TC835 Personal Computer Data Acquisition A/D Converter Features General Description • • • • • • • • The TC835 is a low power, 4-1/2 digit (0.005% resolution), BCD analog to digital converter (ADC) that has been characterized for 200kHz clock rate operation. The five conversions per second rate is nearly twice as fast as the ICL7135 or TC7135. The TC835, like the TC7135, does not use the external diode resistor rollover error compensation circuits required by the ICL7135. Upgrade of Pin-Compatible TC7135, ICL7135 200kHz Operation Single 5V Operation With TC7660 Multiplexed BCD Data Output UART and Microprocessor Interface Control Outputs for Auto-Ranging Input Sensitivity: 100µV No Sample and Hold Required Applications • Personal Computer Data Acquisition • Scales, Panel Meters, Process Controls • HP-IL Bus Instrumentation Device Selection Table Part Number Package Temperature Range TC835CBU 64-PinPQFP 0°C to +70°C TC835CKW 44-PinPQFP 0°C to +70°C TC835CPI 28-Pin PDIP 0°C to +70°C Note: Tape and Reel available for 44-Pin PQFP package. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. The multiplexed BCD data output is perfect for interfacing to personal computers. The low cost, greater than 14-bit high-resolution and 100µV sensitivity makes the TC835 exceptionally cost-effective. Microprocessor-based data acquisition systems are supported by the BUSY and STROBE outputs, along with the RUN/HOLD input of the TC835. The OVERRANGE, UNDERRANGE, BUSY and RUN/ HOLD control functions, plus multiplexed BCD data outputs, make the TC835 the ideal converter for µPbased scales, measurement systems and intelligent panel meters. The TC835 interfaces with full function LCD and LED display decoder/drivers. The UNDERRANGE and OVERRANGE outputs may be used to implement an auto-ranging scheme or special display functions. DS21478B-page 1 TC835 Package Type 23 POLARITY 22 CLOCK IN TC835CPI NC NC STROBE NC 1 33 NC INT OUT 2 AZ IN 3 32 NC 24 DIGTAL GND BUFF OUT 6 OR 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 25 RUN/HOLD AZ IN 5 UR 26 STROBE V– NC 27 OVERRANGE REF IN 2 ANALOG 3 COM INT OUT 4 NC 28 UNDERRANGE V- 1 C REF- 7 CREF+ 8 44-Pin PQFP NC ANALOG COMMON REF IN 28-Pin PDIP 31 RUN/HOLD 21 BUSY BUFF OUT 4 30 DGND 20 D1 (LSD) REF CAP– 5 29 POLARITY +INPUT 10 19 D2 REF CAP+ 6 V+ 11 18 D3 –INPUT 7 27 BUSY 17 D4 +INPUT 8 26 D1 (LSD) –INPUT 9 (MSD) D5 12 (LSB) B1 13 B2 14 28 CLK IN TC835CKW 16 B8 (MSD) V+ 9 25 D2 15 B4 NC 10 24 NC NC 11 23 NC NC NC D3 D4 (MSB) B8 B4 B2 (LSB) B1 NC NC (MSD) D5 NC D2 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 NC NC D1 BUSY CLK IN SUB POL DGND RUN/HOLD NC STROBE NC NC NC 64-Pin PQFP 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 NC 1 48 NC NC 2 NC 3 47 NC NC 4 45 D3 NC 5 NC 6 44 D4 OVERRANGE 7 42 B4 46 NC 43 B3 UNDERRANGE 8 41 B2 TC835CBU SUB 9 40 SUB V– 10 39 B1 REF IN 11 38 D5 ANALOG COM 12 NC 13 37 NC NC 14 35 NC NC 15 34 NC 36 NC 33 NC NC 16 V+ NC +INPUT –INPUT NC NC BUF CAP+ SUB BUFFOUT BUF CAP– NC NC AZ IN NC INT OUT NC 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 NOTES: 1. NC = No internal connection. 2. Pins 9, 25, 40 and 56 are connected to the die substrate. The potential at these pins is approximately V+. No external connections should be made. DS21478B-page 2 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 Typical Application Address Bus Control +5V Data Bus V+ REF CAP PA0 PA1 PA2 R 6522 P HCTS157 1Y 1B 2B 2Y 3Y 3B S 1A 2A 3A PA3 PA4 PA5 PA6 PA7 CA1 CA2 B1 D1 VR D2 Input D3 D4 Analog STB Common R/H FIN DGND FIN +15V -15V BUF AZ POL OR INT UR D5 B8 INPUT+ B4 B2 TC835 DG529 DA DB Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 WR REF Voltage Channel 4 A1 A0 EN Differential Multiplexer - 5V PB0 PB1 PB2 PB3 Channel Selection 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 3 TC835 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS *Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings* Positive Supply Voltage......................................... +6V Negative Supply Voltage ........................................ -9V Analog Input Voltage (Pin 9 or 10) ... V+ to V– (Note 2) Reference Input Voltage (Pin 2) ..................... V+ to V– Clock Input Voltage ........................................ 0V to V+ Operating Temperature Range................0°C to +70°C Storage Temperature Range ............. -65°C to +150°C Package Power Dissipation (TA ≤ 70°C) 28-Pin Plastic DIP ............................ 1.14Ω 44-Pin PQFP .................................... 