CHERRY CS452

CS452/453
CS452/453
2.4A/4.4A Injector Solenoid Driver
Description
The CS452/453 is a monolithic integrated circuit designed for medium
current solenoid driver applications. Its typical function is to supply full battery voltage to fuel injector(s) for rapid current rise, in order
to produce positive injector opening.
When load current reaches a preset
level (2.4A for CS452, or 4.4A for
CS453), the injector driver reduces
Features
the load current by a 4:1 ratio and
operates as a constant current
source. This condition holds the
injector open and reduces system
power dissipation.
Other solenoid or relay applications
can be equally well served by the
CS452/453. Two high impedance
inputs are provided which permit a
variety of control options and can
be driven by TTL or CMOS logic.
■ Microprocessor
Compatible Inputs
■ On-Chip Power Device
2.4A Peak, Typical CS-452
4.4A Peak, Typical CS453
■ Low Thermal Resistance
To Grounded Tab
■ 60V Peak Transient
Voltage
Absolute Maximum Ratings
■ Low Saturation Voltage
Power Supply Voltage (VCC) .........................................................................24V
VIN..........................................................................................................-6.0 to 24V
Control ..................................................................................................-6.0 to 24V
Peak Transient Voltage (46V Load Dump)..................................................60V
Internal Regulator Current.........................................................................50mA
Junction Temperature Range....................................................-40¡C to +150¡C
Operating Temperature Range (Tab Temperature) ..............-40¡C to +125¡C
Storage Temperature Range .....................................................-65¡C to +150¡C
Lead Temperature Soldering
Wave Solder (through hole styles only)...10 sec. max, 260¡C peak
■ Operates Over a 4.5V to
24V Battery Range
Package Options
Typical Application Diagram
5 Lead TO-220
Tab (Gnd)
300W
19kW
VBAT
4.5V to 24V
(60V Transient)
IOUT
VCC
VIN
OUT
VIN
Injector
CS452/453
CONTROL
1kW
40VZ (max)
1
2
3
4
5
1
Gnd
VIN
CONTROL
Gnd
OUT
VCC
Cherry Semiconductor Corporation
2000 South County Trail, East Greenwich, RI 02818
Tel: (401)885-3600 Fax: (401)885-5786
Email: info@cherry-semi.com
Web Site: www.cherry-semi.com
Rev. 12/18/97
1
A
¨
Company
CS452/453
Electrical Characteristics: VBAT= 12 VDC, TA = 25ûC, test circuit of Test Circuit diagram, unless noted
CHARACTERISTIC
MIN
Output Peak Current (Ipk)
CS452
CS453
CS452
CS453
Output Sustaining Current (Isus)
1.7
3.6
0.50
0.95
42
V(BR)CEO(sus) @ 1mA
Output Voltage in Saturated Mode
CS452 @ 1.5A
CS453 @ 3.0A
Internal Regulated Voltage
TYP
UNIT
2.9
5.2
0.70
1.25
A
A
A
A
V
2.4
4.4
0.60
1.12
50
1.2
1.6
6.9
(@VCC, Test Circuit diagram)
Input ÒonÓ Threshold Voltage
Input ÒoffÓ Threshold Voltage
Input ÒonÓ Current
@ VIN = 1.4VDC
@ VIN = 5.0VDC
MAX
V
V
V
1.4
1.3
0.7
2.0
35
220
CONTROL ÒonÓ Threshold Voltage
CONTROL Current
CONTROL = 0.8VDC
CONTROL = 5.0VDC
1.2
V
V
µA
µA
1.5
1.8
V
-5
1.0
-50
µA
µA
Input Turn On Delay (tl)
0.5
1.0
µs
Ipk sense to Isus delay (tp)
60
µs
CONTROL Signal Delay (tt)
15
µs
Input Turn Off from Saturated Mode Delay (ts)
1.0
µs
Input Turn Off from Sustain Mode Delay (td)
0.2
µs
Output Voltage Rise Time (tv)
0.4
Output Current Fall Time (tf) 4.0A
0.6
µs
1.0
µs
Package Lead Description
PACKAGE LEAD #
LEAD SYMBOL
TO-220
1
FUNCTION
VIN
Switches the injector driver on and off.
2
CONTROL
Acts to disable OUT when high.
3
Gnd
Ground connection.
4
OUT
Output Drive current.
5
VCC
Supply voltage to IC. VCC is connected to VBAT through a series
resistor (300½ typ.)
