Read and Write with Address Bus Disable In Effect
BUS INTERFACE UNIT
Nonmultiplexed Address Bus
The bus interface unit controls all accesses to external
peripherals and memory devices. External accesses
include those to memory devices, as well as those to
memory-mapped and I/O-mapped peripherals and the
peripheral control block. The Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers provide an enhanced bus interface
unit with the following features:
The nonmultiplexed address bus (A19–A0) is valid onehalf CLKOUTA cycle in advance of the address on the
AD bus. When used in conjunction with the modified
UCS and LCS outputs and the byte-write enable signals, the A19–A0 bus provides a seamless interface to
SRAM, PSRAM, and Flash EPROM memory systems.
n A nonmultiplexed address bus
n On the Am186ES microcontroller, a static bus-sizing option for 8-bit and 16-bit memory and I/O
n Separate byte write enables for high and low bytes
in the Am186ES microcontroller only
n Pseudo Static RAM (PSRAM) support
The standard 80C186/188 microcontroller multiplexed
address and data bus requires system interface logic
and an external address latch. On the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers, new byte write enables,
PSRAM control logic, and a new nonmultiplexed address bus can reduce design costs by eliminating this
external logic.
Static Bus Sizing
The 80C186 microcontroller provided a 16-bit wide
data bus over its entire address range, memory, and
I/O, but did not allow accesses to an 8-bit wide bus.
The 80C188 microcontroller provided a lower-cost interface by reducing the data bus width to 8 bits, again
over the entire address range. The Am188ES microcontroller follows the 80C188 microcontroller in providing an 8-bit data bus to all memory and peripherals.
However, the Am186ES microcontroller differs from
the 80C186 microcontroller in allowing programmability for data bus widths through fields in the auxiliary
configuration (AUXCON) register, as shown in Table 6.
The width of the data access should not be modified
while the processor is fetching instructions from the associated address space.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
41
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Table 6.
Programming Am186ES Microcontroller
Bus Width
Space
AUXCON
Field
Value
Bus
Width
UCS
–
–
16 bits
not
configurable
LCS
LSIZ
0
16 bits
default
1
8 bits
0
16 bits
1
8 bits
0
16 bits
1
8 bits
I/O
Other
IOSIZ
MSIZ
Comments
default
default
Byte-Write Enables
The Am186ES microcontroller provides the WHB
(Write High Byte) and WLB (Write Low Byte) signals,
which act as byte-write enables.
WHB is the logical OR of BHE and WR. WHB is Low
when BHE and WR are both Low. WLB is the logical
OR of A0 and WR. WLB is Low when A0 and WR are
both Low. WB is Low whenever a byte is written on the
Am188ES microcontroller.
On the Am188ES microcontroller, the WB (Write Byte)
pin indicates a write to the bus. WB uses the same
early timing as the nonmulitplexed address bus. WB is
associated with AD7–-AD0. This pin floats during reset.
The byte-write enables are driven in conjunction with
the nonmultiplexed address bus as required for the
write timing requirements of common SRAMs.
Pseudo Static RAM (PSRAM) Support
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers support
the use of PSRAM devices in low memory chip-select
(LCS) space only. When PSRAM mode is enabled, the
timing for the LCS signal is modified by the chip-select
control unit to provide a CS precharge period during
PS RA M a cc e ss es . T h e 4 0- MH z t im in g o f the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers is appropriate to allow 70-ns PSRAM to run with one wait state.
PSRAM mode is enabled through a bit in the Low Memory Chip-Select (LMCS) register. The PSRAM feature
is disabled on CPU reset.
In addition to the LCS timing changes for PSRAM precharge, the PSRAM devices also require periodic refresh of all internal row addresses to retain their data.
Although refresh of PSRAM can be accomplished several ways, the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers implement auto refresh only.
when PSRAM mode and the refresh control unit are
enabled. No refresh address is required by the PSRAM
when using the auto refresh mechanism. The RFSH
signal is multiplexed with the MCS3 signal pin. When
PSRAM mode is enabled, MCS3 is not available for
use as a chip-select signal.
The refresh control unit must be programmed before
accessing PSRAM in LCS space. The refresh counter
in the clock prescaler (CDRAM) register must be configured with the required refresh interval value. The
ending address of LCS space and the ready and waitstate generation in the LMCS register must also be programmed. The refresh counter reload value in the
CDRAM register should not be set to less than 18 (12h)
in order to provide time for processor cycles within refresh. The refresh address counter must be set to
000000h to prevent another chip select from asserting.
LCS is held High during a refresh cycle. The A bus is
not used during refresh cycles. The LMCS register
must be configured to external ready ignored (R2=1)
with one wait state (R1–R0=01b), and the PSRAM
mode enable bit (PSE) must be set to 1.
PERIPHERAL CONTROL BLOCK (PCB)
The integrated peripherals of the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers are controlled by 16-bit
read/write registers. The peripheral registers are contained within an internal 256-byte control block. The
registers are physically located in the peripheral devices they control, but they are addressed as a single
256-byte block. Table 7 shows a map of these registers.
Reading and Writing the PCB
Code that is intended to execute on the Am188ES microcontroller should perform all writes to the PCB registers as byte writes. These writes transfer 16 bits of
data to the PCB register even if an 8-bit register is
named in the instruction. For example, out dx, al results
in the value of ax being written to the port address in dx.
Reads to the PCB should be done as word reads. Code
written in this manner runs correctly on the Am188ES
microcontroller and on the Am186ES microcontroller.
Unaligned reads and writes to the PCB result in unpredictable behavior on both the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers.
For a complete description of all the registers in the
PCB, see the Am186ES and Am188ES Microcontrollers User’s Manual, order# 21096.
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers generate a refresh signal, RFSH, to the PSRAM devices
42
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Table 7. Peripheral Control Block Register Map
Register Name
Register Name
Timer 2 max count compare A register
62h
Timer 2 count register
60h
Offset
Processor Control Registers:
Offset
Peripheral control block relocation register
FEh
Timer 1 mode/control register
5Eh
Reset configuration register
F6h
Timer 1 max count compare B register
5Ch
F4h
Timer 1 max count compare A register
5Ah
Processor release level register 1
2
F2h
Timer 1 count register
58h
System configuration register 1
F0h
Timer 0 mode/control register
56h
Watchdog timer control register 2
E6h
Timer 0 max count compare B register
54h
E4h
Timer 0 max count compare A register
52h
Clock prescaler register
E2h
Timer 0 count register
50h
Memory partition register
E0h
Interrupt Registers:
Auxiliary configuration register
Enable RCU register
1
DMA Registers:
1
Serial port 0 interrupt control register 1
44h
2
42h
DAh
Serial port 1 interrupt control register
DMA 1 transfer count register
D8h
INT4 interrupt control register
DMA 1 destination address high register
D6h
INT3 control register
3Eh
DMA 1 destination address low register
D4h
INT2 control register
3Ch
DMA 1 source address high register
D2h
INT1 control register
3Ah
DMA 1 source address low register
D0h
INT0 control register
DMA 0 control register 1
CAh
DMA1/INT6 interrupt control register
1
36h
DMA 0 transfer count register
C8h
DMA0/INT5 interrupt control register 1
34h
DMA 0 destination address high register
C6h
Timer interrupt control register
32h
DMA 0 destination address low register
C4h
Interrupt status register
30h
DMA 0 source address high register
C2h
Interrupt request register
DMA 0 source address low register
C0h
Interrupt in-service register 1
2Ch
Interrupt priority mask register
2Ah
DMA 1 control register
Chip-Select Registers:
40h
38h
1
2Eh
1
PCS and MCS auxiliary register
A8h
Interrupt mask register
Midrange memory chip-select register
A6h
Interrupt poll status register
26h
Peripheral chip-select register
A4h
Interrupt poll register
24h
1
A2h
End-of-interrupt register
22h
Upper memory chip-select register
A0h
Interrupt vector register
20h
Low memory chip-select register
Serial Port 0 Registers:
Serial Port 1 Registers:
Serial port 0 baud rate divisor register 1
Serial port 0 receive register
28h
1
88h
86h
1
Serial port 1 baud rate divisor register 2
Serial port 1 receive register
2
84h
Serial port 1 transmit register
Serial port 0 status register 1
82h
Serial port 1 status register
2
Serial port 0 control register 1
80h
Serial port 1 control register 2
Serial port 0 transmit register
PIO Registers:
2
18h
16h
14h
12h
10h
Notes:
PIO data 1 register
7Ah
PIO direction 1 register
78h
1. The register has been changed from the Am186EM
and Am188EM microcontrollers.
PIO mode 1 register
76h
2. The register is new.
PIO data 0 register
74h
PIO direction 0 register
72h
PIO mode 0 register
70h
Note: All unused addresses are reserved and should
not be accessed.
Timer Registers:
Timer 2 mode/control register
66h
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
43
P R E L I M I N A R Y
CLOCK AND POWER MANAGEMENT
The clock and power management unit of the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers includes a
phase-locked loop (PLL) and a second programmable
system clock output (CLKOUTB).
the output of the amplifier and negatively affects the operation of the clock generator. Values for the loading on
X1 and X2 must be chosen to provide the necessary
phase shift and crystal operation.
Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
Selecting a Crystal
In a traditional 80C186/188 microcontroller design, the
crystal frequency is twice that of the desired internal
clock. Because of the internal PLL on the Am186ES
and Am188ES microcontrollers, the internal clock generated by the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers (CLKOUTA) is the same frequency as the crystal.
The PLL takes the crystal inputs (X1 and X2) and generates a 45–55% (worst case) duty cycle intermediate
system clock of the same frequency. This removes the
need for an external 2x oscillator, reducing system
cost. The PLL is reset during power-on reset by an onchip power-on reset (POR) circuit.
When selecting a crystal, the load capacitance should
always be specified (CL). This value can cause variance in the oscillation frequency from the desired specified value (resonance). The load capacitance and the
loading of the feedback network have the following relationship:
(C1 ⋅ C2)
CL =
+ CS
(C1 + C2)
Crystal-Driven Clock Source
The internal oscillator circuit of the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers is designed to function with
a parallel resonant fundamental or third overtone crystal. Because of the PLL, the crystal frequency should
be equal to the processor frequency. Do not replace a
crystal with an LC or RC equivalent.
where CS is the stray capacitance of the circuit. Placing
the crystal and CL in series across the inverting amplifier and tuning these values (C1, C2) allows the crystal
to oscillate at resonance. This relationship is true for
both fundamental and third-overtone operation. Finally,
there is a relationship between C1 and C2. To enhance
the oscillation of the inverting amplifier, these values
need to be offset with the larger load on the output (X2).
Equal values of these loads tend to balance the poles
of the inverting amplifier.
The signals X1 and X2 are connected to an internal inverting amplifier (oscillator) that provides, along with
the external feedback loading, the necessary phase
shift (Figure 8). In such a positive feedback circuit, the
inverting amplifier has an output signal (X2) 180 degrees out of phase of the input signal (X1).
The characteristics of the inverting amplifier set limits
on the following parameters for crystals:
The external feedback network provides an additional
180-degree phase shift. In an ideal system, the input to
X1 will have 360 or zero degrees of phase shift. The external feedback network is designed to be as close to
ideal as possible. If the feedback network is not providing necessary phase shift, negative feedback dampens
C1 ..................................................................15 pF ± 20%
C2 ..................................................................22 pF ± 20%
ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance) ......40 Ω max
Drive Level ..............................................1 mW max
The recommended range of values for C1 and C2 are
as follows:
The specific values for C1 and C2 must be determined
by the designer and are dependent on the characteristics of the chosen crystal and board design.
C1
X1
Crystal
X2
Crystal
C1
C2
C2
a. Inverting Amplifier Configuration
Note 1
Note 1: Use for Third Overtone Mode
XTAL Frequency L1 Value (Max)
20 MHz
12 µH ±20%
25 MHz
8.2 µH ±20%
33 MHz
4.7 µH ±20%
40 MHz
3.0 µH ±20%
Am186ES
Microcontroller
200 pF
b. Crystal Configuration
Figure 8. Am186ES and Am188ES Microcontrollers Oscillator Configurations
44
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
External Source Clock
Initialization and Processor Reset
Alternately, the internal oscillator can be driven from an
external clock source. This source should be connected to the input of the inverting amplifier (X1), with
the output (X2) not connected.
Processor initialization or startup is accomplished by
driving the RES input pin Low. RES must be held Low
for 1 ms during power-up to ensure proper device initialization. RES forces the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers to terminate all execution and local
bus activity. No instruction or bus activity occurs as long
as RES is active. After RES becomes inactive and an
internal processing interval elapses, the microcontroller begins execution with the instruction at physical location FFFF0h, with UCS asserted with three wait
states. RES also sets some registers to predefined values and resets the watchdog timer.
System Clocks
The base system clock of AMD’s original 80C186 and
80C188 microcontrollers is renamed CLKOUTA and
the additional output is called CLKOUTB. CLKOUTA
and CLKOUTB operate at either the processor frequency or the PLL frequency. The output drivers for
both clocks are individually programmable for disable.