1.00Ω 64-Pin PQFP .................................... 1.14Ω TC835 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: TA = +25°C, FCLOCK = 200kHz, V+ = +5V, V- = -5V, unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Test Conditions Analog Display Reading with Zero Volt Input -0.0000 ±0.0000 +0.0000 Display Reading Note 3, Note 4 TCZ Zero Reading Temperature Coefficient — 0.5 2 µV/°C TCFS Full-Scale Temperature Coefficient — — 5 ppm/°C NL DNL Nonlinearity Error — 0.5 1 Count Note 7 Differential Linearity Error — 0.01 — LSB Note 7 Display Reading in Ratiometric Operation ±FSE VIN = 0V, (Note 5) VIN = 2V; (Note 5, Note 6 +0.9996 +0.9998 +1.0000 Display Reading VIN = VREF, (Note 3) ± Full Scale Symmetry Error (Rollover Error) — 0.5 1 Count IIN Input Leakage Current — 1 10 pA eN Noise — 15 — µVP-P –VIN = +VIN , (Note 8) Note 4 Peak to Peak Value not Exceeded 95% of Time Digital IIL Input Low Current — 10 100 µA VIN = 0V IIH Input High Current — 0.08 10 µA VIN = +5V VOL Output Low Voltage — 0.2 0.4 V IOL = 1.6mA VOH Output High Voltage; B1, B2, B4, B8, D 1 –D5 Busy, Polarity, Overrange, Underrange, Strobe 2.4 4.4 5 V IOH = 1mA 4.9 4.99 5 V IOH = 10µA 0 200 1200 kHz fCLK Clock Frequency Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: Note 10 Functional operation is not implied. Limit input current to under 100 µA if input voltages exceed supply voltage. Full scale voltage = 2V. VIN = 0V. 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C. External reference temperature coefficient less than 0.01ppm/°C. -2V ≤ VIN ≤ +2V. Error of reading from best fit straight line. |VIN| = 1.9959. Test circuit shown in Figure 1-1. Specification related to clock frequency range over which the TC835 correctly performs its various functions. Increased errors result at higher operating frequencies. DS21478B-page 4 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 TC835 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS (CONTINUED) Electrical Characteristics: TA = +25°C, FCLOCK = 200kHz, V+ = +5V, V- = -5V, unless otherwise specified. Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Unit Test Conditions Power Supply V+ Positive Supply Voltage 4 5 6 V V– Negative Supply Voltage -3 -5 -8 V I+ Positive Supply Current — 1 3 mA fCLK = 0Hz I– Negative Supply Current — 0.7 3 mA fCLK = 0Hz PD Power Dissipation — 8.5 30 mΩ fCLK = 0Hz Note 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: Functional operation is not implied. Limit input current to under 100 µA if input voltages exceed supply voltage. Full scale voltage = 2V. VIN = 0V. 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C. External reference temperature coefficient less than 0.01ppm/°C. -2V ≤ VIN ≤ +2V. Error of reading from best fit straight line. |VIN| = 1.9959. Test circuit shown in Figure 1-1. Specification related to clock frequency range over which the TC835 correctly performs its various functions. Increased errors result at higher operating frequencies. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 5 TC835 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin Number 28-Pin PDIP Symbol 1 V- Description Negative power supply input. 2 REF IN 3 ANALOG COMMON External reference input. 4 INT OUT 5 AZ IN 6 BUFF OUT 7 CREF- Reference capacitor input. Reference capacitor negative connection. Reference point for REF IN. Integrator output. Integrator capacitor connection. Auto zero input. Auto zero capacitor connection. Analog input buffer output. Integrator resistor connection. 8 CREF+ Reference capacitor input. Reference capacitor positive connection. 9 -INPUT Analog input. Analog input negative connection. 10 +INPUT 11 V+ 12 D5 Digit drive output. Most Significant Digit (MSD) 13 B1 Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) output. Least Significant Bit (LSB) 14 B2 BCD output. 15 B4 BCD output. 16 B8 BCD output. Most Significant Bit (MSB) 17 D4 Digit drive output. 18 D3 Digit drive output. 19 D2 Digit drive output. 20 D1 Digit drive output. Least Significant Digit (LSD) 21 BUSY Analog input. Analog input positive connection. Positive power supply input. Busy output. At the beginning of the signal-integration phase, BUSY goes High and remains High until the first clock pulse after the integrator zero crossing. 22 CLOCK IN Clock input. Conversion clock connection. 23 POLARITY Polarity output. A positive input is indicated by a logic High output. The polarity output is valid at the beginning of the reference integrate phase and remains valid until determined during the next conversion. 