SAMSUNG S3C72Q5

S3C72Q5/P72Q5
4–BIT CMOS
MICROCONTROLLER
USER'S MANUAL
Revision 3.2
Important Notice
The information in this publication has been carefully
checked and is believed to be entirely accurate at the
time of publication. Samsung assumes no
responsibility, however, for possible errors or
omissions, or for any consequences resulting from
the use of the information contained herein.
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products or product specifications with the intent to
improve function or design at any time and without
notice and is not required to update this
documentation to reflect such changes.
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semiconductor devices described herein any license
under the patent rights of Samsung or others.
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consequential or incidental damages.
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"Typicals" must be validated for each customer
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product.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 4-Bit CMOS Microcontroller
User's Manual, Revision 3.2
Publication Number: 23.2-S3-C72Q5/P72Q5-082005
 2005 Samsung Electronics
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electric or mechanical, by photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
consent of Samsung Electronics.
Samsung Electronics' microcontroller business has been awarded full ISO-9001
certification (BSI Certificate No. FM24653). All semiconductor products are
designed and manufactured in accordance with the highest quality standards and
objectives.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
San #24 Nongseo-Ri, Giheung- Eup
Yongin-City, Gyeonggi-Do, Korea
C.P.O. Box #37, Suwon 449-900
TEL:
FAX:
(82)-(031)-209-1934
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Home Page: http://www.samsungsemi.com
Printed in the Republic of Korea
NOTIFICATION OF REVISIONS
ORIGINATOR:
Samsung Electronics, LSI Development Group, Ki-Heung, South Korea
PRODUCT NAME:
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 4-bit CMOS Microcontroller
DOCUMENT NAME:
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 User's Manual, Revision 3.2
DOCUMENT NUMBER:
23.2-S3-C72Q5/P72Q5-082005
EFFECTIVE DATE:
August, 2005
SUMMARY:
As a result of additional product testing and evaluation, some specifications
published in S3C72Q5/P72Q5 User's Manual, Revision 2, have been
changed. These changes for S3C72Q5/P72Q5 microcontroller, which
are described in detail in the Revision Descriptions section below,
are related to the followings:
—
Chapter 14. Electrical Data
DIRECTIONS:
Please note the changes in your copy (copies) of the S3C72Q5/P72Q5
User's Manual, Revision 2. Or, simply attach the Revision Descriptions
of the next page to S3C72Q5/P72Q5 User's Manual, Revision 2.
REVISION HISTORY
Revision
Date
Remark
–
–
–
3
May, 2005
Third edition.
3.1
July, 2005
Fourth edition.
3.2
August, 2005
Fifth edition.
REVISION DESCRIPTIONS
1. ELECTRICAL DATA
Added Note "When the LCD display is on, LCD module current may be about 100uA." in the page 14-4.
2. OPERATING TEMPERATURE
Operating temperature is changed “–40°C ~ +85°C” to “–25°C ~ +85°C”.
3. STOP CURRENT TEMPERATURE
Added test condition “TA = 25 °C” on the stop current in the page 14-4.
4. PULL-UP RESISTOR TEMPERATURE
Added test condition “TA = 25 °C” on the pull-up resistor in the page 14-3.
Preface
The S3C72Q5/P72Q5 Microcontroller User's Manual is designed for application designers and programmers who are
using the S3C72Q5/P72Q5 microcontroller for application development. It is organized in two parts:
Part I
Programming Model
Part II
Hardware Descriptions
Part I contains software-related information to familiarize you with the microcontroller's architecture, programming
model, instruction set, and interrupt structure. It has five sections:
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
Product Overview
Address Spaces
Addressing Modes
Section 4
Section 5
Memory Map
SAM48 Instruction Set
Section 1, "Product Overview," is a high-level introduction to the S3C72Q5/P72Q5, ranging from a general product
description to detailed information about pin characteristics and circuit types.
Section 2, "Address Spaces," introduces you to the S3C72Q5/P72Q5 programming model: the program memory
(ROM) and data memory (RAM) structures and how to address them. Section 2 also includes information about
stack operations, CPU registers, and the bit sequential carrier (BSC) register.
Section 3, "Addressing Modes," descriptions types of addressing supported by the SAM48 instruction set (direct,
indirect, and bit manipulation) and the addressing modes which are supported (1-bit, 4-bit, and 8-bit). Numberous
programming examples make the information practical and usable.
Section 4, "Memory Map," contains a detailed map of the addressable peripheral hardware registers in the memorymapped area of the RAM (bank 15). Section 4 also contains detailed descriptions in standard format of the most
commonly used hardware registers. These easy-to-read register descriptions can be used as a quick-reference
source when writing programs.
Section 5, " SAM48 Instruction Set," first introduces the basic features and conventions of the SAM48 instruction
set. Then, two summary tables orient you to the individual instructions: One table is a high-level summary of the
most important information about each instruction; the other table is designed to give expert programmers a
summary of binary code and instruction notation information. The final part of Section 5 contains detailed
descriptions of each instruction in a standard format. Each instruction description includes one or more practical
examples.
A basic familiarity with the information in Part I will make it easier for you to understand the hardware descriptions in
Part II. If you are familiar with the SAM48 product family and are reading this user's manual for the first time, we
recommend that you read Sections 1–3 carefully, and just scan the detailed information in Sections 4 and 5 very
briefly. Later, you can refer back to Sections 4 and 5 as necessary.
Part II "hardware Descriptions," has detailed information about specific hardware components of the
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 microcontroller. Also included in Part II are electrical, mechanical, OTP, and development tools
data. Part II has 12 sections:
Section 6
Section 7
Section 8
Section 9
Section 10
Section 11
Oscillator Circuit
Interrupts
Power-Down
RESET
I/O Ports
Timers and Timer/Counter 0
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
Section
12
13
14
15
16
17
LCD Controller/Driver
External Memory Interface
Electrical Data
Mechanical Data
S3P72Q5 OTP
Development Tools
Two order forms are included at the back of this manual to facilitate customer order for S3C72Q5/P72Q5
microcontrollers: the Mask ROM Order Form, and the Mask Option Selection Form. You can photocopy these
forms, fill them out, and then forward them to your local Samsung Sales Representative.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
iii
Table of Contents
Part I — Programming Model
Section 1
Product Overview
Overview .............................................................................................................................................1-1
OTP ...................................................................................................................................................1-1
Features .............................................................................................................................................1-2
Block Diagram ....................................................................................................................................1-3
Pin Assignments.................................................................................................................................1-4
Pin Descriptions ..................................................................................................................................1-5
Pin Circuit Diagrams............................................................................................................................1-7
Section 2
Address Spaces
Program Memory (ROM) ......................................................................................................................2-1
Overview .....................................................................................................................................2-1
General-Purpose Memory Areas ...................................................................................................2-2
Vector Address Area ...................................................................................................................2-2
Instruction Reference Area ...........................................................................................................2-4
Data Memory (RAM)............................................................................................................................2-5
Overview .....................................................................................................................................2-5
Working Registers .......................................................................................................................2-9
Stack Operations ................................................................................................................................2-13
Stack Pointer (SP) ......................................................................................................................2-13
Push Operations .........................................................................................................................2-14
Pop Operations ...........................................................................................................................2-15
Bit Sequential Carrier (BSC) .................................................................................................................2-16
Program Counter (PC)..........................................................................................................................2-17
Program Status Word (PSW) ...............................................................................................................2-17
Interrupt Status Flags (IS0, IS1)....................................................................................................2-18
Emb Flag (EMB) .........................................................................................................................2-19
Erb Flag (ERB)............................................................................................................................2-20
Skip Condition Flags (SC2, SC1, SC0)..........................................................................................2-21
Carry Flag (C) .............................................................................................................................2-21
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
v
Table of Contents (Continued)
Section 3
Addressing Modes
Overview .............................................................................................................................................3-1
EMB and ERB Initialization Values ...............................................................................................3-3
Enable Memory Bank Settings .....................................................................................................3-4
Select Bank Register (SB) ...........................................................................................................3-5
Direct And Indirect Addressing..............................................................................................................3-6
1-Bit Addressing..........................................................................................................................3-6
4-Bit Addressing..........................................................................................................................3-8
8-Bit Addressing..........................................................................................................................3-11
Section 4
Memory Map
Overview .............................................................................................................................................4-1
I/O Map For Hardware Registers ...................................................................................................4-1
Register Descriptions...................................................................................................................4-6
Section 5
SAM48 Instruction Set
Overview .............................................................................................................................................5-1
Instruction Set Features .......................................................................................................................5-1
Instruction Reference Area ...........................................................................................................5-2
Reducing Instruction Redundancy .................................................................................................5-3
Flexible Bit Manipulation ..............................................................................................................5-4
Instructions Which Have Skip Conditions .......................................................................................5-4
Instructions Which Affect The Carry Flag .......................................................................................5-4
ADC and SBC Instruction Skip Conditions .....................................................................................5-5
Symbols And Conventions....................................................................................................................5-6
Opcode Definitions ..............................................................................................................................5-7
High-Level Summary ............................................................................................................................5-8
Binary Code Summary .........................................................................................................................5-13
Instruction Descriptions........................................................................................................................5-23
vi
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
Table of Contents (Continued)
Part II — Hardware Descriptions
Section 6
Oscillator Circuits
Overview .............................................................................................................................................6-1
Main-System Oscillator Circuits....................................................................................................6-3
Sub-System Oscillator Circuits.....................................................................................................6-3
Power Control Register (PCON) ....................................................................................................6-4
Instruction Cycle Times................................................................................................................6-5
System Clock Mode Register (SCMOD) ........................................................................................6-6
Switching The CPU Clock ............................................................................................................6-8
Clock Output Mode Register (CLMOD) ..........................................................................................6-10
Clock Output Circuit ....................................................................................................................6-11
Clock Output Procedure...............................................................................................................6-11
Section 7
Interrupts
Overview .............................................................................................................................................7-1
Vectored Interrupts ......................................................................................................................7-2
Multiple Interrupts........................................................................................................................7-5
Interrupt Priority Register (IPR) .....................................................................................................7-7
External Interrupt 0 and 1 Mode Registers (IMOD0, IMOD1) ............................................................7-8
External Interrupt 2 Mode Register (IMOD2) ...................................................................................7-10
Interrupt Flags .............................................................................................................................7-12
Section 8
Power-Down
Overview .............................................................................................................................................8-1
Idle Mode Timing Diagrams ..........................................................................................................8-4
Stop Mode Timing Diagrams.........................................................................................................8-5
Recommended Connections for Unused Pins .................................................................................8-7
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
vii
Table of Contents (Continued)
Section 9
RESET
Overview .............................................................................................................................................9-1
Hardware Register Values after RESET .........................................................................................9-1
Section 10
I/O Ports
Overview .............................................................................................................................................10-1
Port Mode Flags (PM FLAGS)......................................................................................................10-3
Pull-Up Resistor Mode Register (PUMOD0) ...................................................................................10-4
Port 0,1 Circuit Diagram...............................................................................................................10-6
Port 4 Circuit Diagram..................................................................................................................10-7
Port 5 Circuit Diagram..................................................................................................................10-8
Port 6 Circuit Diagram..................................................................................................................10-9
Port 7 Circuit Diagram..................................................................................................................10-10
viii
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
Table of Contents (Continued)
Section 11
Timers and Timer/Counter 0
Overview .............................................................................................................................................11-1
Basic Timer (BT) .................................................................................................................................11-2
Overview .....................................................................................................................................11-2
Basic Timer Mode Register (BMOD)..............................................................................................11-5
Basic Timer Counter (BCNT).........................................................................................................11-6
Basic Timer Operation Sequence..................................................................................................11-6
Watchdog Timer Mode Register (WDMOD)....................................................................................11-8
Watchdog Timer Counter (WDCNT) ...............................................................................................11-8
Watchdog Timer Counter Clear Flag (WDTCF) ...............................................................................11-8
8-Bit Timer/Counter 0 (TC0) ..................................................................................................................11-10
Overview .....................................................................................................................................11-10
TC0 Function Summary ...............................................................................................................11-10
TC0 Component Summary ...........................................................................................................11-11
TC0 Enable/Disable Procedure .....................................................................................................11-12
TC0 Programmable Timer/Counter Function ...................................................................................11-13
TC0 Operation Sequence .............................................................................................................11-13
TC0 Event Counter Function .........................................................................................................11-14
TC0 Clock Frequency Output........................................................................................................11-15
TC0 External Input Signal Divider ..................................................................................................11-16
TC0 Mode Register (TMOD0)........................................................................................................11-17
TC0 Counter Register (TCNT0)......................................................................................................11-19
TC0 Reference Register (TREF0) ..................................................................................................11-20
TC0 Output Enable Flag (TOE0)....................................................................................................11-20
TC0 Output Latch (TOL0) .............................................................................................................11-20
8-Bit Timer/Counter 1 (TC1) ..................................................................................................................11-22
Overview .....................................................................................................................................11-22
TC1 Function Summary ...............................................................................................................11-22
TC1 Component Summary ...........................................................................................................11-23
TC1 Enable/Disable Procedure .....................................................................................................11-24
TC1 Programmable Timer/Counter Function ...................................................................................11-25
TC1 Operation Sequence .............................................................................................................11-25
TC1 Mode Register (TMOD1)........................................................................................................11-26
TC1 Counter Register (TCNT1)......................................................................................................11-28
TC1 Reference Register (TREF1) ..................................................................................................11-29
Watch Timer .......................................................................................................................................11-30
Overview .....................................................................................................................................11-30
Watch Timer Mode Register (WMOD) ...........................................................................................11-32
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
ix
Table of Contents (Concluded)
Section 12
LCD Controller/Driver
Overview .............................................................................................................................................12-1
LCD Circuit Diagram ....................................................................................................................12-2
LCD Ram Address Area...............................................................................................................12-3
LCD Contrast Control Register (LCNST).........................................................................................12-4
LCD Output Control Register 0 (LCON0) ........................................................................................12-5
LCD Output Control Register 1 (LCON1) ........................................................................................12-5
LCD Mode Register (LMOD) .........................................................................................................12-6
Key Scan Register (KSR).............................................................................................................12-17
Section 13
External Memory Interface
Overview .............................................................................................................................................13-1
External Memory Control Register (EMCON)..................................................................................13-1
How to Access The External Memory............................................................................................13-3
External Memory Write Cycle Timing Diagram ...............................................................................13-6
External Memory Read Cycle Timing Diagram................................................................................13-6
Section 14
Electrical Data
Overview .............................................................................................................................................14-1
Timing Waveforms ...............................................................................................................................14-10
Section 15
Mechanical Data
Overview .............................................................................................................................................15-1
Section 16
S3P72Q5 OTP
Overview .............................................................................................................................................16-1
Operating Mode Characteristics....................................................................................................16-3
Section 17
Development Tools
Overview .............................................................................................................................................17-1
SHINE ........................................................................................................................................17-1
SAMA Assembler........................................................................................................................17-1
SASM57.....................................................................................................................................17-1
HEX2ROM ..................................................................................................................................17-1
Target Boards .............................................................................................................................17-1
OTPs .........................................................................................................................................17-1
TB72Q5 Target Board ..................................................................................................................17-3
Idle LED .....................................................................................................................................17-5
Stop LED....................................................................................................................................17-5
x
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
List of Figures
Figure
Number
Title
Page
Number
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-7
1-8
1-9
1-10
1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
1-15
1-16
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 Specified Block Diagram ............................................................1-3
S3C72Q5 Pin Assignment Diagram.......................................................................1-4
Pin Circuit Type A ...............................................................................................1-7
Pin Circuit Type A-3.............................................................................................1-7
Pin Circuit Type B ...............................................................................................1-7
Pin Circuit Type C ...............................................................................................1-7
Pin Circuit Type E-2.............................................................................................1-8
Pin Circuit Type E-3.............................................................................................1-8
Pin Circuit Type H-4.............................................................................................1-9
Pin Circuit Type H-5.............................................................................................1-9
Pin Circuit Type H-6.............................................................................................1-9
Pin Circuit Type H-7.............................................................................................1-9
Pin Circuit Type H-9.............................................................................................1-10
Pin Circuit Type H-10...........................................................................................1-10
Pin Circuit Type H-11...........................................................................................1-10
Pin Circuit Type H-12...........................................................................................1-10
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
2-8
ROM Address Structure.......................................................................................2-2
Vector Address Map............................................................................................2-2
S3C72Q5 Data Memory (RAM) Map......................................................................2-6
Working Register Map .........................................................................................2-9
Register Pair Configuration ...................................................................................2-10
1-Bit, 4-Bit, and 8-Bit Accumulator........................................................................2-11
Push-Type Stack Operations ................................................................................2-14
Pop-Type Stack Operations..................................................................................2-15
3-1
3-2
RAM Address Structure .......................................................................................3-2
SMB and SRB Values in the SB Register..............................................................3-5
4-1
Register Description Format .................................................................................4-7
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-7
Clock Circuit Diagram ..........................................................................................6-2
Crystal/Ceramic Oscillator....................................................................................6-3
External Oscillator...............................................................................................6-3
RC Oscillator ......................................................................................................6-3
Crystal/Ceramic Oscillator....................................................................................6-3
External Oscillator...............................................................................................6-3
CLO Output Pin Circuit Diagram ...........................................................................6-11
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
Interrupt Execution Flowchart ...............................................................................7-3
Interrupt Control Circuit Diagram ...........................................................................7-4
Two-Level Interrupt Handling .................................................................................7-5
Multi-Level Interrupt Handling ................................................................................7-6
Circuit Diagram for INT0 and INT1 Pins ..................................................................7-9
Circuit Diagram for INT2 .......................................................................................7-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
xi
List of Figures (Continued)
Figure
Number
Title
Page
Number
8-1
8-2
8-3
8-4
Timing When Idle Mode is Released by RESET......................................................8-4
Timing When Idle Mode is Released by an Interrupt ................................................8-4
Timing When Stop Mode is Released by RESET....................................................8-5
Timing When Stop Mode is Released by an Interrupt ..............................................8-5
9-1
Timing for Oscillation Stabilization after RESET......................................................9-1
10-1
10-3
10-4
10-5
10-6
Port 0,1 Circuit Diagram.......................................................................................10-6
Port 4 Circuit Diagram..........................................................................................10-7
Port 5 Circuit Diagram..........................................................................................10-8
Port 6 Circuit Diagram..........................................................................................10-9
Port 7 Circuit Diagram..........................................................................................10-10
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
Basic Timer Circuit Diagram .................................................................................11-4
TC0 Circuit Diagram.............................................................................................11-12
TC0 Timing Diagram ............................................................................................11-19
TC1 Circuit Diagram.............................................................................................11-24
TC1 Timing Diagram ............................................................................................11-28
Watch Timer Circuit Diagram................................................................................11-31
12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-5
12-6
12-7
12-8
12-9
12-10
12-11
12-12
12-13
LCD Circuit Diagram ............................................................................................12-2
LCD Clock Circuit Diagram...................................................................................12-2
Display RAM Organization ...................................................................................12-3
LCD Voltage Dividing Resistors Connection ...........................................................12-8
RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/9 Duty).......................................................12-9
LCD Signal Waveform for 1/9 Duty and 1/4 Bias .....................................................12-10
RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/10 Duty).....................................................12-11
LCD Signal Waveform for 1/10 Duty and 1/4 Bias ...................................................12-12
RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/11 Duty).....................................................12-13
LCD Signal Waveform for 1/11 Duty and 1/4 Bias ...................................................12-14
RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/12 Duty).....................................................12-15
LCD Signal Waveform for 1/12 Duty and 1/4 Bias ...................................................12-16
Segment Pin Output Signal When LCON1.3 = 1.....................................................12-17
13-1
13-2
13-3
External Memory Write Cycle Timing Diagram .......................................................13-6
External Memory Read Cycle Timing Diagram........................................................13-6
External Interface Fuction Diagram (S3C72Q5, SRAM, EPROM, EEPROM).............13-7
xii
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
List of Figures (Continued)
Figure
Number
Title
Page
Number
14-1
14-2
14-3
14-4
Standard Operating Voltage Range .......................................................................14-9
Stop Mode Release Timing When Initiated By RESET............................................14-10
Stop Mode Release Timing When Initiated By Interrupt Request ..............................14-10
A.C. Timing Measurement Points (Except for XIN and XTIN)......................................14-11
14-5
14-6
Input Timing for External Interrupts and Quasi-Interrupts..........................................14-11
Clock Timing Measurement at XIN .........................................................................14-12
14-7
Clock Timing Measurement at XT IN........................................................................14-12
14-6
14-7
TCL0 Timing........................................................................................................14-13
Input Timing for RESET Signal..............................................................................14-13
15-1
100-QFP-1420 Package Dimensions .....................................................................15-1
16-1
16-2
S3P72Q5 Pin Assignments (100-QFP Package) ....................................................16-2
Standard Operating Voltage Range .......................................................................16-5
17-1
17-2
17-3
17-4
SMDS Product Configuration (SMDS2+)................................................................17-2
TB72Q5 Target Board Configuration.......................................................................17-3
50-Pin Connectors for TB72Q5..............................................................................17-6
TB72Q5 Adapter Cable for 100-QFP Package (S3C72Q5/P72Q5) ............................17-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
xiii
List of Tables
Table
Number
Title
Page
Number
1-1
Pin Descriptions ..................................................................................................1-5
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-7
Program Memory Address Ranges........................................................................2-1
Data Memory Organization and Addressing ...........................................................2-7
Working Register Organization and Addressing......................................................2-10
BSC Register Organization...................................................................................2-16
Program Status Word Bit Descriptions ..................................................................2-17
Interrupt Status Flag Bit Settings ..........................................................................2-18
Valid Carry Flag Manipulation Instructions .............................................................2-21
3-1
3-2
3-3
3-4
RAM Addressing Not Affected by the EMB Value...................................................3-4
1-Bit Direct and Indirect RAM Addressing ..............................................................3-6
4-Bit Direct and Indirect RAM Addressing ..............................................................3-8
8-Bit Direct and Indirect RAM Addressing ..............................................................3-11
4-1
4-2
I/O Map for Memory Bank 15................................................................................4-2
I/O Map for Memory Bank 15................................................................................4-3
5-1
5-2
5-3
5-4
5-5
5-6
5-7
5-8
5-9
5-10
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-17
5-18
5-19
5-20
Valid 1-Byte Instruction Combinations for REF Look-Ups ........................................5-2
Bit Addressing Modes and Parameters..................................................................5-4
Skip Conditions for ADC and SBC Instructions .......................................................5-5
Data Type Symbols .............................................................................................5-6
Register Identifiers ...............................................................................................5-6
Instruction Operand Notation ................................................................................5-6
Opcode Definitions (Direct)...................................................................................5-7
Opcode Definitions (Indirect).................................................................................5-7
CPU Control Instructions — High-Level Summary ...................................................5-9
Program Control Instructions — High-Level Summary .............................................5-9
Data Transfer Instructions — High-Level Summary..................................................5-10
Logic Instructions — High-Level Summary .............................................................5-11
Arithmetic Instructions — High-Level Summary ......................................................5-11
Bit Manipulation Instructions — High-Level Summary..............................................5-12
CPU Control Instructions — Binary Code Summary ................................................5-14
Program Control Instructions — Binary Code Summary ..........................................5-15
Data Transfer Instructions — Binary Code Summary...............................................5-16
Logic Instructions — Binary Code Summary ..........................................................5-18
Arithmetic Instructions — Binary Code Summary ...................................................5-19
Bit Manipulation Instructions — Binary Code Summary...........................................5-20
6-1
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
Power Control Register (PCON) Organization.........................................................6-4
Instruction Cycle Times for CPU Clock Rates.........................................................6-5
System Clock Mode Register (SCMOD) Organization.............................................6-6
Main Oscillation Stop Mode..................................................................................6-7
Elapsed Machine Cycles During CPU Clock Switch................................................6-8
Clock Output Mode Register (CLMOD) Organization...............................................6-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
xv
List of Tables
Table
Number
Title
(Continued)
Page
Number
7-1
7-2
7-3
7-4
7-5
7-6
7-7
7-8
Interrupt Types and Corresponding Port Pin(s)........................................................7-1
IS1 and IS0 Bit Manipulation for Multi-Level Interrupt Handling..................................7-6
Standard Interrupt Priorities ..................................................................................7-7
Interrupt Priority Register Settings.........................................................................7-7
IMOD0 and IMOD1 Register Organization ..............................................................7-8
IMOD2 Register Bit Settings.................................................................................7-10
Interrupt Enable and Interrupt Request Flag Addresses ...........................................7-12
Interrupt Request Flag Conditions and Priorities .....................................................7-13
8-1
8-2
8-3
Hardware Operation During Power-Down Modes .....................................................8-2
System Operating Mode Comparison ....................................................................8-3
Unused Pin Connections for Reducing Power Consumption.....................................8-7
9-1
Hardware Register Values After RESET.................................................................9-2
10-1
10-2
10-3
10-4
I/O Port Overview.................................................................................................10-2
Port Pin Status During Instruction Execution..........................................................10-2
Port Mode Group Flags ........................................................................................10-3
Pull-Up Resistor Mode Register (PUMOD0) Organization ........................................10-4
11-1
11-2
11-3
11-4
11-5
11-6
11-7
11-8
11-9
11-10
11-11
Basic Timer Register Overview..............................................................................11-3
Basic Timer Mode Register (BMOD) Organization ..................................................11-5
Watchdog Timer Interval Time...............................................................................11-8
TC0 Register Overview .........................................................................................11-11
TMOD0 Settings for TCL0 Edge Detection .............................................................11-14
TC0 Mode Register (TMOD0) Organization.............................................................11-17
TMOD0.6, TMOD0.5, and TMOD0.4 Bit Settings ....................................................11-18
TC1 Register Overview .........................................................................................11-23
TC1 Mode Register (TMOD1) Organization.............................................................11-26
TMOD1.6, TMOD1.5, and TMOD1.4 Bit Settings ....................................................11-27
Watch Timer Mode Register (WMOD) Organization ................................................11-32
12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-5
LCD Contrast Control Register (LCNST) Organization .............................................12-4
LCD Output Control Register (LCON0) Organization................................................12-5
LCD Output Control Register (LCON1) Organization................................................12-5
LCD Mode Control Register (LMOD) Organization...................................................12-7
KSR Organization................................................................................................12-17
13-1
External Memory Control Register (EMCON) Organization ......................................13-2
xvi
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
List of Tables
Table
Number
Title
(Continued)
Page
Number
14-1
14-2
14-3
14-4
14-5
14-6
14-7
14-8
Absolute Maximum Ratings..................................................................................14-2
D.C Characteristics .............................................................................................14-2
Main System Clock Oscillator Characteristics........................................................14-5
Recommended Oscillator Constants .....................................................................14-6
Subsystem Clock Oscillator Characteristics ..........................................................14-7
Input/Output Capacitance.....................................................................................14-7
A.C. Electrical Characteristics..............................................................................14-8
RAM Data Retention Supply Voltage in Stop Mode.................................................14-9
16-1
16-2
16-3
16-4
Descriptions of Pins Used to Read/Write the EPROM.............................................16-3
Comparison of S3P72Q5 and S3C72Q5 Features ...................................................16-3
Operating Mode Selection Criteria.........................................................................16-3
D.C Characteristics .............................................................................................16-4
17-1
17-2
17-3
Power Selection Settings for TB72Q5....................................................................17-4
Main-clock Selection Settings for TB72Q5 .............................................................17-4
Sub-clock Selection Settings for TB72Q5 ..............................................................17-5
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
xvii
List of Programming Tips
Description
Page
Number
Section 2: Address Spaces
Defining Vectored Interrupts..................................................................................................................2-3
Using the REF Look-Up Table...............................................................................................................2-4
Clearing Data Memory Bank 0 ,and the page 0 in Bank 1........................................................................2-8
Selecting the Working Register Area.....................................................................................................2-12
Initializing the Stack Pointer .................................................................................................................2-13
Using the BSC Register to Output 16-Bit Data .......................................................................................2-16
Setting ISx Flags for Interrupt Processing ..............................................................................................2-18
Using the EMB Flag to Select Memory Banks .......................................................................................2-19
Using the ERB Flag to Select Register Banks........................................................................................2-20
Using the Carry Flag as a 1-Bit Accumulator..........................................................................................2-22
Section 3: Addressing Modes
Initializing the EMB and ERB Flags.......................................................................................................3-3
1-Bit Addressing Modes .......................................................................................................................3-7
4-Bit Addressing Modes .......................................................................................................................3-8
8-Bit Addressing Modes .......................................................................................................................3-12
Section 5: SAM48 Instruction Set
Example of the Instruction Redundancy Effect........................................................................................5-3
Section 6: Oscillator Circuits
Setting the CPU Clock.........................................................................................................................6-4
Switching Between Main-system and Sub-system Clock ........................................................................6-9
CPU Clock Output to the CLO Pin ........................................................................................................6-11
Section 7: Interrupts
Setting the INT Interrupt Priority ............................................................................................................7-8
Using INT2 as a Key Input Interrupt .......................................................................................................7-11
Section 8: Power-Down
Reducing Power Consumption for Key Input Interrupt Processing.............................................................8-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
xix
List of Programming Tips
Description
(Continued)
Page
Number
Section 10: I/O Ports
Configuring I/O Ports to Input or Output .................................................................................................10-3
Enabling and Disabling I/O Port Pull-Up Resistors ..................................................................................10-4
Section 11: Timers and Timer/Counter 0
Using the Basic Timer..........................................................................................................................11-7
Using the Watchdog Timer ...................................................................................................................11-9
TC0 Signal Output to the TCLO0 Pin .....................................................................................................11-15
External TCL0 Clock Output to the TCLO0 Pin .......................................................................................11-16
Restarting TC0 Counting Operation .......................................................................................................11-18
Setting a TC0 Timer Interval..................................................................................................................11-21
Restarting TC1 Counting Operation .......................................................................................................11-27
Setting a TC1 Timer Interval..................................................................................................................11-29
Using the Watch Timer ........................................................................................................................11-33
Section 13: External Memory Interface
External Memory Interface....................................................................................................................13-4
xx
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
List of Register Descriptions
Register
Identifier
Full Register Name
Page
Number
BMOD
Basic Timer Mode Register ........................................................................4-8
CLMOD
Clock Output Mode Register.......................................................................4-9
EMCON
External Memory Control Register...............................................................4-10
IE0, 1, IRQ0, 1
INT0, 1 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags........................................................4-11
IE2, IRQ2
INT2 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags ...........................................................4-12
IEB, IRQB
INTB Interrupt Enable/Request Flags ...........................................................4-13
IEP0, IRQP0
INTP0 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags .........................................................4-14
IET0, IRQT0
INTT0 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags..........................................................4-15
IET1, IRQT1
INTT1 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags..........................................................4-16
IEW, IRQW
INTW Interrupt Enable/Request Flags ..........................................................4-17
IMOD0
External Interrupt 0 (INT0) Mode Register.....................................................4-18
IMOD1
External Interrupt 1 (INT1) Mode Register.....................................................4-19
IMOD2
External Interrupt 2 (INT2) Mode Register.....................................................4-20
IPR
Interrupt Priority Register............................................................................4-21
LCNST
LCD Contrast Control Register....................................................................4-22
LCON0
LCD Output Control Register 0....................................................................4-23
LCON1
LCD Output Control Register 1....................................................................4-24
LMOD
LCD Mode Register ...................................................................................4-25
PASR
Page Selection Register.............................................................................4-26
PCON
Power Control Register ..............................................................................4-27
PMG0
Port I/O Mode Register 0 (Group 0: Port 0, 1)...............................................4-28
PMG1
Port I/O Mode Register 1 (Group 1: Port 4, 5)...............................................4-29
PMG2
Port I/O Mode Register 2 (Group 2: Port 6, 7)...............................................4-30
PNE0
N-channel Open-drain Mode Register 0........................................................4-31
PSW
Program Status Word ................................................................................4-32
PUMOD0
Pull-Up Resistor Mode Register ..................................................................4-33
SCMOD
System Clock Mode Control Register..........................................................4-34
TMOD0
Timer/Counter 0 Mode Register...................................................................4-35
TMOD1
Timer/Counter 1 Mode Register...................................................................4-36
TOE0
Time/Output Enable Flag Register...............................................................4-37
WDFLAG
Watch-Dog Timer’s Counter Clear Flag........................................................4-38
WDMOD
Watch-Dog Timer Mode Control Register .....................................................4-39
WMOD
Watch Timer Mode Register .......................................................................4-40
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
xxi
List of Instruction Descriptions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Full Instruction Name
Page
Number
ADC
Add With Carry .....................................................................................5-24
ADS
Add and Skip on Overflow.......................................................................5-26
AND
Locical AND..........................................................................................5-28
BAND
Bit Logical AND.....................................................................................5-29
BITR
Bit Reset ..............................................................................................5-31
BITS
Bit Set..................................................................................................5-33
BOR
Bit Logical OR.......................................................................................5-35
BTSF
Bit Test and Skip on False.....................................................................5-37
BTST
Bit Test and Skip on True.......................................................................5-39
BTSTZ
Bit Test and Skip on True; Clear Bit ........................................................5-41
BXOR
Bit Exclusive OR ...................................................................................5-43
CALL
Call Procedure ......................................................................................5-45
CALLS
Call Procedure (Short)............................................................................5-46
CCF
Complement Carry Flahg........................................................................5-47
COM
Complement Accumulator ......................................................................5-48
CPSE
Compare and Skip if Equal .....................................................................5-49
DECS
Decrement and Skip on Borrow...............................................................5-50
DI
Disable Interrupts ..................................................................................5-51
EI
Enable Interrupts ...................................................................................5-52
IDLE
Idle Operation........................................................................................5-53
INCS
Increment and Skip on Carry ..................................................................5-54
IRET
Return from Interrupt ..............................................................................5-55
JP
Jump....................................................................................................5-56
JPS
Jump (Short).........................................................................................5-57
JR
Jump Relative (Very Short).....................................................................5-58
LD
Load.....................................................................................................5-60
LDB
Load Bit................................................................................................5-64
LDC
Load Code Byte ....................................................................................5-66
LDD
Load Data Memory and Decrement .........................................................5-68
LDI
Load Data Memory and Increment...........................................................5-69
NOP
No Operation.........................................................................................5-70
OR
Logical OR............................................................................................5-71
POP
Pop from Stack .....................................................................................5-72
PUSH
Push Onto Stack...................................................................................5-73
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
xxiii
List of Instruction Descriptions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Full Instruction Name
(Continued)
Page
Number
RCF
Reset Carry Flag ...................................................................................5-74
REF
Reference Instruction .............................................................................5-75
RET
Return from Subroutine ..........................................................................5-78
RRC
Rotate Accumulator Right Through Carry .................................................5-79
SBC
Subtract With Carry ...............................................................................5-80
SBS
Subtract ...............................................................................................5-82
SCF
Set Carry Flag.......................................................................................5-83
SMB
Select Memory Bank .............................................................................5-84
SRB
Select Register Bank .............................................................................5-85
SRET
Return from Subroutine and Skip.............................................................5-86
STOP
Stop Operation......................................................................................5-87
VENT
Load EMB, ERB, and Vector Address.....................................................5-88
XCH
Exchange A or EA With Nibble or Byte ...................................................5-90
XCHD
Exchange and Decrement ......................................................................5-91
XCHI
Exchange and Increment........................................................................5-92
XOR
Logical Exclusive OR.............................................................................5-93
xxiv
S3C72Q5/P72Q5 MICROCONTROLLER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
1
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 is a SAM48 core-based 4-bit CMOS single-chip microcontroller. It has two timer/counters and LCD
drivers. The S3C72Q5 is especially suited for use in data bank, telephone and LCD general purpose.
It is built around the SAM48 core CPU and contains ROM, RAM, 39 I/O lines, programmable timer/counters, buzzer
output, enough LCD dot matrix, external memory interface, and segment drive pins. The S3C72Q5 can be used for
dedicated control functions in a variety of applications, and is especially designed for multi data bank, telephone and
LCD game.
OTP
The S3C72Q5 microcontroller is also available in OTP (One Time Programmable) version, S3P72Q5. S3P72Q5
microcontroller has an on-chip 16K-byte one-time-programmable EPROM instead of masked ROM.
The S3P72Q5 is comparable to S3C72Q5, both in function and in pin configuration.
1-1
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
FEATURES
Memory
LCD Display
•
16 k x 8 bit program memory
•
60 segments and 12 common terminals
•
5,120 x 4 bit data memory
•
9, 10, 11, and 12 common selectable
•
144 x 5 bit LCD display memory
•
Two internal resistor circuit for LCD bias
(selectable)
•
16 level LCD contrast control (software)
39 I/O Pins
•
I/O: 23 pins
•
Output: maximum 16 pins for 1-bit level output
(sharing with segment driver outputs)
External Memory Interface
•
512 k x 8 bit external memory access (19 address
and 8 data pins-sharing with segment driver
outputs)
8-Bit Basic Timer
•
Four internal timer functions
•
Six external memory selection pins (DM0-DM5)
•
Watch-dog timer
•
1 data read and 1 data write pins (DR, DW-sharing
with segment driver outputs)
8-Bit Timer/Counter 0
Power-Down Modes
•
Programmable 8-bit timer
•
External event counter
•
Idle mode (only CPU clock stops)
•
Arbitrary clock frequency output
•
•
External clock signal divider
Stop mode (Main-System clock, Sub-System
clock and CPU clock stops)
8-Bit Timer/Counter 1
Oscillation Sources
•
Crystal, ceramic, or External RC for system clock
•
Main-system clock frequency: 0.4 MHz-6 MHz
Watch Timer
•
Sub-system clock frequency: 32,768 kHz
•
Time interval generation: 0.5ms, 3.91ms at
32,768Hz
•
CPU clock divider circuit (by 4,8, or 64)
•
4 frequency (2/4/8/16 kHz) outputs to BUZ pin
•
Programmable 8-bit timer
Instruction Execution Times
•
0.67, 1.33, 10.7 µs at 6 MHz
Interrupts
•
0.95, 1.91, 15.3 µs at 4.19 MHz
•
Three external vectored interrupts: INT0, INT1,
INTP0
•
122 µs at 32.768 kHz
•
Three internal vectored interrupts: INTB, INTT0,
INTT1
Operating Temperature
•
Two quasi-interrupts: INTW, INT2
•
–25 °C to 85 °C
Operating Voltage Range
Memory Mapped I/O Structure
•
1.8 V to 5.5 V
Package Type
•
1-2
100-pin QFP Package
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
BLOCK DIAGRAM
INTT0, INTT1, INTB, INTW
INT0, INT1, INTP0, INT2
8-Bit Timer/
Counter 0
XIN XOUT
RESET XTIN XTOUT
Interrupt
Control
Block
Clock
Instruction
Register
I/O Port 0
P0.0-P0.3/K0-K3
I/O Port 1
P1.0-P1.2/K4-K6
I/O Port 4
8-Bit Timer/
Counter 1
Watch-dog Timer
Internal
Interrupts
I/O Port 5
Basic Timer
Instruction Decoder
Watch Timer
COM0-COM8
COM9-COM11/P7.3-P7.1
SEG45-SEG59
SEG44/ DW
SEG43/ DR
SEG24-SEG42/A0-A18
SEG16-SEG23/D0-D7
SEG0-SEG15/P8.0-P8.15
Program
Counter
Program
Status Word
I/O Port 6
I/O Port 7
LCD Driver/
Controller
Arithmetic and
Logic Unit
Stack
Pointer
LCD Contrast
Controller
Data and Display
Memory
16 K Byte
Program
Memory
Output
Port 8
P4.0/TCL0
P4.1/TCLO0
P4.2/INT0
P4.3/INT1
P5.0-P5.1
P5.2/BUZ
P5.3/CLO
P6.0-P6.3/KS0KS3/DM0-DM3
P7.0/KS4/DM4
P7.1/KS5/DM5
/COM11
P7.2-P7.3/KS6KS7
/COM10-9
P8.0-P8.15/
SEG0-SEG15
External Memory
Interface
Figure 1-1. S3C72Q5/P72Q5 Specified Block Diagram
1-3
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PIN ASSIGNMENTS
SEG39/A15
SEG40/A16
SEG41/A17
SEG42/A18
SEG43/DR
SEG44/DW
SEG45
SEG46
SEG47
SEG48
SEG49
SEG50
SEG51
SEG52
SEG53
SEG54
SEG55
SEG56
SEG57
SEG58
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
SEG59
COM4
COM5
COM6
COM7
COM8
P7.3/KS7/COM9
P7.2/KS6/COM10
P7.1/KS5/DM5/COM11
P7.0/KS4/DM4
P6.3/KS3/DM3
P6.2/KS2/DM2
P6.1/KS1/DM1
P6.0/KS0/DM0
VDD
VSS
XOUT
XIN
TEST
XTIN
XTOUT
RESET
P5.0
P5.1
P5.2/BUZ
P5.3/CLO
P4.0/TCL0
P4.1/TCLO0
P4.2/INT0
P4.3/INT1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
S3C72Q5
(100-QFP-1420C)
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
SEG8/P8.8
SEG7/P8.7
SEG6/P8.6
SEG5/P8.5
SEG4/P8.4
SEG3/P8.3
SEG2/P8.2
SEG1/P8.1
SEG0/P8.0
COM3
COM2
COM1
COM0
P0.0/K0
P0.1/K1
P0.2/K2
P0.3/K3
P1.0/K4
P1.1/K5
P1.2/K6
Figure 1-2. S3C72Q5 Pin Assignment Diagram
1-4
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
SEG38/A14
SEG37/A13
SEG36/A12
SEG35/A11
SEG34/A10
SEG33/A9
SEG32/A8
SEG31/A7
SEG30/A6
SEG29/A5
SEG28/A4
SEG27/A3
SEG26/A2
SEG25/A1
SEG24/A0
SEG23/D7
SEG22/D6
SEG21/D5
SEG20/D4
SEG19/D3
SEG18/D2
SEG17/D1
SEG16/D0
SEG15/P8.15
SEG14/P8.14
SEG13/P8.13
SEG12/P8.12
SEG11/P8.11
SEG10/P8.10
SEG9/P8.9
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Table 1-1. Pin Descriptions
Pin Name
Pin
Type
Description
Circuit
Type
Pin
Number
Share Pin
I/O
4-bit I/O port. 1, 4, and 8-bit read/write, and
test are possible. Individual pin can be
specified as input or output. 7-bit pull-up
resistors are assignable by software. Pull-up
resistors are automatically disabled for
output pins.
E-3
37-34
33-31
K0-K3
K4-K6
P4.0
P4.1
P4.2
P4.3
P5.0-P5.1
P5.2
P5.3
4-bit I/O port. 1, 4, and 8-bit read/write, and
test are possible. Individual pin can be
specified as input or output.
4-bit pull-up resistors are assignable by
software. Pull-up resistors are automatically
disabled for output pins. Individual pins are
software configurable as open-drain or pushpull output.
E-2
27
28
29
30
23-24
25
26
TCL0
TCLO0
INT0
INT1
–
BUZ
CLO
P6.0-P6.3
4-bit I/O port. 1, 4, and 8-bit read/write, and
test are possible. Individual pin can be
specified as input or output. 4-bit pull-up
resistors are assignable by software. Pull- up
resistors are automatically disabled for
output pins.
E-3
14-11
KS0-KS3/
DM0-DM3
KS4/DM4
KS5/DM5/COM11
KS6-KS7/COM10COM9
4-bit controllable output.
(Dual function as segment output pins)
H-9
42-57
SEG0-SEG15
LCD segment display signal output.
H-9
42-57
P8.0-P8.15
P0.0-P0.3
P1.0-P1.2
P7.0
P7.1
P7.2-P7.3
P8.0-P8.15
O
SEG0-SEG15
10
9
8-7
SEG16-SEG23
I/O
LCD segment display signal output.
H-10
58-65
D0-D7
SEG24-SEG42
O
LCD segment display signal output.
H-11
66-84
A0-A18
SEG43,SEG44
LCD segment display signal output.
H-11
85, 86
DR, DW
SEG45-SEG59
LCD segment display signal output.
H-5
87-100,1
–
COM0-COM8
LCD common signal output.
H-4
38-41
2-6
–
LCD common signal output.
H-12
7-8
9
P7.3-P7.2/
KS7-KS6
P7.1/KS5/DM5
29-30
P4.2-P4.3
COM9-COM10
I/O
COM11
INT0-INT1
NOTE:
External interrupts. The triggering edge for
INT0, and INT1 is selectable
E-2
P8 can be used to normal output port, when LCD display is off. The value of P8 is determined by KSR0-KSR3
regardless of LMOD.0. (refer to P12-17)
1-5
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 1-1. Pin Descriptions (Continued)
Pin Name
BUZ
Pin
Type
I/O
Description
2,4,8 kHz or 16 kHz frequency output for
buzzer signal.
Circuit
Type
Pin
Num.
Share Pin
E-2
25
P5.2
CLO
Clock output
26
P5.3
TCL0
External clock input for Timer/Counter0
27
P4.0
TCLO0
Timer/Counter0 clock output
28
P4.1
K0-K6
Vector interrupt input.
K0-K6: falling edge detection
E-3
37-31
P0.0-P1.2
KS0-KS4
Quasi-interrupt input for falling edge detection
E-3
14-10
H-12
9
8-7
P6.0-P7.0/
DM0-DM4
P7.1/DM5/COM11
P7.2-P7.3/
COM10-COM9
KS5
KS6-KS7
DM0-DM4
DM5
External data memory select signal
E-3
H-12
14-10
P6.0-P7.0/KS0-KS4
P7.1/KS5/COM11
D0-D7
Data signal I/O
H-10
58-65
SEG16-SEG23
Address signal out
H-11
66-84
SEG24-SEG42
External data memory read/write signal
H-11
85, 86
SEG43, SEG44
A0-A18
O
DR, DW
XIN, XOUT
–
Crystal, ceramic or RC oscillator pins for
main system clock.
–
18, 17
–
XTIN, XTOUT
–
Crystal oscillator pins for sub-system clock.
–
20, 21
–
RESET
I
Reset input (active low).
B
22
–
VDD
–
Power supply.
–
15
–
VSS
–
Ground.
–
16
–
TEST
I
Test input: it must be connected to VSS
–
19
–
1-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
PIN CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS
VDD
VDD
Pull-Up
Resistor
P-Channel
In
In
N-Channel
Schmitt Trigger
Figure 1-3. Pin Circuit Type A
Figure 1-5. Pin Circuit Type B
VDD
VDD
Pull-Up
Resistor
Pull-Up
Resistor
Enable
P-Channel
Data
Out
Output
Disable
In
P-Channel
N-Channel
Schmitt Trigger
Figure 1-4. Pin Circuit Type A-3
Figure 1-6. Pin Circuit Type C
1-7
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
VDD
PNE
VDD
Pull-up
Resistor
Pull-up
Resistor
Enable
P-CH
Data
I/O
N-CH
Output
Disable
Schmitt Trigger
Figure 1-7. Pin Circuit Type E-2
VDD
Pull-up
Resistor
Pull-up
Resistor
Enable
Data
Output
Disable
P-CH
Circuit
Type C
Schmitt Trigger
Figure 1-8. Pin Circuit Type E-3
1-8
I/O
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
VLC1
VLC1
VLC2
VLC2
Out
COM
Output
Disable
SEG
Out
Output
Disable
VLC4
VLC3
VSS
VSS
Key Strobe
N-CH
Figure 1-9. Pin Circuit Type H-4
Figure 1-11. Pin Circuit Type H-6
VLC1
VLC1
VLC2
VLC2
SEG
VLC3
VSS
Out
COM
Out
Output
Disable
VLC3
VSS
Figure 1-10. Pin Circuit Type H-5
Figure 1-12. Pin Circuit Type H-7
1-9
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
VDD
Out
Data
Output
Disable1
N-CH
P-CH
Data
SEG
Output
Disable2
Circuit
Type H-6
Out
N-CH
Output
Disable1
Key Strobe
N-CH
SEG
Output
Disable2
Figure 1-13. Pin Circuit Type H-9
Circuit
Type H-6
Figure 1-15. Pin Circuit Type H-11
VDD
Pull-up
Resistor
VDD
Resistor
Enable
P-CH
Data
I/O
N-CH
Output
Disable1
SEG
Output
Disable2
Circuit
Type H-6
COM
Output
Disable1
Data
Output
Disable2
P-CH
Type H-7
Type C
Key Strobe
Figure 1-14. Pin Circuit Type H-10
1-10
Figure 1-16. Pin Circuit Type H-12
I/O
N-CH
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
2
ADDRESS SPACE
ADDRESS SPACES
PROGRAM MEMORY (ROM)
OVERVIEW
ROM maps for S3C72Q5 devices are mask programmable at the factory. In its standard configuration, the device's
16,384 bytes program memory has four areas that are directly addressable by the program counter (PC):
— 14-byte area for vector addresses
— 18-byte general-purpose area
— 96-byte instruction reference area
— 16,256-byte general-purpose area
General-Purpose Program Memory
Two program memory areas are allocated for general-purpose use: One area is 18-byte in size and the other is
16,256-byte.
Vector Addresses
A 14-byte vector address area is used to store the vector addresses required to execute system resets and
interrupts. Start addresses for interrupt service routines are stored in this area, along with the values of the enable
memory bank (EMB) and enable register bank (ERB) flags that are used to set their initial value for the corresponding
service routines. The 14-byte area can be used alternately as general-purpose ROM.
REF Instructions
Locations 0020H-007FH are used as a reference area (look-up table) for 1-byte REF instructions. The REF
instruction reduces the byte size of instruction operands. REF can reference one 2-byte instruction, two 1-byte
instructions, and one 3-byte instructions which are stored in the look-up table. Unused look-up table addresses can
be used as general-purpose ROM.
Table 2-1. Program Memory Address Ranges
ROM Area Function
Address Ranges
Area Size (in Bytes)
Vector address area
0000H-000DH
14
General-purpose program memory
000EH-001FH
18
REF instruction look-up table area
0020H-007FH
96
General-purpose program memory
0080H-3FFFH
16,256
2-1
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
GENERAL-PURPOSE MEMORY AREAS
The 18-byte area at ROM locations 000EH-001FH and the 16,256-byte area at ROM locations 0080H-3FFFH are
used as general-purpose program memory. Unused locations in the vector address area and REF instruction look-up
table areas can be used as general-purpose program memory. However, care must be taken not to overwrite live data
when writing programs that use special-purpose areas of the ROM.
VECTOR ADDRESS AREA
The 14-byte vector address area of the ROM is used to store the vector addresses for executing system resets and
interrupts. The starting addresses of interrupt service routines are stored in this area, along with the enable memory
bank (EMB) and enable register bank (ERB) flag values that are needed to initialize the service routines. 16-byte
vector addresses are organized as follows:
EMB
ERB
0
PC12
PC11
PC10
PC9
PC8
PC7
PC6
PC5
PC4
PC3
PC2
PC1
PC0
To set up the vector address area for specific programs, use the instruction VENTn. The programming tips on the
next page explain how to do this.
7
0000H
Vector Address Area
(14 bytes)
000DH
000EH
6
5
4
3
2
0000H
RESET
0002H
Basic Timer
0004H
INT0
0006H
INT1
0008H
INTP0
000AH
Timer/Counter0
000CH
Timer/Counter1
1
General Purpose Area
(18 bytes)
001FH
0020H
Instruction Reference Area
(96 bytes)
007FH
0080H
General Purpose Area
(16,256 bytes)
3FFFH
Figure 2-1. ROM Address Structure
2-2
Figure 2-2. Vector Address Map
0
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F
ADDRESS SPACE
PROGRAMMING TIP – Defining Vectored Interrupts
The following examples show you several ways you can define the vectored interrupt and instruction reference areas
in program memory:
1.
When all vector interrupts are used:
ORG
0000H
VENT0
VENT1
VENT2
VENT3
VENT4
VENT5
VENT6
1,0,RESET
0,0,INTB
0,0,INT0
0,0,INT1
0,0,INTP0
0,0,INTT0
0,0,INTT1
;
2.