Figure 9 shows the organization of the clocks.
The second clock output (CLKOUTB) allows one clock
to run at the PLL frequency and the other clock to run
at the power-save frequency. Individual drive enable
bits allow selective enabling of just one or both of these
clock outputs.
Power-Save Operation
The power-save mode of the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers reduces power consumption and heat
dissipation, thereby extending battery life in portable
systems. In power-save mode, operation of the CPU
and internal peripherals continues at a slower clock frequency. When an interrupt occurs, the microcontroller
automatically returns to its normal operating frequency
on the internal clock’s next rising edge of t3.
Note: Power-save operation requires that clock-dependent devices be reprogrammed for clock frequency
changes. Software drivers must be aware of clock frequency.
The Reset Configuration Register
When the RES input is asserted Low, the contents of
the address/data bus (AD15–AD0) are written into the
reset configuration register. The system can place configuration information on the address/data bus using
weak external pullup or pulldown resistors, or using an
external driver that is enabled during reset. The processor does not drive the address/data bus during reset.
For example, the reset configuration register could be
used to provide the software with the position of a configuration switch in the system. Using weak external
pullup and pulldown resistors on the address and data
bus, the system can provide the microcontroller with a
value corresponding to the position of the jumper during a reset.
Processor Internal Clock
PLL
X1, X2
Power-Save
Divisor
(/2 to /128)
CLKOUTA
Mux
Drive
Enable
Mux
Time
Delay
6 ± 2.5ns
CLKOUTB
Drive
Enable
Figure 9. Clock Organization
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
45
P R E L I M I N A R Y
CHIP-SELECT UNIT
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers contain
logic that provides programmable chip-select generation for both memories and peripherals. The logic can
be programmed to provide ready and wait-state generation and latched address bits A1 and A2. The chip-select lines are active for all memory and I/O cycles in
their programmed areas, whether they are generated
by the CPU or by the integrated DMA unit.
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
six chip-select outputs for use with memory devices
and six more for use with peripherals in either memory
space or I/O space. The six memory chip selects can
be used to address three memory ranges. Each peripheral chip select addresses a 256-byte block that is offset from a programmable base address. A write to a
chip select register will enable the corresponding chip
select logic even if the actual pin has another function
(e.g., PIO).
Chip-Select Timing
The timing for the UCS and LCS outputs is modified
from the original 80C186 microcontroller. These outputs now assert in conjunction with the nonmultiplexed
address bus for normal memory timing. To allow these
outputs to be available earlier in the bus cycle, the number of programmable memory size selections has been
reduced.
Ready and Wait-State Programming
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers can be
programmed to sense a ready signal for each of the
peripheral or memory chip-select lines. The ready signal can be either the ARDY or SRDY signal. Each chipselect control register (UMCS, LMCS, MMCS, PACS,
and MPCS) contains a single-bit field that determines
whether the external ready signal is required or
ignored.
The number of wait states to be inserted for each access to a peripheral or memory region is programmable. The chip-select control registers for UCS, LCS,
MCS3–MCS0, PCS6, and PCS5 contain a two-bit field
that determines the number of wait states from zero to
three to be inserted. PCS3–PCS0 use three bits to provide additional values of 5, 7, 9, and 15 wait states.
When external ready is required, internally programmed wait states will always complete before external ready can terminate or extend a bus cycle. For
example, if the internal wait states are set to insert two
wait states, the processor samples the external ready
pin during the first wait cycle. If external ready is asserted at that time, the access completes after six cycles (four cycles plus two wait states). If external ready
is not asserted during the first wait cycle, the access is
extended until ready is asserted, and one more wait
state occurs followed by t4.
46
The ARDY signal on the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers is a true asynchronous ready signal. The
ARDY pin accepts a rising edge that is asynchronous
to CLKOUTA and is active High. If the falling edge of
ARDY is not synchronized to CLKOUTA as specified,
an additional clock period may be added.
Chip-Select Overlap
Although programming the various chip selects on the
Am186ES microcontroller so that multiple chip select
signals are asserted for the same physical address is
not recommended, it may be unavoidable in some systems. In such systems, the chip selects whose assertions overlap must have the same configuration for
ready (external ready required or not required) and the
number of wait states to be inserted into the cycle by
the processor.
The peripheral control block (PCB) is accessed using
internal signals. These internal signals function as chip
selects configured with zero wait states and no external
ready. Therefore, the PCB can be programmed to addresses that overlap external chip-select signals only if
those external chip selects are programmed to zero
wait states with no external ready required.
When overlapping an additional chip select with either
the LCS or UCS chip selects, it must be noted that setting the Disable Address (DA) bit in the LMCS or UMCS
register disables the address from being driven on the
AD bus for all accesses for which the associated chip
select is asserted, including any accesses for which
multiple chip selects assert.
The MCS and PCS chip-select pins can be configured
as either chip selects (normal function) or as PIO inputs
or outputs. It should be noted; however, that the ready
and wait state generation logic for these chip selects is
in effect regardless of their configurations as chip selects or PIOs. This means that if these chip selects are
enabled (by a write to the MMCS and MPCS for the
MCS chip selects, or by a write to the PACS and MPCS
registers for the PCS chip selects), the ready and wait
state programming for these signals must agree with
the programming for any other chip selects with which
their assertion would overlap if they were configured as
chip selects.
Although the PCS4 signal is not available on an external pin, the ready and wait state logic for this signal still
exists internal to the part. For this reason, the PCS4 address space must follow the rules for overlapping chip
selects. The ready and wait-state logic for PCS6–
PCS5 is disabled when these signals are configured as
address bits A2–A1.
Failure to configure overlapping chip selects with the
same ready and wait state requirements may cause
the processor to hang with the appearance of waiting
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
for a ready signal. This behavior may occur even in a
system in which ready is always asserted (ARDY or
SRDY tied High).
Configuring PCS in I/O space with LCS or any other
chip select configured for memory address 0 is not considered overlapping of the chip selects. Overlapping
chip selects refers to configurations where more than
one chip select asserts for the same physical address.
Upper Memory Chip Select
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
a UCS chip select for the top of memory. On reset the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers begin fetching and executing instructions at memory location
FFFF0h. Therefore, upper memory is usually used as
instruction memory. To facilitate this usage, UCS defaults to active on reset, with a default memory range of
64 Kbytes from F0000h to FFFFFh, with external ready
required and three wait states automatically inserted.
The UCS memory range always ends at FFFFFh. The
UCS lower boundary is programmable.
Low Memory Chip Select
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
an LCS chip select for lower memory. The AUXCON
register can be used to configure LCS for 8-bit or 16-bit
accesses. Since the interrupt vector table is located at
the bottom of memory starting at 00000h, the LCS pin
is usually used to control data memory. The LCS pin is
not active on reset.
Midrange Memory Chip Selects
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
four chip selects, MCS3–MCS0, for use in a user-locatable memory block. With some exceptions, the base
address of the memory block can be located anywhere
within the 1-Mbyte memory address space of the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers. The areas
associated with the UCS and LCS chip selects are excluded. If they are mapped to memory, the address
range of the peripheral chip selects, PCS6, PCS5, and
PCS3–PCS0, are also excluded. The MCS address
range can overlap the PCS address range if the PCS
chip selects are mapped to I/O space.
MCS0 can be configured to be asserted for the entire
MCS range. When configured in this mode, the MCS3–
MCS1 pins can be used as PIOs.
The AUXCON register can be used to configure MCS
for 8-bit or 16-bit accesses. The bus width of the MCS
range is determined by the width of the non-UCS/nonLCS memory range.
Peripheral Chip Selects
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
six chip selects, PCS6–PCS5 and PCS3–PCS0, for
use within a user-configured memory or I/O block.
PCS4 is not available on the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers. The base address of the memory
block can be located anywhere within the 1-Mbyte
memory address space, exclusive of the areas associated with the UCS, LCS, and MCS chip selects, or they
can be configured to access the 64-Kbyte I/O space.
The PCS pins are not active on reset. PCS6–PCS5 can
be programmed for zero to three wait states. PCS3–
PCS0 can be programmed for four additional wait-state
values: 5, 7, 9, and 15.
The AUXCON register can be used to configure PCS
for 8-bit or 16-bit accesses. The bus width of the PCS
range is determined by the width of the non-UCS/nonLCS memory range or by the width of the I/O area.
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs
assert with the multiplexed AD address bus. Each
peripheral chip select asserts over a 256-byte address
range, which is twice the address range covered by
peripheral chip selects in the 80C186/188 microcontrollers.
REFRESH CONTROL UNIT
The Refresh Control Unit (RCU) automatically generates refresh bus cycles. After a programmable period
of time, the RCU generates a memory read request to
the bus interface unit. The RCU is fixed to three wait
states for the PSRAM auto refresh mode.
In the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers, refresh is enabled when the ENA bit is set in the enable
RCU register, offset E4h. This is different from the
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers where the
PSRAM enable bit in the low memory chip-select register, offset A2h, enables refresh. The refresh function
is the same as on the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers, except that the DRAM address is not driven
on DRAM refreshes.
If the HLDA pin is active when a refresh request is generated (indicating a bus hold condition), the Am186ES
and Am188ES microcontrollers deactivate the HLDA
pin in order to perform a refresh cycle. The external bus
master must remove the HOLD signal for at least one
clock in order to allow the refresh cycle to execute.
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the MCS outputs
assert with the same timing as the multiplexed AD address bus.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
47
P R E L I M I N A R Y
INTERRUPT CONTROL UNIT
TIMER CONTROL UNIT
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers can receive interrupt requests from a variety of sources, both
internal and external. The internal interrupt controller
arranges these requests by priority and presents them
one at a time to the CPU.
There are three 16-bit programmable timers and a
watchdog timer on the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers.
There are up to eight external interrupt sources on the
Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers—seven
maskable interrupt pins and one nonmaskable interrupt
(NMI) pin. In addition, there are eight internal interrupt
sources (three timers, two DMA channels, the two
asynchronous serial ports, and the Watchdog Timer
NMI) that are not connected to external pins. INT5 and
INT6 are multiplexed with DRQ0 and DRQ1. These two
interrupts are available if the associated DMA is not enabled or is being used with internal synchronization.
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
up to six interrupt sources not present on the 80C186
and 80C188 microcontrollers. There are up to three additional external interrupt pins—INT4, INT5, and INT6.
These pins operate much like the INT3–INT0 interrupt
pins on the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers.
There are also two internal interrupts from the serial
ports and the watchdog timer can generate interrupts.
The seven maskable interrupt request pins can be
used as direct interrupt requests. INT4–INT0 can be either edge triggered or level triggered. INT6 and INT5
are edge triggered only. In addition, INT0 and INT1 can
be configured in cascade mode for use with an external
82C59A-compatible interrupt controller. When INT0 is
configured in cascade mode, the INT2 pin is automatically configured in its INTA0 function. When INT1 is
configured in cascade mode, the INT3 pin is automatically configured in its INTA1 function. An external interrupt controller can be used as the system master by
programming the internal interrupt controller to operate
in slave mode. INT6–INT4 are not available in slave
mode.
Interrupts are automatically disabled when an interrupt
is taken. Interrupt-service routines (ISRs) may
re-enable interrupts by setting the IF flag. This allows
interrupts of greater or equal priority to interrupt the
currently executing ISR. Interrupts from the same
source are disabled as long as the corresponding bit in
the interrupt in-service register is set. INT1 and INT0
provide a special bit to enable special fully nested
mode. When configured in special fully nested mode,
the interrupt source may generate a new interrupt
regardless of the setting of the in-service bit.
48
Timer 0 and timer 1 are connected to four external pins
(each one has an input and an output). These two timers can be used to count or time external events, or to
generate nonrepetitive or variable-duty-cycle waveforms. When pulse width demodulation is enabled,
timer 0 and timer 1 are used to measure the width of
the High and Low pulses on the PWD pin. (See the
Pulse Width Demodulation section on page 51.)
Timer 2 is not connected to any external pins. It can be
used for real-time coding and time-delay applications.
It can also be used as a prescaler to timers 0 and 1 or
to synchronize DMA transfers.
The programmable timers are controlled by eleven 16bit registers in the peripheral control block. A timer’s
timer-count register contains the current value of that
timer. The timer-count register can be read or written
with a value at any time, whether the timer is running or
not. The microcontroller increments the value of the
timer-count register each time a timer event occurs.
Each timer also has a maximum-count register that defines the maximum value the timer can reach. When
the timer reaches the maximum value, it resets to 0
during the same clock cycle. The value in the maximum-count register is never stored in the timer-count
register. Also, timers 0 and 1 have a secondary maximum-count register. Using both the primary and secondary maximum-count registers lets the timer
alternate between two maximum values.
If the timer is programmed to use only the primary maximum-count register, the timer output pin switches Low
for one clock cycle after the maximum value is
reached. If the timer is programmed to use both of its
maximum-count registers, the output pin indicates
which maximum-count register is currently in control,
thereby creating a waveform. The duty cycle of the
waveform depends on the values in the maximumcount registers.
