MCP73853/55 USB Compatible Li-Ion/Li-Polymer Charge Management Controllers Features Description • Linear Charge Management Controllers - Integrated Pass Transistor - Integrated Current Sense - Reverse Blocking Protection • High-Accuracy Preset Voltage Regulation: + 0.5% • Two Selectable Voltage Regulation Options: - 4.1V, 4.2V • Programmable Charge Current • USB Compatible Charge Current Settings • Programmable Safety Charge Timers • Preconditioning of Deeply Depleted Cells • Automatic End-of-Charge Control • Optional Continuous Cell Temperature Monitoring: - MCP73853 • Charge Status Output for Direct LED Drive • Fault Output for Direct LED Drive - MCP73853 • Automatic Power-Down • Thermal Regulation • Temperature Range: -40°C to +85°C • Packaging: - 16-Lead, 4x4 mm QFN (MCP73853) - 10-Lead, 3x3 mm DFN (MCP73855) The MCP7385X devices are highly advanced linear charge management controllers for use in spacelimited, cost-sensitive applications. The MCP73853 combines high-accuracy constant-voltage, constantcurrent regulation, cell preconditioning, cell temperature monitoring, advanced safety timers, automatic charge termination, internal current sensing, reverse blocking protection and charge status and fault indication in a space-saving 16-lead, 4 x 4 QFN package. The MCP7385X devices provide complete, fullyfunctional, charge management solutions, operating with an input voltage range of 4.5V to 5.5V. The MCP7385X devices are fully specified over the ambient temperature range of -40°C to +85°C. EN VSS2 16-Pin QFN STAT2 Package Types 16 15 14 13 VSET 1 12 VBAT3 VDD1 2 11 VBAT2 MCP73853 VDD2 3 10 VBAT1 VSS1 4 6 7 8 THERM TIMER 10-Pin DFN 9 VSS3 5 THREF Lithium-Ion/Lithium-Polymer Battery Chargers Personal Data Assistants (PDAs) Cellular Telephones Hand-Held Instruments Cradle Chargers Digital Cameras MP3 Players Bluetooth Headsets USB Chargers The MCP7385X devices provide two selectable voltage regulation options (4.1V or 4.2V) for use with either coke or graphite anodes. STAT1 • • • • • • • • • The MCP73853 and MCP73855 are designed specifically for USB applications, adhering to all the specifications governing the USB power bus. PROG Applications The MCP73855 employs all the features of the MCP73853, with the exception of the cell temperature monitor and one status output. The MCP73855 is offered in a space-saving 10-lead, 3 x 3 DFN package. STAT1 1 9 VBAT2 VDD1 3 MCP73855 8 VBAT1 VSS1 4 7 VSS2 PROG 5 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. 10 EN VSET 2 6 TIMER DS21915A-page 1 MCP73853/55 Typical Application 400 mA Lithium-Ion Battery Charger 5V 4.7 µF 3 VDD1 2 VSET 10 1 VBAT1 8 9 V EN STAT1 PROG + Single – Lithium-Ion Cell 6 TIMER 5 4.7 µF BAT2 0.1 µF 4, 7 VSS MCP73855 Functional Block Diagram Direction Control VDD1 VBAT1 VDD2 VBAT2 VDD G = 0.001 4 kΩ VREF PROG 90 kΩ Charge Current Control Amplifier Voltage Control Amplifier + – 110 kΩ Charge Termination 10 kΩ Comparator + IREG/12 – 10 kΩ + – VREF + 11 kΩ VREF Precondition Control Charge_OK Precon UVLO COMPARATOR VBAT3 Precondition Comp. 600 kΩ – + 3 kΩ 149 kΩ – Constant-voltage/ Recharge Comp. VUVLO + – EN Power-On Delay 1.58 kΩ VREF 300 kΩ Bias and Reference Generator VUVLO VREF(1.2V) VSET 10.3 kΩ THREF 100 kΩ + - THERM Temperature Comparators 50 kΩ + - TIMER STAT1 IREG/12 Oscillator 50 kΩ MCP73853 ONLY VSS1 VSS2 VSS3 Drv Stat 1 Charge Control, Charge Timers, and Status Logic Drv Stat 2 STAT2 MCP73853 ONLY Charge_OK DS21915A-page 2 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS *Notice: Stresses above those listed under “Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings* VDD1,2...............................................................................6.5V All Inputs and Outputs w.r.t. VSS ..............-0.3 to (VDD + 0.3)V Maximum Junction Temperature, TJ ............ Internally Limited Storage temperature .....................................-65°C to +150°C ESD protection on all pins: Human Body Model (1.5kW in Series with 100pF) ....≥ 4 kV Machine Model (200pF, No Series Resistance) ..........400V DC CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 0.3V] to 5.5V, TA = -40°C to 85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (Typ) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Supply Voltage VDD Supply Current ISS UVLO Start Threshold VSTART UVLO Stop Threshold VSTOP 4.20 Units Conditions 4.5 — 5.5 V — 0.28 4 µA — 0.83 4 mA 4.25 4.45 4.65 V VDD Low-to-High 4.40 4.55 V VDD High-to-Low 4.079 4.1 4.121 V VSET = VSS 4.179 4.2 4.221 V VSET = VDD Supply Input Disabled Operating Voltage Regulation (Constant-Voltage Mode) Regulated Output Voltage VREG VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA, TA = -5°C to +55°C Line Regulation |(∆VBAT/ VBAT)| /∆VDD — 0.020 0.25 Load Regulation |∆VBAT/VBAT| — 0.022 0.25 % IOUT = 10 mA to 150 mA VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 1V] PSRR — 50 — dB IOUT = 10 mA, 10 Hz to 1 kHz — 26 — dB IOUT = 10 mA, 10 Hz to 10 kHz — 24 — dB IOUT = 10 mA, 10 Hz to 1 MHz — 0.24 1 µA VDD < VBAT = VREG(Typ) Supply Ripple Attenuation