MCP4725 12-Bit Digital-to-Analog Converter with EEPROM Memory in SOT-23-6 DESCRIPTION Features • • • • • • • • • • • 12-Bit Resolution On-Board Non-Volatile Memory (EEPROM) ±0.2 LSB DNL (typical) External A0 Address Pin Normal or Power-Down Mode Fast Settling Time of 6 µs (typical) External Voltage Reference (VDD) Rail-to-Rail Output Low Power Consumption Single-Supply Operation: 2.7V to 5.5V I2CTM Interface: - Eight Available Addresses - Standard (100 kbps), Fast (400 kbps), and High-Speed (3.4 Mbps) Modes • Small 6-lead SOT-23 Package • Extended Temperature Range: -40°C to +125°C Applications • • • • • • Set Point or Offset Trimming Sensor Calibration Closed-Loop Servo Control Low Power Portable Instrumentation PC Peripherals Data Acquisition Systems VDD Power-on Reset SCL The device includes a Power-On-Reset (POR) circuit to ensure reliable power-up and an on-board charge pump for the EEPROM programming voltage. The DAC reference is driven from VDD directly. In power-down mode, the output amplifier can be configured to present a low, medium, or high resistance output load. The MCP4725 has a two-wire I2C™ compatible serial interface for standard (100 kHz), fast (400 kHz), or high speed (3.4 MHz) mode. SDA I2C Interface Logic Charge Pump The DAC input and configuration data can be programmed to the non-volatile memory (EEPROM) by the user using I2C interface command. The non-volatile memory feature enables the DAC device to hold the DAC input code during power-off time, and the DAC output is available immediately after power-up. This feature is very useful when the DAC device is used as a supporting device for other devices in the network. The MCP4725 has an external A0 address pin. This A0 pin can be tied to VDD or VSS of the user’s application board. Block Diagram A0 The MCP4725 is a low-power, high accuracy, single channel, 12-bit buffered voltage output Digital-to-Analog Convertor (DAC) with non-volatile memory (EEPROM). Its on-board precision output amplifier allows it to achieve rail-to-rail analog output swing. The MCP4725 is an ideal DAC device where design simplicity and small footprint is desired, and for applications requiring the DAC device settings to be saved during power-off time. The device is available in a small 6-pin SOT-23 package. Package Type Input Register SOT-23-6 Resistive String DAC VSS Op Amp Power-down Control DAC Register EEPROM VOUT 1 6 A0 VSS 2 5 SCL VDD 3 4 SDA VOUT © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 1 MCP4725 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS † Notice: Stresses above those listed under “Maximum ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability Absolute Maximum Ratings† VDD...................................................................................6.5V All inputs and outputs w.r.t VSS .................–0.3V to VDD+0.3V Current at Input Pins ....................................................±2 mA Current at Supply Pins ...............................................±50 mA Current at Output Pins ...............................................±25 mA Storage Temperature ....................................-65°C to +150°C Ambient Temp. with Power Applied ..............-55°C to +125°C ESD protection on all pins ................ ≥ 6 kV HBM, ≥ 400V MM Maximum Junction Temperature (TJ) ......................... +150°C ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all parameters apply at VDD = + 2.7V to 5.5V, VSS = 0V, RL = 5 kΩ from VOUT to VSS, CL = 100 pF, TA = -40°C to +125°C. Typical values are at +25°C. Parameter Sym Min VDD 2.7 ID — Power-Down Current IDDP Power-On-Reset Threshold VPOR Typ Max Units Conditions 5.5 V 210 400 µA Digital input grounded, output unloaded, code = 000h — 0.06 2.0 µA VDD = 5.5V — 2 — V Power Requirements Operating Voltage Supply Current DC Accuracy Resolution n 12 — — Bits Code Range = 000h to FFFh INL Error INL — ±2 ±14.5 LSB Note 1 DNL DNL -0.75 ±0.2 ±0.75 LSB Note 1 Offset Error VOS 0.02 0.75 % of FSR ±1 — ppm/°C Offset Error Drift Gain Error Gain Error Drift ΔVOS/°C — — ±2 — ppm/°C GE -2 -0.1 2 % of FSR ΔGE/°C — -3 — ppm/°C pM — 66 — Degree(°) Code = 000h -45°C to +25°C +25°C to +85°C Code FFFh, not including offset error Output Amplifier Phase Margin CL = 400 pF, RL = ∞ RL = 5 kΩ, Note 2 Capacitive Load Stability CL — — 1000 pF Slew Rate SR — 0.55 — V/µs Short Circuit Current ISC — 15 24 mA VDD = 5V, VOUT = Grounded Output Voltage Settling Time TS — 6 — µs Note 3 Note 1: 2: 3: 4: Test Code Range: 100 to 4000. This parameter is ensure by design and not 100% tested. Within 1/2 LSB of the final value when code changes from 1/4 to 3/4 (400h to C00h) of full-scale. Logic state of external address pin (A0 pin). DS22039C-page 2 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all parameters apply at VDD = + 2.7V to 5.5V, VSS = 0V, RL = 5 kΩ from VOUT to VSS, CL = 100 pF, TA = -40°C to +125°C. Typical values are at +25°C. Parameter Power Up Time Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions TPU — 2.5 — µs VDD = 5V — 5 — µs VDD = 3V Coming out of Power-down mode, started from falling edge of ACK pulse in I2C command. — 1 — Ω Normal mode (VOUT to VSS) — 1 — kΩ Power-Down Mode 1 (VOUT to VSS) — 100 — kΩ Power-Down Mode 2 (VOUT to VSS) — 500 — kΩ Power-Down Mode 3 (VOUT to VSS) Major Code Transition Glitch — 45 — nV-s 1 LSB change around major carry (800h to 7FFh) (Note 2) Digital Feedthrough — <10 — nV-s Note 2 DC Output Impedance ROUT Dynamic Performance Digital Interface Output Low Voltage VOL — — 0.4 V Input High Voltage (SDA and SCL Pins) VIH 0.7VDD — — V Input Low Voltage (SDA and SCL Pins) VIL — — 0.3VDD V Input High Voltage (A0 Pin) VA0-Hi 0.8VDD — — Note 4 Input Low Voltage (A0 Pin) VA0-IL — — 0.2VDD Note 4 ILI — — ±1 µA SCL = SDA = A0 = VSS or SCL = SDA = A0 = VDD CPIN — — 3 pF Note 2 TWRITE — 25 50 ms EEPROM Write time for 14 bits Data Retention — 200 — Years At +25°C, (Note 2) Endurance 1 — — Million Cycles At +25°C, (Note 2) Input Leakage Pin Capacitance IOL = 3 mA EEPROM EEPROM Write Time Note 1: 2: 3: 4: Test Code Range: 100 to 4000. This parameter is ensure by design and not 100% tested. Within 1/2 LSB of the final value when code changes from 1/4 to 3/4 (400h to C00h) of full-scale. Logic state of external address pin (A0 pin). © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 3 MCP4725 TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = +2.7V to +5.5V, VSS = GND. Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Specified Temperature Range TA -40 — +125 °C Operating Temperature Range TA -40 — +125 °C Storage Temperature Range TA -65 — +150 °C θJA — 190 — °C/W Conditions Temperature Ranges Thermal Package Resistances Thermal Resistance, 6L-SOT-23 DS22039C-page 4 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore, outside the warranted range. 0.16 0.4 0.12 0.3 VDD = 2.7V DNL (LSB) DNL (LSB) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, RL = 5 kΩ to VSS, CL = 100 pF. 0.08 0.04 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 -0.1 -0.04 0 1024 FIGURE 2-1: 2048 Code 3072 0 4096 DNL vs. Code (VDD = 5.5V). 1024 2048 Code 3072 4096 FIGURE 2-4: DNL vs. Code and Temperature (TA = -40°C to +125°C). 0.3 2 VDD = 5.5V 1 INL(LSB) DNL (LSB) 0.2 0.1 5.5V 0 -1 -2 2.7V 0 -3 -0.1 -4 0 1024 2048 Code 3072 0 4096 FIGURE 2-2: DNL vs. Code and Temperature (TA = -40°C to +125°C). 1024 FIGURE 2-5: 3072 4096 INL vs. Code. 2 0.3 +25C 1 INL(LSB) 0.2 DNL (LSB) 2048 Code 0.1 - 40C 0 -1 -2 0.0 +85C -3 -0.1 +125C -4 0 1024 2048 3072 4096 Code FIGURE 2-3: DNL vs. Code (VDD = 2.7V). © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. 0 1024 2048 3072 4096 Code FIGURE 2-6: INL vs. Code and Temperature (VDD = 5.5V). DS22039C-page 5 MCP4725 Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, RL = 5 kΩ to VSS, CL = 100 pF. 2 +25 C 3 - 40 C 2 Output Error (mV) 1 INL(LSB) 0 -1 -2 -3 +85 C -4 TA = -40 C TA = 85 C -5 1024 TA = 25 C TA = 125 C -1 -2 VDD = 5.5V -3 2048 Code 3072 -5 -40 -25 -10 4096 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-7: INL vs. Code and Temperature (VDD = 2.7V). FIGURE 2-10: Output Error vs. Temperature (Code = 4000d). 