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
EMB
EMB
EMB
EMB
EMB
EMB
EMB
←
←
←
←
←
←
←
1, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
← 0; Jump to RESET address by RESET
← 0; Jump to INTB address by INTB
← 0; Jump to INT0 address by INT0
← 0; Jump to INT1 address by INT1
← 0; Jump to INTP0 address by INTP0
← 0; Jump to INTT0 address by INTT0
← 0; Jump to INTT1 address by INTT1
When a specific vectored interrupt such as INT0, and INTT0 is not used, the unused vector interrupt locations
must be skipped with the assembly instruction ORG so that jumps will address the correct locations:
ORG
0000H
VENT0
VENT1
ORG
VENT3
VENT4
1,0,RESET
0,0,INTB
0006H
0,0,INT1
0,0,INTP0
ORG
VENT6
000CH
0,0,INTT1
;
3.
;
;
;
;
;
;
EMB ← 1, ERB ← 0; Jump to RESET address by RESET
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 0; Jump to INTB address by INTB
INT0 interrupt not used
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 0; Jump to INT1 address by INT1
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 0; Jump to INTP0 address by INTP0
INTT0 interrupt not used
; EMB ← 0, ERB ← 0; Jump to INTT1 address by INTT1
If an INT0 and INTT1 interrupt is not used and if its corresponding vector interrupt area is not fully utilized, or if it
is not written by a ORG instruction in Example 2, a CPU malfunction will occur:
ORG
0000H
VENT0
VENT1
VENT3
VENT4
VENT5
1,0,RESET
0,0,INTB
0,0,INT1
0,0,INTP0
0,0,INTT0
;
;
;
;
;
;
EMB
EMB
EMB
EMB
EMB
←
←
←
←
←
1, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
0, ERB
← 0; Jump to RESET address by RESET
← 0; Jump to INTB address by INTB
← 0; Jump to INT1 address by INT1
← 0; Jump to INTP0 address by INTP0
← 0; Jump to INTT0 address by INTT0
In this example, when an INTP0 interrupt is generated, the corresponding vector area is not VENT4 INTP0, but
VENT5 INTT0. This causes an INTP0 interrupt to jump incorrectly to the INTT0 address and causes a CPU
malfunction to occur.
2-3
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INSTRUCTION REFERENCE AREA
Using 1-byte REF instructions, you can easily reference instructions with larger byte sizes that are stored in addresses 0020H-007FH of program memory. This 96-byte area is called the REF instruction reference area, or look-up
table. Locations in the REF look-up table may contain two 1-byte instructions, one 2-byte instruction, or one 3-byte
instruction such as a JP (jump) or CALL. The starting address of the instruction you are referencing must always be
an even number. To reference a JP or CALL instruction, it must be written to the reference area in a two-byte format:
for JP, this format is TJP; for CALL, it is TCALL. In summary, there are three ways to the REF instruction:
By using REF instructions, you can execute instructions larger than one byte. In summary, there are three ways you
can use the REF instruction:
— Using the 1-byte REF instruction to execute one 2-byte or two 1-byte instructions
— Branching to any location by referencing a branch instruction stored in the look-up table
— Calling subroutines at any location by referencing a call instruction stored in the look-up table
F
PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the REF Look-Up Table
Here is one example of how to use the REF instruction look-up table:
;
JMAIN
KEYCK
WATCH
INCHL
ORG
0020H
TJP
BTSF
TCALL
LD
INCS
MAIN
KEYFG
CLOCK
@HL,A
HL
;
;
;
;
EA,#00H
0080
; 47, EA
KEYCK
JMAIN
WATCH
INCHL
ABC
;
;
;
;
;
0, MAIN
1, KEYFG CHECK
2, CALL CLOCK
3, (HL) ← A
•
•
ABC
;
MAIN
LD
ORG
← #00H
NOP
NOP
•
•
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
•
•
2-4
BTSF KEYFG (1-byte instruction)
KEYFG = 1, jump to MAIN (1-byte instruction)
KEYFG = 0, CALL CLOCK (1-byte instruction)
LD @HL,A : INCS HL
LD EA,#00H (1-byte instruction)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
DATA MEMORY (RAM)
OVERVIEW
In its standard configuration, the data memories have four areas:
— 32 x 4-bit working register area
— 224 x 4-bit general-purpose area in bank 0 which is also used as the stack area
— 20 pages with 256 x 4-bit in bank1
•
19 pages for general purpose area (00H-12H page)
•
1 page for LCD Display data memory (13H page)
— 128 × 4-bit area in bank 15 for memory-mapped I/O addresses
To make it easier to reference, the data memory area has three memory banks — bank 0, bank 1, and bank 15. The
select memory bank instruction (SMB) is used to select the bank you want to select as working data memory. Data
stored in RAM locations are 1-, 4-, and 8-bit addressable. One exception is the display data memory area, which is
8-bit addressable only.
Initialization values for the data memory area are not defined by hardware therefore must be initialized by program
software following power RESET. However, when RESET signal is generated in power-down mode, the most of the data
memory contents are held.
Bank 1 Page Selection Register (PASR)
PASR is a 5-bit write -only register for selecting the page of bank1 ,and is mapped to the RAM address FA0H.
It should be written by a 8-bit RAM control instruction only and the MSB 3 bits should be "0". PASR retains the
previous value as long as change is not required, and the reset value is 0. Therefore, when it returns to the
Bank 1 from other bank (Bank 0 or Bank 15) without changing the contents of PASR, the previously specified Bank 1
page is selected . The PASR must not be changed in the interrupt service routine because it's value cannot be
recovered as the original value when the routine is finished.
2-5
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
3
000H
Bank 0
(EMB=1, SMB = 0
or EMB=0)
020H
2
1
Working
Registers
GeneralPurpose and/or
Stack Registers
0FFH
100H
GeneralPurpose
Registers
Bank 1
(EMB=1,SMB=1)
0
Page
(00H)
1FFH
100H 100H
100H 100H
100H 100H
100H 100H
Page Page
100H 100H
(01H) (02H) Page Page
100H 100H
(03H) (04H) Page Page
Page
(05H) (06H)
Page Page
(07H)
1FFH
(0FH) (10H) Page Page
1FFH 1FFH
(11H) (12H)
1FFH
1FFH 1FFH
1FFH
1FFH 1FFH
1FFH 1FFH
1FFH
F80H
Peripheral
Hardware
Register
Bank15
(EMB=1 SMB=15,
or EMB=0)
FFFH
Display
Data
Registers
Page (13H)
Figure 2-3. S3C72Q5 Data Memory (RAM) Map
2-6
100H
101H
102H
103H
104H
105H
106H
107H
108H
109H
10AH
10BH
110H
1ABH
1B0H
1B1H
1B2H
1B3H
1B4H
1B5H
1B6H
1B7H
1B8H
1B9H
1BAH
1BBH
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
Memory Banks 0, 1, and 15
Bank 0
(000H-0FFH)
The lowest 32 nibbles of bank 0 (000H-01FH) are used as working registers; the next
224 nibbles (020H-0FFH) can be used both as stack area and as general-purpose data
memory. Use the stack area for implementing subroutine calls and returns, and for
interrupt processing.
Bank 1
(100H-1FFH)
Bank 1 has the data memory of 20 pages, the 00H-12H pages for general purpose
data memory are comprised of 256 x 4-bits, and the 13H page for LCD display data
memory consists of 144 x 5-bits.
The S3C72Q5 use specially a Bank 1 page selection register (PASR) for selecting one
of these 20 pages.
Bank 15
(F80H-FFFH)
The microcontroller uses bank 15 for memory-mapped peripheral I/O. Fixed RAM
locations for each peripheral hardware address are mapped into this area.
Data Memory Addressing Modes
The enable memory bank (EMB) flag controls the addressing mode for data memory banks 0, 1, or 15. When the
EMB flag is logic zero, the addressable area is restricted to specific locations, depending on whether direct or
indirect addressing is used. With direct addressing, you can access locations 000H-07FH of bank 0 and bank 15.
With indirect addressing, only bank 0 (000H-0FFH) can be accessed. When the EMB flag is set to logic one, all
three data memory banks can be accessed according to the current SMB value.
For 8-bit addressing, two 4-bit registers are addressed as a register pair. Also, when using 8-bit instructions to
address RAM locations, remember to use the even-numbered register address as the instruction operand.
Working Registers
The RAM working register area in data memory bank 0 is further divided into four register banks (bank 0, 1, 2, and,
3). Each register bank has eight 4-bit registers and paired 4-bit registers are 8-bit addressable.
Register A is used as a 4-bit accumulator and register pair EA as an 8-bit extended accumulator. The carry flag bit
can also be used as a 1-bit accumulator. Register pairs WX, WL, and HL are used as address pointers for indirect
addressing. To limit the possibility of data corruption due to incorrect register addressing, it is advisable to use
register bank 0 for the main program and banks 1, 2, and, 3 for interrupt service routines.
LCD Data Register Area
Bit values for LCD segment data are stored in data memory bank 1 (13H page). Register locations in this area that
are not used to store LCD data can be assigned to general-purpose use.
Table 2-2. Data Memory Organization and Addressing
Addresses
Register Areas
000H-01FH
Working registers
020H-0FFH
Stack and general-purpose registers
100H11FFH
General-purpose registers (00H-12H pages)
LCD display data memory (the 13th page)
I/O-mapped hardware registers
F80H-FFFH
Bank
EMB Value
SMB
Value
0
0, 1
0
1
1
1
15
0, 1
15
NOTE: LCD data register is 13H page in data memory Bank 1.
2-7
ADDRESS SPACE
F
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PROGRAMMING TIP – Clearing Data Memory Bank 0 ,and the page 0 in Bank 1
Clear bank 0 of the data memory area, and the page 0 of the data memory area in Bank 1
RAMCLR
RMCL1
SMB
LD
LD
15
EA, #00H
PASR, EA
SMB
LD
LD
LD
INCS
JR
1
HL,#00H
A,#0H
@HL,A
HL
RMCL1
; page 0 in Bank 1 clear
SMB
LD
LD
INCS
JR
0
HL,#20H
@HL,A
HL
RMCL0
; Bank 0 clear
;
RMCL0
2-8
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
WORKING REGISTERS
Working registers, mapped to RAM address 000H–01FH in data memory bank 0, are used to temporarily store
intermediate results during program execution, as well as pointer values used for indirect addressing. Unused
registers may be used as general-purpose memory. Working register data can be manipulated as 1-bit unit, 4-bit
unit, or using paired registers, as 8-bit unit.
000H
001H
002H
003H
004H
005H
006H
007H
008H
00FH
010H
017H
018H
01FH
A
E
L
H
X
Register Bank 0
(ERB = 0, or
ERB = 1 and SRB = 0)
W
Z
Y
Bank 1
Same as Bank 0
Register Bank 1
(ERB = 1, SRB = 1)
Bank 2
Same as Bank 0
Register Bank 2
(ERB = 1, SRB = 2)
Bank 3
Same as Bank 0
Register Bank 3
(ERB = 1, SRB = 3)
Figure 2-4. Working Register Map
2-9
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Working Register Banks
For addressing purposes, the working register area is divided into four register banks - bank 0, bank 1, bank 2, and
bank 3. Any one of these banks can be selected as the working register bank by the register bank selection
instruction (SRB n) and by setting the status of the register bank enable flag (ERB).
Generally, working register bank 0 is used for the main program, and banks 1, 2, and 3 for interrupt service routines.
Following this convention helps to prevent possible data corruption during program execution due to contention in
register bank addressing.
Table 2-3. Working Register Organization and Addressing
ERB Setting
0
1
NOTE:
SRB Settings
Selected Register Bank
3
2
1
0
0
0
x
x
Always set to bank 0
0
0
Bank 0
0
1
Bank 1
1
0
Bank 2
1
1
Bank 3
0
0
'x' means don't care.
Paired Working Registers
Each of the register banks is subdivided into eight 4-bit registers. These registers, named Y, Z, W, X, H, L, E and A,
can either be manipulated individually using 4-bit instructions, or together as register pairs for 8-bit data manipulation.
The names of the 8-bit register pairs in each register bank are EA, HL, WX, YZ and WL. Registers A, L, X and Z
always become the lower nibble when registers are addressed as 8-bit pairs. This makes a total of eight 4-bit
registers or four 8-bit double registers in each of the four working register banks.
(MSB)
(LSB)
(MSB)
(LSB)
Y
Z
W
X
H
L
E
A
Figure 2-5. Register Pair Configuration
2-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
Special-Purpose Working Registers
Register A is used as a 4-bit accumulator and double register EA as an 8-bit accumulator. The carry flag can also be
used as a 1-bit accumulator.
8-bit double registers WX, WL and HL are used as data pointers for indirect addressing. When the HL register serves
as a data pointer, the instructions LDI, LDD, XCHI, and XCHD can make very efficient use of working registers as
program loop counters by letting you transfer a value to the L register and increment or decrement it using a single
instruction.
C
A
EA
1-Bit Accumulator
4-Bit Accumulator
8-Bit Accumulator
Figure 2-6. 1-Bit, 4-Bit, and 8-Bit Accumulator
Recommendation for Multiple Interrupt Processing
If more than four interrupts are being processed at one time, you can avoid possible loss of working register data by
using the PUSH RR instruction to save register contents to the stack before the service routines are executed in the
same register bank. When the routines have been executed successfully, you can restore the register contents from
the stack to working memory by using the POP instruction.
2-11
ADDRESS SPACE
F
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PROGRAMMING TIP — Selecting the Working Register Area
The following examples show the correct programming method for selecting working register area:
1.
When ERB = "0":
;
INT0
VENT2
1,0,INT0
; EMB ← 1, ERB ← 0, Jump to INT0 address
PUSH
SRB
PUSH
PUSH
PUSH
PUSH
SMB
LD
LD
LD
INCS
LD
LD
POP
POP
POP
POP
POP
IRET
SB
2
HL
WX
YZ
EA
0
EA,#00H
80H,EA
HL,#40H
HL
WX,EA
YZ,EA
EA
YZ
WX
HL
SB
;
;
;
;
;
;
PUSH current SMB, SRB
Instruction does not execute because ERB = "0"
PUSH HL register contents to stack
PUSH WX register contents to stack
PUSH YZ register contents to stack
PUSH EA register contents to stack
;
;
;
;
;
POP EA register contents from stack
POP YZ register contents from stack
POP WX register contents from stack
POP HL register contents from stack
POP current SMB, SRB
The POP instructions execute alternately with the PUSH instructions. If an SMB n instruction is used in an interrupt
service routine, a PUSH and POP SB instruction must be used to store and restore the current SMB and SRB
values, as shown in Example 2 below.
2.
When ERB = "1":
;
INT0
2-12
VENT2
1,1,INT0
; EMB ← 1, ERB ← 1, Jump to INT0 address
PUSH
SRB
SMB
LD
LD
LD
INCS
LD
LD
POP
IRET
SB
2
0
EA,#00H
80H,EA
HL,#40H
HL
WX,EA
YZ,EA
SB
; Store current SMB, SRB
; Select register bank 2 because of ERB = "1"
; Restore SMB, SRB
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
STACK OPERATIONS
STACK POINTER (SP)
The stack pointer (SP) is an 8-bit register that stores the address used to access the stack, an area of data memory
set aside for temporary storage of data and addresses. The SP can be read or written by 8-bit control instructions.
When addressing the SP, bit 0 must always remain cleared to logic zero.
F80H
SP3
SP2
SP1
"0"
F81H
SP7
SP6
SP5
SP4
There are two basic stack operations: writing to the top of the stack (push), and reading from the top of the stack
(pop). A push decrements the SP and a pop increments it so that the SP always points to the top address of the
last data to be written to the stack.
The program counter contents and program status word are stored in the stack area prior to the execution of a CALL
or a PUSH instruction, or during interrupt service routines. Stack operation is a LIFO (Last In-First Out) type. The
stack area is located in general-purpose data memory bank 0.
During an interrupt or a subroutine, the PC value and the PSW are saved to the stack area. When the routine has
been completed, the stack pointer is referenced to restore the PC and PSW, and the next instruction is executed.
The SP can address stack registers in bank 0 (addresses 000H-0FFH) regardless of the current value of the enable
memory bank (EMB) flag and the select memory bank (SMB) flag. Although general-purpose register areas can be
used for stack operations, be careful to avoid data loss due to simultaneous use of the same register(s).
Since the reset value of the stack pointer is not defined in firmware, we recommend that you initialize the stack
pointer by program code to location 00H. This sets the first register of the stack area to 0FFH.
NOTE
A subroutine call occupies six nibbles in the stack; an interrupt requires six. When subroutine nesting or
interrupt routines are used continuously, the stack area should be set in accordance with the maximum
number of subroutine levels. To do this, estimate the number of nibbles that will be used for the subroutines
or interrupts and set the stack area correspondingly.
F
PROGRAMMING TIP — Initializing the Stack Pointer
To initialize the stack pointer (SP):
1.
When EMB = "1":
SMB
LD
LD
2.
15
EA,#00H
SP,EA
; Select memory bank 15
; Bit 0 of accumulator A is always cleared to "0"
; Stack area initial address (0FFH) ← (SP) - 1
EA,#00H
SP,EA
; Memory addressing area (00H-7FH, F80H-FFFH)
When EMB = "0":
LD
LD
2-13
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PUSH OPERATIONS
Three kinds of push operations reference the stack pointer (SP) to write data from the source register to the stack:
PUSH instructions, CALL instructions, and interrupts. In each case, the SP is decremented by a number
determined by the type of push operation and then points to the next available stack location.
PUSH Instructions
A PUSH instruction references the SP to write two 4-bit data nibbles to the stack. Two 4-bit stack addresses are
referenced by the stack pointer: one for the upper register value and another for the lower register. After the PUSH
has been executed, the SP is decremented by two and points to the next available stack location.
CALL Instructions
When a subroutine call is issued, the CALL instruction references the SP to write the PC's contents to six 4-bit
stack locations. Current values for the enable memory bank (EMB) flag and the enable register bank (ERB) flag are
also pushed to the stack. Since six 4-bit stack locations are used per CALL, you may nest subroutine calls up to
the number of levels permitted in the stack.
Interrupt Routines
An interrupt routine references the SP to push the contents of the PC and the program status word (PSW) to the
stack. Six 4-bit stack locations are used to store this data. After the interrupt has been executed, the SP is
decremented by six and points to the next available stack location. During an interrupt sequence, subroutines may
be nested up to the number of levels which are permitted in the stack area.
PUSH
(After PUSH, SP
CALL, LCALL
(After CALL or LCALL, SP
SP - 2)
SP - 6
SP - 5
PC14 - PC12
SP - 6
SP - 5
0
PC14 - PC12
PC3 - PC0
SP - 4
PC3 - PC0
SP - 3
PC7 - PC4
SP - 3
PC7 - PC4
Lower Register
SP - 2
0
SP - 1
Upper Register
SP - 1
0
0
EMB ERB
PSW
0
0
0
SP - 2
IS1
SP - 1
C
SP
Figure 2-7. Push-Type Stack Operations
2-14
PC11 - PC8
SP - 4
SP - 2
SP
SP - 6)
PC11 - PC8
0
Interrupt
(When INT is acknowledged,
SP
SP - 6)
SP
IS0 EMB ERB
PSW
SC2 SC1 SC0
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
POP OPERATIONS
For each push operation, there is a corresponding pop operation to write data from the stack back to the source
register or registers: for the PUSH instruction it is the POP instruction; for CALL, the instruction RET or SRET; for
interrupts, the instruction IRET. When a pop operation occurs, the SP is incremented by a number determined by
the type of operation and points to the next free stack location.
POP Instructions
A POP instruction references the SP to write data stored in two 4-bit stack locations back to the register pairs and
SB register. The value of the lower 4-bit register is popped first, followed by the value of the upper 4-bit register. After
the POP has been executed, the SP is incremented by two and points to the next free stack location.
RET and SRET Instructions
The end of a subroutine call is signaled by the return instruction, RET or SRET. The RET or SRET uses the SP to
reference the six 4-bit stack locations used for the CALL and to write this data back to the PC, the EMB, and the
ERB. After the RET or SRET has been executed, the SP is incremented by six and points to the next free stack
location.
IRET Instructions
The end of an interrupt sequence is signaled by the instruction IRET. IRET references the SP to locate the six 4-bit
stack addresses used for the interrupt and to write this data back to the PC and the PSW. After the IRET has been
executed, the SP is incremented by six and points to the next free stack location.
(SP
POP
SP + 2)
RET or SRET
(SP
SP + 6)
SP
Lower Register
SP
SP + 1
Upper Register
SP + 1
SP + 1
(SP
SP
PC11 - PC8
0
PC14 - PC12
SP + 1
IRET
SP + 6)
PC11 - PC8
0
PC14 - PC12
SP + 2
PC3 - PC0
SP + 2
PC3 - PC0
SP + 3
PC7 - PC4
SP + 3
PC7 - PC4
SP + 4
0
SP + 5
0
SP + 6
0
EMB ERB
PSW
0
0
0
SP + 4
IS1
SP + 5
C
IS0 EMB ERB
PSW
SC2 SC1 SC0
SP + 6
Figure 2-8. Pop-Type Stack Operations
2-15
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BIT SEQUENTIAL CARRIER (BSC)
The BSC can be manipulated using 1-, 4-, and 8-bit RAM control instructions. RESET clears all BSC bit values to
logic zero.
Using the BSC, you can specify sequential addresses and bit locations using 1-bit indirect addressing ([email protected]).
(Bit addressing is independent of the current EMB value.) In this way, programs can process 16-bit data by moving
the bit location sequentially and then incrementing or decrementing the value of the L register.
BSC data can also be manipulated using direct addressing. For 8-bit manipulations, the 4-bit register names BSC0
and BSC2 must be specified and the upper and lower 8 bits manipulated separately.
If the values of the L register are 0H at [email protected], the address and bit location assignment is FC0H.0. If the L
register content is FH at [email protected], the address and bit location assignment is FC3H.3.
Table 2-4. BSC Register Organization
F
Name
Address
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
BSC0
FC0H
BSC0.3
BSC0.2
BSC0.1
BSC0.0
BSC1
FC1H
BSC1.3
BSC1.2
BSC1.1
BSC1.0
BSC2
FC2H
BSC2.3
BSC2.2
BSC2.1
BSC2.0
BSC3
FC3H
BSC3.3
BSC3.2
BSC3.1
BSC3.0
PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the BSC Register to Output 16-Bit Data
To use the bit sequential carrier (BSC) register to output 16-bit data (5937H) to the P2.0 pin:
AGN
2-16
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
SMB
LD
LDB
LDB
INCS
JR
RET
EMB
15
EA,#37H
BSC0,EA
EA,#59H
BSC2,EA
0
L,#0H
C,[email protected]
P2.0,C
L
AGN
;
; BSC0 ← A, BSC1 ← E
;
; BSC2 ← A, BSC3 ← E
;
;
; P2.0 ← C
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
PROGRAM COUNTER (PC)
A 13-bit program counter (PC) stores addresses for instruction fetches during program execution. Whenever a reset
operation or an interrupt occurs, bits PC12 through PC0 are set to the vector address.
Usually, the PC is incremented by the number of bytes of the instruction being fetched. One exception is the 1-byte
REF instruction which is used to reference instructions stored in the ROM.
PROGRAM STATUS WORD (PSW)
The program status word (PSW) is an 8-bit word that defines system status and program execution status and which
permits an interrupted process to resume operation after an interrupt request has been serviced. PSW values are
mapped as follows:
FB0H
IS1
IS0
EMB
ERB
FB1H
C
SC2
SC1
SC0
The PSW can be manipulated by 1-bit or 4-bit read/write and by 8-bit read instructions, depending on the specific bit
or bits being addressed. The PSW can be addressed during program execution regardless of the current value of the
enable memory bank (EMB) flag.
Part or all of the PSW is saved to stack prior to execution of a subroutine call or hardware interrupt. After the interrupt has been processed, the PSW values are popped from the stack back to the PSW address.
When a RESET is generated, the EMB and ERB values are set according to the RESET vector address, and the
carry flag is left undefined (or the current value is retained). PSW bits IS0, IS1, SC0, SC1, and SC2 are all cleared to
logic zero.
Table 2-5. Program Status Word Bit Descriptions
PSW Bit Identifier
IS1, IS0
Description
Interrupt status flags
Bit Addressing
Read/Write
1, 4
R/W
EMB
Enable memory bank flag
1
R/W
ERB
Enable register bank flag
1
R/W
Carry flag
1
R/W
Program skip flags
8
R
C
SC2, SC1, SC0
2-17
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INTERRUPT STATUS FLAGS (IS0, IS1)
PSW bits IS0 and IS1 contain the current interrupt execution status values. You can manipulate IS0 and IS1 flags
directly using 1-bit RAM control instructions.
By manipulating interrupt status flags in conjunction with the interrupt priority register (IPR), you can process
multiple interrupts by anticipating the next interrupt in an execution sequence. The interrupt priority control circuit
determines the IS0 and IS1 settings in order to control multiple interrupt processing. When both interrupt status flags
are set to "0", all interrupts are allowed. The priority with which interrupts are processed is then determined by the
IPR.
When an interrupt occurs, IS0 and IS1 are pushed to the stack as part of the PSW and are automatically
incremented to the next higher priority level. Then, when the interrupt service routine ends with an IRET instruction,
IS0 and IS1 values are restored to the PSW. Table 2-6 shows the effects of IS0 and IS1 flag settings.
Since interrupt status flags can be addressed by write instructions, programs can exert direct control over interrupt
processing status. Before interrupt status flags can be addressed, however, you must first execute a DI instruction to
inhibit additional interrupt routines. When the bit manipulation has been completed, execute an EI instruction to
re-enable interrupt processing.
Table 2-6. Interrupt Status Flag Bit Settings
IS1 Value
IS0 Value
Status of Currently
Executing Process
0
0
0
All interrupt requests are serviced
0
1
1
Only high-priority interrupt(s) as determined in the interrupt
priority register (IPR) are serviced
1
0
2
No more interrupt requests are serviced
1
1
–
Not applicable; these bit settings are undefined
F
Effect of IS0 and IS1 Settings
on Interrupt Request Control
PROGRAMMING TIP — Setting ISx Flags for Interrupt Processing
The following instruction sequence shows how to use the IS0 and IS1 flags to control interrupt processing:
INTB
2-18
DI
BITR
BITS
EI
•
•
•
IRET
IS1
IS0
;
;
;
;
Disable interrupt
IS1 ← 0
Allow interrupts according to IPR priority level
Enable interrupt
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
EMB FLAG (EMB)
The EMB flag is used to allocate specific address locations in the RAM by modifying the upper 4 bits of 12-bit data
memory addresses. In this way, it controls the addressing mode for data memory banks.
When the EMB flag is "0", the data memory address space is restricted to addresses 0F80H-0FFFH of data memory
bank 15 and 000H-07FH of bank 0, regardless of the SMB register contents. When the EMB flag is set to "1", the
addressing area of data memory is expanded and all of data memory space can be accessed by using the
appropriate SMB value.
F
PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the EMB Flag to Select Memory Banks
EMB flag settings for memory bank selection:
1. When EMB = "0":
SMB
LD
LD
LD
SMB
LD
LD
SMB
LD
LD
1
A,#9H
90H,A
34H,A
0
90H,A
34H,A
15
20H,A
90H,A
; Non-essential instruction since EMB = "0"
1
A,#9H
90H,A
34H,A
0
90H,A
34H,A
15
20H,A
90H,A
; Select memory bank 1
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
(F90H) ← A, bank 15 is selected
(034H) ← A, bank 0 is selected
Non-essential instruction since EMB = "0"
(F90H) ← A, bank 15 is selected
(034H) ← A, bank 0 is selected
Non-essential instruction, since EMB = "0"
(020H) ← A, bank 0 is selected
(F90H) ← A, bank 15 is selected
2. When EMB = "1":
SMB
LD
LD
LD
SMB
LD
LD
SMB
LD
LD
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
(190H) ← A, bank 1 is selected
(134H) ← A, bank 1 is selected
Select memory bank 0
(090H) ← A, bank 0 is selected
(034H) ← A, bank 0 is selected
Select memory bank 15
Program error, but assembler does not detect it
(F90H) ← A, bank 15 is selected
2-19
ADDRESS SPACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ERB FLAG (ERB)
The 1-bit register bank enable flag (ERB) determines the range of addressable working register area. When the ERB
flag is "1", the working register area from register banks 0 to 3 is selected according to the register bank selection
register (SRB). When the ERB flag is "0", register bank 0 is the selected working register area, regardless of the
current value of the register bank selection register (SRB).
When an internal RESET is generated, bit 6 of program memory address 0000H is written to the ERB flag. This
automatically initializes the flag. When a vectored interrupt is generated, bit 6 of the respective address table in
program memory is written to the ERB flag, setting the correct flag status before the interrupt service routine is
executed.
During the interrupt routine, the ERB value is automatically pushed to the stack area along with the other PSW bits.
Afterwards, it is popped back to the FB0H.0 bit location. The initial ERB flag settings for each vectored interrupt are
defined using VENTn instructions.
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the ERB Flag to Select Register Banks
ERB flag settings for register bank selection:
1. When ERB = "0":
SRB
1
LD
LD
SRB
LD
SRB
LD
EA,#34H
HL,EA
2
YZ,EA
3
WX,EA
; Register bank 0 is selected (since ERB = "0", the
SRB is configured to bank 0)
; Bank 0 EA ← #34H
; Bank 0 HL ← EA
; Register bank 0 is selected
; Bank 0 YZ ← EA
; Register bank 0 is selected
; Bank 0 WX ← EA
1
EA,#34H
HL,EA
2
YZ,EA
3
WX,EA
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
2. When ERB = "1":
SRB
LD
LD
SRB
LD
SRB
LD
2-20
Register bank 1 is selected
Bank 1 EA ← #34H
Bank 1 HL ← Bank 1 EA
Register bank 2 is selected
Bank 2 YZ ← BANK2 EA
Register bank 3 is selected
Bank 3 WX ← Bank 3 EA
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESS SPACE
SKIP CONDITION FLAGS (SC2, SC1, SC0)
The skip condition flags SC2, SC1, and SC0 indicate the current program skip conditions and are set and reset
automatically during program execution. Skip condition flags can only be addressed by 8-bit read instructions. Direct
manipulation of the SC2, SC1, and SC0 bits is not allowed.
CARRY FLAG (C)
The carry flag is used to save the result of an overflow or borrow when executing arithmetic instructions involving a
carry (ADC, SBC). The carry flag can also be used as a 1-bit accumulator for performing Boolean operations involving
bit-addressed data memory.
If an overflow or borrow condition occurs when executing arithmetic instructions with carry (ADC, SBC), the carry flag
is set to "1". Otherwise, its value is "0". When a RESET occurs, the current value of the carry flag is retained during
power-down mode, but when normal operating mode resumes, its value is undefined.
The carry flag can be directly manipulated by predefined set of 1-bit read/write instructions, independent of other bits
in the PSW. Only the ADC and SBC instructions, and the instructions listed in Table 2-7, affect the carry flag.
Table 2-7. Valid Carry Flag Manipulation Instructions
Operation Type
Direct manipulation
Instructions
Carry Flag Manipulation
SCF
Set carry flag to "1"
RCF
Clear carry flag to "0" (reset carry flag)
CCF
Invert carry flag value (complement carry flag)
BTST C
Test carry and skip if C = "1"
LDB (operand) (1),C
Load carry flag value to the specified bit
LDB C,(operand) (1)
Load contents of the specified bit to carry flag
BAND C,(operand) (1)
AND the specified bit with contents of carry flag and save
the result to the carry flag
BOR C,(operand) (1)
OR the specified bit with contents of carry flag and save
the result to the carry flag
BXOR C,(operand) (1)
XOR the specified bit with contents of carry flag and save
the result to the carry flag
Interrupt routine
INTn (2)
Save carry flag to stack with other PSW bits
Return from interrupt
IRET
Restore carry flag from stack with other PSW bits
Bit transfer
Boolean manipulation
NOTES:
1. The operand has three bit addressing formats: mema.a, [email protected], and @H + DA.b.
2. 'INTn' refers to the specific interrupt being executed and is not an instruction.
2-21
ADDRESS SPACE
F
1.
PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the Carry Flag as a 1-Bit Accumulator
Set the carry flag to logic one:
SCF
LD
LD
ADC
2.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EA,#0C3H
HL,#0AAH
EA,HL
;
;
;
;
C← 1
EA ← #0C3H
HL ← #0AAH
EA ← #0C3H + #0AAH + #1H, C ← 1
Logical-AND bit 3 of address 3FH with P2.0 and output the result to P5.0:
2-22
LD
H,#3H
LDB
BAND
LDB
C,@H+0FH.3
C,P2.0
P5.0,C
;
;
;
;
;
Set the upper four bits of the address to the H register
value
C ← bit 3 of 3FH
C ← C AND P2.0
Output result from carry flag to P5.0
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
3
ADDRESSING MODES
ADDRESSING MODES
OVERVIEW
The enable memory bank flag, EMB, controls the two addressing modes for data memory. When the EMB flag is set
to logic one, you can address the entire RAM area; when the EMB flag is cleared to logic zero, the addressable area
in the RAM is restricted to specific locations.
The EMB flag works in connection with the select memory bank instruction, SMBn. You will recall that the SMBn
instruction is used to select RAM bank 0, 1, or 15. The SMB setting is always contained in the upper four bits of a
12-bit RAM address. For this reason, both addressing modes (EMB = "0" and EMB = "1") apply specifically to the
memory bank indicated by the SMB instruction, and any restrictions to the addressable area within banks 0, 1, or
15. Direct and indirect 1-bit, 4-bit, and 8-bit addressing methods can be used. Several RAM locations are
addressable at all times, regardless of the current EMB flag setting.
Here are a few guidelines to keep in mind regarding data memory addressing:
— When you address peripheral hardware locations in bank 15, the mnemonic for the memory-mapped hardware
component can be used as the operand in place of the actual address location.
— Display RAM locations in bank 1 are 8-bit addressable only.
— Always use an even-numbered RAM address as the operand in 8-bit direct and indirect addressing.
— With direct addressing, use the RAM address as the instruction operand; with indirect addressing, the
instruction specifies a register which contains the operand's address.
3-1
ADDRESSING MODES
RAM
Areas
000H
Addressing
Mode
DA
DA.b
EMB = 0
EMB = 1
@HL
@H+DA.b
EMB = 0
EMB = 1
@WX
@WL
mema.b
[email protected]
X
X
X
Working
Registers
01FH
020H
07FH
080H
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Bank 0
(General Registers
and Stack)
SMB = 0
SMB = 0
SMB = 1
SMB = 1
SMB = 15
SMB = 15
0FFH
100H
Bank 1
1FFH
F80H
Bank 15
(Peripheral
Hardware
Registers)
FB0H
FBFH
FC0H
FF0H
FFFH
NOTES:
1. 'X' means don't care.
2. Blank columns indicate RAM areas that are not addressable, given the addressing method and
enable memory bank (EMB) flag setting shown in the column headers.
Figure 3-1. RAM Address Structure
3-2
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESSING MODES
EMB AND ERB INITIALIZATION VALUES
The EMB and ERB flag bits are set automatically by the values of the RESET vector address and the interrupt vector
address. When a RESET is generated internally, bit 7 of program memory address 0000H is written to the EMB flag,
initializing it automatically. When a vectored interrupt is generated, bit 7 of the respective vector address table is
written to the EMB. This automatically sets the EMB flag status for the interrupt service routine. When the interrupt
is serviced, the EMB value is automatically saved to stack and then restored when the interrupt routine has
completed.
At the beginning of a program, the initial EMB and ERB flag values for each vectored interrupt must be set by using
VENT instruction. The EMB and ERB can be set or reset by bit manipulation instructions (BITS, BITR) despite the
current SMB setting.
F PROGRAMMING TIP – Initializing the EMB and ERB Flags
The following assembly instructions show how to initialize the EMB and ERB flag settings:
ORG
VENT0
VENT1
VENT2
VENT3
VENT4
VENT5
VENT6
0000H
1,0, RESET
0,1,INTB
0,1,INT0
0,1,INT1
0,1,INTP0
0,1,INTT0
0,1,INTT1
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
ROM address assignment
EMB ← 1, ERB ← 0, branch RESET
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 1, branch INTB
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 1, branch INT0
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 1, branch INT1
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 1, branch INTP0
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 1, branch INTT0
EMB ← 0, ERB ← 1, branch INTT1
•
•
•
RESET
BITR
EMB
3-3
ADDRESSING MODES
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ENABLE MEMORY BANK SETTINGS
EMB = "1"
When the enable memory bank flag EMB is set to logic one, you can address the data memory bank specified by
the select memory bank (SMB) value (0, 1, or 15) using 1-, 4-, or 8-bit instructions. You can use both direct and
indirect addressing modes. The addressable RAM areas when EMB = "1" are as follows:
If SMB = 0,
000H-0FFH
If SMB = 1,
100H-1FFH
If SMB = 15,
F80H-FFFH
EMB = "0"
When the enable memory bank flag EMB is set to logic zero, the addressable area is defined independently of the
SMB value, and is restricted to specific locations depending on whether a direct or indirect address mode is used.
If EMB = "0", the addressable area is restricted to locations 000H–07FH in bank 0 and to locations F80H–FFFH in
bank 15 for direct addressing. For indirect addressing, only locations 000H–0FFH in bank 0 are addressable,
regardless of SMB value.
To address the peripheral hardware register (bank 15) using indirect addressing, the EMB flag must first be set to "1"
and the SMB value to "15". When a RESET occurs, the EMB flag is set to the value contained in bit 7 of ROM
address 0000H.
EMB-Independent Addressing
At any time, several areas of the data memory can be addressed independent of the current status of the EMB flag.
These exceptions are described in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1. RAM Addressing Not Affected by the EMB Value
Address
000H–0FFH
3-4
Addressing Method
4-bit indirect addressing using WX
and WL register pairs;
8-bit indirect addressing using SP
FB0H–FBFH
FF0H–FFFH
1-bit direct addressing
FC0H–FFFH
1-bit indirect addressing using the
L register
Affected Hardware
Not applicable
Program Examples
LD
A,@WX
LD
EA,SP
PSW, SCMOD,
IEx, IRQx, I/O
BITS
BITR
I/O
BTST
BAND
EMB
IE2
[email protected]
C,[email protected]
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESSING MODES
SELECT BANK REGISTER (SB)
The select bank register (SB) is used to assign the memory bank and register bank. The 8-bit SB register consists
of the 4-bit select register bank register (SRB) and the 4-bit select memory bank register (SMB), as shown in Figure
3-2.
During interrupts and subroutine calls, SB register contents can be saved to stack in 8-bit units by the PUSH SB
instruction. You later restore the value to the SB using the POP SB instruction.
SMB
SB
Register
SMB 3
SMB 2
SRB
SMB 1
SMB 0
0
0
SRB 1
SRB 0
Figure 3-2. SMB and SRB Values in the SB Register
Select Register Bank (SRB) Instruction
The select register bank (SRB) value specifies which register bank is to be used as a working register bank. The
SRB value is set by the 'SRB n' instruction, where n = 0, 1, 2, 3.
One of the four register banks is selected by the combination of ERB flag status and the SRB value that is set using
the 'SRB n' instruction. The current SRB value is retained until another register is requested by program software.
PUSH SB and POP SB instructions are used to save and restore the contents of SRB during interrupts and
subroutine calls. RESET clears the 4-bit SRB value to logic zero.
Select Memory Bank (SMB) Instruction
To select one of the three available data memory banks, you must execute an SMB n instruction specifying the
number of the memory bank you want (0, 1, or 15). For example, the instruction 'SMB 1' selects bank 1 and
'SMB 15' selects bank 15. (And remember to enable the selected memory bank by making the appropriate EMB flag
setting).
The upper four bits of the 12-bit data memory address are stored in the SMB register. If the SMB value is not
specified by software (or if a RESET does not occur) the current value is retained. RESET clears the 4-bit SMB value
to logic zero.
The PUSH SB and POP SB instructions save and restore the contents of the SMB register to and from the stack
area during interrupts and subroutine calls.
3-5
ADDRESSING MODES
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
DIRECT AND INDIRECT ADDRESSING
1-bit, 4-bit, and 8-bit data stored in data memory locations can be addressed directly using a specific register or bit
address as the instruction operand.
Indirect addressing specifies a memory location that contains the required direct address. The KS57 instruction set
supports 1-bit, 4-bit, and 8-bit indirect addressing. For 8-bit indirect addressing, an even-numbered RAM address
must always be used as the instruction operand.
1-BIT ADDRESSING
Table 3-2. 1-Bit Direct and Indirect RAM Addressing
Operand
Notation
DA.b
Addressing Mode
Description
Direct: bit is indicated by the
RAM address (DA), memory
bank selection, and specified
bit number (b).
EMB Flag
Setting
Addressable
Area
Memory
Bank
Hardware I/O
Mapping
000H-07FH
Bank 0
–
0
F80H-FFFH
Bank 15
1
000H-FFFH
SMB = 0, 1, 15
All 1-bit
addressable
peripherals
(SMB = 15)
mema.b
Direct: bit is indicated by addressable area (mema) and bit
number (b).
x
FB0H-FBFH
FF0H-FFFH
Bank 15
IS0, IS1, EMB,
ERB, IEx, IRQx,
Pn.m
[email protected]
Indirect: address is indicated
by the upper 6 bits of RAM
area (memb) and the upper 2
bits of register L, and bit is
indicated by the lower 2 bits or
register L.
x
FC0H-FFFH
Bank 15
Pn.m
@H + DA.b
Indirect: bit is indicated by the
lower four bits of the address
(DA), memory bank selection,
and the H register identifier.
0
000H-0FFH
Bank 0
–
1
000H-FFFH
NOTE: 'x' means don't care.
3-6
SMB = 0, 1, 15 All 1-bit
addressable
peripherals
(SMB = 15)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F
ADDRESSING MODES
PROGRAMMING TIP — 1-Bit Addressing Modes
1-Bit Direct Addressing
1.
If EMB = "0":
AFLAG
BFLAG
CFLAG
2.
EQU
EQU
EQU
SMB
BITS
BITS
BTST
BITS
BITS
34H.3
85H.3
0BAH.0
0
AFLAG
BFLAG
CFLAG
BFLAG
P2.0
;
;
;
;
;
34H.3 ← 1
F85H.3 ← 1
If FBAH.0 = 1, skip
Else if, FBAH.0 = 0, F85H.3 ← 1
FF2H.0 (P2.0) ← 1
34H.3
85H.3
0BAH.0
0
AFLAG
BFLAG
CFLAG
BFLAG
P2.0
;
;
;
;
;
34H.3 ← 1
85H.3 ← 1
If 0BAH.0 = 1, skip
Else if 0BAH.0 = 0, 085H.3 ← 1
FF2H.0 (P2.0) ← 1
34H.3
85H.3
0BAH.0
0
H,#0BH
@H+CFLAG
CFLAG
; H ← #0BH
; If 0BAH.0 = 1, 0BAH.0 ← 0 and skip
; Else if 0BAH.0 = 0, FBAH.0 ← 1
34H.3
85H.3
0BAH.0
0
H,#0BH
@H+CFLAG
CFLAG
; H ← #0BH
; If 0BAH.0 = 1, 0BAH.0 ← 0 and skip
; Else if 0BAH.0 = 0, 0BAH.0 ← 1
If EMB = "1":
AFLAG
BFLAG
CFLAG
EQU
EQU
EQU
SMB
BITS
BITS
BTST
BITS
BITS
1-Bit Indirect Addressing
1.
If EMB = "0":
AFLAG
BFLAG
CFLAG
2.
EQU
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
BTSTZ
BITS
If EMB = "1":
AFLAG
BFLAG
CFLAG
EQU
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
BTSTZ
BITS
3-7
ADDRESSING MODES
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
4-BIT ADDRESSING
Table 3-3. 4-Bit Direct and Indirect RAM Addressing
Operand
Notation
DA
@HL
Addressing Mode
Description
Direct: 4-bit address indicated
by the RAM address (DA) and
the memory bank selection
Indirect: 4-bit address indicated
by the memory bank selection
and register HL
Addressable
Area
Memory
Bank
Hardware I/O
Mapping
000H-07FH
Bank 0
–
0
F80H-FFFH
Bank 15
1
000H-FFFH
SMB = 0, 1, 15
All 4-bit
addressable
peripherals
(SMB = 15)
0
000H-0FFH
Bank 0
–
1
000H-FFFH
SMB = 0, 1, 15
All 4-bit
addressable
peripherals
(SMB = 15)
–
@WX
Indirect: 4-bit address indicated
by register WX
x
000H-0FFH
Bank 0
@WL
Indirect: 4-bit address indicated
by register WL
x
000H-0FFH
Bank 0
NOTE: 'x' means don't care.
3-8
EMB Flag
Setting
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F
ADDRESSING MODES
PROGRAMMING TIP – 4-Bit Addressing Modes
4-Bit Direct Addressing
1.
If EMB = "0":
ADATA
BDATA
2.
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
SMB
LD
LD
46H
85H
15
A,P4
0
ADATA,A
BDATA,A
;
;
;
;
;
Non-essential instruction, since EMB = "0"
A ← (P4)
Non-essential instruction, since EMB = "0"
(046H) ← A
(F85H (BMOD)) ← A
If EMB = "1":
ADATA
BDATA
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
SMB
LD
LD
46H
85H
15
A,P4
0
ADATA,A
BDATA,A
; A ← (P4)
; (046H) ← A
; (085H) ← A
4-Bit Indirect Addressing (Example 1)
1.
If EMB = "0", compare bank 0 locations 040H-046H with bank 0 locations 060H-066H:
ADATA
BDATA
COMP
2.
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
LD
LD
CPSE
SRET
DECS
JR
RET
46H
66H
1
HL,#BDATA
WX,#ADATA
A,@WL
A,@HL
; Non-essential instruction, since EMB = "0"
; A ← bank 0 (040H-046H)
; If bank 0 (060H-066H) = A, skip
L
COMP
If EMB = "1", compare bank 0 locations 040H-046H to bank 1 locations 160H-166H:
ADATA
BDATA
COMP
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
LD
LD
CPSE
SRET
DECS
JR
RET
46H
66H
1
HL,#BDATA
WX,#ADATA
A,@WL
A,@HL
; A ← bank 0 (040H-046H)
; If bank 1 (160H-166H) = A, skip
L
COMP
3-9
ADDRESSING MODES
F
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PROGRAMMING TIP — 4-Bit Addressing Modes (Continued)
4-Bit Indirect Addressing (Example 2)
1.
If EMB = "0", exchange bank 0 locations 040H-046H with bank 0 locations 060H-066H:
ADATA
BDATA
TRANS
2.
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
LD
LD
XCHD
JR
46H
66H
1
HL,#BDATA
WX,#ADATA
A,@WL
A,@HL
TRANS
; Non-essential instruction, since EMB = "0"
; A ← bank 0 (040H-046H)
; Bank 0 (060H-066H) ↔ A
If EMB = "1", exchange bank 0 locations 040H-046H to bank 1 locations 160H-166H:
ADATA
BDATA
TRANS
3-10
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
LD
LD
XCHD
JR
46H
66H
1
HL,#BDATA
WX,#ADATA
A,@WL
A,@HL
TRANS
; A ← bank 0 (040H-046H)
; Bank 1 (160H-166H) ↔ A
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADDRESSING MODES
8-BIT ADDRESSING
Table 3-4. 8-Bit Direct and Indirect RAM Addressing
Instruction
Notation
DA
@HL
Addressing Mode
Description
Direct: 8-bit address indicated
by the RAM address (DA =
even number) and memory
bank selection
Indirect: the 8-bit address indicated by the memory bank
selection and register HL; (the
4-bit L register value must be
an even number)
EMB Flag
Setting
Addressable
Area
Memory
Bank
Hardware I/O
Mapping
000H-07FH
Bank 0
–
0
F80H-FFFH
Bank 15
All 8-bit
addressable
peripherals
(SMB = 15)
1
000H-FFFH
SMB = 0, 1, 15
0
000H-0FFH
Bank 0
–
1
000H-FFFH
SMB = 0, 1, 15
All 8-bit
addressable
peripherals
(SMB = 15)
3-11
ADDRESSING MODES
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F PROGRAMMING TIP – 8-Bit Addressing Modes
8-Bit Direct Addressing
1.
If EMB = "0":
ADATA
BDATA
2.
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
SMB
LD
LD
46H
8CH
15
EA,P4
0
ADATA,EA
BDATA,EA
; Non-essential instruction, since EMB = "0"
; E ← (P5), A ← (P4)
; (046H) ← A, (047H) ← E
; (F8CH) ← A, (F8DH) ← E
If EMB = "1":
ADATA
BDATA
EQU
EQU
SMB
LD
SMB
LD
LD
46H
8CH
15
EA,P4
0
ADATA,EA
BDATA,EA
; E ← (P5), A ← (P4)
; (046H) ← A, (047H) ← E
; (08CH) ← A, (08DH) ← E
8-Bit Indirect Addressing
1.
If EMB = "0":
ADATA
2.
EQU
SMB
LD
LD
46H
1
HL,#ADATA
EA,@HL
; Non-essential instruction, since EMB = "0"
; A ← (046H), E ← (047H)
If EMB = "1":
ADATA
3-12
EQU
SMB
LD
LD
46H
1
HL,#ADATA
EA,@HL
; A ← (146H), E ← (147H)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
4
MEMORY MAP
MEMORY MAP
OVERVIEW
To support program control of peripheral hardware, I/O addresses for peripherals are memory-mapped to bank 15 of
the RAM. Memory mapping lets you use a mnemonic as the operand of an instruction in place of the specific
memory location.
Access to bank 15 is controlled by the select memory bank (SMB) instruction and by the enable memory bank flag
(EMB) setting. If the EMB flag is "0", bank 15 can be addressed using direct addressing, regardless of the current
SMB value. 1-bit direct and indirect addressing can be used for specific locations in bank 15, regardless of the
current EMB value.
I/O MAP FOR HARDWARE REGISTERS
Table 4-1 contains detailed information about I/O mapping for peripheral hardware in bank 15 (register locations
F80H-FFFH). Use the I/O map as a quick-reference source when writing application programs. The I/O map gives
you the following information:
— Register address
— Register name (mnemonic for program addressing)
— Bit values (both addressable and non-manipulable)
— Read-only, write-only, or read and write addressability
— 1-bit, 4-bit, or 8-bit data manipulation characteristics
4-1
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 4-1. I/O Map for Memory Bank 15
Addressing
Symbol
1-bit direct
addressing
DA.b
The bit indicated by memory bank, DA and
bit.
(EMB=0, or EMB=1 and SMB 15)
All peripheral hardware that can be
manipulated in 1 bit.
4-bit direct
addressing
DA
The address indicated by memory bank and
DA.
(EMB=0, or EMB=1 and SMB 15)
All peripheral hardware that can be
manipulated in 4 bits.
8-bit direct
addressing
DA
The address (DA specifies an even address)
indicated by memory bank and DA.
(EMB=0, or EMB=1 and SMB 15)
All peripheral hardware that can be
manipulated in 8 bits.
4-bit indirect
addressing
@HL
The address indicated by memory bank and
HL register.
(EMB=1 and SMB 15)
All peripheral hardware that can be
manipulated in 4 bits.
8-bit indirect
addressing
@HL
The address indicated by memory bank and
HL (the contents of the L register are even).
(EMB=1 and SMB 15)
All peripheral hardware that can be
manipulated in 8 bit.
1-bit
manipulating
mema.b
The bit indicated by mema and bit.
(regardless of the status of EMB and SMB)
IS0, IS1, EMB, ERB, IEx, IRQx, Pn.m
addressing
[email protected]
The bit indicated by the lower 2 bits of the L
Pn.m
register of the address indicated by the upper
10 bits of memb and the upper 2 bits of the L
reigster.
(regardless of the status of EMB and SMB)
@H+DA.b
The bit of the address indicated by memory
bank, H register and the lower 4 bits of DA.
