MICROCHIP PIC16LF84A

M
PIC16F84A
18-pin Enhanced Flash/EEPROM 8-Bit Microcontroller
Devices Included in this Data Sheet:
Pin Diagrams
• PIC16F84A
• Extended voltage range device available
(PIC16LF84A)
PDIP, SOIC
• Only 35 single word instructions to learn
• All instructions single cycle except for program
branches which are two-cycle
• Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input
DC - 200 ns instruction cycle
• 1024 words of program memory
• 68 bytes of data RAM
• 64 bytes of data EEPROM
• 14-bit wide instruction words
• 8-bit wide data bytes
• 15 special function hardware registers
• Eight-level deep hardware stack
• Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes
• Four interrupt sources:
- External RB0/INT pin
- TMR0 timer overflow
- PORTB<7:4> interrupt on change
- Data EEPROM write complete
•1
18
RA1
RA3
2
17
RA0
RA4/T0CKI
3
16
OSC1/CLKIN
MCLR
4
15
OSC2/CLKOUT
VSS
5
14
VDD
RB0/INT
6
13
RB7
RB1
7
12
RB6
RB2
8
11
RB5
RB3
9
10
RB4
SSOP
•1
20
RA1
RA3
2
19
RA0
RA4/T0CKI
3
18
OSC1/CLKIN
MCLR
VSS
4
17
OSC2/CLKOUT
16
VSS
6
RB0/INT
7
14
VDD
VDD
RB7
RB1
8
13
RB6
RB2
9
10
12
11
RB5
RB3
• 13 I/O pins with individual direction control
• High current sink/source for direct LED drive
- 25 mA sink max. per pin
- 25 mA source max. per pin
• TMR0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit
programmable prescaler
5
PIC16F84A
RA2
Peripheral Features:
15
RB4
CMOS Enhanced Flash/EERPOM Technology:
Special Microcontroller Features:
• 1000 erase/write cycles Enhanced Flash program
memory
• 1,000,000 typical erase/write cycles EEPROM data
memory
• EEPROM Data Retention > 40 years
• In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP™) - via two
pins
• Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up Timer (PWRT),
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
• Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC
oscillator for reliable operation
• Code-protection
• Power saving SLEEP mode
• Selectable oscillator options
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
High Performance RISC CPU Features:
RA2
• Low-power, high-speed technology
• Fully static design
• Wide operating voltage range:
- Commercial: 2.0V to 5.5V
- Industrial:
2.0V to 5.5V
• Low power consumption:
- < 2 mA typical @ 5V, 4 MHz
- 15 µA typical @ 2V, 32 kHz
- < 0.5 µA typical standby current @ 2V
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 1
PIC16F84A
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview ............................................................................................................................................................................ 3
2.0 Memory Organization..................................................................................................................................................................... 5
3.0 I/O Ports....................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
4.0 Timer0 Module ............................................................................................................................................................................. 17
5.0 Data EEPROM Memory............................................................................................................................................................... 19
6.0 Special Features of the CPU ....................................................................................................................................................... 21
7.0 Instruction Set Summary.............................................................................................................................................................. 33
8.0 Development Support .................................................................................................................................................................. 35
9.0 Electrical Characteristics for PIC16F84A..................................................................................................................................... 41
10.0 DC & AC Characteristics Graphs/Tables ..................................................................................................................................... 53
11.0 Packaging Information ................................................................................................................................................................. 55
Appendix A: Revision History ........................................................................................................................................................... 59
Appendix B: Conversion Considerations.......................................................................................................................................... 59
Appendix C: Migration from Baseline to Midrange Devices ............................................................................................................. 62
Index ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63
On-Line Support................................................................................................................................................................................... 65
Reader Response ................................................................................................................................................................................ 66
PIC16F84A Product Identification System ........................................................................................................................................... 67
To Our Valued Customers
Most Current Data Sheet
To obtain the most up-to-date version of this data sheet, please check our Worldwide Web site at:
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You can determine the version of a data sheet by examining its literature number found on the bottom outside corner of any page.
The last character of the literature number is the version number. e.g., DS30000A is version A of document DS30000.
Errata
An errata sheet may exist for current devices, describing minor operational differences (from the data sheet) and recommended
workarounds. As device/documentation issues become known to us, we will publish an errata sheet. The errata will specify the
revision of silicon and revision of document to which it applies.
To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please check with one of the following:
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When contacting a sales office or the literature center, please specify which device, revision of silicon and data sheet (include literature number) you are using.
Corrections to this Data Sheet
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DS35007A-page 2
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
1.0
DEVICE OVERVIEW
The program memory contains 1K words, which translates to 1024 instructions, since each 14-bit program
memory word is the same width as each device instruction. The data memory (RAM) contains 68 bytes. Data
EEPROM is 64 bytes.
This document contains device-specific information for
the operation of the PIC16F84A device. Additional
information may be found in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range
Reference Manual, (DS33023), which may be downloaded from the Microchip website. The Reference
Manual should be considered a complementary document to this data sheet, and is highly recommended
reading for a better understanding of the device architecture and operation of the peripheral modules.
There are also 13 I/O pins that are user-configured on
a pin-to-pin basis. Some pins are multiplexed with other
device functions. These functions include:
• External interrupt
• Change on PORTB interrupt
• Timer0 clock input
The PIC16F84A belongs to the mid-range family of the
PICmicro™ microcontroller devices. A block diagram of
the device is shown in Figure 1-1.
FIGURE 1-1:
Table 1-1 details the pinout of the device with descriptions and details for each pin.
PIC16F84A BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
13
8
Program Counter
EEPROM Data Memory
Flash
Program
Memory
PIC16F84A
1K x 14
Program
Bus
8 Level Stack
(13-bit)
14
RAM
File Registers
EEDATA
PIC16F84A
68 x 8
7
RAM Addr
EEPROM
Data Memory
64 x 8
EEADR
Addr Mux
Instruction reg
7
Direct Addr
5
TMR0
Indirect
Addr
FSR reg
RA4/T0CKI
STATUS reg
8
MUX
Power-up
Timer
Instruction
Decode &
Control
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
8
ALU
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Timing
Generation
I/O Ports
RA3:RA0
W reg
RB7:RB1
RB0/INT
OSC2/CLKOUT
OSC1/CLKIN
MCLR
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
VDD, VSS
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 3
PIC16F84A
TABLE 1-1
PIC16F84A PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Pin Name
DIP
No.
SOIC
No.
SSOP
No.
I/O/P
Type
Buffer
Type
OSC1/CLKIN
16
16
18
I
OSC2/CLKOUT
15
15
19
O
—
Oscillator crystal output. Connects to crystal or resonator in
crystal oscillator mode. In RC mode, OSC2 pin outputs
CLKOUT which has 1/4 the frequency of OSC1, and
denotes the instruction cycle rate.
MCLR
4
4
4
I/P
ST
Master clear (reset) input/programming voltage input. This
pin is an active low reset to the device.
RA0
17
17
19
I/O
TTL
RA1
18
18
20
I/O
TTL
RA2
1
1
1
I/O
TTL
RA3
2
2
2
I/O
TTL
RA4/T0CKI
3
3
3
I/O
ST
Description
ST/CMOS (3) Oscillator crystal input/external clock source input.
PORTA is a bi-directional I/O port.
Can also be selected to be the clock input to the TMR0
timer/counter. Output is open drain type.
PORTB is a bi-directional I/O port. PORTB can be software
programmed for internal weak pull-up on all inputs.
RB0/INT
6
6
7
I/O
TTL/ST (1)
RB1
7
7
8
I/O
TTL
RB2
8
8
9
I/O
TTL
RB3
9
9
10
I/O
TTL
RB4
10
10
11
I/O
TTL
RB5
11
11
12
I/O
TTL
RB0/INT can also be selected as an external interrupt
pin.
Interrupt on change pin.
Interrupt on change pin.
(2)
RB6
12
12
13
I/O
TTL/ST
RB7
13
13
14
I/O
TTL/ST (2)
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming clock.
Interrupt on change pin. Serial programming data.
VSS
5
5
5,6
P
—
Ground reference for logic and I/O pins.
VDD
14
14
15,16
P
—
Positive supply for logic and I/O pins.
Legend: I= input
O = output
I/O = Input/Output
P = power
— = Not used
TTL = TTL input
ST = Schmitt Trigger input
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
3: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured in RC oscillator mode and a CMOS input otherwise.
DS35007A-page 4
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
FIGURE 2-1:
There are two memory blocks in the PIC16F84A.
These are the program memory and the data memory.
Each block has its own bus, so that access to each
block can occur during the same oscillator cycle.
The data memory can further be broken down into the
general purpose RAM and the Special Function
Registers (SFRs). The operation of the SFRs that
control the “core” are described here. The SFRs used
to control the peripheral modules are described in the
section discussing each individual peripheral module.
The data memory area also contains the data
EEPROM memory. This memory is not directly mapped
into the data memory, but is indirectly mapped. That is,
an indirect address pointer specifies the address of the
data EEPROM memory to read/write. The 64 bytes of
data EEPROM memory have the address range
0h-3Fh. More details on the EEPROM memory can be
found in Section 5.0.
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK - PIC16F84A
PC<12:0>
13
CALL, RETURN
RETFIE, RETLW
Stack Level 1
•
•
•
Stack Level 8
Reset Vector
0000h
Peripheral Interrupt Vector
0004h
User Memory
Space
2.0
Additional information on device memory may be found
in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
2.1
3FFh
Program Memory Organization
The PIC16FXX has a 13-bit program counter capable
of addressing an 8K x 14 program memory space.
For the PIC16F84A, the first 1K x 14 (0000h-03FFh)
are physically implemented (Figure 2-1). Accessing a
location above the physically implemented address will
cause a wraparound. For example, for locations 20h,
420h, 820h, C20h, 1020h, 1420h, 1820h, and 1C20h
will be the same instruction.
1FFFh
The reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 5
PIC16F84A
2.2
Data Memory Organization
2.2.1
The data memory is partitioned into two areas. The first
is the Special Function Registers (SFR) area, while the
second is the General Purpose Registers (GPR) area.
The SFRs control the operation of the device.
Portions of data memory are banked. This is for both
the SFR area and the GPR area. The GPR area is
banked to allow greater than 116 bytes of general
purpose RAM. The banked areas of the SFR are for the
registers that control the peripheral functions. Banking
requires the use of control bits for bank selection.
These control bits are located in the STATUS Register.
Figure 2-1 shows the data memory map organization.
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER FILE
Each General Purpose Register (GPR) is 8 bits wide
and is accessed either directly or indirectly through the
FSR (Section 2.4).
The GPR addresses in bank 1 are mapped to
addresses in bank 0. As an example, addressing location 0Ch or 8Ch will access the same GPR.
FIGURE 2-1:
REGISTER FILE MAP PIC16F84A
File Address
Instructions MOVWF and MOVF can move values from
the W register to any location in the register file (“F”),
and vice-versa.