3 450 400 350 VDD = 5.5V 2 300 IDD(uA) Zero Scale Error (mV) 0 -4 +125 C 0 VDD = 2.7V 1 VDD = 2.7V 1 VDD = 5V 250 200 VDD = 2.7V 150 0 100 50 -1 -40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-8: Zero Scale Error vs. Temperature (Code = 000d). 0 -40 -25 -10 5 FIGURE 2-11: 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 Temperature(°C) IDD vs. Temperature. Full-Scale Error (mV) 0 -10 VDD = 2.7V -20 -30 -40 VDD = 5.5V -50 -60 -40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-9: Full-Scale Error vs. Temperature (Code = 4095d). DS22039C-page 6 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6 VDD = 5V VOUT (V) 5 VDD = 5V Code = FFFh 4 3 2 0 236 232 228 224 220 216 212 208 204 200 196 192 188 184 1 180 Occurance Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, RL = 5 kΩ to VSS, CL = 100 pF. 0 1 2 Current (µA) FIGURE 2-12: FIGURE 2-15: IDD Histogram . 6 80 VDD = 2.7V 70 5 VOUT vs. Resistive Load. VDD = 5V Code = FFFh VOUT (V) 50 40 30 20 4 3 2 193 191 189 187 185 183 181 179 177 175 173 171 169 0 167 1 0 165 10 163 Occurance 4 5 60 Code = 000h 0 4 8 IDD Histogram. FIGURE 2-13: 12 16 ISOURCE/SINK(mA) Current (µA) FIGURE 2-16: Capability. 2.50 Source and Sink Current 3.50 VDD = 5.5V 2.00 5.5V 1.50 2.7V 1.00 0.50 0.00 -40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-14: and VDD. Offset Error vs. Temperature © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. VIH Threshold (V) Offset Error (mV) 3 Load Resistance (kΩ) 3.00 VDD = 5.0V 2.50 2.00 1.50 VDD = 2.7V 1.00 -40 -25 -10 5 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 Temperature (°C) FIGURE 2-17: VIN High Threshold vs. Temperature and VDD. DS22039C-page 7 MCP4725 VIL Threshold (V) Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, RL = 5 kΩ to VSS, CL = 100 pF. 2.50 2.30 2.10 1.90 1.70 1.50 1.30 1.10 0.90 0.70 0.50 Half-Scale Code Change: 000h to 7FFh VDD = 5.5V VOUT (2V/Div) VDD = 5.0V VDD = 2.7V -40 -25 -10 5 CLK 20 35 50 65 80 95 110 125 Temperature (C) FIGURE 2-18: VIN Low Threshold vs. Temperature and VDD. Full-Scale Code Change: 000h to FFFh Time (2µs/Div) FIGURE 2-21: Half-Scale Settling Time. Half-Scale Code Change: 7FFh to 000h VOUT (2V/Div) VOUT (2V/Div) CLK CLK Time (2µs/Div) Time (2µs/Div) FIGURE 2-19: Full-Scale Settling Time. Full-Scale Code Change: FFFh to 000h FIGURE 2-22: Half-Scale Settling Time. Code Change: 800h to 7FFh VOUT (20 mV/Div) VOUT (2V/Div) CLK Time (1µs/Div) Time (2µs/Div) FIGURE 2-20: DS22039C-page 8 Full-Scale Settling Time. FIGURE 2-23: Code Change Glitch. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 Note: Unless otherwise indicated, TA = +25°C, VDD = +5.0V, VSS = 0V, RL = 5 kΩ to VSS, CL = 100 pF. VOUT (2V/Div) CLK Time (2µs/Div) FIGURE 2-24: Exiting Power Down Mode. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 9 MCP4725 3.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin No. SOT-23 Name 1 VOUT Analog Output Voltage 2 VSS Ground Reference 3.1 Function 3 VDD Supply Voltage 4 SDA I2C Serial Data 5 SCL I2C Serial Clock Input 6 A0 Device Address Selection pin. This pin can be tied to VSS or VDD, or can be actively driven by the digital logic levels. The logic state of this pin determines what the A0 bit of the I2C address bits should be. Analog Output Voltage (VOUT) VOUT is an analog output voltage from the DAC device. DAC output amplifier drives this pin with a range of VSS to VDD. 3.2 Supply Voltage (VDD, VSS) VDD is the power supply pin for the device. The voltage at the VDD pin is used as the supply input as well as the DAC reference input. The power supply at the VDD pin should be clean as possible for a good DAC performance. This pin requires an appropriate bypass capacitor of about 0.1 µF (ceramic) to ground. An additional 10 µF capacitor (tantalum) in parallel is also recommended to further attenuate high frequency noise present in application boards. The supply voltage (VDD) must be maintained in the 2.7V to 5.5V range for specified operation. VSS is the ground pin and the current return path of the device. The user must connect the VSS pin to a ground plane through a low impedance connection. If an analog ground path is available in the application PCB (printed circuit board), it is highly recommended that the VSS pin be tied to the analog ground path or isolated within an analog ground plane of the circuit board. 3.3 3.4 Serial Clock Pin (SCL) SCL is the serial clock pin of the I2C interface. The MCP4725 acts only as a slave and the SCL pin accepts only external serial clocks. The input data from the Master device is shifted into the SDA pin on the rising edges of the SCL clock and output from the MCP4725 occurs at the falling edges of the SCL clock. The SCL pin is an open-drain N-channel driver. Therefore, it needs a pull-up resistor from the VDD line to the SCL pin. Refer to Section 7.0 “I2C Serial Interface Communication” for more details of I2C Serial Interface communication. 3.5 Device Address Selection Pin (A0) This pin is used to select the A0 address bit by the user. The user can tie this pin to VSS (logic ‘0’), or VDD (logic ‘1’), or can be actively driven by the digital logic levels, such as the I2C Master Output. See Section 7.2 “Device Addressing” for more details of the address bits. Serial Data Pin (SDA) SDA is the serial data pin of the I2C interface. The SDA pin is used to write or read the DAC register and EEPROM data. The SDA pin is an open-drain N-chan nel driver. Therefore, it needs a pull-up resistor from the VDD line to the SDA pin. Except for start and stop conditions, the data on the SDA pin must be stable during the high period of the clock. The high or low state of the SDA pin can only change when the clock signal on the SCL pin is low. Refer to Section 7.0 “I2C Serial Interface Communication” for more details of I2C Serial Interface communication. DS22039C-page 10 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 4.0 TERMINOLOGY 4.1 Resolution The resolution is the number of DAC output states that divide the full-scale range. For the 12-bit DAC, the resolution is 212 or the DAC code ranges from 0 to 4095. 4.2 LSB 7 INL = < -1 LSB 6 Analog 4 Output (LSB) 3 INL = 0.5 LSB 2 The least significant bit or the ideal voltage difference between two successive codes. 1 EQUATION 4-1: LSB Ideal INL = - 1 LSB 5 0 V REF ( V Full – Scale – V Zero – Scale ) - = --------------------------------------------------------------------= -----------n n 2 2 –1 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 DAC Input Code Ideal Transfer Function Where: Actual Transfer Function VREF n 4.3 = = The reference voltage = VDD in the MCP4725. This VREF is the ideal full-scale voltage range The number of digital input bits. (n = 12 for MCP4725) Integral Nonlinearity (INL) or Relative Accuracy INL error is the maximum deviation between an actual code transition point and its corresponding ideal transition point (straight line). Figure 2-5 shows the INL curve of the MCP4725. The end-point method is used for the calculation. The INL error at a given input DAC code is calculated as: FIGURE 4-1: 4.4 Differential Nonlinearity (DNL) Differential nonlinearity error (Figure 4-2) is the measure of step size between codes in actual transfer function. The ideal step size between codes is 1 LSB. A DNL error of zero would imply that every code is exactly 1 LSB wide. If the DNL error is less than 1 LSB, the DAC guarantees monotonic output and no missing codes. The DNL error between any two adjacent codes is calculated as follows: EQUATION 4-3: ΔV OUT – LSB DNL = --------------------------------LSB EQUATION 4-2: ( V OUT – V Ideal ) INL = -------------------------------------LSB Where: VIdeal VOUT = = Code*LSB The output voltage measured at the given input code © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. INL Accuracy. Where: ΔVOUT = The measured DAC output voltage difference between two adjacent input codes. DS22039C-page 11 MCP4725 7 DNL = 0.5 LSB 6 5 DNL = 2LSB Analog 4 Output (LSB) 3 In the MCP4725, the gain error is not calibrated at the factory and most of the gain error is contributed by the output op amp saturation near the code range beyond 4000. For the applications which need the gain error specification less than 1% maximum, the user may consider using the DAC code range between 100 and 4000 instead of using full code range (code 0 to 4095). The DAC output of the code range between 100 and 4000 is much linear than full-scale range (0 to 4095). The gain error can be calibrated by software in applications. 