Each timer is serviced every fourth clock cycle, so a
timer can operate at a speed of up to one-quarter of the
internal clock frequency. A timer can be clocked externally at this same frequency; however, because of internal synchronization and pipelining of the timer
circuitry, the timer output can take up to six clock cycles
to respond to the clock or gate input.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Watchdog Timer
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS (DMA)
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
a true watchdog timer function. The Watchdog Timer
(WDT) can be used to regain control of the system
when software fails to respond as expected. The WDT
is active after reset. It can only be modified a single
time by a keyed sequence of writes to the watchdog
timer control register (WDTCON) following reset. This
single write can either disable the timer or modify the
timeout period and the action taken upon timeout. A
keyed sequence is also required to reset the current
WDT count. This behavior ensures that randomly executing code will not prevent a WDT event from occurring.
Direct memory access (DMA) permits transfer of data
between memory and peripherals without CPU involvement. The DMA unit in the Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers, shown in Figure 10, provides two
high-speed DMA channels. Data transfers can occur
between memory and I/O spaces (e.g., memory to I/O)
or within the same space (e.g., memory to memory or
I/O to I/O). The DMA channels can be directly connected to the asynchronous serial ports.
The WDT supports up to a 1.67-second timeout period
in a 40-MHz system. After reset, the WDT is enabled
and the timeout period is set to its maximum value.
The WDT can be configured to cause either an NMI interrupt or a system reset upon timeout. If the WDT is
configured for NMI, the NMIFLAG in the WDTCON register is set when the NMI is generated. The NMI interrupt service routine (ISR) should examine this flag to
determine if the interrupt was generated by the WDT or
by an external source. If the NMIFLAG is set, the ISR
should clear the flag by writing the correct keyed sequence to the WDTCON register. If the NMIFLAG is set
when a second WDT timeout occurs, a WDT system
reset is generated rather than a second NMI event.
When the processor takes a WDT reset, either due to
a single WDT event with the WDT configured to generate resets or due to a WDT event with the NMIFLAG
set, the RSTFLAG in the WDTCON register is set. This
allows system initialization code to differentiate between a hardware reset and a WDT reset and take appropriate action. The RSTFLAG is cleared when the
WDTCON register is read or written. The processor
does not resample external pins during a WDT reset.
This means that the clocking, the reset configuration
register, and any other features that are user-selectable during reset do not change when a WDT system
reset occurs. All other activities are identical to those of
a normal system reset.
Note: The Watchdog Timer (WDT) is active after reset.
Either bytes or words can be transferred to or from
even or odd addresses on the Am186ES microcontroller. However, the Am186ES microcontroller does
not support word DMA transfers to or from memory
configured for 8-bit accesses. The Am188ES microcontroller does not support word transfers. Only two
bus cycles (a minimum of eight clocks) are necessary
for each data transfer.
Each channel accepts a DMA request from one of four
sources: the channel request pin (DRQ1–DRQ0),
Timer 2, a serial port, or the system software. The
channels can be programmed with different priorities in
the event of a simultaneous DMA request or if there is
a need to interrupt transfers on the other channel.
DMA Operation
Each channel has six registers in the peripheral control
block that define specific channel operations. The DMA
registers consist of a 20-bit source address (two registers), a 20-bit destination address (two registers), a 16bit transfer count register, and a 16-bit control register.
The DMA transfer count register (DTC) specifies the
number of DMA transfers to be performed. Up to 64K
of byte or word transfers can be performed with automatic termination. The DMA control registers define the
channel operation. All registers can be modified during any DMA activity. Any changes made to the DMA
registers are reflected immediately in DMA operation.
Table 8. Am186ES Microcontroller Maximum
DMA Transfer Rates
Maximum DMA
Transfer Rate (Mbytes)
Type of Synchronization
Selected
40
MHz
33
MHz
25
MHz
20
MHz
Unsynchronized
10
8.25
6.25
5
Source Synch
10
8.25
6.25
5
Destination Synch
(CPU needs bus)
6.6
5.5
4.16
3.3
8
6.6
5
4
Destination Synch
(CPU does not need bus)
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
49
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Adder Control
Logic
20-bit Adder/Subtractor
Timer Request
DRQ1/Serial Port
20
Request
Selection
Logic
Transfer Counter Ch. 1
Destination Address Ch. 1
Source Address Ch. 1
Transfer Counter Ch. 0
Destination Address Ch. 0
Source Address Ch. 0
DRQ0/Serial Port
DMA
Control
Logic
Interrupt
Request
Channel Control Register 1
Channel Control Register 0
20
16
Internal Address/Data Bus
Figure 10.
DMA Unit Block Diagram
DMA Channel Control Registers
DMA Priority
Each DMA control register determines the mode of operation for the particular DMA channel. The DMA control registers specify the following:
The DMA channels can be programmed so that one
channel is always given priority over the other, or they
can be programmed to alternate cycles when both
have DMA requests pending. DMA cycles always have
priority over internal CPU cycles except between
locked memory accesses or word accesses to odd
memory locations. However, an external bus hold
takes priority over an internal DMA cycle.
n The mode of synchronization
n Whether bytes or words are transferred
n Whether an interrupt is generated after the last
transfer
n Whether the DRQ pins are configured as INT pins
n Whether DMA activity ceases after a programmed
number of DMA cycles
n The relative priority of the DMA channel with respect to the other DMA channel
Because an interrupt request cannot suspend a DMA
operation and the CPU cannot access memory during
a DMA cycle, interrupt latency time suffers during sequences of continuous DMA cycles. An NMI request,
however, causes all internal DMA activity to halt. This
allows the CPU to respond quickly to the NMI request.
n Whether the source address is incremented, decremented, or maintained constant after each transfer
n Whether the source address addresses memory or
I/O space
n Whether the destination address is incremented,
decremented, or maintained constant after transfers
n Whether the destination address addresses memory or I/O space
50
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PULSE WIDTH DEMODULATION
ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORTS
For many applications, such as bar-code reading, it is
necessary to measure the width of a signal in both its
High and Low phases. The Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers provide a pulse-width demodulation
(PWD) option to fulfill this need. The PWD bit in the
system configuration register (SYSCON) enables the
PWD option. Please note that the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers do not support analog-todigital conversion.
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers provide
two independent asynchronous serial ports. These
ports provide full-duplex, bidirectional data transfer
using several industry-standard communications protocols. The serial ports can be used as sources or destinations of DMA transfers.
In PWD mode, TMRIN0, TMRIN1, INT2, and INT4 are
configured internal to the microcontroller to support the
detection of rising and falling edges on the PWD input
pin (INT2/INTA0/PWD) and to enable either timer 0
when the signal is High or timer 1 when the signal is
Low. The INT4, TMRIN0, and TMRIN1 pins are not
used in PWD mode and so are available for use as
PIOs.
The following diagram shows the behavior of a system
for a typical waveform.
The asynchronous serial ports support the following
features:
n Full-duplex operation
n 7-bit, 8-bit, or 9-bit data transfers
n Odd, even, or no parity
n One stop bit
n Two lengths of break characters
n Error detection
— Parity errors
— Framing errors
— Overrun errors
n Hardware handshaking with the following selectable control signals:
— Clear-to-send (CTS)
INT2
INT4
INT2 Ints generated
TMR1 enabled
TMR0 enabled
— Enable-receiver-request (ENRX)
— Ready-to-send (RTS)
— Ready-to-receive (RTR)
The interrupt service routine (ISR) for the INT2 and
INT4 interrupts should examine the current count of the
associated timer, timer 1 for INT2 and timer 0 for INT4,
in order to determine the pulse width. The ISR should
then reset the timer count register in preparation for the
next pulse.
n DMA to and from the serial ports
Since the timers count at one quarter of the processor
clock rate, this determines the maximum resolution that
can be obtained. Further, in applications where the
pulse width may be short, it may be necessary to poll
the INT2 and INT4 request bits in the interrupt request
register in order to avoid the overhead involved in taking and returning from an interrupt. Overflow conditions, where the pulse width is greater than the
maximum count of the timer, can be detected by monitoring the Maximum Count (MC) bit in the associated
timer or by setting the INT bit to enable timer interrupt
requests.
n Double-buffered transmit and receive
n Separate maskable interrupts for each port
n Multidrop protocol (9-bit) support
n Independent baud rate generators
n Maximum baud rate of 1/16th of the CPU clock
DMA Transfers through the Serial Port
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers support
DMA transfers both to and from the serial port. Either
or both DMA channels and either or both serial ports
can be used for DMA transmits or receives. See the
DMA Control register descriptions in the Am186ES and
Am188ES Microcontrollers User’s Manual for more information.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
51
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PROGRAMMABLE I/O (PIO) PINS
There are 32 pins on the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers that are available as user-programmable
I/O signals. Table 2 on page 34 and Table 3 on
page 34 list the PIO pins. Each of these pins can be
used as a user-programmable input or output signal if
the normal shared function is not needed.
If a pin is enabled to function as a PIO signal, the preassigned signal function is disabled and does not affect
the level on the pin. A PIO signal can be configured to
operate as an input or output with or without a weak
pullup or pulldown, or as an open-drain output.
After power-on reset, the PIO pins default to various
configurations. The column titled Power-On Reset Status in Table 2 on page 34 and Table 3 on page 34 lists
52
the defaults for the PIOs. The system initialization code
must reconfigure the PIOs as required.
The A19–A17 address pins default to normal operation
on power-on reset, allowing the processor to correctly
begin fetching instructions at the boot address
FFFF0h. The DT/R, DEN, and SRDY pins also default
to normal operation on power-on reset.
Note that emulators use A19, A18, A17, S6, and UZI.
In environments where an emulator is needed, these
pins must be configured for normal function—not as
PIOs.
If the AD15–AD0 bus override is enabled on power-on
reset, then S6/CLKDIV2 and UZI revert to normal operation instead of PIO input with pullup. If BHE/ADEN
(186) or RFSH2/ADEN (188) is held Low during poweron reset, the AD15–AD0 bus override is enabled.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
the functionality of the device is guaranteed.
Storage temperature
Am186ES/Am188ES....................... –65°C to +125°C
Am186ESLV/Am188ESLV .............. –65°C to +125°C
Am186ES/Am188ES Microcontrollers
Commercial (TC) .................................0°C to +100°C
Industrial* (TA) ..................................–40°C to +85°C
VCC up to 33 MHz......................................5 V ± 10%
VCC greater than 33 MHz ............................5 V ± 5%
Voltage on any pin with respect to ground
Am186/188ES ............................ –0.5 V to Vcc +0.5 V
Am186/188ESLV ....................... –0.5 V to V cc +0.5 V
Note: Stresses above those listed under Absolute
Maximum Ratings may cause permanent device failure. Functionality at or above these limits is not implied.
Exposure to absolute maximum ratings for extended
periods may affect device reliability.
OPERATING RANGES
Operating Ranges define those limits between which
Am186ESLV/Am188ESLV Microcontrollers
Commercial (TA) ................................... 0°C to +70°C
VCC up to 25 MHz................................. 3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Where:
TC = case temperature
TA = ambient temperature
*Industrial versions of Am186ES and Am188ES
microcontrollers are available in 20 and 25 MHz operating
frequencies only.
DC CHARACTERISTICS OVER COMMERCIAL OPERATING RANGES
Preliminary
Symbol
Parameter Description
Test Conditions
Min
Max
Unit
VIL
Input Low Voltage (Except X1)
–0.5
0.8
V
VIL1
Clock Input Low Voltage (X1)
–0.5
0.8
V
VIH
Input High Voltage (Except RES and X1)
2.0
VCC +0.5
V
VIH 1
Input High Voltage (RES)
2.4
VCC +0.5
V
VIH 2
Clock Input High Voltage (X1)
VCC –0.8
VCC +0.5
V
Output Low Voltage
Am186ES and Am188ES
IOL = 2.5 mA (S2–S0)
IOL = 2.0 mA (others)
0.45
V
Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV
IOL = 1.5 mA (S2–S0)
IOL = 1.0 mA (others)
0.45
V
2.4
VCC +0.5
V
IOH = –200 µA @ VCC –0.5
VCC –0.5
VCC
V
IOH = –200 µA @ VCC –0.5
VCC –0.5
VCC
V
VCC = 5.5 V (b)
5.9
mA/MHz
= 3.6 V (b)
2.75
mA/MHz
±10
µA
±10
µA
0.45
V
VOL
Output High Voltage(a)
VOH
Am186ES and Am188ES
Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV
IOH = –2.4 mA @ 2.4 V
Power Supply Current @ 0°C
ICC
Am186ES and Am188ES
Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV
VCC
Input Leakage Current @ 0.5 MHz
0.45 V≤VIN ≤ VCC
Output Leakage Current @ 0.5 MHz
0.45 V≤VOUT ≤VCC
VCLO
Clock Output Low
ICLO = 4.0 mA
VCHO
Clock Output High
ICHO = –500 µA
ILI
ILO
(c)
VCC –0.5
V
Notes:
a The LCS/ONCE0, MCS3–MCS0, UCS/ONCE1, and RD pins have weak internal pullup resistors. Loading the LCS/ONCE0
and UCS/ONCE1 pins in excess of IOH = –200 µA during reset can cause the device to go into ONCE mode.
b
Current is measured with the device in RESET with X1 and X2 driven and all other non-power pins open but held High or Low.
c
Testing is performed with the pins floating, either during HOLD or by invoking the ONCE mode.
d
Power supply current for the Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV microcontrollers, which are available in 20 and 25 MHz operating
frequencies only.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
53
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Capacitance
Symbol
Parameter Description
CIN
Input Capacitance
CIO
Output or I/O Capacitance
Preliminary
Min
Max
10
20
Test Conditions
@ 1 MHz
@ 1 MHz
Unit
pF
pF
Note:
Capacitance limits are guaranteed by characterization.