(EMB=1 and SMB=15)
4-2
Description
Affected Memory mapped I/O
All peripheral hardware that can be
manipulated in 1 bit.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
Table 4-2. I/O Map for Memory Bank 15
Memory Bank 15
Addressing Mode
Address
Register
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
R/W
1-Bit
4-Bit
8-Bit
F80H
SP
.3
.2
.1
"0"
R/W
No
No
Yes
.7
.6
.5
.4
W
.3
Yes
No
R
No
No
Yes
W
.3 (1)
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
F81H
Locations F82H-F84H are not mapped.
F85H
BMOD
F86H
BCNT
.3
.2
.1
.0
F87H
F88H
WMOD
F89H
F8AH
LCNST
F8BH
F8CH
LMOD
F8DH
.3
.2
.1
.0
.7
"0"
.5
.4
.3
.2
.1
.0
.7
"0"
"0"
"0"
.3
.2
.1
.0
"0"
.6
.5
.4
F8EH
LCON0
.3
.2
.1
.0
W
No
Yes
No
F8FH
LCON1
.3
.2
.1
.0
W
No
Yes
No
F90H
TMOD0
.3
.2
"0"
"0"
W
.3
No
Yes
F91H
"0"
.6
.5
.4
F92H
"0"
TOE0
"0"
"0"
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
TCNT0
R
No
No
Yes
TREF0
W
No
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
W
.3
Yes
No
W
No
No
Yes
W
No
Yes
No
Location F93H is not mapped.
F94H
F95H
F96H
F97H
F98H
WDMOD
F99H
F9AH
WDFLAG (2)
.3
.2
.1
.0
.7
.6
.5
.4
WDTCF
"0"
"0"
"0"
Locations F9BH-F9FH are not mapped.
FA0H
PASR
FA1H
.3
.2
.1
.0
"0"
"0"
"0"
.4
FA2H
KSR0
.3
.2
.1
.0
FA3H
KSR1
.3
.2
.1
.0
FA4H
KSR2
.3
.2
.1
.0
FA5H
KSR3
.3
.2
.1
.0
4-3
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 4-2. I/O Map for Memory Bank 15 (Continued)
Memory Bank 15
Addressing Mode
Address
Register
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
R/W
1-Bit
4-Bit
8-Bit
FA6H
TMOD1
.3
.2
"0"
"0"
W
.3
No
Yes
"0"
.6
.5
.4
TCNT1
R
No
No
Yes
TREF1
W
No
No
Yes
Yes
FA7H
FA8H
FA9H
FAAH
FABH
Locations FACH-FAFH are not mapped.
FB0H
PSW
FB1H
IS1
IS0
EMB
ERB
R/W
Yes
Yes
C (3)
SC2
SC1
SC0
R
No
No
FB2H
IPR
IME
.2
.1
.0
W
IME
Yes
No
FB3H
PCON
.3
.2
.1
.0
W
No
Yes
No
FB4H
IMOD0
"0"
"0"
.1
.0
W
No
Yes
No
FB5H
IMOD1
"0"
"0"
.1
.0
W
No
Yes
No
FB6H
IMOD2
"0"
.2
.1
.0
W
No
Yes
No
FB7H
SCMOD
.3
.2
"0"
.0
W
Yes
No
No
"0"
"0"
IEB
IRQB
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
FB8H
Location FB9H is not mapped.
FBAH
"0"
"0"
IEW
IRQW
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
FBBH
"0"
"0"
IET1
IRQT1
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
FBCH
"0"
"0"
IET0
IRQT0
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
FBDH
"0"
"0"
IEP0
IRQP0
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
FBEH
IE1
IRQ1
IE0
IRQ0
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
FBFH
"0"
"0"
IE2
IRQ2
R/W
Yes
Yes
No
R/W
Yes
Yes
Yes
R/W
No
No
Yes
R/W
No
Yes
No
FC0H
BSC0
FC1H
BSC1
FC2H
BSC2
FC3H
BSC3
Locations FC4H-FC9H are not mapped.
FCAH
EMAR0
FCBH
FCCH
EMAR1
FCDH
FCEH
EMAR2
.3
.2
.1
.0
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3/.11
.2/.10
.1/.9
.0/.8
.7/.15
.6/.14
.5/.13
.4/.12
"0"
.2/.18
.1/.17
.0/.16
Location FCFH is not mapped.
4-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
Table 4-2. I/O Map for Memory Bank 15 (Continued)
Memory Bank 15
Addressing Mode
Address
Register
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
R/W
1-Bit
4-Bit
8-Bit
FD0H
CLMOD
.3
"0"
.1
.0
W
No
Yes
No
W
No
No
Yes
R/W
No
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
W
No
No
Yes
R/W
Yes
Yes
Yes
R/W
Yes
Yes
Yes
R/W
Yes
Yes
Yes
Location FD1H is not mapped.
FD2H
EMCON
FD3H
FD4H
EMDR0
FD5H
.3
.2
.1
.0
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
.1
.0
.7
.6
.5
.4
Locations FD6H-FE5H are not mapped.
FE6H
PNE0(5)
FE7H
FE8H
PUMOD0(6)
FE9H
FEAH
PMG0
FEBH
FECH
PMG1
FEDH
FEEH
PMG2
FEFH
.3
.2
.1
.0
.7
.6
.5
.4
"0"
"0"
"0"
PUR0
PUR7
PUR6
PUR5
PUR4
PM0.3
PM0.2
PM0.1
PM0.0
"0"
PM1.2
PM1.1
PM1.0
PM4.3
PM4.2
PM4.1
PM4.0
PM5.3
PM5.2
PM5.1
PM5.0
PM6.3
PM6.2
PM6.1
PM6.0
PM7.3
PM7.2
PM7.1
PM7.0
FF0H
Port0 (P0)
.3
.2
.1
.0
FF1H
Port1 (P1)
"0"
.2/.6
.1/.5
.0/.4
Locations FF2H-FF3H are not mapped.
FF4H
Port4 (P4)
.3
.2
.1
.0
FF5H
Port5 (P5)
.3/.7
.2/.6
.1/.5
.0/.4
FF6H
Port6 (P6)
.3
.2
.1
.0
FF7H
Port7 (P7)
.3/.7
.2/.6
.1/.5
.0/.4
NOTES:
1. Bit 3 in the WMOD register is read only.
2. F9AH.0, F9AH.1 and F9AH.2 are fixed to "0".
3. The carry flag can be read or written by specific bit manipulation instructions only.
4. The PNE0 register is used to select the output types of ports 4,5 (zero: push-pull output type, one: open-drain output
type). The reset value of the PNE1 register is "00H".
5. The PUMOD0 register is used to enable/disable the internal pull-up resistors of port 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7
(zero: disable, one: enable). The reset value of the PUMOD0 register is "00H".
4-5
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
REGISTER DESCRIPTIONS
In this section, register descriptions are presented in a consistent format to familiarize you with the memory-mapped
I/O locations in bank 15 of the RAM. Figure 4-1 describes features of the register description format. Register
descriptions are arranged in alphabetical order. Programmers can use this section as a quick-reference source when
writing application programs.
Counter registers, buffer registers, and reference registers, as well as the stack pointer and port I/O latches, are not
included in these descriptions. More detailed information about how these registers are used is included in Part II of
this manual, "Hardware Descriptions," in the context of the corresponding peripheral hardware module descriptions.
4-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
Register and bit IDs
used for bit addressing
Name of individual
bit or related bits
Register name
Associated
hardware module
Register location
in RAM bank 15
CLMOD - Clock Output Mode Control Register
CPU
FD0H
Register ID
Bit
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
CLMOD.3
CLMOD.2
Enable/Disable Clock Output Control bit
0
Disable clock output at the CLO pin
0
Enable clock output at the CLO pin
Bit 2
0
CLMOD.1-.0
Always logic zero
Clock Source and Frequency Selection Control Bits
0
0
Select CPU clock souce fx/4, fx/8, fx/64 (1.05 MHz, 524kHz, or 65.5 kHz), or fxt/4
0
1
Select system clock fxx/8 (524 kHz at 4.19 MHz)
1
0
Select system clock fxx/16 (262 kHz at 4.19 MHz)
1
1
Select system clock fxx/64 (65.5 kHz at 4.19 MHz)
R = Read-only
W = Write-only
R/W = Read/write
Type of addressing
that must be used to
address the bit
(1-bit, 4-bit, or 8-bit)
Bit value immediately
after a RESET
Description of the
effect of specific
bit settings
Bit number in
MSB to LSB order
Bit identifier used
for bit addressing
Figure 4-1. Register Description Format
4-7
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BMOD — Basic Timer Mode Register
BT
Bit
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
1/4
4
4
4
BMOD.3
Basic Timer Restart Bit
1
BMOD.2-.0
Restart basic timer, then clear IRQB flag, BCNT and BMOD.3 to logic zero
Input Clock Frequency and Interrupt Interval Time
0
0
0
Input clock frequency:
Interrupt interval time (wait time):
fxx/212 (1.02 kHz)
220/fxx (250 ms)
0
1
1
Input clock frequency:
Interrupt interval time (wait time):
fxx/29 (8.18 kHz)
217/fxx (31.3 ms)
1
0
1
Input clock frequency:
Interrupt interval time (wait time):
fxx/27 (32.7 kHz)
215/fxx (7.82 ms)
1
1
1
Input clock frequency:
Interrupt interval time (wait time):
fxx/25 (131 kHz)
213/fxx (1.95 ms)
NOTES:
1. When a RESET occurs, the oscillator stabilization wait time is 31.3 ms (217/fxx) at 4.19 MHz.
2. 'fxx' is the system clock frequency (assume that fxx is 4.19 MHz).
4-8
F85H
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
CLMOD — Clock Output Mode Register
CPU
Bit
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.3
"0"
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
CLMOD.3
CLMOD.2
Enable/Disable Clock Output Control Bit
0
Disable clock output at the CLO pin
1
Enable clock output at the CLO pin
Bit 2
0
CLMOD.1-.0
NOTE:
FD0H
Always logic zero
Clock Source and Frequency Selection Control Bits
0
0
Select CPU clock source fx/4, fx/8, or fx/64 (1 MHz, 524 kHz, or 65.5 kHz)
or fxt/4
0
1
Select system clock fxx/8 (524 kHz)
1
0
Select system clock fxx/16 (262 kHz)
1
1
Select system clock fxx/64 (65.5 kHz)
'fxx' is the system clock, given a clock frequency of 4.19 MHz.
4-9
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EMCON — External Memory Control Register
CPU
FD3H, FD2H
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.7
0
W
8
.6
0
W
8
.5
0
W
8
.4
0
W
8
.3
0
W
8
.2
0
W
8
.1
0
W
8
.0
0
R/W
8
EMCON.7
Memory Read/Write Control Bit
0 Memory read signal output
1 Memory write signal output
EMCON.6-.5
Memory Access Clock Selection Bits
0
0 fxx/8
0
1 fxx/4
1
0 fxx/2
1
1 fxx/1
EMCON.4
Address Increment Control Bit
0 The address(a value of EMAR2 - EMAR0) is not increased automatically after
memory access.
1 The address(a value of EMAR2 - EMAR0) is increased automatically after
memory access.
EMCON.3-.1
Memory Selection Bits
.3
.2
.1 External data memory selection
0
0
0 Data memory 0(DM0 active)
0
0
1 Data memory 1(DM1 active)
0
1
0 Data memory 2(DM2 active)
0
1
1 Data memory 3(DM3 active)
1
0
0 Data memory 4(DM4 active)
1
0
1 Data memory 5(DM5 active)
EMCON.0
Memory Access Start Bit
0 Not busy (read)
1 Start a memory access (write), Busy (read)
NOTES:
1. When it reads data from a external memory, the data are written to the register EMDR0.
2. When it writes data to a external memory, the data to the register EMDR0 are written to a external memory.
3. The external memory selection pins of P6.0/DM0 - P7.1/DM5 should be set to push-pull output and the latches should
be set to logic "1".
4. P7.1/DM5/COM11 is not used as DM5, when it is selected to COM. For using DM5, this pin is set to output High. (in this
case, this DM signal is falling to low on access start.)
5. EMCON.0 is cleared automatically when memory access is finished.
4-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
IE0, IRQ0 — INT0 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
IE1, IRQ1 — INT1 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
Bit
3
2
1
0
IE1
IRQ1
IE0
IRQ0
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
IE1
IRQ1
IRQ0
FBEH
FBEH
INT1 Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable interrupt requests at the INT1 pin
1
Enable interrupt requests at the INT1 pin
INT1 Interrupt Request Flag
–
IE0
CPU
CPU
Generate INT1 interrupt (This bit is set and cleared by hardware when rising or
falling edge detected at INT1 pin.)
INT0 Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable interrupt requests at the INT0 pin
1
Enable interrupt requests at the INT0 pin
INT0 Interrupt Request Flag
–
Generate INT0 interrupt (This bit is set and cleared automatically by hardware
when rising or falling edge detected at INT0 pin.)
4-11
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IE2, IRQ2 — INT2 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
Bit
3
2
1
0
"U"
"U"
IE2
IRQ2
U
U
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.3-.2
IRQ2
4-12
This bit is undefined.
INT2 Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable INT2 interrupt requests at the KS0-KS7 pins
1
Enable INT2 interrupt requests at the KS0-KS7 pins
INT2 Interrupt Request Flag
–
NOTE:
FBFH
Bits 3-2
U
IE2
CPU
Generate INT2 quasi-interrupt (This bit is set and is not cleared automatically by
hardware when a falling edge is detected at one of the KS0-KS7 pins. Since INT2
is a quasi-interrupt, IRQ2 flag must be cleared by software.)
The "U" means a undefined register bit
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
IEB, IRQB — INTB Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
Bit
3
2
1
0
"U"
"U"
IEB
IRQB
U
U
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.3-.2
IRQB
FB8H
Bits 3-2
U
IEB
CPU
This bit is undefined.
INTB Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable INTB interrupt requests
1
Enable INTB interrupt requests
INTB Interrupt Request Flag
–
Generate INTB interrupt (This bit is set and cleared automatically by hardware
when reference interval signal received from basic timer.)
NOTE: The "U" means a undefined register bit.
4-13
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IEP0, IRQP0 — INTP0 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
Bit
3
2
1
0
"U"
"U"
IEP0
IRQP0
U
U
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.3-.2
IRQP0
FBDH
Bits 3-2
U
IEP0
CPU
This bit is undefined.
INTS Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable INTP0 interrupt requests
1
Enable INTP0 interrupt requests
INTS Interrupt Request Flag
–
Generate INTP0 interrupt (This bit is set and cleared automatically by hardware
when falling edge is detected at K0-K3 pin.)
NOTES:
1. The "U" means a undefined register bit.
2. To use INTP0 interrupt, P0 and P1 must be set to external interrupt pins by LMOD.6-LMOD.4, input mode by PMG0 and
pull-up resistor enable by PUMOD0.
4-14
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
IET0, IRQT0 — INTT0 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
Bit
3
2
1
0
"U"
"U"
IET0
IRQT0
U
U
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.3-.2
IRQT0
This bit is undefined.
INTT0 Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable INTT0 interrupt requests
1
Enable INTT0 interrupt requests
INTT1 Interrupt Request Flag
–
NOTE:
FBCH
Bits 3-2
U
IET0
CPU
Generate INTT0 interrupt (This bit is set and cleared automatically by hardware
when contents of TCNT0 and TREF0 registers match.)
The "U" means a undefined register bit.
4-15
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IET1, IRQT1 — INTT1 Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
Bit
3
2
1
0
"U"
"U"
IET1
IRQT1
U
U
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.3-.2
IRQT1
4-16
This bit is undefined.
INTT1 Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable INTT1 interrupt requests
1
Enable INTT1 interrupt requests
INTT1 Interrupt Request Flag
–
NOTE:
FBBH
Bits 3-2
U
IET1
CPU
Generate INTT1 interrupt (This bit is set and cleared automatically by hardware
when contents of TCNT1 and TREF1 registers match.)
The "U" means a undefined register bit.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
IEW, IRQW — INTW Interrupt Enable/Request Flags
Bit
3
2
1
0
"U"
"U"
IEW
IRQW
U
U
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.3-.2
IRQW
FBAH
Bits 3-2
U
IEW
CPU
This bit is undefined.
INTW Interrupt Enable Flag
0
Disable INTW interrupt requests
1
Enable INTW interrupt requests
INTW Interrupt Request Flag
–
Generate INTW interrupt (This bit is set when the timer interval is set to 0.5
seconds or 3.91 milliseconds.)
NOTES:
1. Since INTW is a quasi-interrupt, the IRQW flag must be cleared by software.
2. The "U" means a undefined register bit.
4-17
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IMOD0 — External Interrupt 0 (INT0) Mode Register
Bit
3
2
1
0
"0"
"0"
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
Identifier
IMOD0.3-.2
Bits 3-2
0
IMOD0.1-.0
4-18
CPU
Always logic zero
External Interrupt Mode Control Bits
0
0
Interrupt requests are triggered by a rising edge
0
1
Interrupt requests are triggered by a falling edge
1
0
Interrupt requests are triggered by both rising and falling edges
1
1
Interrupt request flag (IRQ0) cannot be set to logic one
FB4H
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
IMOD1 — External Interrupt 1 (INT1) Mode Register
Bit
3
2
1
0
"0"
"0"
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
Identifier
IMOD1.3-.2
FB5H
Bits 3-2
0
IMOD1.1-.0
CPU
Always logic zero
External Interrupt Mode Control Bits
0
0
Interrupt requests are triggered by a rising edge
0
1
Interrupt requests are triggered by a falling edge
1
0
Interrupt requests are triggered by both rising and falling edges
1
1
Interrupt request flag (IRQ1) cannot be set to logic one
4-19
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IMOD2 — External Interrupt 2 (INT2) Mode Register
Bit
3
2
1
0
"0"
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
Identifier
IMOD2.3
Bits 3
0
IMOD2.2-.0
4-20
CPU
Always logic zero
External Interrupt 2 Edge Detection Selection Bit
0
0
0
Interrupt request at KS0-KS3 triggered by falling edge
0
0
1
Interrupt request at KS0-KS4 triggered by falling edge
0
1
0
Interrupt request at KS0-KS5 triggered by falling edge
0
1
1
Interrupt request at KS0-KS6 triggered by falling edge
1
0
0
Interrupt request at KS0-KS7 triggered by falling edge
1
0
1
Not available
1
1
0
1
1
1
FB6H
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
IPR — Interrupt Priority Register
Bit
CPU
3
2
1
0
IME
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
1/4
4
4
4
Identifier
IME
IPR.2-.0
FB2H
Interrupt Master Enable Bit
0
Disable all interrupt processing
1
Enable processing for all interrupt servi ce requests
Interrupt Priority Register Setting
IPR.2
IPR.1
IPR.0
Result of IPR Bit Setting
0
0
0
Normal interrupt handling according to default priority settings
0
0
1
Process INTB interrupt at highest priority
0
1
0
Process INT0 interrupt at highest priority
0
1
1
Process INT1 interrupt at highest priority
1
0
0
Process INTP0 interrupt at highest priority
1
0
1
Process INTT0 interrupt at highest priority
1
1
0
Process INTT1 interrupt at highest priority
1
1
1
Not available
4-21
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCNST — LCD Contrast Control Register
LCD
F8BH, F8AH
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.7
"0"
"0"
"0"
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
LCNST.7
LCNST.6-.4
Enable/Disable LCD Contrast Control Bit
0
Disable LCD contrast control
1
Enable LCD contrast control
Bits 6-4
0
LCNST.3-.0
Always logic zero
LCD Contrast Level Control Bits(16 steps)
.3
.2
.1
.0
Step
0
0
0
0
1/16 step (The dimmest level)
0
0
0
1
2/16 step
0
0
1
0
3/16 step
•
•
• • • • • •
•
•
1
NOTE:
4-22
1
1
1
16/16 step (The brightest level)
VLCD = VDD x (1-(16-n)/48), where n = 0 - 15(At normal LCD dividing resistors).
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
LCON0 — LCD Output Control Register 0
LCD
Bit
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.3
.2
"0"
"0"
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
LCON0.3-.2
LCON0.1-.0
F8EH
Bits3-2
0
0
1/9 duty(COM0-COM8 select)
0
1
1/10 duty(COM0-COM9 select)
1
0
1/11 duty(COM0-COM10 select)
1
1
1/12 duty(COM0-COM11 select)
Bits 1-0
0
Always logic zero
NOTES:
1. COM has priority over normal port in P7.3/COM9-P7.1/COM11. This means these port are assigned to COM pins
regardless of the value of PMG2, when duty is selected to 1/10, 1/11, or 1/12 at LCON0.
2. The port used COM must be set to output to prevent LCD display distortion.
4-23
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCON1 — LCD Output Control Register 1
LCD
Bit
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
LCON1.3-.0
Bits 3-0
0
1
0
0
LCD display on
0
1
0
1
Dimming mode
1
0
0
1
Key check signal output with LCD display off
NOTES:
1. To turn off LCD display, you must set LCON1 to 9 not 0.
2. P8 can be used to normal output port, when LCD display is off. The value of P8 is determined by KSR0-KSR3
regardless of LMOD.0. (refer to P12-17)
4-24
F8FH
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
LMOD — LCD Mode Register
Bit
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
7
"0"
0
W
8
LCD
6
.6
0
W
8
5
.5
0
W
8
4
.4
0
W
8
3
.3
0
W
8
2
.2
0
W
8
F8DH, F8CH
1
.1
0
W
8
LMOD.7
Bit 7
0 Always logic zero
LMOD.6 - .4
External Interrupt (INTP0) Pins Selection Bits (1)
0
0
0 Interrupt request at K0 triggered by falling edge
0
0
1 Interrupt request at K0-K1 triggered by falling edge
0
1
0 Interrupt request at K0-K2 triggered by falling edge
0
1
1 Interrupt request at K0-K3 triggered by falling edge
1
0
0 Interrupt request at K0-K4 triggered by falling edge
1
0
1 Interrupt request at K0-K5 triggered by falling edge
1
1
0 Interrupt request at K0-K6 triggered by falling edge
1
1
1 Interrupt request flag (IRQP0) cannot be set to logic one
LMOD.3 - .2
Watch Timer Clock Selection Bits (2)
.3
.2 When main system clock is selected as watch timer clock by
WMOD.0
0
0 fx/128
0
1 fx/64
1
0 fx/32
1
1 fx/16
LMOD.1
LCD Dividing Resistor Selection Bit
0 Normal LCD dividing resistors
1 Diminish LCD dividing resistors to strengthen LCD drive
LMOD. 0
Key Strobe Signal Output Control Bit(SEG0/P8.0 - SEG15/P8.15)
0 Enable key strobe signal output
1 Disable key strobe signal output (3)
0
.0
0
W
8
NOTES:
1. The pins which are not selected as external interrupts(K0 - K6) can be used to normal I/O. To use external interrupts,
corresponding pins must be set to input and pull-up enable mode.
2. LCD clock can be selected only when main clock(fx) is used as clock source of watch timer. When sub clock(fxt) is used
as clock source of watch timer, LCD clock is always fw/48(1/9 duty), fw/44(1/10 duty), fw/40(1/11 duty), or fw/36(1/12
duty).
3. Refer to page 12-7.
4-25
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PASR — Page Selection Register
Bit
MEMORY
A1H, FA0H
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
"0"
"0"
"0"
.4
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
Identifier
PASR.7-.5
Bits 7-5
0
PASR.4-.0
Always logic zero
Page Selection Register in the Bank1
0
0
0
0
0
00H page in the Bank1
0
0
0
0
1
01H page in the Bank1
•
•
•
• • • • • •
•
•
1
4-26
0
0
1
1
13H page for LCD display register in the Bank1
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
PCON — Power Control Register
CPU
Bit
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
4
4
4
4
PCON.3- .2
PCON.1- .0
NOTE:
FB3H
CPU Operating Mode Control Bits
0
0
Enable normal CPU operating mode
0
1
Initiate idle power-down mode
1
0
Initiate stop power-down mode
CPU Clock Frequency Selection Bits
0
0
If SCMOD.0 = "0", fx/64; if SCMOD.0 = "1", fxt/4
1
0
If SCMOD.0 = "0", fx/8; if SCMOD.0 = "1", fxt/4
1
1
If SCMOD.0 = "0", fx/4; if SCMOD.0 = "1", fxt/4
'fx' is the main system clock; 'fxt' is the subsystem clock.
4-27
MEMORY MAP
PMG0
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
— PORT I/O MODE REGISTER 0 (Group 0: Port 0,1)
Bit
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
7
"0"
0
W
8
6
PM1.2
0
W
8
5
PM1.1
0
W
8
PMG0.7
Bit 7
0 Always logic zero
PM1.2
P1.2 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P1.2 to input mode
1 Set P1.2 to output mode
PM1.1
P1.1 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P1.1 to input mode
1 Set P1.1 to output mode
PM1.0
P1.0 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P1.0 to input mode
1 Set P1.0 to output mode
PM0.3
P0.3 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P0.3 to input mode
1 Set P0.3 to output mode
PM0.2
P0.2 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P0.2 to input mode
1 Set P0.2 to output mode
PM0.1
P0.1 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P0.1 to input mode
1 Set P0.1 to output mode
PM0.0
P0.0 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P0.0 to input mode
1 Set P0.0 to output mode
NOTE:
4-28
4
PM1.0
0
W
8
3
PM0.3
0
W
8
I/O
2
PM0.2
0
W
8
FEBH, FEAH
1
PM0.1
0
W
8
0
PM0.0
0
W
8
To used INTP0 interrupt, P0 and P1 must be set to external interrupt pins by LMOD.6-LMOD.4, input mode by
PMG0 and pull-up resistor enable by PUMOD0.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
PMG1 — PORT I/O MODE REGISTER 1(Group 1: Port 4,5)
Bit
I/O
FEDH, FECH
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PM5.3
PM5.2
PM5.1
PM5.0
PM4.3
PM4.2
PM4.1
PM4.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
Identifier
PM5.3
PM5.2
PM5.1
PM5.0
PM4.3
PM4.2
PM4.1
PM4.0
P5.3 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P5.3 to input mode
1
Set P5.3 to output mode
P5.2 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P5.2 to input mode
1
Set P5.2 to output mode
P5.1 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P5.1 to input mode
1
Set P5.1 to output mode
P5.0 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P5.0 to input mode
1
Set P5.0 to output mode
P4.3 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P4.3 to input mode
1
Set P4.3 to output mode
P4.2 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P4.2 to input mode
1
Set P4.2 to output mode
P4.1 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P4.1 to input mode
1
Set P4.1 to output mode
P4.0 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0
Set P4.0 to input mode
1
Set P4.0 to output mode
4-29
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PMG2 — Port I/O Mode Register 2 (Group 2: Port 6,7)
Bit
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
7
PM7.3
0
W
8
6
PM7.2
0
W
8
5
PM7.1
0
W
8
PM7.3
P7.3 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P7.3 to input mode
1 Set P7.3 to output mode
PM7.2
P7.2 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P7.2 to input mode
1 Set P7.2 to output mode
PM7.1
P7.1 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P7.1 to input mode
1 Set P7.1 to output mode
PM7.0
P7.0 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P7.0 to input mode
1 Set P7.0 to output mode
PM6.3
P6.3 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P6.3 to input mode
1 Set P6.3 to output mode
PM6.2
P6.2 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P6.2 to input mode
1 Set P6.2 to output mode
PM6.1
P6.1 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P6.1 to input mode
1 Set P6.1 to output mode
PM6.0
P6.0 I/O Mode Selection Flag
0 Set P6.0 to input mode
1 Set P6.0 to output mode
NOTE:
4-30
4
PM7.0
0
W
8
I/O
3
PM6.3
0
W
8
2
PM6.2
0
W
8
FEFH, FEEH
1
PM6.1
0
W
8
0
PM6.0
0
W
8
COM has priority over normal port in P7.3/COM9-P7.1/COM11. This means these port are assigned to COM pins
regardless of the value of PMG2, when duty is selected to 1/10, 1/11 or 1/12 at LCON0.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
PNE0 — N-Channel Open-Drain Mode Register 0
I/O
FE7H, FE6H
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
PNE0.7
PNE0.6
PNE0.5
PNE0.4
PNE0.3
PNE0.2
PNE0.1
PNE0.0
P5.3 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P5.3 as a push-pull
1
Configure P5.3 as a n-channel open-drain
P5.2 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P5.2 as a push-pull
1
Configure P5.2 as a n-channel open-drain
P5.1 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P5.1 as a push-pull
1
Configure P5.1 as a n-channel open-drain
P5.0 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P5.0 as a push-pull
1
Configure P5.0 as a n-channel open-drain
P4.3 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P4.3 as a push-pull
1
Configure P4.3 as a n-channel open-drain
P4.2 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P4.2 as a push-pull
1
Configure P4.2 as a n-channel open-drain
P4.1 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P4.1 as a push-pull
1
Configure P4.1 as a n-channel open-drain
P4.0 N-Channel Open-Drain Configurable Bit
0
Configure P4.0 as a push-pull
1
Configure P4.0 as a n-channel open-drain
4-31
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PSW — Program Status Word
CPU
FB1H, FB0H
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Identifier
C
SC2
SC1
SC0
IS1
IS0
EMB
ERB
RESET Value
(1)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
R/W
R
R
R
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
(2)
8
8
8
1/4/8
1/4/8
1/4/8
1/4/8
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
C
SC2-SC0
IS1, IS0
EMB
ERB
Carry Flag
0
No overflow or borrow condition exists
1
An overflow or borrow condition does exist
Skip Condition Flags
0
No skip condition exists; no direct manipulation of these bits is allowed
1
A skip condition exists; no direct manipulation of these bits is allowed
Interrupt Status Flags
0
0
Service all interrupt requests
0
1
Service only the high-priority interrupt(s) as determined in the interrupt
priority register (IPR)
1
0
Do not service any more interrupt requests
1
1
Undefined
Enable Data Memory Bank Flag
0
Restrict program access to data memory to bank 15 (F80H-FFFH) and to
the locations 000H-07FH in the bank 0 only
1
Enable full access to data memory banks 0, 1, and 15
Enable Register Bank Flag
0
Select register bank 0 as working register area
1
Select register banks 0, 1, 2, or 3 as working register area in accordance with
the select register bank (SRB) instruction operand
NOTES:
1. The value of the carry flag after a RESET occurs during normal operation is undefined. If a RESET occurs during
power-down mode (IDLE or STOP), the current value of the carry flag is retained.
2. The carry flag can only be addressed by a specific set of 1-bit manipulation instructions. See Section 2 for
detailed information.
4-32
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
PUMOD0 — Pull-Up Resistor Mode Register
Bit
I/O
FE9H, FE8H
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
PUR7
PUR6
PUR5
PUR4
"0"
"0"
"0"
PUR0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
Identifier
PUR7
PUR6
PUR5
PUR4
PUMOD0.3-.1
Connect/Disconnect Port 7 Pull-Up Resistor Control Bit
0
Disconnect port 7 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 7 pull-up resistor
Connect/Disconnect Port 6 Pull-Up Resistor Control Bit
0
Disconnect port 6 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 6 pull-up resistor
Connect/Disconnect Port 5 Pull-Up Resistor Control Bit
0
Disconnect port 5 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 5 pull-up resistor
Connect/Disconnect Port 4 Pull-Up Resistor Control Bit
0
Disconnect port 4 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 4 pull-up resistor
Bit 3-1
0
PUR0
Always logic zero
Connect/Disconnect Port 0,1 Pull-Up Resistor Control Bit
0
Disconnect port 0,1 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 0,1 pull-up resistor
NOTES:
1. If port is set to output mode, pull-up resistor is disabled automatically.
2. When P0, P1 are used to external interrupt pins, the pull-up resistors of input mode are determined by key strobe signal
(refer to P12-7).
4-33
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SCMOD — System Clock Mode Control Register
Bit
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.3
.2
"0"
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
1
1
1
1
SCMOD.3
SCMOD.2
SCMOD.1
FB7H
Bit 3
0
Enable main system clock
1
Disable main system clock
Bit 2
0
Enable sub system clock
1
Disable sub system clock
Bit 1
0
SCMOD.0
CPU
Always logic zero
Bit 0
0
Select main system clock
1
Select sub system clock
NOTES:
1. Sub-oscillation goes into stop mode only by SCMOD.2. PCON which revokes stop mode cannot stop the suboscillation.
2. You can use SCMOD.2 as follows (ex; after data bank was used, a few minutes have passed):
Main operation → sub-operation → sub-idle (LCD on, after a few minutes later without any external input) →
sub operation → main operation → SCMOD.2 = 1 → main stop mode (LCD off).
3. SCMOD bit3-0 can not be modified simultaneously by a 4 -bit instruction; They can only be modified by separate 1-bit
instructions.
4-34
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
TMOD0 — Timer/Counter 0 Mode Register
Bit
T/C0
F90H, F91H
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
"0"
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
"0"
"0"
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
w
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
1/8
8
8
8
Identifier
TMOD0.7
Bit 7
0
TMOD0.6-.4
TMOD0.3
Timer/Counter0 Input Clock Selection Bits (1) (2)
0
0
0
External clock input at TCL0 pin on rising edge
0
0
1
External clock input at TCL0 pin on falling edge
0
1
x
fxt(Subsystem clock: 32.768 kHz)
1
0
0
fxx /210 (4.09 kHz)
1
0
1
fxx/26 (65.5 kHz)
1
1
0
fxx/24 (262kHz)
1
1
1
fxx (4.19 MHz)
Clear Counter And Resume Counting Control Bit
1
TMOD0.2
TMOD0.1
Clear TCNT0, IRQT0, and TOL0 and resume counting immediately.(This bit is
cleared automatically when counting starts)
Enable/Disable Timer/Counter0 Bit
0
Disable timer/counter0 ; retain TCNT0 contents
1
Enable timer/counter0
Bit 1
0
TMOD0.0
Always logic zero
Always logic zero
Bit 0
0
Always logic zero
NOTES:
1. 'fxx' is the system clock frequency (assume that fxx is 4.19MHz).
2. `x` is don`t care.
4-35
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TMOD1 — Timer/Counter 1 Mode Register
Bit
T/C1
FA7H, FA6H
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
"0"
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
"0"
"0"
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
1/8
8
8
8
Identifier
TMOD1.7
Bit 7
0
TMOD1.6-.4
TMOD1.3
Timer/Counter1 Input Clock Selection Bits (1) (2)
0
1
x
fxt(Subsystem clock: 32.768 kHz)
1
0
0
fxx /210 (4.09 kHz)
1
0
1
fxx/26 (65.5 kHz)
1
1
0
fxx/24 (262kHz)
1
1
1
fxx (4.19 MHz)
Clear Counter And Resume Counting Control Bit
1
TMOD1.2
TMOD1.1
Clear TCNT1 and IRQT1 and resume counting immediately.(This bit is
cleared automatically when counting starts)
Enable/Disable Timer/Counter1 Bit
0
Disable timer/counter1 ; retain TCNT1 contents
1
Enable timer/counter1
Bit 1
0
TMOD1.0
Always logic zero
Always logic zero
Bit 0
0
Always logic zero
NOTES:
1. 'fxx' is the system clock frequency (assume that fxx is 4.19MHz).
2. `x` is don`t care.
4-36
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
TOE0 — Timer/Output Enable Flag Register
Bit
3
2
1
0
"0"
TOE0
"0"
"0"
0
0
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
RESET Value
Read/Write
Bit Addressing
.3
.1-.0
F92H
Bit 3
0
TOE0
T/C0
Always logic zero
Clear Counter And Resume Counting Control Bit
0
Disable timer/counter 0 clock output at the TCLO0 pin
1
Enable timer/counter 0 clock output at the TCLO0 pin
Bit 1-0
0
Always logic zero
4-37
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
WDFLAG — Watch-Dog Timer’s Counter Clear Flag
Bit
3
2
1
0
WDTCF
"0"
"0"
"0"
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
1/4
1/4
1/4
1/4
Identifier
WDTCF
Watch-dog Timer's Counter Clear Bit
0
1
WDFLAG.2-.0
–
Clear the WDT's counter to zero and restart the WDT's counter
Bit 2-0
0
4-38
BT
Always logic zero
F9AH.3
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MEMORY MAP
WDMOD — Watch-Dog Timer Mode Control Register
BT
F99H, F98H
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
WDMOD.7-.0
Watch-Dog Timer Enable/Disable Control
0
1
0
1
1
Other Values
0
1
0
Disable watch-dog timer function
Enable watch-dog timer function
4-39
MEMORY MAP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
WMOD — Watch Timer Mode Register
WT
F89H, F88H
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Identifier
.7
.6
.5
.4
.3
.2
.1
.0
RESET Value
0
0
0
0
(note)
0
0
0
Read/Write
W
W
W
W
R
W
W
W
Bit Addressing
8
8
8
8
1
8
8
8
WMOD.7
WMOD.6
Enable/Disable Buzzer Output Bit
0
Disable buzzer (BUZ) signal output at the BUZ pin
1
Enable buzzer (BUZ) signal output at the BUZ pin
Bit 6
0
WMOD.5-.4
WMOD.3
WMOD.2
WMOD.1
WMOD.0
NOTE:
4-40
Always logic zero
Output Buzzer Frequency Selection Bits
0
0
2 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
0
1
4 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
1
0
8 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
1
1
16 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
XTINInput Level Control Bit
0
Input level to XT IN pin is low; 1-bit read-only addressable for tests
1
Input level to XT IN pin is high; 1-bit read-only addressable for tests
Enable/Disable Watch Timer Bit
0
Disable watch timer and clear frequency dividing circuits
1
Enable watch timer
Watch Timer Speed Control Bit
0
Normal speed: Set IRQW to 0.5 seconds
1
High-speed operation: Set IRQW to 3.91 ms
Watch Timer Clock Selection Bit
0
Select main system clock(fx)/128 as the watch timer clock
Select main system clock (fx) as a LCD clock source.
1
Select a subsystem clock as the watch timer clock
Select a subsystem clock as a LCD clock source.
RESET sets WMOD.3 to the current input level of the subsystem clock, XTIN. If the input level is high, WMOD.3 is
set to logic one; if low, WMOD.3 is cleared to zero along with all the other bits in the WMOD register
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
OVERVIEW
The SAM48 instruction set is specifically designed to support the large register files typically founded in most S3C7series microcontrollers. The SAM48 instruction set includes 1-bit, 4-bit, and 8-bit instructions for data manipulation,
logical and arithmetic operations, program control, and CPU control. I/O instructions for peripheral hardware devices
are flexible and easy to use. Symbolic hardware names can be substituted as the instruction operand in place of the
actual address. Other important features of the SAM48 instruction set include:
— 1-byte referencing of long instructions (REF instruction)
— Redundant instruction reduction (string effect)
— Skip feature for ADC and SBC instructions
Instruction operands conform to the operand format defined for each instruction. Several instructions have multiple
operand formats.
Predefined values or labels can be used as instruction operands when addressing immediate data. Many of the
symbols for specific registers and flags may also be substituted as labels for operations such DA, mema, memb, b,
and so on. Using instruction labels can greatly simplify programming and debugging tasks.
INSTRUCTION SET FEATURES
In this section, the following SAM48 instruction set features are described in detail:
— Instruction reference area
— Instruction redundancy reduction
— Flexible bit manipulation
— ADC and SBC instruction skip condition
NOTES:
1. The ROM size accessed by instruction may change for different devices in the SAM48 product family (JP, JPS, CALL,
and CALLS).
2. The number of memory bank selected by SMB may change for different devices in the SAM48 product family.
3. The port names used in the instruction set may change for different devices in the SAM48 product family.
4. The interrupt names and the interrupt numbers used in the instruction set may change for different devices in the SAM
48 product family.
5-1
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INSTRUCTION REFERENCE AREA
Using the 1-byte REF (Reference) instruction, you can reference instructions stored in addresses 0020H-007FH of
program memory (the REF instruction look-up table). The location referenced by REF may contain either two 1-byte
instructions or a single 2-byte instruction. The starting address of the instruction being referenced must always be an
even number.
3-byte instructions such as JP or CALL may also be referenced using REF. To reference these 3-byte instructions,
the 2-byte pseudo commands TJP and TCALL must be written in the reference.
The PC is not incremented when a REF instruction is executed. After it executes, the program's instruction
execution sequence resumes at the address immediately following the REF instruction. By using REF instructions
to execute instructions larger than one byte, as well as branches and subroutines, you can reduce the program size.
To summarize, the REF instruction can be used in three ways:
— Using the 1-byte REF instruction to execute one 2-byte or two 1-byte instructions;
— Branching to any location by referencing a branch address that is stored in the look-up table;
— Calling subroutines at any location by referencing a call address that is stored in the look-up table.
If necessary, a REF instruction can be circumvented by means of a skip operation prior to the REF in the execution
sequence. In addition, the instruction immediately following a REF can also be skipped by using an appropriate
reference instruction or instructions.
Two-byte instruction can be referenced by using a REF instruction (An exception is XCH A, DA). If the MSB value of
the first one-byte instruction in the reference area is “0”, the instruction cannot be referenced by a REF instruction.
Therefore, if you use REF to reference two 1-byte instruction stored in the reference area, specific combinations
must be used for the first and second 1-byte instruction.
These combination examples are described in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1. Valid 1-Byte Instruction Combinations for REF Look-Ups
First 1-Byte Instruction
Instruction
LD
LD
LD
NOTE:
5-2
Second 1-Byte Instruction
Operand
A, #im
A, @RRa
@HL, A
Instruction
Operand
INCS (note)
R
INCS
RRb
DECS (note)
R
INCS (note)
R
INCS
RRb
DECS (note)
R
INCS (note)
R
INCS
RRb
DECS (note)
R
The MSB value of the instruction is “0”.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
REDUCING INSTRUCTION REDUNDANCY
When redundant instructions such as LD A,#im and LD EA,#imm are used consecutively in a program sequence,
only the first instruction is executed. The redundant instructions which follow are ignored, that is, they are handled
like a NOP instruction. When LD HL,#imm instructions are used consecutively, redundant instructions are also
ignored.
In the following example, only the 'LD A, #im' instruction will be executed. The 8-bit load instruction which follows it is
interpreted as redundant and is ignored:
LD
LD
A,#im
EA,#imm
; Load 4-bit immediate data (#im) to accumulator
; Load 8-bit immediate data (#imm) to extended accumulator
In this example, the statements 'LD A,#2H' and 'LD A,#3H' are ignored:
BITR
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMB
A,#1H
A,#2H
A,#3H
23H,A
;
;
;
;
Execute instruction
Ignore, redundant instruction
Ignore, redundant instruction
Execute instruction, 023H ← #1H
If consecutive LD HL, #imm instructions (load 8-bit immediate data to the 8-bit memory pointer pair, HL) are
detected, only the first LD is executed and the LDs which immediately follow are ignored. For example,
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
HL,#10H
HL,#20H
A,#3H
EA,#35H
@HL,A
;
;
;
;
;
HL ← 10H
Ignore, redundant instruction
A ← 3H
Ignore, redundant instruction
(10H) ← 3H
If an instruction reference with a REF instruction has a redundancy effect, the following conditions apply:
— If the instruction preceding the REF has a redundancy effect, this effect is cancelled and the referenced
instruction is not skipped.
— If the instruction following the REF has a redundancy effect, the instruction following the REF is skipped.
F
ABC
PROGRAMMING TIP — Example of the Instruction Redundancy Effect
ORG
LD
ORG
•
•
•
LD
REF
•
•
•
REF
LD
0020H
EA,#30H
0080H
; Stored in REF instruction reference area
EA,#40H
ABC
; Redundancy effect is encountered
; No skip (EA ← #30H)
ABC
EA,#50H
; EA ← #30H
; Skip
5-3
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
FLEXIBLE BIT MANIPULATION
In addition to normal bit manipulation instructions like set and clear, the SAM48 instruction set can also perform bit
tests, bit transfers, and bit Boolean operations. Bits can also be addressed and manipulated by special bit
addressing modes. Three types of bit addressing are supported:
— mema.b
— [email protected]
— @H+DA.b
The parameters of these bit addressing modes are described in more detail in Table 5-2.
Table 5-2. Bit Addressing Modes and Parameters
Addressing Mode
mema.b
Addressable Peripherals
Address Range
ERB, EMB, IS1, IS0, IEx, IRQx
FB0H-FBFH
Ports
FF0H-FFFH
[email protected]
Ports, and BSC
FC0H-FFFH
@H+DA.b
All bit-manipulatable peripheral hardware
All bits of the memory bank specified by
EMB and SMB that are bit-manipulatable
NOTE:
Some device in the SAM48 product family don’t have BSC.
INSTRUCTIONS WHICH HAVE SKIP CONDITIONS
The following instructions have a skip function when an overflow or borrow occurs:
XCHI
INCS
XCHD
DECS
LDI
ADS
LDD
SBS
If there is an overflow or borrow from the result of an increment or decrement, a skip signal is generated and a skip is
executed. However, the carry flag value is unaffected.
The instructions BTST, BTSF, and CPSE also generate a skip signal and execute a skip when they meet a skip
condition, and the carry flag value is also unaffected.
INSTRUCTIONS WHICH AFFECT THE CARRY FLAG
The only instructions which do not generate a skip signal, but which do affect the carry flag are as follows:
ADC
LDB
C,(operand)
SBC
BAND
C,(operand)
SCF
BOR
C,(operand)
RCF
BXOR
C,(operand)
CCF
IRET
RRC
5-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
ADC AND SBC INSTRUCTION SKIP CONDITIONS
The instructions 'ADC A,@HL' and 'SBC A,@HL' can generate a skip signal, and set or clear the carry flag, when
they are executed in combination with the instruction 'ADS A,#im'.
If an 'ADS A,#im' instruction immediately follows an 'ADC A,@HL' or 'SBC A,@HL' instruction in a program
sequence, the ADS instruction does not skip the instruction following it, even if it has a skip function. If, however, an
'ADC A,@HL' or 'SBC A,@HL' instruction is immediately followed by an 'ADS A,#im' instruction, the ADC (or
SBC) skips on overflow (or if there is no borrow) to the instruction immediately following the ADS, and program
execution continues. Table 5-3 contains additional information and examples of the 'ADC A,@HL' and 'SBC
A,@HL' skip feature.
Table 5-3. Skip Conditions for ADC and SBC Instructions
Sample
Instruction Sequences
ADC A,@HL
ADS A,#im
xxx
xxx
1
2
3
4
SBC A,@HL
ADS A,#im
xxx
xxx
1
2
3
4
If the result of
instruction 1 is:
Then, the execution
sequence is:
Reason
Overflow
1, 3, 4
No overflow
1, 2, 3, 4
ADS cannot skip instruction 3, even if it has a
skip function.
Borrow
1, 2, 3, 4
No borrow
1, 3, 4
ADS cannot skip instruction 3, even if it has a
skip function.
5-5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SYMBOLS AND CONVENTIONS
Table 5-4. Data Type Symbols
Symbol
Table 5-6. Instruction Operand Notation
Data Type
Symbol
Definition
d
Immediate data
DA
Direct address
a
Address data
@
Indirect address prefix
b
Bit data
src
Source operand
r
Register data
dst
Destination operand
f
Flag data
(R)
Contents of register R
i
Indirect addressing data
.b
Bit location
t
memc × 0.5 immediate data
im
4-bit immediate data (number)
imm
8-bit immediate data (number)
#
Immediate data prefix
ADR
000H-3FFFH immediate address
Table 5-5. Register Identifiers
Full Register Name
ID
4-bit accumulator
A
ADRn
'n' bit address
4-bit working registers
E, L, H, X, W,
Z, Y
R
A, E, L, H, X, W, Z, Y
Ra
E, L, H, X, W, Z, Y
8-bit extended accumulator
EA
RR
EA, HL, WX, YZ
8-bit memory pointer
HL
RRa
HL, WX, WL
8-bit working registers
WX, YZ, WL
RRb
HL, WX, YZ
Select register bank 'n'
SRB n
RRc
WX, WL
Select memory bank 'n'
SMB n
mema
FB0H-FBFH, FF0H-FFFH
Carry flag
C
memb
FC0H-FFFH
Program status word
PSW
memc
Port 'n'
Pn
Code direct addressing:
0020H-007FH
'm'-th bit of port 'n'
Pn.m
SB
Select bank register (8 bits)
Interrupt priority register
IPR
XOR
Logical exclusive-OR
Enable memory bank flag
EMB
OR
Logical OR
Enable register bank flag
ERB
AND
Logical AND
[(RR)]
Contents addressed by RR
5-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
OPCODE DEFINITIONS
Table 5-7. Opcode Definitions (Direct)
Table 5-8. Opcode Definitions (Indirect)
Register
r2
r1
r0
Register
i2
i1
i0
A
0
0
0
@HL
1
0
1
E
0
0
1
@WX
1
1
0
L
0
1
0
@WL
1
1
1
H
0
1
1
X
1
0
0
W
1
0
1
Z
1
1
0
Y
1
1
1
EA
0
0
0
HL
0
1
0
WX
1
0
0
YZ
1
1
0
i = Immediate data for indirect addressing
r = Immediate data for register
CALCULATING ADDITIONAL MACHINE CYCLES FOR SKIPS
A machine cycle is defined as one cycle of the selected CPU clock. Three different clock rates can be selected
using the PCON register.
In this document, the letter 'S' is used in tables when describing the number of additional machine cycles required for
an instruction to execute, given that the instruction has a skip function ('S' = skip). The addition number of machine
cycles that will be required to perform the skip usually depends on the size of the instruction being skipped —
whether it is a 1-byte, 2-byte, or 3-byte instruction. A skip is also executed for SMB and SRB instructions.
The values in additional machine cycles for 'S' for the three cases in which skip conditions occur are as follows:
Case 1: No skip
S = 0 cycles
Case 2: Skip is 1-byte or 2-byte instruction
S = 1 cycle
Case 3: Skip is 3-byte instruction
S = 2 cycles
NOTE:
REF instructions are skipped in one machine cycle.
5-7
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
HIGH-LEVEL SUMMARY
This section contains a high-level summary of the SAM48 instruction set in table format. The tables are designed to
familiarize you with the range of instructions that are available in each instruction category.
These tables are a useful quick-reference resource when writing application programs.