2 4.7 1 0 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 DAC Input Code Full-Scale Error (FSE) Full-scale error (Figure 4-4) is the sum of offset error plus gain error. It is the difference between the ideal and measured DAC output voltage with all bits set to one (DAC input code = FFFh). Ideal Transfer Function Actual Transfer Function FIGURE 4-2: 4.5 EQUATION 4-4: ( V OUT – V Ideal ) FSE = -------------------------------------LSB DNL Accuracy. Offset Error Where: Offset error (Figure 4-3) is the deviation from zero voltage output when the digital input code is zero. This error affects all codes by the same amount. In the MCP4725, the offset error is not trimmed at the factory. However, it can be calibrated by software in application circuits. VIdeal VREF = = (VREF) (1 - 2-n) - VOFFSET The reference voltage. VREF = VDD in the MCP4725 Actual Transfer Function Full-Scale Error Actual Transfer Function Analog Output Gain Error Analog Output Offset Error Ideal Transfer Function 0 FIGURE 4-3: 4.6 Actual Transfer Function after Offset Error Removed Ideal Transfer Function DAC Input Code Gain Error Gain error (see Figure 4-4) is the difference between the actual full-scale output voltage from the ideal output voltage on the transfer curve. The gain error is calculated after nullifying the offset error, or full scale error minus the offset error. The gain error indicates how well the slope of the actual transfer function matches the slope of the ideal transfer function. The gain error is usually expressed as percent of full-scale range (% of FSR) or in LSB. DS22039C-page 12 0 Offset Error. DAC Input Code FIGURE 4-4: Error. 4.8 Gain Error and Full-Scale Gain Error Drift Gain error drift is the variation in gain error due to a change in ambient temperature. The gain error drift is typically expressed in ppm/oC. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 4.9 Offset Error Drift Offset error drift is the variation in offset error due to a change in ambient temperature. The offset error drift is typically expressed in ppm/oC. 4.10 Settling Time The Settling time is the time delay required for the DAC output to settle to its new output value from the start of code transition, within specified accuracy. In the MCP4725, the settling time is a measure of the time delay until the DAC output reaches its final value (within 0.5 LSB) when the DAC code changes from 400h to C00h. 4.11 Major-Code Transition Glitch Major-code transition glitch is the impulse energy injected into the DAC analog output when the code in the DAC register changes state. It is normally specified as the area of the glitch in nV-Sec. and is measured when the digital code is changed by 1 LSB at the major carry transition (Example: 011...111 to 100... 000, or 100... 000 to 011 ... 111). 4.12 Digital Feedthrough Digital feedthrough is the glitch that appears at the analog output caused by coupling from the digital input pins of the device. It is specified in nV-Sec. and is measured with a full scale change on the digital input pins (Example: 000... 000 to 111... 111, or 111... 111 to 000... 000). The digital feedthrough is measured when the DAC is not being written to the register. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 13 MCP4725 5.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The MCP4725 is a single channel buffered voltage output 12-bit DAC with non-volatile memory (EEPROM). The user can store configuration register bits (2 bits) and DAC input data (12 bits) in non-volatile EEPROM (14 bits) memory. When the device is powered on first, it loads the DAC code from the EEPROM and outputs the analog output accordingly with the programmed settings. The user can reprogram the EEPROM or DAC register any time. The device uses a resistor string architecture. DAC’s output is buffered with a low power precision amplifier. This output amplifier provides low offset voltage and low noise, as well as rail-to-rail output. The amplifier can also provide high source currents (VOUT pin to VSS). 5.1.2 DRIVING RESISTIVE AND CAPACITIVE LOADS The MCP4725 output stage is capable of driving loads up to 1000 pF in parallel with 5 kΩ load resistance. Figure 2-15 shows the VOUT vs. Resistive Load. VOUT drops slowly as the load resistance decreases after about 3.5 kΩ. 5.2 LSB SIZE One LSB is defined as the ideal voltage difference between two successive codes. (see Equation 4-1). Table 5-1 shows an example of the LSB size over full-scale range (VDD). TABLE 5-1: LSB SIZES FOR MCP4725 (EXAMPLE) The DAC can be configured to normal or power saving power-down mode by setting the configuration register bits. Full-Scale Range (VDD) LSB Size Condition The device uses a two-wire I2C compatible serial interface and operates from a single power supply ranging from 2.7V to 5.5V. 3.0V 5.0V 0.73 mV 1.22 mV 3 / 4096 5 / 4096 5.1 Output Voltage 5.3 Voltage Reference The input coding to the MCP4725 device is unsigned binary. The output voltage range is from 0V to VDD. The output voltage is given in Equation 5-1: The MCP4725 device uses the VDD as its voltage reference. Any variation or noises on the VDD line can affect directly on the DAC output. The VDD needs to be as clean as possible for accurate DAC performance. EQUATION 5-1: 5.4 V OUT ( V REF × D n ) = -----------------------------4096 Where: VREF Dn 5.1.1 = = VDD Input code OUTPUT AMPLIFIER The DAC output is buffered with a low-power, precision CMOS amplifier. This amplifier provides low offset voltage and low noise. The output stage enables the device to operate with output voltages close to the power supply rails. Refer to Section 1.0 “Electrical Characteristics” for range and load conditions. The output amplifier can drive the resistive and high capacitive loads without oscillation. The amplifier can provide maximum load current as high as 25 mA which is enough for most of a programmable voltage reference applications. DS22039C-page 14 Reset Conditions In the Reset conditions, the device uploads the EEPROM data into the DAC register. The device can be reset by two independent events: (a) by POR or (b) by I2C General Call Reset Command. The factory default settings for the EEPROM prior to shipment are shown in Table 4-3 (set for a middle scale output). The user can rewrite or read the DAC register or EEPROM anytime after the Power-On-Reset event. 5.4.1 POWER-ON-RESET The device’s internal Power-On-Reset (POR) circuit ensures that the device powers up in a defined state. If the power supply voltage is less than the POR threshold (VPOR = 2V, typical), all circuits are disabled and there will be no DAC output. When the VDD increases above the VPOR, the device takes a reset state. During the reset period, the device uploads all configuration and DAC input codes from EEPROM. The DAC output will be the same as for the value last stored in the EEPROM. This enables the device returns to the same state that it was at the last write to the EEPROM before it was powered off. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 5.5 Normal and Power-Down Modes The device has two modes of operation: Normal mode and power-down mode. The mode is selected by programming the power-down bits (PD1 and PD0) in the Configuration register. The user can also program the two power-down bits in non-volatile EEPROM memory. When the normal mode is selected, the device operates a normal digital-to-analog conversion. If the power-down mode is selected, the device enters a power saving condition by shutting down most of the internal circuits. During the power-down mode, all internal circuits except the I2C interface are disabled and there is no data conversion event, and no VOUT is available. The device also switches the output stage from the output of the amplifier to a known resistive load. The value of the resistive load is determined by the state of the power-down bits (PD1 and PD0). Table 5-2 shows the outcome of the power-down bit and the resistive load. Resistive String DAC VOUT OP Amp Power-Down Control Circuit 1 kΩ 100 kΩ 500 kΩ Resistive Load FIGURE 5-1: Output Stage for Power-Down Mode. During the power-down mode, the device draws about 60 nA (typical). Although most of internal circuits are shutdown, the serial interface remains active in order to receive the I2C command. The device exits the power-down mode immediately when (a) it receives a new write command for normal mode or (b) it receives an I2C General Call Wake-Up Command. When the DAC operation mode is changed from power-down to normal mode, the output settling time takes less than 10 µs, but greater than the standard Active mode settling time (6 µs, typical). TABLE 5-2: PD1 0 0 1 1 Note 1: POWER-DOWN BITS PD0 Function 0 Normal Mode 1 1 kΩ resistor to ground (1) 0 100 kΩ resistor to ground (1) 1 500 kΩ resistor to ground (1) In the power-down mode: VOUT is off and most of internal circuits are disabled. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 15 MCP4725 5.6 Non-Volatile EEPROM Memory are transferred to the EEPROM memory block. A status bit, RDY/BSY, stays low during the EEPROM writing and goes high as the write operation is completed. While the RDY/BSY bit is low (during the EEPROM writing), any new write command is ignored (for EEPROM or DAC register). Table 5-3 shows the EEPROM bits and factory default settings. Table 5-4 shows the DAC input register bits of the MCP4725. The MCP4725 device has a 14-bit wide EEPROM memory to store configuration bit (2 bits) and DAC input data (12 bits). These bits are readable and re-writable with I2C interface commands. The device has an on-chip charge pump circuit to write the EEPROM memory bits without using an external program voltage. The EEPROM writing operation is initiated when the device receives an EEPROM write command (C2 = 0, C1 = 1, C0 = 1). The configuration and writing data bits TABLE 5-3: Bit Name Bit Function PD1 0 Bit Function Note 1: D11 D10 D9 D8 0 (1) D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 0 0 0 0 DAC Input Data (12 bits) 1 (2) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 See Table 5-2 for details. Bit D11 = ‘1’ (while all other bits are “0”) enables the device to output 0.5 * VDD (= middle scale output). TABLE 5-4: Bit Name PD0 Power-Down Select (2 bits) Factory Default Value Note 1: 2: EEPROM MEMORY AND FACTORY DEFAULT SETTINGS (TOTAL NUMBER OF BITS: 14 BITS) DAC REGISTER C2 C1 C0 Command Type RDY/ POR PD1 PD0 D11 D10 D9 BSY (1) PowerDown Select D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 Data (12 bits) Write EEPROM status indication bit (0:EEPROM write is not completed. 1:EEPROM write is complete.) DS22039C-page 16 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 6.0 THEORY OF OPERATION When the device is connected to the I2C bus line, the device is working as a slave device. The Master (MCU) can write/read the DAC input register or EEPROM using the I2C interface command. The MCP4725 device address contains four fixed bits ( 1100 = device code) and three address bits (A2, A1, A0). The A2 and A1 bits are hard-wired during manufacturing, and A0 bit is determined by the logic state of A0 pin. The A0 pin can be connected to VDD or VSS, or actively driven by digital logic levels. The following sections describe the communication protocol to send or read the data code and write/read the EEPROM using the I2C interface. See Section 7.0 “I2C Serial Interface Communication”. 6.1 Write Commands The write commands are used to load the configuration bits and DAC input code to the DAC register, or to write to the EEPROM of the device. The write command types are defined by using three write command type bits (C2, C1, C0). Table 6-2 shows the write command types and their functions. There are three command types for the MCP4725. The four “reserved” commands in Table 6-2 are for future use. The MCP4725 ignores the “reserved” commands. Write command protocol examples are shown in Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2. The input data code is coded as shown in Table 6-1. The MSB of the data is always transmitted first and the format is unipolar binary. TABLE 6-1: INPUT DATA CODING Input Code Nominal Output Voltage (V) 111111111111 (FFFh) VDD - 1 LSB 111111111110 (FFEh) VDD - 2 LSB 000000000010 (002h) 2 LSB 000000000001 (001h) 1 LSB 000000000000 (000h) 0 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. 6.1.1 WRITE COMMAND FOR FAST MODE (C2 = 0, C1 = 0, C0 = X, X = DON’T CARE) The fast write command is used to update the DAC register. The data in the EEPROM of the device is not affected by this command. This command updates Power-Down mode selection bits (PD1 and PD0) and 12 bits of the DAC input code in the DAC register. Figure 6-1 shows an example of the fast write command for the MCP4725 device. 6.1.2 WRITE COMMAND FOR DAC INPUT REGISTER (C2 = 0, C1 = 1, C0 = 0) In MCP4725, this command performs the same function as the Fast Mode command in Section 6.1.1 “Write Command for Fast mode (C2 = 0, C1 = 0, C0 = X, X = Don’t Care)”. Figure 6-2 shows the write command protocol for the MCP4725. As shown in Figure 6-2, the D11 - D0 bits in the third and fourth bytes are DAC input data. The last 4 bits (X, X, X, X) in the fourth byte are don’t care bits. The device executes the Master’s write command after receiving the last byte (4th byte). The Master can send a STOP bit to terminate the current sequence, or send a Repeated START bit followed by an address byte. If the device receives three data bytes continuously after the 4th byte, it updates from the 2nd to the 4th data bytes with the last three input data bytes. The contents of the register are updated at the end of the 4th byte. The device ignores any partially received data bytes if the I2C communication with the Master ends before completing the 4th byte. 6.1.3 WRITE COMMAND FOR DAC INPUT REGISTER AND EEPROM (C2 = 0, C1 = 1, C0 = 1) When the device receives this command, it (a) loads the configuration and data bits to the DAC register, and (b) also writes the EEPROM. When the device is writing the EEPROM, the RDY/BSY bit goes low and stays low until the EEPROM write operation is completed. The state of the RDY/BSY bit can be monitored by a read command. Figure 6-2 shows the details of the this write command protocol and Figure 6-3 shows the details of the read command. DS22039C-page 17 MCP4725 TABLE 6-2: WRITE COMMAND TYPE C2 C1 C0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Note 0 0 1 1 1: 2: Function Command Name X X 0 1 Fast Mode This command is used to change the DAC register. EEPROM is not affected “ “ Write DAC Register Load configuration bits and data code to the DAC Register Write DAC Register (a) Load configuration bits and data code to the DAC Register and and EEPROM (b) also write the EEPROM 0 Reserved Reserved for future use 1 Reserved Reserved for future use 0 Reserved Reserved for future use 1 Reserved Reserved for future use X = Dont’ Care. Fast Mode does not use C0 bit. The MCP4725 ignores the “Reserved” commands. Change DAC Code in Fast Mode: (C2,C1) = (0,0) ACK (MCP4725) 2nd byte 1st byte (Device Addressing) 1 1 0 0 A2 A1 A0 0 0 R/W Device Code Start Bit see Note 2 ACK (MCP4725) ACK (MCP4725) 3rd byte 0 PD1 PD0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 DAC Register Data (12 bits) Power Down Select Address Bits see Note 1 Stop Bit Fast Mode Command (C2, C1 = 0, 0) Read/Write Command Repeat bytes of 2nd and 3rd bytes 3rd byte 2nd byte 0 Stop Bit 0 PD1 PD0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 ACK (MCP4725) ACK (MCP4725) see Note 2 Note 1: A2 and A1 bits are programmed at the factory by hard-wired, and A0 bit is determined by the logic state of A0 pin. 2: The device updates VOUT at the falling edge of the ACK pulse of the 3rd byte. FIGURE 6-1: DS22039C-page 18 Write Command for Fast Mode. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 (A) Write DAC Register: (C2, C1, C0) = (0,1,0) or (B) Write DAC Register and EEPROM: (C2, C1, C0) = (0,1,1) ACK (MCP4725) 1st byte (Device Addressing) 1 1 0 0 A2 A1 A0 0 Device Code Address Bits Start Bit ACK (MCP4725) 2nd byte C2 C1 C0 X X 3rd byte PD1 PD0 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 Unused Unused R/W X 4th byte D3 D2 D1 D0 X X X X DAC Register Data (12 bits) Unused Power Down Selection Write Command Type: Write DAC Register: (C2 = 0, C1 = 1, C0 = 0) Write DAC Register and EEPROM: (C2 = 0, C1 = 1, C0 = 1). See Note 1 Stop Bit • The device updates the VOUT after this ACK pulse is issued. • For EEPROM Write: - The Charge Pump initiates the EEPROM writing sequence at the falling edge of this ACK pulse. - The RDY/BSY bit (pin) goes “low” at the falling edge of this ACK pulse and back to “high” immediately after the EEPROM write is completed. Repeat Bytes of 2nd - 4th bytes ACK (MCP4725) 2nd byte C2 C1 C0 X Note 1: X PD1PD0 X ACK (MCP4725) 3rd byte 4th byte D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 X X X X Stop Bit RDY/BSY bit stays “low” during the EEPROM write. Any new write command including repeat bytes during the EEPROM write mode is ignored. The RDY/BSY bit sets to “high” after the EEPROM write is completed. FIGURE 6-2: Write Commands for DAC Input Register and EEPROM. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 19 MCP4725 6.2 READ COMMAND If the R/W bit is set to a logic “high”, then the device outputs on SDA pin, the DAC register and EEPROM data. Figure 6-3 shows an example of reading the register and EEPROM data. The 2nd byte in Figure 6-3 indicates the current condition of the device operation. The RDY/BSY bit indicates EEPROM writing status. The RDY/BSY bit stays low during EEPROM writng and high when the writing is completed.. 1 1 0 0 ACK (Master) ACK (MCP4725) Read Command 1st byte A2 A1 A0 1 R/W Device Code Address Bits Start Bit ACK (Master) 2nd byte 3rd byte RDY/ BSY POR X X X PD1 PD0 X D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 Current Settings in DAC Register See Note 2 4th byte D3 D2 D1 D0 X X X X DAC register Data (12 bits) EEPROM Write Status Indicate Bit (1: Completed, 0: Incomplete) ACK (Master) 5th byte Stop Bit 6th byte X PD1 PD0 X D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 EEPROM Data Note 1: Bytes 2 - 6 are repeated in repeat bytes after byte 6. 2: X is don’t care bit. FIGURE 6-3: DS22039C-page 20 Read Command and Output Data Format. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 7.0 7.1 I2C SERIAL INTERFACE COMMUNICATION OVERVIEW The MCP4725 device uses a two-wire I2C serial interface that can operate on a standard, fast or high speed mode. A device that sends data onto the bus is defined as transmitter, and a device receiving data as receiver. The bus has to be controlled by a master device which generates the serial clock (SCL), controls the bus access and generates the START and STOP conditions. The MCP4725 device works as slave. Both master and slave can operate as transmitter or receiver, but the master device determines which mode is activated. An example of hardware connection diagram is shown in Figure 8-1. Communication is initiated by the master (microcontroller) which sends the START bit, followed by the slave address byte. The first byte transmitted is always the slave address byte, which contains the device code, the address bits, and the R/W bit. The device code for the MCP4725 device is 1100. When the device receives a read command (R/W = 1), it transmits the contents of the DAC input register and EEPROM. A non-acknowledge (NAK) or repeated start bit can be transmitted at any time. See Figure 6-3 for the read operation example. If writing to the device (R/ W = 0), the device will expect write command type bits in the following byte. See Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 for the write operation examples. 7.2 Device Addressing The address byte is the first byte received following the START condition from the master device. The first part of the address byte consists of a 4-bit device code which is set to 1100 for the MCP4725. The device code is followed by three address bits (A2, A1, A0) which are programmed as follows: • The choice of A2 and A1 bits are provided by the customer as part of the ordering process. These bits are then programmed (hard-wired) during manufacturing • The A2 and A1 are programmed to ‘00’ (default), if not requested by customer • A0 bit is determined by the logic state of A0 pin. The A0 pin can be tied to VDD or VSS, or can be actively driven by digital logic levels. The advantage of using the A0 pin is that the users can control the A0 bit on their application PCB circuit and also two identical MCP4725 devices can be used on the same bus line. When the device receives an address byte, it compares the logic state of the A0 pin with the A0 address bit received before responding with the acknowledge bit. The logic state of the A0 pin needs to be set prior to the interface communication. Acknowledge bit Start bit Read/Write bit R/W Slave Address The MCP4725 supports all three I2C operating modes: ACK Address Byte • Standard Mode: bit rates up to 100 kbit/s • Fast Mode: bit rates up to 400 kbit/s • High Speed Mode (HS mode): bit rates up to 3.4 Mbit/s Slave Address for MCP4725 Device Code Refer to the Phillips I2C document for more details of the I2C specifications. 1 1 0 Address Bits 0 A2 A1 A0 Note: A2 and A1: Programmed (hard-wired) at the factory. Please Contact Microchip Technology Inc. for A2 and A1 programming options. A0: Use the logic level state of A0 pin. FIGURE 7-1: © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. Device Addressing DS22039C-page 21 MCP4725 7.3 General Call 7.5 I2C BUS CHARACTERISTICS The MCP4725 device acknowledges the general call address (0x00 in the first byte). The meaning of the general call address is always specified in the second byte (see Figure 7-2). The I2C specification does not allow to use “00000000” (00h) in the second byte. Please refer to the Phillips I2C document for more details of the General Call specifications. The MCP4725 supports the following general calls: The I2C specification defines the following bus protocol: 7.3.1 Accordingly, the following bus conditions have been defined using Figure 7-3. GENERAL CALL RESET The general reset occurs if the second byte is “00000110” (06h). At the acknowledgement of this byte, the device will abort current conversion and perform an internal reset similar to a power-on-reset (POR). Immediately after this reset event, the device uploads the contents of the EEPROM into the DAC register. 7.3.2 GENERAL CALL WAKE-UP If the second byte is “00001001” (09h), the device will reset the power-down bits. After receiving this command, the power-down bits of the DAC register are set to a normal operation (PD1, PD2 = 0,0). The power-down bit settings in EEPROM are not affected. ACK ACK 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A x x First Byte (General Call Address) FIGURE 7-2: Format. 7.4 LSB x x x x x x A Second Byte General Call Address • Data transfer may be initiated only when the bus is not busy. • During data transfer, the data line must remain stable whenever the clock line is HIGH. Changes in the data line while the clock line is HIGH will be interpreted as a START or STOP condition. 