Power Supply Current
Table 9 shows the variables that are used to calculate
the typical power consumption value for each version
of the Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV microcontrollers.
For the following typical system specification shown in
Figure 11, ICC has been measured at 4.0 mA per MHz
of system clock. For the following typical system
specification shown in Figure 12, I CC has been
measured at 5.9 mA per MHz of system clock. The
typical system is measured while the system is
executing code in a typical application with maximum
voltage and maximum case temperature. Actual power
supply current is dependent on system design and may
be greater or less than the typical ICC figure presented
here.
Table 9. Typical Power Consumption Calculation
for the Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV
MHz ⋅ ICC ⋅ Volts / 1000 = P
MHz
Typical ICC
Volts
20
4.0
3.6
25
4.0
3.6
Typical Power
in Watts
0.288
0.360
Typical current in Figure 11 is given by:
ICC = 4.0 mA ⋅ freq(MHz)
Typical current in Figure 12 is given by:
ICC = 5.9 mA ⋅ freq(MHz)
140
120
Please note that dynamic ICC measurements are dependent upon chip activity, operating frequency, output
buffer logic, and capacitive/resistive loading of the outputs. For these ICC measurements, the devices were
set to the following modes:
100
25 MHz
80
ICC (mA)
n No DC loads on the output buffers
20 MHz
60
40
n Output capacitive load set to 35 pF
20
n AD bus set to data only
0
10
n PIOs are disabled
20
Clock Frequency (MHz)
n Timer, serial port, refresh, and DMA are enabled
Figure 11. Typical ICC Versus Frequency for the
Am186ESLV and Am188ESLV
280
240
40 MHz
200
33 MHz
160
ICC (mA)
25 MHz
120
20 MHz
80
40
0
10
20
30
40
50
Clock Frequency (MHz)
Figure 12.
54
30
Typical Icc Versus Frequency for Am186ES and Am188ES
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS
TQFP Package
The Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers are
specified for operation with case temperature ranges
from 0°C to +100°C for a commercial device. Case
temperature is measured at the top center of the
pack age as shown in Figure 13. The various
temperatures and thermal resistances can be
determined using the equations in Figure 14 with
information given in Table 10.
The variable P is power in watts. Typical power supply
current (ICC) is TBD mA per MHz of clock frequency.
θJA is the total thermal resistance. θJA is the sum of θJC,
the internal thermal resistance of the assembly, and
θCA, the case to ambient thermal resistance.
θJA
θCA
TC θ
JC
θJA = θJC + θCA
Figure 13. Thermal Resistance(°C/Watt)
θJA = θJC + θCA
P=ICC ⋅ freq (MHz) ⋅ VCC
TJ =TC +( P ⋅ θJC )
TJ =TA + ( P ⋅ θJA )
TC =TJ –( P ⋅ θJC )
TC =TA +( P ⋅ θCA )
TA =TJ –( P ⋅ θJA )
TA =TC –( P ⋅ θCA )
Figure 14.
Thermal Characteristics Equations
Table 10. Thermal Characteristics (°C/Watt)
Package/Board
PQFP/2-Layer
TQFP/2-Layer
PQFP/4-Layer
to 6-Layer
TQFP/4-Layer
to 6-Layer
Airflow
(Linear Feet
per Minute)
θJA
θJC
θCA
0 fpm
45
7
38
200 fpm
39
7
32
400 fpm
35
7
28
600 fpm
33
7
26
0 fpm
56
10
46
200 fpm
46
10
36
400 fpm
40
10
30
600 fpm
38
10
28
0 fpm
23
5
18
200 fpm
21
5
16
400 fpm
19
5
14
600 fpm
17
5
12
0 fpm
30
6
24
200 fpm
28
6
22
400 fpm
26
6
20
600 fpm
24
6
18
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
55
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Typical Ambient Temperatures
The typical ambient temperature specifications are
based on the following assumptions and calculations:
The commercial operating range of the Am186ES and
Am188ES microcontrollers is a case temperature TC of
0 to 100 degrees Centigrade. TC is measured at the top
center of the package. An increase in the ambient
temperature causes a proportional increase in TC.
The 40-MHz microcontroller is specified as 5.0 V plus
or minus 5%. Therefore, 5.25 V is used for calculating
typical power consumption on the 40-MHz
microcontroller.
column titled Speed/Pkg/Board in Table 12 indicates
the clock speed in MHz, the type of package (P for
PQFP and T for TQFP), and the type of board (2 for 2layer and 4-6 for 4-layer to 6-layer).
Table 12. Junction Temperature Calculation
Speed/
Pkg/
Board
TJ = TC + (P ⋅ θJC)
TJ
TC
P
θJC
40/P2
108.673
100
1.239
7
40/T2
112.39
100
1.239
10
40/P4-6
106.195
100
1.239
5
40/T4-6
107.434
100
1.239
6
33/P2
107.49595
100
1.07085
7
33/T2
110.7085
100
1.07085
10
33/P4-6
105.35425
100
1.07085
5
33/T4-6
106.4251
100
1.07085
6
Typical power consumption (watts) = (5.9 mA/MHz)
times microcontroller clock rate times voltage divided
by 1000.
25/P2
105.67875
100
0.81125
7
25/T2
108.1125
100
0.81125
10
25/P4-6
104.05625
100
0.81125
5
Table 11 shows the variables that are used to calculate
the typical power consumption value for each version
of the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers.
25/T4-6
104.8675
100
0.81125
6
Microcontrollers up to 33 MHz are specified as 5.0 V
plus or minus 10%. Therefore, 5.5 V is used for
calculating typical power consumption up to 33 MHz.
Typical power supply current (ICC) in normal usage is
estimated at 5.9 mA per MHz of microcontroller clock
rate.
Table 11.
Typical Power Consumption
Calculation
P = MHz ⋅ ICC ⋅ Volts / 1000
Typical
Power (P) in
Watts
MHz
Typical ICC
Volts
40
5.9
5.25
1.239
33
5.9
5.5
1.07085
25
5.9
5.5
0.81125
20
5.9
5.5
0.649
20/P2
104.543
100
0.649
7
20/T2
106.49
100
0.649
10
20/P4-6
103.245
100
0.649
5
20/T4-6
103.894
100
0.649
6
By using T J from Table 12, the typical power
consumption value from Table 11, and a θJA value from
Table 10, the typical ambient temperature TA can be
calculated using the following formula from Figure 14:
TA = TJ – (P ⋅ θJA)
For example, TA for a 40-MHz PQFP design with a 2layer board and 0 fpm airflow is calculated as follows:
TA = 108.673 – (1.239 ⋅ 45)
TA = 52.918
Thermal resistance is a measure of the ability of a
package to remove heat from a semiconductor device.
A safe operating range for the device can be calculated
using the formulas from Figure 14 and the variables in
Table 10.
In this calculation, TJ comes from Table 12, P comes
from Table 11, and θJA comes from Table 10. See Table
13.
By using the maximum case rating T C , the typical
power consumption value from Table 11, and θJC from
Table 10, the junction temperature T J can be
calculated by using the following formula from Figure
14.
TA = 106.4251 – (1.07085 ⋅ 28)
TA = 76.4413
TJ = TC + (P ⋅ θJC)
Table 12 shows TJ values for the various versions of
the Am186ES and Am188ES microcontrollers. The
56
TA for a 33-MHz TQFP design with a 4-layer to 6-layer
board and 200 fpm airflow is calculated as follows:
See Table 16 for the result of this calculation.
Table 13 through Table 16 and Figure 15 through
Figure 18 show TA based on the preceding
assumptions and calculations for a range of θJA values
with airflow from 0 linear feet per minute to 600 linear
feet per minute.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Table 13 shows typical maximum ambient temperatures in degrees Centigrade for a PQFP package used on a 2layer board. The typical ambient temperatures are based on a 100-degree Centigrade maximum case temperature.
Figure 15 graphically illustrates the typical temperatures in Table 13.
Table 13. Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 2-Layer Board
Linear Feet per Minute Airflow
Microcontroller
Speed
40 MHz
33 MHz
25 MHz
20 MHz
Typical Power
(Watts)
1.239
1.07085
0.81125
0.649
0 fpm
52.918
59.3077
69.1725
75.338
200 fpm
60.352
65.7328
74.04
79.232
400 fpm
65.308
70.0162
77.285
81.828
600 fpm
67.786
72.1579
78.9075
83.126
Typical Ambient Temperature (Degrees C)
90
Legend:
● 40 MHz
✵ 33 MHz
■
80
■
■
◆
◆
■
◆
✶
70
✶
◆
●
✶
60
●
●
✶
●
50
◆ 25 Mhz
■ 20 MHz
40
0 fpm
200 fpm
400 fpm
600 fpm
Airflow (Linear Feet Per Minute)
Figure 15. Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 2-Layer Board
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
57
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Table 14 shows typical maximum ambient temperatures in degrees Centigrade for a TQFP package used on a 2layer board. The typical ambient temperatures are based on a 100-degree Centigrade maximum case temperature.
Figure 16 graphically illustrates the typical temperatures in Table 14.
Table 14. Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 2-Layer Board
Linear Feet per Minute Airflow
Microcontroller
Speed
40 MHz
33 MHz
25 MHz
20 MHz
Typical Power
(Watts)
1.239
1.07085
0.81125
0.649
0 fpm
43.006
50.7409
62.6825
70.146
200 fpm
55.396
61.4494
70.795
76.636
400 fpm
62.83
67.8745
75.6625
80.53
600 fpm
65.308
70.0162
77.285
81.828
Typical Ambient Temperature (Degrees C)
90
■
■
80
◆
■
70
◆
◆
■
✶
✶
●
✶
◆
●
60
●
✶
Legend:
50
● 40 MHz
✵ 33 MHz
●
◆ 25 Mhz
■ 20 MHz
40
0 fpm
200 fpm
400 fpm
Airflow (Linear Feet Per Minute)
Figure 16.
58
Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 2-Layer Board
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
600 fpm
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Table 15 shows typical maximum ambient temperatures in degrees Centigrade for a PQFP package used on a 4layer to 6-layer board. The typical ambient temperatures are based on a 100-degree Centigrade maximum case
temperature. Figure 17 graphically illustrates the typical temperatures in Table 15.
Table 15. Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board
Linear Feet per Minute Airflow
Microcontroller
Speed
40 MHz
33 MHz
25 MHz
20 MHz
Typical Power
(Watts)
1.239
1.07085
0.81125
0.649
0 fpm
77.698
80.7247
85.3975
88.318
200 fpm
80.176
82.8664
87.02
89.616
400 fpm
82.654
85.0081
88.6425
90.914
600 fpm
85.132
87.1498
90.265
92.212
95
Typical Ambient Temperature (Degrees C)
■
Legend:
● 40 MHz
✵ 33 MHz
■
90
■
◆
■
✶
◆
85
◆
✶
✶
✶
◆
●
●
●
80
●
75
◆ 25 Mhz
■ 20 MHz
70
0 fpm
200 fpm
400 fpm
600 fpm
Airflow (Linear Feet Per Minute)
Figure 17.
Typical Ambient Temperatures for PQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
59
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Table 16 shows typical maximum ambient temperatures in degrees Centigrade for a TQFP package used on a 4layer to 6-layer board. The typical ambient temperatures are based on a 100-degree Centigrade maximum case
temperature. Figure 18 graphically illustrates the typical temperatures in Table 16.
Table 16. Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board
Linear Feet per Minute Airflow
Microcontroller
Speed
40 MHz
33 MHz
25 MHz
20 MHz
Typical Power
(Watts)
1.239
1.07085
0.81125
0.649
0 fpm
70.264
74.2996
80.53
84.424
200 fpm
72.742
76.4413
82.1525
85.722
400 fpm
75.22
78.583
83.775
87.02
600 fpm
77.698
80.7247
85.3975
88.318
Typical Ambient Temperature (Degrees C)
95
Legend:
● 40 MHz
✵ 33 MHz
90
■
■
■
85
◆
■
◆
◆
✶
◆
80
✶
●
✶
●
75
✶
●
◆ 25 Mhz
■ 20 MHz
70
●
0 fpm
200 fpm
400 fpm
600 fpm
Airflow (Linear Feet Per Minute)
Figure 18.
60
Typical Ambient Temperatures for TQFP with a 4-Layer to 6-Layer Board
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
COMMERCIAL SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS AND WAVEFORMS
In the switching waveforms that follow, several
abbreviations are used to indicate the specific periods
of a bus cycle. These periods are referred to as time
states. A typical bus cycle is composed of four
consecutive time states: t1, t2, t3, and t4. Wait states,
which represent multiple t3 states, are referred to as tw
states. When no bus cycle is pending, an idle (ti) state
occurs.