Test Circuit
VBAT
300 W/2W
1.2
High
VCC
CONTROL
S2
Low
CS452/453
RL
Injector
Load
I
2.0
mH
S1
VIN
5 Vp-p
250Hz
Square
Wave
OUT
Gnd
0-5.0 VDC
2
40 V/10 W
Zener
CS452/453
Circuit Description
Inductive actuators such as automotive electronic fuel
injectors, relays, solenoids and hammer drivers can be
powered more efficiently by providing a high current
drive until actuation (pull-in) occurs and then decreasing
the drive current to a level which will sustain actuation.
Pull-in and especially dropout times of the actuators are
also improved.
Input Signal
VIN
>1.4V
0
Load
Current
The fundamental output characteristic of the CS452/453
provides a low impedance saturated power switch until
the load current reaches a predetermined high-current
level and then changes to a current source of lower magnitude until the device is turned off. This output characteristic allows the inductive load to control its actuation time
during turn-on while minimizing power and stored energy
during the sustain period, thereby promoting a fast turnoff time.
Output
Current
Automotive injectors at present time come in two types.
The large throttle body injectors have an inductance of
about 2.0mH and an impedance of 1.2½ and require the
CS453 driver. The smaller type, popular worldwide, have
an inductance of 4.0mH and an impedance of 2.4½ and
needs about a 2.0A pulse for good results, which can be
met with the CS452. Some designs are planned which
employ two of the smaller types in parallel. The inductance of the injectors are much larger at low current,
decreasing due to armature movement and core saturation
to the values above at rated current.
2.0
4.0ms
Ipk
Ipk
Ipk (SENSE)
Isus
ti
Output
Voltage
tp
td
VZ
VBAT
VBAT - (Isus RL)
VSAT
VZ Ipk
Power
Dissipation
Operating frequencies range from 5.0Hz to 250Hz depending on the injector location and engine type. Duty cycle in
some designs reaches 80%.
VZ Isus
(VBAT - Isus RL) Isus
VSAT Ipk
Figure 1. Operating Waveforms (Max. Frequency 250Hz, CONTROL
Grounded)
Timing Diagrams
Input Voltage and Output Current vs. Time
CS453
5
2.4
0
1.8
1.2
0.6
IOUT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
5
4
0
3
2
1
IOUT
0
0
10
0
0
10
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
IOUT (Amps)
VIN (Volts)
10
IOUT (Amps)
VIN (Volts)
CS452
The CS452/453 is provided with an input lead (VIN) which
turns the injector driver ÓonÒ and ÓoffÒ. This lead has a
nominal trip level of 1.4V and an input impedance of
20k½. It is internally protected against negative voltages
and is compatible with TTL and most other logic.
Input
Signal
VIN
Output
Current
Provided in Figures 2,3, and 4 are definitions of the
switching intervals specified in the Electrical
Characteristics. Figure 3 shows that the critical switching
parameters stay under control at elevated temperatures.
In those applications where high voltage transients may
occur while the output lead (OUT) is in the Isus mode,
excessive instantaneous power dissipation may occur,
causing device failure. When this condition occurs, the
control lead (CONTROL) can be used to shut off the output stage in order to protect the CS452/453. As long as
CONTROL is in the high state (>1.5 volts, typ.), the output
will remain off. One method of sensing the supply voltage
and controlling CONTROL is to use a resistor divider
between the supply voltage and ground with CONTROL
connected to the resistor divider (see Typical Application
diagram).
Also in figure 1 is the graphically derived instantaneous
power dissipation of the CS452/453. It shows that, for
practical purposes, the worst case dissipation is less than
(Isus) (VBAT) (duty cycle).
Another application option of the control lead is to use it
to accomplish an enable/disable function. Since CONTROL is compatible with TTL and CMOS logic levels, a
logic low will enable the output, and allow it to follow the
input signal at VIN. If CONTROL is held at a logic high,
the output will be disabled regardless of the state of the
input signal.
Ipk
90%
10%
0
Output
Current
ts
tv
0
If the control function is not being used in the application,
it must be grounded or otherwise placed in a logic low
state. If CONTROL is left open, the output stage will
remain off.
tf
1.0
2.0
3.0 ms
Figure 2. Switching Waveforms (Expanded Time Scale)
The output current in the Isus mode should be oscillation
free. There is a possibility that in a given application, the
output current could oscillate for a small fraction of parts.