The entire data memory can be accessed either
directly using the absolute address of each register file
or indirectly through the File Select Register (FSR)
(Section 2.4). Indirect addressing uses the present
value of the RP0 bit for access into the banked areas of
data memory.
File Address
00h
Indirect addr.(1)
Indirect addr.(1)
80h
01h
TMR0
OPTION_REG
81h
02h
PCL
PCL
82h
03h
STATUS
STATUS
83h
04h
FSR
FSR
84h
05h
PORTA
TRISA
85h
06h
PORTB
TRISB
86h
08h
EEDATA
EECON1
88h
09h
EEADR
EECON2(1)
89h
0Ah
PCLATH
PCLATH
8Ah
0Bh
INTCON
INTCON
8Bh
87h
07h
Data memory is partitioned into two banks which
contain the general purpose registers and the special
function registers. Bank 0 is selected by clearing the
RP0 bit (STATUS<5>). Setting the RP0 bit selects Bank
1. Each Bank extends up to 7Fh (128 bytes). The first
twelve locations of each Bank are reserved for the
Special Function Registers. The remainder are General Purpose Registers implemented as static RAM.
8Ch
0Ch
68
General
Purpose
Registers
(SRAM)
Mapped
(accesses)
in Bank 0
4Fh
50h
CFh
D0h
FFh
7Fh
Bank 0
Bank 1
Unimplemented data memory location; read as '0'.
Note 1: Not a physical register.
DS35007A-page 6
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
2.2.2
The special function registers can be classified into two
sets, core and peripheral. Those associated with the
core functions are described in this section. Those
related to the operation of the peripheral features are
described in the section for that specific feature.
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
The Special Function Registers (Figure 2-1 and
Table 2-1) are used by the CPU and Peripheral
functions to control the device operation. These
registers are static RAM.
TABLE 2-1
Addr
REGISTER FILE SUMMARY
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
Power-on
Reset
Value on all
other resets
(Note3)
Bank 0
00h
INDF
Uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
---- ----
---- ----
01h
TMR0
8-bit real-time clock/counter
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
02h
PCL
Low order 8 bits of the Program Counter (PC)
0000 0000
0000 0000
0001 1xxx
000q quuu
(2)
03h
STATUS
04h
FSR
05h
PORTA (4)
06h
PORTB (5)
07h
IRP
RP1
TO
RP0
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer 0
—
—
—
RA4/T0CKI
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
---x xxxx
---u uuuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
Unimplemented location, read as '0'
---- ----
---- ----
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
---0 0000
---0 0000
0000 000x
0000 000u
---- ----
---- ----
1111 1111
1111 1111
08h
EEDATA
EEPROM data register
09h
EEADR
EEPROM address register
0Ah
PCLATH
—
—
—
0Bh
INTCON
GIE
EEIE
T0IE
Write buffer for upper 5 bits of the PC (1)
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
Bank 1
80h
INDF
81h
OPTION_REG
82h
PCL
83h
STATUS (2)
84h
FSR
85h
TRISA
86h
TRISB
87h
Uses contents of FSR to address data memory (not a physical register)
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
Low order 8 bits of Program Counter (PC)
IRP
RP1
RP0
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
Indirect data memory address pointer 0
—
—
—
PORTA data direction register
0000 0000
0000 0000
0001 1xxx
000q quuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
---1 1111
---1 1111
PORTB data direction register
1111 1111
1111 1111
Unimplemented location, read as '0'
---- ----
---- ----
88h
EECON1
89h
EECON2
—
—
—
0Ah
PCLATH
—
—
—
0Bh
INTCON
GIE
EEIE
T0IE
EEIF
WRERR
WREN
WR
RD
EEPROM control register 2 (not a physical register)
Write buffer for upper 5 bits of the PC (1)
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
---0 x000
---0 q000
---- ----
---- ----
---0 0000
---0 0000
0000 000x
0000 000u
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. - = unimplemented read as '0', q = value depends on condition.
Note 1: The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a slave register for PC<12:8>. The contents
of PCLATH can be transferred to the upper byte of the program counter, but the contents of PC<12:8> is never transferred
to PCLATH.
2: The TO and PD status bits in the STATUS register are not affected by a MCLR reset.
3: Other (non power-up) resets include: external reset through MCLR and the Watchdog Timer Reset.
4: On any device reset, these pins are configured as inputs.
5: This is the value that will be in the port output latch.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 7
PIC16F84A
2.2.2.1
STATUS REGISTER
The STATUS register contains the arithmetic status of
the ALU, the RESET status and the bank select bit for
data memory.
As with any register, the STATUS register can be the
destination for any instruction. If the STATUS register is
the destination for an instruction that affects the Z, DC
or C bits, then the write to these three bits is disabled.
These bits are set or cleared according to device logic.
Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not writable.
Therefore, the result of an instruction with the STATUS
register as destination may be different than intended.
For example, CLRF STATUS will clear the upper-three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register
as 000u u1uu (where u = unchanged).
FIGURE 2-1:
R/W-0
IRP
bit7
bit 7:
Only the BCF, BSF, SWAPF and MOVWF instructions
should be used to alter the STATUS register (Table 7-2)
because these instructions do not affect any status bit.
Note 1: The IRP and RP1 bits (STATUS<7:6>) are
not used by the PIC16F84A and should be
programmed as cleared. Use of these bits
as general purpose R/W bits is NOT
recommended, since this may affect
upward compatibility with future products.
Note 2: The C and DC bits operate as a borrow
and digit borrow out bit, respectively, in
subtraction. See the SUBLW and SUBWF
instructions for examples.
Note 3: When the STATUS register is the
destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these
three bits is disabled. The specified bit(s)
will be updated according to device logic
STATUS REGISTER (ADDRESS 03h, 83h)
R/W-0
RP1
R/W-0
RP0
R-1
TO
R-1
PD
R/W-x
Z
R/W-x
DC
R/W-x
C
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
IRP: Register Bank Select bit (used for indirect addressing)
The IRP bit is not used by the PIC16F84A. IRP should be maintained clear.
bit 6-5: RP1:RP0: Register Bank Select bits (used for direct addressing)
00 = Bank 0 (00h - 7Fh)
01 = Bank 1 (80h - FFh)
Each bank is 128 bytes. Only bit RP0 is used by the PIC16F84A. RP1 should be maintained clear.
bit 4:
TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction, or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3:
PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2:
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1:
DC: Digit carry/borrow bit (for ADDWF and ADDLW instructions) (For borrow the polarity is reversed)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low order bit of the result
bit 0:
C: Carry/borrow bit (for ADDWF and ADDLW instructions)
1 = A carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the most significant bit of the result occurred
Note:For borrow the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of
the second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high or low
order bit of the source register.
DS35007A-page 8
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
2.2.2.2
OPTION_REG REGISTER
The OPTION_REG register is a readable and writable
register which contains various control bits to configure
the TMR0/WDT prescaler, the external INT interrupt,
TMR0, and the weak pull-ups on PORTB.
FIGURE 2-1:
R/W-1
RBPU
bit7
Note:
When the prescaler is assigned to
the WDT (PSA = '1'), TMR0 has a 1:1
prescaler assignment.
OPTION_REG REGISTER (ADDRESS 81h)
R/W-1
INTEDG
R/W-1
T0CS
R/W-1
T0SE
R/W-1
PSA
R/W-1
PS2
R/W-1
PS1
R/W-1
PS0
bit0
bit 7:
RBPU: PORTB Pull-up Enable bit
1 = PORTB pull-ups are disabled
0 = PORTB pull-ups are enabled (by individual port latch values)
bit 6:
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5:
T0CS: TMR0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (CLKOUT)
bit 4:
T0SE: TMR0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
bit 3:
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler assigned to the WDT
0 = Prescaler assigned to TMR0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 2-0: PS2:PS0: Prescaler Rate Select bits
Bit Value
TMR0 Rate
WDT Rate
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
1:1
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 9
PIC16F84A
2.2.2.3
INTCON REGISTER
The INTCON register is a readable and writable
register which contains the various enable bits for all
interrupt sources.
FIGURE 2-1:
R/W-0
GIE
bit7
bit 7:
Note:
Interrupt flag bits get set when an interrupt
condition occurs regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the global
enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>).
INTCON REGISTER (ADDRESS 0Bh, 8Bh)
R/W-0
EEIE
R/W-0
T0IE
R/W-0
INTE
R/W-0
RBIE
R/W-0
T0IF
R/W-0
INTF
R/W-x
RBIF
bit0
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all un-masked interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
Note: For the operation of the interrupt structure, please refer to Section •.
bit 6:
EEIE: EE Write Complete Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the EE write complete interrupt
0 = Disables the EE write complete interrupt
bit 5:
T0IE: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR0 interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR0 interrupt
bit 4:
INTE: RB0/INT Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB0/INT interrupt
0 = Disables the RB0/INT interrupt
bit 3:
RBIE: RB Port Change Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the RB port change interrupt
0 = Disables the RB port change interrupt
bit 2:
T0IF: TMR0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 has overflowed (must be cleared in software)
0 = TMR0 did not overflow
bit 1:
INTF: RB0/INT Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The RB0/INT interrupt occurred
0 = The RB0/INT interrupt did not occur
bit 0:
RBIF: RB Port Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = When at least one of the RB7:RB4 pins changed state (must be cleared in software)
0 = None of the RB7:RB4 pins have changed state
DS35007A-page 10
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
2.3
PCL and PCLATH
2.4
The program counter (PC) specifies the address of the
instruction to fetch for execution. The PC is 13 bits
wide. The low byte is called the PCL register. This register is readable and writable. The high byte is called
the PCH register. This register contains the PC<12:8>
bits and is not directly readable or writable. All updates
to the PCH register go through the PCLATH register.
2.3.1
STACK
The stack allows a combination of up to 8 program calls
and interrupts to occur. The stack contains the return
address from this branch in program execution.
Midrange devices have an 8 level deep x 13-bit wide
hardware stack. The stack space is not part of either
program or data space and the stack pointer is not
readable or writable. The PC is PUSHed onto the stack
when a CALL instruction is executed or an interrupt
causes a branch. The stack is POPed in the event of a
RETURN, RETLW or a RETFIE instruction execution.
PCLATH is not modified when the stack is PUSHed or
POPed.
After the stack has been PUSHed eight times, the ninth
push overwrites the value that was stored from the first
push. The tenth push overwrites the second push (and
so on).
Indirect Addressing; INDF and FSR
Registers
The INDF register is not a physical register. Addressing INDF actually addresses the register whose
address is contained in the FSR register (FSR is a
pointer). This is indirect addressing.
EXAMPLE 2-1:
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
•
•
•
•
Register file 05 contains the value 10h
Register file 06 contains the value 0Ah
Load the value 05 into the FSR register
A read of the INDF register will return the value of
10h
• Increment the value of the FSR register by one
(FSR = 06)
• A read of the INDF register now will return the
value of 0Ah.