Output Reverse-Leakage Current IDISCHARGE %/V VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 1V] to 5.5V IOUT = 10 mA Current Regulation (Fast Charge Constant-Current Mode) Fast Charge Current Regulation IREG 70 85 100 mA PROG = OPEN 325 400 475 mA PROG = VSS TA = -5°C to +55°C Preconditioning Current Regulation (Trickle Charge Constant-Current Mode) Precondition Current Regulation IPREG 5 9 15 mA PROG = OPEN 25 40 75 mA PROG = VSS TA = -5°C to +55°C Precondition Threshold Voltage VPTH 2.70 2.80 2.90 V 2.75 2.85 2.95 V VSET = VSS VSET = VDD VBAT Low-to-High 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21915A-page 3 MCP73853/55 DC CHARACTERISTICS (Continued) Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 0.3V] to 5.5V, TA = -40°C to 85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (Typ) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units ITERM 3.7 6.5 9.3 mA 18 32 46 mA Conditions Charge Termination Charge Termination Current PROG = OPEN PROG = VSS TA = -5°C to +55°C Automatic Recharge Recharge Threshold Voltage VRTH VREG – VREG – VREG – 300mV 200mV 100mV V VBAT High-to-Low TA = 25°C, VDD = VREG(Typ) + 1V, ITHREF = 0 mA Thermistor Reference - MCP73853 Thermistor Reference Output Voltage VTHREF 2.475 2.55 2.625 V Thermistor Reference Source Current ITHREF 200 — — µA |(∆VTHREF/ — 0.05 0.25 0.02 0.10 Thermistor Reference Line Regulation VTHREF)|/∆VDD Thermistor Reference Load Regulation |∆VTHREF/ VTHREF| %/V VDD = [VREG (Typ) + 1V] to 5.5V % ITHREF = 0 mA to 0.20 mA Thermistor Comparator - MCP73853 Upper Trip Threshold Upper Trip Point Hysteresis VT1 1.18 1.25 1.32 V VT1HYS — -50 — mV VT2 0.59 0.62 0.66 V VT2HYS — 80 — mV IBIAS — — 2 µA Lower Trip Threshold Lower Trip Point Hysteresis Input Bias Current Status Indicator – STAT1, STAT2 Sink Current ISINK 4 8 12 mA Low Output Voltage VOL — 200 400 mV ISINK = 1 mA ILK — 0.01 1 µA ISINK = 0 mA, VSTAT1,2 = 5.5V Input High Voltage Level VIH 1.4 — — V Input Low Voltage Level VIL — — 0.8 V Input Leakage Current ILK — 0.01 1 µA TSD — 155 — °C TSDHYS — 10 — °C Input Leakage Current Enable Input VENABLE = 5.5V Thermal Shutdown Die Temperature Die Temperature Hysteresis DS21915A-page 4 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 AC CHARACTERISTICS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD = [VREG (Typ) + 0.3V] to 5.5V, TA = -40°C to 85°C. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (Typ) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units tSTART — — 5 ms VDD Low-to-High tDELAY — — 1 ms VBAT < VPTH to VBAT > VPTH Current Rise Time Out of Preconditioning tRISE — — 1 ms IOUT Rising to 90% of IREG Fast Charge Safety Timer Period tFAST 1.1 1.5 1.9 Hours tPRECON 45 60 75 tTERM 2.2 3 3.8 Hours Status Output turn-off tOFF — — 200 µs ISINK = 1 mA to 0 mA Status Output turn-on tON — — 200 µs ISINK = 0 mA to 1 mA UVLO Start Delay Conditions Current Regulation Transition Time Out of Preconditioning CTIMER = 0.1 µF Preconditioning Current Regulation Preconditioning Charge Safety Timer Period Minutes CTIMER = 0.1 µF Charge Termination Elapsed Time Termination Period CTIMER = 0.1 µF Status Indicators TEMPERATURE SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Specifications: Unless otherwise indicated, all limits apply for VDD = [VREG (Typ) + 0.3V] to 5.5. Typical values are at +25°C, VDD = [VREG (Typ) + 1.0V] Parameters Sym Min Typ Max Units Conditions Temperature Ranges Specified Temperature Range TA -40 — +85 °C Operating Temperature Range TJ -40 — +125 °C Storage Temperature Range TA -65 — +150 °C Thermal Resistance, 16-L, 4mm x 4mm QFN θJA — 37 — °C/W 4-Layer JC51-7 Standard Board, Natural Convection Thermal Resistance, 10-L, 3mm x 3mm DFN θJA — 51 — °C/W 4-Layer JC51-7 Standard Board, Natural Convection Thermal Package Resistances 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21915A-page 5 MCP73853/55 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C. 1.00 4.250 VSET = VDD VDD = 5.2 V 0.80 ISS (mA) VBAT (V) 4.230 VSET = VDD VDD = 5.2 V 0.90 4.210 4.190 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 4.170 0.30 0.20 4.150 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 400 50 100 FIGURE 2-1: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Charge Current (IOUT). 1.00 300 350 400 VSET = VDD IOUT = 375 mA 0.90 0.80 ISS (mA) VBAT (V) 250 FIGURE 2-4: Supply Current (ISS) vs. Charge Current (IOUT). VSET = VDD IOUT = 375 mA 4.230 200 IOUT (mA) IOUT (mA) 4.250 150 4.210 4.190 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 4.170 0.30 4.150 0.20 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 4.5 5.5 4.7 FIGURE 2-2: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). 