If you are reading this user's manual for the first time, however, you may want to scan this detailed information
briefly, and then return to it later on. The following information is provided for each instruction:
— Instruction name
— Operand(s)
— Brief operation description
— Number of bytes of the instruction and operand(s)
— Number of machine cycles required to execute the instruction
The tables in this section are arranged according to the following instruction categories:
— CPU control instructions
— Program control instructions
— Data transfer instructions
— Logic instructions
— Arithmetic instructions
— Bit manipulation instructions
5-8
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
Table 5-9. CPU Control Instructions — High-Level Summary
Name
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
Set carry flag to logic one
1
1
RCF
Reset carry flag to logic zero
1
1
CCF
Complement carry flag
1
1
EI
Enable all interrupts
2
2
DI
Disable all interrupts
2
2
IDLE
Engage CPU idle mode
2
2
STOP
Engage CPU stop mode
2
2
NOP
No operation
1
1
SCF
–
Operation Description
SMB
n
Select memory bank
2
2
SRB
n
Select register bank
2
2
REF
memc
Reference code
1
1
VENTn
EMB (0,1)
ERB (0,1)
ADR
Load enable memory bank flag (EMB) and the enable
register bank flag (ERB) and program counter to vector
address, then branch to the corresponding location
2
2
Bytes
Cycles
Table 5-10. Program Control Instructions — High-Level Summary
Name
CPSE
Operand
Operation Description
R,#im
Compare and skip if register equals #im
2
2+S
@HL,#im
Compare and skip if indirect data memory equals #im
2
2+S
A,R
Compare and skip if A equals R
2
2+S
A,@HL
Compare and skip if A equals indirect data memory
1
1+S
EA,@HL
Compare and skip if EA equals indirect data memory
2
2+S
EA,RR
Compare and skip if EA equals RR
2
2+S
JP
ADR
Jump to direct address (14 bits)
3
3
JPS
ADR
Jump direct in page (12 bits)
2
2
JR
#im
Jump to immediate address
1
2
@WX
Branch relative to WX register
2
3
@EA
Branch relative to EA
2
3
CALL
ADR
Call direct in page (14 bits)
3
4
CALLS
ADR
Call direct in page (11 bits)
2
3
RET
–
Return from subroutine
1
3
IRET
–
Return from interrupt
1
3
SRET
–
Return from subroutine and skip
1
3+S
5-9
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 5-11. Data Transfer Instructions — High-Level Summary
Name
XCH
Operand
Operation Description
Bytes
Cycles
A,DA
Exchange A and direct data memory contents
2
2
A,Ra
Exchange A and register (Ra) contents
1
1
A,@RRa
Exchange A and indirect data memory
1
1
EA,DA
Exchange EA and direct data memory contents
2
2
EA,RRb
Exchange EA and register pair (RRb) contents
2
2
EA,@HL
Exchange EA and indirect data memory contents
2
2
XCHI
A,@HL
Exchange A and indirect data memory contents;
increment contents of register L and skip on carry
1
2+S
XCHD
A,@HL
Exchange A and indirect data memory contents;
decrement contents of register L and skip on carry
1
2+S
LD
A,#im
Load 4-bit immediate data to A
1
1
A,@RRa
Load indirect data memory contents to A
1
1
A,DA
Load direct data memory contents to A
2
2
A,Ra
Load register contents to A
2
2
Ra,#im
Load 4-bit immediate data to register
2
2
RR,#imm
Load 8-bit immediate data to register
2
2
DA,A
Load contents of A to direct data memory
2
2
Ra,A
Load contents of A to register
2
2
EA,@HL
Load indirect data memory contents to EA
2
2
EA,DA
Load direct data memory contents to EA
2
2
EA,RRb
Load register contents to EA
2
2
@HL,A
Load contents of A to indirect data memory
1
1
DA,EA
Load contents of EA to data memory
2
2
RRb,EA
Load contents of EA to register
2
2
@HL,EA
Load contents of EA to indirect data memory
2
2
LDI
A,@HL
Load indirect data memory to A; increment register L
contents and skip on carry
1
2+S
LDD
A,@HL
Load indirect data memory contents to A; decrement
register L contents and skip on carry
1
2+S
LDC
EA,@WX
Load code byte from WX to EA
1
3
EA,@EA
Load code byte from EA to EA
1
3
RRC
A
Rotate right through carry bit
1
1
PUSH
RR
Push register pair onto stack
1
1
SB
Push SMB and SRB values onto stack
2
2
RR
Pop to register pair from stack
1
1
SB
Pop SMB and SRB values from stack
2
2
POP
5-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
Table 5-12. Logic Instructions — High-Level Summary
Name
AND
OR
XOR
COM
Operand
Operation Description
Bytes
Cycles
A,#im
Logical-AND A immediate data to A
2
2
A,@HL
Logical-AND A indirect data memory to A
1
1
EA,RR
Logical-AND register pair (RR) to EA
2
2
RRb,EA
Logical-AND EA to register pair (RRb)
2
2
A, #im
Logical-OR immediate data to A
2
2
A, @HL
Logical-OR indirect data memory contents to A
1
1
EA,RR
Logical-OR double register to EA
2
2
RRb,EA
Logical-OR EA to double register
2
2
A,#im
Exclusive-OR immediate data to A
2
2
A,@HL
Exclusive-OR indirect data memory to A
1
1
EA,RR
Exclusive-OR register pair (RR) to EA
2
2
RRb,EA
Exclusive-OR register pair (RRb) to EA
2
2
A
Complement accumulator (A)
2
2
Bytes
Cycles
Table 5-13. Arithmetic Instructions — High-Level Summary
Name
ADC
ADS
SBC
SBS
DECS
INCS
Operand
Operation Description
A,@HL
Add indirect data memory to A with carry
1
1
EA,RR
Add register pair (RR) to EA with carry
2
2
RRb,EA
Add EA to register pair (RRb) with carry
2
2
A, #im
Add 4-bit immediate data to A and skip on carry
1
1+S
EA,#imm
Add 8-bit immediate data to EA and skip on carry
2
2+S
A,@HL
Add indirect data memory to A and skip on carry
1
1+S
EA,RR
Add register pair (RR) contents to EA and skip on carry
2
2+S
RRb,EA
Add EA to register pair (RRb) and skip on carry
2
2+S
A,@HL
Subtract indirect data memory from A with carry
1
1
EA,RR
Subtract register pair (RR) from EA with carry
2
2
RRb,EA
Subtract EA from register pair (RRb) with carry
2
2
A,@HL
Subtract indirect data memory from A; skip on borrow
1
1+S
EA,RR
Subtract register pair (RR) from EA; skip on borrow
2
2+S
RRb,EA
Subtract EA from register pair (RRb); skip on borrow
2
2+S
R
Decrement register (R); skip on borrow
1
1+S
RR
Decrement register pair (RR); skip on borrow
2
2+S
R
Increment register (R); skip on carry
1
1+S
DA
Increment direct data memory; skip on carry
2
2+S
@HL
Increment indirect data memory; skip on carry
2
2+S
RRb
Increment register pair (RRb); skip on carry
1
1+S
5-11
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 5-14. Bit Manipulation Instructions — High-Level Summary
Name
BTST
Operand
Operation Description
Bytes
Cycles
C
Test specified bit and skip if carry flag is set
1
1+S
DA.b
Test specified bit and skip if memory bit is set
2
2+S
2
2
mema.b
[email protected]
@H+DA.b
BTSF
DA.b
Test specified memory bit and skip if bit equals "0"
mema.b
[email protected]
@H+DA.b
BTSTZ
mema.b
Test specified bit; skip and clear if memory bit is set
[email protected]
@H+DA.b
BITS
DA.b
Set specified memory bit
mema.b
[email protected]
@H+DA.b
BITR
DA.b
Clear specified memory bit to logic zero
mema.b
[email protected]
@H+DA.b
BAND
C,mema.b
Logical-AND carry flag with specified memory bit
C,[email protected]
C,@H+DA.b
BOR
C,mema.b
Logical-OR carry with specified memory bit
C,[email protected]
C,@H+DA.b
BXOR
C,mema.b
Exclusive-OR carry with specified memory bit
C,[email protected]
C,@H+DA.b
LDB
mema.b,C
Load carry bit to a specified memory bit
[email protected],C
Load carry bit to a specified indirect memory bit
@H+DA.b,C
C,mema.b
Load specified memory bit to carry bit
C,[email protected]
Load specified indirect memory bit to carry bit
C,@H+DA.b
5-12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BINARY CODE SUMMARY
This section contains binary code values and operation notation for each instruction in the SAM48 instruction set in
an easy-to-read, tabular format. It is intended to be used as a quick-reference source for programmers who are
experienced with the SAM48 instruction set. The same binary values and notation are also included in the detailed
descriptions of individual instructions later in Section 5.
If you are reading this user's manual for the first time, please just scan this very detailed information briefly. Most of
the general information you will need to write application programs can be found in the high-level summary tables in
the previous section. The following information is provided for each instruction:
— Instruction name
— Operand(s)
— Binary values
— Operation notation
The tables in this section are arranged according to the following instruction categories:
— CPU control instructions
— Program control instructions
— Data transfer instructions
— Logic instructions
— Arithmetic instructions
— Bit manipulation instructions
5-13
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 5-15. CPU Control Instructions — Binary Code Summary
Name
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
C←1
RCF
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
C←0
CCF
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
C←C
EI
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
IME ← 1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
No operation
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
SMB ← n
0
1
0
0
d3
d2
d1
d0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
d1
d0
t4
t3
t2
t1
t0
PC13-0← memc.5-0+ (memc+1).7-0
ROM (2 x
ROM (2 x
ROM (2 x
ROM (2 x
(n = 0, 1, 2,
SCF
–
DI
IDLE
STOP
NOP
SMB
SRB
n
n
REF
memc
t7
t6
t5
VENTn
EMB (0,1)
ERB (0,1)
ADR
E
M
B
E
R
B
a13
a12 a11 a10
a9
a8
a7
a6
a5
a4
a1
a0
5-14
a3
a2
IME ← 0
PCON.2 ← 1
PCON.3 ← 1
SRB ← n
(n = 0, 1, 2, 3)
n) 7-6 → EMB, ERB
n) 5-4 → PC12,PC13
n) 3-0 → PC11-8
n + 1) 7-0 → PC7-0
3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
Table 5-16. Program Control Instructions — Binary Code Summary
Name
CPSE
Operand
Binary Code
R,#im
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
0
r2
r1
r0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
r2
r1
r0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
Skip if A = (HL)
EA,@HL
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
Skip if A = (HL), E = (HL+1)
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
a13 a12 a11 a10
a9
a8
a7
a6
a5
a4
a1
a0
1
0
0
1
a11 a10
a9
a8
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a1
a0
A,R
EA,RR
JPS
JR
ADR
ADR
#im
a2
Skip if A = R
Skip if EA = RR
PC13-0 ← ADR13-0
PC13-0 ← PC13-12 + ADR11-0
ADR
ADR
PC13-0 ← PC13-8 + (WX)
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
a13 a12 a11 a10
a9
a8
[(SP-3) (SP-4)] ← PC7-0
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
[(SP-5) (SP-6)] ← PC13-8
1
1
1
0
1
a10
a9
a8
[(SP-1) (SP-2)] ← EMB, ERB
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
[(SP-3) (SP-4)] ← PC7-0
[(SP-5) (SP-6)] ← PC14-8
First Byte
* JR #im
a2
Skip if (HL) = im
PC13-0 ← ADR (PC-15 to PC+16)
@EA
CALLS
a3
*
@WX
CALL
Skip if R = im
1
@HL,#im
JP
Operation Notation
PC13-0 ← PC13-8 + (EA)
[(SP-1) (SP-2)] ← EMB, ERB
Condition
0
0
0
1
a3
a2
a1
a0
PC ← PC+2 to PC+16
0
0
0
0
a3
a2
a1
a0
PC ← PC-1 to PC-15
5-15
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 5-16. Program Control Instructions — Binary Code Summary (Continued)
Name
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
RET
–
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
PC13-8 ← (SP + 1) (SP)
PC7-0← (SP + 3) (SP + 2)
EMB,ERB ← (SP + 4)
SP ← SP + 6
IRET
–
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
PC13-8 ← (SP + 1) (SP)
PC7-0 ← (SP + 3) (SP + 2)
PSW ← (SP + 5) (SP + 4)
SP ← SP + 6
SRET
–
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
PC13-8 ← (SP + 1) (SP)
PC7-0 ← (SP + 3) (SP + 2)
EMB,ERB ← (SP + 4)
SP ← SP + 6
Table 5-17. Data Transfer Instructions — Binary Code Summary
Name
XCH
Operand
A,DA
Binary Code
Operation Notation
A ↔ DA
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
A,Ra
0
1
1
0
1
r2
r1
r0
A ↔ Ra
A,@RRa
0
1
1
1
1
i2
i1
i0
A ↔ (RRa)
EA,DA
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
A ↔ DA,E ↔ DA + 1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
EA,RRb
EA,@HL
EA ↔ RRb
A ↔ (HL), E ↔ (HL + 1)
XCHI
A,@HL
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
A ↔ (HL), then L ← L+1;
skip if L = 0H
XCHD
A,@HL
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
A ↔ (HL), then L ← L-1;
skip if L = 0FH
LD
A,#im
1
0
1
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
A ← im
A,@RRa
1
0
0
0
1
i2
i1
i0
A ← (RRa)
A,DA
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
A ← DA
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
r2
r1
r0
A,Ra
5-16
A ← Ra
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
Table 5-17. Data Transfer Instructions — Binary Code Summary (Continued)
Name
LD
Operand
Ra,#im
Binary Code
Operation Notation
Ra ← im
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
1
r2
r1
r0
1
0
0
0
0
r2
r1
1
d7
d6
d5
d4
d3
d2
d1
d0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
r2
r1
r0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
r2
r1
0
@HL,A
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
(HL) ← A
DA,EA
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
DA ← A, DA + 1 ←E
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RR,#imm
DA,A
Ra,A
EA,@HL
EA,DA
EA,RRb
RRb,EA
@HL,EA
RR ← imm
DA ← A
Ra ← A
A ← (HL), E ← (HL + 1)
A ← DA, E ← DA + 1
EA ← RRb
RRb ← EA
(HL) ← A, (HL + 1) ← E
LDI
A,@HL
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
A ← (HL), then L ← L+1;
skip if L = 0H
LDD
A,@HL
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
A ← (HL), then L ← L-1;
skip if L = 0FH
LDC
EA,@WX
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
EA ← [PC13-8 + (WX)]
EA,@EA
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
EA ← [PC13-8 + (EA)]
RRC
A
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
C ← A.0, A3 ← C
A.n-1 ← A.n (n = 1, 2, 3)
PUSH
RR
0
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
1
((SP-1)) ((SP-2)) ← (RR),
(SP) ← (SP)-2
SB
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
((SP-1)) ← (SMB), ((SP-2)) ←(SRB),
(SP) ← (SP)-2
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
5-17
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 5-17. Data Transfer Instructions — Binary Code Summary (Concluded)
Name
POP
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
RR
0
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
RRL ← (SP), RRH ← (SP + 1)
SP ← SP + 2
SB
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
(SRB) ← (SP), SMB ← (SP + 1),
SP ← SP + 2
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
Table 5-18. Logic Instructions — Binary Code Summary
Name
AND
Operand
A,#im
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
A ← A AND (HL)
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA AND RR
0
0
0
1
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
d3
d2
d1
d0
A, @HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
A ← A OR (HL)
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA OR RR
0
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
A ← A XOR (HL)
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA XOR (RR)
0
0
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
A, #im
A,#im
RRb,EA
COM
5-18
A ← A AND im
1
RRb,EA
XOR
Operation Notation
1
RRb,EA
OR
Binary Code
A
RRb ← RRb AND EA
A ← A OR im
RRb ← RRb OR EA
A ← A XOR im
RRb ← RRb XOR EA
A ←A
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
Table 5-19. Arithmetic Instructions — Binary Code Summary
Name
ADC
Operand
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
C, A ← A + (HL) + C
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
C, EA ← EA + RR + C
1
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
r2
r1
0
A, #im
1
0
1
0
d3
d2
d1
d0
EA,#imm
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
d7
d6
d5
d4
d3
d2
d1
d0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
A ← A+ (HL); skip on carry
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA + RR; skip on carry
1
0
0
1
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
r2
r1
0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
C,A ← A - (HL) - C
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
C, EA ← EA -RR - C
1
1
0
0
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
r2
r1
0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
A ← A - (HL); skip on borrow
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA - RR; skip on borrow
1
0
1
1
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
R
0
1
0
0
1
r2
r1
r0
R ← R-1; skip on borrow
RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
RR ← RR-1; skip on borrow
1
1
0
1
1
r2
r1
0
R
0
1
0
1
1
r2
r1
r0
R ← R + 1; skip on carry
DA
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
DA ← DA + 1; skip on carry
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
r2
r1
0
RRb,EA
SBC
RRb,EA
SBS
RRb,EA
DECS
INCS
Operation Notation
A,@HL
RRb,EA
ADS
Binary Code
@HL
RRb
C, RRb ← RRb + EA + C
A ← A + im; skip on carry
EA ← EA + imm; skip on carry
RRb ← RRb + EA; skip on carry
C,RRb ← RRb - EA - C
RRb ← RRb - EA; skip on borrow
(HL) ← (HL) + 1; skip on carry
RRb ← RRb + 1; skip on carry
5-19
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 5-20. Bit Manipulation Instructions — Binary Code Summary
Name
BTST
Operand
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
Skip if C = 1
DA.b
1
1
b1
b0
0
0
1
1
Skip if DA.b = 1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
Skip if mema.b = 1
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
Skip if [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0] = 1
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
b1
b0
0
0
1
0
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
Skip if mema.b = 0
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
Skip if [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0] = 0
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
Skip if mema.b = 1 and clear
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
Skip if [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0] = 1 and clear
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
b1
b0
0
0
0
1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
mema.b ← 1
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
[memb.7-2 + L.3-2].[L.1-0] ← 1
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
@H+DA.b
DA.b
mema.b
@H DA.b
BTSTZ
mema.b
@H+DA.b
BITS
DA.b
mema.b
@H+DA.b
5-20
Operation Notation
C
mema.b
BTSF
Binary Code
Skip if [H + DA.3-0].b = 1
Skip if DA.b = 0
Skip if [H + DA.3-0].b = 0
Skip if [H + DA.3-0].b =1 and clear
DA.b ← 1
[H + DA.3-0].b ← 1
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
Table 5-20. Bit Manipulation Instructions — Binary Code Summary (Continued)
Name
BITR
Operand
Binary Code
DA.b
1
b1
b0
0
0
0
0
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
mema.b ← 0
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
[memb.7-2 + L3-2].[L.1-0] ← 0
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
C ← C AND mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
C ← C AND [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
C ← C OR mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
C ← C OR [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
C ← C XOR mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
C ← C XOR [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
@H+DA.b
C,mema.b
C,@H+DA.b
BOR
C,mema.b
C,@H+DA.b
BXOR
C,mema.b
C,@H+DA.b
Second Byte
* mema.b
DA.b ← 0
1
mema.b
BAND
Operation Notation
[H + DA.3-0].b ← 0
C ← C AND [H + DA.3-0].b
C ← C OR [H + DA.3-0].b
C ← C XOR [H + DA.3-0].b
Bit Addresses
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
5-21
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 5-20. Bit Manipulation Instructions — Binary Code Summary (Concluded)
Name
LDB
Operand
Binary Code
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
mema.b ← C
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
memb.7-2 + [L.3-2]. [L.1-0] ← C
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
C ← mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
C ← memb.7-2 + [L.3-2] . [L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
mema.b,C
*
[email protected],C
@H+DA.b,C
C,mema.b
C,@H+DA.b
Second Byte
* mema.b
5-22
Operation Notation
H + [DA.3-0].b ← (C)
C ← [H + DA.3-0].b
Bit Addresses
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FFF0H-FFFH
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
INSTRUCTION DESCRIPTIONS
This section contains detailed information and programming examples for each instruction of the SAM48 instruction
set. Information is arranged in a consistent format to improve readability and for use as a quick-reference resource for
application programmers.
If you are reading this user's manual for the first time, please just scan this very detailed information briefly in order to
acquaint yourself with the basic features of the instruction set. The information elements of the instruction description
format are as follows:
— Instruction name (mnemonic)
— Full instruction name
— Source/destination format of the instruction operand
— Operation overview (from the "High-Level Summary" table)
— Textual description of the instruction's effect
— Binary code overview (from the "Binary Code Summary" table)
— Programming example(s) to show how the instruction is used
5-23
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADC — ADD With Carry
ADC
dst,src
Operation:
Description:
Operand
Operation Summary
Bytes
Cycles
A,@HL
Add indirect data memory to A with carry
1
1
EA,RR
Add register pair (RR) to EA with carry
2
2
RRb,EA
Add EA to register pair (RRb) with carry
2
2
The source operand, along with the setting of the carry flag, is added to the destination operand and
the sum is stored in the destination. The contents of the source are unaffected. If there is an
overflow from the most significant bit of the result, the carry flag is set; otherwise, the carry flag is
cleared.
If 'ADC A,@HL' is followed by an 'ADS A,#im' instruction in a program, ADC skips the ADS
instruction if an overflow occurs. If there is no overflow, the ADS instruction is executed normally.
(This condition is valid only for 'ADC A,@HL' instructions. If an overflow occurs following an 'ADS
A,#im' instruction, the next instruction will not be skipped.)
Operand
1.
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
C, A ← A + (HL) + C
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
C, EA ← EA + RR + C
1
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
r2
r1
0
EA,HL
XXX
; C ← "1"
; EA ← 0C3H + 0AAH + 1H = 6EH, C ← "1"
; Jump to XXX; no skip after ADC
If the extended accumulator contains the value 0C3H, register pair HL the value 0AAH, and
the carry flag is cleared to "0":
RCF
ADC
JPS
5-24
C, RRb ← RRb + EA + C
The extended accumulator contains the value 0C3H, register pair HL the value 0AAH, and
the carry flag is set to "1":
SCF
ADC
JPS
2.
Operation Notation
A,@HL
RRb,EA
Examples:
Binary Code
EA,HL
XXX
; C ← "0"
; EA ← 0C3H + 0AAH + 0H = 6DH, C ← "1"
; Jump to XXX; no skip after ADC
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
ADC — Add with Carry
ADC
(Continued)
Examples:
3.
If ADC A,@HL is followed by an ADS A,#im, the ADC skips on carry to the instruction
immediately after the ADS. An ADS instruction immediately after the ADC does not skip
even if an overflow occurs. This function is useful for decimal adjustment operations.
a.
8 + 9 decimal addition (the contents of the address specified by the HL register is 9H):
RCF
LD
ADS
ADC
ADS
JPS
b.
A,#8H
A,#6H
A,@HL
A,#0AH
XXX
;
;
;
;
;
C ← "0"
A ← 8H
A ← 8H + 6H = 0EH
A ← OEH + 9H + C(0) = 7H, C ← "1"
Skip this instruction because C = "1" after ADC result
3 + 4 decimal addition (the contents of the address specified by the HL register is 4H):
RCF
LD
ADS
ADC
ADS
A,#3H
A,#6H
A,@HL
A,#0AH
JPS
XXX
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
C ← "0"
A ← 3H
A ← 3H + 6H = 9H
A ← 9H + 4H + C(0) = 0DH
No skip. A ← 0DH + 0AH = 7H
(The skip function for 'ADS A,#im' is inhibited after an
'ADC A,@HL' instruction even if an overflow occurs.)
5-25
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ADS — Add and Skip on Overflow
ADS
dst,src
Operation:
Description:
Operand
Operation Summary
Bytes
Cycles
A, #im
Add 4-bit immediate data to A and skip on overflow
1
1+S
EA,#imm
Add 8-bit immediate data to EA and skip on overflow
2
2+S
A,@HL
Add indirect data memory to A and skip on overflow
1
1+S
EA,RR
Add register pair (RR) contents to EA and skip on
overflow
2
2+S
RRb,EA
Add EA to register pair (RRb) and skip on overflow
2
2+S
The source operand is added to the destination operand and the sum is stored in the destination.
The contents of the source are unaffected. If there is an overflow from the most significant bit of the
result, the skip signal is generated and a skip is executed, but the carry flag value is unaffected.
If 'ADS A,#im' follows an 'ADC A,@HL' instruction in a program, ADC skips the ADS instruction if
an overflow occurs. If there is no overflow, the ADS instruction is executed normally. This skip
condition is valid only for 'ADC A,@HL' instructions, however. If an overflow occurs following an
ADS instruction, the next instruction is not skipped.
Operand
5-26
Operation Notation
A ← A + im; skip on overflow
A, #im
1
0
1
0
d3
d2
d1
d0
EA,#imm
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
d7
d6
d5
d4
d3
d2
d1
d0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
A ← A + (HL); skip on overflow
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA + RR; skip on overflow
1
0
0
1
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
r2
r1
0
RRb,EA
Examples:
Binary Code
1.
EA ← EA + imm; skip on overflow
RRb ← RRb + EA; skip on overflow
The extended accumulator contains the value 0C3H, register pair HL the value 0AAH, and
the carry flag = "0":
ADS
EA,HL
JPS
JPS
XXX
YYY
;
;
;
;
EA ← 0C3H + 0AAH = 6DH
ADS skips on overflow, but carry flag value is not affected.
This instruction is skipped since ADS had an overflow.
Jump to YYY.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
ADS — Add and Skip on Overflow
ADS
(Continued)
Examples:
2.
If the extended accumulator contains the value 0C3H, register pair HL the value 12H, and
the carry flag = "0":
ADS
JPS
EA,HL
XXX
; EA ← 0C3H + 12H = 0D5H
; Jump to XXX; no skip after ADS.
3. If 'ADC A,@HL' is followed by an 'ADS A,#im', the ADC skips on overflow to the instruction
immediately after the ADS. An 'ADS A,#im' instruction immediately after the 'ADC A,@HL' does
not skip even if overflow occurs. This function is useful for decimal adjustment operations.
a.
8 + 9 decimal addition (the contents of the address specified by the HL register is 9H):
RCF
LD
ADS
ADC
ADS
JPS
b.
A,#8H
A,#6H
A,@HL
A,#0AH
XXX
;
;
;
;
;
C ← "0"
A ← 8H
A ← 8H + 6H = 0EH
A ← OEH + 9H + C(0) = 7H, C ← "1"
Skip this instruction because C = "1" after ADC result.
3 + 4 decimal addition (the contents of the address specified by the HL register is 4H):
RCF
LD
ADS
ADC
ADS
A,#3H
A,#6H
A,@HL
A,#0AH
JPS
XXX
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
C ← "0"
A ← 3H
A ← 3H + 6H = 9H
A ← 9H + 4H + C(0) = 0DH, C ← "0"
No skip. A ← 0DH + 0AH = 7H
(The skip function for 'ADS A,#im' is inhibited after an
'ADC A,@HL' instruction even if an overflow occurs.)
5-27
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
AND — Logical AND
AND
Operation:
Description:
dst,src
Operand
Operation Summary
Logical-AND A immediate data to A
2
2
A,@HL
Logical-AND A indirect data memory to A
1
1
EA,RR
Logical-AND register pair (RR) to EA
2
2
RRb,EA
Logical-AND EA to register pair (RRb)
2
2
The source operand is logically ANDed with the destination operand. The result is stored in the
destination. The logical AND operation results in a "1" whenever the corresponding bits in the two
operands are both "1"; otherwise a "0" is stored in the corresponding destination bit. The contents of
the source are unaffected.
A,#im
Binary Code
Operation Notation
A ← A AND im
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
A ← A AND (HL)
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA AND RR
0
0
0
1
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
r2
r1
0
RRb,EA
RRb ← RRb AND EA
If the extended accumulator contains the value 0C3H (11000011B) and register pair HL the value
55H (01010101B), the instruction
AND
EA,HL
leaves the value 41H (01000001B) in the extended accumulator EA .
5-28
Cycles
A,#im
Operand
Example:
Bytes
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BAND — Bit Logical AND
BAND
C,src.b
Operation:
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
C,[email protected]
2
2
C,@H+DA.b
2
2
C,mema.b
Description:
Operation Summary
Logical-AND carry flag with memory bit
The specified bit of the source is logically ANDed with the carry flag bit value. If the Boolean value of
the source bit is a logic zero, the carry flag is cleared to "0"; otherwise, the current carry flag setting
is left unaltered. The bit value of the source operand is not affected.
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
*
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
C ← C AND mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
C ← C AND [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
C,mema.b
C,@H+DA.b
C ← C AND [H + DA.3-0].b
Second Byte
* mema.b
Examples:
1.
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
The following instructions set the carry flag if P1.0 (port 1.0) is equal to "1" (and assuming
the carry flag is already set to "1"):
SMB
BAND
2.
Bit Addresses
15
C,P1.0
; C ← "1"
; If P1.0 = "1", C ← "1"
; If P1.0 = "0", C ← "0"
Assume the P1 address is FF1H and the value for register L is 5H (0101B). The address
(memb.7-2) is 111100B; (L.3-2) is 01B. The resulting address is 11110001B or FF1H,
specifying P1. The bit value for the BAND instruction, (L.1-0) is 01B which specifies bit 1.
Therefore, [email protected] = P1.1:
LD
BAND
L,#5H
C,[email protected]
; [email protected] is specified as P1.1
; C AND P1.1
5-29
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BAND — Bit Logical AND
BAND
(Continued)
Examples:
3. Register H contains the value 2H and FLAG = 20H.3. The address of H is 0010B and
FLAG(3-0) is 0000B. The resulting address is 00100000B or 20H. The bit value for the
BAND instruction is 3. Therefore, @H+FLAG = 20H.3:
FLAG
LD
BAND
5-30
EQU
20H.3
H,#2H
C,@H+FLAG
; C AND FLAG (20H.3)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BITR — Bit Reset
BITR
dst.b
Operation:
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
mema.b
2
2
[email protected]
2
2
@H+DA.b
2
2
DA.b
Description:
Operation Summary
Clear specified memory bit to logic zero
A BITR instruction clears to logic zero (resets) the specified bit within the destination operand. No
other bits in the destination are affected.
Operand
DA.b
Binary Code
Operation Notation
DA.b ← 0
1
1
b1
b0
0
0
0
0
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
mema.b ← 0
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
[memb.7-2 + L3-2].[L.1-0] ← 0
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
mema.b
@H+DA.b
[H + DA.3-0].b ← 0
Second Byte
* mema.b
Examples:
1.
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
If the bit location 30H.2 in the RAM has a current value of "1". The following instruction
clears the third bit of location 30H to"0":
BITR
2.
Bit Addresses
30H.2
; 30H.2 ← "0"
You can use BITR in the same way to manipulate a port address bit:
BITR
P0.0
; P0.0 ← "0"
5-31
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BITR — Bit Reset
BITR
(Continued)
Examples:
3.
For clearing P0.2, P0.3, and P1.0-P1.3 to "0":
BP2
4.
5-32
L,#2H
[email protected]
INCS
CPSE
JR
L
L,#8H
BP2
; First, [email protected] = P0.2
; (111100B) + 00B.10B = 0F0H.2
If bank 0, location 0A0H.0 is cleared (and regardless of whether the EMB value is logic
zero), BITR has the following effect:
FLAG
NOTE:
LD
BITR
EQU
•
•
•
BITR
•
•
•
LD
BITR
0A0H.0
EMB
H,#0AH
@H+FLAG; Bank 0 (AH + 0H).0 = 0A0H.0 ← "0”
Since the BITR instruction is used for output functions, the pin names used in the examples above may change for
different devices in the SAM48 product family.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BITS — Bit Set
BITS
dst.b
Operation:
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
mema.b
2
2
[email protected]
2
2
@H+DA.b
2
2
DA.b
Description:
Operation Summary
Set specified memory bit
This instruction sets the specified bit within the destination without affecting any other bits in the
destination. BITS can manipulate any bit that is addressable using direct or indirect addressing
modes.
Operand
DA.b
Binary Code
Operation Notation
DA.b ← 1
1
1
b1
b0
0
0
0
1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
mema.b ← 1
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
[memb.7-2 + L.3-2].[L.1-0] ← 1
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
mema.b
@H+DA.b
[H + DA.3-0] ← 1
Second Byte
* mema.b
Examples:
1.
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
If the bit location 30H.2 in the RAM has a current value of "0", the following instruction sets
the second bit of location 30H to "1".
BITS
2.
Bit Addresses
30H.2
; 30H.2 ← "1"
You can use BITS in the same way to manipulate a port address bit:
BITS
P0.0
; P0.0 ← "1"
5-33
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BITS — Bit Set
BITS
(Continued)
Examples:
3.
For setting P0.2, P0.3, and P1.0-P1.3 to "1":
BP2
4.
5-34
L,#2H
[email protected]
INCS
CPSE
JR
L
L,#8H
BP2
; First, [email protected] = P0.2
; (111100B) + 00B.10B = 0F0H.2
If bank 0, location 0A0H.0, is set to "1" and the EMB = "0", BITS has the following effect:
FLAG
NOTE:
LD
BITS
EQU
•
•
•
BITR
•
•
•
LD
BITS
0A0H.0
EMB
H,#0AH
@H+FLAG; Bank 0 (AH + 0H).0 = 0A0H.0 ← "1"
Since the BITS instruction is used for output functions, pin names used in the examples above may change for
different devices in the SAM48 product family.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BOR — Bit Logical OR
BOR
C,src.b
Operation:
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
C,[email protected]
2
2
C,@H+DA.b
2
2
C,mema.b
Description:
Operation Summary
Logical-OR carry with specified memory bit
The specified bit of the source is logically ORed with the carry flag bit value. The value of the source
is unaffected.
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
*
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
C ← C OR mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
C ← C OR [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
C,mema.b
C,@H+DA.b
Second Byte
* mema.b
Examples:
1.
Bit Addresses
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
The carry flag is logically ORed with the P1.0 value:
RCF
BOR
2.
C ← C OR [H + DA.3-0].b
C,P1.0
; C ← "0"
; If P1.0 = "1", then C ← "1"; if P1.0 = "0", then C ← "0"
The P1 address is FF1H and register L contains the value 1H (0001B). The address (memb.7-2)
is 111100B and (L.3-2) = 00B. The resulting address is 11110000B or FF0H, specifying P0. The
bit value for the BOR instruction, (L.1-0) is 01B which specifies bit 1. Therefore, [email protected] = P0.1:
LD
BOR
L,#1H
C,[email protected]
; [email protected] is specified as P0.1; C OR P0.1
5-35
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BOR — Bit Logical OR
BOR
(Continued)
Examples:
3. Register H contains the value 2H and FLAG = 20H.3. The address of H is 0010B and
0) is 0000B. The resulting address is 00100000B or 20H. The bit value for the BOR
instruction is 3. Therefore, @H+FLAG = 20H.3:
FLAG
LD
BOR
5-36
EQU
20H.3
H,#2H
C,@H+FLAG
; C OR FLAG (20H.3)
FLAG(3-
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BTSF — Bit Test and Skip on False
BTSF
dst.b
Operation:
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
2
2+S
mema.b
2
2+S
[email protected]
2
2+S
@H+DA.b
2
2+S
DA.b
Description:
Operation Summary
Test specified memory bit and skip if bit equals "0"
The specified bit within the destination operand is tested. If it is a "0", the BTSF instruction skips
the instruction which immediately follows it; otherwise the instruction following the BTSF is
executed. The destination bit value is not affected.
Operand
DA.b
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
b1
b0
0
0
1
0
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
Skip if mema.b = 0
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
Skip if [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0] = 0
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
mema.b
@H + DA.b
Skip if DA.b = 0
Skip if [H + DA.3-0].b = 0
Second Byte
*
Examples:
mema.b
Bit Addresses
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
1. If RAM bit location 30H.2 is set to "0", the following instruction sequence will cause the program
to continue execution from the instruction identifed as LABEL2:
BTSF
RET
JP
2.
30H.2
; If 30H.2 = "0", then skip
; If 30H.2 = "1", return
LABEL2
You can use BTSF in the same way to test a port pin address bit:
BTSF
RET
JP
P1.0
; If P1.0 = "0", then skip
; If P1.0 = "1", then return
LABEL3
5-37
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BTSF — Bit Test and Skip on False
BTSF
(Continued)
Examples:
3.
P0.2, P0.3 and P1.0-P1.3 are tested:
BP2
4.
L,#2H
[email protected]
RET
INCS
CPSE
JR
L
L,#8H
BP2
; First, [email protected] = P0.2
; (111100B) + 00B.10B = 0F0H.2
Bank 0, location 0A0H.0, is tested and (regardless of the current EMB value) BTSF has the
following effect:
FLAG
5-38
LD
BTSF
EQU
•
•
•
BITR
•
•
•
LD
BTSF
RET
•
•
•
0A0H.0
EMB
H,#0AH
@H+FLAG; If bank 0 (AH + 0H).0 = 0A0H.0 = "0", then skip
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BTST — Bit Test and Skip on True
BTST
dst.b
Operation:
Description:
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
C
Test carry bit and skip if set (= "1")
1
1+S
DA.b
Test specified bit and skip if memory bit is set
2
2+S
mema.b
2
2+S
[email protected]
2
2+S
@H+DA.b
2
2+S
The specified bit within the destination operand is tested. If it is "1", the instruction that immediately
follows the BTST instruction is skipped; otherwise the instruction following the BTST instruction is
executed. The destination bit value is not affected.
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
C
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
Skip if C = 1
DA.b
1
1
b1
b0
0
0
1
1
Skip if DA.b = 1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
*
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
Skip if mema.b = 1
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
Skip if [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0] = 1
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
mema.b
@H+DA.b
Skip if [H + DA.3-0].b = 1
Second Byte
* mema.b
Examples:
Bytes
1.
Bit Addresses
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
If RAM bit location 30H.2 is set to "0", the following instruction sequence will execute
instruction:
BTST
RET
JP
30H.2
the RET
; If 30H.2 = "1", then skip
; If 30H.2 = "0", return
LABEL2
5-39
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BTST — Bit Test and Skip on True
BTST
(Continued)
Examples:
2.
You can use BTST in the same way to test a port pin address bit:
BTST
RET
JP
3.
LABEL3
LD
BTST
L,#2H
[email protected]
RET
INCS
CPSE
JR
L
L,#8H
BP2
; First, [email protected] = P0.2
; (111100B) + 00B.10B = 0F0H.2
Bank 0, location 0A0H.0, is tested and (regardless of the current EMB value) BTST has the
following effect:
FLAG
5-40
; If P1.0 = "1", then skip
; If P1.0 = "0", then return
P0.2, P0.3 and P1.0-P1.3 are tested :
BP2
4.
P1.0
EQU
•
•
•
BITR
•
•
•
LD
BTST
RET
•
•
•
0A0H.0
EMB
H,#0AH
@H+FLAG; If bank 0 (AH + 0H).0 = 0A0H.0 = "1", then skip
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BTSTZ — Bit Test and Skip on True; Clear Bit
BTSTZ
dst.b
Operation:
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
2
2+S
[email protected]
2
2+S
@H+DA.b
2
2+S
mema.b
Description:
Operation Summary
Test specified bit; skip and clear if memory bit is set
The specified bit within the destination operand is tested. If it is a "1", the instruction immediately
following the BTSTZ instruction is skipped; otherwise the instruction following the BTSTZ is
executed. The destination bit value is cleared.
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
*
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
Skip if mema.b = 1 and clear
[email protected]
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
Skip if [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0] = 1 and clear
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
mema.b
@H+DA.b
Skip if [H + DA.3-0].b =1 and clear
Second Byte
* mema.b
Examples:
1.
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
Port pin P0.0 is toggled by checking the P0.0 value (level):
BTSTZ
BITS
JP
2.
Bit Addresses
; If P0.0 = "1", then P0.0 ← "0" and skip
; If P0.0 = "0", then P0.0 ← "1"
P0.0
P0.0
LABEL3
For toggling P2.2, P2.3 and P3.0-P3.3:
BP2
LD
BTSTZ
L,#0AH
[email protected]
BITS
INCS
JR
[email protected]
L
BP2
; First, [email protected] = P2.2
; (111100B) + 10B.10B = 0F2H.2
5-41
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BTSTZ — Bit Test and Skip on True; Clear Bit
BTSTZ
(Continued)
Examples:
3.
Bank 0, location 0A0H.0, is tested and EMB = "0":
FLAG
5-42
EQU
•
•
•
BITR
•
•
•
LD
BTSTZ
BITS
0A0H.0
EMB
H,#0AH
@H+FLAG; If bank 0 (AH + 0H).0 = 0A0H.0 = "1", clear and skip
@H+FLAG; If 0A0H.0 = "0", then 0A0H.0 ← "1"
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
BXOR — Bit Exclusive OR
BXOR
C,src.b
Operation:
Operand
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
C,[email protected]
2
2
C,@H+DA.b
2
2
C,mema.b
Description:
Operation Summary
Exclusive-OR carry with memory bit
The specified bit of the source is logically XORed with the carry bit value. The resultant bit is written
to the carry flag. The source value is unaffected.
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
*
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
C ← C XOR mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
C ← C XOR [memb.7-2 + L.3-2].
[L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
C,mema.b
C,@H+DA.b
Second Byte
* mema.b
Examples:
1.
Bit Addresses
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
The carry flag is logically XORed with the P1.0 value:
RCF
BXOR
2.
C ← C XOR [H + DA.3-0].b
C,P1.0
; C ← "0"
; If P1.0 = "1", then C ← "1"; if P1.0 = "0", then C ← "0"
The P1 address is FF1H and register L contains the value 1H (0001B). The address (memb.7-2)
is 111100B and (L.3-2) = 00B. The resulting address is 11110000B or FF0H, specifying P0. The
bit value for the BXOR instruction, (L.1-0) is 01B which specifies bit 1. Therefore, [email protected] = P0.1:
LD
BXOR
L,#1H
C,[email protected]
; [email protected] is specified as P0.1; C XOR P0.1
5-43
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BXOR — Bit Exclusive OR
BXOR
(Continued)
Examples:
3. Register H contains the value 2H and FLAG = 20H.3. The address of H is 0010B and
0) is 0000B. The resulting address is 00100000B or 20H. The bit value for the BOR
instruction is 3. Therefore, @H+FLAG = 20H.3:
FLAG
LD
BXOR
5-44
EQU
20H.3
H,#2H
C,@H+FLAG
; C XOR FLAG (20H.3)
FLAG(3-
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
CALL — Call Procedure
CALL
Operation:
dst
Operand
ADR
Description:
Operation Summary
Call direct in page (14 bits)
Cycles
3
4
CALL calls a subroutine located at the destination address. The instruction adds three to the
program counter to generate the return address and then pushes the result onto the stack,
decreasing the stack pointer by six. The EMB and ERB are also pushed to the stack. Program
execution continues with the instruction at this address. The subroutine may therefore begin
anywhere in the full 16 K byte program memory address space.
Operand
ADR
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
1
1
0
1
0
1
a13
a12
a7
a6
a5
a4
1
Operation Notation
0
a11 a10
a3
a2
1
1
[(SP-1) (SP-2)] ← EMB, ERB
a9
a8
[(SP-3) (SP-4)] ← PC7-0
a1
a0
[(SP-5) (SP-6)] ← PC13-8
The stack pointer value is 00H and the label 'PLAY' is assigned to program memory location 0E3FH.
Executing the instruction
CALL
PLAY
at location 0123H will generate the following values:
SP
0FFH
0FEH
0FDH
0FCH
0FBH
0FAH
PC
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0FAH
0H
EMB, ERB
2H
3H
0H
1H
0E3FH
Data is written to stack locations 0FFH - 0FAH as follows:
SP - 6
(0FAH)
PC11 – PC8
SP - 5
(0FBH)
SP - 4
(0FCH)
PC3 – PC0
SP - 3
(0FDH)
PC7 – PC4
SP - 2
(0FEH)
0
0
EMB
ERB
SP - 1
(0FFH)
0
0
0
0
SP →
(00H)
0
0
PC13
PC12
5-45
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
CALLS — Call Procedure (Short)
CALLS
Operation:
dst
Operand
ADR
Description:
Operation Summary
Call direct in page (11 bits)
ADR
2
3
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
1
0
1
a10
a9
a8
[(SP-1) (SP-2)] ← EMB, ERB
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
[(SP-3) (SP-4)] ← PC7-0
[(SP-5) (SP-6)] ← PC14-8
The stack pointer value is 00H and the label 'PLAY' is assigned to program memory location 0345H.
Executing the instruction
CALLS
PLAY
at location 0123H will generate the following values:
SP
0FFH
0FEH
0FDH
0FCH
0FBH
0FAH
PC
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
0FAH
0H
EMB, ERB
2H
3H
0H
1H
0345H
Data is written to stack locations 0FFH - 0FAH as follows:
SP - 6
(0FAH)
SP - 5
(0FBH)
SP - 4
(0FCH)
PC3 – PC0
SP - 3
(0FDH)
PC7 – PC4
SP - 2
(0FEH)
0
0
EMB
ERB
SP - 1
(0FFH)
0
0
0
0
SP →
(00H)
5-46
Cycles
The CALLS instruction unconditionally calls a subroutine located at the indicated address. The
instruction increments the PC twice to obtain the address of the following instruction. Then, it
pushes the result onto the stack, decreasing the stack pointer six times. The higher bits of the PC,
with the exception of the lower 11 bits, are cleared. The CALLS instruction can be used in the all
range (0000H-3FFFH), but the subroutine must therefore be located within the 2 K byte block
(0000H-07FFH) of program memory.
Operand
Example:
Bytes
PC11 – PC8
0
PC14
PC13
PC12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
CCF — Complement Carry Flag
CCF
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
Complement carry flag
Cycles
1
1
The carry flag is complemented; if C = "1" it is changed to C = "0" and vice-versa.
Operand
–
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
1
1
0
1
0
Operation Notation
1
1
0
C←C
If the carry flag is logic zero, the instruction
CCF
changes the value to logic one.
5-47
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
COM — Complement Accumulator
COM
Operation:
A
Operand
A
Description:
Operation Summary
Complement accumulator (A)
A
Binary Code
2
2
Operation Notation
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
A ←A
If the accumulator contains the value 4H (0100B), the instruction
COM
A
leaves the value 0BH (1011B) in the accumulator.
5-48
Cycles
The accumulator value is complemented; if the bit value of A is "1", it is changed to "0" and vice
versa.
Operand
Example:
Bytes
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
CPSE — Compare and Skip If Equal
CPSE
Operation:
Description:
dst,src
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
R,#im
Compare and skip if register equals #im
2
2+S
@HL,#im
Compare and skip if indirect data memory equals #im
2
2+S
A,R
Compare and skip if A equals R
2
2+S
A,@HL
Compare and skip if A equals indirect data memory
1
1+S
EA,@HL
Compare and skip if EA equals indirect data memory
2
2+S
EA,RR
Compare and skip if EA equals RR
2
2+S
CPSE compares the source operand (subtracts it from) the destination operand, and skips the next
instruction if the values are equal. Neither operand is affected by the comparison.
Operand
R,#im
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
0
r2
r1
r0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
r2
r1
r0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
Skip if A = (HL)
EA,@HL
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
Skip if A = (HL), E = (HL+1)
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
@HL,#im
A,R
EA,RR
Example:
Bytes
Skip if R = im
Skip if (HL) = im
Skip if A = R
Skip if EA = RR
The extended accumulator contains the value 34H and register pair HL contains 56H. The second
instruction (RET) in the instruction sequence
CPSE
RET
EA,HL
is not skipped. That is, the subroutine returns since the result of the comparison is 'not equal.'
5-49
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
DECS — Decrement and Skip on Borrow
DECS
dst
Operation:
Description:
Operand
Operation Summary
Decrement register (R); skip on borrow
1
1+S
RR
Decrement register pair (RR); skip on borrow
2
2+S
The destination is decremented by one. An original value of 00H will underflow to 0FFH. If a borrow
occurs, a skip is executed. The carry flag value is unaffected.
Binary Code
Operation Notation
R
0
1
0
0
1
r2
r1
r0
R ← R-1; skip on borrow
RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
RR ← RR-1; skip on borrow
1
1
0
1
1
r2
r1
0
1.
Register pair HL contains the value 7FH (01111111B). The following instruction leaves the
value 7EH in register pair HL:
DECS
2.
HL
Register A contains the value 0H. The following instruction sequence leaves the value 0FFH in
register A. Since a "borrow" occurs, the 'CALL PLAY1' instruction is skipped and the 'CALL
PLAY2' instruction is executed:
DECS
CALL
CALL
5-50
Cycles
R
Operand
Examples:
Bytes
A
PLAY1
PLAY2
; "Borrow" occurs
; Skipped
; Executed
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
DI — Disable Interrupts
DI
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
Disable all interrupts
Cycles
2
2
Bit 3 of the interrupt priority register IPR, IME, is cleared to logic zero, disabling all interrupts.
Interrupts can still set their respective interrupt status latches, but the CPU will not directly service
them.
Operand
–
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
IME ← 0
If the IME bit (bit 3 of the IPR) is logic one (e.g., all instructions are enabled), the instruction
DI
sets the IME bit to logic zero, disabling all interrupts.
5-51
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EI — Enable Interrupts
EI
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
Enable all interrupts
–
Binary Code
2
2
Operation Notation
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
IME ← 1
If the IME bit (bit 3 of the IPR) is logic zero (e.g., all instructions are disabled), the instruction
EI
sets the IME bit to logic one, enabling all interrupts.
5-52
Cycles
Bit 3 of the interrupt priority register IPR (IME) is set to logic one. This allows all interrupts to be
serviced when they occur, assuming they are enabled. If an interrupt's status latch was previously
enabled by an interrupt, this interrupt can also be serviced.
Operand
Example:
Bytes
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
IDLE — Idle Operation
IDLE
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
Engage CPU idle mode
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
IDLE causes the CPU clock to stop while the system clock continues oscillating by setting bit 2 of
the power control register (PCON). After an IDLE instruction has been executed, peripheral hardware
remains operative.
In application programs, an IDLE instruction must be immediately followed by at least three NOP
instructions. This ensures an adequate time interval for the clock to stabilize before the next
instruction is executed. If three or more NOP instructions are not used after IDLE instruction,
leakage current could be flown because of the floating state in the internal bus.
Operand
–
Example:
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
PCON.2 ← 1
The instruction sequence
IDLE
NOP
NOP
NOP
sets bit 2 of the PCON register to logic one, stopping the CPU clock. The three NOP instructions
provide the necessary timing delay for clock stabilization before the next instruction in the program
sequence is executed.
5-53
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INCS — Increment and Skip on Carry
INCS
dst
Operation:
Description:
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
R
Increment register (R); skip on carry
1
1+S
DA
Increment direct data memory; skip on carry
2
2+S
@HL
Increment indirect data memory; skip on carry
2
2+S
RRb
Increment register pair (RRb); skip on carry
1
1+S
The instruction INCS increments the value of the destination operand by one. An original value of
0FH will, for example, overflow to 00H. If a carry occurs, the next instruction is skipped. The carry
flag value is unaffected.
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
R
0
1
0
1
1
r2
r1
r0
R ← R + 1; skip on carry
DA
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
DA ← DA + 1; skip on carry
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
r2
r1
0
@HL
RRb
Example:
Bytes
(HL) ← (HL) + 1; skip on carry
RRb ← RRb + 1; skip on carry
Register pair HL contains the value 7EH (01111110B). RAM location 7EH contains 0FH. The
instruction sequence
INCS
INCS
INCS
@HL
HL
@HL
; 7EH ← "0"
; Skip
; 7EH ← "1"
leaves the register pair HL with the value 7EH and RAM location 7EH with the value 1H. Since a
carry occurred, the second instruction is skipped. The carry flag value remains unchanged.
5-54
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
IRET — Return From Interrupt
IRET
Operation:
Operand
Operation Summary
–
Description:
Return from interrupt
Bytes
Cycles
1
3
IRET is used at the end of an interrupt service routine. It pops the PC values successively from the
stack and restores them to the program counter. The stack pointer is incremented by six and the
PSW, enable memory bank (EMB) bit, and enable register bank (ERB) bit are also automatically
restored to their pre-interrupt values. Program execution continues from the resulting address, which
is generally the instruction immediately after the point at which the interrupt request was detected. If
a lower-level or same-level interrupt was pending when the IRET was executed, IRET will be
executed before the pending interrupt is processed.
Since the 'a14' bit of an interrupt return address is not stored in the stack, this bit location is always
interpreted as a logic zero. The starting address in the ROM must for this reason be located in
0000H-3FFFH.
Operand
Binary Code
–
Example:
1
1
0
1
0
Operation Notation
1
0
1
PC13-8 ← (SP + 1) (SP)
PC7-0 ← SP + 3) (SP + 2)
PSW ← (SP + 5) (SP + 4)
SP ← SP + 6
The stack pointer contains the value 0FAH. An interrupt is detected in the instruction at location
0123H. RAM locations 0FDH, 0FCH, and 0FAH contain the values 2H, 3H, and 1H, respectively.
The instruction
IRET
leaves the stack pointer with the value 00H and the program returns to continue execution at
location 0123H.
During a return from interrupt, data is popped from the stack to the program counter. The data in
stack locations 0FFH-0FAH is organized as follows:
SP →
(0FAH)
SP + 1
(0FBH)
SP + 2
(0FCH)
PC3 – PC0
SP + 3
(0FDH)
PC7 – PC4
SP + 4
(0FEH)
IS1
IS0
EMB
ERB
SP + 5
(0FFH)
C
SC2
SC1
SC0
SP + 6
(00H)
PC11 – PC8
0
0
PC13
PC12
5-55
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
JP — Jump
JP
Operation:
dst
Operand
ADR
Description:
Operation Summary
Jump to direct address (14 bits)
Binary Code
ADR
3
3
1
1
0
1
0
0
a13
a12
a7
a6
a5
a4
1
Operation Notation
0
a11 a10
a3
a2
1
1
a9
a8
a1
a0
PC13-0 ← ADR13-0
The label 'SYSCON' is assigned to the instruction at program location 07FFH. The instruction
JP
SYSCON
at location 0123H will load the program counter with the value 07FFH.