Reading INDF itself indirectly (FSR = 0) will produce
00h. Writing to the INDF register indirectly results in a
no-operation (although STATUS bits may be affected).
A simple program to clear RAM locations 20h-2Fh
using indirect addressing is shown in Example 2-2.
EXAMPLE 2-2:
NEXT
movlw
movwf
clrf
incf
btfss
goto
HOW TO CLEAR RAM
USING INDIRECT
ADDRESSING
0x20
FSR
INDF
FSR
FSR,4
NEXT
;initialize pointer
; to RAM
;clear INDF register
;inc pointer
;all done?
;NO, clear next
CONTINUE
:
;YES, continue
An effective 9-bit address is obtained by concatenating
the 8-bit FSR register and the IRP bit (STATUS<7>), as
shown in Figure 2-1. However, IRP is not used in the
PIC16F84A.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 11
PIC16F84A
FIGURE 2-1:
DIRECT/INDIRECT ADDRESSING
Indirect Addressing
Direct Addressing
RP1 RP0
6
0
from opcode
IRP
(2)
bank select
7
(FSR)
0
(2)
location select
bank select
00
location select
01
00h
80h
0Bh
0Ch
Addresses
map back
to Bank 0
Data
Memory (1)
4Fh
50h
(3)
(3)
7Fh
FFh
Bank 0
Bank 1
Note 1: For memory map detail see Figure 2-1.
2: Maintain as clear for upward compatiblity with future products.
3: Not implemented.
DS35007A-page 12
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
3.0
I/O PORTS
FIGURE 3-1:
Some pins for these I/O ports are multiplexed with an
alternate function for the peripheral features on the
device. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, that
pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
Additional information on I/O ports may be found in the
PICmicro™
Mid-Range
Reference
Manual,
(DS33023).
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PINS
RA3:RA0
Data
bus
D
WR
Port
Q
VDD
CK
Q
P
Data Latch
3.1
PORTA and TRISA Registers
N
PORTA is a 5-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISA. Setting a
TRISA bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTA pin
an input, i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode. Clearing a TRISA bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTA pin an output, i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin.
Note:
D
WR
TRIS
Reading the PORTA register reads the status of the
pins whereas writing to it will write to the port latch. All
write operations are read-modify-write operations.
Therefore a write to a port implies that the port pins are
read, this value is modified, and then written to the port
data latch.
Pin RA4 is multiplexed with the Timer0 module clock
input to become the RA4/T0CKI pin. The RA4/T0CKI
pin is a Schmitt Trigger input and an open drain output.
All other RA port pins have TTL input levels and full
CMOS output drivers.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
VSS
CK
Q
TRIS Latch
On a Power-on Reset, these pins are configured as inputs and read as '0'.
I/O pin
Q
TTL
input
buffer
RD TRIS
Q
D
EN
RD PORT
Note: I/O pins have protection diodes to VDD and VSS.
INITIALIZING PORTA
BCF
CLRF
STATUS, RP0
PORTA
BSF
MOVLW
STATUS, RP0
0x0F
MOVWF
TRISA
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Initialize PORTA by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RA<3:0> as inputs
RA4 as output
TRISA<7:5> are always
read as '0'.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 13
PIC16F84A
FIGURE 3-2:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PIN RA4
Data
bus
WR
PORT
D
Q
CK
Q
RA4 pin
N
Data Latch
VSS
WR
TRIS
D
Q
CK
Q
Schmitt
Trigger
input
buffer
TRIS Latch
RD TRIS
Q
D
EN
EN
RD PORT
TMR0 clock input
Note: I/O pin has protection diodes to VSS only.
TABLE 3-1
PORTA FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit0
Buffer Type
RA0
RA1
RA2
RA3
RA4/T0CKI
bit0
bit1
bit2
bit3
bit4
TTL
TTL
TTL
TTL
ST
Function
Input/output
Input/output
Input/output
Input/output
Input/output or external clock input for TMR0.
Output is open drain type.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger input
TABLE 3-2
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Address
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
05h
PORTA
—
—
—
RA4/T0CKI
RA3
RA2
85h
TRISA
—
—
—
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
Bit 0
Value on
Power-on
Reset
Value on all
other resets
RA1
RA0
---x xxxx
---u uuuu
TRISA1
TRISA0
---1 1111
---1 1111
Bit 1
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0'. Shaded cells are unimplemented, read as '0'
DS35007A-page 14
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
3.2
PORTB and TRISB Registers
PORTB is an 8-bit wide bi-directional port. The corresponding data direction register is TRISB. Setting a
TRISB bit (=1) will make the corresponding PORTB pin
an input, i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
hi-impedance mode. Clearing a TRISB bit (=0) will
make the corresponding PORTB pin an output, i.e., put
the contents of the output latch on the selected pin.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
BCF
CLRF
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
INITIALIZING PORTB
STATUS, RP0
PORTB
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
STATUS, RP0
0xCF
TRISB
Initialize PORTB by
clearing output
data latches
Select Bank 1
Value used to
initialize data
direction
Set RB<3:0> as inputs
RB<5:4> as outputs
RB<7:6> as inputs
Each of the PORTB pins has a weak internal pull-up. A
single control bit can turn on all the pull-ups. This is performed by clearing bit RBPU (OPTION<7>). The weak
pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is
configured as an output. The pull-ups are disabled on a
Power-on Reset.
FIGURE 3-3:
Four of PORTB’s pins, RB7:RB4, have an interrupt on
change feature. Only pins configured as inputs can
cause this interrupt to occur (i.e. any RB7:RB4 pin configured as an output is excluded from the interrupt on
change comparison). The input pins (of RB7:RB4) are
compared with the old value latched on the last read of
PORTB. The “mismatch” outputs of RB7:RB4 are
OR’ed together to generate the RB Port Change Interrupt with flag bit RBIF (INTCON<0>).
This interrupt can wake the device from SLEEP. The
user, in the interrupt service routine, can clear the interrupt in the following manner:
a)
b)
Any read or write of PORTB. This will end the
mismatch condition.
Clear flag bit RBIF.
A mismatch condition will continue to set flag bit RBIF.
Reading PORTB will end the mismatch condition, and
allow flag bit RBIF to be cleared.
The interrupt on change feature is recommended for
wake-up on key depression operation and operations
where PORTB is only used for the interrupt on change
feature. Polling of PORTB is not recommended while
using the interrupt on change feature.
FIGURE 3-4:
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PINS
RB3:RB0
VDD
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PINS
RB7:RB4
RBPU(1)
Data bus
weak
P pull-up
Data Latch
D
Q
VDD
RBPU(1)
Data bus
weak
P pull-up
WR Port
TRIS Latch
D
Q
Data Latch
D
WR Port
Q
I/O
pin(2)
CK
I/O
pin(2)
CK
WR TRIS
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
TRIS Latch
D
WR TRIS
Q
RD TRIS
TTL
Input
Buffer
CK
Q
RD Port
Latch
RD TRIS
Q
RD Port
D
EN
RB0/INT
D
Schmitt Trigger
Buffer
EN
RD Port
Note 1: TRISB = '1' enables weak pull-up
(if RBPU = '0' in the OPTION_REG register).
Set RBIF
2: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
From other
RB7:RB4 pins
Q
D
EN
RD Port
Note 1: TRISB = '1' enables weak pull-up
(if RBPU = '0' in the OPTION_REG register).
2: I/O pins have diode protection to VDD and VSS.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 15
PIC16F84A
TABLE 3-3
PORTB FUNCTIONS
Name
Bit
Buffer Type
I/O Consistency Function
TTL/ST(1)
Input/output pin or external interrupt input. Internal software
programmable weak pull-up.
RB1
bit1
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB2
bit2
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB3
bit3
TTL
Input/output pin. Internal software programmable weak pull-up.
RB4
bit4
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB5
bit5
TTL
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up.
RB6
bit6
TTL/ST(2)
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up. Serial programming clock.
RB7
bit7
TTL/ST(2)
Input/output pin (with interrupt on change). Internal software programmable
weak pull-up. Serial programming data.
Legend: TTL = TTL input, ST = Schmitt Trigger.
Note 1: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when configured as the external interrupt.
2: This buffer is a Schmitt Trigger input when used in serial programming mode.
RB0/INT
bit0
TABLE 3-4
Addr
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
Power-on
Reset
Value on all
other resets
06h
PORTB
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0/INT
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
86h
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
1111 1111
1111 1111
81h
OPTION_REG
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
DS35007A-page 16
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
4.0
TIMER0 MODULE
Additional information on external clock requirements
is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference
Manual, (DS33023).
The Timer0 module timer/counter has the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
4.2
8-bit timer/counter
Readable and writable
Internal or external clock select
Edge select for external clock
8-bit software programmable prescaler
Interrupt on overflow from FFh to 00h
An 8-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the
Timer0 module, or as a postscaler for the Watchdog
Timer, respectively (Figure 4-2). For simplicity, this
counter is being referred to as “prescaler” throughout
this data sheet. Note that there is only one prescaler
available which is mutually exclusively shared between
the Timer0 module and the Watchdog Timer. Thus, a
prescaler assignment for the Timer0 module means
that there is no prescaler for the Watchdog Timer, and
vice-versa.
Figure 4-1 is a simplified block diagram of the Timer0
module.
Additional information on timer modules is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
4.1
The prescaler is not readable or writable.
The PSA and PS2:PS0 bits (OPTION_REG<3:0>)
determine the prescaler assignment and prescale ratio.
Timer0 Operation
Timer0 can operate as a timer or as a counter.
Clearing bit PSA will assign the prescaler to the Timer0
module. When the prescaler is assigned to the Timer0
module, prescale values of 1:2, 1:4, ..., 1:256 are
selectable.
Timer mode is selected by clearing bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In timer mode, the Timer0 module will increment every instruction cycle (without prescaler). If the TMR0 register is written, the increment is
inhibited for the following two instruction cycles. The
user can work around this by writing an adjusted value
to the TMR0 register.
Setting bit PSA will assign the prescaler to the Watchdog Timer (WDT). When the prescaler is assigned to
the WDT, prescale values of 1:1, 1:2, ..., 1:128 are
selectable.
Counter mode is selected by setting bit T0CS
(OPTION_REG<5>). In counter mode, Timer0 will
increment either on every rising or falling edge of pin
RA4/T0CKI. The incrementing edge is determined by
the Timer0 Source Edge Select bit T0SE
(OPTION_REG<4>). Clearing bit T0SE selects the rising edge. Restrictions on the external clock input are
discussed below.
When assigned to the Timer0 module, all instructions
writing to the TMR0 register (e.g. CLRF 1, MOVWF 1,
BSF
1,x....etc.) will clear the prescaler. When
assigned to WDT, a CLRWDT instruction will clear the
prescaler along with the WDT.
Note:
When an external clock input is used for Timer0, it must
meet certain requirements. The requirements ensure
the external clock can be synchronized with the internal
phase clock (TOSC). Also, there is a delay in the actual
incrementing of Timer0 after synchronization.