24 DGND 25 RUN/HOLD Digital logic reference input. Run / Hold input. When at a logic High, conversions are performed continuously. A logic Low holds the current data as long as the Low condition exists. Strobe output. The STROBE output pulses low in the center of the digit drive outputs. 26 STROBE 27 OVERRANGE Over range output. A logic High indicates that the analog input exceeds the full scale input range. 28 UNDERRANGE Under range output. A logic High indicates that the analog input is less than 9% of the full scale input range. DS21478B-page 6 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 3.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION FIGURE 3-1: (All Pin Designations Refer to 28-Pin DIP) 3.1 Analog Input Signal Dual Slope Conversion Principles The TC835 is a dual slope, integrating analog to digital converter. An understanding of the dual slope conversion technique will aid in following the detailed TC835 operational theory. Integrator + - Comparator + Switch Drive The conventional dual slope converter measurement cycle has two distinct phases: 1. 2. BASIC DUAL SLOPE CONVERTER Phase Control Polarity Control REF Voltage Clock Control Logic Input signal integration Reference voltage integration (de-integration) In a simple dual slope converter, a complete conversion requires the integrator output to "ramp-up" and "ramp-down." A simple mathematical equation relates the input signal, reference voltage and integration time: EQUATION 3-1: TINT VREF T DEINT 1 VIN(T)DT = R C ∫ RINTC INT 0 INT INT where: VREF = Reference voltage TINT = Signal integration time (fixed) TDEINT = Reference voltage integration time (variable). EQUATION 3-2: VIN = VREF TDEINT tINT The dual slope converter accuracy is unrelated to the integrating resistor and capacitor values, as long as they are stable during a measurement cycle. An inherent benefit is noise immunity. Noise spikes are integrated, or averaged, to zero during the integration periods. Integrating ADCs are immune to the large conversion errors that plague successive approximation converters in high noise environments (see Figure 3-1). 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. Integrator Output VIN ≈ VREF VIN ≈ 1/2 VREF Fixed Signal Integrate Time 3.2 Variable Reference Integrate Time TC835 Operational Theory The TC835 incorporates a system zero phase and integrator output voltage zero phase to the normal two phase dual slope measurement cycle. Reduced system errors, fewer calibration steps and a shorter overrange recovery time result. The TC835 measurement cycle contains four phases: 1. 2. 3. 4. System zero Analog input signal integration Reference voltage integration Integrator output zero Internal analog gate status for each phase is shown in Table 3-1. 3.2.1 For a constant VIN: Counter Display The input signal being converted is integrated for a fixed time period, with time being measured by counting clock pulses. An opposite polarity constant reference voltage is then integrated until the integrator output voltage returns to zero. The reference integration time is directly proportional to the input signal. SYSTEM ZERO During this phase, errors due to buffer, integrator and comparator offset voltages are compensated for by charging CAZ (auto zero capacitor) with a compensating error voltage. With a zero input voltage the integrator output will remain at zero. The external input signal is disconnected from the internal circuitry by opening the two SWI switches. The internal input points connect to ANALOG COMMON. The reference capacitor charges to the reference voltage potential through SWR. A feedback loop, closed around the integrator and comparator, charges the CAZ capacitor with a voltage to compensate for buffer amplifier, integrator and comparator offset voltages (see Figure 3-2). DS21478B-page 7 TC835 FIGURE 3-2: SYSTEM ZERO PHASE FIGURE 3-4: REFERENCE VOLTAGE INTEGRATION CYCLE Analog Input Buffer SWI RINT + +IN Analog Input Buffer SWI CSZ SWIZ SWZ CREF SWRI- SWRI+ CSZ - Comparator SWZ REF IN To Digital Section Integrator SWZ SWIZ + SWZ CINT - + REF IN RINT + +IN - SWRI- SWRI+ SWR CINT SWRI+ SWRI- - CREF SWR - To Digital Section Integrator SWZ SWZ Analog Common Comparator + + SWRI+ SWRI- Analog Common SW1 SWI Switch Open Switch Closed – IN SW1 SWI Switch Open Switch Closed – IN 3.2.2 ANALOG INPUT SIGNAL INTEGRATION 3.2.4 The TC835 integrates the differential voltage between the +INPUT and -INPUT pins. The differential voltage must be within the device Common mode range (-1V from either supply rail, typically). The input signal polarity is determined at the end of this phase (see Figure 3-3). FIGURE 3-3: INPUT SIGNAL INTEGRATION PHASE INTEGRATOR OUTPUT ZERO This phase guarantees the integrator output is at 0V when the system zero phase is entered and that the true system offset voltages are compensated for. This phase normally lasts 100 to 200 clock cycles. If an overrange condition exists, the phase is extended to 6200 clock cycles (see Figure 3-5). FIGURE 3-5: INTEGRATOR OUTPUT ZERO PHASE Analog Input Buffer SWI + +IN SWRI- SWRI+ CINT + IN CSZ SWIZ Analog Input Buffer SWI - CREF SWR RINT SWZ SWRI- SWRI+ - SWZ SWZ Integrator SWZ - CREF SWR To Digital Section + REF IN SWRI+ SWRI- Analog Common CSZ SWIZ + CINT - Comparator + REF IN RINT + Comparator + - Integrator SWZ SWZ To Digital Section SWRI+ SWRISW1 SWI – IN Analog Common Switch Open Switch Closed SWI SW1 Switch Open Switch Closed – IN 3.2.3 REFERENCE VOLTAGE INTEGRATION The previously charged reference capacitor is connected with the proper polarity to ramp the integrator output back to zero (see Figure 3-4). The digital reading displayed is: Reading = 10,000 TABLE 3-1: [Differential Input] VREF INTERNAL ANALOG GATE STATUS Conversion Cycle Phase SWI SWRI+ System Zero Input Signal Integration Reference Voltage Integration Integrator Output Zero *Note: SWRI- SWZ SWR SW1 Closed Closed Closed SWIZ Reference Figures Figure 3-2 Closed Figure 3-3 Closed* Closed Closed Figure 3-4 Closed Figure 3-5 Assumes a positive polarity input signal. SWRI would be closed for a negative input signal. DS21478B-page 8 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 4.0 ANALOG SECTION FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (In Reference to the 28-Pin Plastic Package) 4.1 Differential Inputs (+INPUT (Pin 10) and –INPUT (Pin 9)) The TC835 operates with differential voltages within the input amplifier Common mode range. The input amplifier Common mode range extends from 0.5V below the positive supply to 1V above the negative supply. Within this Common mode voltage range, an 86dB Common mode rejection ratio is typical. The integrator output also follows the Common mode voltage. The integrator output must not be allowed to saturate. An example of a worst case condition would be when a large positive Common mode voltage with a near full scale negative differential input voltage is applied. The negative input signal drives the integrator positive when most of its swing has been used up by the positive Common mode voltage. For these critical applications, the integrator swing can be reduced to less than the recommended 4V full scale swing, with the effect of reduced accuracy. The integrator output can swing within 0.3V of either supply without loss of linearity. 4.2 4.3 Reference Voltage Input (REF IN (Pin 2)) The REF IN input must be a positive voltage with respect to ANALOG COMMON. A reference voltage circuit is shown in Figure 4-1. FIGURE 4-1: USING AN EXTERNAL REFERENCE V+ V+ TC835 REF IN 10k MCP1525 2.5 VREF 10k 1µF ANALOG COMMON Analog Ground Analog Common Input (Pin 3) ANALOG COMMON is used as the -INPUT return during auto zero and de-integrate. If -INPUT is different from ANALOG COMMON, a Common mode voltage exists in the system. This signal is rejected by the excellent CMRR of the converter. In most applications, -INPUT will be set at a fixed, known voltage (power supply common, for instance). In this application, ANALOG COMMON should be tied to the same point, thus removing the common-mode voltage from the converter. The reference voltage is referenced to ANALOG COMMON. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 9 TC835 5.0 DIGITAL SECTION FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The major digital subsystems within the TC835 are illustrated in Figure 5-1, with timing relationships shown in Figure 5-2. The multiplexed BCD output data can be displayed on LCD or LED. The digital section is best described through a discussion of the control signals and data outputs. FIGURE 5-1: DIGITAL SECTION FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM Polarity D5 MSB D4 Digit D3 Drive D2 Signal Multiplexer From Analog Section Latch Polarity FF Latch Latch Latch D1 LSB 13 B1 14 B2 Data Output 15 B4 16 B8 Latch Counters Zero Cross Detect Control Logic DS21478B-page 10 24 22 25 DGND Clock In RUN/ HOLD 27 28 Overrange Underrange 