5-56
Cycles
JP causes an unconditional branch to the indicated address by replacing the contents of the
program counter with the address specified in the destination operand. The destination can be
anywhere in the 16 K byte program memory address space.
Operand
Example:
Bytes
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
JPS — Jump (Short)
JPS
Operation:
dst
Operand
ADR
Description:
Operation Summary
Jump direct in page (12 bits)
Cycles
2
2
JPS causes an unconditional branch to the indicated address with the 4 K byte program memory
address space. Bits 0-11 of the program counter are replaced with the directly specified address.
The destination address for this jump is specified to the assembler by a label or by an actual
address in program memory.
Operand
ADR
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
1
0
0
1
a7
a6
a5
a4
Operation Notation
a11 a10
a3
a2
a9
a8
a1
a0
PC13-0 ← PC13-12 + ADR11-0
The label 'SUB' is assigned to the instruction at program memory location 00FFH. The instruction
JPS
SUB
at location 0EABH will load the program counter with the value 00FFH. Normally, the JPS
instruction jumps to the address in the block in which the instruction is located. If the first byte of
the instruction code is located at address xFFEH or xFFFH, the instruction will jump to the next
block. If the instruction 'JPS SUB' were located instead at program memory address 0FFEH or
0FFFH, the instruction 'JPS SUB' would load the PC with the value 10FFH, causing a program
malfunction.
5-57
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
JR — Jump Relative (Very Short)
JR
Operation:
Description:
dst
Operand
Operation Summary
Bytes
Cycles
#im
Branch to relative immediate address
1
2
@WX
Branch relative to contents of WX register
2
3
@EA
Branch relative to contents of EA
2
3
JR causes the relative address to be added to the program counter and passes control to the
instruction whose address is now in the PC. The range of the relative address is current PC - 15 to
current PC + 16. The destination address for this jump is specified to the assembler by a label, an
actual address, or by immediate data using a plus sign (+) or a minus sign (-).
For immediate addressing, the (+) range is from 2 to 16 and the (-) range is from -1 to -15. If a 0, 1,
or any other number that is outside these ranges are used, the assembler interprets it as an error.
For JR @WX and JR @EA branch relative instructions, the valid range for the relative address is 0H0FFH. The destination address for these jumps can be specified to the assembler by a label that
lies anywhere within the current 256-byte block.
Normally, the 'JR @WX' and 'JR @EA' instructions jump to the address in the page in which the
instruction is located. However, if the first byte of the instruction code is located at address xxFEH
or xxFFH, the instruction will jump to the next page.
Operand
#im
Binary Code
Operation Notation
PC13-0 ← ADR (PC-15 to PC+16)
*
@WX
@EA
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
First Byte
* JR #im
5-58
PC13-0 ← PC13-8 + (WX)
PC13-0 ← PC13-8 + (EA)
Condition
0
0
0
1
a3
a2
a1
a0
PC ← PC+2 to PC+16
0
0
0
0
a3
a2
a1
a0
PC ← PC-1 to PC-15
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
JR — Jump Relative (Very Short)
JR
(Continued)
Examples:
1.
A short form for a relative jump to label 'KK' is the instruction
JR
KK
where 'KK' must be within the allowed range of current PC-15 to current PC+16. The JR
instruction has in this case the effect of an unconditional JP instruction.
2.
In the following instruction sequence, if the instruction 'LD WX, #02H' were to be executed in
place of 'LD WX,#00H', the program would jump to 1004H and 'JPS CCC' would be executed. If
'LD WX,#03H' were to be executed, the jump would be to1006H and 'JPS DDD' would be
executed.
XXX
3.
ORG
JPS
JPS
JPS
JPS
LD
LD
ADS
JR
1000H
AAA
BBB
CCC
DDD
WX,#00H ; WX ← 00H
EA,WX
WX,EA
; WX ← (WX) + (EA)
@WX
; Current PC12-8 (10H) + WX (00H) = 1000H
; Jump to address 1000H and execute JPS AAA
Here is another example:
ORG
1100H
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
JPS
XXX
JR
A,#0H
A,#1H
A,#2H
A,#3H
30H,A
YYY
LD
@EA
; Address 30H ← A
EA,#00H ; EA ← 00H
; Jump to address 1100H
; Address 30H ← 00H
If 'LD EA,#01H' were to be executed in place of 'LD EA,#00H', the program would jump to
1101H and address 30H would contain the value 1H. If 'LD EA,#02H' were to be executed, the
jump would be to 1102H and address 30H would contain the value 2H.
5-59
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LD — Load
LD
Operation:
Description:
dst,src
Operand
Operation Summary
Bytes
Cycles
A,#im
Load 4-bit immediate data to A
1
1
A,@RRa
Load indirect data memory contents to A
1
1
A,DA
Load direct data memory contents to A
2
2
A,Ra
Load register contents to A
2
2
Ra,#im
Load 4-bit immediate data to register
2
2
RR,#imm
Load 8-bit immediate data to register
2
2
DA,A
Load contents of A to direct data memory
2
2
Ra,A
Load contents of A to register
2
2
EA,@HL
Load indirect data memory contents to EA
2
2
EA,DA
Load direct data memory contents to EA
2
2
EA,RRb
Load register contents to EA
2
2
@HL,A
Load contents of A to indirect data memory
1
1
DA,EA
Load contents of EA to data memory
2
2
RRb,EA
Load contents of EA to register
2
2
@HL,EA
Load contents of EA to indirect data memory
2
2
The contents of the source are loaded into the destination. The source's contents are unaffected.
If an instruction such as 'LD A,#im' (LD EA,#imm) or 'LD HL,#imm' is written more than two
times in succession, only the first LD will be executed; the other similar instructions that
immediately follow the first LD will be treated like a NOP. This is called the 'redundancy effect' (see
examples below).
Operand
Operation Notation
A,#im
1
0
1
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
A ← im
A,@RRa
1
0
0
0
1
i2
i1
i0
A ← (RRa)
A,DA
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
A ← DA
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
r2
r1
r0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
1
r2
r1
r0
A,Ra
Ra,#im
5-60
Binary Code
A ← Ra
Ra ← im
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
LD — Load
LD
(Continued)
Description:
Operand
RR,#imm
Operation Notation
RR ← imm
1
0
0
0
0
r2
r1
1
d7
d6
d5
d4
d3
d2
d1
d0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
r2
r1
r0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
r2
r1
0
@HL,A
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
(HL) ← A
DA,EA
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
DA ← A, DA + 1 ← E
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DA,A
Ra,A
EA,@HL
EA,DA
EA,RRb
RRb,EA
@HL,EA
Examples:
Binary Code
1.
DA ← A
Ra ← A
A ← (HL), E ← (HL + 1)
A ← DA, E ← DA + 1
EA ← RRb
RRb ← EA
(HL) ← A, (HL + 1) ← E
RAM location 30H contains the value 4H. The RAM location values are 40H, 41H and 0AH,
3H respectively. The following instruction sequence leaves the value 40H in point pair HL,
0AH in the accumulator and in RAM location 40H, and 3H in register E.
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
HL,#30H
A,@HL
HL,#40H
EA,@HL
@HL,A
;
;
;
;
;
HL ← 30H
A ← 4H
HL ← 40H
A ← 0AH, E ← 3H
RAM (40H) ← 0AH
5-61
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LD — Load
LD
(Continued)
Examples:
2.
If an instruction such as LD A,#im (LD EA,#imm) or LD HL,#imm is written more than two
times in succession, only the first LD is executed; the next instructions are treated as NOPs.
Here are two examples of this 'redundancy effect':
LD
LD
LD
LD
A,#1H
EA,#2H
A,#3H
23H,A
;
;
;
;
A ← 1H
NOP
NOP
(23H) ← 1H
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
HL,#10H
HL,#20H
A,#3H
EA,#35
@HL,A
;
;
;
;
;
HL ← 10H
NOP
A ← 3H
NOP
(10H) ← 3H
The following table contains descriptions of special characteristics of the LD instruction when used
in different addressing modes:
Instruction
5-62
Operation Description and Guidelines
LD
A,#im
Since the 'redundancy effect' occurs with instructions like LD EA,#imm, if this
instruction is used consecutively, the second and additional instructions of the
same type will be treated like NOPs.
LD
A,@RRa Load the data memory contents pointed to by 8-bit RRa register pairs (HL, WX,
WL) to the A register.
LD
A,DA
Load direct data memory contents to the A register.
LD
A,Ra
Load 4-bit register Ra (E, L, H, X, W, Z, Y) to the A register.
LD
Ra,#im
Load 4-bit immediate data into the Ra register (E, L, H, X, W, Y, Z).
LD
RR,#imm
Load 8-bit immediate data into the Ra register (EA, HL, WX, YZ). There is a
redundancy effect if the operation addresses the HL or EA registers.
LD
DA,A
Load contents of register A to direct data memory address.
LD
Ra,A
Load contents of register A to 4-bit Ra register (E, L, H, X, W, Z, Y).
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
LD — Load
LD
Examples:
(Concluded)
Instruction
Operation Description and Guidelines
LD
EA,@HL Load data memory contents pointed to by 8-bit register HL to the A register, and
the contents of HL+1 to the E register. The contents of register L must be an
even number. If the number is odd, the LSB of register L is recognized as a logic
zero (an even number), and it is not replaced with the true value. For example,
'LD HL,#36H' loads immediate 36H to HL and the next instruction 'LD
EA,@HL' loads the contents of 36H to register A and the contents of 37H to
register E.
LD
EA,DA
Load direct data memory contents of DA to the A register, and the next direct
data memory contents of DA + 1 to the E register. The DA value must be an even
number. If it is an odd number, the LSB of DA is recognized as a logic zero (an
even number), and it is not replaced with the true value. For example, 'LD
EA,37H' loads the contents of 36H to the A register and the contents of 37H to
the E register.
LD
EA,RRb
Load 8-bit RRb register (HL, WX, YZ) to the EA register. H, W, and Y register
values are loaded into the E register, and the L, X, and Z values into the A
register.
LD
@HL,A
Load A register contents to data memory location pointed to by the 8-bit HL
register value.
LD
DA,EA
Load the A register contents to direct data memory and the E register contents
to the next direct data memory location. The DA value must be an even number.
If it is an odd number, the LSB of the DA value is recognized as logic zero (an
even number), and is not replaced with the true value.
LD
RRb,EA
Load contents of EA to the 8-bit RRb register (HL, WX, YZ). The E register is
loaded into the H, W, and Y register and the A register into the L, X, and Z
register.
LD
@HL,EA Load the A register to data memory location pointed to by the 8-bit HL register,
and the E register contents to the next location, HL + 1. The contents of the L
register must be an even number. If the number is odd, the LSB of the L register
is recognized as logic zero (an even number), and is not replaced with the true
value. For example, 'LD HL,#36H' loads immediate 36H to register HL; the
instruction 'LD @HL,EA' loads the contents of A into address 36H and the
contents of E into address 37H.
5-63
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LDB — Load Bit
LDB
LDB
dst,src.b
dst.b,src
Operation:
Operand
Operation Summary
Load carry bit to a specified memory bit
2
2
[email protected],C
Load carry bit to a specified indirect memory bit
2
2
2
2
C,mema.b
Load memory bit to a specified carry bit
2
2
C,[email protected]
Load indirect memory bit to a specified carry bit
2
2
2
2
C,@H+DA.b
The Boolean variable indicated by the first or second operand is copied into the location specified by
the second or first operand. One of the operands must be the carry flag; the other may be any
directly or indirectly addressable bit. The source is unaffected.
Operand
Binary Code
Operation Notation
*
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
mema.b ← C
[email protected],C
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
memb.7-2 + [L.3-2]. [L.1-0] ← C
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
C,mema.b*
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
C ← mema.b
C,[email protected]
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
C ← memb.7-2 + [L.3-2] . [L.1-0]
0
1
0
0
a5
a4
a3
a2
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
mema.b,C
@H+DA.b,C
C,@H+DA.b
Second Byte
*
5-64
Cycles
mema.b,C
@H+DA.b,C
Description:
Bytes
mema.b
H + [DA.3-0].b ← (C)
C ← [H + DA.3-0].b
Bit Addresses
1
0
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FB0H-FBFH
1
1
b1
b0
a3
a2
a1
a0
FF0H-FFFH
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
LDB — Load Bit
LDB
(Continued)
Examples:
1.
The carry flag is set and the data value at input pin P1.0 is logic zero. The following instruction
clears the carry flag to logic zero.
LDB
2.
The P1 address is FF1H and the L register contains the value 9H (1001B). The address
(memb.7-2) is 111100B and (L.3-2) is 10B. The resulting address is 11110010B or FF2H and P2
is addressed. The bit value (L.1-0) is specified as 01B (bit 1).
LD
LDB
3.
; C ← FLAG (20H.3)
; C ← "1"
; P2.0 ← "1"
P2.0,C
; C ← "1"
L,#9H
[email protected],C
; [email protected] specifies P2.1
; P2.1 ← "1"
In this example, H = 2H and FLAG = 20H.3 and the address 20H is specified. Since the bit
value is 3, @H+FLAG = 20H.3:
FLAG
RCF
LD
LDB
NOTE:
EQU
20H.3
H,#2H
C,@H+FLAG
The P1 address is FF1H and L = 9H (1001B). The address (memb.7-2) is 111100B and (L.3-2)
is 10B. The resulting address, 11110010B specifies P2. The bit value (L.1-0) is specified as 01B
(bit 1). Therefore, [email protected] = P2.1.
SCF
LD
LDB
6.
; [email protected] specifies P2.1 and C ← P2.1
The following instruction sequence sets the carry flag and the loads the "1" data value to the
output pin P2.0, setting it to output mode:
SCF
LDB
5.
L,#9H
CO,[email protected]
The H register contains the value 2H and FLAG = 20H.3. The address for H is 0010B and for
FLAG(3-0) the address is 0000B. The resulting address is 00100000B or 20H. The bit value is 3.
Therefore, @H+FLAG = 20H.3.
FLAG
LD
LDB
4.
C,P1.0
EQU
20H.3
; C ← "0"
H,#2H
@H+FLAG,C
; FLAG(20H.3) ← "0"
Port pin names used in examples 4 and 5 may vary with different SAM48 devices.
5-65
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LDC — Load Code Byte
LDC
Operation:
Description:
dst,src
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
EA,@WX
Load code byte from WX to EA
1
3
EA,@EA
Load code byte from EA to EA
1
3
This instruction is used to load a byte from program memory into an extended accumulator. The
address of the byte fetched is the six highest bit values in the program counter and the contents of
an 8-bit working register (either WX or EA). The contents of the source are unaffected.
Operand
Examples:
Bytes
Binary Code
Operation Notation
EA,@WX
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
EA ← [PC13-8 + (WX)]
EA,@EA
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
EA ← [PC13-8 + (EA)]
1. The following instructions will load one of four values defined by the define byte (DB)
to the extended accumulator:
LD
CALL
JPS
EA,#00H
DISPLAY
MAIN
ORG
0500H
DB
DB
DB
DB
DISPLAY
RET
66H
77H
88H
99H
LDC
directive
EA,@EA ; EA ← address 0500H = 66H
If the instruction 'LD EA,#01H' is executed in place of 'LD EA,#00H', The content of 0501H
(77H) is loaded to the EA register. If 'LD EA,#02H' is executed, the content of address 0502H
(88H) is loaded to EA.
5-66
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
LDC — Load Code Byte
LDC
(Continued)
Examples:
2. The following instructions will load one of four values defined by the define byte (DB) directive to
the extended accumulator:
ORG
0500H
DB
DB
DB
DB
DISPLAY
LDC
RET
66H
77H
88H
99H
LD
WX,#00H
EA,@WX
; EA ← address 0500H = 66H
If the instruction 'LD WX,#01H' is executed in place of 'LD WX,#00H', then
EA ← address 0501H = 77H.
If the instruction 'LD WX,#02H' is executed in place of 'LD WX,#00H', then
EA ← address 0502H = 88H.
3.
4.
Normally, the LDC EA, @EA and the LDC EA, @WX instructions reference the table data
on the page on which the instruction is located. If, however, the instruction is located at
address xxFFH, it will reference table data on the next page. In this example, the upper 4 bits
of the address at location 0200H is loaded into register E and the lower 4 bits into register A:
ORG
01FDH
01FDH
01FFH
LD
LDC
WX,#00H
EA,@WX ; E ← upper 4 bits of 0200H address
; A ← lower 4 bits of 0200H address
Here is another example of page referencing with the LDC instruction:
ORG
0100H
DB
SMB
LD
LD
LDC
67H
0
HL,#30H
WX,#00H
EA,@WX
LD
@HL,EA
; Even number
; E ← upper 4 bits of 0100H address
; A ← lower 4 bits of 0100H address
; RAM (30H) ← 7, RAM (31H) ← 6
5-67
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LDD — Load Data Memory and Decrement
LDD
Operation:
dst
Operand
A,@HL
Description:
Operation Summary
Load indirect data memory contents to A; decrement
register L contents and skip on borrow
Cycles
1
2+S
The contents of a data memory location are loaded into the accumulator, and the contents of the
register L are decreased by one. If a "borrow" occurs (e.g., if the resulting value in register L is 0FH),
the next instruction is skipped. The contents of data memory and the carry flag value are not
affected.
Operand
A,@HL
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
1
0
0
0
1
Operation Notation
0
1
1
A ← (HL), then L ← L-1;
skip if L = 0FH
In this example, assume that register pair HL contains 20H and internal RAM location 20H contains
the value 0FH:
LD
LDD
JPS
JPS
HL,#20H
A,@HL
XXX
YYY
; A ← (HL) and L ← L-1
; Skip
; H ← 2H and L ← 0FH
The instruction 'JPS XXX' is skipped since a "borrow" occurred after the 'LDD A,@HL' and
instruction 'JPS YYY' is executed.
5-68
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
LDI — Load Data Memory and Increment
LDI
Operation:
dst,src
Operand
A,@HL
Description:
Operation Summary
Load indirect data memory to A; increment register L
contents and skip on overflow
Cycles
1
2+S
The contents of a data memory location are loaded into the accumulator, and the contents of the
register L are incremented by one. If an overflow occurs (e.g., if the resulting value in register L is
0H), the next instruction is skipped. The contents of data memory and the carry flag value are not
affected.
Operand
A,@HL
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
1
0
0
0
1
Operation Notation
0
1
0
A ← (HL), then L ← L+1;
skip if L = 0H
Assume that register pair HL contains the address 2FH and internal RAM location 2FH contains the
value 0FH:
LD
LDI
JPS
JPS
HL,#2FH
A,@HL
XXX
YYY
; A ← (HL) and L ← L+1
; Skip
; H ← 2H and L ← 0H
The instruction 'JPS XXX' is skipped since an overflow occurred after the 'LDI A,@HL' and the
instruction 'JPS YYY' is executed.
5-69
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
NOP — No Operation
NOP
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
No operation
Bytes
Cycles
1
1
No operation is performed by a NOP instruction. It is typically used for timing delays.
One NOP causes a 1-cycle delay: with a 1 µs cycle time, five NOPs would therefore cause a 5 µs
delay. Program execution continues with the instruction immediately following the NOP. Only the
PC is affected. At least three NOP instructions should follow a STOP or IDLE instruction.
Operand
–
Example:
1
0
1
0
0
Operation Notation
0
0
0
No operation
Three NOP instructions follow the STOP instruction to provide a short interval for clock stabilization
before power-down mode is initiated:
STOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
5-70
Binary Code
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
OR — Logical OR
OR
Operation:
Description:
dst,src
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
A, #im
Logical-OR immediate data to A
2
2
A, @HL
Logical-OR indirect data memory contents to A
1
1
EA,RR
Logical-OR double register to EA
2
2
RRb,EA
Logical-OR EA to double register
2
2
The source operand is logically ORed with the destination operand. The result is stored in the
destination. The contents of the source are unaffected.
Operand
A, #im
Binary Code
Operation Notation
A ← A OR im
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
d3
d2
d1
d0
A, @HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
A ← A OR (HL)
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA OR RR
0
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
r2
r1
0
RRb,EA
Example:
Bytes
RRb ← RRb OR EA
If the accumulator contains the value 0C3H (11000011B) and register pair HL the value 55H
(01010101B), the instruction
OR
EA,@HL
leaves the value 0D7H (11010111B) in the accumulator .
5-71
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
POP — POP From Stack
POP
Operation:
Description:
dst
Operand
Operation Summary
Pop to register pair from stack
1
1
SB
Pop SMB and SRB values from stack
2
2
The contents of the RAM location addressed by the stack pointer is read, and the SP is
incremented by two. The value read is then transferred to the variable indicated by the destination
operand.
Binary Code
Operation Notation
RR
0
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
0
RRL ← (SP), RRH ← (SP+1)
SP ← SP+2
SB
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
(SRB) ← (SP), SMB ← (SP+1),
SP ← SP+2
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
The SP value is equal to 0EDH, and RAM locations 0EFH through 0EDH contain the values 2H, 3H,
and 4H, respectively. The instruction
POP
HL
leaves the stack pointer set to 0EFH and the data pointer pair HL set to 34H.
5-72
Cycles
RR
Operand
Example:
Bytes
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
PUSH — PUSH onto Stack
PUSH
Operation:
Description:
src
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
RR
Push register pair onto stack
1
1
SB
Push SMB and SRB values onto stack
2
2
The SP is then decreased by two and the contents of the source operand are copied into the RAM
location addressed by the stack pointer, thereby adding a new element to the top of the stack.
Operand
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
Operation Notation
RR
0
0
1
0
1
r2
r1
1
(SP-1) ← RRH, (SP-2) ← RRL
SP ← SP-2
SB
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
(SP-1) ← SMB, (SP-2) ← SRB;
(SP) ← SP-2
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
As an interrupt service routine begins, the stack pointer contains the value 0FAH and the data
pointer register pair HL contains the value 20H. The instruction
PUSH
HL
leaves the stack pointer set to 0F8H and stores the values 2H and 0H in RAM locations 0F9H and
0F8H, respectively.
5-73
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
RCF — Reset Carry Flag
RCF
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
Reset carry flag to logic zero
–
Binary Code
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
Operation Notation
1
1
0
Assuming the carry flag is set to logic one, the instruction
RCF
resets (clears) the carry flag to logic zero.
5-74
Cycles
The carry flag is cleared to logic zero, regardless of its previous value.
Operand
Example:
Bytes
C←0
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
REF — Reference Instruction
REF
dst
Operation:
Operand
memc
NOTE:
Description:
Operation Summary
Reference code
Bytes
Cycles
1
1(note)
The instruction referenced by REF determines instruction cycles.
The REF instruction is used to rewrite into 1-byte form, arbitrary 2-byte or 3-byte instructions (or two
1-byte instructions) stored in the REF instruction reference area in program memory. REF reduces
the number of program memory accesses for a program.
Operand
memc
Binary Code
t7
t6
t5
t4
t3
Operation Notation
t2
t1
t0
PC13-0 ← memc5-0 + (memc+1).7-0
TJP and TCALL are 2-byte pseudo-instructions that are used only to specify the reference area:
1.
When the reference area is specified by the TJP instruction,
memc.7-6 = 00
PC13-0 ← memc.5-0 + (memc+1).7-0
2.
When the reference area is specified by the TCALL instruction,
memc.7-6 = 01
[(SP-1) (SP-2)] ← EMB, ERB
[(SP-3) (SP-4)] ← PC7-0
[(SP-5) (SP-6)] ← PC13-8
SP ← SP-6
PC-0 ← memc.5-0 + (memc+1).7-0
When the reference area is specified by any other instruction, the 'memc' and 'memc + 1'
instructions are executed.
Instructions referenced by REF occupy 2 bytes of memory space (for two 1-byte instructions or one
2-byte instruction) and must be written as an even number from 0020H to 007FH in ROM. In
addition, the destination address of the TJP and TCALL instructions must be located with the
3FFFH address. TJP and TCALL are reference instructions for JP/JPS and CALL/CALLS.
If the instruction following a REF is subject to the 'redundancy effect', the redundant instruction is
skipped. If, however, the REF follows a redundant instruction, it is executed.
On the other hand, the binary code of a REF instruction is 1 byte. The upper 4 bits become the
higher address bits of the referenced instruction, and the lower 4 bits of the referenced instruction
becomes the lower address, producing a total of 8 bits or 1 byte (see Example 3 below).
NOTE:
If the MSB value of the first one-byte binary code in instruction is “0”, the instruction cannot be referenced by a REF
instruction.
5-75
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
REF — Reference Instruction
REF
(Continued)
Examples:
1.
Instructions can be executed efficiently using REF, as shown in the following example:
ORG
AAA
BBB
CCC
DDD
2.
LD
HL,#00H
LD
EA,#FFH
TCALL
SUB1
TJP
SUB2
•
•
•
ORG 0080H
REF
AAA
REF
BBB
REF
CCC
REF
DDD
;
;
;
;
LD
LD
CALL
JP
HL,#00H
EA,#FFH
SUB1
SUB2
The following example shows how the REF instruction is executed in relation to LD
instructions that have a 'redundancy effect':
AAA
5-76
0020H
ORG
0020H
LD
•
•
•
ORG
LD
REF
•
•
•
REF
LD
SRB
EA,#40H
0100H
EA,#30H
AAA
AAA
EA,#50H
2
;
Not skipped
;
Skipped
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
REF — Reference Instruction
REF
(Concluded)
Examples:
3.
In this example the binary code of 'REF A1' at locations 20H-21H is 20H, for 'REF A2' at
locations 22H-23H, it is 21H, and for 'REF A3' at 24H-25H, the binary code is 22H :
Opcode
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
83
41
01
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
30
31
32
00
03
05
10
26
08
0F
F0
67
0B
0D
Symbol
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
Instruction
ORG
0020H
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
TCALL
TJP
•
•
•
ORG
HL,#00H
HL,#03H
HL,#05H
HL,#10H
HL,#26H
HL,#08H
HL,#0FH
HL,#0F0H
HL,#067H
SUB1
SUB2
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
REF
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
0100H
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
CALL
JP
HL,#00H
HL,#03H
HL,#05H
HL,#10H
HL,#26H
HL,#08H
HL,#0FH
HL,#0F0H
HL,#067H
SUB1
SUB2
5-77
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
RET — Return From Subroutine
RET
Operation:
Operand
Operation Summary
–
Description:
Return from subroutine
Cycles
1
3
RET pops the PC values successively from the stack, incrementing the stack pointer by six.
Program execution continues from the resulting address, generally the instruction immediately
following a CALL or CALLS.
Operand
Binary Code
–
Example:
Bytes
1
1
0
0
0
Operation Notation
1
0
1
PC13-8 ← (SP + 1) (SP)
PC7-0 ← (SP + 3) (SP + 2)
EMB,ERB ← (SP + 4)
SP ← SP + 6
The stack pointer contains the value 0FAH. RAM locations 0FAH, 0FBH, 0FCH, and 0FDH contain
1H, 0H, 5H, and 2H, respectively. The instruction
RET
leaves the stack pointer with the new value of 00H and program execution continues from location
0125H.
During a return from subroutine, PC values are popped from stack locations as follows:
SP →
(0FAH)
SP + 1
(0FBH)
SP + 2
(0FCH)
PC3 – PC0
SP + 3
(0FDH)
PC7 – PC4
SP + 4
(0FEH)
0
0
EMB
ERB
SP + 5
(0FFH)
0
0
0
0
SP + 6
(000H)
5-78
PC11 – PC8
0
0
PC13
PC12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
RRC — Rotate Accumulator Right through Carry
RRC
Operation:
A
Operand
A
Description:
Operation Summary
Rotate right through carry bit
Bytes
Cycles
1
1
The four bits in the accumulator and the carry flag are together rotated one bit to the right. Bit 0
moves into the carry flag and the original carry value moves into the bit 3 accumulator position.
3
0
C
Operand
A
Example:
Binary Code
1
0
0
0
1
Operation Notation
0
0
0
C ← A.0, A3 ← C
A.n-1 ← A.n (n = 1, 2, 3)
The accumulator contains the value 5H (0101B) and the carry flag is cleared to logic zero. The
instruction
RRC
A
leaves the accumulator with the value 2H (0010B) and the carry flag set to logic one.
NOTE
The number of memory bank selected by SMB may change for different devices in the SAM48 product
family.
5-79
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SBC — Subtract With Carry
SBC
dst,src
Operation:
Description:
Operand
Operation Summary
Bytes
Cycles
A,@HL
Subtract indirect data memory from A with carry
1
1
EA,RR
Subtract register pair (RR) from EA with carry
2
2
RRb,EA
Subtract EA from register pair (RRb) with carry
2
2
SBC subtracts the source and carry flag value from the destination operand, leaving the result in the
destination. SBC sets the carry flag if a borrow is needed for the most significant bit; otherwise it
clears the carry flag. The contents of the source are unaffected.
If the carry flag was set before the SBC instruction was executed, a borrow was needed for the
previous step in multiple precision subtraction. In this case, the carry bit is subtracted from the
destination along with the source operand.
Operand
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
C,A ← A - (HL) - C
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
C, EA ← EA -RR - C
1
1
0
0
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
r2
r1
0
1.
2.
C,RRb ← RRb - EA - C
The extended accumulator contains the value 0C3H, register pair HL the value 0AAH, and
the carry flag is set to "1":
SCF
SBC
JPS
EA,HL
XXX
; C ← "1"
; EA ← 0C3H - 0AAH - 1H, C ← "0"
; Jump to XXX; no skip after SBC
If the extended accumulator contains the value 0C3H, register pair HL the value 0AAH, and
the carry flag is cleared to "0":
RCF
SBC
JPS
5-80
Operation Notation
A,@HL
RRb,EA
Examples:
Binary Code
EA,HL
XXX
; C ← "0"
; EA ← 0C3H - 0AAH - 0H = 19H, C ← "0"
; Jump to XXX; no skip after SBC
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
SBC — Subtract with Carry
SBC
(Continued)
Examples:
3.
If SBC A,@HL is followed by an ADS A,#im, the SBC skips on 'no borrow' to the instruction
immediately after the ADS. An 'ADS A,#im' instruction immediately after the 'SBC A,@HL'
instruction does not skip even if an overflow occurs. This function is useful for decimal
adjustment operations.
a.
8 - 6 decimal addition (the contents of the address specified by the HL register is 6H):
RCF
LD
SBC
ADS
JPS
b.
A,#8H
A,@HL
A,#0AH
XXX
;
;
;
;
C ← "0"
A ← 8H
A ← 8H - 6H - C(0) = 2H, C ← "0"
Skip this instruction because no borrow after SBC result
3 - 4 decimal addition (the contents of the address specified by the HL register is 4H):
RCF
LD
SBC
ADS
A,#3H
A,@HL
A,#0AH
JPS
XXX
;
;
;
;
;
;
C ← "0"
A ← 3H
A ← 3H - 4H - C(0) = 0FH, C ← "1"
No skip. A ← 0FH + 0AH = 9H
(The skip function of 'ADS A,#im' is inhibited after a
'SBC A,@HL' instruction even if an overflow occurs.)
5-81
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SBS — Subtract
SBS
dst,src
Operation:
Description:
Operand
Operation Summary
Subtract indirect data memory from A; skip on borrow
1
1+S
EA,RR
Subtract register pair (RR) from EA; skip on borrow
2
2+S
RRb,EA
Subtract EA from register pair (RRb); skip on borrow
2
2+S
The source operand is subtracted from the destination operand and the result is stored in the
destination. The contents of the source are unaffected. A skip is executed if a borrow occurs. The
value of the carry flag is not affected.
Binary Code
Operation Notation
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
A ← A - (HL); skip on borrow
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA - RR; skip on borrow
1
0
1
1
1
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
RRb,EA
1.
2.
RRb ← RRb - EA; skip on borrow
The accumulator contains the value 0C3H, register pair HL contains the value 0C7H, and the
carry flag is cleared to logic zero:
RCF
SBS
EA,HL
JPS
JPS
XXX
YYY
;
;
;
;
;
;
C ← "0"
EA ← 0C3H - 0C7H
SBS instruction skips on borrow,
but carry flag value is not affected
Skip because a borrow occurred
Jump to YYY is executed
The accumulator contains the value 0AFH, register pair HL contains the value 0AAH, and the
carry flag is set to logic one:
SCF
SBS
JPS
5-82
Cycles
A,@HL
Operand
Examples:
Bytes
EA,HL
XXX
;
;
;
;
C ← "1"
EA ← 0AFH - 0AAH
Jump to XXX
JPS was not skipped since no "borrow" occurred after
SBS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
SCF — Set Carry Flag
SCF
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
Set carry flag to logic one
Cycles
1
1
The SCF instruction sets the carry flag to logic one, regardless of its previous value.
Operand
–
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
1
1
1
0
0
Operation Notation
1
1
1
C←1
If the carry flag is cleared to logic zero, the instruction
SCF
sets the carry flag to logic one.
5-83
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SMB — Select Memory Bank
SMB
n
Operation:
Operand
Operation Summary
n
Description:
Select memory bank
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
The SMB instruction sets the upper four bits of a 12-bit data memory address to select a specific
memory bank. The constants 0, 1, and 15 are usually used as the SMB operand to select the
corresponding memory bank. All references to data memory addresses fall within the following
address ranges:
Please note that since data memory spaces differ for various devices in the SAM4 product family,
the 'n' value of the SMB instruction will also vary.
Addresses
Register Areas
000H-01FH
Working registers
020H-0FFH
Stack and general-purpose registers
N00H-NFFH
General-purpose registers
Display registers
F80H-FFFH
I/O-mapped hardware registers
Bank
SMB
0
0
n
n
(n = 1-14)
(n = 1-14)
15
15
The enable memory bank (EMB) flag must always be set to "1" in order for the SMB instruction to
execute successfully for memory bank 0 - 15.
Format
n
Example:
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
d3
d2
d1
d0
SMB ← n
If the EMB flag is set, the instruction
SMB
0
selects the data memory address range for bank 0 (000H-0FFH) as the working memory bank.
NOTES:
1. Number of memory bank selected by SMB may change for different device in the SAM48 product family.
2. After RESET, the SMB value is zero.
5-84
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
SRB — Select Register Bank
SRB
Operation:
n
Operand
n
Description:
Operation Summary
Select register bank
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
The SRB instruction selects one of four register banks in the working register memory area. The
constant value used with SRB is 0, 1, 2, or 3. The following table shows the effect of SRB settings:
ERB Setting
SRB Settings
0
1
NOTE:
Selected Register Bank
3
2
1
0
0
0
x
x
Always set to bank 0
0
0
Bank 0
0
1
Bank 1
1
0
Bank 2
1
1
Bank 3
0
0
'x' = not applicable.
The enable register bank flag (ERB) must always be set for the SRB instruction to execute
successfully for register banks 0, 1, 2, and 3. In addition, if the ERB value is logic zero, register
bank 0 is always selected, regardless of the SRB value.
Operand
n
Example:
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
d1
d0
SRB ← n (n = 0, 1, 2, 3)
If the ERB flag is set, the instruction
SRB
3
selects register bank 3 (018H-01FH) as the working memory register bank.
5-85
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SRET — Return from Subroutine and Skip
SRET
Operation:
Operand
Operation Summary
–
Description:
Return from subroutine and skip
Cycles
1
3+S
SRET is normally used to return to the previously executing procedure at the end of a subroutine
that was initiated by a CALL or CALLS instruction. SRET skips the resulting address, which is
generally the instruction immediately after the point at which the subroutine was called. Then,
program execution continues from the resulting address and the contents of the location addressed
by the stack pointer are popped into the program counter.
Operand
Binary Code
–
Example:
Bytes
1
1
1
0
0
Operation Notation
1
0
1
PC13-8 ← (SP + 1) (SP)
PC7-0 ← (SP + 3) (SP + 2)
EMB,ERB ← (SP + 4)
SP ← SP + 6
If the stack pointer contains the value 0FAH and RAM locations 0FAH, 0FBH, 0FCH, and 0FDH
contain the values 1H, 0H, 5H, and 2H, respectively, the instruction
SRET
leaves the stack pointer with the value 00H and the program returns to continue execution at
location 0125H, then skips unconditionally.
During a return from subroutine, data is popped from the stack to the PC as follows:
SP →
(0FAH)
SP + 1
(0FBH)
SP + 2
(0FCH)
PC3 – PC0
SP + 3
(0FDH)
PC7 – PC4
SP + 4
(0FEH)
0
0
EMB
ERB
SP + 5
(0FFH)
0
0
0
0
SP + 6
(000H)
5-86
PC11 – PC8
0
0
PC13
PC12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
STOP — Stop Operation
STOP
Operation:
Operand
–
Description:
Operation Summary
Engage CPU stop mode
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
The STOP instruction stops the system clock by setting bit 3 of the power control register (PCON)
to logic one. When STOP executes, all system operations are halted with the exception of some
peripheral hardware with special power-down mode operating conditions.
In application programs, a STOP instruction must be immediately followed by at least three NOP
instructions. This ensures an adequate time interval for the clock to stabilize before the next
instruction is executed. If three or more NOP instructions are not used after STOP instruction,
leakage current could be flown because of the floating state in the internal bus.
Operand
–
Example:
Binary Code
Operation Notation
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
PCON.3 ← 1
Given that bit 3 of the PCON register is cleared to logic zero, and all systems are operational, the
instruction sequence
STOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
sets bit 3 of the PCON register to logic one, stopping all controller operations (with the exception of
some peripheral hardware). The three NOP instructions provide the necessary timing delay for clock
stabilization before the next instruction in the program sequence is executed.
5-87
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
VENT — Load EMB, ERB, and Vector Address
VENTn
Operation:
dst
Operand
EMB (0,1)
ERB (0,1)
ADR
Description:
Operation Summary
Load enable memory bank flag (EMB) and the enable
register bank flag (ERB) and program counter to vector
address, then branch to the corresponding location.
Bytes
Cycles
2
2
The VENT instruction loads the contents of the enable memory bank flag (EMB) and enable register
bank flag (ERB) into the respective vector addresses. It then points the interrupt service routine to
the corresponding branching locations. The program counter is loaded automatically with the
respective vector addresses which indicate the starting address of the respective vector interrupt
service routines.
The EMB and ERB flags should be modified using VENT before the vector interrupts are
acknowledged. Then, when an interrupt is generated, the EMB and ERB values of the previous
routine are automatically pushed onto the stack and then popped back when the routine is
completed.
After the return from interrupt (IRET) you do not need to set the EMB and ERB values again.
Instead, use BITR and BITS to clear these values in your program routine.
The starting addresses for vector interrupts and reset operations are pointed to by the VENTn
instruction. These starting addresses must be located in ROM ranges 0000H-3FFFH. Generally, the
VENTn instructions are coded starting at location 0000H.
The format for VENT instructions is as follows:
VENTn
d1,d2,ADDR
EMB ← d1 ("0" or "1")
ERB ← d2 ("0" or "1")
PC ← ADDR (address to branch
n = device-specific module address code (n = 0-n)
Operand
EMB (0,1)
ERB (0,1)
ADR
5-88
Binary Code
E
M
B
E
R
B
a13
a12
a7
a6
a5
a4
Operation Notation
a11 a10
a3
a2
a9
a8
a1
a0
ROM (2 x n) 7-6 → EMB, ERB
ROM (2 x n) 5-4 → PC13, PC12
ROM (2 x n) 3-0 → PC12-8
ROM (2 x n + 1) 7-0 → PC7-0
(n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
VENT — Load EMB, ERB, and Vector Address
VENTn
(Continued)
Example:
The instruction sequence
ORG
VENT0
VENT1
VENT2
VENT3
VENT4
VENT5
VENT6
VENT7
0000H
1,0,RESET
0,1,INTA
0,1,INTB
0,1,INTC
0,1,INTD
0,1,INTE
0,1,INTF
0,1,INTG
causes the program sequence to branch to the RESET routine labeled RESET, setting EMB to "1"
and ERB to "0" when RESET is activated. When a basic timer interrupt is generated, VENT1 causes
the program to branch to the basic timer's interrupt service routine, INTA, and to set the EMB value
to "0" and the ERB value to "1". VENT2 then branches to INTB, VENT3 to INTC, and so on, setting
the appropriate EMB and ERB values.
NOTE:
the
The number of VENTn interrupt names used in the examples above may change for different devices in
SAM48 product family.
5-89
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
XCH — Exchange A or EA with Nibble or Byte
XCH
Operation:
Description:
dst,src
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
A,DA
Exchange A and data memory contents
2
2
A,Ra
Exchange A and register (Ra) contents
1
1
A,@RRa
Exchange A and indirect data memory
1
1
EA,DA
Exchange EA and direct data memory contents
2
2
EA,RRb
Exchange EA and register pair (RRb) contents
2
2
EA,@HL
Exchange EA and indirect data memory contents
2
2
The instruction XCH loads the accumulator with the contents of the indicated destination variable
and writes the original contents of the accumulator to the source.
Operand
A,DA
Binary Code
Operation Notation
A ↔ DA
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
A,Ra
0
1
1
0
1
r2
r1
r0
A ↔ Ra
A,@RRa
0
1
1
1
1
i2
i1
i0
A ↔ (RRa)
EA,DA
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
A ↔ DA,E ↔ DA + 1
a7
a6
a5
a4
a3
a2
a1
a0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
EA,RRb
EA,@HL
Example:
Bytes
EA ↔ RRb
A ↔ (HL), E ↔ (HL + 1)
Double register HL contains the address 20H. The accumulator contains the value 3FH (00111111B)
and internal RAM location 20H the value 75H (01110101B). The instruction
XCH
EA,@HL
leaves RAM location 20H with the value 3FH (00111111B) and the extended accumulator with the
value 75H (01110101B).
5-90
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
XCHD — Exchange and Decrement
XCHD
Operation:
dst,src
Operand
A,@HL
Description:
Operation Summary
Exchange A and data memory contents; decrement
contents of register L and skip on borrow
Cycles
1
2+S
The instruction XCHD exchanges the contents of the accumulator with the RAM location addressed
by register pair HL and then decrements the contents of register L. If the content of register L is
0FH, the next instruction is skipped. The value of the carry flag is not affected.
Operand
A,@HL
Example:
Bytes
Binary Code
0
1
1
1
1
Operation Notation
0
1
1
A ↔ (HL), then L ← L-1;
skip if L = 0FH
Register pair HL contains the address 20H and internal RAM location 20H contains the value 0FH:
LD HL,#20H
LD A,#0H
XCHD
JPS
JPS
YYY
XCHD
•
•
•
A,@HL
XXX
YYY
; A ← 0FH and L ← L - 1, (HL) ← "0"
; Skipped since a borrow occurred
; H ← 2H, L ← 0FH
A,@HL
; (2FH) ← 0FH, A ← (2FH), L ← L - 1 =
0EH
The 'JPS YYY' instruction is executed since a skip occurs after the XCHD instruction.
5-91
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
XCHI — Exchange and Increment
XCHI
Operation:
dst,src
Operand
A,@HL
Description:
Operation Summary
Exchange A and data memory contents; increment
contents of register L and skip on overflow
Cycles
1
2+S
The instruction XCHI exchanges the contents of the accumulator with the RAM location addressed
by register pair HL and then increments the contents of register L. If the content of register L is 0H,
a skip is executed. The value of the carry flag is not affected.
Operand
Binary Code
A,@HL
Example:
Bytes
0
1
1
1
1
Operation Notation
0
1
0
A ↔ (HL), then L ← L+1;
skip if L = 0H
Register pair HL contains the address 2FH and internal RAM location 2FH contains 0FH:
LD
LD
XCHI
JPS
JPS
YYY
HL,#2FH
A,#0H
A,@HL
XXX ;
YYY
XCHI
•
•
•
; A ← 0FH and L ← L + 1 = 0, (HL) ← "0"
Skipped since an overflow occurred
; H ← 2H, L ← 0H
A,@HL
; (20H) ← 0FH, A ← (20H), L ← L + 1 = 1H
The 'JPS YYY' instruction is executed since a skip occurs after the XCHI instruction.
5-92
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SAM48 INSTRUCTION SET
XOR — Logical Exclusive OR
XOR
Operation:
Description:
dst,src
Operand
Operation Summary
Cycles
A,#im
Exclusive-OR immediate data to A
2
2
A,@HL
Exclusive-OR indirect data memory to A
1
1
EA,RR
Exclusive-OR register pair (RR) to EA
2
2
RRb,EA
Exclusive-OR register pair (RRb) to EA
2
2
XOR performs a bitwise logical XOR operation between the source and destination variables and
stores the result in the destination. The source contents are unaffected.
Operand
A,#im
Binary Code
Operation Notation
A ← A XOR im
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
d3
d2
d1
d0
A,@HL
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
A ← A XOR (HL)
EA,RR
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
EA ← EA XOR (RR)
0
0
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
r2
r1
0
RRb,EA
Example:
Bytes
RRb ← RRb XOR EA
If the extended accumulator contains 0C3H (11000011B) and register pair HL contains 55H
(01010101B), the instruction
XOR
EA,HL
leaves the value 96H (10010110B) in the extended accumulator.
5-93
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
6
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 microcontroller has two oscillator circuits: a main-system clock circuit, and a sub-system clock
circuit. The CPU and peripheral hardware operate on the system clock frequency supplied through these circuits.
Specifically, a clock pulse is required by the following peripheral modules:
— LCD controller
— Basic timer
— Timer/counter 0
— Timer/counter 1
— Watch timer
— Clock output circuit
CPU Clock Notation
In this document, the following notation is used for descriptions of the CPU clock:
fx
Main-system clock
fxt Sub-system clock
fxx Selected system clock
Clock Control Registers
When the system clock mode control register SCMOD and the power control register PCON registers are both
cleared to zero after RESET, the normal CPU operating mode is enabled, a main-system clock of fx/64 is selected,
and main-system clock oscillation is initiated.
The power control register, PCON, is used to select normal CPU operating mode or one of two power-down modes
— stop or idle. Bits 3 and 2 of the PCON register can be manipulated by a STOP or IDLE instruction to engage stop
or idle power-down mode.
The system clock mode control register, SCMOD, lets you select the main-system clock (fx) or a sub-system clock
(fxt) as the CPU clock and to start (or stop) main-system clock oscillation. The resulting clock source, either mainsystem clock or sub-system clock, is referred to as the selected system clock (fxx).
The main-system clock is selected and oscillation started when all SCMOD bits are cleared to logic zero. By setting
SCMOD.3 and SCMOD.0 to different values, you can select a sub-system clock source and start or stop mainsystem clock oscillation. To stop main-system clock oscillation, you must use the STOP instruction (assuming the
main-system clock is selected) or manipulate SCMOD.3 to “1” (assuming the sub-system clock is selected).
The main-system clock frequencies can be divided by 4, 8, or 64 and a sub-system clock frequencies can only be
divided by 4. By manipulating PCON bits 1 and 0, you select one of the following frequencies as the CPU Clock,
fx/4, fxt/4, fx/8, fx/64.
6-1
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Using a Sub-system Clock
If a sub-system clock is being used as the selected system clock, the idle power-down mode can be initiated by
executing an IDLE instruction. Since the sub-system clock source cannot be stopped internally, you cannot,
however, use a STOP instruction to enable the stop power-down mode.
The watch timer, buzzer and LCD display operate normally with a sub-system clock source, since they operate at
very low speed (as low as 122 µs at 32.768 kHz) and with very low power consumption.
fx
Main-system
Oscillator
Circuit
fxt
Sub-system
Oscillator
Circuit
Oscillator
Stop
Selector
XIN
Watch Timer
LCD Controller
XOUT
XTIN
XTOUT
fxx
Oscillator
Stop
1/1-1/4096
Basic Timer
Watch Timer
LCD Controller
Clock Output Circuit
Timer/Counter 0/1
Frequency
dividing
Circuit
1/2
1/16
SCMOD.3
Selector
SCMOD.0
fx/1, 2, 16
SCMOD.2
fxt
Selector
1/4
CPU stop signal
(IDLE mode)
PCON.0
PCON.1
Idle
PCON.2
Stop
PCON.3
Oscillator
Control
Circuit
PCON.3, .2 clear
Wait release signal
Internal RESET signal
Power down release signal
fx: Main-system clock
fxt: Sub-system clock
fxx: Selected system clock
Figure 6-1. Clock Circuit Diagram
6-2
CPU Clock
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
MAIN-SYSTEM OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
SUB-SYSTEM OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
XIN
XT IN
XOUT
XT OUT
32.768 kHz
Figure 6-2. Crystal/Ceramic Oscillator
Figure 6-5. Crystal/Ceramic Oscillator
XIN
XT IN
External
Clock
XOUT
Figure 6-3. External Oscillator
XT OUT
Figure 6-6. External Oscillator
XIN
R
XOUT
Figure 6-4. RC Oscillator
6-3
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
POWER CONTROL REGISTER (PCON)
The power control register, PCON, is a 4-bit register that is used to select the CPU clock frequency and to control
CPU operating and power-down modes. PCON can be addressed directly by 4-bit write instructions or indirectly by
the instructions IDLE and STOP.
FB3H
PCON.3
PCON.2
PCON.1
PCON.0
PCON bits 3 and 2 are addressed by the STOP and IDLE instructions, respectively, to engage the idle and stop
power-down modes. Idle and stop modes can be initiated by these instruction despite the current value of the enable
memory bank flag (EMB). PCON bits 1 and 0 are used to select a specific system clock frequency. There are two
basic choices:
— Main-system clock (fx) or sub-system clock (fxt);
— Divided fx/4, 8, 64 or fxt/4 clock frequency.
PCON.1 and PCON.0 settings are also connected with the system clock mode control register, SCMOD. If
SCMOD.0 = "0" the main-system clock is always selected by the PCON.1 and PCON.0 setting; if SCMOD.0 =
"1" the sub-system clock is selected.
RESET sets PCON register values (and SCMOD) to logic zero: SCMOD.3 and SCMOD.0 select the main-system
clock (fx) and start clock oscillation; PCON.1 and PCON.0 divide the selected fx frequency by 64, and PCON.3 and
PCON.2 enable normal CPU operating mode.
Table 6-1. Power Control Register (PCON) Organization
PCON Bit Settings
Resulting CPU Operating Mode
PCON.3
PCON.2
0
0
Normal CPU operating mode
0
1
Idle power-down mode
1
0
Stop power-down mode
PCON Bit Settings
Resulting CPU Clock Frequency
PCON.1
PCON.0
If SCMOD.0 = "0"
If SCMOD.0 = "1"
0
0
fx/64
fxt/4
1
0
fx/8
1
1
fx/4
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Setting the CPU Clock
To set the CPU clock to 0.95 µs at 4.19 MHz:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
6-4
EMB
15
A,#3H
PCON,A
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
INSTRUCTION CYCLE TIMES
The unit of time that equals one machine cycle varies depending on whether the main-system clock (fx) or a subsystem clock (fxt) is used, and on how the oscillator clock signal is divided (by 4, 8, or 64). Table 6-2 shows
corresponding cycle times in microseconds.
Table 6-2. Instruction Cycle Times for CPU Clock Rates
Selected CPU Clock
Resulting Frequency
fx/64
65.5 kHz
fx/8
524.0 kHz
fx/4
1.05 MHz
fxt/4
8.19 kHz
Oscillation Source
Cycle Time (µsec)
15.3
fx = 4.19 MHz
1.91
0.95
fxt = 32.768 kHz
122.0
6-5
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SYSTEM CLOCK MODE REGISTER (SCMOD)
The system clock mode register, SCMOD, is a 4-bit register that is used to select the CPU clock and to control
main and sub-system clock oscillation. The SCMOD is mapped to the RAM address FB7H.
The main clock oscillation is stopped by setting SCMOD.3 when the clock source is subsystem clock and
subsystem clock can be stopped by setting SCMOD.2 when the clock source is main system clock. SCMOD.0,
SCMOD.3 cannot be simultaneously modified.