FIGURE 4-1:
Prescaler
Writing to TMR0 when the prescaler is
assigned to Timer0 will clear the prescaler
count, but will not change the prescaler
assignment.
TIMER0 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data bus
FOSC/4
0
PSout
1
1
Programmable
Prescaler
RA4/T0CKI
pin
0
8
Sync with
Internal
clocks
TMR0
PSout
(2 cycle delay)
T0SE
3
PS2, PS1, PS0
PSA
T0CS
Set interrupt
flag bit T0IF
on overflow
Note 1: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
2: The prescaler is shared with Watchdog Timer (refer to Figure 4-2 for detailed block diagram).
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 17
PIC16F84A
4.2.1
4.3
SWITCHING PRESCALER ASSIGNMENT
The prescaler assignment is fully under software control, i.e., it can be changed “on the fly” during program
execution.
Note:
The TMR0 interrupt is generated when the TMR0 register overflows from FFh to 00h. This overflow sets bit
T0IF (INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be masked by
clearing bit T0IE (INTCON<5>). Bit T0IF must be
cleared in software by the Timer0 module interrupt service routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The
TMR0 interrupt cannot awaken the processor from
SLEEP since the timer is shut off during SLEEP.
To avoid an unintended device RESET, a
specific instruction sequence (shown in the
PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual, DS3023) must be executed when
changing the prescaler assignment from
Timer0 to the WDT. This sequence must be
followed even if the WDT is disabled.
FIGURE 4-2:
Timer0 Interrupt
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0/WDT PRESCALER
Data Bus
CLKOUT (=Fosc/4)
0
RA4/T0CKI
pin
8
M
U
X
1
M
U
X
0
1
SYNC
2
Cycles
TMR0 reg
T0SE
T0CS
0
1
Watchdog
Timer
Set flag bit T0IF
on Overflow
PSA
8-bit Prescaler
M
U
X
8
8 - to - 1MUX
PS2:PS0
PSA
1
0
WDT Enable bit
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: T0CS, T0SE, PSA, PS2:PS0 are (OPTION_REG<5:0>).
TABLE 4-1
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Address
Name
01h
TMR0
0Bh,8Bh
INTCON
81h
OPTION_REG
85h
TRISA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Timer0 module’s register
GIE
PEIE
RBPU INTEDG
—
—
T0IE
INTE
RBIE
T0IF
INTF
RBIF
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
PORTA Data Direction Register
Value on
POR,
BOR
Value on all
other resets
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
0000 000x
0000 000u
1111 1111
1111 1111
--11 1111
--11 1111
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as '0'. Shaded cells are not used by Timer0.
DS35007A-page 18
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
5.0
DATA EEPROM MEMORY
The EEPROM data memory is readable and writable
during normal operation (full VDD range). This memory
is not directly mapped in the register file space. Instead
it is indirectly addressed through the Special Function
Registers. There are four SFRs used to read and write
this memory. These registers are:
The EEPROM data memory allows byte read and write.
A byte write automatically erases the location and
writes the new data (erase before write). The EEPROM
data memory is rated for high erase/write cycles. The
write time is controlled by an on-chip timer. The writetime will vary with voltage and temperature as well as
from chip to chip. Please refer to AC specifications for
exact limits.
•
•
•
•
EECON1
EECON2 (Not a physically implemented register)
EEDATA
EEADR
When the device is code protected, the CPU may
continue to read and write the data EEPROM memory.
The device programmer can no longer access
this memory.
EEDATA holds the 8-bit data for read/write, and EEADR
holds the address of the EEPROM location being
accessed. PIC16F84A devices have 64 bytes of data
EEPROM with an address range from 0h to 3Fh.
Additional information on the Data EEPROM is available in the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
FIGURE 5-1:
EECON1 REGISTER (ADDRESS 88h)
U
U
U
R/W-0
R/W-x
R/W-0
R/S-0
R/S-x
—
—
—
EEIF
WRERR
WREN
WR
RD
bit7
bit0
R
W
S
U
= Readable bit
= Writable bit
= Settable bit
= Unimplemented bit,
read as ‘0’
- n = Value at POR reset
bit 7:5
Unimplemented: Read as '0'
bit 4
EEIF: EEPROM Write Operation Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The write operation completed (must be cleared in software)
0 = The write operation is not complete or has not been started
bit 3
WRERR: EEPROM Error Flag bit
1 = A write operation is prematurely terminated
(any MCLR reset or any WDT reset during normal operation)
0 = The write operation completed
bit 2
WREN: EEPROM Write Enable bit
1 = Allows write cycles
0 = Inhibits write to the data EEPROM
bit 1
WR: Write Control bit
1 = initiates a write cycle. (The bit is cleared by hardware once write is complete. The WR bit can only
be set (not cleared) in software.
0 = Write cycle to the data EEPROM is complete
bit 0
RD: Read Control bit
1 = Initiates an EEPROM read (read takes one cycle. RD is cleared in hardware. The RD bit can only
be set (not cleared) in software).
0 = Does not initiate an EEPROM read
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 19
PIC16F84A
5.1
Reading the EEPROM Data Memory
code execution (i.e., lost programs). The user should
keep the WREN bit clear at all times, except when
updating EEPROM. The WREN bit is not cleared
by hardware
To read a data memory location, the user must write the
address to the EEADR register and then set control bit
RD (EECON1<0>). The data is available, in the very
next cycle, in the EEDATA register; therefore it can be
read in the next instruction. EEDATA will hold this value
until another read or until it is written to by the user
(during a write operation).
EXAMPLE 5-1:
BCF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BSF
BCF
MOVF
5.2
After a write sequence has been initiated, clearing the
WREN bit will not affect this write cycle. The WR bit will
be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit is set.
At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is
cleared in hardware and the EE Write Complete
Interrupt Flag bit (EEIF) is set. The user can either
enable this interrupt or poll this bit. EEIF must be
cleared by software.
DATA EEPROM READ
STATUS, RP0
CONFIG_ADDR
EEADR
STATUS, RP0
EECON1, RD
STATUS, RP0
EEDATA, W
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Bank 0
Address to read
Bank 1
EE Read
Bank 0
W = EEDATA
5.3
Depending on the application, good programming practice may dictate that the value written to the Data
EEPROM should be verified (Example 5-1) to the
desired value to be written. This should be used in
applications where an EEPROM bit will be stressed
near the specification limit. The Total Endurance disk
will help determine your comfort level.
Writing to the EEPROM Data Memory
To write an EEPROM data location, the user must first
write the address to the EEADR register and the data
to the EEDATA register. Then the user must follow a
specific sequence to initiate the write for each byte.
Required
Sequence
EXAMPLE 5-1:
Generally the EEPROM write failure will be a bit which
was written as a '0', but reads back as a '1' (due to
leakage off the bit).
DATA EEPROM WRITE
BSF
BCF
BSF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
STATUS, RP0
INTCON, GIE
EECON1, WREN
55h
EECON2
AAh
EECON2
EECON1,WR
BSF
INTCON, GIE
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
EXAMPLE 5-1:
Bank 1
Disable INTs.
Enable Write
BCF
:
:
MOVF
BSF
Write 55h
Write AAh
Set WR bit
begin write
Enable INTs.
BSF
STATUS, RP0 ;
;
;
EEDATA, W
;
STATUS, RP0 ;
Bank 0
Any code can go here
Must be in Bank 0
Bank 1
EECON1, RD
; YES, Read the
;
value written
STATUS, RP0 ; Bank 0
BCF
;
; Is the value written (in W reg) and
;
read (in EEDATA) the same?
;
SUBWF EEDATA, W
;
BTFSS STATUS, Z
; Is difference 0?
GOTO WRITE_ERR
; NO, Write error
:
; YES, Good write
:
; Continue program
Additionally, the WREN bit in EECON1 must be set to
enable write. This mechanism prevents accidental
writes to data EEPROM due to errant (unexpected)
Address
WRITE VERIFY
READ
The write will not initiate if the above sequence is not
exactly followed (write 55h to EECON2, write AAh to
EECON2, then set WR bit) for each byte. We strongly
recommend that interrupts be disabled during this
code segment.
TABLE 5-1
Write Verify
REGISTERS/BITS ASSOCIATED WITH DATA EEPROM
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
08h
EEDATA
EEPROM data register
09h
EEADR
EEPROM address register
88h
EECON1
89h
EECON2
—
—
—
Bit 4
EEIF
Bit 3
WRERR
Bit 2
WREN
EEPROM control register 2
Bit 1
WR
Bit 0
RD
Value on
Power-on
Reset
Value on all
other resets
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
---0 x000
---0 q000
---- ----
---- ----
Legend: x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented read as '0', q = value depends upon condition. Shaded cells are not
used by data EEPROM.
DS35007A-page 20
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
6.0
SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE
CPU
What sets a microcontroller apart from other
processors are special circuits to deal with the needs of
real time applications. The PIC16F84A has a host of
such features intended to maximize system reliability,
minimize cost through elimination of external
components, provide power saving operating modes
and offer code protection. These features are:
• OSC Selection
• Reset
- Power-on Reset (POR)
- Power-up Timer (PWRT)
- Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
• Interrupts
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• SLEEP
• Code protection
• ID locations
• In-circuit serial programming
SLEEP mode offers a very low current power-down
mode. The user can wake-up from SLEEP through
external reset, Watchdog Timer time-out or through an
interrupt. Several oscillator options are provided to
allow the part to fit the application. The RC oscillator
option saves system cost while the LP crystal option
saves power. A set of configuration bits are used to
select the various options.
Additional information on special features is available in
the PICmicro™ Mid-Range Reference Manual,
(DS33023).
6.1
The PIC16F84A has a Watchdog Timer which can be
shut off only through configuration bits. It runs off its
own RC oscillator for added reliability. There are two
timers that offer necessary delays on power-up. One is
the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST), intended to keep
FIGURE 6-1:
the chip in reset until the crystal oscillator is stable. The
other is the Power-up Timer (PWRT), which provides a
fixed delay of 72 ms (nominal) on power-up only. This
design keeps the device in reset while the power supply
stabilizes. With these two timers on-chip, most
applications need no external reset circuitry.
Configuration Bits
The configuration bits can be programmed (read as '0')
or left unprogrammed (read as '1') to select various
device configurations. These bits are mapped in
program memory location 2007h.
Address 2007h is beyond the user program memory
space and it belongs to the special test/configuration
memory space (2000h - 3FFFh). This space can only
be accessed during programming.