26 STROBE 21 Busy 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 FIGURE 5-2: Integrator Output TIMING DIAGRAMS FOR OUTPUTS Signal System Integrate Reference 10,000 Zero Integrate 10,001 Counts 20,001 Counts (Fixed) Counts (Max) Full Measurement Cycle 40,002 Counts Busy Underrange when Applicable D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 * First D5 of System Zero and Reference Integrate One Count Longer 100 Counts Auto Zero Digit Scan for Overrange * During the measurement cycle, the STROBE control line is pulsed low five times. The five low pulses occur in the center of the digit drive signals (D1, D2, D3, D5) (see Figure 5-3). The digit drive signals will continue to permit display scanning. STROBE pulses are not repeated until a new measurement is completed. The digit drive signals will not continue if the previous signal resulted in an overrange condition. Expanded Scale Below STROBE STROBE Output (Pin 26) D5 (MSD) goes high for 201 counts when the measurement cycles end. In the center of the D5 pulse, 101 clock pulses after the end of the measurement cycle, the first STROBE occurs for one-half clock pulse. After the D5 digit strobe, D4 goes high for 200 clock pulses. The STROBE goes low 100 clock pulses after D4 goes high. This continues through the D1 digit drive pulse. Overrange when Applicable Digit Scan 5.2 The active low STROBE pulses aid BCD data transfer to UARTs, processors and external latches. FIGURE 5-3: STROBE SIGNAL LOW FIVE TIMES PER CONVERSION Reference Integrate Signal Integrate D5 * D4 TC835 Outputs Busy D3 End of Conversion * D2 B1–B8 D5 (MSD) Data D4 Data D3 Data D2 Data D1 (LSD) Data D5 Data D1 STROBE Note Absence of STROBE 200 Counts 5.1 RUN/HOLD Input (Pin 25) D5 When left open, this pin assumes a logic "1" level. With a RUN/HOLD = 1, the TC835 performs conversions continuously, with a new measurement cycle beginning every 40,002 clock pulses. D4 D3 When RUN/HOLD changes to a logic "0," the measurement cycle in progress will be completed, and data held and displayed as long as the logic "0" condition exists. A positive pulse (>300nsec) at RUN/HOLD initiates a new measurement cycle. The measurement cycle in progress when RUN/HOLD initially assumed the logic "0" state must be completed before the positive pulse can be recognized as a single conversion run command. The new measurement cycle begins with a 10,001count auto zero phase. At the end of this phase, the busy signal goes high. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 201 Counts 200 Counts 200 Counts 200 Counts 200 Counts D2 200 Counts D1 *Delay between Busy going Low and First STROBE pulse is dependent on Analog Input. 5.3 BUSY Output At the beginning of the signal integration phase, BUSY goes high and remains high until the first clock pulse after the integrator zero crossing. BUSY returns to the logic "0" state after the measurement cycle ends in an overrange condition. The internal display latches are loaded during the first clock pulse after BUSY and are latched at the clock pulse end. The BUSY signal does not go high at the beginning of the measurement cycle, which starts with the auto zero cycle. DS21478B-page 11 TC835 5.4 OVERRANGE Output If the input signal causes the reference voltage integration time to exceed 20,000 clock pulses, the OVERRANGE output is set to a logic "1." The overrange output register is set when BUSY goes low, and is reset at the beginning of the next reference integration phase. 5.5 UNDERRANGE Output If the output count is 9% of full scale or less (-1800 counts), the underrange register bit is set at the end of BUSY. The bit is set low at the next signal integration phase. 5.6 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 6.1 Component Value Selection The integrating resistor is determined by the full-scale input voltage and the output current of the buffer used to charge the integrator capacitor. Both the buffer amplifier and the integrator have a class A output stage, with 100µA of quiescent current. A 20µA drive current gives negligible linearity errors. Values of 5µA to 40µA give good results. The exact value of an integrating resistor for a 20µA current is easily calculated. EQUATION 6-1: POLARITY Output A positive input is registered by a logic "1" polarity signal. The POLARITY bit is valid at the beginning of Reference Integrate and remains valid until determined during the next conversion. The POLARITY bit is valid even for a zero reading. Signals less than the converter's LSB will have the signal polarity determined correctly. This is useful in null applications. 