M TC648 Fan Speed Controller with Auto-Shutdown and Over-Temperature Alert Features • Temperature Proportional Fan Speed for Acoustic Control and Longer Fan Life • Efficient PWM Fan Drive • 3.0V to 5.5V Supply Range: - Fan Voltage Independent of TC648 Supply Voltage - Supports any Fan Voltage • Over-temperature Fault Detection • Automatic Shutdown Mode for “Green” Systems • Supports Low Cost NTC/PTC Thermistors • Space Saving 8-Pin MSOP Package Applications • • • • • • Power Supplies Computers Portable Computers Telecom Equipment UPSs, Power Amps General Purpose Fan Speed Control Available Tools • Fan Controller Demonstration Board (TC642DEMO) • Fan Controller Evaluation Kit (TC642EV) Package Types SOIC/PDIP/MSOP VIN 1 CF 2 VAS 3 GND 4 TC648 8 VDD 7 VOUT 6 OTF 5 NC General Description The TC648 is a switch mode, fan speed controller for use with brushless DC fans. Temperature proportional speed control is accomplished using pulse width modulation (PWM). A thermistor (or other voltage output temperature sensor) connected to the VIN input furnishes the required control voltage of 1.25V to 2.65V (typical) for 0% to 100% PWM duty cycle. The TC648 can be configured to operate in either auto-shutdown or minimum speed mode. In auto-shutdown mode, fan operation is automatically suspended when measured temperature (VIN) is lower than a user programmed minimum setting (VAS). The fan is automatically restarted, and proportional speed control restored, when VIN exceeds VAS (plus hysteresis). Operation in minimum speed mode is similar to auto-shutdown mode, with the exception that the fan is operated at a user programmed minimum setting when the measured temperature is low. An integrated Start-up Timer ensures reliable motor start-up at turn-on, and when coming out of shutdown or auto-shutdown mode. The over-temperature fault output (OTF) is asserted when the PWM reaches 100% duty cycle, indicating a possible thermal runaway situation. The TC648 is available in the 8-pin plastic DIP, SOIC and MSOP packages and is available in the industrial and extended commercial temperature ranges. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 1 TC648 Functional Block Diagram VIN + VOTF – – VDD OTF PWM + CF Control Logic VOUT Start-up Timer OTF Clock Generator – VAS + SHDN – + VSHDN GND DS21448C-page 2 TC648 NC 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Absolute Maximum Ratings* Supply Voltage ......................................................... 6V Input Voltage, Any Pin... (GND – 0.3V) to (VDD + 0.3V) *Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Package Thermal Resistance: PDIP (RθJA)............................................. 125°C/W SOIC (RθJA) ............................................ 155°C/W MSOP (R θJA) .......................................... 200°C/W Specified Temperature Range ........... -40°C to +125°C Storage Temperature Range.............. -65°C to +150°C DC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: Unless otherwise specified, TMIN ≤ TA ≤ TMAX, VDD = 3.0V to 5.5V Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Units Test Conditions VDD Supply Voltage 3.0 — 5.5 V IDD Supply Current, Operating — 0.5 1.0 mA Pins 6, 7 Open, CF = 1 µF, VIN = VC(MAX) IDD(SHDN) Supply Current, Shutdown/ Auto-shutdown Mode — 25 — µA Pins 6, 7 Open; Note 1 CF =1 µF, VIN = 0.35V IIN VIN, VAS Input Leakage -1.0 — +1.0 µA Note 1 VOUT Output tR VOUT Rise Time — — 50 µsec IOH = 5 mA, Note 1 tF VOUT Fall Time — — 50 µsec IOL = 1 mA, Note 1 IOL Sink Current at VOUT Output 1.0 — — mA VOL = 10% of VDD IOH Source Current at V OUT Output 5.0 — — mA VOH = 80% of VDD SENSE Input Threshold Voltage with Respect to GND 50 70 90 mV Note 1 Output Low Voltage — — 0.3 V 2.5 2.65 2.8 V SENSE Input VTH(SENSE) OTF Output VOL IOL = 2.5 mA VIN , VAS Inputs VC(MAX),VOTF Voltage at VIN for 100% Duty Cycle and Overtemp. Fault VC(SPAN) VC(MAX) - VC(MIN) 1.3 1.4 1.5 V VAS Auto-shutdown Threshold V C(MAX) ~ VC(SPAN) — VC(MAX) V VSHDN Voltage Applied to VIN to Ensure Reset/Shutdown — — VDD x 0.13 V VREL Voltage Applied to VIN to Release Reset Mode VDD x 0.19 — — V VHYST Hysteresis on V SHDN, VREL — 0.01 x V DD — V VHAS Hysteresis on Auto-shutdown Comparator — 70 — mV V DD = 5V Note 1: Ensured by design, not tested. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 3 TC648 DC ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (CONTINUED) Electrical Characteristics: Unless otherwise specified, TMIN ≤ TA ≤ TMAX, VDD = 3.0V to 5.5V Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Units Test Conditions Pulse Width Modulator FOSC PWM Frequency 26 30 34 Hz CF = 1.0 µF tSTARTUP Start-up Timer — 32/F — Sec CF = 1.0 µF Note 1: Ensured by design, not tested. DS21448C-page 4 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: Pin No. PIN FUNCTION TABLE Symbol Description 2.3 Analog Input (VAS) An external resistor divider connected to the VAS input sets the auto-shutdown threshold. Auto-shutdown occurs when VIN ≤ VAS. During shutdown, supply current falls to 25 µA (typical). The fan is automatically restarted when VIN ≥ (VAS +VHAS) (see Section 5.0, “Typical Applications” for more details). 