7.5.1 BUS NOT BUSY (A) Both data and clock lines remain HIGH. 7.5.2 START DATA TRANSFER (B) A HIGH to LOW transition of the SDA line while the clock (SCL) is HIGH determines a START condition. All commands must be preceded by a START condition. 7.5.3 STOP DATA TRANSFER (C) A LOW to HIGH transition of the SDA line while the clock (SCL) is HIGH determines a STOP condition. All operations must be ended with a STOP condition. 7.5.4 DATA VALID (D) The state of the data line represents valid data when, after a START condition, the data line is stable for the duration of the HIGH period of the clock signal. The data on the line must be changed during the LOW period of the clock signal. There is one clock pulse per bit of data. Each data transfer is initiated with a START condition and terminated with a STOP condition. High-Speed (HS) Mode 2 The I C specification requires that a high-speed mode device must be ‘activated’ to operate in high-speed (3.4 Mbit/s) mode. This is done by sending a special address byte of 00001XXX following the START bit. The XXX bits are unique to the high-speed (HS) mode Master. This byte is referred to as the high-speed (HS) Master Mode Code (HSMMC). The MCP4725 device does not acknowledge this byte. However, upon receiving this command, the device switches to HS mode and can communicate at up to 3.4 Mbit/s on SDA and SCL lines. The device will switch out of the HS mode on the next STOP condition. For more information on the HS mode, or other I2C modes, please refer to the Phillips I2C specification. DS22039C-page 22 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 7.5.5 ACKNOWLEDGE Each receiving device, when addressed, is obliged to generate an acknowledge after the reception of each byte. The master device must generate an extra clock pulse which is associated with this acknowledge bit. The device that acknowledges, has to pull down the SDA line during the acknowledge clock pulse in such a way that the SDA line is stable LOW during the HIGH period of the acknowledge related clock pulse. Of (A) (B) course, setup and hold times must be taken into account. During reads, a master must send an end of data to the slave by not generating an acknowledge bit on the last byte that has been clocked out of the slave. In this case, the slave (MCP4725) will leave the data line HIGH to enable the master to generate the STOP condition. (D) (D) (C) (A) SCL SDA START CONDITION FIGURE 7-3: DATA ADDRESS OR ACKNOWLEDGE ALLOWED TO CHANGE VALID STOP CONDITION Data Transfer Sequence On The Serial Bus. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 23 MCP4725 TABLE 7-1: I2C SERIAL TIMING SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise specified, all limits are specified for TA = -40 to +85°C, VDD = +2.7V to +5.0V, VSS = 0V. Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions Clock frequency fSCL 0 — 100 kHz Clock high time THIGH 4000 — — ns Clock low time TLOW 4700 — — ns SDA and SCL rise time (Note 1) TR — — 1000 ns From VIL to VIH SDA and SCL fall time (Note 1) TF — — 300 ns From VIH to VIL START condition hold time THD:STA 4000 — — ns After this period, the first clock pulse is generated. Repeated START condition setup time TSU:STA 4700 — — ns Only relevant for repeated Start condition Data hold time (Note 3) THD:DAT 0 — 3450 ns Data input setup time TSU:DAT 250 — — ns STOP condition setup time TSU:STO 4000 — — ns STOP condition hold time THD:STD 4000 — — ns TAA 0 — 3750 ns TBUF 4700 — — ns kHz Standard Mode Output valid from clock (Notes 2 and 3) Bus free time Time between START and STOP conditions. Fast Mode Clock frequency TSCL 0 — 400 Clock high time THIGH 600 — — ns Clock low time TLOW 1300 — — ns SDA and SCL rise time (Note 1) TR 20 + 0.1Cb — 300 ns SDA and SCL fall time (Note 1) TF 20 + 0.1Cb — 300 ns From VIH to VIL START condition hold time THD:STA 600 — — ns After this period, the first clock pulse is generated Repeated START condition setup time TSU:STA 600 — — ns Only relevant for repeated Start condition Data hold time (Note 4) THD:DAT 0 — 900 ns Data input setup time TSU:DAT 100 — — ns STOP condition setup time TSU:STO 600 — — ns STOP condition hold time THD:STD 600 — — ns TAA 0 — 1200 ns TBUF 1300 — — ns Output valid from clock (Notes 2 and 3) Bus free time Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: From VIL to VIH Time between START and STOP conditions. This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. This specification is not a part of the I2C specification. This specification is equivalent to the Data Hold Time (THD:DAT) plus SDA Fall (or rise) time: TAA = THD:DAT + TF (OR TR). If this parameter is too short, it can create an unintended Start or Stop condition to other devices on the bus line. If this parameter is too long, Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. For Data Input: This parameter must be longer than tSP. If this parameter is too long, the Data Input Setup (TSU:DAT) or Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. For Data Output: This parameter is characterized, and tested indirectly by testing TAA parameter. All timing parameters in high-speed modes are tested at VDD = 5V. DS22039C-page 24 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 TABLE 7-1: I2C SERIAL TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (CONTINUED) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise specified, all limits are specified for TA = -40 to +85°C, VDD = +2.7V to +5.0V, VSS = 0V. Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions Clock frequency fSCL 0 — 3.4 1.7 MHz MHz Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF Clock high time THIGH 60 120 — — ns ns Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF Clock low time TLOW 160 320 — — ns Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF SCL rise time (Note 1) TR — — 40 80 ns From VIL to VIH,Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF SCL fall time (Note 1) TF — — 40 80 ns From VIH to VIL,Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF SDA rise time (Note 1) TR: DAT — — 80 160 ns From VIL to VIH,Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF SDA fall time (Note 1) TF: DATA — — 80 160 ns From VIH to VIL,Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF START condition hold time THD:STA 160 — — ns After this period, the first clock pulse is generated Repeated START condition setup time TSU:STA 160 — — ns Only relevant for repeated Start condition Data hold time (Note 4) THD:DAT 0 0 — 70 150 ns Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF High Speed Mode (Note 5) Data input setup time TSU:DAT 10 — — ns STOP condition setup time TSU:STO 160 — — ns STOP condition hold time THD:STD 160 — — ns TAA — — 150 310 ns Cb = 100 pF Cb = 400 pF TBUF 160 — — ns Time between START and STOP conditions. Output valid from clock (Notes 2 and 3) Bus free time Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: This parameter is ensured by characterization and not 100% tested. This specification is not a part of the I2C specification. This specification is equivalent to the Data Hold Time (THD:DAT) plus SDA Fall (or rise) time: TAA = THD:DAT + TF (OR TR). If this parameter is too short, it can create an unintended Start or Stop condition to other devices on the bus line. If this parameter is too long, Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. For Data Input: This parameter must be longer than tSP. If this parameter is too long, the Data Input Setup (TSU:DAT) or Clock Low time (TLOW) can be affected. For Data Output: This parameter is characterized, and tested indirectly by testing TAA parameter. All timing parameters in high-speed modes are tested at VDD = 5V. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 25 MCP4725 TF TSU:STA SCL TLOW SDA TR THIGH TSP THD:STA TSU:DAT THD:DAT TSU:STO TBUF 0.7VDD 0.3VDD TAA FIGURE 7-4: DS22039C-page 26 I2C Bus Timing Data. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS The MCP4725 device is one of Microchip’s latest DAC device family with non-volatile EEPROM memory. The device is a general purpose resistive string DAC intended to be used in applications where a precision, and low power DAC with moderate bandwidth is required. Since the device includes non-volatile EEPROM memory, the user can use this device for applications that require the output to return to the previous set-up value on subsequent power-ups. Applications generally suited for the MCP4725 device family include: • • • • Set Point or Offset Trimming Sensor Calibration Portable Instrumentation (Battery Powered) Motor Speed Control 8.1 8.1.1 DEVICE CONNECTION TEST The user can test the presence of the MCP4725 on the I2C bus line without performing the data conversion. This test can be achieved by checking an acknowledge response from the MCP4725 after sending a read or write command. Here is an example using Figure 8-2: (a) Set the R/W bit “HIGH” in the address byte. (b) If the MCP4725 is connected to the I2C bus line, it will then acknowledge by pulling SDA bus LOW during the ACK clock and then release the bus back to the I2C Master. (c) A STOP or repeated START bit can then be issued from the Master and I2C communication can continue. Connecting to I2C BUS using Pull-Up Resistors Address Byte The SCL and SDA pins of the MCP4725 are open-drain configurations. These pins require a pull-up resistor as shown in Figure 8-1. The value of these pull-up resistors depends on the operating speed (standard, fast, and high speed) and loading capacitance of the I2C bus line. Higher value of pull-up resistor consumes less power, but increases the signal transition time (higher RC time constant) on the bus. Therefore, it can limit the bus operating speed. The lower resistor value, on the other hand, consumes higher power, but allows higher operating speed. If the bus line has higher capacitance due to long bus line or high number of devices connected to the bus, a smaller pull-up resistor is needed to compensate the long RC time constant. The pull-up resistor is typically chosen between 1 kΩ and 10 kΩ ranges for standard and fast modes, and less than 1 kΩ for high speed mode. 1 VOUT SDA Start Bit 1 2 3 4 8 9 1 1 0 0 A2 A1 A0 1 Device bits 5 6 7 Start Bit Address bits R/W MCP4725 Response FIGURE 8-2: I2C Bus Connection Test. A0 6 2 VSS SCL 5 3 VDD SDA 4 R R VDD 0.1 µF SCL VDD MCP4725 Analog Output Two devices with the same A2 and A1 address bits can be connected to the same I2C bus by utilizing the A0 address pin (Example: A0 pin of device A is tied to VDD, and the other device’s pin is tied to VSS.) ACK 8.0 10 µF To MCU (MASTER) Note 1: R is the pull-up resistor. Typically 1 ~ 10 kΩ 2: A0 can be tied to VSS, VDD or driven by MCU FIGURE 8-1: I2C Bus Interface Connection with A0 pin tied to VSS. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 27 MCP4725 8.2 Using Non-Volatile EEPROM Memory The user can store the DAC input code (12 bits) and power-down configuration bits (2 bits) in the internal non-volatile EEPROM memory using the I2C write command. The user can also read the EEPROM data using the I2C read command. When the device is first powered after power is shut down, the device uploads the EEPROM contents to the DAC register automatically and provides the DAC output immediately. This feature is very useful in applications where the DAC device is used to provide set point or calibration data for other devices in the application system. The DAC will not lose the important system operational parameters due to the system power failure incidents. See Section 5.6 “Non-Volatile EEPROM Memory” for more details of the non-volatile EEPROM memory. 8.3 Power Supply Considerations The power supply to the device is used for both VDD and DAC reference voltage. Any noise induced on the VDD line can affect on the DAC performance. Typical application will require a bypass capacitor in order to filter out high frequency noise on the VDD line. The noise can be induced onto the power supply’s traces or as a result of changes on the DAC output. The bypass capacitor helps to minimize the effect of these noise sources on signal integrity. Figure 8-1 shows an example of using two bypass capacitors (a 10 µF tantalum capacitor and a 0.1 µF ceramic capacitor) in parallel on the VDD line. These capacitors should be placed as close to the VDD pin as possible (within 4 mm). 8.4 Layout Considerations Inductively-coupled AC transients and digital switching noise from other devices can affect on DAC performance and DAC output signal integrity. Careful board layout will minimize these effects. Bench testing has shown that a multi-layer board utilizing a low-inductance ground plane, isolated inputs, isolated outputs and proper decoupling are critical to achieving the performance that the MCP4725 is capable of providing. Particularly harsh environments may require shielding of critical signals. Separate digital and analog ground planes are recommended. In this case, the VSS pin and the ground pins of the VDD capacitors of the MCP4725 should be terminated to the analog ground plane. 8.5 Application Examples The MCP4725 is a rail-to-rail output DAC designed to operate with a VDD range of 2.7V to 5.5V. Its output amplifier is robust enough to drive common, small-signal loads directly, thus eliminating the cost and size of an external buffer for most applications. 8.5.1 DC SET POINT OR CALIBRATION A common application for the MCP4725 is a digitally-controlled set point or a calibration of variable parameters such as sensor offset or bias point. Example 8-1 shows an example of the set point setting. Since the MCP4725 is a 12-bit DAC and uses the VDD supply as a reference source, it provides a VDD/4096 of resolution per step. The power source should be as clean as possible. If the application circuit has separate digital and analog power supplies, the VDD and VSS pins of the MCP4725 should reside on the analog plane. DS22039C-page 28 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 8.5.2 DECREASING THE OUTPUT STEP SIZE put is scaled down by the factor of the ratio of the voltage divider. Note that the bypass capacitor on the output of the voltage divider plays a critical function in attenuating the output noise of the DAC and the induced noise from the environment. Calibrating the threshold of a diode, transistor or resistor may require a very small step size in the DAC output voltage. These applications may require about 200 µV of step resolution within 0.8V of range. One method of achieving this small step resolution is using a voltage divider at the DAC output. An example is shown in Example 8-1. The step size of the DAC out- VDD MCP4725 R R A0 6 1 VOUT 2 VSS SCL 5 3 VDD SDA 4 0.1 µF 10 µF To MCU (MASTER) VDD D = Input Code (0 to 4095) D V OUT = V DD × -----------4096 R2 V TRIP = V OUT ⎛ -------------------⎞ ⎝ R 1 + R 2⎠ VDD Light (Ceramic) (Tantalum) Comparator RSENSE R1 R2 EXAMPLE 8-1: VTRIP 0.1 µF Set Point Or Threshold Calibration. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 29 MCP4725 8.5.3 BUILDING A “WINDOW” DAC Some sensor applications require very high resolution around the set point or threshold voltage. Example 8-2 shows an example of creating a “window” around the threshold using a voltage divider network with a pull-up and pull-down resistor. In the circuit, the output voltage range is scaled down, but its step resolution is increased greatly. VDD MCP4725 R R A0 6 1 VOUT SCL V 5 2 SS 3 VDD SDA 4 0.1 µF To MCU (MASTER) VDD 10 µF VCC+ VOUT VCC+ Rsense R3 R1 VTRIP R2 0.1 µF Comparator VCC- VCCD V OUT = V DD ------12 2 Thevenin Equivalent where D = DAC Input Code (0 – 4095) R2 R3 R 23 = -----------------R2 + R3 V 23 DS22039C-page 30 VO ( V CC+ R 2 ) + ( V CC- R 3 ) = ---------------------------------------------------R2 + R3 V OUT R 23 + V 23 R 1 V trip = ------------------------------------------R 2 + R 23 EXAMPLE 8-2: R1 VOUT R23 V23 Single-Supply “Window” DAC. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 8.5.4 BIPOLAR OPERATION Example 8-3 illustrates a simple bipolar voltage source configuration. R1 and R2 allow the gain to be selected, while R3 and R4 shift the DAC's output to a selected offset. Note that R4 can be tied to VDD (= VREF) instead of VSS, if a higher offset is desired. Note that a pull-up to VDD could be used, instead of R4, if a higher offset is desired. Bipolar operation is achievable using the MCP4725 by using an external operational amplifier (op amp). This allows a general purpose DAC, with its cost and availability advantages, to meet almost any desired output voltage range, power and noise performance. VDD MCP4725 R R A0 6 1 VOUT SCL V 5 2 SS 3 VDD SDA 4 0.1 µF 10 µF To MCU (MASTER) R2 VDD VDD VCC+ R1 VOUT R3 VO VIN+ VCC– R4 0.1 µF D V OUT = V DD ------where D = DAC Input Code (0 – 4095) 12 2 V OUT R 4 V IN+ = ------------------R3 + R4 R2 R V O = V IN+ ⎛⎝ 1 + -----2-⎞⎠ – V DD ⎛⎝ ------⎞⎠ R1 R1 EXAMPLE 8-3: Digitally-Controlled Bipolar Voltage Source. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 31 MCP4725 126.96.36.199 Design a Bipolar DAC using Example 8-3 Some applications desires an output step magnitude of 1 mV with an output range of ±2.05V. The following steps explain the design solution: 1. 2. Calculate the range: +2.05V – (-2.05V) = 4.1V. Calculate the resolution needed: 4.1V/1 mV = 4100 Since 212 = 4096 for 12-bit resolution. 3. The amplifier gain (R2/R1), multiplied by VDD, must be equal to the desired minimum output to achieve bipolar operation. Since any gain can be realized by choosing resistor values (R1+R2), the VDD value must be selected first. If a VDD of 4.1V is used, solve for the amplifier’s gain by setting the DAC to 0, knowing that the output needs to be -2.05V. The equation can be simplified to: R – R 2 – 2.05 – 2.05 --------- = ------------- = ------------- → -----2- = 1--V R1 4.1 R1 2 DD If R1 = 20 kΩ and R2 = 10 kΩ, the gain will be 0.5. 4. Next, solve for R3 and R4 by setting the DAC to 4096, knowing that the output needs to be +2.05V. 2.05V + ( 0.5 ⋅ V DD ) R4 ---------------------- = ----------------------------------------------- = 2--( R3 + R4 ) 3 1.5 ⋅ V DD If R4 = 20 kΩ, then R3 = 10 kΩ DS22039C-page 32 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 8.5.5 PROGRAMMABLE CURRENT SOURCE Example 8-3 illustrates an example how to convert the DAC voltage output to a digitally selectable current source by adding a voltage follower and a sensor register. VDD MCP4725 1 VOUT 2 VSS 3 VDD 0.1 µF R A0 6 SCL 5 SDA 4 10 µF VDD R To MCU (MASTER) VDD LOAD IL VOUT IB RSENSE FIGURE 8-3: D V OUT = V DD × -----------4096 D = Input Code (0 to 4095) V OUT β I L = ------------------ -----------R SENSE β + 1 I I B = ----L β Digitally Controllable Current Source. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 33 MCP4725 9.0 DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT 9.1 Evaluation & Demonstration Boards The MCP4725 SOT-23-6 Evaluation Board is available from Microchip Technology Inc. This board works with Microchip’s PICkit™ Serial Analyzer. The user can program the DAC input codes and EEPROM data, or read the programmed data using the easy to use PICkit Serial Analyzer with the Graphic User Interface software. Refer to www.microchip.com for further information on this product’s capabilities and availability. PICkit Serial DAC Analog Output USB Cable to PC MCP4725 SOT-23-6 EV Board FIGURE 9-1: Evaluation Board. MCP4725 SOT-23-6 FIGURE 9-2: Setup for the MCP4725 SOT-23-6 Evaluation Board with PICkit™ Serial Analyzer. 1st Write Byte 2nd Write Byte 3rd Write Byte 4th Write Byte FIGURE 9-3: DS22039C-page 34 Example of PICkit™ Serial User Interface. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 10.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 10.1 Package Marking Information 6-Lead SOT-23 Example Part Number XXNN 1 e3 Note: Code MCP4725A0T-E/CH A0 (00) AJNN MCP4725A1T-E/CH A1 (01) APNN MCP4725A2T-E/CH A2 (10) AQNN MCP4725A3T-E/CH A3 (11) ARNN Legend: XX...X Y YY WW NNN * Address Option AJ25 1 Customer-specific information Year code (last digit of calendar year) Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Alphanumeric traceability code Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn) This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 ) can be found on the outer packaging for this package. In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available characters for customer-specific information. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 35 MCP4725 6-Lead Plastic Small Outline Transistor (CH) [SOT-23] Note: For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at http://www.microchip.com/packaging b 4 N E E1 PIN 1 ID BY LASER MARK 1 2 3 e e1 D A A2 c φ L A1 L1 Units Dimension Limits Number of Pins MILLIMETERS MIN N NOM MAX 6 Pitch e 0.95 BSC Outside Lead Pitch e1 1.90 BSC Overall Height A 0.90 – Molded Package Thickness A2 0.89 – 1.45 1.30 Standoff A1 0.00 – 0.15 Overall Width E 2.20 – 3.20 Molded Package Width E1 1.30 – 1.80 Overall Length D 2.70 – 3.10 Foot Length L 0.10 – 0.60 Footprint L1 0.35 – 0.80 Foot Angle φ 0° – 30° Lead Thickness c 0.08 – 0.26 Lead Width b 0.20 – 0.51 Notes: 1. Dimensions D and E1 do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not exceed 0.127 mm per side. 2. Dimensioning and tolerancing per ASME Y14.5M. BSC: Basic Dimension. Theoretically exact value shown without tolerances. Microchip Technology Drawing C04-028B DS22039C-page 36 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY Revision C (November 2007 The following is the list of modifications: 1. Corrected Address Options on Product Identification System page. Revision B (October 2007) The following is the list of modifications: 1. 2. 3. 4. Added characterization graphs to document. Numerous edits throughout. Add new package marking address options. Updated package marking information and package outline drawings. Added adress options to Product Identification System page. Revision A (April 2007) • Original Release of this Document. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. DS22039C-page 37 MCP4725 NOTES: DS22039C-page 38 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP4725 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. XX Device Address Options Device: X X Tape and Temperature Reel Range MCP4725: Address Options: /XX XX Package Single Channel 12-Bit DAC w/EEPROM Memory A2 A1 A0 A0 * = 0 0 External A1 = 0 1 External A2 = 1 0 External A3 = 1 1 External * Default option. Contact Microchip factory for other address options Tape and Reel: T = Tape and Reel Temperature Range: E = -40°C to +125°C Package: CH = Plastic Small Outline Transistor (SOT-23-6), 6-lead © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. Examples: a) b) c) d) MCP4725A0T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 6LD SOT-23 pkg. Address Option = A0 MCP4725A1T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 6LD SOT-23 pkg. Address Option = A1 MCP4725A2T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 6LD SOT-23 pkg. Address Option = A2 MCP4725A3T-E/CH: Tape and Reel, Extended Temp., 6LD SOT-23 pkg. Address Option = A3 DS22039C-page 39 MCP4725 NOTES: DS22039C-page 40 © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims, suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE, rfPIC and SmartShunt are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. AmpLab, FilterLab, Linear Active Thermistor, Migratable Memory, MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL, SmartSensor and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICLAB, PICtail, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Smart Serial, SmartTel, Total Endurance, UNI/O, WiperLock and ZENA are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2007, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. © 2007 Microchip Technology Inc. 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