1.00 5.5 VSET = VDD IOUT = 10 mA 0.90 0.80 ISS (mA) VBAT (V) 5.3 FIGURE 2-5: Supply Current (ISS) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). VSET = VDD IOUT = 10 mA 4.230 5.1 VDD (V) VDD (V) 4.250 4.9 4.210 4.190 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 4.170 0.30 4.150 0.20 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 VDD (V) FIGURE 2-3: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). DS21915A-page 6 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 VDD (V) FIGURE 2-6: Supply Current (ISS) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONT) 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 1.00 VSET = VDD VDD = VSS VSET = VDD IOUT = 10 mA 0.90 0.80 +85°C +25°C ISS (mA) 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 -40°C 0.30 VBAT (V) 80 70 60 VSET = VDD IOUT = 10 mA 4.230 2.555 2.545 4.210 4.190 4.170 2.535 VDD (V) 80 70 60 50 40 FIGURE 2-11: Battery Regulation Voltage (VBAT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). 2.575 MCP73853 VSET = VDD 2.555 2.545 2.535 MCP73853 VSET = VDD ITHREF = 100 µA 2.565 VTHREF (V) 2.565 30 TA (°C) FIGURE 2-8: Thermistor Reference Voltage (VTHREF) vs. Supply Voltage (VDD). 2.575 20 5.5 10 5.3 0 5.1 -10 4.9 -20 4.7 -40 4.5 -30 4.150 2.525 2.555 2.545 2.535 2.525 ITHREF (µA) FIGURE 2-9: Thermistor Reference Voltage (VTHREF) vs. Thermistor Bias Current (ITHREF). 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 100 125 150 175 200 0 75 -10 50 -20 25 -30 2.525 0 -40 VTHREF (V) 50 4.250 VBAT (V) VTHREF (V) FIGURE 2-10: Supply Current (ISS) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). MCP73853 VSET = VDD ITHREF = 100 µA 2.565 40 TA (°C) FIGURE 2-7: Output Leakage Current (IDISCHARGE) vs. Battery Voltage (VBAT). 2.575 30 4.4 20 4.0 0 3.6 10 3.2 -10 2.8 -20 2.4 -30 0.20 2.0 -40 IDISCHARGE (mA) NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C. TA (°C) FIGURE 2-12: Thermistor Reference Voltage (VTHREF) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). DS21915A-page 7 MCP73853/55 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONT) NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA and TA= +25°C. FIGURE 2-13: Line Transient Response. FIGURE 2-16: Line Transient Response. FIGURE 2-14: Load Transient Response. FIGURE 2-17: Load Transient Response. Attenuation (dB) -20 -30 0 MCP73853 VDD = 5.2 V VAC = 100 mVp-p IOUT = 10 mA COUT = 10 µF, Ceramic -10 Attenuation (dB) 0 -10 -40 -50 -60 -70 0.01 -20 -30 -40 -60 -70 0.1 1 10 100 1000 -80 0.01 DS21915A-page 8 Power Supply Ripple 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Frequency (kHz) Frequency (kHz) FIGURE 2-15: Rejection. MCP73853 VDD = 5.2 V VAC = 100 mVp-p IOUT = 100 mA COUT = 10 µF, X7R, Ceramic -50 FIGURE 2-18: Rejection. Power Supply Ripple 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 2.0 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONT) NOTE: Unless otherwise indicated, VDD = [VREG(Typ) + 1V], IOUT = 10 mA, and TA= +25°C. RPROG (Ω) FIGURE 2-19: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Programming Resistor (RPROG). 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. 80 70 60 0 50 536 40 1.6K 30 4.8K 20 0 OPEN 0 100 10 200 -10 300 VSET = VDD RPROG = 1.6 kΩ -40 IOUT (mA) IOUT (mA) 400 300 295 290 285 280 275 270 265 260 255 250 -20 VSET = VDD -30 500 TA (°C) FIGURE 2-20: Charge Current (IOUT) vs. Ambient Temperature (TA). DS21915A-page 9 MCP73853/55 3.0 PIN DESCRIPTION The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 3-1. TABLE 3-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE MCP73853 MCP73855 Sym Description 1 2 VSET Voltage Regulation Selection 2 3 VDD1 Battery Management Input Supply 3 — VDD2 Battery Management Input Supply 4 4 VSS1 Battery Management 0V Reference 5 5 PROG 6 — THREF Cell Temperature Sensor Bias 7 — THERM Cell Temperature Sensor Input 8 6 TIMER 9 — VSS3 Battery Management 0V Reference 10 8 VBAT1 Battery Charge Control Output 11 9 VBAT2 Battery Charge Control Output 12 — VBAT3 Battery Voltage Sense 13 7 VSS2 Battery Management 0V Reference 14 10 EN 15 — STAT2 Fault Status Output 16 1 STAT1 Charge Status Output 3.1 Voltage Regulation Selection (VSET) Connect to VSS for 4.1V regulation voltage. Connect to VDD for 4.2V regulation voltage. 3.2 Battery Management Input Supply (VDD1, VDD2) A supply voltage of [VREG(Typ) + 0.3V] to 5.5V is recommended. Bypass to VSS with a minimum of 4.7 µF. 3.3 Battery Management 0V Reference (VSS1, VSS2, VSS3) Current Regulation Set Timer Set Logic Enable 3.7 Timer Set (TIMER) All safety timers are scaled by CTIMER/0.1 µF. 3.8 Battery Charge Control Output (VBAT1, VBAT2) Connect to positive terminal of battery. Drain terminal of internal P-channel MOSFET pass transistor. Bypass to VSS with a minimum of 4.7 µF to ensure loop stability when the battery is disconnected. 3.9 Battery Voltage Sense (VBAT3) Connect to negative terminal of battery. Voltage sense input. Connect to positive terminal of battery. A precision internal resistor divider regulates the final voltage on this pin to VREG. 3.4 3.10 Current Regulation Set (PROG) Logic Enable (EN) Preconditioning, fast and termination currents are scaled by placing a resistor from PROG to VSS. Input to force charge termination, initiate charge, clear faults or disable automatic recharge. 3.5 3.11 Cell Temperature Sensor Bias (THREF) THREF is a voltage reference to bias external thermistor for continuous cell temperature monitoring and pre-qualification. 