1 VIN Analog Input 2 CF Analog Output 3 VAS Analog Input 4 GND Ground Terminal GND denotes the ground Terminal. 2.5 5 NC No Internal Connection 6 OTF Digital (Open Collector) Output 7 VOUT Digital Output 8 VDD Power Supply Input 2.1 Analog Input (VIN) The thermistor network (or other temperature sensor) connects to the VIN input. A voltage range of 1.25V to 2.65V (typical) on this pin drives an active duty cycle of 0% to 100% on the VOUT pin (see Section 5.0, “Typical Applications”, for more details). 2.2 Analog Output (CF) CF is the positive terminal for the PWM ramp generator timing capacitor. The recommended CF is 1 µF for 30 Hz PWM operation. 2.4 Ground (GND) No Connect No internal connection. 2.6 Digital Output (OTF) OTF goes low to indicate an over-temperature condition. This occurs when the voltage at VIN > V OTF (see Section 1.0, "Electrical Characteristics"). An overtemperature indication is a non-latching condition. 2.7 Digital Output (VOUT) VOUT is an active high complimentary output that drives the base of an external NPN transistor (via an appropriate base resistor) or the gate of an N-channel MOSFET. This output has asymmetrical drive (see Section 1.0, “Electrical Characteristics”). 2.8 Power Supply Input (VDD) VDD may be independent of the fan’s power supply (see Section 1.0, “Electrical Characteristics”). 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 5 TC648 3.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 3.5 3.1 PWM If the voltage on VIN becomes less than the voltage on VAS, the fan is automatically shut off (auto-shutdown mode). The TC648 exits auto-shutdown mode when the voltage on VIN becomes higher than the voltage on VAS by VHAS (the auto-shutdown hysteresis voltage (see Figure 3-1)). The Start-up Timer is triggered and normal operation is resumed upon exiting auto-shutdown mode. The VAS input should be grounded if autoshutdown mode is not used. The PWM circuit consists of a ramp generator and threshold detector. The frequency of the PWM is determined by the value of the capacitor connected to the CF pin. A frequency of 30 Hz is recommended for most applications (CF = 1 µF). The PWM is also the time base for the Start-up Timer (see Section 3.3, “Start-up Timer”). The PWM voltage control range is 1.25V to 2.65V (typical) for 0% to 100% output duty cycle. 3.2 VOUT Output The V OUT pin is designed to drive a low cost transistor or MOSFET as the low side power switching element in the system. Various examples of driver circuits will be shown throughout this data sheet. This output has asymmetric complementary drive and is optimized for driving NPN transistors or N-channel MOSFETs. Since the system relies on PWM rather than linear control, the power dissipation in the power switch is kept to a minimum. Generally, very small devices (TO-92 or SOT packages) will suffice. 3.3 Start-Up Timer To ensure reliable fan start-up, the Start-up Timer turns the VOUT output on for 32 cycles of the PWM whenever the fan is started from the off state. This occurs at power-up and when coming out of shutdown or autoshutdown mode. If the PWM frequency is 30 Hz (CF = 1 µF), the resulting start-up time will be approximately one second. 3.4 Over-Temperature Fault (OTF) Output OTF is asserted when the PWM control voltage applied to VIN becomes greater than that needed to drive 100% duty cycle (see Section 1.0, “Electrical Characteristics”). This indicates that the fan is at maximum drive, and the potential exists for system overheating. Either heat dissipation in the system has gone beyond the cooling system’s design limits, or some subtle fault exists (such as fan bearing failure or an airflow obstruction). This output may be treated as a “System Overheat” warning and used to trigger system shutdown or some other corrective action. OTF will become inactive when VIN < VOTF. DS21448C-page 6 3.6 Auto-Shutdown Mode Shutdown Mode (Reset) If an unconditional shutdown and/or device reset is desired, the TC648 may be placed in shutdown mode by forcing VIN to a logic low (i.e., VIN < V SHDN) (see Figure 3-1). In this mode, all functions cease and the OTF output is unconditionally inactive. The TC648 should not be shut down unless all heat producing activity in the system is at a negligible level. The TC648 exits shutdown mode when VIN becomes greater than VREL, the release voltage. Entering shutdown mode also performs a complete device reset. Shutdown mode resets the TC648 into its power-up state. OTF is unconditionally inactive in shutdown mode. Upon exiting shutdown mode (VIN > VREL), the Start-up Timer will be triggered and normal operation will resume, assuming VIN > VAS + VHAS Note: If