5.7 6.0 Digit Drive Outputs Digit drive signals are positive going signals. The scan sequence is D5 to D1. All positive pulses are 200 clock pulses wide, except D5, which is 201 clock pulses wide. RINT = 6.1.1 BCD Data Outputs The binary coded decimal (BCD) bits B8, B4, B2, B1 are positive-true logic signals. The data bits become active simultaneously with the digit drive signals. In an overrange condition, all data bits are at a logic "0" state. INTEGRATING CAPACITOR The product of integrating resistor and capacitor should be selected to give the maximum voltage swing that ensures the tolerance buildup will not saturate the integrator swing (approximately 0.3V from either supply). For ±5V supplies and ANALOG COMMON tied to supply ground, a ±3.5V to ±4V full-scale integrator swing is adequate. A 0.10µF to 0.47µF is recommended. In general, the value of CINT is given by: EQUATION 6-2: All five digits are scanned continuously, unless an overrange condition occurs. In an overrange condition, all digit drives are held low from the final STROBE pulse until the beginning of the next reference integrate phase. The scanning sequence is then repeated. This provides a blinking visual display indication. 5.8 Full scale voltage 20µA CINT = = [10,000 x clock period] x IINT Integrator output voltage swing (10,000) (clock period) (20µA) Integrator output voltage swing A very important characteristic of the integrating capacitor is that it has low dielectric absorption to prevent rollover or ratiometric errors. A good test for dielectric absorption would be to use the capacitor with the input tied to the reference. This ratiometric condition should read half scale 0.9999, with any deviation probably due to dielectric absorption. Polypropylene capacitors give undetectable errors at reasonable cost. Polystyrene and polycarbonate capacitors may also be used in less critical applications. 6.1.2 AUTO ZERO AND REFERENCE CAPACITORS The size of the auto zero capacitor has some influence on the noise of the system. A large capacitor reduces the noise. The reference capacitor should be large enough such that stray capacitance to ground from its nodes is negligible. The dielectric absorption of the reference capacitor and auto zero capacitor are only important at power-on or when the circuit is recovering from an overload. DS21478B-page 12 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 Smaller or cheaper capacitors can be used if accurate readings are not required for the first few seconds of recovery. 6.1.3 The conversion rate is easily calculated: EQUATION 6-3: REFERENCE VOLTAGE Reading 1/sec = Clock Frequency (Hz) The analog input required to generate a full scale output is VIN = 2VREF. 6.3 The stability of the reference voltage is a major factor in the overall absolute accuracy of the converter. For this reason, it is recommended that a high-quality reference be used where high-accuracy absolute measurements are being made. 6.2 6.2.1 Conversion Timing A signal integration period at a multiple of the 60Hz line frequency will maximize 60Hz "line noise" rejection. A 200kHz clock frequency will reject 60Hz and 400Hz noise. This corresponds to five readings per second (see Table 6-1 and Table 6-2). CONVERSION RATE VS. CLOCK FREQUENCY Oscillator Frequency (kHz) Conversion Rate (Conv./Sec.) 100 2.5 120 3 200 5 300 7.5 400 10 800 20 1200 30 TABLE 6-2: Line Frequency Rejection 60Hz 50Hz 400Hz 50.000 • • • 53.333 — — • 66.667 • — • 80.000 — — • 83.333 — • • 100.000 • • • 125.000 — • • 133.333 — — • 166.667 — — • 200.000 • — • 250.000 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. POWER SUPPLIES GROUNDING Systems should use separate digital and analog ground systems to avoid loss of accuracy. 6.4 High-Speed Operation The maximum conversion rate of most dual-slope A/D converters is limited by the frequency response of the comparator. The comparator in this circuit follows the integrator ramp with a 3µsec delay, and at a clock frequency of 200kHz (5µsec period), half of the first reference integrate clock period is lost in delay. This means that the meter reading will change from 0 to 1 with a 50µV input, 1 to 2 with 150µV, 2 to 3 at 250µV, etc. This transition at midpoint is considered desirable by most users, however, if the clock frequency is increased appreciably above 200kHz, the instrument will flash "1" on noise peaks even when the input is shorted. For many dedicated applications where the input signal is always of one polarity, the delay of the comparator need not be a limitation. Since the nonlinearity and noise do not increase substantially with frequency, clock rates of up to ~1MHz may be used. For a fixed clock frequency, the extra count or counts caused by comparator delay will be a constant and can be subtracted out digitally. LINE FREQUENCY VS. CLOCK FREQUENCY Oscillator Frequency (kHz) Power Supplies and Grounds The TC835 is designed to work from ±5V supplies. For single +5V operation, a TC7660 can provide a –5V supply. 