3.6 Cell Temperature Sensor Input (THERM) Input for an external thermistor for continuous celltemperature monitoring and prequalification. Connect to THREF/3 to disable temperature sensing. DS21915A-page 10 Fault Status Output (STAT2) Current-limited, open-drain drive for direct connection to a LED for charge status indication. Alternatively, a pull-up resistor can be applied for interfacing to a host microcontroller. 3.12 Charge Status Output (STAT1) Current-limited, open-drain drive for direct connection to a LED for charge status indication. Alternatively, a pull-up resistor can be applied for interfacing to a host microcontroller. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 DEVICE OVERVIEW The MCP7385X devices are highly advanced linear charge management controllers. Refer to the functional block diagram. Figure 4-2 depicts the operational flow algorithm from charge initiation to completion and automatic recharge. 4.1 Charge Qualification and Preconditioning Upon insertion of a battery, or application of an external supply, the MCP7385X devices automatically perform a series of safety checks to qualify the charge. The input source voltage must be above the Undervoltage Lockout (UVLO) threshold, the enable pin must be above the logic high level, and the cell temperature monitor must be within the upper and lower thresholds (MCP73853 only). The qualification parameters are continuously monitored, with any deviation beyond the limits automatically suspending, or terminating, the charge cycle. The input voltage must deviate below the UVLO stop threshold for at least one clock period to be considered valid. Once the qualification parameters have been met, the MCP7385X devices initiate a charge cycle. The charge status output is pulled low throughout the charge cycle (see Tables 5-1 and 5-2 for charge status outputs). If the battery voltage is below the preconditioning threshold (VPTH), the MCP7385X devices precondition the battery with a trickle charge. The preconditioning current is set to approximately 10% of the fast charge regulation current. The preconditioning trickle charge safely replenishes deeply depleted cells and minimizes heat dissipation during the initial charge cycle. If the battery voltage has not exceeded the preconditioning threshold before the preconditioning timer has expired, a fault is indicated and the charge cycle is terminated. With VSET tied to VSS, the MCP7385X devices regulate to 4.1V. With VSET tied to VDD, the MCP7385X devices regulate to 4.2V. 4.4 Charge Cycle Completion and Automatic Recharge The MCP7385X devices monitor the charging current during the Constant-voltage Regulation mode. The charge cycle is considered complete when either the charge current has diminished below approximately 7% of the regulation current (IREG), or the elapsed timer has expired. The MCP7385X devices automatically begin a new charge cycle when the battery voltage falls below the recharge threshold (VRTH), assuming all the qualification parameters are met. 4.5 Thermal Regulation The MCP7385X devices limit the charge current based on the die temperature. Thermal regulation optimizes the charge cycle time while maintaining device reliability. If thermal regulation is entered, the timer is automatically slowed down to ensure that a charge cycle will not terminate prematurely. Figure 4-1 depicts the thermal regulation. 450 Maximum Charge Current (mA) 4.0 400 350 Minimum 300 Maximum 250 200 150 100 50 0 4.2 Constant Current Regulation – Fast Charge Preconditioning ends and fast charging begins when the battery voltage exceeds the preconditioning threshold. Fast charge regulates to a constant current (IREG), which is set via an external resistor connected to the PROG pin. Fast charge continues until either the battery voltage reaches the regulation voltage (VREG) or the fast charge timer expires; in which case, a fault is indicated and the charge cycle is terminated. 4.3 Constant Voltage Regulation When the battery voltage reaches the regulation voltage (VREG), constant voltage regulation begins. The MCP7385X devices monitor the battery voltage at the VBAT pin. This input is tied directly to the positive terminal of the battery. The MCP7385X devices select the voltage regulation value based on the state of VSET. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Junction Temperature (C) FIGURE 4-1: Typical Maximum Charge Current vs. Junction Temperature. 