If this was to occur, the remedy is place a capacitor from
OUT to Ground. The value of the capacitor should not
exceed 0.01µF.
2.0
ts
1.5
1.0
tf
0.5
tv
0
-40 -20
0
20
40
60
Isus
Figure 4. Application of CONTROL
It is essential that the Zener voltage be lower than the
V(BR)CEO(sus), but not so low as to greatly stretch the load
current decay time. Without the zener, the discharge of the
load energy would be totally into the CS452/453, which, for
the high current applications, could cause the device to fail.
Output
Voltage
Ipk
tl
Figure 1 shows the operating waveforms for the simplest
mode; i.e., with CONTROL grounded. When the driver is
turned on, the current ramps up to the peak current sense
level, where some overshoot occurs because of internal
delay. The CS452/453 then reduces its output to Isus. The
fall time of the device is very rapid (²1.0µs), but the decay
of the load current takes 150 to 220 µs, while dumping the
load energy into the protection Zener clamp.
Vl Turn
Off
>1.4V
Control
>1.5V
Signal
CONTROL
There is also a control lead (CONTROL) which if held low
or grounded, permits the device to operate in saturation to
Ipk(sense), where it will switch to Isus automatically. If CONTROL is brought high (>1.5V), the output drive stage is
turned off, regardless of what state the input (VIN) is at,
and the output current goes to zero.
Switching Speed (ms)
CS452/453
Application Information
80 100 120 140
Case Temperature (ûC)
Figure3. Switching Speed vs. Temperature
4
CS452/453
Package Specification
PACKAGE THERMAL DATA
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS IN mm (INCHES)
Thermal Data
RQJC
typ
RQJA
typ
5 Lead TO-220 (Straight)
5 Lead TO-220
2.6
50
¡C/W
¡C/W
5 Lead TO-220 (Horizontal)
4.83 (.190)
10.54 (.415)
9.78 (.385)
2.87 (.113)
2.62 (.103)
10.54 (.415)
9.78 (.385)
2.87 (.113)
6.55 (.258) 2.62 (.103)
5.94 (.234)
4.83 (.190)
4.06 (.160)
4.06 (.160)
1.40 (.055)
1.14 (.045)
3.96 (.156)
3.71 (.146)
1.40 (.055)
1.14 (.045)
14.99 (.590)
14.22 (.560)
6.55 (.258)
5.94 (.234)
3.96 (.156)
3.71 (.146)
14.99 (.590)
14.22 (.560)
2.77 (.109)
6.83 (.269)
1.68
(.066)
TYP
1.70 (.067)
0.81(.032)
14.22 (.560)
13.72 (.540)
2.92 (.115)
2.29 (.090)
0.56 (.022)
0.36 (.014)
6.60 (.260)
5.84 (.230)
6.81(.268)
1.02 (.040)
0.76 (.030)
1.83(.072)
1.57(.062)
1.02(.040)
0.63(.025)
0.56 (.022)
0.36 (.014)
6.93(.273)
6.68(.263)
2.92 (.115)
2.29 (.090)
5 Lead TO-220 (Vertical)
4.83 (.190)
4.06 (.160)
10.54 (.415)
9.78 (.385)
3.96 (.156)
3.71 (.146)
1.40 (.055)
1.14 (.045)
6.55 (.258)
5.94 (.234)
2.87 (.113)
2.62 (.103)
14.99 (.590)
14.22 (.560)
1.78 (.070)
2.92 (.115)
2.29 (.090)
8.64 (.340)
7.87 (.310)
4.34 (.171)
1.68
(.066) typ
1.70 (.067)
0.56 (.022)
0.36 (.014)
7.51 (.296)
6.80 (.268)
.94 (.037)
.69 (.027)
Ordering Information
Part Number
CS452GT5
CS452GTVA5
CS452GTHA5
CS453GT5
CS453GTVA5
CS453GTHA5
Rev. 12/18/97
Description
5 Lead TO-220 Straight
5 Lead TO-220 Vertical
5 Lead TO-220 Horizontal
5 Lead TO-220 Straight
5 Lead TO-220 Vertical
5 Lead TO-220 Horizontal
Cherry Semiconductor Corporation reserves the
right to make changes to the specifications without
notice. Please contact Cherry Semiconductor
Corporation for the latest available information.
5
© 1999 Cherry Semiconductor Corporation