Freescale Semiconductor Technical Data MC44C402 Rev 1, 06/2005 MTS Stereo Encoder MC44C402 The MC44C402 Multi-Channel Television Sound (MTS) Stereo Encoder is based on the industry’s first, single-chip, CMOS implementation of a Broadcast Television Systems Committee (BTSC)-compatible stereo encoder, the MC44C400. The MC44C402 MTS Stereo Encoder is designed for use in set-top boxes, VCRs, DVD players/recorders, game stations, and other applications that are required to output high-quality stereo sound through a single RF coaxial cable. The digital audio processing used in the MC44C402 preserves the full fidelity of surround sound and other audio coding schemes while ensuring overall system performance is not impacted by copy protection technologies. The MC44C402 is engineered to process right and left analog audio signals and baseband composite video to generate a stereophonic composite signal in accordance with BTSC system standards. The MC44C402 is designed to output this signal to a Freescale RF modulator, which in turn produces a stereo encoded RF channel for use with any BTSC stereo television receiver. MTS STEREO ENCODER Features • • • • • • • • • Integrated A/D converter input and D/A converter output circuitry CEX™ digital audio processing encodes and transports stereo signals Surround sound and Macrovision™ compatible Extended low frequency response (The MC44C402 frequency response extends below 25 Hz) Simple passive interface to Freescale’s MC44BS373/4 (UHF/VHF) and MC44BC375 (VHF) modulators Preservation of original surround sound fidelity System performance not impacted by copy protection technologies Low system component count, small board size, and significantly low overall system cost No manual alignment of filters or phase controls AC SUFFIX 32-LEAD LQFP PACKAGE CASE 873A-04 ORDERING INFORMATION Temp. Range Device Package RoHS MC44C402AC –40°C 32LQFP to +85°C yes MC44C402ACR2 Tape & Reel yes Σ∆DAC COMPOSITE BTSC DVSS OVDD XTALOUT XTALIN NC CLK4MHZ Freescale MC44C402 VREFP VREFM DVDD DVSS VAGO DVSS ADCVDD SYNC SEPARATOR VID_PRES Functional Block Diagram This document contains certain information on a new product. Specifications and information herein are subject to change without notice. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2005. All rights reserved. CA OVSS NC NC CLOCK OUT NC CLOCK GENERATOR DVSS 17 9 ADCVSS VINL XTAL Σ∆ADC DIGITAL AUDIO PROCESSOR PILOT PIN 1 VAGO VAGO COMPOSITE VIDEO Σ∆ADC DVSS 25 OVDD LEFT CHANNEL RIGHT CHANNEL ORIENTATION MARK CVBS VINR NC SSVSS MC44C402 SSVDD Reference Documentation “Multichannel Television Sound Transmission and Audio Processing Requirements for the BTSC System”, FCC OET Bulletin No. 60, February 1986. MC44C402 32LQFP Package MC44C402 22 CLK4MHZ 4 MHz XTALIN 28 XTALOUT 27 ADCVDD 7 VINLP 9 VAGO 10 Clock Generator Osc 11 OVDD SD ADC 15 CA SD DAC 16 OVSS VREFP 4 VAGO 6 VREFM 5 V-REF 26 DVSS VINRP 2 SD VAGO 3 ADC 25 OVDD 24 DVSS ADCVSS 21 DVDD 8 20 DVSS 19 DVSS CVBS 1 Sync Separator 18 DVSS CEX™ Audio Processor SSVDD 31 SSVSS 32 23 PILOT 17 VID_PRES Sync Separator Ref Figure 1. MC44C402 Block Diagram MC44C402 2 Freescale Semiconductor DVSS OVDD XTALOUT XTALIN NC NC SSVSS SSVDD PIN DESCRIPTION ORIENTATION MARK CVBS DVSS 25 VINR PILOT PIN 1 VAGO CLK4MHZ Freescale