The subsystem clock is stopped only by setting SCMOD.2, and PCON which revokes stop mode cannot stop the
subsystem clock. The stop of subsystem clock is released by RESET when the selected system clock is main
system clock or subsystem clock and is released by setting SCMOD.2 when the selected system clock is main
system clock.
RESET clears all SCMOD values to logic zero, selecting the main system clock (fx) as the CPU clock and starting
clock oscillation. The reset value of the SCMOD is “0”
SCMOD.0, SCMOD.2, and SCMOD.3 bits can be manipulated by 1-bit write instructions (In other words, SCMOD.0,
SCMOD.2, and SCMOD.3 cannot be modified simultaneously by a 4-bit write).
Bit 1 is always logic zero.
FB7H
SCMOD.3
SCMOD.2
"0"
SCMOD.0
A subsystem clock (fxt) can be selected as the system clock by manipulating the SCMOD.3 and SCMOD.0 bit
settings. If SCMOD.3 = "0" and SCMOD.0 = "1", the subsystem clock is selected and main system clock oscillation
continues. If SCMOD.3 = "1" and SCMOD.0 = "1", fxt is selected, but main system clock oscillation stops.
Even if you have selected fx as the CPU clock, setting SCMOD.3 to "1" will stop main system clock oscillation, and
malfunction may be occured. To operate safely, main system clock should be stopped by a stop instruction is main
system clock mode.
Table 6-3. System Clock Mode Register (SCMOD) Organization
SCMOD Register Bit Settings
SCMOD.3
SCMOD.0
CPU Clock Source
fx Oscillation
0
0
fx
On
0
1
fxt
On
1
1
fxt
Off
SCMOD.2
NOTE:
6-6
Resulting Clock Selection
Sub-oscillation on/off
0
Enable sub system clock
1
Disable sub system clock
You can use SCMOD.2 as follows (ex; after data bank was used, a few minutes have passed):
Main operation → sub-operation → sub-idle (LCD on, after a few minutes later without any external input) → suboperation → main operation → SCMOD.2 = 1 → main stop mode (LCD off).
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
Table 6-4. Main Oscillation Stop Mode
Mode
Main
Oscillation
STOP Mode
Condition
Main oscillator runs.
Sub oscillator runs
(stops).
System clock is the
main oscillation
clock.
Osc Stop Release Source (2)
STOP instruction:
Main oscillator stops.
CPU is in idle mode.
Sub oscillator still runs (stops).
Interrupt and RESET:
After releasing stop mode, main
oscillation starts and oscillation
stabilization time is elapsed. And
then the CPU operates.
Oscillation stabilization time is
1/ {256 x BT clock (fx)}.
When SCMOD.3 is set to “1” (1),
main oscillator stops, halting the
CPU operation.
Sub oscillator still runs (stops).
RESET:
Interrupt can’t start the main
oscillation. Therefore, the CPU
operation can never be restarted.
STOP instruction (1):
Main oscillator stops.
CPU is in idle mode.
Sub oscillator still runs (stops).
Sub oscillator still runs.
BT overflow, interrupt, and RESET:
After the overflow of basic timer
[1/ {256 x BT clock (fxt)}], CPU
operation and main oscillation
automatically start.
When SCMOD.3 is set to “1”,
main oscillator stops.
The CPU, however, would still
operate.
Sub oscillator still runs.
Set SCMOD.3 to “0” or RESET
Main oscillator runs.
Sub oscillator runs.
System clock is the
main oscillation
clock.
When SCMOD.2 to “1”, sub
oscillator stops, while main
oscillator and the CPU would still
operate.
Set SCMOD.2 to “0” or RESET
Main oscillator runs
(stops).
Sub oscillator runs.
System clock is the
sub oscillation clock.
When SCMOD.2 to “1”, sub
oscillator stops, halting the CPU
operation.
Main oscillator still runs (stops).
RESET
Main oscillator runs.
Sub oscillator runs.
System clock is the
sub oscillation clock.
Sub
Oscillation
STOP Mode
Method to issue Osc Stop
NOTES:
1. This mode must not be used.
2. Oscillation stabilization time by interrupt is 1/(256 x BT clocks). Oscillation stabilization time by a reset is
31.3ms at 4.19 MHz, main oscillation clock.
6-7
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SWITCHING THE CPU CLOCK
Together, bit settings in the power control register, PCON, and the system clock mode register, SCMOD, determine
whether a main system or a subsystem clock is selected as the CPU clock, and also how this frequency is to be
divided. This makes it possible to switch dynamically between main and subsystem clocks and to modify operating
frequencies.
SCMOD.3, SCMOD.2, and SCMOD.0 select the main system clock (fx) or a subsystem clock (fxt) and start or stop
main system and sub system clock oscillation. PCON.1 and PCON.0 control the frequency divider circuit, and divide
the selected fx clock by 4, 8, or 64,or fxt clock by 4.
NOTE
A clock switch operation does not go into effect immediately when you make the SCMOD and PCON
register modifications — the previously selected clock continues to run for a certain number of machine
cycles.
For example, you are using the default CPU clock (normal operating mode and a main system clock of fx/64) and
you want to switch from the fx clock to a subsystem clock and to stop the main system clock. To do this, you first
need to set SCMOD.0 to "1". This switches the clock from fx to fxt but allows main system clock oscillation to
continue. Before the switch actually goes into effect, a certain number of machine cycles must elapse. After this
time interval, you can then disable main system clock oscillation by setting SCMOD.3 to "1".
This same 'stepped' approach must be taken to switch from a subsystem clock to the main system clock: first, clear
SCMOD.3 to "0" to enable main system clock oscillation. Then, after a certain number of machine cycles has
elapsed, select the main system clock by clearing all SCMOD values to logic zero.
Following a RESET, CPU operation starts with the lowest main system clock frequency of 15.3 µs at 4.19 MHz after
the standard oscillation stabilization interval of 31.3 ms has elapsed. Table 6-5 details the number of machine cycles
that must elapse before a CPU clock switch modification goes into effect.
Table 6-5. Elapsed Machine Cycles During CPU Clock Switch
AFTER
BEFORE
SCMOD.0 = 0
PCON.1 = 0
PCON.1 = 0
PCON.0 = 0
PCON.1 = 1
PCON.0 = 0
SCMOD.0 = 1
PCON.1 = 1
PCON.0 = 1
N/A
1 MACHINE CYCLE
1 MACHINE CYCLE
N/A
8 MACHINE CYCLES
N/A
1 MACHINE CYCLES
N/A
16 MACHINE CYCLES
1 MACHINE CYCLES
N/A
fx / 4fxt
N/A
N/A
1MACHINE CYCLES
N/A
PCON.0 = 0
SCMOD.0 = 0
PCON.1 = 1
PCON.0 = 0
PCON.1 = 1
PCON.0 = 1
SCMOD.0 = 1
NOTES:
1. Even if oscillation is stopped by setting SCMOD.3 during main system clock operation, the stop mode is not entered.
2. Since the XIN input is connected internally to VSS to avoid current leakage due to the crystal oscillator in stop mode, do
3.
4.
5.
6-8
not set SCMOD.3 to "1" or do not use stop instruction when an external clock is used as the main system clock.
When the system clock is switched to the subsystem clock, it is necessary to disable any interrupts which may occur
during the time intervals shown in Table 6 -5.
'N/A' means 'not available'.
fx: Main-system clock, fxt: Sub-system clock. When fx is 4.19 MHz, and fxt is 32.768 kHz.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
PROGRAMMING TIP — Switching Between Main-system and Sub-system Clock
1. Switch from the main-system clock to the sub-system clock:
MA2SUB
DLY80
DEL1
BITS
CALL
BITS
RET
LD
NOP
NOP
DECS
JR
RET
SCMOD.0
DLY80
SCMOD.3
; Switches to sub-system clock
; Delay 80 machine cycles
; Stop the main-system clock
A,#0FH
A
DEL1
2. Switch from the sub-system clock to the main-system clock:
SUB2MA
BITR
CALL
CALL
BITR
RET
SCMOD.3
DLY80
DLY80
SCMOD.0
; Start main-system clock oscillation
; Delay 80 machine cycles
; Switch to main-system clock
6-9
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
CLOCK OUTPUT MODE REGISTER (CLMOD)
The clock output mode register, CLMOD, is a 4-bit register that is used to enable or disable clock output to the CLO
pin and to select the CPU clock source and frequency. CLMOD is addressable by 4-bit write instructions only.
FD0H
CLMOD.3
"0"
CLMOD.1
CLMOD.0
RESET clears CLMOD to logic zero, which automatically selects the CPU clock as the clock source (without
initiating clock oscillation), and disables clock output.
CLMOD.3 is the enable/disable clock output control bit; CLMOD.1 and CLMOD.0 are used to select one of four
possible clock sources and frequencies: normal CPU clock, fxx/8, fxx/16, or fxx/64.
Table 6-6. Clock Output Mode Register (CLMOD) Organization
CLMOD Bit Settings
Resulting Clock Output
CLMOD.1
CLMOD.0
Clock Source
Frequency
0
0
CPU clock (fx/4, fx/8, fx/64, fxt/4)
1.05MHz,524kHz,65.5kHz or 8.19kHz
0
1
fxx/8
523.8 kHz
1
0
fxx/16
261.9 kHz
1
1
fxx/64
65.5 kHz
CLMOD.3
Result of CLMOD.3 Setting
0
Disable clock output at the CLO pin.
1
Enable clock output at the CLO pin.
NOTES:
1. fx : Main-system clock
2. fxt: Sub-system clock
3. Frequencies assume that fxx, fx = 4,19MHz, and fxt = 32.768kHz
6-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
OSCILLATOR CIRCUITS
CLOCK OUTPUT CIRCUIT
The clock output circuit, used to output clock pulses to the CLO pin, has the following components:
— 4-bit clock output mode register (CLMOD)
— Clock selector
— Port mode flag
— CLO output pin
CLMOD.3
CLO
CLMOD.2
4
CLMOD.1
CLMOD.0
CLOCK
SELECTOR
PM5.3
P5.3 Latch
CLOCKS
(CPU clock, fxx/8, fxx/16, fxx/64)
Figure 6-7. CLO Output Pin Circuit Diagram
CLOCK OUTPUT PROCEDURE
The procedure for outputting clock pulses to the CLO pin may be summarized as follows:
1.
Disable clock output by clearing CLMOD.3 to logic zero.
2.
Set the clock output frequency (CLMOD.1, CLMOD.0).
3.
Load a "0" to the output latch of the CLO pin.
4.
Set the port mode flag to output mode.
5.
Enable clock output by setting CLMOD.3 to logic one.
F
PROGRAMMING TIP — CPU Clock Output to the CLO Pin
To output the CPU clock to the CLO pin:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
BITR
LD
LD
EMB
15
EA,#80H
PMG1,EA
P5.3
A,#8H
CLMOD,A
; P5.3 ? Output mode
; Clear the CLO pin output latch
6-11
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
7
INTERRUPTS
INTERRUPTS
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5’s interrupt control circuit has five functional components:
— Interrupt enable flags (IEx)
— Interrupt request flags (IRQx)
— Interrupt master enable register (IME)
— Interrupt priority register (IPR)
— Power-down release signal circuit
Three kinds of interrupts are supported:
— Internal interrupts generated by on-chip processes
— External interrupts generated by external peripheral devices
— Quasi-interrupts used for edge detection and as clock sources
Table 7-1. Interrupt Types and Corresponding Port Pin(s)
Interrupt Type
Interrupt Name
Corresponding Port Pins
External interrupts
INT0, INT1, INTP0
P4.2, P4.3, P0 (K0–K3)
Internal interrupts
INTB, INTT0, INTT1
Not applicable
Quasi-interrupts
INT2
P6, P7 (KS0–KS7)
INTW
Not applicable
7-1
INTERRUPTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
VECTORED INTERRUPTS
Interrupt requests may be processed as vectored interrupts in hardware, or they can be generated by program
software. A vectored interrupt is generated when the following flags and register settings, corresponding to the
specific interrupt (INTn) are set to logic one:
— Interrupt enable flag (IEx)
— Interrupt master enable flag (IME)
— Interrupt request flag (IRQx)
— Interrupt status flags (IS0, IS1)
— Interrupt priority register (IPR)
If all conditions are satisfied for the execution of a requested service routine, the start address of the interrupt is
loaded into the program counter and the program starts executing the service routine from this address.
EMB and ERB flags for RAM memory banks and registers are stored in the vector address area of the ROM during
interrupt service routines. The flags are stored at the beginning of the program with the VENT instruction. The initial
flag values determine the vectors for resets and interrupts. Enable flag values are saved during the main routine, as
well as during service routines. Any changes that are made to enable flag values during a service routine are not
stored in the vector address.
When an interrupt occurs, the EMB and ERB values before the interrupt is initiated are saved along with the program
status word (PSW), and the EMB and the ERB flag for the interrupt are fetched from the respective vector address.
Then, if necessary, you can modify the enable flags during the interrupt service routine. When the interrupt service
routine is returned to the main routine by the IRET instruction, the original values saved in the stack are restored and
the main program continues program execution with these values.
Software-Generated Interrupts
To generate an interrupt request from software, the program manipulates the appropriate IRQx flag. When the
interrupt request flag value is set, it is retained until all other conditions for the vectored interrupt have been met, and
the service routine can be initiated.
Multiple Interrupts
By manipulating the two interrupt status flags (IS0 and IS1), you can control service routine initialization and thereby
process multiple interrupts simultaneously.
If more than four interrupts are being processed at one time, you can avoid possible loss of working register data by
using the PUSH RR instruction to save register contents to the stack before the service routines are executed in the
same register bank. When the routines have executed successfully, you can restore the register contents from the
stack to working memory by using the POP instruction.
Power-Down Mode Release
An interrupt can be used to release power-down mode (stop or idle). Interrupts for power-down mode release are
initiated by setting the corresponding interrupt enable flag. Even if the IME flag is cleared to zero, power-down mode
will be released by an interrupt request signal when the interrupt enable flag has been set. In such cases, the
interrupt routine will not be executed since IME = "0".
7-2
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INTERRUPTS
Interrupt is generated (INT xx)
Request flag (IRQx)
1
IEx = 1?
No
Retain value until IEx = 1
Generate corresponding vector interrupt
and release power-down mode
IME = 1?
Yes
No
Retain value until IME = 1
Yes
IS1, 0 = 0, 0?
Retain value until interrupt
service routine is completed
No
IS1, 0 = 0, 1?
No
Yes
High-priority interrupt ?
No
Yes
IS1, 0 = 1, 0
IS1, 0 = 1, 0
Store contents of PC and PSW in the stack area and the contents of
PC are set by the contents to corresponding vector address
The corresponding IRQx is automatically reset
Jump to interrupt start address
Figure 7-1. Interrupt Execution Flowchart
7-3
INTERRUPTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IMOD0
IE2
IEW
IET1 IET0 IEP0
IE1
IMOD1
INTB
INT0
INT1
IRQB
@
IRQ0
@
IRQ1
K0-K6
IRQP0
INTT0
IRQT0
INTT1
IRQT1
INTW
IRQW
IRQ2
KS0-KS7
Selector
IMOD2
Power-Down
Mode
Release Signal
IME
IPR
Interrupt Control Unit
IS1 IS0
@ = Edge Detection Circuit
Vector Interrupt
Generator
Figure 7-2. Interrupt Control Circuit Diagram
7-4
IE0
IEB
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INTERRUPTS
MULTIPLE INTERRUPTS
The interrupt controller can serve multiple interrupts in two ways: as two-level interrupts, where either all interrupt
requests or only those of highest priority are serviced, or as multi-level interrupts, when the interrupt service routine
for a lower-priority request is accepted during the execution of a higher priority routine.
Two-Level Interrupt Handling
Two-level interrupt handling is the standard method for processing multiple interrupts. When the IS1 and IS0 bits of
the PSW (FB0H.3 and FB0H.2, respectively) are both logic zero, program execution mode is normal and all interrupt
requests are serviced (see Figure 7-3).
Whenever an interrupt request is accepted, IS1 and IS0 are incremented by one, and the values are stored in the
stack along with the other PSW bits. After the interrupt routine has been serviced, the modified IS1 and IS0 values
are automatically restored from the stack by an IRET instruction.
IS0 and IS1 can be manipulated directly by 1-bit write instructions, regardless of the current value of the enable
memory bank flag (EMB). Before you can modify an interrupt service flag, however, you must first disable interrupt
processing with a DI instruction.
When IS1 = "0" and IS0 = "1", all interrupt service routines are inhibited except for the highest priority interrupt
currently defined by the interrupt priority register (IPR).
Normal Program
Processing
(Status 0)
High or Low Level
Interrupt Processing
(Status 1)
High Level Interrupt
Processing
(Status 2)
INT Disable
Set IPR
INT Enable
Low or
High Level
Interrupt
Generated
High Level
Interrupt
Generated
Figure 7-3. Two-Level Interrupt Handling
7-5
INTERRUPTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Multi-Level Interrupt Handling
With multi-level interrupt handling, a lower-priority interrupt request can be executed while a high-priority interrupt is
being serviced. This is done by manipulating the interrupt status flags, IS0 and IS1 (see Table 7-2).
When an interrupt is requested during normal program execution, interrupt status flags IS0 and IS1 are set to "1"
and "0", respectively. This setting allows only highest-priority interrupts to be serviced. When a high-priority request
is accepted, both interrupt status flags are then cleared to "0" by software so that a request of any priority level can
be serviced. In this way, the high- and low-priority requests can be serviced in parallel (see Figure 7-4).
Table 7-2. IS1 and IS0 Bit Manipulation for Multi-Level Interrupt Handling
Process Status
Before INT
IS1
IS0
0
0
0
1
0
2
–
Effect of ISx Bit Setting
IS1
IS0
All interrupt requests are serviced.
0
1
1
Only high-priority interrupts as determined by the
current settings in the IPR register are serviced.
1
0
1
0
No additional interrupt requests will be serviced.
–
–
1
1
Value undefined
–
–
Normal Program
Processing
(Status 0)
INT Disable
Set IPR
INT Enable
Low or
High Level
Interrupt
Generated
Single
Interrupt
INT Disable
Status 1
Modify Status
INT Enable
Status 0
2-Level
Interrupt
High Level
Interrupt
Generated
Low or
High Level
Interrupt
Generated
Status 0
Figure 7-4. Multi-Level Interrupt Handling
7-6
After INT ACK
Status 1
3-Level
Interrupt
Status 2
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INTERRUPTS
INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER (IPR)
The 4-bit interrupt priority register (IPR) is used to control multi-level interrupt handling and its reset value is logic
zero. Before the IPR can be modified by 4-bit write instructions, all interrupts must first be disabled by a DI
instruction.
FB2H
IME
IPR.2
IPR.1
IPR.0
By manipulating the IPR settings, you can choose to process all interrupt requests with the same priority level, or
you can select one type of interrupt for high-priority processing. A low-priority interrupt can itself be interrupted by a
high-priority interrupt, but not by another low-priority interrupt. A high-priority interrupt cannot be interrupted by any
other interrupt source.
Table 7-3. Standard Interrupt Priorities
Interrupt
Default Priority
INTB
1
INT0
2
INT1
3
INTP0
4
INTT0
5
INTT1
6
The MSB of the IPR, the interrupt master enable flag (IME), enables and disables all interrupt processing. Even if an
interrupt request flag and its corresponding enable flag are set, a service routine cannot be executed until the IME
flag is set to logic one. The IME flag can be directly manipulated by EI and DI instructions, regardless of the current
enable memory bank (EMB) value.
Table 7-4. Interrupt Priority Register Settings
IPR.2
IPR.1
IPR.0
0
0
0
Normal interrupt handling according to default priority settings.
0
0
1
Process INTB interrupt at highest priority
0
1
0
Process INT0 interrupt at highest priority
0
1
1
Process INT1 interrupt at highest priority
1
0
0
Process INTP0 interrupt at highest priority
1
0
1
Process INTT0 interrupt at highest priority
1
1
0
Process INTT1 interrupt at highest priority
1
1
1
N/A
NOTE:
Result of IPR Bit Setting
During normal interrupt processing, interrupts are processed in the order in which they occur. If two or more
interrupt requests are received simultaneously, the priority level is determined according to the standard interrupt
priorities in Table 7-3 (the default priority assigned by hardware when the lower three IPR bits = "0"). In this case,
the higher-priority interrupt request is serviced and the other interrupt is inhibited. Then, when the high-priority
interrupt is returned from its service routine by an IRET instruction, the inhibited service routine is started.
7-7
INTERRUPTS
F
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PROGRAMMING TIP — Setting The INT Interrupt Priority
The following instruction sequence sets the INT1 interrupt to high priority:
BITS
SMB
DI
LD
LD
EI
EMB
15
; IPR.3 (IME) ← 0
A,#3H
IPR,A
; IPR.3 (IME) ← 1
EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 0 and 1 MODE REGISTERS (IMOD0, IMOD1)
The following components are used to process external interrupts at the INT0 and INT1 pin:
— Edge detection circuit
— Two mode registers, IMOD0 and IMOD1
The mode registers are used to control the triggering edge of the input signal. IMOD0 and IMOD1 settings let you
choose either the rising or falling edge of the incoming signal as the interrupt request trigger.
FB4H
"0"
"0"
IMOD0.1
IMOD0.0
FB5H
"0"
"0"
IMOD1.1
IMOD1.0
IMOD0 and IMOD1 are addressable by 4-bit write instructions. RESET clears all IMOD values to logic zero,
selecting rising edges as the trigger for incoming interrupt requests.
Table 7-5. IMOD0 and IMOD1 Register Organization
IMODx
NOTE:
7-8
"0"
"x" means "0" or "1"
"0"
IMODx.1
IMODx.0
Effect of IMOD Settings
0
0
Rising edge detection
0
1
Falling edge detection
1
0
Both rising and falling edge detection
1
1
IRQ0 flag cannot be set to "1"
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INTERRUPTS
EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 0 AND 1 MODE REGISTERS (Continued)
— You can use INT0/INT1 to release power-down mode
INTx
EDGE Detection
IRQx
IMODx
NOTE:
"x" is "0" or "1"
Figure 7-5. Circuit Diagram for INT0 and INT1 Pins
When modifying the IMOD0 and IMOD1 registers, it is possible to accidentally set an interrupt request flag. To avoid
unwanted interrupts, take these precautions when writing your programs:
1.
Disable all interrupts with a DI instruction.
2.
Modify the IMOD0 or IMOD1 register.
3.
Clear all relevant interrupt request flags.
4.
Enable the interrupt by setting the appropriate IEx flag.
5.
Enable all interrupts with an EI instruction.
NOTE:
INT0 and INT1 are same in the function.
7-9
INTERRUPTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 2 MODE REGISTER (IMOD2)
To generate a key interrupt on a falling edge at KS0-KS7, all KS0-KS7 pins must be configured to input mode.
IMOD2 is write-only register that can be written by 4-bit RAM control instruction only. It is mapped to the RAM
address FB6H and the reset value of IMOD2 is 0.
FB6H
"0"
IMOD2.2
IMOD2.1
IMOD2.0
When a falling edge in any one of KS0-KS7 pins is detected, IRQ2 is set and the release signal of power down mode
is generated. INT2, however, does not generate a vector interrupt. Among the pins which were selected as key
interrupt, one or more pins which are in input low or output low don't execute a key interrupt function.
Table 7-6. IMOD2 Register Bit Settings
IMOD2
0
P6.0/KS0
P6.1/KS1
P6.2/KS2
P6.3/KS3
P6.4/KS4
IMOD2.2
IMOD2.1
IMOD2.0
0
0
0
Select falling edge of KS0–KS3
0
0
1
Select falling edge of KS0–KS4
0
1
0
Select falling edge of KS0–KS5
0
1
1
Select falling edge of KS0–KS6
1
0
0
Select falling edge of KS0–KS7
A
B
MUX
C
D S0 S1
Effect of IMOD2 Settings
A
MUX
B
P6.5/KS5
S
Falling
Edge
Detection
Circuit
P6.6/KS6
P6.7/KS7
IRQ2
IMOD2.1
IMOD2.0
IMOD2.2
Figure 7-6. Circuit Diagram for INT2
7-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F
INTERRUPTS
PROGRAMMING TIP — Using INT2 as a Key Input Interrupt
When the INT2 interrupt is used as a key entry interrupt, the selected key interrupt source pin must be set
to input:
1.
When KS0–KS3 are selected (four pins):
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMB
15
A,#0H
IMOD2,A
EA,#00H
PMG2,EA
A,#40H
PUMOD0,A
; (IMOD2) ← #0H, KS0-KS3 falling edge select
; P6 ← input mode
; Enable P6 pull-up resistors
7-11
INTERRUPTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INTERRUPT FLAGS
There are three types of interrupt flags: interrupt request and interrupt enable flags that correspond to each interrupt,
the interrupt master enable flag, which enables or disables all interrupt processing.
Interrupt Master Enable Flag (IME)
The interrupt master enable flag, IME, enables or disables all interrupt processing. Therefore, even when an IRQx flag
is set and its corresponding IEx flag is enabled, the interrupt service routine is not executed until the IME flag is set
to logic one.
The IME flag is located in the IPR register (IPR.3). It can be directly be manipulated by EI and DI instructions,
regardless of the current value of the enable memory bank flag (EMB).
IME
IPR.2
IPR.1
IPR.0
Effect of Bit Settings
0
Inhibit all interrupts
1
Enable all interrupts
Interrupt Enable Flags (IEx)
IEx flags, when set to logical one, enable specific interrupt requests to be serviced. When the interrupt request flag
is set to logical one, an interrupt will not be serviced until its corresponding IEx flag is also enabled.
Interrupt enable flags can be read, written, or tested directly by 1-bit instructions. IEx flags can be addressed directly
at their specific RAM addresses, despite the current value of the enable memory bank (EMB) flag.
Table 7-7. Interrupt Enable and Interrupt Request Flag Addresses
Address
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
FB8H
"U"
"U"
IEB
IRQB
FBAH
"U"
"U"
IEW
IRQW
FBBH
"U"
"U"
IET1
IRQT1
FBCH
"U"
"U"
IET0
IRQT0
FBDH
"U"
"U"
IEP0
IRQP0
FBEH
IE1
IRQ1
IE0
IRQ0
FBFH
"U"
"U"
IE2
IRQ2
NOTES:
1. IEx refers to all interrupt enable flags.
2. IRQx refers to all interrupt request flags.
3. IEx = 0 is interrupt disable mode.
4. IEx = 1 is interrupt enable mode.
7-12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
INTERRUPTS
Interrupt Request Flags (IRQx)
Interrupt request flags are read/write addressable by 1-bit or 4-bit instructions. IRQx flags can be addressed directly
at their specific RAM addresses, regardless of the current value of the enable memory bank (EMB) flag.
When a specific IRQx flag is set to logic one, the corresponding interrupt request is generated. The flag is then
automatically cleared to logic zero when the interrupt has been serviced. Exceptions are the watch timer interrupt
request flags, IRQW, and the external interrupt 2 flag IRQ2, which must be cleared by software after the interrupt
service routine has executed. IRQx flags are also used to execute interrupt requests from software. In summary,
follow these guidelines for using IRQx flags:
1.
IRQx is set to request an interrupt when an interrupt meets the set condition for interrupt generation.
2.
IRQx is set to "1" by hardware and then cleared by hardware when the interrupt has been serviced (with the
exception of IRQW and IRQ2).
3.
When IRQx is set to "1" by software, an interrupt is generated.
Table 7-8. Interrupt Request Flag Conditions and Priorities
Interrupt
Source
Internal/
External
INTB
I
INT0
Interrupt
Priority
IRQ Flag
Name
Reference time interval signal from basic timer
1
IRQB
E
Rising or falling edge detected at INT0 pin
2
IRQ0
INT1
E
Rising or falling edge detected at INT1 pin
3
IRQ1
INTP0
E
Falling edge detected at K0–K6 (P0.0-P1.2)
4
IRQP0
INTT0
I
Signals for TCNT0 and TREF0 registers match
5
IRQT0
INTT1
I
Signals for TCNT1 and TREF1 registers match
6
IRQT1
INT2 (note)
E
Falling edge is detected at any of the KS0–KS7 pins
–
IRQ2
INTW
I
Time interval of 0.5 s or 3.19 ms
–
IRQW
NOTE:
Pre-condition for IRQx Flag Setting
Refer to page 7-10, 7-11.
7-13
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
8
POWER-DOWN
POWER-DOWN
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 microcontroller has two power-down modes to reduce power consumption: idle and stop. Idle mode is
initiated by the IDLE instruction and stop mode by the instruction STOP. (Several NOP instructions must always
follow an IDLE or STOP instruction in a program.) In idle mode, the CPU clock stops while peripherals and the
oscillation source continue to operate normally.
When RESET occurs during normal operation or during a power-down mode, a reset operation is initiated and the
CPU enters idle mode. When the standard oscillation stabilization time interval (31.3 ms at 4.19 MHz) has elapsed,
normal CPU operation resumes.
In stop mode, main-system clock oscillation is halted (assuming it is currently operating), and peripheral hardware
components are powered-down. The effect of stop mode on specific peripheral hardware components — CPU, basic
timer, serial I/O, timer/ counters 0 and 1, watch timer, and LCD controller — and on external interrupt requests, is
detailed in Table 8–1.
Idle or stop modes are terminated either by a RESET, or by an interrupt which is enabled by the corresponding
interrupt enable flag, IEx. When power-down mode is terminated by RESET, a normal reset operation is executed.
Assuming that both the interrupt enable flag and the interrupt request flag are set to "1", power-down mode is
released immediately upon entering power-down mode.
When an interrupt is used to release power-down mode, the operation differs depending on the value of the interrupt
master enable flag (IME):
— If the IME flag = “0”; If the power down mode release signal is generated, after releasing the power-down mode,
program execution starts immediately under the instruction to enter power down mode without execution of
interrupt service routine. The interrupt request flag remains set to logic one.
— If the IME flag = “1”; If the power down mode release signal is generated, after releasing the power down mode,
two instructions following the instruction to enter power down mode are executed first and the interrupt service
routine is executed, finally program is resumed.
However, when the release signal is caused by INT2 or INTW, the operation is identical to the IME = “0”
condition because INT2 and INTW are a quasi-interrupt.
NOTE
Do not use stop mode if you are using an external clock source because XIN input must be restricted
internally to VSS to reduce current leakage.
8-1
POWER-DOWN
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 8-1. Hardware Operation During Power-Down Modes
Operation
Stop Mode
Idle Mode
Instruction
STOP
System clock status
STOP mode can be used only if the main-system IDLE mode can be used if the mainclock is selected as system clock (CPU clock)
system clock or sub-system clock is
selected as system clock (CPU
clock)
Clock oscillator
Main-system clock oscillation stops
Only CPU clock oscillation stops
(main and sub-system clock
oscillation continues)
Basic timer
Basic timer stops
Basic timer operates (with IRQB set
at each reference interval)
Timer/counter 0
Operates only if TCL0 is selected as the counter
clock
Timer/counter 0 operates
Timer/counter1
Timer/counter1 stops
Timer/counter 1 operates
Watch timer
Operates only if sub-system clock (fxt) is
selected as the counter clock
Watch timer operates
LCD controller
Operates only if a sub-system clock is selected
as LCDCK
LCD controller operates
External interrupts
INT0,INT1,INT2 and INTP0 are acknowledged.
INT0, INT1, INT2 and INTP0 are
acknowledged.
CPU
All CPU operations are disabled
All CPU operations are disabled
Mode release signal
Interrupt request signals are enable by an
interrupt enable flag or by RESET input.
Interrupt request signals are enable by
an interrupt enable flag or by RESET
input.
8-2
IDLE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
POWER-DOWN
Table 8-2. System Operating Mode Comparison
Mode
Condition
STOP/IDLE Mode Start Method
Current Consumption
–
A
Main operating
mode
Main oscillator runs.
Sub oscillator runs
System clock is the main
oscillation clock.
Main Idle mode
Main oscillator runs.
Sub oscillator runs
System clock is the main
oscillation clock.
IDLE instruction
B
Main Stop mode
Main oscillator runs.
Sub oscillator runs.
System clock is the main
oscillation clock.
STOP instruction
D
Sub operating
mode
Main oscillator is stopped by
SCMOD.3.
Sub oscillator runs.
System clock is the sub
oscillation clock.
–
C
Sub ldle Mode
Main oscillator is stopped by
SCMOD.3.
Sub oscillator runs.
System clock is the sub
oscillation clock.
NOTE:
IDLE instruction
D
The current consumption is: A > B > C > D
8-3
POWER-DOWN
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IDLE MODE TIMING DIAGRAMS
Oscillator
Stabilization Wait Time
(31.3 ms/4.19 MHz)
Idle
Istruction
RESET
Normal Mode
Normal Mode
Normal Mode
Normal Oscillation
Clock
Signal
Figure 8-1. Timing When Idle Mode is Released by RESET
Idle
Istruction
Mode
Release
Signal
Interrupt Acknowledge (IME = 1)
Normal Mode
Clock
Signal
Idle Mode
Normal Mode
Normal Oscillation
Figure 8-2. Timing When Idle Mode is Released by an Interrupt
8-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
POWER-DOWN
STOP MODE TIMING DIAGRAMS
Oscillator
Stabilization Wait Time
(31.3 ms/4.19 MHz)
Stop
Istruction
RESET
Normal Mode
Stop mode
Oscillation
Stops
Clock
Signal
Idle Mode
Normal Mode
Oscillation Resumes
Figure 8-3. Timing When Stop Mode is Released by RESET
Oscillator
Stabilization Wait Time
(BMOD Setting)
Stop
Istruction
Mode
Release
signal
INT Ack(Ime=1)
Normal Mode
Clock
Signal
Stop mode
Oscillation
Stops
Idle Mode
Normal Mode
Oscillation Resumes
Figure 8-4. Timing When Stop Mode is Released by an Interrupt
8-5
POWER-DOWN
F
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PROGRAMMING TIP — Reducing Power Consumption for Key Input Interrupt Processing
The following code shows real-time clock and interrupt processing for key inputs to reduce power consumption. In
this example, the system clock source is switched from the main-system clock to a sub-system clock and the LCD
display is turned on:
KEYCLK
DI
CALL
MA2SUB
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
SMB
BITR
BITR
BITS
BITS
15
EA,#00H
P4,EA
A,#4H
IMOD2,A
0
IRQW
IRQ2
IEW
IE2
CALL
BTSTZ
JR
CALL
WATDIS
IRQ2
CIDLE
SUB2MA
; Main-system clock
→ sub-system clock switch
subroutine
CLKS1
; All key strobe outputs to low level
; Select KS0-KS7 enable
; Execute clock and display changing subroutine
; Sub-system clock → main-system clock switch
subroutine
EI
RET
CIDLE
8-6
IDLE
NOP
NOP
NOP
JPS
; Engage idle mode
CLKS1
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
POWER-DOWN
RECOMMENDED CONNECTIONS FOR UNUSED PINS
To reduce overall power consumption, please configure unused pins according to the guidelines described in Table 83.
Table 8-3. Unused Pin Connections for Reducing Power Consumption
Pin/Share Pin Names
Recommended Connection
P0.0-P0.3/K0-K3
P1.0-P1.2/K4-K6
P4.0/TCL0
P4.1/TCLO0
P5.0-P5.1
P5.2/BUZ
P6.0-P6.3/KS0-KS3/DM0-DM3
P7.0/KS4/DM4
P7.1/KS5/DM5/COM11
P7.2-P7.3/KS6-KS7/COM10-COM11
Input mode: Connect to VDD
Output mode: No connection
P4.2/ INT0-P4.3/INT1
Connect to VDD
SEG0-SEG15/P8.0-P8.15
SEG16-SEG23/D0-D7
SEG24-SEG42/A0-A18
SEG43-SEG44/DR, DW
SEG45-SEG59
COM0-COM11
No connection
TEST
Connect to VSS
8-7
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
9
RESET
RESET
OVERVIEW
When a RESET signal is input during normal operation or power-down mode, a hardware reset operation is initiated
and the CPU enters idle mode. Then, when the standard oscillation stabilization interval of 31.3 ms at
4.19 MHz has elapsed, normal system operation resumes.
Regardless of when the RESET occurs — during normal operating mode or during a power-down mode — most
hardware register values are set to the reset values described in Table 9-1. The current status of several register
values is, however, always retained when a RESET occurs during idle or stop mode; If a RESET occurs during
normal operating mode, their values are undefined. Current values that are retained in this case are as follows:
— Carry flag
— Data memory values
— General-purpose registers E, A, L, H, X, W, Z, and Y
Oscillator
Stabilization Wait Time
(31.3 ms/4.19 MHz)
RESET
Input
Normal Mode or
Power-Down
Mode
Normal Mode
Idle Mode
Normal Mode
RESET Operation
Figure 9-1. Timing for Oscillation Stabilization After RESET
HARDWARE REGISTER VALUES AFTER RESET
Table 9-1 gives you detailed information about hardware register values after a RESET occurs during power-down
mode or during normal operation.
9-1
RESET
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 9-1. Hardware Register Values After RESET
Hardware Component
or Subcomponent
If RESET Occurs During
Power Down Mode
If RESET Occurs
During Normal Operating
Lower six bits of address 0000H
are transferred to PC13–8, and the
contents of 0001H to PC7–0.
Lower six bits of address 0000H
are transferred to PC13–8, and the
contents of 0001H to PC7–0.
Retained
Undefined
Skip flag (SC0-SC2)
0
0
Interrupt status flags (IS0, IS1)
0
0
Bank enable flags (EMB, ERB)
Bit 6 of address 0000H in program
memory is transferred to the ERB
flag, and bit 7 of the address to the
EMB flag.
Bit 6 of address 0000H in program
memory is transferred to the ERB
flag, and bit 7 of the address to the
EMB flag.
Undefined
Undefined
Values retained
Undefined
Values retained (note)
Undefined
15, 0
15, 0
BSC register (BSC0-BSC3)
0
0
Bank1 page select register (PASR)
0
0
Key scan register (KSR0-KSR3)
0
0
Power control register (PCON)
0
0
Clock output mode register (CLMOD)
0
0
System clock mode register (SCMOD)
0
0
Interrupt request flags (IRQx)
0
0
Interrupt enable flags (IEx)
0
0
Interrupt priority flag (IPR)
0
0
Interrupt master enable flag (IME)
0
0
INT0 mode register (IMOD0)
0
0
INT1 mode register (IMOD1)
0
0
INT2 mode register (IMOD2)
0
0
Program counter (PC)
Program Status Word (PSW):
Carry flag (C)
Stack pointer (SP)
Data Memory (RAM):
Registers E, A, L, H, X, W, Z, Y
General-purpose registers
Bank selection registers (SMB, SRB)
Clocks:
Interrupts:
NOTE:
9-2
The values of the 0F8H–0FDH are not retained when a RESET signal is input.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
RESET
Table 9-1. Hardware Register Values After RESET (Continued)
Hardware Component
or Subcomponent
If RESET Occurs During
Power Down Mode
If RESET Occurs
During Normal Operation
Output buffers
Off
Off
Output latches
0
0
Port mode flags (PM)
0
0
Pull-up resistor mode reg (PUMOD0)
0
0
Count register (BCNT)
Undefined
Undefined
Mode register (BMOD)
0
0
A5
A5
0
0
0
0
FFH
FFH
Mode register (TMOD0)
0
0
Output enable flag (TOE0)
0
0
0
0
FFH
FFH
0
0
0
0
0
0
Values retained
Undefined
Off
Off
I/O Ports:
Basic Timer:
Watch-dog Timer:
Watch-dog timer mode selection (WDMOD)
Watch-dog timer counter clear flag(WDFLAG)
Timer/Counter 0:
Count register (TCNT0)
Reference register (TREF0)
Timer/Counter 1:
Count register (TCNT1)
Reference register (TREF1)
Mode register (TMOD1)
Watch Timer:
Watch timer mode register (WMOD)
LCD Driver/Controller:
LCD mode register (LMOD0/1)
Display data memory
Output buffers
9-3
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
10
I/O PORTS
I/O PORTS
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 has 39 I/O Lines. There are total of 16 output pins, 23 configurable I/O pins, for a total number of 39
pins.
Port Mode Flags
Port mode flags (PM) are used to configure I/O ports to input or output mode by setting or clearing the corresponding
I/O buffer. PM flags are stored in one 8-bit, 4-bit register and are addressable by 8-bit, 4-bit write instructions
respectively.
Output Ports 8
Output ports 8 consists of 16 pins that can be used either for LCD segment data output or for normal 1-bit output.
When LCD display is off, P8 can be used to normal output. The value of P8 is determined by KSR0-KSR3 regardless
of LMOD.0. (refer to P12-17)
Pull-up Resistor Mode Register (PUMOD0)
The pull-up resistor mode register (PUMOD0) is 8-bit register used to assign internal pull-up resistors by software to
specific I/O ports.
When a configurable I/O port pin is used as an output pin, its assigned pull-up resistor is automatically disabled,
even though the pin's pull-up is enabled by a corresponding PUMOD0 bit setting.
PUMOD0 is addressable by 8-bit write instructions only. RESET clears PUMOD0 register values to logic zero,
automatically disconnecting all software-assignable port pull-up resistors.
N-channel Open-drain Mode Register (PNE0)
The n-channel open-drain mode register (PNE0) is used to configure outputs as n-channel open-drain outputs or as
push-pull outputs.
10-1
I/O PORTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 10-1. I/O Port Overview
Port
I/O
Pins
Pin Names
Address
0
I/O
4
P0.0-P0.3
(K0 - K3)
FF0H
4-bit I/O port. 1,4, and 8-bit read/write, and test are possible.
1
3
P1.0-P1.2
(K4 - K6)
FF1H
Individual pins can be specified as input or output.
7-bit pull-up resistors are assignable by software.
Pull-up resistors are automatically disabled for output pins.
4
5
4
4
P4.0-P4.3
P5.0-P5.3
FF4H
FF5H
4-bit I/O port.
1, 4, and 8-bit read/write, and test are possible. 4-bit unit pins
are software configurable as input or output.
Individual pins are software configurable as open-drain or
push-pull output.
4-bit pull-up resistors are assignable by software and pull-up
resistors are automatically disabled for output pins.
6
7
4
4
P6.0-P6.3
P7.0-P7.3
FF6H
FF7H
4-bit I/O port. 1,4, and 8-bit read/write, and test are possible.
Individual pins can be specified as input or output.
4-bit pull-up resistors are assignable by software.
Pull-up resistors are automatically disabled for output pins.
16
P8.0-P8.15
FA2HFA5H
4-bit controllable output
8
O
Function Description
Table 10-2. Port Pin Status During Instruction Execution
Instruction Type
Example
Input Mode Status
Output Mode Status
1-bit test
1-bit input
4-bit input
8-bit input
BTST
LDB
LD
LD
P0.1
C,P1.3
A,P6
EA,P4
Input or test data at each pin
Input or test data at output latch
1-bit output
BITR
P4.0
Output latch contents undefined
Output pin status is modified
4-bit output
8-bit output
LD
LD
P5,A
P6,EA
Transfer accumulator data to the
output latch
Transfer accumulator data to the
output pin
10-2
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
I/O PORTS
PORT MODE FLAGS (PM FLAGS)
Port mode flags (PM) are used to configure I/O ports to input or output mode by setting or clearing the corresponding
I/O buffer. PM flags are stored in one 8-bit registers and are addressable by 8-bit write instructions refectively.
For convenient program reference, PM flags are organized into three groups — PMG0, PMG1, and PMG2 as shown
in Table 10-3.
When a PM flag is "0", the port is set to input mode; when it is "1", the port is enabled for output. RESET clears all
port mode flags to logical zero, automatically configuring the corresponding I/O ports to input mode.
Table 10-3. Port Mode Group Flags
PM Group ID
Address
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
PMG0
FEAH
PM 0.3
PM 0.2
PM 0.1
PM 0.0
FEBH
“0”
PM 1.2
PM 1.1
PM 1.0
FECH
PM 4.3
PM 4.2
PM 4.1
PM 4.0
FEDH
PM 5.3
PM 5.2
PM 5.1
PM 5.0
FEEH
PM 6.3
PM 6.2
PM 6.1
PM 6.0
FEEH
PM 7.3
PM 7.2
PM 7.1
PM 7.0
PMG1
PMG2
NOTE:
If bit = "0", the corresponding I/O pin is set to input mode. If bit = "1", the pin is set to output mode. All flags are
cleared to "0" following RESET.
To use INTP0 interrupt, P0 and P1 must be set to external interrupt pins by LMOD.6-LMOD.4, input mode by PMG0
and pull-up resistor enable by PUMOD0.
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Configuring I/O Ports to Input or Output
Configure P4 as an output port:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
EMB
15
EA,#0FH
PMG1,EA
; P4 ← Output
10-3
I/O PORTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PULL-UP RESISTOR MODE REGISTER (PUMOD0)
The pull-up resistor mode register (PUMOD0) is an 8-bit register used to assign internal pull-up resistors by software
to specific I/O ports.
When a configurable I/O port pin is used as an output pin, its assigned pull-up resistor is automatically disabled
even though the pin's pull-up is enabled by a corresponding PUMOD0 bit setting.
RESET clears PUMOD0 register values to logic zero, automatically disconnecting all software-assignable port pull-up
resistors.
Table 10-4. Pull-Up Resistor Mode Register (PUMOD0) Organization
Bit Name
PUMOD0 function
PUMOD0.7
0
Disconnect port 7 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 7 pull-up resistor
0
Disconnect port 6 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 6 pull-up resistor
0
Disconnect port 5 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 5 pull-up resistor
0
Disconnect port 4 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 4 pull-up resistor
PUMOD0.3
0
Always logic zero
PUMOD0.2
0
Always logic zero
PUMOD0.1
0
Always logic zero
PUMOD0.0
0
Disconnect port 0,1 pull-up resistor
1
Connect port 0,1 pull-up resistor
PUMOD0.6
PUMOD0.5
PUMOD0.4
NOTE:
When P0, P1 are used to external interrupt pins, the pull-up resistors of input mode are determined by key strobe
signal (refer to P12-7).
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Enabling and Disabling I/O Port Pull-Up Resistors
P6 enable pull-up resistors.
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
10-4
EMB
15
EA,#40H
PUMOD0,EA
; P6 pull-up resistor enable
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
I/O PORTS
N-channel Open-drain Mode Register (PNE0)
PNE0
Address
Bit3
Bit2
Bit1
Bit0
FE6H
PNE4.3
PNE4.2
PNE4.1
PNE4.0
FE7H
PNE5.3
PNE5.2
PNE5.1
PNE5.0
The n-channel open-drain mode register, PNE0, is used to configure port4 and 5 to n-channel open-drain outputs or
as push-pull outputs. When a bit in the PNE0 register is set to one, the corresponding output pin is configured to nchannel open-drain; when set to ”0", the output pin is configured to push-pull.
The PNE0 register consists of an 8-bit, as shown above. PNE0 can be addressed by 8-bit write instructions only.
10-5
I/O PORTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PORT 0,1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
RE
VDD
RE
PM0.0
VDD
PM0.1
PM0.2
PM0.3
PM1.0
PM1.1
PM1.2
P0.0/K0
P0.1/K1
P0.2/K2
P0.3/K3
P1.0/K4
P1.1/K5
P1.2/K6
Output
Latch
1, 4, 8
A
PM0.0
A
B
PM0.1
M
C U
X Y
D
S0 S1
PM0.2
PM0.3
A
B
RE
Internal
Latch
Y
M
C U
X
D
S0 S1
MUX
A Y
BS
Falling
Edge
Detection
Circuit
IRQP0
PM0.0
PM0.1
PM0.2
LMOD.4
LMOD.6
LMOD.5
RE: Resistor Enable
LE: Latch Enable
RE
LE
NOTES:
1. The pull-up resistor enable(RE) signal is automatically generated and synchronized to LCD segment signals.
2. When a port pin serves as an output, its pull-up resistor is automatically disabled regradless of PUMOD0.
Figure 10-1. Port 0,1 Circuit Diagram
10-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
I/O PORTS
PORT 4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
VDD
PNE4.3
PNE4.2
PNE4.1
PUR4
PNE4.0
PM4.3
PM4.2
PM4.1
PM4.0
P4.0/TCLO
Type A
TCLO0
Type A
P4.1/TCLO0
P4.2/INT0
Type A
P4.3/INT1
Output
Latch
1, 4, 8
Type A
CMOS Push-Pull or
N-Channel Open-Drain
Type A
VDD
PNE4.x
P-Ch
Input
Data
Output
Data
N-Ch
PM4.x
x=0-3
M
PM4.0
PM4.1
TCL0
1, 4, 8
X
PM4.2
PM4.3
U
INT0
INT1
NOTE:
When a port pin serves as an output, its pull-up resistor is automatically disabled, even though the
port's pull-up resistor is enabled by bit settings in the pull-up resistor-mode register (PUMOD0).
Figure 10-2. Port 4 Circuit Diagram
10-7
I/O PORTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PORT 5 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
VDD
PNE5.3
PNE5.2
PNE5.1
PUR5
PNE5.0
PM5.3
PM5.2
PM5.1
PM5.0
P5.0
Type B
P5.1
Type B
BUZ
P5.2/BUZ
Type B
P5.3/CLO
Type B
Output
Latch
1, 4, 8
CLO
CMOS Push-Pull or
N-Channel Open-Drain
Type B
PNE5.x
VDD
P-Ch
Input
Data
Output
Data
N-Ch
PM5.x
x=0-3
PM5.0
M
PM5.1
U
PM5.2
X
1, 4, 8
PM5.3
NOTES:
1. When a port pin serves as an output, its pull-up resistor is automatically disabled, even though the
port's pull-up resistor is enabled by bit settings in the pull-up resistor-mode register (PUMOD0).
2. If this port is set to output ports, the input signal is not transmitted to the MUX.
Figure 10-3. Port 5 Circuit Diagram
10-8
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
I/O PORTS
PORT 6 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
VDD
PUMOD0.6
PM6.3
PM6.2
PM6.1
PM6.0
P6.0/KS0
P6.1/KS1
Output
Latch
1, 4, 8
P6.2/KS2
P6.3/KS3
PM6.0
M
PM6.1
U
PM6.2
1, 4, 8
X
PM6.3
KS3
NOTE:
KS2
KS1
KS0
When a port pin serves as an output, its pull-up resistor is automatically disabled, even though the
port's pull-up resistor is enabled by bit settings in the pull-up resistor-mode register (PUMOD0).
Figure 10-4. Port 6 Circuit Diagram
10-9
I/O PORTS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
PORT 7 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
VDD
PUMOD0.7
PM7.3
PM7.2
PM7.1
PM7.0
P7.0/KS4
P7.1/KS5
Output
Latch
1, 4, 8
P7.2/KS6
P7.3/KS7
PM7.0
M
PM7.1
U
PM7.2
1, 4, 8
X
PM7.3
KS7
NOTE:
KS6
KS5
When a port pin serves as an output, its pull-up resistor is automatically disabled, even though the
port's pull-up resistor is enabled by bit settings in the pull-up resistor-mode register (PUMOD0).
Figure 10-5. Port 7 Circuit Diagram
10-10
KS4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
11
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 microcontroller has two timers, and two timer/counters modules:
— 8-bit basic timer (BT)
— 8-bit timer/counter 0 (TC0)
— 8-bit timer/counter 1 (TC1)
— Watch timer (WT)
The 8-bit basic timer (BT) is the microcontroller's main interval timer and watch-dog timer. It generates an interrupt
request at a fixed time interval when the appropriate modification is made to its mode register. The basic timer also
is used to determine clock oscillation stabilization time when stop mode is released by an interrupt and after a
RESET.
The 8-bit timer/counter 0 (TC0) is a programmable timer/counter that is used primarily for event counting and for
clock frequency modification and output.
The 8-bit timer/counter 1 (TC1) is a programmable timer/counter that is used primarily for event counting and for
clock frequency modification.
The watch timer (WT) module consists of an 8-bit watch timer mode register, a clock selector, and a frequency
divider circuit. Watch timer functions include real-time and watch-time measurement, main and subsystem clock
interval timing, buzzer output generation. It also generates a clock signal for the LCD controller.