CONFIGURATION WORD - PIC16F84A
R/P-u R/P-u R/P-u R/P-u R/P-u R/P-u R/P-u R/P-u R/P-u
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
CP
bit13
R/P-u
CP
R/P-u
R/P-u R/P-u
R/P-u
PWRTE WDTE FOSC1 FOSC0
bit0
R = Readable bit
P = Programmable bit
- n = Value at POR reset
u = unchanged
bit 13:4 CP: Code Protection bit
1 = Code protection off
0 = All memory is code protected
bit 3
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit
1 = Power-up timer is disabled
0 = Power-up timer is enabled
bit 2
WDTE: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
1 = WDT enabled
0 = WDT disabled
bit 1:0
FOSC1:FOSC0: Oscillator Selection bits
11 = RC oscillator
10 = HS oscillator
01 = XT oscillator
00 = LP oscillator
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 21
PIC16F84A
6.2
Oscillator Configurations
6.2.1
OSCILLATOR TYPES
TABLE 6-1
The PIC16F84A can be operated in four different
oscillator modes. The user can program two
configuration bits (FOSC1 and FOSC0) to select one of
these four modes:
•
•
•
•
LP
XT
HS
RC
Low Power Crystal
Crystal/Resonator
High Speed Crystal/Resonator
Resistor/Capacitor
6.2.2
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR CERAMIC RESONATORS
Ranges Tested:
Mode
Freq
XT
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
10.0 MHz
HS
Note :
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR / CERAMIC
RESONATORS
In XT, LP or HS modes a crystal or ceramic resonator
is connected to the OSC1/CLKIN and OSC2/CLKOUT
pins to establish oscillation (Figure 6-2).
OSC1/C1
OSC2/C2
47 - 100 pF 47 - 100 pF
15 - 33 pF 15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF 15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF 15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF 15 - 33 pF
Recommended values of C1 and C2 are identical to
the ranges tested table.
Higher capacitance increases the stability of the
oscillator but also increases the start-up time.
These values are for design guidance only. Since
each resonator has its own characteristics, the user
should consult the resonator manufacturer for the
appropriate values of external components.
Resonators Tested:
FIGURE 6-2:
CRYSTAL/CERAMIC
RESONATOR OPERATION
(HS, XT OR LP OSC
CONFIGURATION)
C1(1)
OSC1
XTAL
Note1:
2:
3:
To
internal
logic
RF(3)
OSC2
C2(1)
455 kHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
8.0 MHz
10.0 MHz
PIC16FXX
See Table 6-1 for recommended values of
C1 and C2.
A series resistor (RS) may be required for
AT strip cut crystals.
RF varies with the crystal chosen.
The PIC16F84A oscillator design requires the use of a
parallel cut crystal. Use of a series cut crystal may give
a frequency out of the crystal manufacturers
specifications. When in XT, LP or HS modes, the device
can have an external clock source to drive the
OSC1/CLKIN pin (Figure 6-3).
EXTERNAL CLOCK INPUT
OPERATION (HS, XT OR LP
OSC CONFIGURATION)
OSC1
Clock from
ext. system
PIC16FXX
Open
DS35007A-page 22
± 0.3%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
± 0.5%
None of the resonators had built-in capacitors.
TABLE 6-2
CAPACITOR SELECTION
FOR CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
SLEEP
RS(2)
FIGURE 6-3:
Panasonic EFO-A455K04B
Murata Erie CSA2.00MG
Murata Erie CSA4.00MG
Murata Erie CSA8.00MT
Murata Erie CSA10.00MTZ
OSC2
Mode
Freq
OSC1/C1
OSC2/C2
LP
32 kHz
200 kHz
100 kHz
2 MHz
4 MHz
4 MHz
10 MHz
68 - 100 pF
15 - 33 pF
100 - 150 pF
15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF
68 - 100 pF
15 - 33 pF
100 - 150 pF
15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF
15 - 33 pF
XT
HS
Note :
Higher capacitance increases the stability of
oscillator but also increases the start-up time.
These values are for design guidance only. Rs may
be required in HS mode as well as XT mode to
avoid overdriving crystals with low drive level specification. Since each crystal has its own characteristics, the user should consult the crystal
manufacturer for appropriate values of external
components.
For VDD > 4.5V, C1 = C2 ≈ 30 pF is recommended.
Crystals Tested:
32.768 kHz
100 kHz
200 kHz
1.0 MHz
2.0 MHz
4.0 MHz
10.0 MHz
Preliminary
Epson C-001R32.768K-A
Epson C-2 100.00 KC-P
STD XTL 200.000 KHz
ECS ECS-10-13-2
ECS ECS-20-S-2
ECS ECS-40-S-4
ECS ECS-100-S-4
± 20 PPM
± 20 PPM
± 20 PPM
± 50 PPM
± 50 PPM
± 50 PPM
± 50 PPM
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
6.2.3
6.3
RC OSCILLATOR
For timing insensitive applications the RC device option
offers additional cost savings. The RC oscillator
frequency is a function of the supply voltage, the
resistor (Rext) values, capacitor (Cext) values, and the
operating temperature. In addition to this, the oscillator
frequency will vary from unit to unit due to normal
process parameter variation. Furthermore, the
difference in lead frame capacitance between package
types also affects the oscillation frequency, especially
for low Cext values. The user needs to take into
account variation due to tolerance of the external
R and C components. Figure 6-4 shows how an R/C
combination is connected to the PIC16F84A.
FIGURE 6-4:
RC OSCILLATOR MODE
VDD
Rext
Internal
clock
OSC1
Cext
PIC16FXX
VSS
OSC2/CLKOUT
Fosc/4
Recommended values:
5 kΩ ≤ Rext ≤ 100 kΩ
Cext > 20pF
Reset
The PIC16F84A differentiates between various kinds
of reset:
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
MCLR reset during normal operation
MCLR reset during SLEEP
WDT Reset (during normal operation)
WDT Wake-up (during SLEEP)
Figure 6-5 shows a simplified block diagram of the
on-chip reset circuit. The MCLR reset path has a noise
filter to ignore small pulses. The electrical specifications state the pulse width requirements for the MCLR
pin.
Some registers are not affected in any reset condition;
their status is unknown on a POR reset and unchanged
in any other reset. Most other registers are reset to a
“reset state” on POR, MCLR or WDT reset during
normal operation and on MCLR reset during SLEEP.
They are not affected by a WDT reset during SLEEP,
since this reset is viewed as the resumption of normal
operation.
Table 6-3 gives a description of reset conditions for the
program counter (PC) and the STATUS register.
Table 6-4 gives a full description of reset states for all
registers.
The TO and PD bits are set or cleared differently in different reset situations (Section 6.7). These bits are
used in software to determine the nature of the reset.
FIGURE 6-5:
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
External
Reset
MCLR
WDT
Module
SLEEP
WDT
Time_Out
Reset
VDD rise
detect
Power_on_Reset
S
10-bit Ripple counter
R
VDD
OST/PWRT
OST
Chip_Reset
Q
OSC1/
CLKIN
PWRT
On-chip
RC OSC(1)
10-bit Ripple counter
Enable PWRT
Note 1: This is a separate oscillator from the
RC oscillator of the CLKIN pin.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
See Table 6-5
Enable OST
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 23
PIC16F84A
TABLE 6-3
RESET CONDITION FOR PROGRAM COUNTER AND THE STATUS REGISTER
Program Counter
Condition
STATUS Register
Power-on Reset
000h
0001 1xxx
MCLR Reset during normal operation
000h
000u uuuu
MCLR Reset during SLEEP
000h
0001 0uuu
WDT Reset (during normal operation)
000h
0000 1uuu
WDT Wake-up
PC + 1
Interrupt wake-up from SLEEP
PC + 1
uuu0 0uuu
(1)
uuu1 0uuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown.
Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector
(0004h).
TABLE 6-4
Register
W
RESET CONDITIONS FOR ALL REGISTERS
Address
Power-on Reset
MCLR Reset during:
– normal operation
– SLEEP
WDT Reset during normal operation
Wake-up from SLEEP:
– through interrupt
– through WDT Time-out
—
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
INDF
00h
---- ----
---- ----
---- ----
TMR0
01h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCL
02h
0000h
0000h
STATUS
03h
0001 1xxx
000q quuu(3)
uuuq quuu(3)
FSR
PC + 1(2)
04h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
(4)
05h
---x xxxx
---u uuuu
---u uuuu
(5)
PORTB
06h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
EEDATA
08h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
EEADR
09h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCLATH
0Ah
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
INTCON
0Bh
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uuuu(1)
INDF
80h
---- ----
---- ----
OPTION_REG
81h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PCL
82h
0000h
0000h
PC + 1
PORTA
---- ----
STATUS
83h
0001 1xxx
000q quuu
uuuq quuu(3)
FSR
84h
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TRISA
85h
---1 1111
---1 1111
---u uuuu
TRISB
86h
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
EECON1
88h
---0 x000
---0 q000
---0 uuuu
EECON2
89h
---- ----
---- ----
---- ----
PCLATH
8Ah
---0 0000
---0 0000
---u uuuu
INTCON
8Bh
0000 000x
0000 000u
uuuu uuuu(1)
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
(3)
u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit read as '0', q = value depends on condition.
One or more bits in INTCON will be affected (to cause wake-up).
When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and the GIE bit is set, the PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h).
Table 6-3 lists the reset value for each specific condition.
On any device reset, these pins are configured as inputs.
This is the value that will be in the port output latch.
DS35007A-page 24
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
6.4
Power-on Reset (POR)
FIGURE 6-6:
A Power-on Reset pulse is generated on-chip when
VDD rise is detected (in the range of 1.2V - 1.7V). To
take advantage of the POR, just tie the MCLR pin
directly (or through a resistor) to VDD. This will
eliminate external RC components usually needed to
create Power-on Reset. A minimum rise time for VDD
must be met for this to operate properly. See Electrical
Specifications for details.
When the device starts normal operation (exits the
reset condition), device operating parameters (voltage,
frequency, temperature, ...) must be meet to ensure
operation. If these conditions are not met, the device
must be held in reset until the operating conditions
are met.
For additional information, refer to Application Note
AN607, "Power-up Trouble Shooting."
The POR circuit does not produce an internal reset
when VDD declines.
6.5
Power-up Timer (PWRT)
The Power-up Timer (PWRT) provides a fixed 72 ms
nominal time-out (TPWRT) from POR (Figure 6-7,
Figure 6-8, Figure 6-9 and Figure 6-10). The Power-up
Timer operates on an internal RC oscillator. The chip is
kept in reset as long as the PWRT is active. The PWRT
delay allows the VDD to rise to an acceptable level (Possible exception shown in Figure 6-10).
EXTERNAL POWER-ON
RESET CIRCUIT (FOR SLOW
VDD POWER-UP)
VDD
VDD
D
R
R1
MCLR
C
PIC16FXX
Note 1: External Power-on Reset circuit is required
only if VDD power-up rate is too slow. The
diode D helps discharge the capacitor
quickly when VDD powers down.
2: R < 40 kΩ is recommended to make sure
that voltage drop across R does not exceed
0.2V (max leakage current spec on MCLR
pin is 5 µA). A larger voltage drop will
degrade VIH level on the MCLR pin.
3: R1 = 100Ω to 1 kΩ will limit any current
flowing into MCLR from external
capacitor C in the event of an MCLR pin
breakdown due to ESD or EOS.