4.6 Thermal Shutdown The MCP7385X devices suspend charge if the die temperature exceeds 155°C. Charging will resume when the die temperature has cooled by approximately 10°C. The thermal shutdown is a secondary safety feature in the event that there is a failure within the thermal regulation circuitry. DS21915A-page 11 MCP73853/55 DS21915A-page 12 Initialize Note 1: The qualification parameters are continuously monitored throughout the charge cycle. For more details on this, refer to Section 4.1 “Charge Qualification and Preconditioning”. Note 2: The charge current will be scaled based on the die temperature during thermal regulation. For more details, refer to Section 4.5 “Thermal Regulation”. NOTE 1 VDD > VUVLO EN High Yes NOTE 1 Temperature OK No STAT1 = Off STAT2 = Flashing Charge Current = 0 Yes Preconditioning Mode Charge Current = IPREG Reset Safety Timer No No STAT1 = Off STAT2 = Off VBAT > VPTH STAT1 = On STAT2 = Off Yes VBAT > VPTH Constant-current NOTE 2 Mode Charge Current = IREG Reset Safety Timer Yes VBAT = VREG No Yes Fault Charge Current = 0 Reset Safety Timer Yes No IOUT < ITERM Elapsed Timer Expired 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. Temperature OK Yes VDD < VUVLO or EN Low Operational Flow Algorithm. No STAT1 = Off STAT2 = On Yes Charge Termination Charge Current = 0 Reset Safety Timer No Safety Timer Expired Yes No No Yes STAT1 = Off STAT2 = Flashing Safety Timer Suspended Charge Current = 0 FIGURE 4-2: Yes No Safety Timer Expired Yes Constant-voltage Mode Output Voltage = VREG Temperature OK No STAT1 = Off STAT2 = Flashing Safety Timer Suspended Charge Current = 0 Temperature OK No STAT1 = Flashing Safety Timer Suspended Charge Current = 0 VDD < VUVLO VBAT < VRTH or EN Low Yes No STAT1 = Flashing STAT2 = Off MCP73853/55 5.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 5.1 Analog Circuitry 5.1.1 BATTERY MANAGEMENT INPUT SUPPLY (VDD1, VDD2) The VDD input is the input supply to the MCP7385X devices. The MCP7385X devices automatically enter a power-down mode if the voltage on the VDD input falls below the UVLO voltage (VSTOP). This feature prevents draining the battery pack when the VDD supply is not present. 5.1.2 Figure 6-1 depicts a typical application circuit with connection of the THERM input. The resistor values of RT1 and RT2 are calculated with the following equations. For NTC thermistors: 2 × RCOLD × RHOT R T1 = ---------------------------------------------RCOLD – RHOT 2 × RCOLD × RHOT R T2 = ---------------------------------------------RCOLD – 3 × RHOT For PTC thermistors: 2 × RCOLD × RHOT R T1 = ---------------------------------------------RHOT – RCOLD PROG INPUT Fast charge current regulation can be scaled by placing a programming resistor (RPROG) from the PROG input to VSS. Connecting the PROG input to VSS allows for a maximum fast charge current of 400 mA, typically. The minimum fast charge current is 85 mA (Typ) and is set by letting the PROG input float. Equation 5-1 calculates the value for RPROG. 2 × RCOLD × RHOT R T2 = ---------------------------------------------RHOT – 3 × RCOLD Where: RCOLD and RHOT are the thermistor resistance values at the temperature window of interest. EQUATION 5-1: 13.32 – 33.3 × IREG RPROG = -----------------------------------------------14.1 × I REG – 1.2 Where: 5.1.5 IREG is the desired fast charge current in amps RPROG is in kilo-ohms. The preconditioning trickle charge current and the charge termination current are scaled to approximately 10% and 7% of IREG, respectively. 5.1.3 CELL TEMPERATURE SENSOR BIAS (THREF) A 2.55V voltage reference is provided to bias an external thermistor for continuous cell temperature monitoring and prequalification. A ratio-metric window comparison is performed at threshold levels of VTHREF/2 and VTHREF/4. 5.1.4 Applying a voltage equal to VTHREF/3 to the THERM input disables temperature monitoring. CELL TEMPERATURE SENSOR INPUT (THERM) The MCP73853 continuously monitors temperature by comparing the voltage between the THERM input and VSS with the upper and lower temperature thresholds. A negative or positive temperature coefficient, NTC or PTC thermistor and an external voltage divider typically develops this voltage. The temperature-sensing circuit has its own reference to which it performs a ratio-metric comparison. Therefore, it is immune to fluctuations in the supply input (VDD). The temperature-sensing circuit is removed from the system when VDD is not applied, eliminating additional discharge of the battery pack. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. TIMER SET INPUT (TIMER) The TIMER input programs the period of the safety timers by placing a timing capacitor (CTIMER) between the TIMER input pin and VSS. Three safety timers are programmed via the timing capacitor. The preconditioning safety timer period: C TIMER tPRECON = ------------------- × 1.0Hour s 0.1 µ F The fast charge safety timer period: C TIMER t FAST = ------------------- × 1.5Hours 0.1 µ F And, the elapsed time termination period: C TIMER t TERM = ------------------- × 3.0Hours 0.1 µ F The preconditioning timer starts after qualification and resets when the charge cycle transitions to the constant-current, fast charge phase. The fast charge timer and the elapsed timer start after the MCP7385X devices transition from preconditioning. The fast charge timer resets when the charge cycle transitions to the Constant-voltage mode. The elapsed timer will expire and terminate the charge if the sensed current does not diminish below the termination threshold. During thermal regulation, the timer is slowed down proportional to the charge current. DS21915A-page 