6.3.2 LINE FREQUENCY REJECTION TABLE 6-1: 6.3.1 4000 The clock frequency may be extended above 200kHz without this error, however, by using a low-value resistor in series with the integrating capacitor. The effect of the resistor is to introduce a small pedestal voltage onto the integrator output at the beginning of the reference integrate phase. By careful selection of the ratio between this resistor and the integrating resistor (a few tens of ohms in the recommended circuit), the comparator delay can be compensated and the maximum clock frequency extended by approximately a factor of 3. At higher frequencies, ringing and second-order breaks will cause significant nonlinearities in the first few counts of the instrument. The minimum clock frequency is established by leakage on the auto zero and reference capacitors. With most devices, measurement cycles as long as 10 seconds give no measurable leakage error. DS21478B-page 13 TC835 course, the flip flop delays the true zero crossing by up to one count in every instance. If a correction were not made, the display would always be one count too high. The clock used should be free from significant phase or frequency jitter. Several suitable low-cost oscillators are shown in Section 6.0, Typical Applications. The multiplexed output means that if the display takes significant current from the logic supply, the clock should have good PSRR. 6.5 Therefore, the counter is disabled for one clock pulse at the beginning of the reference integrate (de-integrate) phase. This one-count delay compensates for the delay of the zero crossing flip flop and allows the correct number to be latched into the display. Similarly, a one-count delay at the beginning of auto zero gives an overload display of 0000 instead of 0001. No delay occurs during signal integrate, so that true ratiometric readings result. Zero Crossing Flip-Flop The flip flop interrogates the data once every clock pulse after the transients of the previous clock pulse and half-clock pulse have died down. False zero crossings caused by clock pulses are not recognized. Of FIGURE 6-1: 4-1/2 DIGIT ADC MULTIPLEXED COMMON ANODE LED DISPLAY +5V 20 19 18 17 12 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 4 INT OUT 0.33µF 1µF 100kΩ 200kHz 100kΩ + Analog Input – 5 AZ IN POL 6 BUFF OUT 22 F IN 10 1µF 9 TC835 23 4.7kΩ b CREF- 7 CREF+ 8 1µF c –INPUT 3 ANALOG COMMON REF V – IN 1 2 7 6 D 2 C 1 B 7 A 7 7 X7 Blank MSD On Zero +INPUT 16 B8 15 B4 14 B2 B1 13 7 5 9–15 RBI DM7447A 16 +5V V+ 11 V+ –5V 100kΩ DS21478B-page 14 MCP1525 1µF 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 FIGURE 6-2: RC OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT R2 FIGURE 6-3: COMPARATOR CLOCK CIRCUITS R1 +5V C FO 16kΩ 1kΩ 56kΩ Gates are 74C04 2 + 8 VOUT 0.22µF 1. fO = 1 2C(0.41R P + 0.7R1) R1 R2 , RP = 7 LM311 3 1 30kΩ 4 R 1 + R2 16kΩ 390pF a. If R 1 = R2 = R1, F≅ 0.55/RC b. If R2 >> R1, f ≅ 0.45/R1C 2. Examples: a. f = 120kHz, C = 420pF R 1 = R 2 ≈ 10.9kΩ 2 + R2 100kΩ b. f = 120kHz, C = 420pF, R2 = 50kΩ R1 = 8.93kΩ R4 2kΩ C2 10pF 6 LM311 3 4 1 7 VOUT R3 50kΩ C1 0.1µF c. f = 120kHz, C = 220pF, R2 = 5kΩ R1 = 27.3kΩ FIGURE 6-4: +5V R2 100kΩ c. If R 2 << R1, f ≅ 0.72/R1C 4-1/2 DIGIT ADC WITH MULTIPLEXED COMMON CATHODE LED DISPLAY +5V +5V SET VREF = 1V –5V 1 MCP1525 2 TC835 Analog GND 28 150Ω 47 kΩ 25 4 INT RUN/HOLD OUT 24 5 DGND AZ IN 23 6 BUFF POLARITY OUT 100 kΩ 7 22 CREF+ CLK IN 1µF 21 8 C REFBUSY 20 9 –INPUT (LSD) D1 0.1 10 19 +INPUT D2 µF 11 18 D3 +5V V+ 12 17 D4 D5 (MSD) 0.33µF 100 kΩ + SIG IN – UR 27 OR REF IN 26 3 ANALOG STROBE GND 100 kΩ 1µF V- 1µF 10 150Ω 11 9 12 7 8 13 MC14513 6 14 5 15 4 16 3 17 2 18 1 +5V 13 16 B1 (LSB) (MSB) B8 14 B4 15 B2 FOSC = 200kHz 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 15 TC835 FIGURE 6-5: SET VREF = 1V TEST CIRCUIT TC835 –5V VREF IN 1 V- 28 UNDERRANGE REF IN 27 OVERRANGE 3 ANALOG 26 STROBE COMMON ANALOG GND 4 25 RUN/HOLD INT OUT 0.47 1µF 24 5 µF DIGTAL GND AZ IN 23 6 BUFF OUT POLARITY 22 100 kΩ 7 CLOCK IN CREF100 Signal 21 1µF 8 kΩ BUSY Input CREF+ 9 20 –INPUT (LSD) D1 19 0.1µF 10 D2 +INPUT 18 11 D3 +5V V+ 12 17 D5 (MSD) D4 13 16 (MSB) B8 B1 (LSB) 14 15 B4 B2 100kΩ DS21478B-page 16 2 Clock Input 120kHz 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 7.