MC44C402 VREFP VREFM DVDD DVSS VAGO DVSS ADCVDD 9 ADCVSS DVSS 17 CA OVSS NC NC NC VAGO OVDD VINL VID_PRES Figure 2. MC44C402 32LQFP Package Table 1. Pin Descriptions (Listed by Function) Signal Name Pin # Description Analog VINL 9 Left channel input VREFP 4 ADC Voltage Ref. Bypass plus VAGO 3, 6, 10 Analog virtual ground VREFM 5 ADC Voltage Ref. Bypass minus VINR 2 Right channel input CVBS 1 Composite video input to sync separator CA 15 Composite Audio output VID_PRES 17 Video present flag, 0 = no video, hi-z = video present PILOT 23 15.734 KHz square wave output phased locked to incoming video Digital NC 12, 13, 14, 29, 30 No Connection Clocks XTALIN 28 Crystal oscillator input XTALOUT 27 Crystal oscillator output CLK4MHZ 22 4 MHz clock output for Audio/Video modulator IC SSVDD 31 Sync Separator analog supply voltage, 3.3 V SSVSS 32 Sync Separator analog ground Power Supply ADCVDD 7 ADC analog supply voltage, 3.3 V ADCVSS 8 ADC analog ground DVDD 21 Digital Logic supply voltage, 1.8 V DVSS 16, 18, 19, 20, 24, 26 OVDD 11, 25 Digital Logic and I/O grounds I/O supply voltage, 3.3 V MC44C402 Freescale Semiconductor 3 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Table 2. Absolute Maximum Ratings Absolute maximum continuos ratings are those maximum values beyond which damage to the device may occur. Exposure to these conditions or conditions beyond those indicated may adversely affect device reliability. Functional operation at absolutemaximum-rated conditions is not implied. Characteristic Symbol Min Max Units Digital Logic Supply Voltage DVDD –0.3 +2.0 V Digital Output Supply Voltage OVDD –0.3 +4.0 V ADCVDD –0.3 +4.0 V SSVDD –0.3 +4.0 V Input Voltage Vin –0.3 xxVDD + 0.3 V Storage Temperature Range Tstg –55 +150 °C ADC Supply Voltage Sync. Separator Supply Voltage Table 3. General Specifications Characteristic Symbol Min ESD Protection (Machine Model) MM 200 V ESD Protection (Human Body Model) HBM 2000 V LU 200 mA Latch-Up Immunity Typ max Units Table 4. Recommended Operating Conditions Characteristic Digital Logic Supply Voltage Digital Output Supply Voltage ADC Supply Voltage Sync. Separator Supply Voltage Left/Right Channel Input Level Composite Video Input Level (See Figure 8) Ambient Temperature Symbol Min Typ Max Units DVDD +1.62 +1.8 +1.98 V OVDD +2.97 +3.3 +3.63 V ADCVDD +2.97 +3.3 +3.63 V SSVDD +2.97 +3.3 +3.63 V 1.8 Vpp VINL, VINR CVBS 0.5 TA –40 Symbol Min 1.0 2.0 Vpp +85 °C Typ Max Units Table 5. DC Characteristics Characteristic(1) Digital Logic Supply Current IDVDD 7.5 8.5 mA Digital Output Supply Current IOVDD 2.0 8.0 mA IADCVDD 7.0 9.0 mA ISSVDD 2.0 ADC Supply Current Sync. Separator Supply Current CLK4MHZ, Clock Output @ I = 0.6 mA Vol mA 2.97 V ADC Voltage Ref. Bypass plus VREFP +2.0 V ADC Voltage Ref. Bypass minus VREFM +1.0 V VAGO +1.5 V ADC Voltage Ref. Ground CLK4MHZ, Clock Output @ I = 0.6 mA Voh 3.63 V 1. Unless other wise noted; DVDD = 1.8 + 0.18 Vdc, OVDD = ADCVDD = SSVDD = 3.3 + 0.33 Vdc, GND = 0 Vdc, -40 < TA < 85°C. MC44C402 4 Freescale Semiconductor Table 6. AC Characteristics Characteristic(1) Symbol Input Impedance (Left/Right Input) Composite Audio Output Level (2) Composite Output Level Signal to Noise Ratio Min Typ 75 kΩ CA 1.0 Vpp 2.2 SNR 72 20 (4) Stereo Separation 500 Hz - 5 KHz Stereo Separation 100 Hz - 10 KHz dB 0.1 BW (4) Vpp 75 THD -1 dB Bandwidth Units Rin CA (2),(3) Total Harmonic Distortion(2),(3) 1. 