A configuration bit, PWRTE, can enable/disable the
PWRT. See Figure 6-1 for the operation of the PWRTE
bit for a particular device.
The power-up time delay TPWRT will vary from chip to
chip due to VDD, temperature, and process variation.
See DC parameters for details.
6.6
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) provides a 1024
oscillator cycle delay (from OSC1 input) after the
PWRT delay ends (Figure 6-7, Figure 6-8, Figure 6-9
and Figure 6-10). This ensures the crystal oscillator or
resonator has started and stabilized.
The OST time-out (TOST) is invoked only for XT, LP and
HS modes and only on Power-on Reset or wake-up
from SLEEP.
When VDD rises very slowly, it is possible that the
TPWRT time-out and TOST time-out will expire before
VDD has reached its final value. In this case
(Figure 6-10), an external power-on reset circuit may
be necessary (Figure 6-6).
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 25
PIC16F84A
FIGURE 6-7:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 1
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
FIGURE 6-8:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR NOT TIED TO VDD): CASE 2
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
DS35007A-page 26
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
FIGURE 6-9:
TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD): FAST VDD RISE TIME
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
FIGURE 6-10: TIME-OUT SEQUENCE ON POWER-UP (MCLR TIED TO VDD): SLOW VDD RISE TIME
V1
VDD
MCLR
INTERNAL POR
TPWRT
PWRT TIME-OUT
TOST
OST TIME-OUT
INTERNAL RESET
When VDD rises very slowly, it is possible that the TPWRT time-out and TOST time-out will expire before VDD
has reached its final value. In this example, the chip will reset properly if, and only if, V1 ≥ VDD min.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 27
PIC16F84A
6.7
Time-out Sequence and Power-down
Status Bits (TO/PD)
On power-up (Figure 6-7, Figure 6-8, Figure 6-9 and
Figure 6-10) the time-out sequence is as follows: First
PWRT time-out is invoked after a POR has expired.
Then the OST is activated. The total time-out will vary
based on oscillator configuration and PWRTE
configuration bit status. For example, in RC mode with
the PWRT disabled, there will be no time-out at all.
TABLE 6-5
TIME-OUT IN VARIOUS
SITUATIONS
Oscillator
Configuration
XT, HS, LP
RC
Power-up
PWRT
PWRT
Enabled
Disabled
72 ms +
1024TOSC
1024TOSC
72 ms
—
Wake-up
from
SLEEP
1024TOSC
—
Since the time-outs occur from the POR reset pulse, if
MCLR is kept low long enough, the time-outs will
expire. Then bringing MCLR high, execution will begin
immediately (Figure 6-7). This is useful for testing
purposes or to synchronize more than one PIC16F84A
device when operating in parallel.
Table 6-6 shows the significance of the TO and PD bits.
Table 6-3 lists the reset conditions for some special
registers, while Table 6-4 lists the reset conditions for
all the registers.
TABLE 6-6
TO
PD
1
0
x
0
0
1
1
1
x
0
1
0
1
0
STATUS BITS AND THEIR
SIGNIFICANCE
Condition
Power-on Reset
Illegal, TO is set on POR
Illegal, PD is set on POR
WDT Reset (during normal operation)
WDT Wake-up
MCLR Reset during normal operation
MCLR Reset during SLEEP or interrupt
wake-up from SLEEP
6.8
Interrupts
The PIC16F84A has 4 sources of interrupt:
•
•
•
•
External interrupt RB0/INT pin
TMR0 overflow interrupt
PORTB change interrupts (pins RB7:RB4)
Data EEPROM write complete interrupt
The interrupt control register (INTCON) records
individual interrupt requests in flag bits. It also contains
the individual and global interrupt enable bits.
The global interrupt enable bit, GIE (INTCON<7>)
enables (if set) all un-masked interrupts or disables (if
cleared) all interrupts. Individual interrupts can be
disabled through their corresponding enable bits in
INTCON register. Bit GIE is cleared on reset.
The “return from interrupt” instruction, RETFIE, exits
interrupt routine as well as sets the GIE bit, which
re-enable interrupts.
The RB0/INT pin interrupt, the RB port change interrupt and the TMR0 overflow interrupt flags are contained in the INTCON register.
When an interrupt is responded to; the GIE bit is
cleared to disable any further interrupt, the return
address is pushed onto the stack and the PC is loaded
with 0004h. For external interrupt events, such as the
RB0/INT pin or PORTB change interrupt, the interrupt
latency will be three to four instruction cycles. The
exact latency depends when the interrupt event occurs.
The latency is the same for both one and two cycle
instructions. Once in the interrupt service routine the
source(s) of the interrupt can be determined by polling
the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bit(s) must be
cleared in software before re-enabling interrupts to
avoid infinite interrupt requests.
Note 1: Individual interrupt flag bits are set
regardless of the status of their
corresponding mask bit or the GIE bit.
FIGURE 6-11: INTERRUPT LOGIC
T0IF
T0IE
INTF
INTE
Wake-up
(If in SLEEP mode)
Interrupt to CPU
RBIF
RBIE
EEIF
EEIE
GIE
DS35007A-page 28
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
6.8.1
6.8.4
INT INTERRUPT
External interrupt on RB0/INT pin is edge triggered:
either rising if INTEDG bit (OPTION_REG<6>) is set,
or falling, if INTEDG bit is clear. When a valid edge
appears on the RB0/INT pin, the INTF bit
(INTCON<1>) is set. This interrupt can be disabled by
clearing control bit INTE (INTCON<4>). Flag bit INTF
must be cleared in software via the interrupt service
routine before re-enabling this interrupt. The INT
interrupt can wake the processor from SLEEP
(Section 6.11) only if the INTE bit was set prior to going
into SLEEP. The status of the GIE bit decides whether
the processor branches to the interrupt vector
following wake-up.
6.8.2
TMR0 INTERRUPT
An overflow (FFh → 00h) in TMR0 will set flag bit T0IF
(INTCON<2>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing enable bit T0IE (INTCON<5>)
(Section 4.0).
6.8.3
PORB INTERRUPT
An input change on PORTB<7:4> sets flag bit RBIF
(INTCON<0>). The interrupt can be enabled/disabled
by setting/clearing enable bit RBIE (INTCON<3>)
(Section 3.2).
DATA EEPROM INTERRUPT
At the completion of a data EEPROM write cycle, flag
bit EEIF (EECON1<4>) will be set. The interrupt can be
enabled/disabled by setting/clearing enable bit EEIE
(INTCON<6>) (Section 5.0).
6.9
Context Saving During Interrupts
During an interrupt, only the return PC value is saved
on the stack. Typically, users wish to save key register
values during an interrupt (e.g., W register and STATUS
register). This is implemented in software.
Example 6-1 stores and restores the STATUS and W
register’s values. The User defined registers, W_TEMP
and STATUS_TEMP are the temporary storage
locations for the W and STATUS registers values.
Example 6-1 does the following:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Stores the W register.
Stores the STATUS register in STATUS_TEMP.
Executes the Interrupt Service Routine code.
Restores the STATUS (and bank select bit)
register.
Restores the W register.
Note 1: For a change on the I/O pin to be
recognized, the pulse width must be at
least TCY wide.
EXAMPLE 6-1:
PUSH
ISR
POP
SAVING STATUS AND W REGISTERS IN RAM
MOVWF
SWAPF
MOVWF
:
:
:
:
SWAPF
W_TEMP
STATUS, W
STATUS_TEMP
MOVWF
STATUS
SWAPF
SWAPF
W_TEMP, F
W_TEMP, W
STATUS_TEMP, W
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
;
;
;
:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Copy W to TEMP register,
Swap status to be saved into W
Save status to STATUS_TEMP register
Interrupt Service Routine
should configure Bank as required
Swap nibbles in STATUS_TEMP register
and place result into W
Move W into STATUS register
(sets bank to original state)
Swap nibbles in W_TEMP and place result in W_TEMP
Swap nibbles in W_TEMP and place result into W
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 29
PIC16F84A
6.10
Watchdog Timer (WDT)
The Watchdog Timer is a free running on-chip RC
oscillator which does not require any external
components. This RC oscillator is separate from the
RC oscillator of the OSC1/CLKIN pin. That means that
the WDT will run even if the clock on the OSC1/CLKIN
and OSC2/CLKOUT pins of the device has been
stopped, for example, by execution of a SLEEP
instruction. During normal operation a WDT time-out
generates a device RESET. If the device is in SLEEP
mode, a WDT Wake-up causes the device to wake-up
and continue with normal operation. The WDT can be
permanently disabled by programming configuration bit
WDTE as a '0' (Section 6.1).
6.10.1
WDT PERIOD
The WDT has a nominal time-out period of 18 ms, (with
no prescaler). The time-out periods vary with
temperature, VDD and process variations from part to
part (see DC specs). If longer time-out periods are
desired, a prescaler with a division ratio of up to 1:128
can be assigned to the WDT under software control by
writing to the OPTION_REG register. Thus, time-out
periods up to 2.3 seconds can be realized.
The CLRWDT and SLEEP instructions clear the WDT
and the postscaler (if assigned to the WDT) and prevent it from timing out and generating a device
RESET condition.
The TO bit in the STATUS register will be cleared upon
a WDT time-out.
6.10.2
WDT PROGRAMMING CONSIDERATIONS
It should also be taken into account that under worst
case conditions (VDD = Min., Temperature = Max., max.
WDT prescaler) it may take several seconds before a
WDT time-out occurs.
FIGURE 6-12: WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
From TMR0 Clock Source
(Figure 4-2)
0
WDT Timer
•
1
M
U
X
Postscaler
8
8 - to -1 MUX
PS2:PS0
•
To TMR0 (Figure 4-2)
PSA
WDT
Enable Bit
1
0
MUX
PSA
WDT
Time-out
Note: PSA and PS2:PS0 are bits in the OPTION_REG register.
TABLE 6-7
Addr
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WATCHDOG TIMER
Name
2007h
Config. bits
81h
OPTION_REG
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
Power-on
Reset
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
PWRTE(1)
WDTE
FOSC1
FOSC0
(2)
RBPU
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
1111 1111
Value on all
other resets
1111 1111
Legend: x = unknown. Shaded cells are not used by the WDT.
Note 1: See Figure 6-1 for operation of the PWRTE bit.
2: See Figure 6-1 and Section 6.12 for operation of the Code and Data protection bits.
DS35007A-page 30
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
6.11
Power-down Mode (SLEEP)
6.11.2
A device may be powered down (SLEEP) and later
powered up (Wake-up from SLEEP).
6.11.1
SLEEP
The Power-down mode is entered by executing the
SLEEP instruction.
If enabled, the Watchdog Timer is cleared (but keeps
running), the PD bit (STATUS<3>) is cleared, the TO bit
(STATUS<4>) is set, and the oscillator driver is turned
off. The I/O ports maintain the status they had before
the SLEEP instruction was executed (driving high, low,
or hi-impedance).