VIN < VAS when the device exits shutdown mode, the fan will not restart as it will be in auto-shutdown mode. If VIN is not greater than (VAS + VHAS) upon exiting shutdown mode, the fan will not be restarted. To ensure that a complete reset takes place, the user’s circuitry must ensure that VIN > (VAS + VHAS) when the device is released from shutdown mode. A recommended algorithm for management of the TC648 by a host microcontroller or other external circuitry is given in Section 5.0, “Typical Applications”. A small amount of hysteresis, typically one percent of VDD (50 mV at VDD = 5.0V), is designed into the V SHDN/VREL threshold. The levels specified for V SHDN and VREL in Section 1.0, “Electrical Characteristics”, include this hysteresis plus adequate margin to account for normal variations in the absolute value of the threshold and hysteresis. CAUTION: Shutdown mode is unconditional. That is, the fan will remain off as long as the VIN pin is being held low or VIN < VAS + VHAS. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 TC646 Status Normal Operation Auto-Shutdown Mode Normal Operation ShutDown Normal Operation HI 2.6V VAS + VHAS VAS TEMP. 1.2V tRESET VIN VREL VSHDN LO GND Time FIGURE 3-1: 4.0 TC648 Nominal Operation. SYSTEM BEHAVIOR The flowcharts describing the TC648’s behavioral algorithms are shown in Figure 4-1. They can be summarized as follows: 4.1 Power-Up (1) Assuming the device is not being held in shutdown or auto-shutdown mode (VIN > VAS).......... (2) Turn VOUT output on for 32 cycles of the PWM clock. This ensures that the fan will start from a dead stop. (3) Branch to Normal Operation. (4) End. 4.2 Normal Operation Normal Operation is an endless loop which may only be exited by entering shutdown or auto-shutdown mode. The loop can be thought of as executing at the frequency of the oscillator and PWM. (1) Drive VOUT to a duty cycle proportional to VIN on a cycle by cycle basis. (2) If an over-temperature fault occurs, (VIN > VOTF), activate OTF; release OTF when VIN < V OTF. (3) Is the TC648 in shutdown or auto-shutdown mode? If so..... a. VOUT duty cycle goes to zero. b. OTF is disabled. c. Exit the loop and wait for VIN > (VAS + VHAS), then execute Power-up sequence. (4) End. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 7 TC648 Normal Operation Power-Up Power-on Reset OTF = 1 VOUT Duty Cycle Prop. to VIN Yes Minimum Speed Mode VAS ≈ 0V Yes No VIN > VOTF? No Yes VIN < VAS? OTF = 0 AutoShutdown VOUT = 0 OTF = 1 No No VIN > (VAS + VHAS) Yes VIN < VAS ? YES AutoShutdown VOUT = 0 Fire Start-up Timer No Normal Operation Minimum Speed Mode VOUT = 0 Yes VIN ≈ 0V ? No VIN > 1.25V No VIN > 1.25V ? No VOUT = 0 Yes Yes Power-Up VOUT Duty Cycle Proportional to VIN Yes VIN > VOTF? No OTF = 0 FIGURE 4-1: DS21448C-page 8 OTF = 1 TC648 Behavioral Algorithm Flowcharts. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 5.0 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS analysis. At the very least, anyone contemplating a design using the TC648 should consult the documentation for both the TC642EV (DS21403) and TC642DEMO (DS21401). Figure 5-1 shows the base schematic for the TC642DEMO. Designing with the TC648 involves the following: (1) The temperature sensor network must be configured to deliver 1.25V to 2.65V on VIN for 0% to 100% of the temperature range to be regulated. An Excel-based spreadsheet is also available for designing the thermistor network for the TC64X fan controllers. This file (TC64X Therm) is available for downloading from the Microchip website at www.microchip.com. (2) The auto-shutdown temperature must be set with a voltage divider on VAS (if used). (3) The output drive transistor and base resistor must be selected. (4) If reset/shutdown capability is desired, the drive requirements of the external signal or circuit must be considered. The TC642 demonstration and prototyping board (TC642DEMO) and the TC642 Evaluation Kit (TC642EV) provide working examples of TC648 circuits and prototyping aids. The TC642DEMO is a printed circuit board optimized for small size and ease of inclusion into system prototypes. The TC642EV is a larger board intended for benchtop development and +5V* CB 1 µF +12V NTC R1 Fan Shutdown** VIN VDD CB 0.01 µF R2 OTF +5V OverTemperature Interrupt Q1 RBASE TC648 VOUT R3 VAS CB 0.01 µF NC CF R4 CF 1 µF NOTES: FIGURE 5-1: GND *See cautions regarding latch-up considerations in Section 5.0, "Typical Applications". **Optional. See Section 5.0, "Typical Applications", for details. Typical Application Circuit. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 9 TC648 5.1 Temperature Sensor Design EQUATION VDD x R2 The temperature signal connected to VIN must output a voltage in the range of 1.25V to 2.65V (typical) for 0% to 100% of the temperature range of interest. The circuit in Figure 5-2 illustrates a convenient way to provide this signal using a temperature dependent voltage divider circuit. RTEMP (T1) + R2 VDD x R2 RTEMP (T2) + R2 = V(T1) = V(T2) Where T1 and T2 are the chosen temperatures and RTEMP is the parallel combination of the thermistor and R1. VDD IDIV RT1 R1 = 100 kΩ NTC Thermistor 100 kΩ @25˚C VIN These two equations facilitate solving for the two unknown variables, R1 and R2. More information about thermistors may be obtained from AN679, “Temperature Sensing Technologies”, and AN685, “Thermistors in Single Supply Temperature Sensing Circuits”, which can be downloaded from Microchip's web site at www.microchip.com. 5.2 R2 = 23.2 kΩ FIGURE 5-2: Circuit. Temperature Sensing RT1 is a conventional NTC thermistor and R1 and R2 are standard resistors. The supply voltage (V DD) is divided between R2 and the parallel combination of RT1 and R1. For convenience, the parallel combination of RT1 and R 1 will be referred to as RTEMP. The resistance of the thermistor at various temperatures is obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications. Thermistors are often referred to in terms of their resistance at 25°C. Generally, the thermistor shown in Figure 5-2 is a nonlinear device with a negative temperature coefficient (also called an NTC thermistor). In Figure 5-2, R 1 is used to linearize the thermistor temperature response and R2 is used to produce a positive temperature coefficient at the VIN node. As an added benefit, this configuration produces an output voltage delta of 1.4V, which is well within the range of the V C(SPAN) specification of the TC648. A 100 kΩ NTC thermistor is selected for this application in order to keep IDIV to a minimum. For the voltage range at VIN to be equal to 1.25V to 2.65V, the temperature range of this configuration is 0°C to 50°C. If a different temperature range is required from this circuit, R 1 should be chosen to equal the resistance value of the thermistor at the center of this new temperature range. It is suggested that a maximum temperature range of 50°C be used with this circuit due to thermistor linearity limitations. With this change, R2 is adjusted according to the following equations: DS21448C-page 10 Minimum Speed Mode The TC648 is configured for minimum speed mode by grounding VAS and designing the temperature sensor network such that VIN operates the fan at relatively constant, minimum speed when the thermistor is at minimum temperature. Figure 5-3 shows operation in minimum speed mode. The 0% and 100% fan speeds correspond to VIN values of 1.25V and 2.65V, typical. Minimum system temperature (TMIN) is defined as the lowest measured temperature at which proportional fan speed control is required by the system. The fan operates at minimum speed for all temperatures below TMIN and at speeds proportional to the measured temperature between TMIN and TMAX. Fan Speed 100% Minimum Speed 0% TMIN FIGURE 5-3: Operation. TMAX Minimum Fan Speed Mode Temperature sensor design consists of a two-point calculation: one at TMIN and one at TMAX. At TMIN, the ohmic value of the thermistor must be much higher than that of R1 so that minimum speed is determined primarily by the values of R1 and R2. At TMAX, the ohmic value of the thermistor must result in a VIN of 2.65V nominal. The design procedure consists of initially choosing R1 to be 10 times smaller than the ther- 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 mistor resistance at TMIN. R2 is then calculated to deliver the desired speed at TMIN. The values for R1, R2 and RT1 are then checked at TMAX for 2.65V nominal. It may be necessary to adjust the values of R1 and R2 after the initial calculation to obtain the desired results. The design equations are: EQUATION R 1 = (0.1)(RT1MIN) Where: RT1 = Thermistor resistance at TMIN EQUATION (RT1MIN)(R1)(VMIN) R2 = 5.3 Auto-Shutdown Temperature Design A voltage divider on VAS sets the temperature at which the part is automatically shut down if the sensed temperature at VIN drops below the set temperature at VAS (i.e. VIN < VAS). As with the VIN input, 1.25V to 2.65V corresponds to the temperature range of interest from T1 to T2, respectively. Assuming that the temperature sensor network designed previously is linearly related to temperature, the shutdown temperature TAS is related to T2 and T1 by: EQUATION (RT1MIN + R 1)(VDD - VMIN) Where V MIN = the value of VIN required for minimum fan speed. VDD = Power Supply Voltage 2.65 - 1.25V T2 - T1 VAS = EQUATION VMAX = (RT1MIN)(R1)(V MIN) R2 (R1 + RT1MAX )(VDD) Where RT 1MAX = thermistor resistance at TMAX, VMAX = the value of VIN required for maximum fan speed. Because the thermistor characteristics are fixed, it may not be possible, in certain applications, to obtain the desired values of VMIN and VMAX using the above equations. In this case, the circuit in Figure 5-4 can be used. Diode D1 clamps VIN to the voltage required to sustain minimum speed. The calculations of R1 and R2 for the temperature sensor are identical to the equation on the previous page. VAS - 1.25 = TAS - T1 ( T1.4V- T )(T 2 1 AS - T1) + 1.25 For example, if 1.25V and 2.65V at VIN corresponds to a temperature range of T1 = 0°C to T2 = 125°C, and the auto-shutdown temperature desired is 25°C, then the VAS voltage is: EQUATION VAS = 1.4V (25 - 0) + 1.25 = 1.53V (125 - 0) The VAS voltage may be set using a simple resistor divider, as shown in Figure 5-5. VDD VDD R1 R3 RT1 R1 IDIV VIN D1 R4 IIN VAS R2 R2 GND FIGURE 5-4: Minimum Fan Speed Circuit. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. FIGURE 5-5: VAS Circuit. DS21448C-page 11 TC648 Per Section 1.0, “Electrical Characteristics”, the leakage current at the VAS pin is no more than 1 µA. It is conservative to design for a divider current, IDIV, of 100 µA. If VDD = 5.0V then… EQUATION 5.0V –4 IDIV = 1e A = R1 + R2 5.0V R1 + R2 = , therefore = 50,000Ω = 50 kΩ 1e–4A We can further specify R 1 and R2 by the condition that the divider voltage is equal to our desired V AS. This yields the following: EQUATION VAS = VDD x R2 R1 + R2 Solving for the relationship between R1 and R 2 results in the following equation: EQUATION R1 = R2 x VDD - VAS VAS = Table 5-1 gives examples of some commonly available transistors and MOSFETs. This table should be used as a guide only since there are many transistors and MOSFETs which will work just as well as those listed. The critical issues when choosing a device to use as Q1 are: (1) the breakdown voltage (V(BR)CEO or VDS (MOSFET)) must be large enough to withstand the highest voltage applied to the fan (Note: This will occur when the fan is off); (2) 5 mA of base drive current must be enough to saturate the transistor when conducting the full fan current (transistor must have sufficient gain); (3) the VOUT voltage must be high enough to sufficiently drive the gate of the MOSFET to minimize the R DS(on) of the device; (4) rated fan current draw must be within the transistor's/MOSFET's current handling capability; and (5) power dissipation must be kept within the limits of the chosen device. A base-current limiting resistor is required with bipolar transistors. The correct value for this resistor can be determined as follows: VOH R2 x (5 - 1.53) 1.53 For this example, R1 = (2.27) R2. Substituting this relationship back into the original equation yields the resistor values: R2 = 15.3 kΩ, and R1 = 34.7 kΩ In this case, the standard values of 34.8 kΩ and 15.4 kΩ are very close to the calculated values and would be more than adequate. 5.4 fans with nominal operating currents of no more than 200 mA, a single transistor usually suffices. Above 200 mA, the Darlington or MOSFET solution is recommended. For the power dissipation to be kept low, it is imperative that the pass transistor be fully saturated when "on". Output Drive Transistor Selection The TC648 is designed to drive an external transistor or MOSFET for modulating power to the fan. This is shown as Q1 in Figures 5-1, 5-6, 5-7,and 5-8. The VOUT pin has a minimum source current of 5 mA and a minimum sink current of 1 mA. Bipolar transistors or MOSFETs may be used as the power switching element, as is shown in Figure 5-6. When high current gain is needed to drive larger fans, two transistors may be used in a Darlington configuration. These circuit topologies are shown in Figure 5-6: (a) shows a single NPN transistor used as the switching element; (b) illustrates the Darlington pair; and (c) shows an N-channel MOSFET. = VBE(SAT) + VRBASE VRBASE = RBASE x IBASE IBASE = IFAN / hFE VOH is specified as 80% of VDD in Section 1.0, “Electrical Characteristics”; V BE(SAT) is given in the chosen transistor data sheet. It is now possible to solve for R BASE. EQUATION RBASE = VOH - VBE(SAT) IBASE Some applications benefit from the fan being powered from a negative supply to keep motor noise out of the positive supply rails. This can be accomplished by the method shown in Figure 5-7. Zener diode D1 offsets the -12V power supply voltage, holding transistor Q 1 off when VOUT is low. When VOUT is high, the voltage at the anode of D1 increases by VOH, causing Q1 to turn on. Operation is otherwise the same as in the case of fan operation from +12V. One major advantage of the TC648’s PWM control scheme versus linear speed control is that the power dissipation in the pass element is kept very low. Generally, low cost devices in very small packages, such as TO-92 or SOT, can be used effectively. For DS21448C-page 12 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 VDD VDD VDD Fan Fan Fan RBASE RBASE VOUT VOUT Q1 Q1 Q1 VOUT Q2 GND GND GND a) Single Bipolar Transistor FIGURE 5-6: TABLE 5-1: Device MMBT2222A MPS2222A MPS6602 b) Darlington Transistor Pair C) N-Channel MOSFET Output Drive Transistor Circuit Topologies. TRANSISTORS AND MOSFETS FOR Q1 (VDD = 5V) Package Max. V BE(sat)/VGS (V) Min. HFE VCEO/VDS (V) Fan Current (mA) Suggested RBASE (Ω) SOT-23 1.2 50 40 150 800 TO-92 1.2 50 40 150 800 TO-92 1.2 50 40 500 301 SI2302 SOT-23 2.5 NA 20 500 Note 1 MGSF1N02E SOT-23 2.5 NA 20 500 Note 1 SI4410 SO-8 4.5 NA 30 1000 Note 1 SI2308 SOT-23 4.5 NA 60 500 Note 1 Note 1: A series gate resistor may be used in order to control the MOSFET turn-on and turn-off times. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 13 TC648 +5V VDD R2* 2.2 kΩ VOUT TC648 D1 12.0V Zener Fan Q1* R4* 10 kΩ GND -12V NOTE: *Value depends on the specific application and is shown for example only. FIGURE 5-7: 5.5 Powering the Fan from a -12V Supply. Latch-up Considerations As with any CMOS IC, the potential exists for latch-up if signals are applied to the device which are outside the power supply range. This is of particular concern during power-up if the external circuitry (such as the sensor network, V AS divider or shutdown circuit) are powered by a supply different from that of the TC648. Care should be taken to ensure that the TC648’s VDD supply powers up first. If possible, the networks attached to VIN and VAS should connect to the VDD supply at the same physical location as the IC itself. Even if the IC and any external networks are powered by the same supply, physical separation of the connecting points can result in enough parasitic capacitance and/ or inductance in the power supply connections to delay one power supply “routing” versus another. 5.6 Power Supply Routing and Bypassing Noise present on the VIN and VAS inputs may cause erroneous operation of the OTF output. As a result, these inputs should be bypassed with a 0.01 µF capacitor mounted as close to the package as possible. This is especially true of VIN, which is usually driven from a high impedance source (such as a thermistor). Additionally, the VDD input should be bypassed with a 1 µF capacitor and grounds should be kept as short as possible. To keep fan noise off the TC648 ground pin, individual ground returns for the TC648 and the low side of the fan drive device should be used. Auto-Shutdown Mode Design Example Step 1. Calculate R1 and R2 based on using an NTC having a resistance of 10 kΩ at TMIN (25°C) and 4.65 kΩ at TMAX (45°C) (see Figure 5-8). R1 = 20.5 kΩ R2 = 3.83 kΩ Step 2. Set auto-shutdown level. VAS = 1.8V Limit the divider current to 100 µA R5 = 33 kΩ R6 = 18 kΩ Step 3. Design the output circuit Maximum fan motor current = 250 mA. Q1 beta is chosen at 50 from which R7 = 800 Ω. 5.7 Minimum Speed Mode Design Example Given: Minimum speed = 40%(1.8V) TMIN = 30°C, TMAX = 95°C Thermistor = 100 kΩ at 25°C RTMIN = 79.4 kΩ, RTMAX = 6.5 kΩ Step 1: Calculate R1: R1 = 7.9 kΩ (Use closest standard value: 7.87 kΩ) Calculate R2: R2 = 4.05 kΩ (Use closest standard value: 4.02 kΩ) Step 2: Verify VMAX: VMAX = 2.64V DS21448C-page 14 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 +5V RESET Shutdown Open-Drain Device (Optional) NTC 10 kΩ @ 25˚C 1 R1 20.5 kΩ R2 3.83 kΩ CB 0.01 µF CB 1 µF VIN +12V +5V 8 VDD 4 Fan GND OTF 6 TC648 3 VAS CB 0.01 µF 2 R6 CF 18 kΩ CB 1 µF FIGURE 5-8: 5.8 Q1 R7 800Ω +5V R5 33 kΩ Thermal Fault VOUT NC 7 5 Design Example. TC648 as a Microcontroller Peripheral In a system containing a microcontroller or other host intelligence, the TC648 can be effectively managed as a CPU peripheral. Routine fan control functions can be performed by the TC648 without processor intervention. The microcontroller receives temperature data from one or more points throughout the system. It calculates a fan operating speed based on an algorithm specifically designed for the application at hand. The processor controls fan speed using complementary port bits I/O1 through I/O3. Resistors R 1 through R6 (5% tolerance) form a crude 3-bit DAC that translates the 3-bit code from the processor's outputs into a 1.6V DC control signal. A monolithic DAC or digital pot may be used instead of the circuit shown in Figure 5-9. With VAS set at 1.8V, the TC648 enters auto-shutdown when the processor's output code is 000[B]. Output codes 001[B] to 111[B] operate the fan from roughly 40% to 100% of full speed. An open-drain output from the processor (I/O0) can be used to reset the TC648 following detection of a fault condition. The OTF output can be connected to the processor's interrupt input, or to another I/O pin, for polled operation. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 15 TC648 +12V +5V (RESET) (Optional) Open-Drain I/O0 Outputs R1 110 kΩ (MSB) I/O1 Analog or Digital Temperature Data from one or more Sensors CMOS Outputs R2 240 kΩ I/O2 I/O3 +5V (LSB) R5 1.5 kΩ +5V FIGURE 5-9: DS21448C-page 16 2 C F VOUT 7 .01 µF R7 R4 33 kΩ 18 kΩ +5V R 8 18 kΩ Fan + CB 1 µFR 9 + R6 1 kΩ GND VDD 8 CB R3 360 kΩ CMOS Microcontroller 1 V IN TC648 1 µF 3 CB VAS OTF 6 800Ω 2N2222A +5V R10 10 kΩ .01 µF 4 NC 5 GND INT TC648 as a Microcontroller Peripheral. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 6.