2. 3. 4. Max 30 0.3 % 14500 Hz 35 dB 35 dB Unless other wise noted; DVDD = 1.8 + 0.18 Vdc, OVDD = ADCVDD = SSVDD = 3.3 + 0.33 Vdc, GND = 0 Vdc, -40 < TA < 85°C. Test conditions, mono, 1 kHz @ 1.5 Vpp Measured in 20 Hz to 13.5 kHz bandwidth Measured -10 dB input level -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 d B V -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 -55 60 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10k Hz Figure 3. Stereo Separation +5 +0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 d B r A -30 -35 -40 -45 20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k 10k -50 Hz Figure 4. Amplitude Response MC44C402 Freescale Semiconductor 5 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 d B r +0 A -1 -2 -3 -4 20 50 100 200 500 1k 2k 5k -5 10k Hz Figure 5. Amplitude Ripple TT +5 +0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 d B r -30 A -35 -40 -45 -50 14k 14.5k 15k 15.5k 16k 16.5k 17k Hz Figure 6. Amplitude-Notch SYSTEM APPLICATION NOTES DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS When developing application using the MC44C402 Stereo Encoder, the user can significantly improve the performance by following the suggestions below: 1. Disable the pre-emphasis on the modulator 2. There must be a 4.5 MHz notch in the video because Video spectra that fall into the 4.5 MHz range will severely impact the audio performance. See the notch filter shown in Figure 7. 3. Measurements must be made with a precision demodulator followed by a precision decoder, measuring audio performance using mono or wide band output will give erroneous results. We suggest the setup as described below Equipment suggestions Demodulator: Tektronix Decoder: Modulation Sciences 4. 5. A low pass filter is required on the CA (baseband) output. The filter shown in Figure 7 note 1 is recommended. It is a Bessell filter with uniform group delay to 50 kHz and an input impedance of 500Ω and high output impedance. Crystal frequency is critical. It MUST be within +/- 2 kHz (100 PPM) under all conditions. Recommend 30 PPM or better at room temperature. Measure the frequency, being careful not to load the crystal oscillator pins or alternatively the frequency can be determined by measuring the 4 MHz using (spectrum analyzer), being careful not to load the crystal oscillator pins, or with a frequency counter on the 4 MHz port to +/- 400 Hz max or 100 Hz at room temp. A symptom of the crystal being off frequency is stereo separation changing at about a 1 Hz rate (Pulsing). TV1450 SRD-1 MC44C402 6 Freescale Semiconductor MODULATOR INTERFACE 1. The 4 MHz clock drive to the MC44BS373 must be filtered and the level set correctly. This can be achieved simply by using a 1 µH inductor and 1500 pF and series 750 ohm resistor and 100 pF blocking cap, as shown in Figure 7 note 2. Vin 2. The MC44BS373 SPLL filter must be changed to a single 2.2 µF capacitor to ground. Please see Figure 7 note 3. (note some caps exhibit microphonic problems in this application. Input impedance of the MC44BS373 is around 70 Kohms and to preserve the low frequency performance the coupling caps should be greater than 0.1 µF 3. 