In t h e s w i tc h i n g pa r a m e te r de s c r i p t i on s , t h e
multiplexed address is referred to as the AD address
bus; the demultiplexed address is referred to as the A
address bus.
Key to Switching Waveforms
WAVEFORM
INPUT
OUTPUT
Must be
Steady
Will be
Steady
May
Change
from H to L
Will be
Changing
from H to L
May
Change
from L to H
Will be
Changing
from L to H
Don’t Care,
Any Change
Permitted
Changing,
State
Unknown
Does Not
Apply
Center
Line is HighImpedance
Off State
Invalid
Invalid
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
61
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Alphabetical Key to Switching Parameter Symbols
62
Parameter Symbol
No.
Description
tARYCH
49
ARDY Resolution Transition Setup Time
tARYCHL
51
ARDY Inactive Holding Time
tARYHDSH
95
ARDY High to DS High
tARYHDV
89
ARDY Assert to Data Valid
tARYLCL
52
ARDY Setup Time
tARYLDSH
96
ARDY Low to DS High
tAVBL
87
A Address Valid to WHB, WLB Low
tAVCH
14
AD Address Valid to Clock High
tAVLL
12
AD Address Valid to ALE Low
tAVRL
66
A Address Valid to RD Low
tAVWL
65
A Address Valid to WR Low
tAZRL
24
AD Address Float to RD Active
tCH1CH2
45
CLKOUTA Rise Time
tCHAV
68
CLKOUTA High to A Address Valid
tCHCK
38
X1 High Time
tCHCL
44
CLKOUTA High Time
tCHCSV
67
CLKOUTA High to LCS/UCS Valid
tCHCSX
18
MCS/PCS Inactive Delay
tCHCTV
22
Control Active Delay 2
tCHCV
64
Command Lines Valid Delay (after Float)
tCHCZ
63
Command Lines Float Delay
tCHDX
8
Status Hold Time
tCHLH
9
ALE Active Delay
tCHLL
11
ALE Inactive Delay
tCHRFD
79
CLKOUTA High to RFSH Valid
tCHSV
3
Status Active Delay
tCICOA
69
X1 to CLKOUTA Skew
tCICOB
70
X1 to CLKOUTB Skew
tCKHL
39
X1 Fall Time
tCKIN
36
X1 Period
tCKLH
40
X1 Rise Time
tCL2CL1
46
CLKOUTA Fall Time
tCLARX
50
ARDY Active Hold Time
tCLAV
5
AD Address Valid Delay
tCLAX
6
Address Hold
tCLAZ
15
AD Address Float Delay
tCLCH
43
CLKOUTA Low Time
tCLCK
37
X1 Low Time
tCLCL
42
CLKOUTA Period
tCLCLX
80
LCS Inactive Delay
tCLCSL
81
LCS Active Delay
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Alphabetical Key to Switching Parameter Symbols (continued)
Parameter Symbol
No.
Description
tCLCSV
16
MCS/PCS Active Delay
tCLDOX
30
Data Hold Time
tCLDV
7
Data Valid Delay
tCLDX
2
Data in Hold
tCLHAV
62
HLDA Valid Delay
tCLRF
82
CLKOUTA High to RFSH Invalid
tCLRH
27
RD Inactive Delay
tCLRL
25
RD Active Delay
tCLSH
4
Status Inactive Delay
tCLSRY
48
SRDY Transition Hold Time
tCLTMV
55
Timer Output Delay
tCOAOB
83
CLKOUTA to CLKOUTB Skew
tCSHARYL
88
Chip Select to ARDY Low
tCVCTV
20
Control Active Delay 1
tCVCTX
31
Control Inactive Delay
tCVDEX
21
DEN Inactive Delay
tCXCSX
17
MCS/PCS Hold from Command Inactive
tDSHDIR
92
DS High to Data Invalid—Read
tDSHDIW
98
DS High to Data Invalid—Write
tDSHDX
93
DS High to Data Bus Turn-off Time
tDSHLH
41
DS Inactive to ALE Inactive
tDSLDD
90
DS Low to Data Driven
tDSLDV
91
DS Low to Data Valid
tDVCL
1
Data in Setup
tDVDSL
97
Data Valid to DS Low
tDXDL
19
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low
tHVCL
58
HOLD Setup
tINVCH
53
Peripheral Setup Time
tINVCL
54
DRQ Setup Time
tLCRF
86
LCS Inactive to RFSH Active Delay
tLHAV
23
ALE High to Address Valid
tLHLL
10
ALE Width
tLLAX
13
AD Address Hold from ALE Inactive
tLOCK
61
Maximum PLL Lock Time
tLRLL
84
LCS Precharge Pulse Width
tRESIN
57
RES Setup Time
tRFCY
85
RFSH Cycle Time
tRHAV
29
RD Inactive to AD Address Active
tRHDX
59
RD High to Data Hold on AD Bus
tRHDZ
94
RD High to Data Bus Turn-off Time
tRHLH
28
RD Inactive to ALE High
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
63
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Alphabetical Key to Switching Parameter Symbols (continued)
Parameter Symbol
No.
Description
tRLRH
26
RD Pulse Width
tSRYCL
47
SRDY Transition Setup Time
tWHDEX
35
WR Inactive to DEN Inactive
tWHDX
34
Data Hold after WR
tWHLH
33
WR Inactive to ALE High
tWLWH
32
WR Pulse Width
Note:
The following parameters are not defined or used as this time: 56, 60, 71–78.
64
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Numerical Key to Switching Parameter Symbols
No.
Parameter Symbol
Description
1
tDVCL
Data in Setup
2
tCLDX
Data in Hold
3
tCHSV
Status Active Delay
4
tCLSH
Status Inactive Delay
5
tCLAV
AD Address Valid Delay
6
tCLAX
Address Hold
7
tCLDV
Data Valid Delay
8
tCHDX
Status Hold Time
9
tCHLH
ALE Active Delay
10
tLHLL
ALE Width
11
tCHLL
ALE Inactive Delay
12
tAVLL
AD Address Valid to ALE Low
13
tLLAX
AD Address Hold from ALE Inactive
14
tAVCH
AD Address Valid to Clock High
15
tCLAZ
AD Address Float Delay
16
tCLCSV
MCS/PCS Active Delay
17
tCXCSX
MCS/PCS Hold from Command Inactive
18
tCHCSX
MCS/PCS Inactive Delay
19
tDXDL
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low
20
tCVCTV
Control Active Delay 1
21
tCVDEX
DEN Inactive Delay
22
tCHCTV
Control Active Delay 2
23
tLHAV
ALE High to Address Valid
24
tAZRL
AD Address Float to RD Active
25
tCLRL
RD Active Delay
26
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
27
tCLRH
RD Inactive Delay
28
tRHLH
RD Inactive to ALE High
29
tRHAV
RD Inactive to AD Address Active
30
tCLDOX
Data Hold Time
31
tCVCTX
Control Inactive Delay
32
tWLWH
WR Pulse Width
33
tWHLH
WR Inactive to ALE High
34
tWHDX
Data Hold after WR
35
tWHDEX
WR Inactive to DEN Inactive
36
tCKIN
X1 Period
37
tCLCK
X1 Low Time
38
tCHCK
X1 High Time
39
tCKHL
X1 Fall Time
40
tCKLH
X1 Rise Time
41
tDSHLH
DS Inactive to ALE Inactive
42
tCLCL
CLKOUTA Period
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
65
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Numerical Key to Switching Parameter Symbols (continued)
66
No.
Parameter Symbol
Description
43
tCLCH
CLKOUTA Low Time
44
tCHCL
CLKOUTA High Time
45
tCH1CH2
CLKOUTA Rise Time
46
tCL2CL1
CLKOUTA Fall Time
47
tSRYCL
SRDY Transition Setup Time
48
tCLSRY
SRDY Transition Hold Time
49
tARYCH
ARDY Resolution Transition Setup Time
50
tCLARX
ARDY Active Hold Time
51
tARYCHL
ARDY Inactive Holding Time
52
tARYLCL
ARDY Setup Time
53
tINVCH
Peripheral Setup Time
54
tINVCL
DRQ Setup Time
55
tCLTMV
Timer Output Delay
57
tRESIN
RES Setup Time
58
tHVCL
HOLD Setup
59
tRHDX
RD High to Data Hold on AD Bus
61
tLOCK
Maximum PLL Lock Time
62
tCLHAV
HLDA Valid Delay
63
tCHCZ
Command Lines Float Delay
64
tCHCV
Command Lines Valid Delay (after Float)
65
tAVWL
A Address Valid to WR Low
66
tAVRL
A Address Valid to RD Low
67
tCHCSV
CLKOUTA High to LCS/UCS Valid
68
tCHAV
CLKOUTA High to A Address Valid
69
tCICOA
X1 to CLKOUTA Skew
70
tCICOB
X1 to CLKOUTB Skew
79
tCHRFD
CLKOUTA High to RFSH Valid
80
tCLCLX
LCS Inactive Delay
81
tCLCSL
LCS Active Delay
82
tCLRF
CLKOUTA High to RFSH Invalid
83
tCOAOB
84
tLRLL
LCS Precharge Pulse Width
85
tRFCY
RFSH Cycle Time
86
tLCRF
LCS Inactive to RFSH Active Delay
87
tAVBL
A Address Valid to WHB, WLB Low
88
tCSHARYL
Chip Select to ARDY Low
89
tARYHDV
ARDY Assert to Data Valid
90
tDSLDD
DS Low to Data Driven
91
tDSLDV
DS Low to Data Valid
92
tDSHDIR
DS High to Data Invalid—Read
93
tDSHDX
DS High to Data Bus Turn-off Time
CLKOUTA to CLKOUTB Skew
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Numerical Key to Switching Parameter Symbols (continued)
No.
Parameter Symbol
Description
94
tRHDZ
95
tARYHDSH
RD High to Data Bus Turn-off Time
ARDY High to DS High
96
tARYLDSH
ARDY Low to DS High
97
tDVDSL
Data Valid to DS Low
98
tDSHDIW
DS High to Data Invalid—Write
Note:
The following parameters are not defined or used as this time: 56, 60, 71–78.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
67
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over Commercial operating ranges
Read Cycle (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Requirements
Data in Setup
1
tDVCL
Data in Hold(c)
2
tCLDX
General Timing Responses
Status Active Delay
3
tCHSV
4
tCLSH
Status Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
5
tCLAV
Address Hold
6
tCLAX
Status Hold Time
8
tCHDX
ALE Active Delay
9
tCHLH
ALE Width
10
tLHLL
11
12
13
tCHLL
tAVLL
tLLAX
ALE Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid to ALE Low(a)
AD Address Hold from ALE
Inactive(a)
14
tAVCH
AD Address Valid to Clock High
AD Address Float Delay
15
tCLAZ
16
tCLCSV MCS/PCS Active Delay
17
tCXCSX MCS/PCS Hold from Command
Inactive(a)
18
tCHCSX MCS/PCS Inactive Delay
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
19
tDXDL
20
tCVCTV Control Active Delay 1(b)
21
tCVDEX DEN Inactive Delay
22
tCHCTV Control Active Delay 2(b)
ALE High to Address Valid
23
tLHAV
PCS Low to ALE Low
99
tPLAL
Read Cycle Timing Responses
AD Address Float to RD Active
24
tAZRL
RD Active Delay
25
tCLRL
26
tRLRH
RD Pulse Width
27
tCLRH
RD Inactive Delay
28
tRHLH
RD Inactive to ALE High(a)
RD Inactive to AD Address
29
tRHAV
Active(a)
41
tDSHLH DS Inactive to ALE High
59
66
tRHDX
tAVRL
67
68
tCHCSV
tCHAV
Preliminary
20 MHz
25 MHz
Min
Max
Min
Max
10
3
0
0
0
0
0
10
3
25
25
25
25
0
0
0
0
0
25
tCLCL –10=
40
0
0
0
0
0
20
15
0
0
2tCLCL –15=
85
0
tCLCH –3
tCLCL –10=
40
tCLCH –2=
21
RD High to Data Hold on AD Bus(c)
0
A Address Valid to RD Low(a)
tCLCL +
tCHCL–3
CLKOUTA High to LCS/UCS Valid
0
CLKOUTA High to A Address
0
Valid
20
20
20
20
20
25
0
tCLAX =0
0
tCLCH –2
ns
ns
tCLCL –10=
30
tCLCHL –2
tCHCL –2
20
tCLCH –2
tCHCL –2
25
25
25
25
12
25
28
25
25
25
25
0
tCLAX =0
0
tCLCH –2
0
0
0
0
0
15
15
0
0
2tCLCL –15=
65
0
tCLCH –3
tCLCL –10=
30
tCLCH –2=
16
0
tCLCL +
tCHCL–3
0
0
Unit
20
20
20
20
12
20
24
20
20
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
20
20
ns
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a Equal loading on referenced pins.
b This parameter applies to the DEN, DS, INTA1–INTA0, WR, WHB, and WLB signals.
c If either spec 2 or spec 59 is met with respect to data hold time, the part will function correctly.