11-1
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BASIC TIMER (BT)
OVERVIEW
The 8-bit basic timer (BT) has six functional components:
— Clock selector logic
— 4-bit mode register (BMOD)
— 8-bit counter register (BCNT)
— 8-bit watchdog timer mode register (WDMOD)
— Watchdog timer counter clear flag (WDTCF)
— 3-bit watchdog timer counter register(WDCNT)
The basic timer generates interrupt requests at precise intervals, based on the frequency of the system clock. You
can use the basic timer as a "watchdog" timer for monitoring system events or use BT output to stabilize clock
oscillation when stop mode is released by an interrupt and following RESET. Bit settings in the basic timer mode
register BMOD turns the BT module on and off, selects the input clock frequency, and controls interrupt or
stabilization intervals.
Interval Timer Function
The basic timer's primary function is to measure elapsed time intervals. The standard time interval is equal to 256
basic timer clock pulses.
To restart the basic timer, one bit setting is required: bit 3 of the mode register BMOD should be set to logic one.
The input clock frequency and the interrupt and stabilization interval are selected by loading the appropriate bit values
to BMOD.2-BMOD.0.
The 8-bit counter register, BCNT, is incremented each time a clock signal is detected that corresponds to the
frequency selected by BMOD. BCNT continues incrementing as it counts BT clocks until an overflow occurs (≥ 255).
An overflow causes the BT interrupt request flag (IRQB) to be set to logic one to signal that the designated time
interval has elapsed. An interrupt request is than generated, BCNT is cleared to logic zero, and counting continues
from 00H.
Watchdog Timer Function
The basic timer can also be used as a "watchdog" timer to signal the occurrence of system or program operation
error. For this purpose, instruction that clear the watchdog timer (BITS WDTCF) should be executed at proper points
in a program within given period. If an instruction that clears the watchdog timer is not executed within the given
period and the watchdog timer overflows, reset signal is generated and the system restarts with reset status. An
operation of watchdog timer is as follows:
— Write some values (except #5AH) to watchdog timer mode register, WDMOD.
— If WDCNT overflows, system reset is generated.
11-2
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
Oscillation Stabilization Interval Control
Bits 2-0 of the BMOD register are used to select the input clock frequency for the basic timer. This setting also
determines the time interval (also referred to as ‘wait time’) required to stabilize clock signal oscillation when stop
mode is released by an interrupt. When a RESET signal is inputted, the standard stabilization interval for system
clock oscillation following the RESET is 31.3 ms at 4.19 MHz.
Table 11-1. Basic Timer Register Overview
Register
Name
Type
Description
Size
RAM
Address
Addressing
Mode
Reset
Value
BMOD
Control
Controls the clock frequency (mode)
of the basic timer; also, the
oscillation stabilization interval after
stop mode release or RESET
4-bit
F85H
4-bit write-only;
BMOD.3: 1-bit
writeable
“0”
BCNT
Counter
Counts clock pulses matching the
BMOD frequency setting
8-bit
F86H-F87H
8-bit read-only
U (note)
WDMOD
Control
Controls watchdog timer operation.
8-bit
F98H-F99H
8-bit write-only
A5H
WDTCF
Control
Clears the watchdog timer’s counter.
1-bit
F9AH.3
NOTE:
1-, 4-bit write
“0”
'U' means the value is undetermined after a RESET.
11-3
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
"Clear" Signal
BITS
Instruction
Clear
BCNT
BMOD.3
BMOD.2
BMOD.1
Interrupt
Request
Overflow
Clock
Selector
4
Clear
IRQB
BCNT
IRQB
1-Bit R/W
BMOD.0
CPU Clock
Start Signal
(Power-Down Release)
8
Clock Input
1 Pulse Period = BT Input Clock 2 8 (1/2 Duty)
3-Bit Counter
Overflow
WDCNT
Reset Signal
Generation
RESET
Clear
WDMOD
8
WDTFC
WAIT (note)
Stop
RESET
DELAY
Clear
BITS
Instruction
NOTES:
1. WAIT means stabilization time after RESET or stabilization time after stop mode release.
2. The RESET signal can be generated if the WDMOD is toggled for 8 times where "toggle"
means change from 5AH to other value and vice versa.
3. When the watchdog timer is enabled or the 3-bit counter of the watchdog timer is cleared
to "0", the BCNT value is not clearedbut increased continuously.
As a result, the 3-bit counter of the watchdog timer (WDCNT) cna be increased by 1.
For example, when the BMOD value is x000B and the watchdog timer is enabled,
the watchdog timer interval time is from 2 3 x 2 12 x 2 8/fxx to (23 - 1) x 2 12 x 2 8/fxx.
Figure 11-1. Basic Timer Circuit Diagram
11-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
BASIC TIMER MODE REGISTER (BMOD)
The basic timer mode register, BMOD, is a 4-bit write-only register. Bit 3, the basic timer start control bit, is also 1bit addressable. All BMOD values are set to logic zero following RESET and interrupt request signal generation is set
to the longest interval. (BT counter operation cannot be stopped.) BMOD settings have the following effects:
— Restart the basic timer;
— Control the frequency of clock signal input to the basic timer;
— Determine time interval required for clock oscillation to stabilize following the release of stop mode by an
interrupt.
By loading different values into the BMOD register, you can dynamically modify the basic timer clock frequency
during program execution. Four BT frequencies, ranging from fxx/212 to fxx/25, are selectable. Since BMOD's reset
value is logic zero, the default clock frequency setting is fxx/212.
The most significant bit of the BMOD register, BMOD.3, is used to restart the basic timer. When BMOD.3 is set to
logic one (enabled) by a 1-bit write instruction, the contents of the BT counter register (BCNT) and the BT interrupt
request flag (IRQB) are both cleared to logic zero, and timer operation is restarted.
The combination of bit settings in the remaining three registers — BMOD.2, BMOD.1, and BMOD.0 — determine the
clock input frequency and oscillation stabilization interval.
Table 11-2. Basic Timer Mode Register (BMOD) Organization
BMOD.3
1
Basic Timer Enable/Disable Control Bit
Restart basic timer; clear IRQB, BCNT, and BMOD.3 to "0"
BMOD.2
BMOD.1
BMOD.0
Basic Timer Input Clock
Interrupt Interval Time
(Wait Time)
0
0
0
fxx/212 (1.02 kHz)
220/fxx (250 ms)
0
1
1
fxx/29 (8.18 kHz)
217/fxx (31.3 ms)
1
0
1
fxx/27 (32.7 kHz)
215/fxx (7.82 ms)
1
1
1
fxx/25 (131 kHz)
213/fxx (1.95 ms)
NOTES:
1. Clock frequencies and interrupt interval time assume a system oscillator clock frequency (fxx) of 4.19 MHz.
2. fxx = selected system clock frequency.
3. Wait time is the time required to stabilize clock signal oscillation after stop mode is released. The
data in the table column 'Interrupt Interval Time' can also be interpreted as "Oscillation Stabilization."
4. The standard stabilization time for system clock oscillation following a RESET is 31.3 ms at 4.19 MHz.
11-5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
BASIC TIMER COUNTER (BCNT)
BCNT is an 8-bit counter for the basic timer. It can be addressed by 8-bit read instructions. RESET leaves the BCNT
counter value undetermined. BCNT is automatically cleared to logic zero whenever the BMOD register control bit
(BMOD.3) is set to "1" to restart the basic timer. It is incremented each time a clock pulse of the frequency
determined by the current BMOD bit settings is detected.
When BCNT has incremented to hexadecimal 'FFH' (.255 clock pulses), it is cleared to '00H' and an overflow is
generated. The overflow causes the interrupt request flag, IRQB, to be set to logic one. When the interrupt request is
generated, BCNT immediately resumes counting incoming clock signals.
NOTE
Always execute a BCNT read operation twice to eliminate the possibility of reading unstable data while the
counter is incrementing. If, after two consecutive reads, the BCNT values match, you can select the latter
value as valid data. Until the results of the consecutive reads match, however, the read operation must be
repeated until the validation condition is met.
BASIC TIMER OPERATION SEQUENCE
The basic timer's sequence of operations may be summarized as follows:
1.
Set BMOD.3 to logic one to restart the basic timer
2.
BCNT is then incremented by one after each clock pulse corresponding to BMOD selection
3.
BCNT overflows if BCNT.255 (BCNT = FFH)
4.
When an overflow occurs, the IRQB flag is set by hardware to logic one
5.
The interrupt request is generated
6.
BCNT is then cleared by hardware to logic zero
7.
Basic timer resumes counting clock pulses
11-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the Basic Timer
1.
To read the basic timer count register (BCNT):
BCNTR
2.
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
CPSE
JR
EMB
15
EA,BCNT
YZ,EA
EA,BCNT
EA,YZ
BCNTR
When stop mode is released by an interrupt, set the oscillation stabilization interval to 31.3ms (at 4.19 MHz):
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
NOP
STOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
CPU
Operation
EMB
15
A,#0BH
BMOD,A
; Wait time is 31.3ms
; Set stop power-down mode
Normal
Operating Mode
Stop Mode
Stop Mode is
Released by
Interrupt
To set the basic timer interrupt interval time to 1.95 ms (at 4.19 MHz):
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
EI
BITS
4.
Normal
Operating Mode
(31.3 ms)
STOP
Instruction
3.
Idle Mode
EMB
15
A,#0FH
BMOD,A
IEB
; Basic timer interrupt enable flag is set to "1"
Clear BCNT and the IRQB flag and restart the basic timer:
BITS
SMB
BITS
EMB
15
BMOD.3
11-7
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
WATCHDOG TIMER MODE REGISTER (WDMOD)
The watchdog timer mode register, WDMOD, is a 8-bit write-only register. WDMOD register controls to enable or
disable the watchdog function. WDMOD values are set to logic “A5H” following RESET and this value enables the
watchdog timer. Watchdog timer is set to the longest interval because BT overflow signal is generated with the
longest interval.
WDMOD
Watchdog Timer Enable/Disable Control
5AH
Disable watchdog timer function
Any other value
Enable watchdog timer function
WATCHDOG TIMER COUNTER (WDCNT)
The watchdog timer counter, WDCNT, is a 3-bit counter. WDCNT is automatically cleared to logic zero, and restarts
whenever the WDTCF register control bit is set to “1”. RESET, stop, and wait signal clears the WDCNT to logic zero
also.
WDCNT increments each time a clock pulse of the overflow frequency determined by the current BMOD bit setting is
generated. When WDCNT has incremented to hexadecimal “07H”, it is cleared to “00H” and an overflow is
generated. The overflow causes the system RESET. When the interrupt request is generated, BCNT immediately
resumes counting incoming clock signals.
WATCHDOG TIMER COUNTER CLEAR FLAG (WDTCF)
The watchdog timer counter clear flag, WDTCF, is a 1-bit write instruction. When WDTCF is set to one, it clears the
WDCNT to zero and restarts the WDCNT. WDTCF register bits 2–0 are always logic zero.
Table 11-3. Watchdog Timer Interval Time
BMOD
BT Input Clock
WDCNT Input Clock
WDT Interval Time
x000b
fxx/212
fxx/(212 × 28)
(7 or 8) 3 × (212 × 28)/fxx = 1.75–2 sec
x011b
fxx/29
fxx/(29 × 28)
(7 or 8) 3 × (29 × 28)/fxx = 218.7–250 ms
x101b
fxx/27
fxx/(27 × 28)
(7 or 8) 3 × (27 × 28)/fxx = 54.6–62.5 ms
x111b
fxx/25
fxx/(25 × 28)
(7 or 8)3 × (25 × 28)/fxx = 13.6–15.6 ms
NOTES:
1. Clock frequencies assume a system oscillator clock frequency (fxx) of 4.19 MHz.
2. fxx = system clock frequency.
11-8
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the Watchdog Timer
RESET
DI
LD
LD
EA,#00H
SP,EA
•
•
•
LD
LD
A,#0DH
BMOD,A
; WDCNT input clock is 7.82 ms
WDTCF
; Main routine operation period must be shorter than
; watchdog-timer’s period
•
•
•
MAIN
BITS
•
•
•
JP
MAIN
11-9
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
8-BIT TIMER/COUNTER 0 (TC0)
OVERVIEW
Timer/counter 0 (TC0) is used to count system 'events' by identifying the transition (high-to-low or low-to-high) of
incoming square wave signals. To indicate that an event has occurred, or that a specified time interval has elapsed,
TC0 generates an interrupt request. By counting signal transitions and comparing the current counter value with the
reference register value, TC0 can be used to measure specific time intervals.
TC0 has a reloadable counter that consists of two parts: an 8-bit reference register (TREF0) into which you write the
counter reference value, and an 8-bit counter register (TCNT0) whose value is automatically incremented by counter
logic.
An 8-bit mode register, TMOD0, is used to activate the timer/counter and to select the basic clock frequency to be
used for timer/counter operations. To dynamically modify the basic frequency, new values can be loaded into the
TMOD0 register during program execution.
TC0 FUNCTION SUMMARY
8-bit programmable timer
Generates interrupts at specific time intervals based on the selected clock frequency.
External event counter
Counts various system "events" based on edge detection of external clock signals at the TC0 input pin, TCL0. To start the event counting operation, TMOD0.2
is set to "1" and TMOD0.6 is cleared to "0".
Arbitrary frequency output
Outputs selectable clock frequencies to the TC0 output pin, TCLO0.
External signal divider
Divides the frequency of an incoming external clock signal according to a modifiable reference value (TREF0), and outputs the modified frequency to the TCLO0
pin.
11-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC0 COMPONENT SUMMARY
Mode register (TMOD0)
Activates the timer/counter and selects the internal clock frequency or the external
clock source at the TCL0 pin.
Reference register (TREF0)
Stores the reference value for the desired number of clock pulses between interrupt
requests.
Counter register (TCNT0)
Counts internal or external clock pulses based on the bit settings in TMOD0 and
TREF0.
Clock selector circuit
Together with the mode register (TMOD0), lets you select one of four internal clock
frequencies or an external clock.
8-bit comparator
Determines when to generate an interrupt by comparing the current value of the
counter register (TCNT0) with the reference value previously programmed into the
reference register (TREF0).
Output enable flag (TOE0)
Must be set to logic one before the contents of the TOL0 latch can be output to
TCLO0.
Interrupt request flag (IRQT0)
Cleared when TC0 operation starts and the TC0 interrupt service routine is
executed and enabled whenever the counter value and reference value coincide.
Interrupt enable flag (IET0)
Must be set to logic one before the interrupt requests generated by timer/counter 0
can be processed.
Table 11-4. TC0 Register Overview
Register
Name
Type
Description
Size
RAM
Address
Addressing
Mode
Reset
Value
TMOD0
Control
Controls TC0 enable/disable (bit
2); clears and resumes counting
operation (bit 3); sets input
clock and clock frequency (bits
6-4)
8-bit
F90H-F91H
8-bit writeonly;
(TMOD0.3 is
also 1-bit
writeable)
"0"
TCNT0
Counter
Counts clock pulses matching
the TMOD0 frequency setting
8-bit
F94H-F95H
8-bit
read-only
"0"
TREF0
Reference
Stores reference value for the
timer/counter 0 interval setting
8-bit
F96H-F97H
8-bit
write-only
FFH
TOE0
Flag
Controls timer/counter 0 output
to the TCLO0 pin
1-bit
F92H.2
1-bit and 4-bit
read/write
"0"
11-11
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Clocks
(fxx/2 10, fxx/2 6, fxx/2 4, fxx)
fxt
TCL0
TMOD0.7
8
TMOD0.6
TCNT0
TMOD0.5
8
8
8-Bit
Comparator
Clock
Selector
TREF0
TMOD0.4
Clear
TMOD0.3
TMOD0.2
TMOD0.1
TMOD0.0
Clear
Inverted
Set
Clear
IRQT0
TOL0
TCLO0
PM4
P4.1
TOE0
Figure 11-2. TC0 Circuit Diagram
TC0 ENABLE/DISABLE PROCEDURE
Enable Timer/Counter 0
— Set TMOD0.2 to logic one
— Set the TC0 interrupt enable flag IET0 to logic one
— Set TMOD0.3 to logic one
TCNT0, IRQT0, and TOL0 are cleared to logic zero, and timer/counter operation starts.
Disable Timer/Counter 0
— Set TMOD0.2 to logic zero
Clock signal input to the counter register TCNT0 is halted. The current TCNT0 value is retained and can be read if
necessary.
11-12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC0 PROGRAMMABLE TIMER/COUNTER FUNCTION
Timer/counter 0 can be programmed to generate interrupt requests at various intervals based on the selected system
clock frequency. Its 8-bit TC0 mode register TMOD0 is used to activate the timer/counter and to select the clock
frequency. The reference register TREF0 stores the value for the number of clock pulses to be generated between
interrupt requests. The counter register, TCNT0, counts the incoming clock pulses, which are compared to the
TREF0 value as TCNT0 is incremented. When there is a match (TREF0 = TCNT0), an interrupt request is generated.
To program timer/counter 0 to generate interrupt requests at specific intervals, choose one of five internal clock
frequencies (divisions of the system clock, fxx,fxt) and load a counter reference value into the TREF0 register. TCNT0
is incremented each time an internal counter pulse is detected with the reference clock frequency specified by
TMOD0.4-TMOD0.6 settings. To generate an interrupt request, the TC0 interrupt request flag (IRQT0) is set to logic
one, the status of TOL0 is inverted, and the interrupt is generated. The content of TCNT0 is then cleared to 00H and
TC0 continues counting. The interrupt request mechanism for TC0 includes an interrupt enable flag (IET0) and an
interrupt request flag (IRQT0).
TC0 OPERATION SEQUENCE
The general sequence of operations for using TC0 can be summarized as follows:
1.
Set TMOD0.2 to "1" to enable TC0
2.
Set TMOD0.6 to "1" to enable the system clock (fxx) input
3.
Set TMOD0.5 and TMOD0.4 bits to desired internal frequency (fxx/2n)
4.
Load a value to TREF0 to specify the interval between interrupt requests
5.
Set the TC0 interrupt enable flag (IET0) to "1"
6.
Set TMOD0.3 bit to "1" to clear TCNT0, IRQT0, and TOL0 and start counting
7.
TCNT0 increments with each internal clock pulse
8.
When the comparator shows TCNT0 = TREF0, the IRQT0 flag is set to "1", and an interrupt request is
generated.
9.
Output latch (TOL0) logic toggles high or low
10. TCNT0 is cleared to 00H and counting resumes
11. Programmable timer/counter operation continues until TMOD0.2 is cleared to "0".
11-13
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TC0 EVENT COUNTER FUNCTION
Timer/counter 0 can monitor or detect system 'events' by using the external clock input at the TCL0 pin (I/O port 4.0)
as the counter source. The TC0 mode register selects rising or falling edge detection for incoming clock signals. The
counter register TCNT0 is incremented each time the selected state transition of the external clock signal occurs.
With the exception of the different TMOD0.4-TMOD0.6 settings, the operation sequence for TC0's event counter
function is identical to its programmable timer/counter function. To activate the TC0 event counter function,
— Set TMOD0.2 to "1" to enable TC0;
— Clear TMOD0.6 to "0" to select the external clock source at the TCL0 pin;
— Select TCL0 edge detection for rising or falling signal edges by loading the appropriate values to TMOD0.5 and
TMOD0.4.
— P4.0 must be set to input mode.
Table 11-5. TMOD0 Settings for TCL0 Edge Detection
NOTE:
11-14
TMOD0.5
TMOD0.4
TCL0 Edge Detection
0
0
Rising edges
0
1
Falling edges
If you set P4.0 to a open-drain, you can use P4.0 as TCLO pin for external TCO clock, even if P4.0 is set to output
mode.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC0 CLOCK FREQUENCY OUTPUT
Using timer/counter 0, a modifiable clock frequency can be output to the TC0 clock output pin, TCLO0. To select the
clock frequency, load the appropriate values to the TC0 mode register, TMOD0. The clock interval is selected by
loading the desired reference value into the reference register TREF0. To enable the output to the TCLO0 pin at I/O
port 4.1, the following conditions must be met:
— TC0 output enable flag TOE0 must be set to "1"
— I/O mode flag for P4.1 (PM4) must be set to output mode ("1")
— Output latch value for P4.1 must be set to "0"
In summary, the operational sequence required to output a TC0-generated clock signal to the TCLO0 pin is as
follows:
1.
Load a reference value to TREF0.
2.
Set the internal clock frequency in TMOD0.
3.
Initiate TC0 clock output to TCLO0 (TMOD0.2 = "1").
4.
Set port 4 mode flag (PM4) to "1".
5.
Set P4.1 output latch to "0".
6.
Set TOE0 flag to "1".
Each time TCNT0 overflows and an interrupt request is generated, the state of the output latch TOL0 is inverted and
the TC0-generated clock signal is output to the TCLO0 pin.
F PROGRAMMING TIP — TC0 Signal Output to the TCLO0 Pin
Output a 30 ms pulse width signal to the TCLO0 pin (at 4.19 MHz):
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
BITR
BITS
EMB
15
EA,#79H
TREF0,EA
EA,#4CH
TMOD0,EA
A,#1H
PMG2,A
P4.1
TOE0
; P4.1 ← ?
output mode
; P4.1clear
11-15
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TC0 EXTERNAL INPUT SIGNAL DIVIDER
By selecting an external clock source and loading a reference value into the TC0 reference register, TREF0, you can
divide the incoming clock signal by the TREF0 value and then output this modified clock frequency to the TCLO0 pin.
The sequence of operations used to divide external clock input can be summarized as follows:
1.
Load a signal divider value to the TREF0 register
2.
Clear TMOD0.6 to "0" to enable external clock input at the TCL0 pin
3.
Set TMOD0.5 and TMOD0.4 to desired TCL0 signal edge detection
4.
Set port 4 mode flag (PM4) to output ("1")
5.
Set P4.1 output latch to "0"
6.
Set TOE0 flag to "1" to enable output of the divided frequency to the TCLO0 pin
F PROGRAMMING TIP — External TCL0 Clock Output to the TCLO0 Pin
Output external TCL0 clock pulse to the TCLO0 pin (divided by four):
External (TCL0)
Clock Pulse
TCLO0
Output Pulse
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
BITR
BITS
NOTE:
11-16
EMB
15
EA,#01H
TREF0,EA
EA,#0CH
TMOD0,EA
A,#1H
PMG2,A
P4.1
TOE0
; P4.1 ← output mode
; P4.1 clear
The Port 4.0 must be a open-drain pin for external TC0 clock input to the TCL0 pin, when the Port 4 is set to output
mode.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC0 MODE REGISTER (TMOD0)
TMOD0 is the 8-bit mode control register for timer/counter 0. It is addressable by 8-bit write instructions. One bit,
TMOD0.3, is also 1-bit writeable. RESET clears all TMOD0 bits to logic zero and disables TC0 operations.
F90H
TMOD0.3
TMOD0.2
"0"
"0"
F91H
"0"
TMOD0.6
TMOD0.5
TMOD0.4
TMOD0.2 is the enable/disable bit for timer/counter 0. When TMOD0.3 is set to "1", the contents of TCNT0, IRQT0,
and TOL0 are cleared, counting starts from 00H, and TMOD0.3 is automatically reset to "0" for normal TC0
operation. When TC0 operation stops (TMOD0.2 = "0"), the contents of the TC0 counter register TCNT0 are retained
until TC0 is re-enabled.
The TMOD0.6, TMOD0.5, and TMOD0.4 bit settings are used together to select the TC0 clock source. This selection
involves two variables:
— Synchronization of timer/counter operations with either the rising edge or the falling edge of the clock signal input
at the TCL0 pin, and
— Selection of one of four frequencies, based on division of the incoming system clock frequency, for use in internal
TC0 operation.
Table 11-6. TC0 Mode Register (TMOD0) Organization
Bit Name
Setting
TMOD0.7
0
TMOD0.6
0,1
Resulting TC0 Function
Always logic zero
Address
F91H
Specify input clock edge and internal frequency
TMOD0.5
TMOD0.4
TMOD0.3
1
Clear TCNT0, IRQT0, and TOL0 and resume counting immediately (This bit is automatically cleared to logic zero immediately
after counting resumes.)
TMOD0.2
0
Disable timer/counter 0; retain TCNT0 contents
1
Enable timer/counter 0
TMOD0.1
0
Always logic zero
TMOD0.0
0
Always logic zero
F90H
11-17
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 11-7. TMOD0.6, TMOD0.5, and TMOD0.4 Bit Settings
TMOD0.6
TMOD0.5
TMOD0.4
Resulting Counter Source and Clock Frequency
0
0
0
External clock input (TCL0) on rising edges
0
0
1
External clock input (TCL0) on falling edges
0
1
x
fxt (Subsytem clock: 32.768 kHz)
1
0
0
fxx/210 (4.09 kHz)
1
0
1
fxx /26 (65.5 kHz)
1
1
0
fxx/24 (262 kHz)
1
1
1
fxx (4.19 MHz)
NOTE: 'fxx' = selected system clock of 4.19 MHz.
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Restarting TC0 Counting Operation
1.
Set TC0 timer interval to 4.09 kHz:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
EI
BITS
2.
EMB
15
EA,#4CH
TMOD0,EA
IET0
Clear TCNT0, IRQT0, and TOL0 and restart TC0 counting operation:
BITS
SMB
BITS
11-18
EMB
15
TMOD0.3
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC0 COUNTER REGISTER (TCNT0)
The 8-bit counter register for timer/counter 0, TCNT0, is read-only and can be addressed by 8-bit RAM control
instructions. RESET sets all TCNT0 register values to logic zero (00H).
Whenever TMOD0.3 is enabled, TCNT0 is cleared to logic zero and counting resumes. The TCNT0 register value is
incremented each time an incoming clock signal is detected that matches the signal edge and frequency setting of
the TMOD0 register (specifically, TMOD0.6, TMOD0.5, and TMOD0.4).
~
~
Count
Clock
~
~
Each time TCNT0 is incremented, the new value is compared to the reference value stored in the TC0 reference
buffer, TREF0. When TCNT0 = TREF0, an overflow occurs in the TCNT0 register, the interrupt request flag, IRQT0, is
set to logic one, and an interrupt request is generated to indicate that the specified timer/counter interval has
elapsed.
0
1
2
n-1
n
0
1
2
~ ~
TCNT0
Reference Value = n
~ ~
TREF0
n-1
0
1
2
3
Match
~
Match
n
~
TOL0
Timer Start Instruction
(TMOD0.3 is set)
Interval Time
IRQT0 Set
IRQT0 Set
Figure 11-3. TC0 Timing Diagram
11-19
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TC0 REFERENCE REGISTER (TREF0)
The TC0 reference register TREF0 is an 8-bit write-only register. It is addressable by 8-bit RAM control instructions.
RESET initializes the TREF0 value to 'FFH'.
TREF0 is used to store a reference value to be compared to the incrementing TCNT0 register in order to identify an
elapsed time interval. Reference values will differ depending upon the specific function that TC0 is being used to
perform — as a programmable timer/counter, event counter, clock signal divider, or arbitrary frequency output source.
During timer/counter operation, the value loaded into the reference register is compared to the TCNT0 value. When
TCNT0 = TREF0, the TC0 output latch (TOL0) is inverted and an interrupt request is generated to signal the interval
or event. The TREF0 value, together with the TMOD0 clock frequency selection, determines the specific TC0 timer
interval. Use the following formula to calculate the correct value to load to the TREF0 reference register:
TC0 timer interval = (TREF0 value + 1)
1
TMOD0 frequency setting
×
(TREF0 value ≠ 0)
TC0 OUTPUT ENABLE FLAG (TOE0)
The 1-bit timer/counter 0 output enable flag TOE0 controls output from timer/counter 0 to the TCLO0 pin. TOE0 is
addressable by 1-bit and 4-bit read/write instruction.
(MSB)
F92H
"0"
(LSB)
TOE0
"U"
"0"
NOTE: The "U" means a undefined register bit.
When you set the TOE0 flag to "1", the contents of TOL0 can be output to the TCLO0 pin. Whenever a RESET
occurs, TOE0 is automatically set to logic zero, disabling all TC0 output. Even when the TOE0 flag is disabled,
timer/counter 0 can continue to output an internally generated clock frequency, via TOL0.
TC0 OUTPUT LATCH (TOL0)
TOL0 is the output latch for timer/counter 0. When the 8-bit comparator detects a correspondence between the value
of the counter register TCNT0 and the reference value stored in the TREF0 register, the TOL0 value is inverted — the
latch toggles high-to-low or low-to-high. Whenever the state of TOL0 is switched, the TC0 signal is output. TC0
output may be directed to the TCLO0 pin.
Assuming TC0 is enabled, when bit 3 of the TMOD0 register is set to "1", the TOL0 latch is cleared to logic zero,
along with the counter register TCNT0 and the interrupt request flag, IRQT0, and counting resumes immediately.
When TC0 is disabled (TMOD0.2 = "0"), the contents of the TOL0 latch are retained and can be read, if necessary.
11-20
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Setting a TC0 Timer Interval
To set a 30 ms timer interval for TC0, given fxx = 4.19 MHz, follow these steps.
1.
Select the timer/counter 0 mode register with a maximum setup time of 62.5ms (assume the TC0 counter
clock = fxx/210, and TREF0 is set to FFH):
2.
Calculate the TREF0 value:
30 ms =
TREF0 value + 1
4.09 kHz
TREF0 + 1 =
30 ms
244 µs
= 122.9 = 7AH
TREF0 value = 7AH – 1 = 79H
3.
Load the value 79H to the TREF0 register:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMB
15
EA,#79H
TREF0,EA
EA,#4CH
TMOD0,EA
11-21
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
8-BIT TIMER/COUNTER 1 (TC1)
OVERVIEW
Timer/counter 1 (TC1) is used to count system 'events' by identifying the transition (high-to-low or low-to-high) of
incoming square wave signals. To indicate that an event has occurred, or that a specified time interval has elapsed,
TC1 generates an interrupt request. By counting signal transitions and comparing the current counter value with the
reference register value, TC1 can be used to measure specific time intervals.
TC1 has a reloadable counter that consists of two parts: an 8-bit reference register (TREF1) into which you write the
counter reference value, and an 8-bit counter register (TCNT1) whose value is automatically incremented by counter
logic.
An 8-bit mode register, TMOD1, is used to activate the timer/counter and to select the basic clock frequency to be
used for timer/counter operations. To dynamically modify the basic frequency, new values can be loaded into the
TMOD1 register during program execution.
TC1 FUNCTION SUMMARY
8-bit programmable timer
11-22
Generates interrupts at specific time intervals based on the selected clock frequency.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC1 COMPONENT SUMMARY
Mode register (TMOD1)
Activates the timer/counter and selects the internal clock frequency.
Reference register (TREF1)
Stores the reference value for the desired number of clock pulses between interrupt
requests.
Counter register (TCNT1)
Counts internal or external clock pulses based on the bit settings in TMOD1 and
TREF1.
Clock selector circuit
Together with the mode register (TMOD1), lets you select one of four internal clock
frequencies or an external clock.
8-bit comparator
Determines when to generate an interrupt by comparing the current value of the
counter register (TCNT1) with the reference value previously programmed into the
reference register (TREF1).
Interrupt request flag (IRQT1)
Cleared when TC1 operation starts and the TC1 interrupt service routine is
executed and enabled whenever the counter value and reference value coincide.
Interrupt enable flag (IET1)
Must be set to logic one before the interrupt requests generated by timer/counter 1
can be processed.
Table 11-8. TC1 Register Overview
Register
Name
Type
Description
Size
RAM
Address
Addressing
Mode
Reset
Value
TMOD1
Control
Controls TC1 enable/disable (bit
2); clears and resumes counting
operation (bit 3); sets input
clock and clock frequency (bits
6-4)
8-bit
FA6H-FA7H
8-bit writeonly;
(TMOD1.3 is
also 1-bit
writeable)
"0"
TCNT1
Counter
Counts clock pulses matching
the TMOD1 frequency setting
8-bit
FA8H-FA9H
8-bit
read-only
"0"
TREF1
Reference
Stores reference value for the
timer/counter 1 interval setting
8-bit
FAAH-FABH
8-bit
write-only
FFH
11-23
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Clocks
(fxx/2 10 , fxx/2 8, fxx/2 6 , fxx 4)
fxt
TMOD1.7
8
TMOD1.6
TCNT1
TMOD1.5
8
8
8-Bit
Comparator
Clock
Selector
TMOD1.4
TREF1
Clear
TMOD1.3
TMOD1.2
TMOD1.1
TMOD1.0
Clear
Set
IRQT1
Figure 11-4. TC1 Circuit Diagram
TC1 ENABLE/DISABLE PROCEDURE
Enable Timer/Counter 1
— Set TMOD1.2 to logic one
— Set the TC1 interrupt enable flag IET1 to logic one
— Set TMOD1.3 to logic one
TCNT1, IRQT1, and TOL1 are cleared to logic zero, and timer/counter operation starts.
Disable Timer/Counter 1
— Set TMOD1.2 to logic zero
Clock signal input to the counter register TCNT1 is halted. The current TCNT1 value is retained and can be read if
necessary.
11-24
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC1 PROGRAMMABLE TIMER/COUNTER FUNCTION
Timer/counter 1 can be programmed to generate interrupt requests at various intervals based on the selected system
clock frequency. Its 8-bit TC1 mode register TMOD1 is used to activate the timer/counter and to select the clock
frequency. The reference register TREF1 stores the value for the number of clock pulses to be generated between
interrupt requests. The counter register, TCNT1, counts the incoming clock pulses, which are compared to the
TREF1 value as TCNT1 is incremented. When there is a match (TREF1 = TCNT1), an interrupt request is generated.
To program timer/counter 1 to generate interrupt requests at specific intervals, choose one of five internal clock
frequencies (divisions of the system clock, fxx, fxt) and load a counter reference value into the TREF1 register.
TCNT1 is incremented each time an internal counter pulse is detected with the reference clock frequency specified
by TMOD1.4-TMOD1.6 settings. To generate an interrupt request, the TC1 interrupt request flag (IRQT1) is set to
logic one, and the interrupt is generated. The content of TCNT1 is then cleared to 00H and TC1 continues counting.
The interrupt request mechanism for TC1 includes an interrupt enable flag (IET1) and an interrupt request flag
(IRQT1).
TC1 OPERATION SEQUENCE
The general sequence of operations for using TC1 can be summarized as follows:
1.
Set TMOD1.2 to "1" to enable TC1
2.
Set TMOD1.6 to "1" to enable the system clock (fxx) input.
3.
Set TMOD1.5 and TMOD1.4 bits to desired internal frequency (fxx/2n) or TMOD1.6 and TMOD1.5 to “1” to
enable the system clock fxt input.
4.
Load a value to TREF1 to specify the interval between interrupt requests
5.
Set the TC1 interrupt enable flag (IET1) to "1"
6.
Set TMOD1.3 bit to "1" to clear TCNT1, IRQT1, and TOL1 and start counting
7.
TCNT1 increments with each internal clock pulse
8.
When the comparator shows TCNT1 = TREF1, the IRQT1 flag is set to "1", and an interrupt request is
generated.
9.
TCNT1 is cleared to 00H and counting resumes
10. Programmable timer/counter operation continues until TMOD1.2 is cleared to "0".
11-25
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TC1 MODE REGISTER (TMOD1)
TMOD1 is the 8-bit mode control register for timer/counter 1. It is addressable by 8-bit write instructions. One bit,
TMOD1.3, is also 1-bit writeable. RESET clears all TMOD1 bits to logic zero and disables TC1 operations.
FA6H
TMOD1.3
TMOD1.2
"0"
"0"
FA7H
"0"
TMOD1.6
TMOD1.5
TMOD1.4
TMOD1.2 is the enable/disable bit for timer/counter 1. When TMOD1.3 is set to "1", the contents of TCNT1, and
IRQT1, are cleared, counting starts from 00H, and TMOD1.3 is automatically reset to "0" for normal TC1 operation.
When TC1 operation stops (TMOD1.2 = "0"), the contents of the TC1 counter register TCNT1 are retained until TC1
is re-enabled.
The TMOD1.6, TMOD1.5, and TMOD1.4 bit settings are used together to select the TC1 clock source. This selection
involves:
— Selection of one of five frequencies, based on division of the incoming system clock frequency, or subsytem
clock frequency, for use in internal TC1 operation.
Table 11-9. TC1 Mode Register (TMOD1) Organization
Bit Name
Setting
TMOD1.7
0
TMOD1.6
0,1
Resulting TC1 Function
Always logic zero
Address
FA7H
Specify input clock edge and internal frequency
TMOD1.5
TMOD1.4
TMOD1.3
1
Clear TCNT1, and IRQT1, and resume counting immediately
(This bit is automatically cleared to logic zero immediately after
counting resumes.)
TMOD1.2
0
Disable timer/counter 1; retain TCNT1 contents
1
Enable timer/counter 1
TMOD1.1
0
Always logic zero
TMOD1.1
0
Always logic zero
11-26
FA6H
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
Table 11-10. TMOD1.6, TMOD1.5, and TMOD1.4 Bit Settings
TMOD1.6
TMOD1.5
TMOD1.4
Resulting Counter Source and Clock Frequency
0
1
x
fxt (Subsytem clock: 32.768 kHz)
1
0
0
fxx/210 (4.09 kHz)
1
0
1
fxx /26 (65.5 kHz)
1
1
0
fxx/24 (262 kHz)
1
1
1
fxx (4.19 MHz)
NOTE: 'fxx' = selected system clock of 4.19 MHz.
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Restarting TC1 Counting Operation
1.
Set TC1 timer interval to 4.09 kHz:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
EI
BITS
2.
EMB
15
EA,#4CH
TMOD1,EA
IET1
Clear TCNT1, and IRQT1, and restart TC1 counting operation:
BITS
SMB
BITS
EMB
15
TMOD1.3
11-27
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TC1 COUNTER REGISTER (TCNT1)
The 8-bit counter register for timer/counter 1, TCNT1, is read-only and can be addressed by 8-bit RAM control
instructions. RESET sets all TCNT1 register values to logic zero (00H).
Whenever TMOD1.3 is enabled, TCNT1 is cleared to logic zero and counting resumes. The TCNT1 register value is
incremented each time an incoming clock signal is detected that matches the signal edge and frequency setting of
the TMOD1 register (specifically, TMOD1.6, TMOD1.5, and TMOD1.4).
~
~
Count
Clock
~
~
Each time TCNT1 is incremented, the new value is compared to the reference value stored in the TC1 reference
buffer, TREF1. When TCNT1 = TREF1, an overflow occurs in the TCNT1 register, the interrupt request flag, IRQT1, is
set to logic one, and an interrupt request is generated to indicate that the specified timer/counter interval has
elapsed.
TREF1
1
Timer Start Instruction
(TMOD1.3 is set)
2
n-1
n
0
1
2
~ ~
0
~ ~
TCNT1
Reference Value = n
n-1
IRQT1 Set
Figure 11-5. TC1 Timing Diagram
11-28
n
0
IRQT1 Set
1
2
3
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
TC1 REFERENCE REGISTER (TREF1)
The TC1 reference register TREF1 is an 8-bit write-only register. It is addressable by 8-bit RAM control instructions.
RESET initializes the TREF1 value to 'FFH'.
TREF1 is used to store a reference value to be compared to the incrementing TCNT1 register in order to identify an
elapsed time interval. Reference values will differ depending upon the specific function that TC1 is being used to
perform — as a programmable timer/counter.
During timer/counter operation, the value loaded into the reference register is compared to the TCNT1 value. When
TCNT1 = TREF1 an interrupt request is generated to signal the interval. The TREF1 value, together with the TMOD1
clock frequency selection, determines the specific TC1 timer interval. Use the following formula to calculate the
correct value to load to the TREF1 reference register:
TC1 timer interval = (TREF1 value + 1)
×
1
TMOD1 frequency setting
(TREF1 value ≠ 1)
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Setting a TC1 Timer Interval
To set a 30 ms timer interval for TC1, given fxx = 4.19 MHz, follow these steps.
1.
Select the timer/counter 1 mode register with a maximum setup time of 62.5ms (assume the TC1 counter
clock = fxx/210, and TREF1 is set to FFH):
2.
Calculate the TREF0 value:
30 ms =
TREF1 value + 1
4.09 kHz
TREF1 + 1 =
30 ms
244 µs
= 122.9 = 7AH
TREF1 value = 7AH – 1 = 79H
3.
Load the value 79H to the TREF1 register:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMB
15
EA,#79H
TREF1,EA
EA,#4CH
TMOD1,EA
11-29
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
WATCH TIMER
OVERVIEW
The watch timer is a multi-purpose timer which consists of three basic components:
— 8-bit watch timer mode register (WMOD)
— Clock selector
— Frequency divider circuit
Watch timer functions include real-time and watch-time measurement and interval timing for the main and subsystem
clock. It is also used as a clock source for the LCD controller and for generating buzzer (BUZ) output.
Real-Time and Watch-Time Measurement
To start watch timer operation, set bit 2 of the watch timer mode register (WMOD.2) to logic one. The watch timer
starts, the interrupt request flag IRQW is automatically set to logic one, and interrupt requests commence in 0.5second intervals.
Since the watch timer functions as a quasi-interrupt instead of a vectored interrupt, the IRQW flag should be cleared
to logic zero by program software as soon as a requested interrupt service routine has been executed.
Using a Main System or Subsystem Clock Source
The watch timer can generate interrupts based on the main system clock frequency or on the subsystem clock.
When the zero bit of the WMOD register is set to "1", the watch timer uses the subsystem clock signal (fxt) as its
source; if WMOD.0 = "0", the main system clock (fx) is used as the signal source, according to the following formula:
Watch timer clock (fw)
=
Main system clock (fx)
128
(MHz)
= 32.768 kHz (fx = 4.19
This feature is useful for controlling timer-related operations during stop mode. When stop mode is engaged, the
main system clock (fx) is halted, but the subsystem clock continues to oscillate. By using the subsystem clock as
the oscillation source during stop mode, the watch timer can set the interrupt request flag IRQW to "1", thereby
releasing stop mode.
Buzzer Output Frequency Generator
The watch timer can generate a steady 2 kHz, 4 kHz, 8 kHz, or 16 kHz signal to the BUZ pin at selected clock for
watch timer. To select the desired BUZ frequency , load the appropriate value to the WMOD register. This output can
then be used to actuate an external buzzer sound. To generate a BUZ signal, three conditions must be met:
— The WMOD.7 register bit is set to "1"
— The output latch for I/O port 5.2 is cleared to "0"
— The port 5.2 output mode flag (PM5.2) set to 'output' mode
11-30
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
Timing Tests in High-Speed Mode
By setting WMOD.1 to "1", the watch timer will operate in high-speed mode, generating an interrupt every 3.91 ms at
oscillation clock of 4.19 MHz. At its normal speed (WMOD.1 = '0'), the watch timer generates an interrupt request
every 0.5 seconds. High-speed mode is useful for timing events for program debugging sequences.
Check Subsystem Clock Level Feature
The watch timer can also check the input level of the subsystem clock by testing WMOD.3. If WMOD.3 is "1", the
input level at the XTin pin is high; if WMOD.3 is "0", the input level at the XT in pin is low.
P5.2 Latch
PM5.2
WMOD.7
BUZ
WMOD.6
WMOD.5
MUX
WMOD.4
8
fw/16
fw/8
fw/4
fw/2
WMOD.3
ENABLE/DISABLE
WMOD.2
Selector
Circuit
WMOD.1
IRQW
WMOD.0
To LCD Controller
Clock
Selector
fxt
fw
(32.768 kHz) (note)
M
U
X
fx/16
fx/32
fx/64
fx/128
Frequency
Dividing
Circuit
fw/2 7
fw/2 14
fx = Main-system Clock
fxt = Sub-system Clock
fw = Watch Timer Frequency
LMOD.3-.2
NOTE:
fw = 32.768 kHz, when fx is 4.19 MHz and fx/128 is selected.
Figure 11-6. Watch Timer Circuit Diagram
11-31
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
WATCH TIMER MODE REGISTER (WMOD)
The watch timer mode register WMOD is used to select specific watch timer operations. It is 8-bit write-only
addressable. An exception is WMOD bit 3 (the XT IN input level control bit) which is 1-bit read-only addressable. A
RESET automatically sets WMOD.3 to the current input level of the subsystem clock, XT IN (high, if logic one; low, if
logic zero), and all other WMOD bits to logic zero.
F88H
WMOD.3
WMOD.2
WMOD.1
WMOD.0
F89H
WMOD.7
"0"
WMOD.5
WMOD.4
In summary, WMOD settings control the following watch timer functions:
— Watch timer clock and LCD clock selection
(WMOD.0)
— Watch timer speed control
(WMOD.1)
— Enable/disable watch timer
(WMOD.2)
— XTIN input level control
(WMOD.3)
— Buzzer frequency selection
(WMOD.4 and WMOD.5)
— Enable/disable buzzer output
(WMOD.7)
Table 11-11. Watch Timer Mode Register (WMOD) Organization
Bit Name
Values
WMOD.7
WMOD.6
WMOD.5 – .4
WMOD.3
WMOD.2
WMOD.1
WMOD.0
NOTE:
11-32
Function
0
Disable buzzer (BUZ) signal output at the BUZ pin
1
Enable buzzer (BUZ) signal output at the BUZ pin
0
Always logic zero
0
0
2 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
0
1
4 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
1
0
8 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
1
1
16 kHz buzzer (BUZ) signal output
0
Input level to XT in pin is low
1
Input level to XT in pin is high
0
Disable watch timer; clear frequency dividing circuits
1
Enable watch timer
0
Normal mode; sets IRQW to 0.5 second
1
High-speed mode; sets IRQW to 3.91 ms
0
Select (fx/128) as the watch timer clock (fw)
Select a LCD clock source as main system clock
1
Select subsystem clock as watch timer clock (fw)
Select a LCD clock source as sub system clock
Address
F89H
F88H
Main system clock frequency (fx) is assumed to be 4.19 MHz; subsystem clock (fxx) is assumed to be 32.768 kHz.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMERS and TIMER/COUNTERS
F PROGRAMMING TIP — Using the Watch Timer
1.
Select a subsystem clock as the LCD display clock, a 0.5 second interrupt, and 2 kHz buzzer enable:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
BITR
LD
LD
BITS
2.
EMB
15
EA,#40H
PMG1,EA
P5.2
EA,#85H
WMOD,EA
IEW
; P5.2? ← output mode
Sample real-time clock processing method:
CLOCK
BTSTZ
RET
•
•
•
IRQW
; 0.5 second check
; No, return
; Yes, 0.5 second interrupt generation
; Increment HOUR, MINUTE, SECOND
11-33
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
12
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 microcontroller can directly drive an up-to-12-characters (5 x 12 dots) LCD panel. Its LCD block has
the following components:
— LCD controller/driver
— Display RAM (100H-1BBH) for storing display data (13H page)
— 60 segment output pins (SEG0-SEG59)
— 12 common output pins (COM0-COM11)
— LCD contrast control circuit by software (16 steps)
The frame frequency, LCD divide resistors, key strobe signal output key, and check signal output are determined by
bit settings in the LCD mode register, LMOD.
The LCD duty and normal LCD display are determined by bit settings in the LCD control registers, LCON0 and
LCON1.
When a subsystem clock is selected as the LCD clock source, the LCD display is enabled even during main stop
and idle modes.
12-1
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
SEG59
SEG58
8
Segment
Display
RAM
Memory
Bank1
SEG16/D0
SEG15/P8.15
SEG14/P8.14
Driver
(Page 13H)
SEG44/DW
M
U
X
SEG0/P8.0
4
KSR0-3
8
LMOD
4
LCON0
4
LCON1
4
LCNST
Voltage
Divider
LCD
Controller
COM
Control
COM0
fxt or divided main-system clock(fx)
Figure 12-1. LCD Circuit Diagram
fxt
fx/16
fx/32
fx/64
fx/128
M
U
X
Clock
Selector
To LCD Controller
WMOD.0
LMOD
Figure 12-2. LCD Clock Circuit Diagram
12-2
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
COM11
COM10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
LCD RAM ADDRESS AREA
RAM addresses 100H-1BBH of bank1 page 13H are used as LCD data memory. These locations can be addressed
by 8-bit instructions only. However, the upper 3 bits of each address must be written to zero.
When the bit value of a display segment is "1", the LCD display is turned on; when the bit value is "0", the display is
turned off.
Display RAM data are sent out through segment pins SEG0-SEG59 using a direct memory access (DMA) method
that is synchronized with the fLCD signal. RAM addresses in this location that are not used for LCD display can be
allocated to general-purpose use.
S S S S S
E E E E E
G G G G G
0 1 2 3 4
00H
01H
02H
03H
04H
05H
06H
07H
08H
09H
0AH
0BH
10H
11H
12H
13H
14H
15H
16H
17H
18H
19H
1AH
1BH
LSB
MSB
S S S S S
E E E E E
G G G G G
5 5 5 5 5
0 1 2 3 4
S S S S S
E E E E E
G G G G G
5 6 7 8 9
B0H
B1H
B2H
B3H
B4H
B5H
B6H
B7H
B8H
B9H
BAH
BBH
A0H
A1H
A2H
A3H
A4H
A5H
A6H
A7H
A8H
A9H
AAH
ABH
LSB
MSB
S S S S S
E E E E E
G G G G G
5 5 5 5 5
5 6 7 8 9
LSB
MSB
COM0
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
COM5
COM6
COM7
COM8
COM9
COM10
COM11
LSB
MSB
Figure 12-3. Display RAM Organization
12-3
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTRAST CONTROL REGISTER (LCNST)
The LCD contrast control register (LCNST) is used to control the LCD contrast up to 16 step contrast level. Following
a RESET, all LCNST values are cleared to "0". This disable the LCD contrast control.
F8AH
LCNST.3
LCNST.2
LCNST.1
LCNST.0
F8BH
LCNST.7
0
0
0
Table 12-1. LCD Contrast Control Register (LCNST) Organization
LCD Contrast Control Enable/Disable Bit
LCNST.7
Enable/Disable LCD Contrast Control
0
Disable LCD contrast control
1
Enable LCD contrast control
Bits 6-4
Bits 6-4
Always logic zero
Segment/Port Output Selection Bits
LCNST.3
LCNST.2
LCNST.1
LCNST.0
16 Step Contrast Level
0
0
0
0
1/16 step (The dimmest level)
0
0
0
1
2/16 step
0
0
1
0
3/16 step
0
0
1
1
4/16 step
0
1
0
0
4/16 step
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1
1
1
1
16/16 step (The brightest level)
NOTE:
12-4
VLCD = VDD × (1-(16-n)/48), when n = 0-15 (At normal LCD dividing Resistors)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
LCD OUTPUT CONTROL REGISTER 0 (LCON0)
The LCD output control register 0, LCON0 can be manipulated using 4-bit write instructions.
F8EH
LCON0.3
LCON0.2
"0"
"0"
LCON0 can select LCD duty.
Table 12-2. LCD Output Control Register (LCON0) Organization
LCON0.3
LCON0.2
Duty
0
0
1/9 duty (COM0-COM8 select)
0
1
1/10 duty (COM0-COM9 select)
1
0
1/11 duty (COM0-COM10 select)
1
1
1/12 duty (COM0-COM11 select)
NOTES:
1. COM has priority over normal port in P7.3/COM9-P7.1/COM11. This means these port are assigned to COM pins
regardless of the value of PMG2, when duty is selected to 1/10, 1/11, or 1/12 at LCON0 register.
2. The port used COM must be set to output to prevent LCD display distortion.
LCD OUTPUT CONTROL REGISTER 1 (LCON1)
The LCD output control register 1, LCON1 can be manipulated using 4-bit write instructions.
F8FH
LCON1.3
LCON1.2
LCON1.1
LCON1.0
LCON1 control the following LCD functions.