For the lowest current consumption in SLEEP mode,
place all I/O pins at either at VDD or VSS, with no
external circuitry drawing current from the I/O pins, and
disable external clocks. I/O pins that are hi-impedance
inputs should be pulled high or low externally to avoid
switching currents caused by floating inputs. The
T0CKI input should also be at VDD or VSS. The
contribution from on-chip pull-ups on PORTB should be
considered.
The MCLR pin must be at a logic high level (VIHMC).
It should be noted that a RESET generated by a WDT
time-out does not drive the MCLR pin low.
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The device can wake-up from SLEEP through one of
the following events:
1.
2.
3.
External reset input on MCLR pin.
WDT Wake-up (if WDT was enabled).
Interrupt from RB0/INT pin, RB port change, or
data EEPROM write complete.
Peripherals cannot generate interrupts during SLEEP,
since no on-chip Q clocks are present.
The first event (MCLR reset) will cause a device reset.
The two latter events are considered a continuation of
program execution. The TO and PD bits can be used to
determine the cause of a device reset. The PD bit,
which is set on power-up, is cleared when SLEEP is
invoked. The TO bit is cleared if a WDT time-out
occurred (and caused wake-up).
While the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is pre-fetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be set (enabled). Wake-up
occurs regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE
bit is clear (disabled), the device continues execution at
the instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit
is set (enabled), the device executes the instruction
after the SLEEP instruction and then branches to the
interrupt address (0004h). In cases where the
execution of the instruction following SLEEP is not
desirable, the user should have a NOP after the
SLEEP instruction.
FIGURE 6-13: WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1 Q2 Q3
Q4
OSC1
TOST(2)
CLKOUT(4)
INT pin
INTF flag
(INTCON<1>)
Interrupt Latency
(Note 2)
GIE bit
(INTCON<7>)
Processor in
SLEEP
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
PC
Instruction
fetched
Inst(PC) = SLEEP
Instruction
executed
Inst(PC - 1)
Note
1:
2:
3:
4:
PC+1
PC+2
PC+2
Inst(PC + 1)
Inst(PC + 2)
SLEEP
Inst(PC + 1)
PC + 2
Dummy cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy cycle
Inst(0004h)
XT, HS or LP oscillator mode assumed.
TOST = 1024TOSC (drawing not to scale) This delay will not be there for RC osc mode.
GIE = '1' assumed. In this case after wake- up, the processor jumps to the interrupt routine. If GIE = '0', execution will continue in-line.
CLKOUT is not available in these osc modes, but shown here for timing reference.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 31
PIC16F84A
6.11.3
6.14
WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS
When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and
any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit
and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur:
• If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a
SLEEP instruction, the SLEEP instruction will complete as a NOP. Therefore, the WDT and WDT
postscaler will not be cleared, the TO bit will not
be set and PD bits will not be cleared.
• If the interrupt occurs during or after the execution of a SLEEP instruction, the device will immediately wake up from sleep. The SLEEP instruction
will be completely executed before the wake-up.
Therefore, the WDT and WDT postscaler will be
cleared, the TO bit will be set and the PD bit will
be cleared.
In-Circuit Serial Programming
PIC16F84A microcontrollers can be serially
programmed while in the end application circuit. This is
simply done with two lines for clock and data, and three
other lines for power, ground, and the programming
voltage. Customers can manufacture boards with
unprogrammed devices, and then program the
microcontroller just before shipping the product,
allowing the most recent firmware or custom firmware
to be programmed.
For complete details of serial programming, please
refer to the In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP™)
Guide, (DS30277).
Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a
SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to
become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To
determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test
the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction
was executed as a NOP.
To ensure that the WDT is cleared, a CLRWDT instruction should be executed before a SLEEP instruction.
6.12
Program Verification/Code Protection
If the code protection bit(s) have not been
programmed, the on-chip program memory can be
read out for verification purposes.
Note:
6.13
Microchip does not recommend code protecting windowed devices.
ID Locations
Four memory locations (2000h - 2004h) are designated
as ID locations to store checksum or other code
identification numbers. These locations are not
accessible during normal execution but are readable
and writable only during program/verify. Only the
four least significant bits of ID location are usable.
DS35007A-page 32
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
7.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
Each PIC16CXXX instruction is a 14-bit word divided
into an OPCODE which specifies the instruction type
and one or more operands which further specify the
operation of the instruction. The PIC16CXX instruction
set summary in Table 7-2 lists byte-oriented, bit-oriented, and literal and control operations. Table 7-1
shows the opcode field descriptions.
For byte-oriented instructions, 'f' represents a file register designator and 'd' represents a destination designator. The file register designator specifies which file
register is to be used by the instruction.
The destination designator specifies where the result of
the operation is to be placed. If 'd' is zero, the result is
placed in the W register. If 'd' is one, the result is placed
in the file register specified in the instruction.
Table 7-2 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASM assembler.
Figure 7-1 shows the general formats that the instructions can have.
Note:
All examples use the following format to represent a
hexadecimal number:
0xhh
where h signifies a hexadecimal digit.
FIGURE 7-1:
f
W
b
k
x
d
PC
TO
PD
0
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
For literal and control operations, 'k' represents an
eight or eleven bit constant or literal value.
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
f (FILE #)
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8 7 6
OPCODE
d
f (FILE #)
For bit-oriented instructions, 'b' represents a bit field
designator which selects the number of the bit affected
by the operation, while 'f' represents the number of the
file in which the bit is located.
TABLE 7-1
To maintain upward compatibility with
future PIC16CXXX products, do not use
the OPTION and TRIS instructions.
0
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Description
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
Working register (accumulator)
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
Literal field, constant data or label
Don't care location (= 0 or 1)
The assembler will generate code with x = 0. It is the
recommended form of use for compatibility with all
Microchip software tools.
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1
Program Counter
Literal and control operations
General
13
8
7
OPCODE
0
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11
OPCODE
Time-out bit
Power-down bit
10
0
k (literal)
k = 11-bit immediate value
The instruction set is highly orthogonal and is grouped
into three basic categories:
• Byte-oriented operations
• Bit-oriented operations
• Literal and control operations
A description of each instruction is available in the
PICmicro™
Mid-Range
Reference
Manual,
(DS33023).
All instructions are executed within one single instruction cycle, unless a conditional test is true or the program counter is changed as a result of an instruction.
In this case, the execution takes two instruction cycles
with the second cycle executed as a NOP. One instruction cycle consists of four oscillator periods. Thus, for
an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, the normal instruction
execution time is 1 µs. If a conditional test is true or the
program counter is changed as a result of an instruction, the instruction execution time is 2 µs.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 33
PIC16F84A
TABLE 7-2
PIC16CXXX INSTRUCTION SET
Mnemonic,
Operands
Description
Cycles
14-Bit Opcode
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ANDWF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
DECFSZ
INCF
INCFSZ
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
NOP
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
Add W and f
AND W with f
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f
Increment f, Skip if 0
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
No Operation
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
1
1
1
1
1
1
1(2)
1
1(2)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
0111
0101
0001
0001
1001
0011
1011
1010
1111
0100
1000
0000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1110
0110
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xxx
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0xx0
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
xxxx
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
0000
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
00bb
01bb
10bb
11bb
bfff
bfff
bfff
bfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
111x
1001
0kkk
0000
1kkk
1000
00xx
0000
01xx
0000
0000
110x
1010
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
0110
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
0100
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
0011
kkkk
kkkk
C,DC,Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C,DC,Z
Z
1,2
1,2
2
1,2
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2,3
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
1,2
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
BCF
BSF
BTFSC
BTFSS
f, b
f, b
f, b
f, b
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1
1
1 (2)
1 (2)
ADDLW
ANDLW
CALL
CLRWDT
GOTO
IORLW
MOVLW
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
SLEEP
SUBLW
XORLW
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Call subroutine
Clear Watchdog Timer
Go to address
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to W
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
Go into standby mode
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
01
01
01
01
1,2
1,2
3
3
LITERAL AND CONTROL OPERATIONS
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
11
11
10
00
10
11
11
00
11
00
00
11
11
C,DC,Z
Z
TO,PD
Z
TO,PD
C,DC,Z
Z
Note 1:
When an I/O register is modified as a function of itself ( e.g., MOVF PORTB, 1), the value used will be that value present
on the pins themselves. For example, if the data latch is '1' for a pin configured as input and is driven low by an external
device, the data will be written back with a '0'.
2: If this instruction is executed on the TMR0 register (and, where applicable, d = 1), the prescaler will be cleared if assigned
to the Timer0 Module.
3: If Program Counter (PC) is modified or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle is
executed as a NOP.
DS35007A-page 34
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
8.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
8.1
Development Tools
8.3
The PICmicrο microcontrollers are supported with a
full range of hardware and software development tools:
• MPLAB™-ICE Real-Time In-Circuit Emulator
• ICEPIC Low-Cost PIC16C5X and PIC16CXXX
In-Circuit Emulator
• PRO MATE II Universal Programmer
• PICSTART Plus Entry-Level Prototype
Programmer
• SIMICE
• PICDEM-1 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• PICDEM-2 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• PICDEM-3 Low-Cost Demonstration Board
• MPASM Assembler
• MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• MPLAB-C17 (C Compiler)
• Fuzzy Logic Development System
(fuzzyTECH−MP)
• KEELOQ® Evaluation Kits and Programmer
8.2
ICEPIC: Low-Cost PICmicro™
In-Circuit Emulator
ICEPIC is a low-cost in-circuit emulator solution for the
Microchip PIC12CXXX, PIC16C5X and PIC16CXXX
families of 8-bit OTP microcontrollers.
ICEPIC is designed to operate on PC-compatible
machines ranging from 386 through Pentium based
machines under Windows 3.x, Windows 95, or Windows NT environment. ICEPIC features real time, nonintrusive emulation.
8.4
PRO MATE II: Universal Programmer
The PRO MATE II Universal Programmer is a full-featured programmer capable of operating in stand-alone
mode as well as PC-hosted mode. PRO MATE II is CE
compliant.
The PRO MATE II has programmable VDD and VPP
supplies which allows it to verify programmed memory
at VDD min and VDD max for maximum reliability. It has
an LCD display for displaying error messages, keys to
enter commands and a modular detachable socket
assembly to support various package types. In standalone mode the PRO MATE II can read, verify or program
PIC12CXXX,
PIC14C000,
PIC16C5X,
PIC16CXXX and PIC17CXX devices. It can also set
configuration and code-protect bits in this mode.
MPLAB-ICE: High Performance
Universal In-Circuit Emulator with
MPLAB IDE
The MPLAB-ICE Universal In-Circuit Emulator is
intended to provide the product development engineer
with a complete microcontroller design tool set for
PICmicro microcontrollers (MCUs). MPLAB-ICE is supplied with the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE), which allows editing, “make” and
download, and source debugging from a single environment.
Interchangeable processor modules allow the system
to be easily reconfigured for emulation of different processors. The universal architecture of the MPLAB-ICE
allows expansion to support all new Microchip microcontrollers.