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 6.1 Package Marking Information 8-Lead PDIP (300 mil) XXXXXXXX NNN YYWW TC648VPA 025 0215 8-Lead SOIC (150 mil) XXXXXXXX YYWW NNN YWWNNN Note: * TC648VOA 0215 025 TC648E 215025 XXXXXX XX...X YY WW NNN Example: Example: 8-Lead MSOP Legend: Example: Customer specific information* Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Alphanumeric traceability code In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of available characters for customer specific information. Standard marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, traceability code (facility code, mask rev#, and assembly code). For marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check with your Microchip Sales Office. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 17 TC648 8-Lead Plastic Dual In-line (P) – 300 mil (PDIP) E1 D 2 n 1 α E A2 A L c A1 β B1 p eB B Units Dimension Limits n p Number of Pins Pitch Top to Seating Plane Molded Package Thickness Base to Seating Plane Shoulder to Shoulder Width Molded Package Width Overall Length Tip to Seating Plane Lead Thickness Upper Lead Width Lower Lead Width Overall Row Spacing Mold Draft Angle Top Mold Draft Angle Bottom * Controlling Parameter § Significant Characteristic A A2 A1 E E1 D L c § B1 B eB α β MIN .140 .115 .015 .300 .240 .360 .125 .008 .045 .014 .310 5 5 INCHES* NOM MAX 8 .100 .155 .130 .170 .145 .313 .250 .373 .130 .012 .058 .018 .370 10 10 .325 .260 .385 .135 .015 .070 .022 .430 15 15 MILLIMETERS NOM 8 2.54 3.56 3.94 2.92 3.30 0.38 7.62 7.94 6.10 6.35 9.14 9.46 3.18 3.30 0.20 0.29 1.14 1.46 0.36 0.46 7.87 9.40 5 10 5 10 MIN MAX 4.32 3.68 8.26 6.60 9.78 3.43 0.38 1.78 0.56 10.92 15 15 Notes: Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed .010” (0.254mm) per side. JEDEC Equivalent: MS-001 Drawing No. C04-018 DS21448C-page 18 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 8-Lead Plastic Small Outline (SN) – Narrow, 150 mil (SOIC) E E1 p D 2 B n 1 h α 45× c A2 A f β L Units Dimension Limits n p Number of Pins Pitch Overall Height Molded Package Thickness Standoff § Overall Width Molded Package Width Overall Length Chamfer Distance Foot Length Foot Angle Lead Thickness Lead Width Mold Draft Angle Top Mold Draft Angle Bottom * Controlling Parameter § Significant Characteristic A A2 A1 E E1 D h L f c B α β MIN .053 .052 .004 .228 .146 .189 .010 .019 0 .008 .013 0 0 A1 INCHES* NOM 8 .050 .061 .056 .007 .237 .154 .193 .015 .025 4 .009 .017 12 12 MAX .069 .061 .010 .244 .157 .197 .020 .030 8 .010 .020 15 15 MILLIMETERS NOM 8 1.27 1.35 1.55 1.32 1.42 0.10 0.18 5.79 6.02 3.71 3.91 4.80 4.90 0.25 0.38 0.48 0.62 0 4 0.20 0.23 0.33 0.42 0 12 0 12 MIN MAX 1.75 1.55 0.25 6.20 3.99 5.00 0.51 0.76 8 0.25 0.51 15 15 Notes: Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed .010” (0.254mm) per side. JEDEC Equivalent: MS-012 Drawing No. C04-057 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page 19 TC648 8-Lead Plastic Micro Small Outline Package (MS) (MSOP) E p E1 D 2 B n 1 α A2 A c φ A1 (F) L β Units Number of Pins Pitch Dimension Limits n p Overall Height NOM MAX 8 0.65 .026 A .044 .030 Standoff A1 .002 E .184 Molded Package Width MIN 8 A2 Overall Width MAX NOM Molded Package Thickness § MILLIMETERS* INCHES MIN 1.18 .038 0.76 .006 0.05 .193 .200 .034 0.86 0.97 4.67 4.90 .5.08 0.15 E1 .114 .118 .122 2.90 3.00 3.10 Overall Length D .114 .118 .122 2.90 3.00 3.10 Foot Length L .016 .022 .028 0.40 0.55 0.70 Footprint (Reference) .035 .037 .039 0.90 0.95 1.00 Foot Angle F φ 6 0 Lead Thickness c .004 .006 .008 0.10 0.15 0.20 Lead Width B α .010 .012 .016 0.25 0.30 0.40 Mold Draft Angle Top Mold Draft Angle Bottom β 0 6 7 7 7 7 *Controlling Parameter § Significant Characteristic Notes: Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed. 010" (0.254mm) per side. Drawing No. C04-111 DS21448C-page 20 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 6.2 Taping Form Component Taping Orientation for 8-Pin SOIC (Narrow) Devices User Direction of Feed PIN 1 W P Standard Reel Component Orientation for 713 Suffix Device Carrier Tape, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 8-Pin SOIC (N) Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 12 mm 8 mm 2500 13 in Component Taping Orientation for 8-Pin MSOP Devices User Direction of Feed PIN 1 W P Standard Reel Component Orientation for 713 Suffix Device Carrier Tape, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 8-Pin MSOP 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 12 mm 8 mm 2500 13 in DS21448C-page 21 TC648 NOTES: DS21448C-page 22 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 ON-LINE SUPPORT Microchip provides on-line support on the Microchip World Wide Web site. The web site is used by Microchip as a means to make files and information easily available to customers. To view the site, the user must have access to the Internet and a web browser, such as Netscape® or Microsoft® Internet Explorer. Files are also available for FTP download from our FTP site. Connecting to the Microchip Internet Web Site The Microchip web site is available at the following URL: www.microchip.com SYSTEMS INFORMATION AND UPGRADE HOT LINE The Systems Information and Upgrade Line provides system users a listing of the latest versions of all of Microchip's development systems software products. Plus, this line provides information on how customers can receive the most current upgrade kits.The Hot Line Numbers are: 1-800-755-2345 for U.S. and most of Canada, and 1-480-792-7302 for the rest of the world. 