13 MCP73853/55 5.1.6 BATTERY VOLTAGE SENSE (VBAT3) The MCP73853 monitors the battery voltage at the VBAT3 pin. This input is tied directly to the positive terminal of the battery pack. 5.1.7 BATTERY CHARGE CONTROL OUTPUT (VBAT1, VBAT2) The battery charge control output is the drain terminal of an internal P-channel MOSFET. The MCP7385X devices provide constant-current and constant-voltage regulation to the battery pack by controlling this MOSFET in the linear region. The battery charge control output should be connected to the positive terminal of the battery pack. 5.2 Digital Circuitry 5.2.1 Qualification STATUS OUTPUTS – MCP73853 CHARGE CYCLE STATE STAT1 STAT2 Qualification OFF OFF Preconditioning ON OFF Constantcurrent Fast Charge ON OFF Constantvoltage ON OFF Charge Complete Flashing (1 Hz, 50% duty cycle) OFF Fault OFF ON THERM Invalid OFF Flashing (1 Hz, 50% duty cycle) Disabled Sleep mode OFF OFF Input Voltage Disconnected OFF OFF DS21915A-page 14 OFF ON Constant Current Fast Charge ON Constant Voltage ON Charge Complete OFF Fault Flashing (1Hz, 50% duty cycle) THERM Invalid Flashing (1Hz, 50% duty cycle) Disabled - Sleep mode OFF Input Voltage Disconnected OFF OFF state: open-drain is high impedance; ON state: open-drain can sink current, typically 7 mA; FLASHING: toggles between OFF state and ON state. The flashing rate (1 Hz) is based off a timer capacitor (CTIMER) of 0.1 µF. The rate will vary based on the value of the timer capacitor. 22.214.171.124 MCP73853 Only STAT2 is on whenever the input voltage is above the under voltage lockout, the device is enabled, and all conditions are normal. During a fault condition, the STAT1 status output will be off and the STAT2 status output will flash. To recover from a fault condition, the input voltage must be removed and then reapplied, or the enable input, EN, must be de-asserted to a logic-low, then asserted to a logic-high. When the voltage on the THERM input is outside the preset window, the charge cycle will either not start or be suspended. However, the charge cycle is not terminated, with recovery beng automatic. The charge cycle will resume (or start) once the THERM input is valid and all other qualification parameters are met. 5.2.2 VSET INPUT The VSET input selects the regulated output voltage of the MCP7385X devices. With VSET tied to VSS, the MCP7385X devices regulate to 4.1V. With VSET tied to VDD, the MCP7385X devices regulate to 4.2V. 5.2.3 OFF state: open-drain is high-impedance; ON state: open-drain can sink current, typically 7 mA; FLASHING: toggles between OFF and ON states. STAT1 Preconditioning CHARGE STATUS OUTPUTS (STAT1,STAT2) TABLE 5-1: STATUS OUTPUT – MCP73855 CHARGE CYCLE STATE Note: Two status outputs provide information on the state of charge for the MCP73853. One status output provides information on the state of charge for the MCP73855. The current-limited, open-drain outputs can be used to illuminate external LEDs. Optionally, a pull-up resistor can be used on the output for communication with a host microcontroller. Table 5-1 and Table 5-2 summarize the state of the status outputs during a charge cycle for the MCP73853 and MCP73855, respectively. Note: TABLE 5-2: LOGIC ENABLE (EN) The logic enable input pin (EN) can be used to terminate a charge anytime during the charge cycle, initiate a charge cycle or initiate a recharge cycle. Applying a logic-high input signal to the EN pin, or tying it to the input source, enables the device. Applying a logic-low input signal disables the device and terminates a charge cycle. When disabled, the device’s supply current is reduced to 0.28 µA, typically. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 6.0 APPLICATIONS cells, constant current followed by constant voltage. Figure 6-1 depicts a typical stand-alone application circuit, while Figures 6-2 and 6-3 depict the accompanying charge profile. STAT1 16 VSET VDD1 VDD2 VSS1 15 EN VSS2 14 13 1 12 2 11 MCP73853 3 10 4 9 RPROG 6 THREF 5 PROG 7 THERM Regulated Wall Cube or USB Power Bus STAT2 The MCP7385X devices are designed to operate in conjunction with a host microcontroller or in standalone applications. The MCP7385X devices provide the preferred charge algorithm for Li-Ion/Li-Polymer VBAT3 VBAT2 + Single - Lithium-Ion Cell VBAT1 VSS3 8 TIMER CTIMER RT1 RT2 FIGURE 6-1: Typical Application Circuit. Constant-current Mode Preconditioning Mode Constant-voltage Mode Regulation Voltage (VREG) Regulation Current (IREG) Charge Voltage Transition Threshold (VPTH) Precondition Current (IPREG) Charge Current Termination Current (ITERM) Precondition Safety Timer Fast Charge Safety Timer Elapsed Time Termination Timer FIGURE 6-2: Typical Charge Profile. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21915A-page 15 MCP73853/55 Preconditioning Mode Constant-current Mode Constant-voltage Mode Regulation Voltage (VREG) Regulation Current (IREG) Charge Voltage Transition Threshold (VPTH) Precondition Current (IPREG) Termination Current (ITERM) Charge Current Precondition Safety Timer Fast Charge Safety Timer Elapsed Time Termination Timer FIGURE 6-3: DS21915A-page 16 Typical Charge Profile in Thermal Regulation. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 6.1 Application Circuit Design Due to the low efficiency of linear charging, the most important factors are thermal design and cost. These are a direct function of the input voltage, output current and thermal impedance between the battery charger and the ambient cooling air. The worst-case situation exists when the device has transitioned from the Preconditioning mode to the Constant-current mode. In this situation, the battery charger has to dissipate the maximum power. A trade-off must be made between the charge current, cost and thermal requirements of the charger. 6.1.1 COMPONENT SELECTION Selection of the external components in Figure 6-1 is crucial to the integrity and reliability of the charging system. The following discussion is intended to be a guide for the component selection process. 126.96.36.199 CURRENT PROGRAMMING RESISTOR (RPROG) The preferred fast charge current for Lithium-Ion cells is at the 1C rate, with an absolute maximum current at the 2C rate. For example, a 500 mAH battery pack has a preferred fast charge current of 500 mA. Charging at this rate provides the shortest charge cycle times without degradation to the battery pack performance or life. 400 mA is the typical maximum charge current obtainable from the MCP7385X devices. For this situation, the PROG input should be connected directly to VSS. 188.8.131.52 THERMAL CONSIDERATIONS The worst-case power dissipation in the battery charger occurs when the input voltage is at the maximum and the device has transitioned from the Preconditioning mode to the Constant-current mode. In this case, the power dissipation is: PowerDissipation = ( V DDMAX – V PTHMIN ) × I REGMAX Where VDDMAX is the maximum input voltage (IREGMAX) is the maximum fast charge current, and VPTHMIN is the minimum transition threshold voltage. Power dissipation with a 5V, +/-10% input voltage source is: PowerDissipation = ( 5.5V – 2.7V ) × 475mA = 1.33W With the battery charger mounted on a 1 in2 pad of 1 oz. copper, the junction temperature rise is approximately 50°C. This would allow for a maximum operating ambient temperature of 35°C before thermal regulation is entered. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. 184.108.40.206 EXTERNAL CAPACITORS The MCP7385X devices are stable with or without a battery load. In order to maintain good AC stability in the Constant-voltage mode, a minimum capacitance of 4.7 µF is recommended to bypass the VBAT pin to VSS. This capacitance provides compensation when there is no battery load. In addition, the battery and interconnections appear inductive at high frequencies. These elements are in the control feedback loop during Constant-voltage mode. Therefore, the bypass capacitance may be necessary to compensate for the inductive nature of the battery pack. Virtually any good quality output filter capacitor can be used, independent of the capacitor’s minimum Effective Series Resistance (ESR) value. The actual value of the capacitor (and its associated ESR) depends on the output load current. A 4.7 µF ceramic, tantalum or aluminum electrolytic capacitor at the output is usually sufficient to ensure stability for up to the maximum output current. 220.127.116.11 REVERSE BLOCKING PROTECTION The MCP7385X devices provide protection from a faulted or shorted input or from a reversed-polarity input source. Without the protection, a faulted or shorted input would discharge the battery pack through the body diode of the internal pass transistor. 18.104.22.168 ENABLE INTERFACE In the stand-alone configuration, the enable pin is generally tied to the input voltage. The MCP7385X devices automatically enter a low power mode when voltage on the VDD input falls below the UVLO voltage (VSTOP), reducing the battery drain current to 0.28 µA, typically. 22.214.171.124 CHARGE STATUS INTERFACE Two status outputs provide information on the state of charge. The current-limited, open-drain outputs can be used to illuminate external LEDs. Refer to Table 5-1 and Table 5-2 for a summary of the state of the status output during a charge cycle. 6.2 PCB Layout Issues For optimum voltage regulation, place the battery pack as close as possible to the device’s VBAT and VSS pins. It is recommended that the designer minimize voltage drops along the high-current-carrying PCB traces. If the PCB layout is used as a heatsink, adding many vias in the heatsink pad can help conduct more heat to the backplane of the PCB, thus reducing the maximum junction temperature. DS21915A-page 17 MCP73853/55 7.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 7.1 Package Marking Information 16-Lead QFN (MCP73853) Example XXXXXXX XXXXXXX YYWWNNN 10-Lead DFN (MCP73855) 73853 I/ML 0429256 Example 3855 I429 256 XXXX XYWW NNN Legend: Note: * XX...X YY WW NNN Customer specific information* Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year) Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’) Alphanumeric traceability code In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of available characters for customer specific information. Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, and traceability code. DS21915A-page 18 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 16-Lead Plastic Quad Flat No Lead Package (ML) 4x4x0.9 mm Body (QFN) – Saw Singulated D D1 EXPOSED METAL PAD e E1 E 2 b 1 n OPTIONAL INDEX AREA TOP VIEW BOTTOM VIEW L A3 A A1 Number of Pins Pitch Overall Height Standoff Contact Thickness Overall Width Exposed Pad Width Overall Length Exposed Pad Length Contact Width Contact Length Units Dimension Limits n e A A1 A3 E E2 D D2 b L MIN .031 .000 .152 .100 .152 .100 .010 .012 INCHES NOM 16 .026 BSC .035 .001 .008 REF .157 .106 .157 .106 .012 .016 MAX .039 .002 .163 .110 .163 .110 .014 .020 MILLIMETERS* NOM 16 0.65 BSC 0.80 0.90 0.00 0.02 0.20 REF 4.00 3.85 2.55 2.70 3.85 4.00 2.55 2.70 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.40 MIN MAX 1.00 0.05 4.15 2.80 4.15 2.80 0.35 0.50 *Controlling Parameter Notes: JEDEC equivalent: MO-220 Drawing No. C04-127 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. Revised 04-24-05 DS21915A-page 19 MCP73853/55 10-Lead Plastic Dual Flat No Lead Package (MF) 3x3x0.9 mm Body (DFN) – Saw Singulated p b E n L D PIN 1 ID INDEX AREA (NOTE 2) D2 EXPOSED METAL PAD 2 1 E2 TOP VIEW BOTTOM VIEW A A3 EXPOSED TIE BAR (NOTE 1) A1 Number of Pins Pitch Overall Height Standoff Lead Thickness Overall Length Exposed Pad Length Overall Width Exposed Pad Width Lead Width Lead Length Units Dimension Limits n e (Note 3) (Note 3) A A1 A3 E E2 D D2 b L MIN .031 .000 .112 .055 .112 .047 .008 .012 INCHES NOM 10 .020 BSC .035 .001 .008 REF. .118 -.118 -.010 .016 MAX .039 .002 .124 .096 .124 .069 .015 .020 MILLIMETERS* NOM 10 0.50 BSC 0.80 0.90 0.02 0.00 0.20 REF. 2.85 3.00 1.39 -2.85 3.00 1.20 -0.25 0.18 0.30 0.40 MIN MAX 1.00 0.05 3.15 2.45 3.15 1.75 0.30 0.50 *Controlling Parameter Notes: 1. Package may have one or more exposed tie bars at ends. 2. Pin 1 visual index feature may vary, but must be located within the hatched area. 3. Exposed pad dimensions vary with paddle size. 4. JEDEC equivalent: Not registered Drawing No. C04-063 DS21915A-page 20 Revised 05/24/04 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. MCP73853/55 PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office. PART NO. X XX Device Temperature Range Package Examples: a) b) Device MCP73853: MCP73853T: MCP73855: MCP73855T: Temperature Range I Package ML USB compatible charge controller with temperature monitor USB compatible charge controller with temperature monitor, Tape and Reel USB compatible charge controller USB compatible charge controller, Tape and Reel a) b) MCP73853T-I/ML: Tape and Reel, USB compatible charge controller with temperature monitor MCP73853-I/ML: USB compatible charge controller with temperature monitor MCP73855T-I/MF: Tape and Reel, USB compatible charge controller MCP73855-I/MF: USB compatible charge controller = -40°C to +85°C (Industrial) MF = Plastic Quad Flat No Lead, 4x4 mm Body (QFN), 16-Lead = Plastic Dual Flat No Lead, 3x3 mm Body (DFN), 10-Lead Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com) to receive the most current information on our products. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21915A-page 21 MCP73853/55 NOTES: DS21915A-page 22 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices: • Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet. • Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the intended manner and under normal conditions. • There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property. • Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code. • Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.” Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act. Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is provided only for your convenience and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION, QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron, dsPIC, KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART, PRO MATE, PowerSmart, rfPIC, and SmartShunt are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. AmpLab, FilterLab, MXDEV, MXLAB, PICMASTER, SEEVAL, SmartSensor and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, ECAN, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM, PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICLAB, PICtail, PowerCal, PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, rfLAB, rfPICDEM, Select Mode, Smart Serial, SmartTel and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2004, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 quality system certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona and Mountain View, California in October 2003. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are for its PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified. 2004 Microchip Technology Inc. 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