68
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Read Cycle (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Requirements
Data in Setup
1
tDVCL
Data in Hold(c)
2
tCLDX
General Timing Responses
Status Active Delay
3
tCHSV
4
tCLSH
Status Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
5
tCLAV
Address Hold
6
tCLAX
Status Hold Time
8
tCHDX
ALE Active Delay
9
tCHLH
ALE Width
10
tLHLL
11
tCHLL
ALE Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid to ALE Low(a)
12
tAVLL
AD Address Hold from ALE
13
tLLAX
Inactive(a)
14
tAVCH
AD Address Valid to Clock High
AD Address Float Delay
15
tCLAZ
16
tCLCSV MCS/PCS Active Delay
17
tCXCSX MCS/PCS Hold from Command
Inactive(a)
18
tCHCSX MCS/PCS Inactive Delay
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
19
tDXDL
20
tCVCTV Control Active Delay 1(b)
21
tCVDEX DEN Inactive Delay
22
tCHCTV Control Active Delay 2(b)
ALE High to Address Valid
23
tLHAV
PCS Low to ALE Low
99
tPLAL
Read Cycle Timing Responses
AD Address Float to RD Active
24
tAZRL
RD Active Delay
25
tCLRL
RD Pulse Width
26
tRLRH
RD Inactive Delay
27
tCLRH
RD Inactive to ALE High(a)
28
tRHLH
RD Inactive to AD Address
29
tRHAV
Active(a)
41
tDSHLH DS Inactive to ALE Inactive
RD High to Data Hold on AD Bus(c)
59
tRHDX
66
tAVRL
A Address Valid to RD Low(a)
67
68
tCHCSV
tCHAV
CLKOUTA High to LCS/UCS Valid
CLKOUTA High to A Address
Valid
33 MHz
Min
40 MHz
Min
Max
8
3
0
0
0
0
0
5
2
15
15
15
15
0
0
0
0
0
15
tCLCL –10=20
0
0
0
0
0
10
12
0
0
2tCLCL –15=45
0
tCLCH –3
tCLCL –10=20
12
tCLCH –2
tCHCL –2
15
15
0
tCLAX =0
0
tCLCH –2
15
0
0
0
0
0
7.5
10
15
12
15
20
15
15
tCLCH –2=11.5
0
tCLCL + tCHCL–3
0
0
12
12
12
12
12
15
15
15
0
0
2tCLCL –10=40
0
tCLCH –2
tCLCL –5=20
tCLCH –2=9.25
0
tCLCL + tCHCL–
1.125
0
0
Unit
ns
ns
tCLCL –5=20
tCLCH –2
tCHCL –2
0
tCLAX =0
0
tCLCH –2
Max
12
12
12
12
12
12
18
10
12
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
10
10
ns
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the DEN, DS, INTA1–INTA0, WR, WHB, and WLB signals.
c
If either spec 2 or spec 59 is met with respect to data hold time, the part will function correctly.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
69
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Read Cycle Waveforms
t1
t2
t3
t4
tW
CLKOUTA
66
Address
A19–A0
8
68
S6/LOCK
S6
LOCK
S6
14
1
6
AD15–AD0*,
AD7–AD0**
Address
Data
2
Address
AO15–AO8**
23
29
9
11
59
ALE
15
10
RD
28
24
26
12
5
27
25
BHE*
BHE
67
18
13
LCS, UCS
16
MCS1–MCS0,
PCS6–PCS5,
PCS3–PCS0
17
99
20
21
DEN, DS
41
19
DT/R
22 ***
4
S2–S0
Status
3
UZI
Notes:
*
Am186ES microcontroller only
**
***
70
Am188ES microcontroller only
Changes in t phase preceding next bus cycle if followed by read, INTA, or halt.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
*** 22
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Write Cycle (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Responses
Status Active Delay
3
tCHSV
4
tCLSH
Status Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
5
tCLAV
Address Hold
6
tCLAX
7
tCLDV
Data Valid Delay
Status Hold Time
8
tCHDX
9
tCHLH
ALE Active Delay
ALE Width
10
tLHLL
11
tCHLL
ALE Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid to ALE Low(a)
12
tAVLL
13
tLLAX
AD Address Hold from ALE
Inactive(a)
14
tAVCH
AD Address Valid to Clock High
16
tCLCSV MCS/PCS Active Delay
17
tCXCSX MCS/PCS Hold from Command
Inactive(a)
18
tCHCSX MCS/PCS Inactive Delay
19
tDXDL
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
20
tCVCTV Control Active Delay 1(b)
21
tCVDEX DS Inactive Delay
22
tCHCTV Control Active Delay 2
23
tLHAV
ALE High to Address Valid
Write Cycle Timing Responses
30
tCLDOX Data Hold Time
31
tCVCTX Control Inactive Delay(b)
32
tWLWH WR Pulse Width
33
tWHLH
WR Inactive to ALE High(a)
34
tWHDX Data Hold after WR(a)
35
tWHDEX WR Inactive to DEN Inactive(a)
41
tDSHLH DS Inactive to ALE High
65
67
68
tAVWL
tCHCSV
tCHAV
87
tAVBL
98
tDSHDIW
A Address Valid to WR Low
CLKOUTA High to LCS/UCS Valid
CLKOUTA High to A Address
Valid
A Address Valid to WHB, WLB
Low
DS High to Data Invalid—Write
20 MHz
Min
0
0
0
0
0
0
Max
25 MHz
Min
25
25
25
25
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
25
tCLCL –10=40
tCLCH –2
tCHCL–2
0
0
2tCLCL –10=90
tCLCH –2
tCLCL –10=40
tCLCH –3
tCLCH –2=
21
tCLCL+tCHCL –3
0
0
tCHCL –3
20
20
20
20
20
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
20
20
tCLCH –2
tCHCL–2
0
0
25
tCLCH –2
0
0
0
0
0
20
Unit
tCLCL –10=30
25
0
0
Max
20
tCLCH –2
25
15
25
25
0
0
0
0
0
15
25
25
0
0
2tCLCL –10=70
tCLCH –2
tCLCL –10=30
tCLCH –3
tCLCH –2=
16
tCLCL +tCHCL –3
0
0
25
25
20
20
20
20
20
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
20
20
ns
ns
ns
tCHCL –3
20
ns
0
30
ns
35
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the DEN, DS, INTA1–INTA0, WR, WHB, and WLB signals.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
71
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Write Cycle (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Responses
Status Active Delay
3
tCHSV
4
tCLSH
Status Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
5
tCLAV
Address Hold
6
tCLAX
7
tCLDV
Data Valid Delay
Status Hold Time
8
tCHDX
9
tCHLH
ALE Active Delay
ALE Width
10
tLHLL
11
tCHLL
ALE Inactive Delay
AD Address Valid to ALE Low(a)
12
tAVLL
13
tLLAX
AD Address Hold from ALE
Inactive(a)
14
tAVCH
AD Address Valid to Clock High
16
tCLCSV MCS/PCS Active Delay
17
tCXCSX MCS/PCS Hold from Command
Inactive(a)
18
tCHCSX MCS/PCS Inactive Delay
19
tDXDL
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
20
tCVCTV Control Active Delay 1(b)
21
tCVDEX DS Inactive Delay
22
tCHCTV Control Active Delay 2
23
tLHAV
ALE High to Address Valid
Write Cycle Timing Responses
30
tCLDOX Data Hold Time
31
tCVCTX Control Inactive Delay(b)
32
tWLWH WR Pulse Width
33
tWHLH
WR Inactive to ALE High(a)
34
tWHDX Data Hold after WR(a)
35
tWHDEX WR Inactive to DEN Inactive(a)
65
tAVWL
A Address Valid to WR Low
67
68
tCHCSV
tCHAV
87
tAVBL
98
tDSHDIW
CLKOUTA High to LCS/UCS Valid
CLKOUTA High to A Address
Valid
A Address Valid to WHB, WLB
Low
DS High to Data Invalid—Write
33 MHz
Min
0
0
0
0
0
0
Max
15
15
15
25
15
40 MHz
Min
0
0
0
0
0
0
15
tCLCL –10=20
tCLCH –2
tCHCL–2
0
0
2tCLCL –10=50
tCLCH –2
tCLCL –10=20
tCLCH –5
tCLCL +tCHCL –3
12
12
12
20
12
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
12
12
tCLCH –2
tCHCL–2
15
tCLCH –2
0
0
0
0
0
10
Unit
tCLCL –5=20
15
0
0
Max
0
0
12
tCLCH –2
15
15
15
15
0
0
0
0
0
7.5
0
0
15
15
0
0
2tCLCL –10=40
tCLCH –2
tCLCL –10=15
tCLCH
tCLCL +tCHCL –
1.25
0
0
tCHCL –3
15
0
20
15
12
12
12
12
12
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
10
10
ns
ns
tCHCL –1.25
12
ns
0
15
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the DEN, DS, INTA1–INTA0, WR, WHB, and WLB signals.
72
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Write Cycle Waveforms
t1
t2
t3
t4
tW
CLKOUTA
65
A19–A0
Address
68
8
S6/LOCK
S6
S6
LOCK
14
7
AD15–AD0*,
AD7–AD0**
30
Address
Data
6
AO15–AO8**
Address
23
11
9
34
13
ALE
31
10
33
32
WR
12
20
WHB*, WLB*
WB**
20
31
87
5
BHE*
BHE
67
41
LCS, UCS
16
18
99
MCS3–MCS0,
PCS6–PCS5,
PCS3–PCS0
17
35
20
31
DEN
98
21
20
DS
19
DT/R
***
22 ***
22
S2–S0
Status
3
4
UZI
Notes:
*
Am186ES microcontroller only
**
Am188ES microcontroller only
***
Changes in t phase preceding next bus cycle if followed by read, INTA, or halt.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
73
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
PSRAM Read Cycle (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Requirements
20 MHz
Min
25 MHz
Max
Min
Max
Data in Setup
Data in Hold(b)
10
3
General Timing Responses
5
tCLAV
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
0
25
0
20
ns
0
0
25
0
0
20
ns
ns
20
ns
ns
20
ns
ns
20
20
ns
ns
1
2
tDVCL
tCLDX
7
8
tCLDV
tCHDX
Data Valid Delay
Status Hold Time
9
10
tCHLH
tLHLL
ALE Active Delay
ALE Width
11
23
tCHLL
tLHAV
ALE Inactive Delay
ALE High to Address Valid
20
80
81
tCLCLX
tCLCSL
LCS Inactive Delay
LCS Active Delay
0
0
LCS Precharge Pulse Width
84
tLRLL
Read Cycle Timing Responses
24
25
tAZRL
tCLRL
AD Address Float to RD Active
RD Active Delay
26
27
tRLRH
tCLRH
RD Pulse Width
RD Inactive Delay
28
59
tRHLH
tRHDX
66
tAVRL
RD Inactive to ALE High(a)
RD High to Data Hold on AD
Bus(b)
A Address Valid to RD Low
68
tCHAV
CLKOUTA High to A Address
Valid
10
3
Unit
25
tCLCL –10=40
ns
ns
tCLCL –10=30
25
15
25
25
0
0
tCLCL+ tCLCH–3
tCLCL + tCLCH –3
ns
0
0
25
0
0
20
ns
ns
25
2tCLCL –15=65
0
20
ns
ns
2tCLCL –15=85
0
tCLCH –3
0
tCLCH –3
0
ns
ns
tCLCL + tCHCL–3
tCLCL + tCHCL–3
ns
0
25
0
20
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL=0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC –0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
If either spec 2 or spec 59 is met with respect to data hold time, the part will function correctly.