092002 The file transfer site is available by using an FTP service to connect to: ftp://ftp.microchip.com The web site and file transfer site provide a variety of services. Users may download files for the latest Development Tools, Data Sheets, Application Notes, User's Guides, Articles and Sample Programs. A variety of Microchip specific business information is also available, including listings of Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory representatives. Other data available for consideration is: • Latest Microchip Press Releases • Technical Support Section with Frequently Asked Questions • Design Tips • Device Errata • Job Postings • Microchip Consultant Program Member Listing • Links to other useful web sites related to Microchip Products • Conferences for products, Development Systems, technical information and more • Listing of seminars and events 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page23 TC648 READER RESPONSE It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (480) 792-4150. Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this document. To: Technical Publications Manager RE: Reader Response Total Pages Sent ________ From: Name Company Address City / State / ZIP / Country Telephone: (_______) _________ - _________ FAX: (______) _________ - _________ Application (optional): Would you like a reply? Device: TC648 Y N Literature Number: DS21448C Questions: 1. What are the best features of this document? 2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs? 3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why? 4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject? 5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness? 6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)? 7. How would you improve this document? DS21448C-page24 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC648 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. Device X /XX Temperature Range Package Device: TC648: PWM Fan Speed Controller w/Auto Shutdown and Overtemperature Alert Temperature Range: V E Package: PA = Plastic DIP (300 mil Body), 8-lead OA = Plastic SOIC, (150 mil Body), 8-lead UA = Plastic Micro Small Outline (MSOP), 8-lead Examples: a) TC648VOA: PWM Fan Speed Controller w/Auto Shutdown and Over-Temperature Alert, SOIC package. b) PWM Fan Speed Controller TC648VUA: w/Auto Shutdown and Over-Temperature Alert, MSOP package. c) PWM Fan Speed Controller TC648VPA: w/Auto Shutdown and Over-Temperature Alert, PDIP package. d) TC648EOA713: PWM Fan Speed Controller w/Auto Shutdown and Over-Temperature Alert, SOIC package, Tape and Reel. = 0°C to +85°C = -40°C to +85°C * PDIP package is only offered in the V temp range Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21448C-page25 TC648 NOTES: DS21448C-page 26 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, K EELOQ, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART and PRO MATE are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. FilterLab, microID, MXDEV, MXLAB, PICMASTER, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. dsPIC, dsPICDEM.net, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, microPort, Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM, PICC, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, rfPIC, Select Mode and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. Serialized Quick Turn Programming (SQTP) is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2002, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received QS-9000 quality system certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999 and Mountain View, California in March 2002. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its PICmicro ® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, non-volatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001 certified. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 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Le Colleoni 1 20041 Agrate Brianza Milan, Italy Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883 United Kingdom Microchip Ltd. 505 Eskdale Road Winnersh Triangle Wokingham Berkshire, England RG41 5TU Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820 08/01/02 DS21448C-page 28 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.