— LCD display on/off LCON1.2
— Key check signal output with LCD display off (LCON1.3)
— Dimming mode (LCON1.0)
Table 12-3. LCD Output Control Register (LCON1) Organization
LCON1.3
LCON1.2
LCON1.1
LCON1.0
Bias Selection for LCD Display
0
1
0
0
LCD display on
0
1
0
1
Dimming mode
1
0
0
1
Key check signal output with LCD display off
NOTES:
1. To turn off LCD display, you must set LCON1 to 9 not 0.
2. P8 can be used to normal output port, when LCD display off. The value of P8 is determined by KSR0-KSR3 regardless
of LMOD.0. (refer to P12-17)
12-5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD MODE REGISTER (LMOD)
The LCD mode register LMOD can be manipulated using 8-bit write instructions.
F8DH
“0”
LMOD.6
LMOD.5
LMOD.4
F8CH
LMOD.3
LMOD.2
LMOD.1
LMOD.0
LMOD controls the following LCD functions:
— External interrupt INTP0 enable/disable selection bits (LMOD.6, LMOD.5, and LMOD.4)
— External interrupt INTP0 detection pins can be select (LMOD.6, LMOD.5, and LMOD.4)
— When main system clock is selected as watch timer clock by WMOD.0, watch timer clock selection bits
(LMOD.3 and LMOD.2)
— LCD dividing resistors selection (LMOD.1)
— Key strobe signal disable/enable selection (LMOD.0)
12-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
Table 12-4. LCD Mode Control Register (LMOD) Organization
External Interrupt (INTP0) Pins Selection Bits (1)
External Interrupt (INTP0) Pins Selection Bits (1)
LMOD.6
LMOD.5
LMOD.4
0
0
0
Interrupt request at K0 triggered by falling edge
0
0
1
Interrupt request at K0-K1 triggered by falling edge
0
1
0
Interrupt request at K0-K2 triggered by falling edge
0
1
1
Interrupt request at K0-K3 triggered by falling edge
1
0
0
Interrupt request at K0-K4 triggered by falling edge
1
0
1
Interrupt request at K0-K5 triggered by falling edge
1
1
0
Interrupt request at K0-K6 triggered by falling edge
1
1
1
Interrupt request flag (IRQP0) cannot be set to logic one
Watch Timer Clock Selection Bits (2)
LMOD.3
LMOD.2
When main system clock is selected as watch timer clock by WMOD.0
0
0
fx/128
0
1
fx/64
1
0
fx/32
1
1
fx/16
LCD Dividing Resistor Selection Bits
LMOD.1
LCD Dividing Resistor
0
Normal LCD dividing resistors
1
Diminish LCD dividing resistors to strength LCD drive
Key Strobe Signal Output Control Bits (SEG0/P8.0-SEG15/P8.15)
LMOD.0
Key Strobe Signal Output Control (SEG0/P8.0-SEG15/P8.15)
0
Enable key strobe signal output (3)
1
Disable key strobe signal output (4)
NOTES:
1. The pins which are not selected as external interrupt (K0-K6) can be used to normal I/O. To use external interrupts,
corresponding pins must be set to input mode.
2. LCD clock can be selected only when main clock(fx) is used as clock source of watch timer. When sub clock(fxt) is used
as clock source of watch timer, LCD clock is always fw/48 (1/9 duty), fw/44 (1/10 duty), fw/40 (1/11duty), or fw/36
(1/12 duty).
3. In this case, pull-up resistors of port0,1 are disabled if the value of PUR0 is "0", when the value of PUR0 is "1", the
pull-up resistors of selected pins as interrupt input are enabled or disabled by key strobe signal, and that of nonselected pins are disabled.
4. In this case, pull-up resistors of port 0,1 are disabled or enabled by the value of PUR0 flag.
12-7
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Application Without Internal Contrast Control
Application With Internal Contrast Control
S3C72Q5
S3C72Q5
VDD
VDD
VLC1
VLC1
R1
VLC2
Fixed
R1
VLCD = V DD
VLC2
R2
VLC3
VLCD =
R2
VLCD
VLC3
R3
RLCD
x V DD
RLCD + R CN
VLCD
R3
VLC4
VLC4
R4
R4
VLC5
VLC5
LCNST.7 = 0
"0"
Fixed
LCD
"1" Controller Contrast
LCNST.7 = 1
"0"
LCD
"1" Controller Contrast
LCON1 (ON)
VSS
LCON1 (ON)
VSS
NOTES:
1. When the LCD module is turned off, load LCON1 to "9" to reduce power consumption.
2. When LCNST.7 is logic one, LCD contrast can be controlled by writing data to LCNST.3-.0.
3. Where R CN is LCD contrast controller's resistor.
Figure 12-4. LCD Voltage Dividing Resistors Connection
12-8
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
When LCON1 is 4 or 5, LMOD.0 are set to "0" and pull-up enable by PUMOD0, RE and LE signal are
generated as below:
t COM = 1.46 ms (t XT = 32.768 kHz)
COM
COM0
1
2
3
4
5
tF = 13.18 ms
6
7
8
0
Resistor Enable : RE
t Smax = 2.93 ms t Smin = 1.46 ms
t RE = 1.5 t XT = 45.8 µs
~
tE
tD
Input Latch Enable : LE
~
t LE = t XT/2 = t E = t D = 15.3 µs
~
Valid Input Signals:
P0.0-P1.2
> t Smax
Latch Data
~
Figure 12-5. RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/9 Duty)
12-9
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
f F = 75.85 Hz
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
tAST = 45.8 µs
COM0
COM1
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
COM8
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
SEG0
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
On Off
COM0
-SEG0
NOTE:
On Off
Off
Off
Off
On Off
On
VLCD
3/4VLCD
2/4VLCD
1/4VLCD
VSS
-1/4V LCD
-2/4V LCD
-3/4V LCD
-V LCD
The upper figure is COM and SEG signal waveform when LMOD.0 is set to
logic "0" and fw is 32.768 kHz.
Figure 12-6. LCD Signal Waveform for 1/9 Duty and 1/4 Bias
12-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
When LCON1 is 4 or 5, LMOD.0 are set to "0" and pull-up enable by PUMOD0, RE and LE signal are
generated as below:
t COM = 1.46 ms (t XT = 32.768 kHz)
COM
COM0
1
2
3
4
5
t F = 14.64 ms
6
7
8
9
0
Resistor Enable : RE
t S = 2.93 ms
t RE = 1.5 t XT = 45.8 µs
~
tE
tD
Input Latch Enable : LE
~
t LE = t XT/2 = t E = t D = 15.3 µs
~
Valid Input Signals:
P0.0-P1.2
> t Smax
Latch Data
~
Figure 12-7. RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/10 Duty)
12-11
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
f F = 68.3Hz
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
tAST = 45.8 µs
COM0
COM1
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
COM9
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
SEG0
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
Off
On
Off
Off
On
On
Off
VLCD
3/4VLCD
2/4VLCD
1/4VLCD
VSS
-1/4V LCD
-2/4V LCD
-3/4V LCD
-V LCD
COM0
-SEG0
NOTE:
The upper figure is COM and SEG signal waveform when LMOD.0 is set to
logic "0" and fw is 32.768 kHz.
Figure 12-8. LCD Signal Waveform for 1/10 Duty and 1/4 Bias
12-12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
When LCON1 is 4 or 5, LMOD.0 are set to "0" and pull-up enable by PUMOD0, RE and LE signal
are generated as below:
tCOM = 1.46 ms (t XT = 32.768 kHz)
COM
COM0
1
2
3
4
5
6
tF = 16.1 ms
7
8
9
10
0
Resistor Enable : RE
t Smax = 2.93 ms
tRE = 1.5 t XT = 45.8 µs
~
tE
t Smin = 1.46 ms
tD
Input Latch Enable : LE
~
t LE = t XT/2 = t E = t D = 15.3 µs
~
Valid Input Signals:
P0.0-P1.2
> t Smax
Latch Data
~
Figure 12-9. RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/11 Duty)
12-13
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
f F = 62.11 Hz
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
tAST = 45.8 µs
COM0
COM1
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
COM10
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
SEG0
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
Off On
Off
Off
On
Off
Off
Off On
On Off
VLCD
3/4VLCD
2/4VLCD
1/4VLCD
VSS
-1/4V LCD
-2/4V LCD
-3/4V LCD
-V LCD
COM0
-SEG0
NOTE:
The upper figure is COM and SEG signal waveform when LMOD.0 is set to
logic "0" and fw is 32.768 kHz.
Figure 12-10. LCD Signal Waveform for 1/11 Duty and 1/4 Bias
12-14
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
When LCON1 is 4 or 5, LMOD.0 are set to "0" and pull-up enable by PUMOD0, RE and LE signal
are generated as below:
t COM = 1.46 ms (t XT = 32.768 kHz)
COM
COM0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
t F = 17.56 ms
8
9
10
11
0
Resistor Enable : RE
t S = 2.93 ms
t RE = 1.5 t XT = 45.8 µs
~
tE
tD
Input Latch Enable : LE
~
tLE = t XT/2 = t E = t D = 15.3 µs
~
Valid Input Signals:
P0.0-P1.2
> t Smax
Latch Data
~
Figure 12-11. RE, LE and Inputs Signal Waveform (1/12 Duty)
12-15
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
fF = 56.95 Hz
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
tAST = 45.8 µs
COM0
COM1
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
COM11
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
SEG0
VLC1
VLC2
VLC3
VLC4
VSS
Off
On
Off
Off
On
Off
Off
Off On
On Off
VLCD
3/4VLCD
2/4VLCD
1/4VLCD
VSS
-1/4V LCD
-2/4V LCD
-3/4V LCD
-V LCD
COM0
-SEG0
NOTE:
The upper figure is COM and SEG signal waveform when LMOD.0 is set to
logic "0" and fw is 32.768 kHz.
Figure 12-12. LCD Signal Waveform for 1/12 Duty and 1/4 Bias
12-16
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
LCD CONTROLLER/DRIVER
KEY SCAN REGISTER (KSR)
The 16 output pins (P8.0-P8.15) of 60 segments can be used for key check signal output. KSR0–KSR3 are mapped
to the RAM address FA2H-FA5H, and the reset value is "0". KSR is the write-only register that can be manipulated
by 4-bits RAM write instruction only.
Table 12-5. KSR Organization
KSR0
KSR0.3
KSR0.2
KSR0.1
KSR0.0
FA2H
KSR1
KSR1.3
KSR1.2
KSR1.1
KSR1.0
FA3H
KSR2
KSR2.3
KSR2.2
KSR2.1
KSR2.0
FA4H
KSR3
KSR3.3
KSR3.2
KSR3.1
KSR3.0
FA5H
When LCON1 is 9, the values of KSR0-KSR3 are output to segment pins for key check regardless of LMOD.0. At
this time, only one of 16 bits (KSR0.0-KSR3.3) must be set to logic "1", and the contents of KSR must be changed
16 times one by one for 16 key check by software. When a bit value of KSR is "1", the corresponding segment pin
becomes the low level. Figure 12-14 shows its segment pin output.
SEG i
SEG i + 1
KSRx.0 = 1
KSRx.0 = 0
SEG i + 2
KSRx.1 = 1
KSRx.1 = 0
Non-overlap
KSRx.2 = 1
NOTE:
KSRx.2 = 0
"x" means 0, 1, 2 and 3.
Figure 12-13. Segment Pin Output Signal When LCON1.3 = 1
12-17
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
13
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 microcontroller can directly interface the external memory up to 6 x 4 M-bit. It external memory
interface block has the following components.
— 8-bit external memory control register (EMCON)
— External memory address register 0, 1, 2 (EMAR0–EMAR2)
— 8-bit external memory data register 0 (EMDR0)
— External memory interface clock selector
— Six external memory selection pins (DM0-DM5)
— Eight data and nineteen address pins (D0-D7, A0–A18)
It should be taken care to the LCD contrast due to an external memory interface, since all external memory interface
lines except DM0-DM5 are shared with segment driver pins of LCD driver/controller.
EXTERNAL MEMORY CONTROL REGISTER (EMCON)
The external memory control register (EMCON) is used to read data from or write data in a external memory, to
select external memory interface clock frequency, to increase automatically the address (a value of EMAR2-EMAR0)
or not, and to select data memory pin (one of DM0-DM5). The EMCON can be manipulated using 8-bit write.
FD2H
EMCON.3
EMCON.2
EMCON.1
EMCON.0
FD3H
EMCON.7
EMCON.6
EMCON.5
EMCON.4
The memory access clock frequency, fM, determines the read and write time for external memory. The fM should be
selected appropriately because a memory has read and write time specified and the external memory interface lines
except DM0-DM5 are shared with segment driver pins of LCD driver/controller.
13-1
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 13-1. External Memory Control Register (EMCON) Organization
Memory Read/Write Control Bit
EMCON.7
0
Memory read signal output
1
Memory write signal output
Memory Access Clock Selection Bits
EMCON.6
EMCON.5
Memory Access Clock Frequency (fM )
0
0
fxx/8
0
1
fxx/4
1
0
fxx/2
1
1
fxx/1
Address Increment Control Bit
EMCON.4
0
The address(a value of EMAR2 - EMAR0) is not increased automatically after
memory access.
1
The address(a value of EMAR2 - EMAR0) is increased automatically after
memory access.
Memory Selection Bits
EMCON.3
EMCON.2
EMCON.1
External Data Memory Selection
0
0
0
Data memory 0(DM0 active)
0
0
1
Data memory 1(DM1 active)
0
1
0
Data memory 2(DM2 active)
0
1
1
Data memory 3(DM3 active)
1
0
0
Data memory 4(DM4 active)
1
0
1
Data memory 5(DM5 active)
Memory Access Start Bit (This bit is cleared automatically when memory access is finished)
EMCON.0
0
Not busy (read)
1
Start a memory access (write) busy (read)
NOTES:
1. When it reads data from a external memory, the data are written to the register EMDR0.
2. When it writes data to a external memory, the data to the register EMDR0 are written to a external memory.
3. The external memory selection pins of P6.0/DM0 - P7.1/DM5 should be set to push-pull output and the latches should
be set to logic "1".
13-2
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
HOW TO ACCESS THE EXTERNAL MEMORY
The pin which are selected for external memory interface of DM0-DM5 should be set to push-pull output and the
latches should be set to logic “1”. The procedure for external memory interface may be summarized as follows.
1. To read data form external memory
— Load the address of external memory to EMAR2-EMAR0 in bank 15.
— Clear EMCON.7 to logic 0, load appropriate values to EMCON.6-.1
— Wait for memory access set-up time
— Set EMCON.0 to logic 1.
— Check EMCON.0 until for not busy ("0")
— Read a value of EMDR0 in bank 15 if EMCON.0 is "0".
2. To write data to external memory
— Load the address of external memory to EMAR2-EMAR0 in bank 15.
— Load data to EMDR0 in bank 15
— Set EMCON.7 to logic 1, load appropriate values to EMCON.6-.1
— Wait for memory access set-up time
— Set EMCON.0 to logic 1.
— Check EMCON.0 until not busy (0) before writing other data to external memory.
13-3
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
F PROGRAMMING TIP — External Memory Interface
The external memory selection pins of P6.0/DM0-P7.1/DM5 should be set to push-pull output and the latches should
be set to logic “1”.
1.
To read data form external memory when DM0 and DM1 are used to control CS pins external memories
respectively.
;
DELAY
NEXT
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMB
15
EA,#03H
PMG2,EA
EA,#03H
P6,EA
EA,#00010000B
LD
:
:
:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMCON,EA
LD
AND
DECS
JPS
LD
SMB
LD
EA,EMCON
A,#0001B
A
DELAY
EA,EMDR0
0
ADATR_B,EA
; Initial part
; DM0 and DM1 ← output
; DM0(P6.0) and DM1 (P6.1) latches ← "1"
; Read mode, increase address automatically,
; select DM0, fM = fxx/8
; need set-up time
EMB
15
EA,#00H
EMAR0,EA
EMAR1,EA
A,#4H
EMAR2,A
EA,#00010001B
EMCON,EA
; External memory address ← 40000H
; Start a memory reading
; Data
A0-A18
D0-D7
SRAM
(1)
DW
(2)
DR
DM0 ( Active)
DM1
[S3C72Q5]
13-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
F PROGRAMMING TIP — External Memory Interface (Continued)
2.
To write data to external memory when DM0 and DM1 are used to control CS pins of external memory,
respectively.
;
DELAY
NEXT
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMB
15
EA,#03H
PMG2,EA
EA,#03H
P6,EA
EA,#10010010B
LD
:
:
:
BITS
SMB
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
LD
EMCON,EA
LD
AND
DECS
JPS
SMB
LD
SMB
LD
EA,EMCON
A,#0001B
A
DELAY
0
EA,ADATR_B
15
EMDR0,EA
; Initial part
; DM0 and DM1 ← output
; DM0(P6.0) and DM1 (P6.1) latches ← “1”
; Write mode, increase address automatically,
; select DM1, fM = fxx/8
; need set-up time
EMB
15
EA,#00H
EMAR0,EA
EMAR1,EA
A,#4H
EMAR2,A
EA,#38H
EMDR0,EA
EA,#10010011B
EMCON,EA
; External memory address 40000H
; Data
; Write mode, increase address automatically,
; select DM1, fM = fxx/8
; Data
A0-A18
D0-D7
SRAM
(0)
DW
(1)
DR
DM0
DM1 ( Active)
[S3C72Q5]
13-5
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EXTERNAL MEMORY WRITE CYCLE TIMING DIAGRAM
Memory Access Clock: f M
EMCON.0
"1"
SEG16/D0-SEG23/D7
SEG24/A0-SEG42/A18
SEG Signal
SEG43/DR
SEG Signal
SEG Signal
SEG44/DW
SEG Signal
SEG Signal
D0-D7, A0-A18
SEG Signal
DM
2/f M
Figure 13-1. External Memory Write Cycle Timing Diagram
EXTERNAL MEMORY READ CYCLE TIMING DIAGRAM
Memory Access Clock: f M
SEG16/D0-SEG23/D7
SEG24/A0-SEG42/A18
SEG Signal
SEG43/DR
SEG Signal
SEG Signal
SEG44/DW
SEG Signal
SEG Signal
D0-D7, A0-A18
SEG Signal
DM
2/f M
Figure 13-2. External Memory Read Cycle Timing Diagram
13-6
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
EXTERNAL MEMORY INTERFACE
LCD Pannel
A0-A18
A0-A18
D0-D7
D0-D7
DR
DE
DW
WE
DM0
CS
SRAM0
(4 M bit)
1
S3C72Q5X
DM1
DM2
DM3
DM4
DM5
2
3
CS
4
CS
5
CS
CS
CS
Figure 13-3. External Interface Function Diagram (S3C72Q5, SRAM, EPROM, EEPROM)
13-7
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
14
ELECTRICAL DATA
ELECTRICAL DATA
OVERVIEW
In this section, information on S3C72Q5 electrical characteristics is presented as tables and graphics. The
information is arranged in the following order:
Standard Electrical Characteristics
— Absolute maximum ratings
— D.C electrical characteristics
— Main-system clock oscillator characteristics
— Sub-system clock oscillator characteristics
— I/O capacitance
— A.C electrical characteristics
— Operating voltage range
Miscellaneous Timing Waveforms
— A.C timing measurement point
— Clock timing measurement at XIN
— Clock timing measurement at XT IN
— TCL0 timing
— Input timing for RESET
— Input timing for external interrupts
Stop Mode Characteristics and Timing Waveforms
— RAM data retention supply voltage in stop mode
— Stop mode release timing when initiated by RESET
— Stop mode release timing when initiated by an interrupt request
14-1
ELECTRICAL DATA
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 14-1. Absolute Maximum Ratings
(TA = 25 °C)
Parameter
Supply Voltage
Symbol
Conditions
Rating
Units
VDD
–
– 0.3 to + 6.5
V
– 0.3 to VDD + 0.3
V
– 0.3 to VDD + 0.3
V
One I/O pin active
– 15
mA
All I/O pins active
– 30
One I/O pin active
+ 30 (Peak value)
Input Voltage
VI
Output Voltage
VO
Output Current High
IOH
Output Current Low
Ports 0, 1, 4 - 7
–
IOL
mA
+ 15 (note)
Total for ports 0, 1, 4 - 7, 8
+ 100 (Peak value)
+ 60 (note)
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
NOTE:
TA
–
– 25 to + 85
°C
Tstg
–
– 65 to + 150
°C
The values for Output Current Low ( IOL ) are calculated as Peak Value ×
Duty .
Table 14-2. D.C Electrical Characteristics
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Operating
Voltage
VDD
Input High
VIH1
fx = 0.4 – 3MHz, fxt = 32.8kHz
fx = 0.4 – 6MHz
Ports 0, 1, 4 - 7 and D0 – D7
Voltage
VIH2
RESET
VIH3
XIN, XOUT, XTIN, and XTOUT
Input Low
VIL1
Ports 0, 1, 4 - 7 and D0 – D7
Voltage
VIL2
RESET
VIL3
XIN, XOUT, XTIN, and XTOUT
VOH
VDD = 4.5 V to 5.5 V
Output High
Voltage
Output Low
Voltage
Typ
Max
Units
1.8
2.7
0.8V DD
–
–
–
5.5
5.5
VDD
V
0.7V DD
VDD
VDD - 0.1
VDD
–
0.2V DD
0.3V DD
0.1
VDD - 1.0
–
–
2.0
IOH = – 1 mA
VOL
Ports 0,1,4-7, Memory access pins
VDD = 4.5 V to 5.5 V
IOL = 15 mA
Ports 0,1,4-7, Memory access pins
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V
IOL = 1.6 mA
14-2
Min
0.4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ELECTRICAL DATA
Table 14-2. D.C Characteristics (Continued)
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Input High
Leakage Current
ILIH1
VI = VDD
All input pins except those
specified below for ILIH2
ILIH2
VI = VDD
Min
Typ
Max
Units
–
–
3
µA
20
XIN, XOUT, XTIN, XTOUT
Input Low
Leakage Current
ILIL1
VI = 0 V
-3
All input pins except RESET,
XIN, XOUT, XTIN, and XTOUT
ILIL2
VI = 0 V
- 20
XIN, XOUT, XTIN, XTOUT
Output High
Leakage Current
ILOH
VO = VDD
All output pins
Output Low
Leakage Current
ILOL
VO = 0 V
Pull-Up Resistor
RL1
3
-3
All output pins
VI = 0 V; VDD = 5V; TA = 25 °C
25
50
75
VDD = 3V
50
100
150
VI = 0 V; VDD = 5V; RESET
100
200
300
VDD = 3V
250
500
750
TA = 25 °C
46
66
86
23
33
43
kΩ
Ports 0, 1, 4 - 7
RL2
TA = 25 °C
LCD Voltage
Dividing Resistor
RLCD1
When LMOD.1 = "0"
RLCD2
TA = 25 °C
When LMOD.1 = "1"
VLC1-COMi
Voltage Drop
(i = 0-11)
VDC
- 15 µA per common pin
–
–
120
VLC1-SEGx
Voltage Drop
(x = 0-59)
VDS
- 15 µA per common pin
–
–
120
Middle Output
VLC2
VDD = 2.4V to 5.5V, 1/4 bias
0.75V DD - 0.2
0.75V DD
0.75V DD + 0.2
Voltage (1)
VLC3
LCD clock = 0Hz
0.5V DD - 0.2
0.5V DD
0.5V DD + 0.2
0.25V DD - 0.2
0.25V DD
0.25V DD + 0.2
VLC4
mV
V
NOTES:
1. It is middle output voltage when LCD controller/driver is 1/12 duty and 1/4 bias.
2. Low leakage current is absolute value.
14-3
ELECTRICAL DATA
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 14-2. D.C Characteristics (continued)
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Parameter
Supply
Current (1)
Symbol
IDD1 (2)
Conditions
Run mode
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
Min
Typ
Max
Units
–
4.5
3.2
8.0
5.5
mA
Crystal oscillator
C1 = C2 = 22pF
IDD2 (2)
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
2.0
1.5
4.0
3.0
Idle mode
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
1.3
1.0
2.5
1.8
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
0.5
0.4
1.5
1.0
Crystal oscillator
C1 = C2 = 22pF
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
IDD3 (3)
Run mode; VDD = 3 V ± 10%
32 kHz crystal oscillator
20
35
IDD4 (3)
Idle mode; VDD = 3 V ± 10%
32 kHz crystal oscillator
5.0
15
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
2.5
5
0.5
3
0.2
3
0.1
2
IDD5
SCMOD
= 0000B
XTIN = 0V
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
SCMOD
= 0100B
µA
NOTES:
1. Currents in the following circuits are not included; on-chip pull-up resistors, internal LCD voltage dividing resistors,
output port drive currents.
2. Data includes power consumption for subsystem clock oscillation.
3. When the system clock control register, SCMOD, is set to 1001B, main system clock oscillation stops and the
subsystem clock is used.
When the LCD display is on, LCD module current may be about 100uA.
4. Every values in this table is measured when the power control register (PCON) is set to "0011B".
14-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ELECTRICAL DATA
Table 14-3. Main System Clock Oscillator Characteristics
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Oscillator
Clock
Configuration
Parameter
Oscillation frequency(fx) (1)
Ceramic
Oscillator
XIN
XOUT
C1
Stabilization time (2)
Oscillation frequency(fx) (1)
XIN
XOUT
C1
Typ
Max
Units
2.7V – 5.5V
0.4
–
6
MHz
1.8V – 5.5V
0.4
–
3
After VDD reaches the
–
–
4
ms
2.7V – 5.5V
0.4
–
6
MHz
1.8V – 5.5V
0.4
–
3
Stabilization time (2)
VDD = 4.5 V to 5.5 V
–
–
10
VDD = 2.0 V to 5.5 V
–
–
30
2.7V – 5.5V
0.4
–
6
1.8V – 5.5V
0.4
–
3
–
83.3
–
1250
ns
VDD = 5 V
0.4
–
2
MHz
VDD = 3 V
0.4
–
1
ms
C2
XIN input frequency(fx) (1)
External
Clock
X IN
Min
minimum level of its
variable range;
VDD = 2.0 V to 5.5 V
C2
Crystal
Oscillator
Test Condition
XOUT
XIN input high and low level
MHz
width (t XH, tXL)
RC
Oscillator
XIN
XOUT
Frequency
R
NOTES:
1. Oscillation frequency and input frequency data are for oscillator characteristics only.
2. Stabilization time is the interval required for oscillator stabilization after a power-on or release of STOP mode.
14-5
ELECTRICAL DATA
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 14-4. Recommended Oscillator Constants
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Manufacturer
TDK
Series
Number (1)
Frequency Range
Oscillator Voltage
Range (V)
C1
C2
MIN
MAX
Remarks
FCR–M5
3.58 MHz-6.0 MHz
33
33
2.0
5.5
Leaded Type
FCR–MC5
3.58 MHz-6.0 MHz
(2)
(2)
2.0
5.5
On-chip C
Leaded Type
CCR–MC3
3.58 MHz-6.0 MHz
(3)
(3)
2.0
5.5
On-chip C
SMD Type
NOTES:
1. Please specify normal oscillator frequency.
2. On-chip C: 30pF built in.
3. On-chip C: 38pF built in.
14-6
Load Cap (pF)
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ELECTRICAL DATA
Table 14-5. Subsystem Clock Oscillator Characteristics
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Oscillator
Clock
Configuration
Parameter
Test Condition
Min
Typ
Max
Units
–
32
32.768
35
kHz
VDD = 4.5 V to 5.5 V
–
1.0
2
s
VDD = 2.0 V to 5.5 V
–
–
10
–
32
–
100
kHz
5
–
15
uS
Oscillation frequency (1)
Crystal
Oscillator
XT IN XT OUT
C1
Stabilization time (2)
C2
XTIN input frequency (1)
External
Clock
XT IN XT OUT
XTIN input high and low
level width (t XTL, tXTH)
NOTES:
1. Oscillation frequency and XT IN input frequency data are for oscillator characteristics only.
2.
Stabilization time is the interval required for oscillating stabilization after a power-on occurs or release of sub clock stop
Table 14-6. Input/Output Capacitance
(TA = 25 °C, VDD = 0 V )
Parameter
Input Capacitance
Output Capacitance
I/O Capacitance
Symbol
CIN
Condition
f = 1 MHz; Unmeasured
pins are returned to VSS
Min
Typ
Max
Units
–
–
15
pF
COUT
CIO
14-7
ELECTRICAL DATA
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 14-7. A.C. Electrical Characteristics
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Parameter
Instruction Cycle
Time (note)
TCL0 Input
Frequency
Symbol
tCY
fTI
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Units
VDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V
0.67
–
64
uS
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V
1.33
With subsystem clock (fxt)
114
122
125
0
–
1.5
MHz
1
kHz
–
uS
VDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V
64
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V
TCL0 Input High,
tTIH
VDD = 2.7 V to 5.5 V
0.48
Low Width
tTIL
VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V
1.8
fINTH,
INT0, INT1, KS0 - KS7
10
Interrupt Input High,
Low Width
–
fINTL
K0 - K6
RESET Input Low
Width
NOTE:
14-8
tRSL
Input
10
Unless otherwise specified, Instruction Cycle Time condition values assume a main system clock ( fx ) source.
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ELECTRICAL DATA
CPU Clock
Main Oscillator Frequency
1.5 MHz
6 MHz
0.75 MHz
3 MHz
15.625 kHz
1
2
3
1.8 V
2.7 V
4
5
6
7
5.5 V
Supply Voltage (V)
CPU clock = 1/n x oscillator frequency (n = 4, 8 or 64)
Figure 14-1. Standard Operating Voltage Range
Table 14-8. RAM Data Retention Supply Voltage in Stop Mode
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C)
Parameter
Symbol
Conditions
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Data retention supply voltage
VDDDR
–
1.8
–
5.5
V
Data retention supply current
IDDDR
–
0.1
10
uA
Release signal set time
tSREL
0
–
–
uS
Oscillator stabilization wait
time (1)
tWAIT
Released by RESET
–
217/fx
–
ms
Released by interrupt
–
(2)
–
VDDDR = 1.8 V
–
NOTES:
1. During oscillator stabilization wait time, all CPU operations must be stopped to avoid instability during oscillator startup.
2. Use the basic timer mode register (BMOD) interval timer to delay execution of CPU instructions during the wait time.
14-9
ELECTRICAL DATA
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
TIMING WAVEFORMS
Internal RESET
Operation
~
~
Idle Mode
Stop Mode
Operating Mode
Data Retention Mode
~
~
VDD
VDDDR
Execution of
STOP Instruction
RESET
t WAIT
tSREL
Figure 14-2. Stop Mode Release Timing When Initiated By RESET
Idle Mode
~
~
Stop Mode
Normal
Operating
Mode
Data Retention
~
~
VDD
VDDDR
Execution of
STOP Instruction
t SREL
tWAIT
Power-down Mode Terminating Signal
(Interrupt Request)
Figure 14-3. Stop Mode Release Timing When Initiated By Interrupt Request
14-10
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ELECTRICAL DATA
0.8 V DD
0.8 V DD
Measurement
Points
0.2 V DD
0.2 V DD
Figure 14-4. A.C. Timing Measurement Points (Except for XIN and XTIN)
t INTL
INT0, 1
INTP0 (K0-K6)
KS0 to KS2
t INTH
0.8 VDD
0.2 VDD
Figure 14-5. Input Timing for External Interrupts and Quasi -Interrupts
14-11
ELECTRICAL DATA
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
1/fx
tXL
tXH
XIN
VDD - 0.1 V
0.1 V
Figure 14-6. Clock Timing Measurement at XIN
1/fxt
t XTL
tXTH
XT IN
VDD - 0.1 V
0.1 V
Figure 14-7. Clock Timing Measurement at XTIN
14-12
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
ELECTRICAL DATA
1/f TI
t TIL
tTIH
TCL0
0.8 V DD
0.2 V DD
Figure 14-6. TCL0 Timing
tRSL
RESET
0.3 VDD
Figure 14-7. Input Timing for RESET Signal
14-13
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
MECHANICAL DATA
15
MECHANICAL DATA
OVERVIEW
The S3C72Q5 microcontroller is currently available in a 100-pin QFP package.
23.90 ± 0.3
0-8
14.00 ± 0.2
0.15
#1
0.65
0.80 ± 0.20
#100
0.3 ± 0.1
+0.10
-0.05
0.10 MAX
100-QFP-1420C
(0.83)
17.90 ± 0.3
20.00 ± 0.2
(0.58)
0.05 MIN
0.10 MAX
2.65 ± 0.10
3.00 MAX
0.80 ± 0.20
NOTE : Dimensions are in millimeters.
Figure 15-1. 100-QFP-1420 Package Dimensions
15-1
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
16
S3P72Q5 OTP
S3P72Q5 OTP
OVERVIEW
The S3P72Q5 single-chip CMOS microcontroller is the OTP (One Time Programmable) version of the S3C72Q5
microcontroller. It has an on-chip OTP ROM instead of masked ROM. The EPROM is accessed by serial data
format.
The S3P72Q5 is fully compatible with the S3C72Q5, both in function and in pin configuration. Because of its simple
programming requirements, the S3P72Q5 is ideal for use as an evaluation chip for the S3C72Q5.
16-1
S3P72Q5 OTP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
SEG39/A15
SEG40/A16
SEG41/A17
SEG42/A18
SEG43/DR
SEG44/DW
SEG45
SEG46
SEG47
SEG48
SEG49
SEG50
SEG51
SEG52
SEG53
SEG54
SEG55
SEG56
SEG57
SEG58
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
SEG59
COM4
COM5
COM6
COM7
COM8
P7.3/KS7/COM9
P7.2/KS6/COM10
P7.1/KS5/DM5/COM11
P7.0/KS4/DM4
P6.3/KS3/DM3
P6.2/KS2/DM2
SDAT/P6.1/KS1/DM1
SCLK/P6.0/KS0/DM0
VDD
VSS
XOUT
XIN
VPP/TEST
XTIN
XTOUT
RESET
P5.0
P5.1
P5.2/BUZ
P5.3/CLO
P4.0/TCL0
P4.1/TCLO0
P4.2/INT0
P4.3/INT1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
S3P72Q5
(100-QFP-1420C)
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
SEG8/P8.8
SEG7/P8.7
SEG6/P8.6
SEG5/P8.5
SEG4/P8.4
SEG3/P8.3
SEG2/P8.2
SEG1/P8.1
SEG0/P8.0
COM3
COM2
COM1
COM0
P0.0/K0
P0.1/K1
P0.2/K2
P0.3/K3
P1.0/K4
P1.1/K5
P1.2/K6
Figure 16-1. S3P72Q5 Pin Assignments (100-QFP Package)
16-2
SEG38/A14
SEG37/A13
SEG36/A12
SEG35/A11
SEG34/A10
SEG33/A9
SEG32/A8
SEG31/A7
SEG30/A6
SEG29/A5
SEG28/A4
SEG27/A3
SEG26/A2
SEG25/A1
SEG24/A0
SEG23/D7
SEG22/D6
SEG21/D5
SEG20/D4
SEG19/D3
SEG18/D2
SEG17/D1
SEG16/D0
SEG15/P8.15
SEG14/P8.14
SEG13/P8.13
SEG12/P8.12
SEG11/P8.11
SEG10/P8.10
SEG9/P8.9
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
S3P72Q5 OTP
Table 16-1. Descriptions of Pins Used to Read/Write the EPROM
Main Chip
During Programming
Pin Name
Pin Name
Pin No.
I/O
Function
P3.1
SDAT
13
I/O
Serial data pin. Output port when reading and input port
when writing. Can be assigned as a Input / push-pull output
port.
P3.0
SCLK
14
I/O
Serial clock pin. Input only pin.
TEST
VPP(TEST)
19
I
Power supply pin for EPROM cell writing (indicates that
OTP enters into the writing mode). When 12.5 V is applied,
OTP is in writing mode and when 5 V is applied, OTP is in
reading mode. (Option)
RESET
RESET
22
I
Chip initialization
VDD / VSS
VDD / VSS
15/16
I
Logic power supply pin. VDD should be tied to +5 V during
programming.
Table 16-2. Comparison of S3P72Q5 and S3C72Q5 Features
Characteristic
S3P72Q5
S3C72Q5
Program Memory
16 Kbyte EPROM
16 Kbyte mask ROM
Operating Voltage (V DD)
1.8 V to 5.5 V
1.8 V to 5.5V
OTP Programming Mode
VDD = 5 V, VPP(TEST)=12.5V
Pin Configuration
100 QFP
100 QFP
EPROM Programmability
User Program 1 time
Programmed at the factory
OPERATING MODE CHARACTERISTICS
When 12.5 V is supplied to the VPP(TEST) pin of the S3P72Q5, the EPROM programming mode is entered. The
operating mode (read, write, or read protection) is selected according to the input signals to the pins listed in Table
16-3 below.
Table 16-3. Operating Mode Selection Criteria
VDD
VPP(TEST)
REG/MEM
Address (A15-A0)
R/W
5V
5V
0
0000H
1
EPROM read
12.5 V
0
0000H
0
EPROM program
12.5 V
0
0000H
1
EPROM verify
12.5 V
1
0E3FH
0
EPROM read protection
NOTE:
Mode
"0" means Low level; "1" means High level.
16-3
S3P72Q5 OTP
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 16-4. D.C Characteristics
(TA = – 25 °C to + 85 °C, VDD = 1.8 V to 5.5 V)
Parameter
Supply
Current (1)
Symbol
IDD1 (2)
Conditions
Run mode
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
Min
Typ
Max
Units
–
4.5
3.2
8.0
5.5
mA
Crystal oscillator
C1 = C2 = 22pF
IDD2 (2)
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
2.0
1.5
4.0
3.0
Idle mode
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
1.3
1.0
2.5
1.8
6 MHz
4.19 MHz
0.5
0.4
1.5
1.0
Crystal oscillator
C1 = C2 = 22pF
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
IDD3 (3)
Run mode; VDD = 3 V ± 10%
32 kHz crystal oscillator
20
35
IDD4 (3)
Idle mode; VDD = 3 V ± 10%
32 kHz crystal oscillator
5.0
15
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
2.5
5
0.5
3
0.2
3
0.1
2
IDD5
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
SCMOD
= 0000B
XTIN = 0V
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
VDD = 5 V ± 10%
Stop mode; TA = 25 °C
VDD = 3 V ± 10%
SCMOD
= 0100B
µA
NOTES:
1. Currents in the following circuits are not included; on-chip pull-up resistors, internal LCD voltage dividing resistors,
output port drive currents.
2. Data includes power consumption for subsystem clock oscillation.
3. When the system clock control register, SCMOD, is set to 1001B, main system clock oscillation stops and the
subsystem clock is used.
When the LCD display is on, LCD module current may be about 100uA.
4. Every values in this table is measured when the power control register (PCON) is set to "0011B".
16-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
S3P72Q5 OTP
CPU Clock
Main Oscillator Frequency
1.5 MHz
6 MHz
0.75 MHz
3 MHz
15.625 kHz
1
2
3
1.8 V
2.7 V
4
5
6
7
5.5 V
Supply Voltage (V)
CPU clock = 1/n x oscillator frequency (n = 4, 8 or 64)
Figure 16-2. Standard Operating Voltage Range
16-5
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
17
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
OVERVIEW
Samsung provides a powerful and easy-to-use development support system in turnkey form. The development
support system is configured with a host system, debugging tools, and support software. For the host system, any
standard computer that operates with MS-DOS as its operating system can be used. One type of debugging tool
including hardware and software is provided: the sophisticated and powerful in-circuit emulator, SMDS2+, for S3C7,
S3C9, S3C8 families of microcontrollers. The SMDS2+ is a new and improved version of SMDS2. Samsung also
offers support software that includes debugger, assembler, and a program for setting options.
SHINE
Samsung Host Interface for In-Circuit Emulator, SHINE, is a multi-window based debugger for SMDS2+. SHINE
provides pull-down and pop-up menus, mouse support, function/hot keys, and context-sensitive hyper-linked help. It
has an advanced, multiple-windowed user interface that emphasizes ease of use. Each window can be sized, moved,
scrolled, highlighted, added, or removed completely.
SAMA ASSEMBLER
The Samsung Arrangeable Microcontroller (SAM) Assembler, SAMA, is a universal assembler, and generates object
code in standard hexadecimal format. Assembled program code includes the object code that is used for ROM data
and required SMDS program control data. To assemble programs, SAMA requires a source file and an auxiliary
definition (DEF) file with device specific information.
SASM57
The SASM57 is an relocatable assembler for Samsung's S3C7-series microcontrollers. The SASM57 takes a source
file containing assembly language statements and translates into a corresponding source code, object code and
comments. The SASM57 supports macros and conditional assembly. It runs on the MS-DOS operating system. It
produces the relocatable object code only, so the user should link object file. Object files can be linked with other
object files and loaded into memory.
HEX2ROM
HEX2ROM file generates ROM code from HEX file which has been produced by assembler. ROM code must be
needed to fabricate a microcontroller which has a mask ROM. When generating the ROM code (.OBJ file) by
HEX2ROM, the value 'FF' is filled into the unused ROM area upto the maximum ROM size of the target device
automatically.
TARGET BOARDS
Target boards are available for all S3C7-series microcontrollers. All required target system cables and adapters are
included with the device-specific target board.
OTPs
One time programmable microcontroller (OTP) for the S3C72Q5 microcontroller and OTP programmer (Gang) are
now available.
17-1
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
IBM-PC AT or Compatible
RS-232C
SMDS2+
Target
Application
System
PROM/OTP Writer Unit
RAM Break/Display Unit
Bus
Probe
Adapter
Trace/Timer Unit
SAM4 Base Unit
Power Supply Unit
POD
TB72Q5
Target
Board
Eva
Chip
Figure 17-1. SMDS Product Configuration (SMDS2+)
17-2
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
TB72Q5 TARGET BOARD
The TB72Q5 target board is used for the S3C72Q5 microcontroller. It is supported by the SMDS2+ development
system.
TB72Q5
To User_VCC
Off
On
U2
RESET
Stop
Idle
+
+
74HC11
XTI
XTAL
MDS
100-Pin Connector
25
J101
51
50
99
52
50-Pin Connector
160 QFP
S3E7200
EVA Chip
1
2
50-Pin Connector
1
J102
XI
External
Triggers
XTAL
Ch1
49
100
MDS
Ch2
SM1271A
Figure 17-2. TB72Q5 Target Board Configuration
17-3
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
Table 17-1. Power Selection Settings for TB72Q5
'To User_Vcc' Settings
Operating Mode
Comments
To User_VCC
Off
On
TB72Q5
Target
System
VCC
VSS
The SMDS2/SMDS2+ supplies
VCC to the target board
(evaluation chip) and the target
system.
VCC
SMDS2/SMDS2+
To User_VCC
Off
On
TB72Q5
External
VCC
Target
System
VSS
The SMDS2/SMDS2+ supplies
VCC only to the target board
(evaluation chip). The target
system must have its own
power supply.
VCC
SMDS2+
Table 17-2. Main-clock Selection Settings for TB72Q5
Sub Clock Setting
XI
XTAL
Operating Mode
Set the XI switch to “MDS”
when the target board is
connected to the
SMDS2/SMDS2+.
EVA Chip
S3E72Q0
MDS
XIN
Comments
XOUT
No Connection
100 Pin Connector
SMDS2/SMDS2+
Set the XI switch to “XTAL”
when the target board is used
as a standalone unit, and is
not connected to the
SMDS2/SMDS2+.
XI
XTAL
MDS
EVA Chip
S3E72Q0
XIN
XOUT
XTAL
Target Board
17-4
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
Table 17-3. Sub-clock Selection Settings for TB72Q5
Sub Clock Setting
Operating Mode
XTI
XTAL
MDS
Set the XTI switch to “MDS”
when the target board is
connected to the
SMDS2/SMDS2+.
EVA Chip
S3E72Q0
XT IN
Comments
XT OUT
No Connection
100 Pin Connector
SMDS2/SMDS2+
XTI
XTAL
MDS
Set the XTI switch to “XTAL”
when the target board is used
as a standalone unit, and is
not connected to the
SMDS2/SMDS2+.
EVA Chip
S3E72Q0
XT IN
XT OUT
XTAL
Target Board
IDLE LED
This LED is ON when the evaluation chip (S3E72Q0) is in idle mode.
STOP LED
This LED is ON when the evaluation chip (S3E72Q0) is in stop mode.
17-5
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
S3C72Q5/P72Q5
J101
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
COM4
COM6
COM8
P7.2/KS6/COM10
P7.0/KS4/DM4
P6.2/KS2/DM2
P6.0/KS0/DM0
VSS
XIN
XT IN
RESET
P5.1
P5.3/CLO
P4.1/TCLO0
P4.3/INT1
P1.1/K5
P0.3/K3
P0.1/K1
COM0
COM2
SEG0/P8.0
SEG2/P8.2
SEG4/P8.4
SEG6/P8.5
SEG8/P8.8
SEG9/P8.9
SEG11/P8.11
SEG13/P8.13
SEG15/P8.15
SEG17/D1
SEG19/D3
SEG21/D5
SEG23/D7
SEG25/A1
SEG27/A3
SEG29/A5
SEG31/A7
SEG33/A9
SEG35/A11
SEG37/A13
SEG39/A15
SEG41/A17
SEG43/DR
SEG45
SEG47
SEG49
SEG51
SEG53
SEG55
SEG57
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
71
73
75
77
79
81
83
85
87
89
91
93
95
97
99
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
74
76
78
80
82
84
86
88
90
92
94
96
98
100
50-Pin DIP Connector
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
50-Pin DIP Connector
SEG59
COM5
COM7
P7.3/KS7/COM9
P7.1/KS5/DM5/COM11
P6.3/KS3/DM3
P6.1/KS1/DM1
V DD
XOUT
TEST
XT OUT
P5.0
P5.2/BUZ
P4.0/TCL0
P4.2/INT0
P1.2/K6
P1.0/K4
P0.2/K2
P0.0/K0
COM1
COM3
SEG1/P8.1
SEG3/P8.3
SEG5/P8.5
SEG7/P8.7
J102
Figure 17-3. 50-Pin Connectors for TB72Q5
Target Board
J101
2
J102
51
J102
52
51
52
J101
1
2
49
50
Target Cable for 50-Pin Connector
Part Name: (AS50D-A)
Order Cods: SM6305
49
50
99 100
99 100
50-Pin DIP Connector
50-Pin DIP Connector
1
Target System
Figure 17-4. TB72Q5 Adapter Cable for 100-QFP Package (S3C72Q5/P72Q5)
17-6
SEG10/P8.10
SEG12/P8.12
SEG14/P8.14
SEG16/D0
SEG18/D2
SEG20/D4
SEG22/D6
SEG24/A0
SEG26/A2
SEG28/A4
SEG30/A6
SEG32/A8
SEG34/A10
SEG36/A12
SEG38/A14
SEG40/A16
SEG42/A18
SEG44/DW
SEG46
SEG48
SEG50
SEG52
SEG54
SEG56
SEG58
S3C7 SERIES MASK ROM ORDER FORM
Product description:
Device Number:
S3C7__________- ___________(write down the ROM code number)
Product Order Form:
Package
Pellet
Wafer Package Type: __________
Package Marking (Check One):
Standard
Custom A
Custom B
(Max 10 chars)
SEC
(Max 10 chars each line)
@ YWW
Device Name
@ YWW
Device Name
@ YWW
@ : Assembly site code, Y : Last number of assembly year, WW : Week of assembly
Delivery Dates and Quantities:
Deliverable
Required Delivery Date
Quantity
Comments
–
Not applicable
See ROM Selection Form
ROM code
Customer sample
Risk order
See Risk Order Sheet
Please answer the following questions:
F
For what kind of product will you be using this order?
New product
Upgrade of an existing product
Replacement of an existing product
Other
If you are replacing an existing product, please indicate the former product name
(
F
)
What are the main reasons you decided to use a Samsung microcontroller in your product?
Please check all that apply.
Price
Product quality
Features and functions
Development system
Technical support
Delivery on time
Used same micom before
Quality of documentation
Samsung reputation
Mask Charge (US$ / Won):
____________________________
Customer Information:
Company Name:
Signatures:
___________________
________________________
(Person placing the order)
Telephone number
_________________________
__________________________________
(Technical Manager)
(For duplicate copies of this form, and for additional ordering information, please contact your local
Samsung sales representative. Samsung sales offices are listed on the back cover of this book.)
S3C7 SERIES
REQUEST FOR PRODUCTION AT CUSTOMER RISK
Customer Information:
Company Name:
________________________________________________________________
Department:
________________________________________________________________
Telephone Number:
__________________________
Date:
__________________________
Fax: _____________________________
Risk Order Information:
Device Number:
S3C7________- ________ (write down the ROM code number)
Package:
Number of Pins: ____________
Intended Application:
________________________________________________________________
Product Model Number:
________________________________________________________________
Package Type: _____________________
Customer Risk Order Agreement:
We hereby request SEC to produce the above named product in the quantity stated below. We believe our risk order
product to be in full compliance with all SEC production specifications and, to this extent, agree to assume
responsibility for any and all production risks involved.
Order Quantity and Delivery Schedule:
Risk Order Quantity:
_____________________ PCS
Delivery Schedule:
Delivery Date (s)
Signatures:
Quantity
_______________________________
(Person Placing the Risk Order)
Comments
______________________________________
(SEC Sales Representative)
(For duplicate copies of this form, and for additional ordering information, please contact your local
Samsung sales representative. Samsung sales offices are listed on the back cover of this book.)
S3C72Q5 MASK OPTION SELECTION FORM
Device Number:
S3C72Q5-_________ (write down the ROM code number)
Attachment (Check one):
Diskette
PROM
Customer Checksum:
________________________________________________________________
Company Name:
________________________________________________________________
Signature (Engineer):
________________________________________________________________
Please answer the following questions:
F
Application (Product Model ID:
_______________________)
Audio
Video
Telecom
LCD Databank
Caller ID
LCD Game
Industrials
Home Appliance
Office Automation
Remocon
Other
Please describe in detail its application
__________________________________________________________________________
_
S3P7 SERIES OTP FACTORY WRITING ORDER FORM (1/2)
Product Description:
Device Number:
S3P ________-________(write down the ROM code number)
Product Order Form:
Package
If the product order form is package:
Pellet
Package Type:
Wafer
_____________________
Package Marking (Check One):
Standard
Custom A
Custom B
(Max 10 chars)
SEC
(Max 10 chars each line)
@ YWW
Device Name
@ YWW
Device Name
@ YWW
@ : Assembly site code, Y : Last number of assembly year, WW : Week of assembly
Delivery Dates and Quantity:
ROM Code Release Date
Required Delivery Date of Device
Quantity
Please answer the following questions:
F
What is the purpose of this order?
New product development
Upgrade of an existing product
Replacement of an existing microcontroller
Other
If you are replacing an existing microcontroller, please indicate the former microcontroller name
(
F
)
What are the main reasons you decided to use a Samsung microcontroller in your product?
Please check all that apply.
Price
Product quality
Features and functions
Development system
Technical support
Delivery on time
Used same micom before
Quality of documentation
Samsung reputation
Customer Information:
Company Name:
Signatures:
___________________
________________________
(Person placing the order)
Telephone number
_________________________
__________________________________
(Technical Manager)
S3P72Q5 OTP FACTORY WRITING ORDER FORM (2/2)
Device Number:
S3P ___-__________ (write down the ROM code number)
Customer Checksums:
_______________________________________________________________
Company Name:
________________________________________________________________
Signature (Engineer):
________________________________________________________________
Read Protection (1):
Yes
No
Please answer the following questions:
F
Are you going to continue ordering this device?
Yes
No
If so, how much will you be ordering?
F
_________________pcs
Application (Product Model ID: _______________________)
Audio
Video
Telecom
LCD Databank
Caller ID
LCD Game
Industrials
Home Appliance
Office Automation
Remocon
Other
Please describe in detail its application
__________________________________________________________________________
NOTES:
1. Once you choose a read protection, you cannot read again the programming code from the EPROM.
2. FLASH MCU Writing will be executed in our manufacturing site.
3. The writing program is completely verified by a customer. Samsung does not take on any responsibility for errors
occurred from the writing program.
(For duplicate copies of this form, and for additional ordering information, please contact your local
Samsung sales representative. Samsung sales offices are listed on the back cover of this book.)