74
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
PSRAM Read Cycle (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Requirements
33 MHz
Min
40 MHz
Max
Min
Max
Data in Setup
Data in Hold(b)
8
3
General Timing Responses
5
tCLAV
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
0
15
0
12
ns
0
0
15
0
0
12
ns
ns
12
ns
ns
12
ns
ns
12
12
ns
ns
1
2
tDVCL
tCLDX
7
8
tCLDV
tCHDX
Data Valid Delay
Status Hold Time
9
10
tCHLH
tLHLL
ALE Active Delay
ALE Width
11
23
tCHLL
tLHAV
ALE Inactive Delay
ALE High to Address Valid
10
80
81
tCLCLX
tCLCSL
LCS Inactive Delay
LCS Active Delay
0
0
84
tLRLL
LCS Precharge Pulse Width
Read Cycle Timing Responses
24
tAZRL
AD Address Float to RD Active
25
26
tCLRL
tRLRH
RD Active Delay
RD Pulse Width
27
28
tCLRH
tRHLH
RD Inactive Delay
RD Inactive to ALE High(a)
59
tRHDX
66
tAVRL
RD High to Data Hold on AD
Bus(b)
A Address Valid to RD Low
68
tCHAV
CLKOUTA High to A Address
Valid
5
2
Unit
15
tCLCL –10=20
ns
ns
tCLCL –5=20
15
7.5
15
15
tCLCL + tCLCH –3
0
0
tCLCL + tCLCH –
1.25
0
ns
0
ns
0
2tCLCL –15=45
15
0
2tCLCL –10=40
10
ns
ns
0
tCLCH –3
15
0
tCLCH –1.25
12
ns
ns
0
0
ns
tCLCL + tCHCL–3
tCLCL + tCHCL–
1.25
0
ns
0
15
10
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC –0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
If either spec 2 or spec 59 is met with respect to data hold time, the part will function correctly.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
75
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PSRAM Read Cycle Waveforms
t1
t3
t2
t4
t1
tW
CLKOUTA
66
Address
A19–A0
8
68
S6
S6/LOCK
S6
LOCK
1
7
AD15–AD0*,
AD7–AD0**
Address
Address
Data
2
Address
AO15–AO8**
23
9
11
59
ALE
10
28
24
26
RD
27
5
25
27
LCS
80
81
84
Notes:
*
Am186ES microcontroller only
**
Am188ES microcontroller only
76
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
80
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
PSRAM Write Cycle (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Responses
20 MHz
25 MHz
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
25
25
0
0
20
20
ns
ns
20
ns
ns
20
ns
ns
5
7
tCLAV
tCLDV
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
Data Valid Delay
0
0
8
9
tCHDX
tCHLH
Status Hold Time
ALE Active Delay
0
10
11
tLHLL
tCHLL
ALE Width
ALE Inactive Delay
20
23
tCVCTV
tLHAV
Control Active Delay 1(b)
ALE High to Address Valid
0
20
25
0
15
20
ns
ns
80
81
tCLCLX
tCLCSL
LCS Inactive Delay
LCS Active Delay
0
0
25
25
0
0
20
20
ns
ns
20
ns
ns
LCS Precharge Pulse Width
84
tLRLL
Write Cycle Timing Responses
0
25
tCLCL –10=40
tCLCL –10=30
25
tCLCL + tCLCH –3
tCLCL + tCLCH –3
0
0
0
0
30
31
tCLDOX
tCVCTX
Data Hold Time
Control Inactive Delay(b)
32
33
tWLWH
tWHLH
WR Pulse Width
WR Inactive to ALE High(a)
2tCLCL –10=90
tCLCH –2
2tCLCL –10=70
tCLCH –2
ns
ns
34
65
tWHDX
tAVWL
Data Hold after WR(a)
A Address Valid to WR Low
tCHAV
CLKOUTA High to A
Address Valid
25
tCLCL –10=30
tCLCL +tCHCL
–3
0
ns
ns
68
tCLCL –10=40
tCLCL +tCHCL
–3
0
20
ns
87
tAVBL
A Address Valid to WHB, WLB
Low
tCHCL –3
25
tCHCL –3
20
ns
25
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the DEN, WR, WHB, and WLB signals.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
77
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
PSRAM Write Cycle (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
33 MHz
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Responses
40 MHz
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
15
15
0
0
12
12
ns
ns
12
ns
ns
12
ns
ns
5
7
tCLAV
tCLDV
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
Data Valid Delay
0
0
8
9
tCHDX
tCHLH
Status Hold Time
ALE Active Delay
0
10
11
tLHLL
tCHLL
ALE Width
ALE Inactive Delay
20
23
tCVCTV
tLHAV
Control Active Delay 1(b)
ALE High to Address Valid
0
10
15
0
7.5
12
ns
ns
80
81
tCLCLX
tCLCSL
LCS Inactive Delay
LCS Active Delay
0
0
15
15
0
0
12
12
ns
ns
84
tLRLL
LCS Precharge Pulse Width
Write Cycle Timing Responses
30
tCLDOX Data Hold Time
Delay(b)
0
15
tCLCL –10=20
tCLCL –5=20
15
tCLCL + tCLCH –
3
tCLCL + tCLCH –
1.25
0
0
15
0
2tCLCL –10=40
ns
31
32
tCVCTX
tWLWH
Control Inactive
WR Pulse Width
0
2tCLCL –10=50
12
ns
ns
33
34
tWHLH
tWHDX
WR Inactive to ALE High(a)
Data Hold after WR(a)
tCLCH –2
tCLCL –10=20
tCLCH –2
tCLCL –10=15
ns
ns
65
tAVWL
A Address Valid to WR Low
tCHAV
15
10
ns
87
tAVBL
CLKOUTA High to A
Address Valid
A Address Valid to WHB, WLB
Low
tCLCL +tCHCL
–1.25
0
ns
68
tCLCL +tCHCL
–3
0
tCHCL –3
15
tCHCL –1.25
12
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the DEN, WR, WHB, and WLB signals.
78
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PSRAM Write Cycle Waveforms
t1
t2
t3
t1
t4
tW
CLKOUTA
65
Address
A19–A0
68
8
S6
S6/LOCK
LOCK
S6
7
AD15–AD0*,
AD7–AD0**
30
Address
Data
Address
AO15–AO8**
23
11
9
ALE
34
10
33
32
WR
31
5
20
20
WHB*, WLB*
WB**
LCS
31
87
80
84
81
80
Notes:
*
Am186ES microcontroller only
**
Am188ES microcontroller only
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
79
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
PSRAM Refresh Cycle (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Responses
9
10
tCHLH
tLHLL
ALE Active Delay
ALE Width
20 MHz
Min
tCLRL
tRLRH
RD Active Delay
RD Pulse Width
27
28
tCLRH
tRHLH
RD Inactive Delay
RD Inactive to ALE High(a)
80
81
tCLCLX
tCLCSL
LCS Inactive Delay
LCS Active Delay
Refresh Timing Cycle Parameters
79
tCLRFD CLKOUTA Low to RFSH Valid
Min
25
tCLCL –10=40
ALE Inactive Delay
11
tCHLL
Read/Write Cycle Timing Responses
25
26
25 MHz
Max
Max
Unit
20
ns
ns
20
ns
tCLCL –10=30
25
0
2tCLCL –15=85
25
0
2tCLCL –15=65
20
ns
ns
0
25
0
20
ns
ns
20
20
ns
ns
tCLCH –3
0
0
tCLCH –3
25
25
0
0
0
25
0
20
ns
82
85
tCLRF
tRFCY
CLKOUTA High to RFSH Invalid
RFSH Cycle Time
0
6 • tCLCL
25
0
6 • tCLCL
20
ns
ns
86
tLCRF
LCS Inactive to RFSH Active
Delay
2tCLCL –3
2tCLCL –3
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
80
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
PSRAM Refresh Cycle (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Responses
9
10
tCHLH
tLHLL
ALE Active Delay
ALE Width
33 MHz
Min
tCLRL
tRLRH
RD Active Delay
RD Pulse Width
27
28
tCLRH
tRHLH
RD Inactive Delay
RD Inactive to ALE High(a)
80
81
tCLCLX
tCLCSL
LCS Inactive Delay
LCS Active Delay
Refresh Timing Cycle Parameters
79
tCLRFD CLKOUTA Low to RFSH Valid
Min
15
tCLCL –10=20
ALE Inactive Delay
11
tCHLL
Read/Write Cycle Timing Responses
25
26
40 MHz
Max
Max
Unit
12
ns
ns
12
ns
tCLCL –5=20
15
0
2tCLCL –15=45
15
0
2tCLCL –10=40
10
ns
ns
0
15
0
12
ns
ns
12
12
ns
ns
tCLCH –3
0
0
tCLCH –2
15
15
0
0
0
15
0
12
ns
82
85
tCLRF
tRFCY
CLKOUTA High to RFSH Invalid
RFSH Cycle Time
0
6 • tCLCL
15
0
6 • tCLCL
12
ns
ns
86
tLCRF
LCS Inactive to RFSH Active
Delay
2tCLCL –3
2tCLCL –1.25
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
81
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PSRAM Refresh Cycle Waveforms
t1
t2
t3
t4
t1
tW *
CLKOUTA
Address
A19–A0
11
9
ALE
27
10
28
26
RD
80
27
25
LCS
79
RFSH
82
85
86
Notes:
* The period tw is fixed at 3 wait states for PSRAM auto refresh only.
82
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
81
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
20 MHz
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Requirements
1
2
tDVCL
tCLDX
Min
Data in Setup
Data in Hold
25 MHz
Max
10
3
General Timing Responses
3
tCHSV
Status Active Delay
Min
Max
10
3
Unit
ns
ns
0
25
0
20
ns
4
7
tCLSH
tCLDV
Status Inactive Delay
Data Valid Delay
0
0
25
25
0
0
20
20
ns
ns
8
9
tCHDX
tCHLH
Status Hold Time
ALE Active Delay
0
20
ns
ns
10
11
tLHLL
tCHLL
ALE Width
ALE Inactive Delay
20
ns
ns
12
tAVLL
AD Address Invalid to ALE
Low(a)
15
19
tCLAZ
tDXDL
AD Address Float Delay
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
20
21
tCVCTV
tCVDEX
22
23
31
68
0
25
tCLCL –10=40
tCLCL –10=30
25
tCLCH
tCLCH
ns
tCLAX =0
0
25
tCLAX =0
0
20
ns
ns
Control Active Delay 1(b)
DEN Inactive Delay
0
0
25
25
0
0
20
20
ns
ns
tCHCTV
tLHAV
Control Active Delay 2(c)
ALE High to Address Valid
0
20
25
0
15
20
ns
ns
tCVCTX
tCHAV
Control Inactive Delay(b)
CLKOUTA High to A
Address Valid
0
0
25
25
0
0
20
20
ns
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the INTA1–INTA0 signals.
c
This parameter applies to the DEN and DT/R signals.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
83
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
33 MHz
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Requirements
1
2
tDVCL
tCLDX
Min
Data in Setup
Data in Hold
40 MHz
Max
8
3
General Timing Responses
3
tCHSV
Status Active Delay
Min
Max
5
2
Unit
ns
ns
0
15
0
12
ns
4
7
tCLSH
tCLDV
Status Inactive Delay
Data Valid Delay
0
0
15
15
0
0
12
12
ns
ns
8
9
tCHDX
tCHLH
Status Hold Time
ALE Active Delay
0
12
ns
ns
10
11
tLHLL
tCHLL
ALE Width
ALE Inactive Delay
12
ns
ns
12
tAVLL
AD Address Invalid to ALE
Low(a)
15
19
tCLAZ
tDXDL
AD Address Float Delay
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
20
21
tCVCTV
tCVDEX
22
23
31
68
0
15
tCLCL –10=20
tCLCL –5=20
15
tCLCH
tCLCH
ns
tCLAX =0
0
15
tCLAX =0
0
12
ns
ns
Control Active Delay 1(b)
DEN Inactive Delay
0
0
15
15
0
0
12
12
ns
ns
tCHCTV
tLHAV
Control Active Delay 2(c)
ALE High to Address Valid
0
10
15
0
7.5
12
ns
ns
tCVCTX
tCHAV
Control Inactive Delay(b)
CLKOUTA High to A
Address Valid
0
0
15
15
0
0
12
10
ns
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the INTA1–INTA0 signals.
c
This parameter applies to the DEN and DT/R signals.
84
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Interrupt Acknowledge Cycle Waveforms
t1
t2
t3
t4
tW
CLKOUTA
68
Address
A19–A0
7
S6
S6/LOCK
8
LOCK
S6
1
AD15–AD0*,
AD7–AD0**
2
12
(b)
Ptr
15
Address
AO15–AO8**
23
9
ALE
10
11
4
BHE
BHE*
31
INTA1–INTA0
20
DEN
22
19 (c)
21
22
DT/R
4 (a)
3
22 (d)
Status
S2–S0
Notes:
*
Am186ES microcontroller only
**
Am188ES microcontroller only
a
The status bits become inactive in the state preceding t4.
b
The data hold time lasts only until the interrupt acknowledge signal deasserts, even if the interrupt acknowledge
transition occurs prior to tCLDX (min).
c
This parameter applies for an interrupt acknowledge cycle that follows a write cycle.
d
If followed by a write cycle, this change occurs in the state preceding that write cycle.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
85
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Software Halt Cycle (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
General Timing Responses
20 MHz
25 MHz
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
3
4
tCHSV
tCLSH
Status Active Delay
Status Inactive Delay
0
0
25
25
0
0
20
20
ns
ns
5
9
tCLAV
tCHLH
AD Address Invalid Delay and BHE
ALE Active Delay
0
25
25
0
20
20
ns
ns
10
11
tLHLL
tCHLL
ALE Width
ALE Inactive Delay
19
22
tDXDL
tCHCTV
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
Control Active Delay 2(b)
0
0
68
tCHAV
CLKOUTA High to A Address
Invalid
0
tCLCL –10=40
tCLCL –10=30
20
ns
ns
25
0
0
20
ns
ns
25
0
20
ns
25
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the DEN signal.
86
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Software Halt Cycle (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No.