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 7.1 Package Marking Information Package marking data not available at this time. 7.2 Taping Forms Component Taping Orientation for 64-Pin PQFP Devices User Direction of Feed PIN 1 W P Standard Reel Component Orientation for TR Suffix Device Carrier Tape, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 64-Pin PQFP Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 32 mm 24 mm 250 13 in NOTE: Drawing does not represent total number of pins. Component Taping Orientation for 44-Pin PQFP Devices User Direction of Feed PIN 1 W P Standard Reel Component Orientation for TR Suffix Device Carrier Tape, Number of Components Per Reel and Reel Size Package 44-Pin PQFP Carrier Width (W) Pitch (P) Part Per Full Reel Reel Size 24 mm 16 mm 500 13 in NOTE: Drawing does not represent total number of pins. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 17 TC835 7.3 Package Dimensions 28-Pin PDIP (Wide) PIN 1 .555 (14.10) .530 (13.46) 1.465 (37.21) 1.435 (36.45) .610 (15.49) .590 (14.99) .200 (5.08) .140 (3.56) .040 (1.02) .020 (0.51) .150 (3.81) .115 (2.92) 3˚MIN. .015 (0.38) .008 (0.20) .700 (17.78) .610 (15.50) .110 (2.79) .090 (2.29) .070 (1.78) .045 (1.14) .022 (0.56) .015 (0.38) Dimensions: inches (mm) 44-Pin PQFP 7 ˚MAX. .009 (0.23) .005 (0.13) PIN 1 .018 (0.45) .012 (0.30) .041 (1.03) .026 (0.65) .398 (10.10) .390 (9.90) .557 (14.15) .537 (13.65) .031 (0.80) TYP. .398 (10.10) .390 (9.90) .557 (14.15) .537 (13.65) .010 (0.25) TYP. .083 (2.10) .075 (1.90) .096 (2.45) MAX. Dimensions: inches (mm) DS21478B-page 18 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 7.3 Package Dimensions (Continued) 7˚ MAX. 64-Pin PQFP .009 (0.23) .005 (0.13) PIN 1 .018 (0.45) .012 (0.30) .041 (1.03) .031 (0.78) .555 (14.10) .547 (13.90) .687 (17.45) .667 (16.95) .031 (0.80) TYP. .555 (14.10) .547 (13.90) .687 (17.45) .667 (16.95) .010 (0.25) TYP. .120 (3.05) .100 (2.55) .130 (3.30) MAX. Dimensions: inches (mm) 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 19 TC835 NOTES: DS21478B-page 20 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 SALES AND SUPPORT Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 21 TC835 NOTES: DS21478B-page 22 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC835 Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. Trademarks The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, FilterLab, KEELOQ, microID, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICMASTER, PICSTART, PRO MATE, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other countries. dsPIC, ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, FlexROM, fuzzyLAB, In-Circuit Serial Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, microPort, Migratable Memory, MPASM, MPLIB, MPLINK, MPSIM, MXDEV, PICC, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, rfPIC, Select Mode and Total Endurance are trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. Serialized Quick Turn Programming (SQTP) is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their respective companies. © 2002, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved. Printed on recycled paper. Microchip received QS-9000 quality system certification for its worldwide headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999 and Mountain View, California in March 2002. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its PICmicro ® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, non-volatile memory and analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001 certified. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21478B-page 23 WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE AMERICAS ASIA/PACIFIC Japan Corporate Office Australia 2355 West Chandler Blvd. Chandler, AZ 85224-6199 Tel: 480-792-7200 Fax: 480-792-7277 Technical Support: 480-792-7627 Web Address: http://www.microchip.com Microchip Technology Australia Pty Ltd Suite 22, 41 Rawson Street Epping 2121, NSW Australia Tel: 61-2-9868-6733 Fax: 61-2-9868-6755 Microchip Technology Japan K.K. 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