3.3V 3.3 V REG 1µ 47Ω 22µ 1µ 1µ 75Ω 0.1µ 0.1µ 0.1µ 1M 18p 8.2µ 220 13 OVDD 2M AUDIO 12 RFOUT TVOUT MC44BS373CA 1000p Modulator 4 XTAL SPFLT 8 1500p 2.2µ 1µ 9 Note 2 24MHz Video Notch 10 VCCA 15 VCCD 11 25 OVDD 27 XTALOUT CVBS 14 .047µ 2.2K 22 750 1 470p CLK4MHZ 7 PLLFLT .1µ 1 SCL 2 SDA VREFM 18 DVSS 28 XTALIN 75 0.1µ 10µ 2200p 500 20 DVSS 19 DVSS 1K 560µ 15 VREFP SSVSS 8 ADCVSS 16 DVSS 26 DVSS 24 DVSS IN V CVBS 5 CA 2.2K .022µ Note 1 1000p 4 0.1µ 0.1µ 23 PILOT 17 VID_PRES MC44C402 32 1µ .01µ TVOVCC 3 VAGO 10 VAGO 6 VAGO ADCVDD 7 VINRP 1µ SSVDD 31 2 DVDD V 9 VINLP V IN 1µ +5V VIDEO Note 3 V V LEFT IN RIGHT 21 0.1µ I2C 18p Murata TPSRA4M50B00-B0 Analog Ground 2.2K Digital Ground Figure 7. MC44C402 Typical Application Circuit MC44C402 Freescale Semiconductor 7 SETTING LEVEL FOR MODULATOR/ENCODER INTERFACE 1. Verify calibration of the equipment. This requires a modulator and precision signal source. The audio signal cannot be passed through the stereo encoder for this setup. Suggest using 10396.48 Hz audio test signal directly into first Bessel null on a spectrum analyzer. 2. The null will occur at precisely 25 KHz deviation of the 10396.48 Hz audio test signal. Please see Figure 8 for test equipment setup. Input 1800 Hz @ 0.4 V p-p into left channel and set adjust attenuation between stereo encoder and the modulator for optimum separation using calibrated demodulator and decoder. Input Left Channel only 1800Hz 400 mV p-p 0db / 25KHz deviation = 1.45Vp-p @ 1KHz Mono (both channels driven) Audio Precision SYS2 Composite Video Stereo Encoder Left In Audio Generator CVBS in Right In Audio Spectrum Analyzer Audio Analyzer Attenuator 4.5MHz Notch Filter Adjust for optimal separation with only Left channel driven 1800Hz Modulator No Audio Pre-emphasis Composite Video Spectrum Analyzer Precision Demoodulator TEK 1450-1 Precision MTS Decoder Modulation Sciences SRD1 Wide Band Output Demodulator / MTS Decoder Calibrat ion 25KHz deviation Check = 1 0396 Hz @25KHz deviation gives bessel nul l and Ref Level on SRD-1 44C402 Level Setup 1) Calibrate MTS Decoder to Demodulator connection using Bess el Null Technique 2) input 1.8KHz 0.4 V p-p on left channel only and optimiz e stereo separation with attenuator. Figure 8. MC44C402 Level Setup MC44C402 8 Freescale Semiconductor PACKAGE DATA PAGE 1 OF 3 Figure 9. 32QLFP Package Mechanical Data MC44C402 Freescale Semiconductor 9 PACKAGE DATA PAGE 2 OF 3 Figure 9. 32QLFP Package Mechanical Data (continued) MC44C402 10 Freescale Semiconductor PACKAGE DATA PAGE 3 OF 3 Figure 9. 32QLFP Package Mechanical Data (continued) MC44C402 Freescale Semiconductor 11 How to Reach Us: Home Page: www.freescale.com E-mail: [email protected] USA/Europe or Locations Not Listed: Freescale Semiconductor Technical Information Center, CH370 1300 N. Alma School Road Chandler, Arizona 85224 +1-800-521-6274 or +1-480-768-2130 [email protected] Europe, Middle East, and Africa: Freescale Halbleiter Deutschland GmbH Technical Information Center Schatzbogen 7 81829 Muenchen, Germany +44 1296 380 456 (English) +46 8 52200080 (English) +49 89 92103 559 (German) +33 1 69 35 48 48 (French) [email protected] Japan: Freescale Semiconductor Japan Ltd. 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