Symbol
33 MHz
Description
40 MHz
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
General Timing Responses
3
4
tCHSV
tCLSH
Status Active Delay
Status Inactive Delay
0
0
15
15
0
0
12
12
ns
ns
5
9
tCLAV
tCHLH
AD Address Invalid Delay and BHE
ALE Active Delay
0
15
15
0
12
12
ns
ns
10
11
tLHLL
tCHLL
ALE Width
ALE Inactive Delay
19
22
tDXDL
tCHCTV
DEN Inactive to DT/R Low(a)
Control Active Delay 2(b)
0
0
68
tCHAV
CLKOUTA High to A Address
Invalid
0
tCLCL –10=20
tCLCL –5=20
12
ns
ns
15
0
0
12
ns
ns
15
0
10
ns
15
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
Testing is performed with equal loading on referenced pins.
b
This parameter applies to the DEN signal.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
87
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Software Halt Cycle Waveforms
t1
t2
ti
CLKOUTA
68
A19–A0
Invalid Address
5
S6, AD15–AD0*,
AD7–AD0**,
AO15–AO8**
Invalid Address
10
ALE
9
11
DEN
19
DT/R
22
4
Status
S2–S0
3
Notes:
*
Am186ES microcontroller only
**
Am188ES microcontroller only
88
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
ti
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Clock (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
CLKIN Requirements
20 MHz
Description
Max
Min
Max
Unit
60
40
15
60
ns
ns
36
37
tCKIN
tCLCK
X1 Period(a)
X1 Low Time (1.5 V)(a)
50
15
38
39
tCHCK
tCKHL
X1 High Time (1.5 V)(a)
X1 Fall Time (3.5 to 1.0 V)(a)
15
X1 Rise Time (1.0 to 3.5 V)(a)
40
tCKLH
CLKOUT Timing
42
43
tCLCL
tCLCH
44
tCHCL
45
tCH1CH2
46
tCL2CL1
61
69
70
CLKOUTA Period
CLKOUTA Low Time (CL =50
pF)
CLKOUTA High Time (CL =50
pF)
CLKOUTA Rise Time
(1.0 to 3.5 V)
25 MHz
Min
5
15
5
ns
ns
5
5
ns
50
0.5tCLCL –2=23
40
0.5tCLCL –2=18
ns
ns
0.5tCLCL –2=23
0.5tCLCL –2=18
ns
3
3
ns
CLKOUTA Fall Time
(3.5 to 1.0 V)
3
3
ns
tLOCK
tCICOA
Maximum PLL Lock Time
X1 to CLKOUTA Skew
1
15
1
15
ms
ns
tCICOB
X1 to CLKOUTB Skew
25
25
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
The specifications for CLKIN are applicable to the normal PLL and CLKDIV2 modes.
The PLL should be used for operations from 16.667 MHz to 40 MHz. For operations below 16.667 MHz, the CLKDIV2
mode should be used.
Because the CLKDIV2 input frequency is two times the system frequency, the specifications for twice the frequency should
be used for CLKDIV2 mode. For example, use the 20 MHz CLKIN specifications for 10 MHz operation.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
89
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Clock (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
Parameter
No. Symbol
CLKIN Requirements
33 MHz
Description
Max
Min
Max
Unit
60
25
7.5
60
ns
ns
36
37
tCKIN
tCLCK
X1 Period(a)
X1 Low Time (1.5 V)(a)
30
10
38
39
tCHCK
tCKHL
X1 High Time (1.5 V)(a)
X1 Fall Time (3.5 to 1.0 V)(a)
10
X1 Rise Time (1.0 to 3.5 V)(a)
40
tCKLH
CLKOUT Timing
42
43
tCLCL
tCLCH
44
tCHCL
45
tCH1CH2
46
tCL2CL1
61
69
70
CLKOUTA Period
CLKOUTA Low Time
(CL =50 pF)
CLKOUTA High Time
(CL =50 pF)
CLKOUTA Rise Time
(1.0 to 3.5 V)
40 MHz
Min
5
7.5
5
ns
ns
5
5
ns
30
25
0.5tCLCL –1.5
=13.5
0.5tCLCL –1.5
=13.5
0.5tCLCL –1.25
=11.25
0.5tCLCL –1.25
=11.25
ns
ns
ns
3
3
ns
CLKOUTA Fall Time
(3.5 to 1.0 V)
3
3
ns
tLOCK
tCICOA
Maximum PLL Lock Time
X1 to CLKOUTA Skew
1
15
1
15
ms
ns
tCICOB
X1 to CLKOUTB Skew
25
25
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
The specifications for CLKIN are applicable to the normal PLL and CLKDIV2 modes.
The PLL should be used for operations from 16.667 MHz to 40 MHz. For operations below 16.667 MHz, the CLKDIV2
mode should be used.
Because the CLKDIV2 input frequency is two times the system frequency, the specifications for twice the frequency should
be used for CLKDIV2 mode. For example, use the 20 MHz CLKIN specifications for 10 MHz operation.
90
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Clock Waveforms—Active Mode
X2
37
36
38
X1
39
40
45
46
CLKOUTA
(Active, F=000)
69
42
43
44
CLKOUTB
70
Clock Waveforms—Power-Save Mode
X2
X1
CLKOUTA
(Power-Save, F=010)
CLKOUTB
(Like X1, CBF=1)
CLKOUTB
(Like CLKOUTA, CBF=0)
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
91
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Ready and Peripheral (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Parameter
Preliminary
20 MHz
Preliminary
25 MHz
Min
Min
No. Symbol
Description
Ready and Peripheral Timing Requirements
Max
Max
Unit
47
48
tSRYCL
tCLSRY
SRDY Transition Setup Time(a)
SRDY Transition Hold Time(a)
10
3
10
3
ns
ns
49
tARYCH
ARDY Resolution Transition
Setup Time(b)
10
10
ns
50
51
tCLARX
tARYCHL
ARDY Active Hold Time(a)
ARDY Inactive Holding Time
4
6
4
6
ns
ns
52
53
tARYLCL
tINVCH
ARDY Setup Time(a)
Peripheral Setup Time(b)
15
10
15
10
ns
ns
10
10
ns
DRQ Setup Time(b)
54
tINVCL
Peripheral Timing Responses
55
tCLTMV
Timer Output Delay
25
20
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
This timing must be met to guarantee proper operation.
b
This timing must be met to guarantee recognition at the clock edge.
92
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Ready and Peripheral (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
33 MHz
Parameter
No.
Symbol
Description
Min
40 MHz
Max
Min
Max
Unit
Ready and Peripheral Timing Requirements
47
tSRYCL
SRDY Transition Setup Time(a)
8
5
ns
48
tCLSRY
SRDY Transition Hold Time(a)
3
2
ns
49
tARYCH
ARDY Resolution Transition
Setup Time(b)
8
5
ns
50
tCLARX
ARDY Active Hold Time(a)
4
3
ns
51
tARYCHL
ARDY Inactive Holding Time
6
5
ns
ARDY Setup
Time(a)
52
tARYLCL
10
5
ns
53
tINVCH
Peripheral Setup Time(b)
8
5
ns
54
tINVCL
DRQ Setup Time(b)
8
5
ns
Peripheral Timing Responses
55
tCLTMV
Timer Output Delay
15
12
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
This timing must be met to guarantee proper operation.
b
This timing must be met to guarantee recognition at the clock edge.
Synchronous Ready Waveforms
Case 1
tW
tW
tW
t4
Case 2
t3
tW
tW
t4
Case 3
t2
t3
tW
t4
Case 4
t1
t2
t3
t4
CLKOUTA
47
SRDY
48
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
93
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Asynchronous Ready Waveforms
Case 1
tW
tW
tW
t4
Case 2
t3
tW
tW
t4
Case 3
t2
t3
tW
t4
Case 4
t1
t2
t3
t4
CLKOUTA
49
50
ARDY (Normally NotReady System)
49
ARDY (Normally
Ready System)
50
51
52
Peripheral Waveforms
CLKOUTA
53
INT4–INT0, NMI,
TMRIN1–TMRIN0
54
DRQ1–DRQ0
55
TMROUT1–
TMROUT0
94
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS over COMMERCIAL operating ranges
Reset and Bus Hold (20 MHz and 25 MHz)
Parameter
No. Symbol
Description
Reset and Bus Hold Timing Requirements
Preliminary
20 MHz
25 MHz
Min
Max
Min
Max
Unit
25
25
0
0
20
20
ns
ns
5
15
tCLAV
tCLAZ
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
AD Address Float Delay
0
0
57
58
tRESIN
tHVCL
RES Setup Time
HOLD Setup(a)
10
10
Reset and Bus Hold Timing Responses
62
tCLHAV HLDA Valid Delay
63
64
tCHCZ
tCHCV
0
Command Lines Float Delay
Command Lines Valid Delay
(after Float)
10
10
25
0
25
25
ns
ns
20
ns
20
20
ns
ns
Reset and Bus Hold (33 MHz and 40 MHz)
Preliminary
No.
Symbol
Parameter
Description
Reset and Bus Hold Timing Requirements
5
tCLAV
AD Address Valid Delay and BHE
33 MHz
Min
Max
40 MHz
Min
Max
Unit
0
15
0
12
ns
AD Address Float Delay
RES Setup Time
0
8
15
0
5
12
ns
ns
HOLD Setup(a)
58
tHVCL
Reset and Bus Hold Timing Responses
8
15
57
tCLAZ
tRESIN
62
63
tCLHAV
tCHCZ
HLDA Valid Delay
Command Lines Float Delay
64
tCHCV
Command Lines Valid Delay
(after Float)
0
5
15
15
0
15
ns
12
12
ns
ns
12
ns
Notes:
All timing parameters are measured at 1.5 V with 50 pF loading on CLKOUTA, unless otherwise noted. All output test conditions
are with CL =50 pF. For switching tests, VIL =0.45 V and VIH =2.4 V, except at X1 where VIH =VCC – 0.5 V.
a
This timing must be met to guarantee recognition at the next clock.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
95
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Reset Waveforms
X1
57
57
RES
CLKOUTA
Signals Related to Reset Waveforms
RES
CLKOUTA
BHE/ADEN,
RFSH2/ADEN,
S6/CLKDIV2, and
UZI
AD15–AD0 (186)
AO15–AO8,
AD7–AD0 (188)
96
three-state
three-state
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
P R E L I M I N A R Y
Bus Hold Waveforms—Entering
Case 1
ti
ti
ti
Case 2
t4
ti
ti
CLKOUTA
58
HOLD
62
HLDA
15
AD15–AD0, DEN
63
A19–A0, S6, RD,
WR, BHE,
DT/R, S2–S0
WHB, WLB
Bus Hold Waveforms—Leaving
Case 1
ti
ti
ti
t1
Case 2
ti
ti
t4
t1
CLKOUTA
58
HOLD
62
HLDA
5
AD15–AD0, DEN
64
A19–A0, S6, RD,
WR, BHE,
DT/R, S2–S0
WHB, WLB
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
97
P R E L I M I N A R Y
TQFP PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS
PQL 100, Trimmed and Formed
Thin Quad Flat Pack
Pin 100
Pin 75
Pin 1 ID
12.00
Ref
–B–
–A–
13.80
14.20 15.80
16.20
Pin 25
–D–
Pin 50
12.00
Ref
13.80
14.20
15.80
16.20
Top View
See Detail X
1.35
1.45
S
1.60
Max
–A–
–C–
Seating Plane
S
0.50 Basic
1.00 Ref
Side View
Notes:
1. All measurements are in millimeters, unless otherwise noted.
2. Not to scale; for reference only.
98
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
pql100
4-15-94
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PQL 100 (continued)
0° Min
1.60
Max
Gage
Plane
0.05
0.15
0.13
R
0.20
0.25
Seating Plane
0.45
0.75
0°–7°
0.17
0.27
Max 0.08 Lead Coplanarity
0.20
Detail X
0.17
0.27
0.14
0.18
Section S-S
Notes:
1. All measurements are in millimeters, unless otherwise noted.
2. Not to scale; for reference only.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
pql100
4-15-94
99
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PQFP PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS
PQR 100, Trimmed and Formed
Plastic Quad Flat Pack
17.00
17.40
13.90
14.10
Pin 100
12.35
REF
Pin 80
Pin 1 I.D.
18.85
REF
19.90
20.10
–B–
–A–
23.00
23.40
Pin 30
–D–
Pin 50
Top View
See Detail X
0.65
BASIC
S
2.70
2.90
3.35
Max
0.25
Min
–A–
–C–
Seating
Plane
S
Side View
Notes:
1. All measurements are in millimeters, unless otherwise noted.
2. Not to scale; for reference only.
100
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
pqr100
4-15-94
P R E L I M I N A R Y
PQFP PQR 100 (continued)
0.20 Min. Flat Shoulder
7° Typ.
0° Min.
0.30±0.05 R
Gage
Plane
3.35
Max
0.25
0.73
1.03
7° Typ.
0°-7°
Detail X
0.22
0.38
0.15
0.23
0.22
0.38
0.15
0.23
Section S-S
Note:
pqr100
4-15-94
Not to scale; for reference only.
Trademarks
AMD, the AMD logo, and combinations thereof are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Am386 and Am486 are registered trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Am186, Am188, E86, K86, Élan, and AMD Facts-on-Demand are trademarks of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
FusionE86 is a service mark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Product names used in this publication are for identification purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective companies.
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers
101
P R E L I M I N A R Y
102
Am186/188ES and Am186/188ESLV Microcontrollers