M TC1121 100mA Charge Pump Voltage Converter with Shutdown Package Type Features • Optional High-Frequency Operation Allows Use of Small Capacitors • Low Operating Current (FC = GND) - 50µA • High Output Current (100mA) • Converts a 2.4V to 5.5V Input Voltage to a Corresponding Negative Output Voltage (Inverter Mode) • Uses Only 2 Capacitors; No Inductors Required • Selectable Oscillator Frequency - 10kHz to 200kHz • Power-Saving Shutdown Input • Available in 8-Pin MSOP, 8-Pin PDIP and 8-Pin Small Outline (SOIC) Packages Applications • • • • • Laptop Computers Medical Instruments Disk Drives µP-Based Controllers Process Instrumentation FC 8 V+ 1 CAP+ 2 TC1121CPA 7 OSC GND 3 TC1121EPA 6 SHDN CAP– 4 5 VOUT 8-Pin SOIC 8-Pin MSOP FC 1 8 V+ TC1121COA CAP+ 2 TC1121EOA 7 OSC GND 3 TC1121CUA 6 SHDN TC1121EUA CAP– 4 5 VOUT General Description Device Selection Table Part Number Package Operating Temp. Range TC1121COA 8-Pin SOIC 0°C to +70°C TC1121CPA 8-Pin PDIP 0°C to +70°C TC1121CUA 8-Pin MSOP 0°C to +70°C TC1121EOA 8-Pin SOIC -40°C to +85°C TC1121EPA 8-Pin PDIP -40°C to +85°C TC1121EUA 8-Pin MSOP -40°C to +85°C 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 8-Pin PDIP The TC1121 is a charge pump converter with 100mA output current capability. It converts a 2.4V to 5.5V input to a corresponding negative output voltage. As with all charge pump converters, the TC1121 uses no inductors saving cost, size and EMI. An on-board oscillator operates at a typical frequency of 10kHz (at V+ = 5V) when the frequency control input (FC) is connected to ground. The oscillator frequency increases to 200kHz when FC is connected to V+, allowing the use of smaller capacitors. Operation at sub-10kHz frequencies results in lower quiescent NScurrent and is accomplished with the addition of an external capacitor from OSC (pin 7) to ground. The TC1121 also can be driven from an external clock NSconnected OSC. Typical supply current at 10kHz is 50µA, and falls to less than 1µA when the shutdown input is brought low, whether the internal or an external clock is used. The TC1121 is available in 8-pin SOIC, MSOP and PDIP packages. DS21358B-page 1 TC1121 Functional Block Diagram 1 AP HDN SC Control AP C1121 UT C RC Oscillator witch atrix 2 SC ogic ircuits ND DS21358B-page 2 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1121 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS *Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings* Supply Voltage (VDD) ............................................... 6V OSC, FC, SHDN Input Voltage .....-0.3V to (V+ + 0.3V) Output Short Circuit Duration ........................... 10 Sec. Package Power Dissipation (TA ≤ 70°C) 8-Pin PDIP ............................................... 730mW 8-Pin SOIC ............................................... 470mW 8-Pin MSOP ............................................. 333mW Operating Temperature Range C Suffix............................................ 0°C to +70°C E Suffix......................................... -40°C to +85°C Storage Temperature Range.............. -65°C to +150°C TC1121 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: TA = 0°C to 70°C (C suffix), -40°C to +85°C (E suffix), V+= 5V ±10% COSC = Open, C1, C2 = 10µF, FC = V+, SHDN = VIH, typical values are at TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted. Symbol Parameter IDD Active Supply Current Min Typ Max Units Test Conditions — — 50 0.6 100 1 µA mA RL = Open, FC = Open or GND RL = Open, FC = V+ SHDN = 0V ISHUTDOWN Shutdown Supply Current — 0.2 1.0 µA V+ Supply Voltage 2.4 — 5.5 V VIH SHDN Input Logic High VDD x 0.8 — — V VIL SHDN Input Logic Low — — 0.4 V IIN Input Leakage Current -1 -4 — — 1 4 µA SHDN, OSC FC pin ROUT Output Source Resistance — 12 20 Ω IOUT = 60mA IOUT Output Current 60 100 FOSC Oscillator Frequency 5 100 10 200 — — kHz PEFF Power Efficiency — 93 94 — — 97 97 92 — — — % FC = GND for all RL = 2k between V+ and VOUT RL = 1kΩ between VOUT and GND IL = 60mA to GND Voltage Conversion Efficiency 99 99.9 — % RL = Open VEFF Note 1: VOUT = more negative than -3.75V Pin 7 Open, Pin 1 Open or GND SHDN = VIH, Pin 1 = V+ Connecting any input terminal to voltages greater than V+ or less than GND may cause destructive latch-up. It is recommended that no inputs from sources operating from external supplies be applied prior to "power up" of the TC1121. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21358B-page 3 TC1121 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin No. (8-Pin MSOP, PDIP, SOIC) Symbol Description 1 FC Frequency control for internal oscillator, FC = open, FOSC = 10kHz typ; FC = V+, FOSC = 200kHz typ; FC has no effect when OSC pin is driven externally. 2 CAP+ Charge-pump capacitor, positive terminal. 3 GND Power-supply ground input. 4 CAP– Charge-pump capacitor, negative terminal. 5 OUT Output, negative voltage. 6 SHDN 7 OSC 8 V+ DS21358B-page 4 Shutdown. Oscillator control input. An external capacitor can be added to slow the oscillator. Take care to minimize stray capacitance. An external oscillator also may be connected to overdrive OSC. Power-supply positive voltage input. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1121 3.0 APPLICATIONS 3.2 3.1 Negative Voltage Converter The TC1121’s clock frequency is controlled by four modes: The TC1121 is typically used as a charge-pump voltage inverter. C1 and C2 are the only two external capacitors used in the operating circuit (Figure 3-1). FIGURE 3-1: CHARGE PUMP INVERTER N SC AP C1121 1 ND HDN AP UT TABLE 3-1: FC .4V to 5.5V C Changing Oscillator Frequency SHDN* UT 2 SHDN should be tied to V N if not used. The TC1121 is not sensitive to load current changes, although its output is not actively regulated. A typical output source resistance of 11.8Ω means that an input of +5V results in -5V output voltage under light load, and only decreases to -3.8V typ with a 100mA load. The supplied output current is from capacitor C2 during one-half the charge-pump cycle. This results in a peak-to-peak ripple of: VRIPPLE = IOUT/2(fPUMP) (C2) + IOUT (ESRC2) Where fPUMP is 5kHz (one half the nominal 10kHz oscillator frequency), and C2 = 150µF with an ESR of 0.2Ω, ripple is about 90mV with a 100mA load current. If C2 is raised to 390µF, the ripple drops to 45mV. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY MODES OSC Oscillator Frequency Open Open 10kHz FC = V+ Open 200kHz Open or FC = V+ External Capacitor See Typical Operating Characteristics Open External Clock External Clock Frequency The oscillator runs at 10kHz (typical) when FC and OSC are not connected. The oscillator frequency is lowered by connecting a capacitor between OSC and GND, but FC can still multiply the frequency by 20 times in this mode. An external clock source that swings within 100mV of V+ and GND may overdrive OSC in the inverter mode. OSC can be driven by any CMOS logic output. When OSC is overdriven, FC has no effect. Note that the frequency of the signal appearing at CAP+ and CAP– is half that of the oscillator. In addition, by lowering the oscillator frequency, the effective output resistance of the charge-pump increases. To compensate for this, the value of the charge-pump capacitors may be increased. Because the 5kHz output ripple frequency may be low enough to interfere with other circuitry, the oscillator frequency can be increased with the use of the FC pin or an external oscillator. The output ripple frequency is half the selected oscillator frequency. Although the TC1121’s quiescent current will increase if the clock frequency is increased, it allows smaller capacitance values to be used for C1 and C2. 3.3 Capacitor Selection In addition to load current, the following factors affect the TC1121 output voltage drop from its ideal value 1) output resistance, 2) pump (C1) and reservoir (C2) capacitor ESRs and 3) C1 and C2 capacitance. The voltage drop is the load current times the output resistance. The loss in C2 is the load current times C2’s ESR; C1’s loss is larger because it handles currents greater than the load current during charge-pump operation. Therefore, the voltage drop due to C1 is about four times C1’s ESR multiplied by the load current, and a low (or high) ESR capacitor has a greater impact on performance for C1 than for C2. In general, as the TC1121’s pump frequency increases, capacitance values needed to maintain comparable ripple and output resistance diminish proportionately. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21358B-page 5 TC1121 3.4 Cascading Devices 3.5 To produce greater negative magnitudes of the initial supply voltage, the TC1121 may be cascaded (see Figure 3-2). Resulting output resistance is approximately equal to the sum of individual TC1121 ROUT values. The output voltage (where n is an integer representing the number of devices cascaded) is defined by VOUT = -n (VIN). FIGURE 3-2: Paralleling Devices To reduce output resistance, multiple TC1121s may be paralleled (see Figure 3-3). Each device needs a pump capacitor C1, but the reservoir capacitor C2 serves all devices. The value of C2 should be increased by a factor of n (the number of devices). CASCADING TC1121s TO INCREASE OUTPUT VOLTAGE N C N AP SC C VIN 8 AP SC C1121 C1121 1 1n HDN* ND HDN AP 7 ND UT AP 1" HDN HDN* UT n" UT 2n 2 SHDN should be tied to VIN if ot used. FIGURE 3-3: PARALLELING TC1121s TO REDUCE OUTPUT RESISTANCE N FC C N 2 CAP+ SC C1121 C1 AP SC SC C1121 1n ND ND HDN UT AP HDN HDN* 1" AP n" HDN* UT 2 UT = R UT of TC1121)/n(number of devices) IN if not used. DS21358B-page 6 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1121 3.6 Combined Positive Supply Multiplication and Negative Voltage Conversion and C4 are the respective capacitors for multiplied positive voltage. This particular configuration leads to higher source impedances of the generated supplies due to the finite impedance of the common charge-pump driver. Figure 3-4 shows this dual function circuit, in which capacitors C1 and C2 perform pump and reservoir functions to generate negative voltage. Capacitors C3 FIGURE 3-4: COMBINED POSITIVE MULTIPLER AND NEGATIVE CONVERTER + VIN C 1, D2 = 1N4148 N AP SC 1 C1121 1 – ND UT AP HDN UT = VIN 2 HDN* 2 V 3 UT = (2VIN) – ) – (VFD2) 4 SHDN should be tied to VIN if not used. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21358B-page 7 TC1121 4.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 4.1 Package Marking Information Package marking data not available at this time. 4.2 Package Dimensions 8-Pin MSOP PIN 1 .122 (3.10) .114 (2.90) .197 (5.00) .189 (4.80) .026 (0.65) TYP. .122 (3.10) .114 (2.90) .043 (1.10) MAX. .016 (0.40) .010 (0.25) .008 (0.20) .005 (0.13) 6° MAX. .006 (0.15) .002 (0.05) .028 (0.70) .016 (0.40) Dimensions: inches (mm) 8-Pin Plastic DIP PIN 1 .260 (6.60) .240 (6.10) .045 (1.14) .030 (0.76) .070 (1.78) .040 (1.02) .310 (7.87) .290 (7.37) .400 (10.16) .348 (8.84) .200 (5.08) .140 (3.56) .040 (1.02) .020 (0.51) .150 (3.81) .115 (2.92) .110 (2.79) .090 (2.29) .022 (0.56) .015 (0.38) .015 (0.38) .008 (0.20) 3° MIN. .400 (10.16) .310 (7.87) Dimensions: inches (mm) DS21358B-page 8 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1121 Package Dimensions (Continued) 8-Pin SOIC PIN 1 .157 (3.99) .150 (3.81) .244 (6.20) .228 (5.79) .050 (1.27) TYP. .197 (5.00) .189 (4.80) .069 (1.75) .053 (1.35) .020 (0.51) .010 (0.25) .013 (0.33) .004 (0.10) .010 (0.25) .007 (0.18) 8° MAX.. .050 (1.27) .016 (0.40) Dimensions: inches (mm) 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21358B-page 9 TC1121 NOTES: DS21358B-page 10 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1121 Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21358B-page11 TC1121 NOTES: DS21358B-page12 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC1121 Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, FilterLab, KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICMASTER, PICSTART, PRO MATE, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. dsPIC, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, microPort, Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM, MXDEV, PICC, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, rfPIC, Select Mode and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Serialized Quick Turn Programming (SQTP) is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2002, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. 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Le Colleoni 1 20041 Agrate Brianza Milan, Italy Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883 United Kingdom Arizona Microchip Technology Ltd. 505 Eskdale Road Winnersh Triangle Wokingham Berkshire, England RG41 5TU Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820 03/01/02 ' "%' DS21358B-page 14 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.