The MPLAB-ICE Emulator System has been designed
as a real-time emulation system with advanced features that are generally found on more expensive development tools. The PC compatible 386 (and higher)
machine platform and Microsoft Windows 3.x or
Windows 95 environment were chosen to best make
these features available to you, the end user.
8.5
PICSTART Plus Entry Level
Development System
The PICSTART programmer is an easy-to-use, lowcost prototype programmer. It connects to the PC via
one of the COM (RS-232) ports. MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment software makes using the
programmer simple and efficient. PICSTART Plus is not
recommended for production programming.
PICSTART Plus supports all PIC12CXXX, PIC14C000,
PIC16C5X, PIC16CXXX and PIC17CXX devices with
up to 40 pins. Larger pin count devices such as the
PIC16C923, PIC16C924 and PIC17C756 may be supported with an adapter socket. PICSTART Plus is CE
compliant.
MPLAB-ICE
is
available
in
two
versions.
MPLAB-ICE 1000 is a basic, low-cost emulator system
with simple trace capabilities. It shares processor modules with the MPLAB-ICE 2000. This is a full-featured
emulator system with enhanced trace, trigger, and data
monitoring features. Both systems will operate across
the entire operating speed reange of the PICmicro
MCU.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 35
PIC16F84A
8.6
SIMICE Entry-Level Hardware
Simulator
8.8
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX
Demonstration Board
SIMICE is an entry-level hardware development system designed to operate in a PC-based environment
with Microchip’s simulator MPLAB™-SIM. Both SIMICE and MPLAB-SIM run under Microchip Technology’s MPLAB Integrated Development Environment
(IDE) software. Specifically, SIMICE provides hardware
simulation for Microchip’s PIC12C5XX, PIC12CE5XX,
and PIC16C5X families of PICmicro™ 8-bit microcontrollers. SIMICE works in conjunction with MPLAB-SIM
to provide non-real-time I/O port emulation. SIMICE
enables a developer to run simulator code for driving
the target system. In addition, the target system can
provide input to the simulator code. This capability
allows for simple and interactive debugging without
having to manually generate MPLAB-SIM stimulus
files. SIMICE is a valuable debugging tool for entrylevel system development.
The PICDEM-2 is a simple demonstration board that
supports the PIC16C62, PIC16C64, PIC16C65,
PIC16C73 and PIC16C74 microcontrollers. All the
necessary hardware and software is included to
run the basic demonstration programs. The user
can program the sample microcontrollers provided
with the PICDEM-2 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART-Plus, and easily test firmware.
The MPLAB-ICE emulator may also be used with the
PICDEM-2 board to test firmware. Additional prototype
area has been provided to the user for adding additional hardware and connecting it to the microcontroller
socket(s). Some of the features include a RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a Serial EEPROM to demonstrate
usage of the I2C bus and separate headers for connection to an LCD module and a keypad.
8.7
8.9
PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PICmicro
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-1 is a simple board which demonstrates
the capabilities of several of Microchip’s microcontrollers. The microcontrollers supported are: PIC16C5X
(PIC16C54 to PIC16C58A), PIC16C61, PIC16C62X,
PIC16C71, PIC16C8X, PIC17C42, PIC17C43 and
PIC17C44. All necessary hardware and software is
included to run basic demo programs. The users can
program the sample microcontrollers provided with
the PICDEM-1 board, on a PRO MATE II or
PICSTART-Plus programmer, and easily test firmware. The user can also connect the PICDEM-1
board to the MPLAB-ICE emulator and download the
firmware to the emulator for testing. Additional prototype area is available for the user to build some additional hardware and connect it to the microcontroller
socket(s). Some of the features include an RS-232
interface, a potentiometer for simulated analog input,
push-button switches and eight LEDs connected to
PORTB.
DS35007A-page 36
PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16CXXX
Demonstration Board
The PICDEM-3 is a simple demonstration board that
supports the PIC16C923 and PIC16C924 in the PLCC
package. It will also support future 44-pin PLCC
microcontrollers with a LCD Module. All the necessary hardware and software is included to run the
basic demonstration programs. The user can program the sample microcontrollers provided with
the PICDEM-3 board, on a PRO MATE II programmer or PICSTART Plus with an adapter socket, and
easily test firmware. The MPLAB-ICE emulator may
also be used with the PICDEM-3 board to test firmware. Additional prototype area has been provided to
the user for adding hardware and connecting it to the
microcontroller socket(s). Some of the features include
an RS-232 interface, push-button switches, a potentiometer for simulated analog input, a thermistor and
separate headers for connection to an external LCD
module and a keypad. Also provided on the PICDEM-3
board is an LCD panel, with 4 commons and 12 segments, that is capable of displaying time, temperature
and day of the week. The PICDEM-3 provides an additional RS-232 interface and Windows 3.1 software for
showing the demultiplexed LCD signals on a PC. A simple serial interface allows the user to construct a hardware demultiplexer for the LCD signals.
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
8.10
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
8.12
The MPLAB IDE Software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8-bit microcontroller market. MPLAB is a windows based application
which contains:
• A full featured editor
• Three operating modes
- editor
- emulator
- simulator
• A project manager
• Customizable tool bar and key mapping
• A status bar with project information
• Extensive on-line help
Software Simulator (MPLAB-SIM)
The MPLAB-SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC host environment. It allows the
user to simulate the PICmicro series microcontrollers
on an instruction level. On any given instruction, the
user may examine or modify any of the data areas or
provide external stimulus to any of the pins. The input/
output radix can be set by the user and the execution
can be performed in; single step, execute until break, or
in a trace mode.
MPLAB-SIM fully supports symbolic debugging using
MPLAB-C17 and MPASM. The Software Simulator
offers the low cost flexibility to develop and debug code
outside of the laboratory environment making it an
excellent multi-project software development tool.
MPLAB allows you to:
8.13
• Edit your source files (either assembly or ‘C’)
• One touch assemble (or compile) and download
to PICmicro tools (automatically updates all
project information)
• Debug using:
- source files
- absolute listing file
The MPLAB-C17 Code Development System is a
complete ANSI ‘C’ compiler and integrated development environment for Microchip’s PIC17CXXX family of
microcontrollers. The compiler provides powerful integration capabilities and ease of use not found with
other compilers.
The ability to use MPLAB with Microchip’s simulator
allows a consistent platform and the ability to easily
switch from the low cost simulator to the full featured
emulator with minimal retraining due to development
tools.
8.11
Assembler (MPASM)
The MPASM Universal Macro Assembler is a PChosted symbolic assembler. It supports all microcontroller series including the PIC12C5XX, PIC14000,
PIC16C5X, PIC16CXXX, and PIC17CXX families.
MPASM offers full featured Macro capabilities, conditional assembly, and several source and listing formats.
It generates various object code formats to support
Microchip's development tools as well as third party
programmers.
MPASM allows full symbolic debugging from MPLABICE, Microchip’s Universal Emulator System.
MPASM has the following features to assist in developing software for specific use applications.
• Provides translation of Assembler source code to
object code for all Microchip microcontrollers.
• Macro assembly capability.
• Produces all the files (Object, Listing, Symbol, and
special) required for symbolic debug with
Microchip’s emulator systems.
• Supports Hex (default), Decimal and Octal source
and listing formats.
MPLAB-C17 Compiler
For easier source level debugging, the compiler provides symbol information that is compatible with the
MPLAB IDE memory display.
8.14
Fuzzy Logic Development System
(fuzzyTECH-MP)
fuzzyTECH-MP fuzzy logic development tool is available in two versions - a low cost introductory version,
MP Explorer, for designers to gain a comprehensive
working knowledge of fuzzy logic system design; and a
full-featured version, fuzzyTECH-MP, Edition for implementing more complex systems.
Both versions include Microchip’s fuzzyLAB demonstration board for hands-on experience with fuzzy logic
systems implementation.
8.15
SEEVAL Evaluation and
Programming System
The SEEVAL SEEPROM Designer’s Kit supports all
Microchip 2-wire and 3-wire Serial EEPROMs. The kit
includes everything necessary to read, write, erase or
program special features of any Microchip SEEPROM
product including Smart Serials and secure serials.
The Total Endurance Disk is included to aid in tradeoff analysis and reliability calculations. The total kit can
significantly reduce time-to-market and result in an
optimized system.
MPASM provides a rich directive language to support
programming of the PICmicro. Directives are helpful in
making the development of your assemble source code
shorter and more maintainable.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 37
PIC16F84A
8.16
KEELOQ Evaluation and
Programming Tools
KEELOQ evaluation and programming tools support
Microchips HCS Secure Data Products. The HCS evaluation kit includes an LCD display to show changing
codes, a decoder to decode transmissions, and a programming interface to program test transmitters.
DS35007A-page 38
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Emulator Products
ü
ICEPIC Low-Cost
In-Circuit Emulator
MPLAB
Integrated
Development
Environment
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
MPLAB C17*
Compiler
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
Explorer/Edition
Fuzzy Logic
Dev. Tool
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
HCS200
HCS300
HCS301
ü
ü
PICSTARTPlus
Low-Cost
Universal Dev. Kit
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
PRO MATE II
Universal
Programmer
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
KEELOQ
Programmer
ü
PICDEM-14A
PICDEM-1
DS35007A-page 39
PICDEM-2
PICDEM-3
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
ü
KEELOQ®
Evaluation Kit
ü
KEELOQ
Transponder Kit
ü
PIC16F84A
Designers Kit
SIMICE
ü
ü
SEEVAL
Demo Boards
24CXX
25CXX
93CXX
fuzzyTECH-MP
Total Endurance
Software Model
Programmers
Preliminary
Software Tools
ü
PIC16C5X PIC16CXXX PIC16C6X PIC16C7XX PIC16C8X PIC16C9XX PIC17C4X PIC17C7XX
DEVELOPMENT TOOLS FROM MICROCHIP
PIC14000
TABLE 8-1:
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
MPLAB™-ICE
PIC12C5XX
PIC16F84A
NOTES:
DS35007A-page 40
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
9.0
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR PIC16F84A
Absolute Maximum Ratings †
Ambient temperature under bias.............................................................................................................-55°C to +125°C
Storage temperature .............................................................................................................................. -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on any pin with respect to VSS (except VDD, MCLR, and RA4).......................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS .......................................................................................................... -0.3 to +7.5V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to VSS(1) ...................................................................................................... -0.3 to +14V
Voltage on RA4 with respect to VSS .......................................................................................................... -0.3 to +8.5V
Total power dissipation(2) .....................................................................................................................................800 mW
Maximum current out of VSS pin ...........................................................................................................................150 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin ..............................................................................................................................100 mA
Input clamp current, IIK (VI < 0 or VI > VDD).....................................................................................................................± 20 mA
Output clamp current, IOK (VO < 0 or VO > VDD) .............................................................................................................± 20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin..........................................................................................................25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin ....................................................................................................20 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTA ..........................................................................................................................80 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTA .....................................................................................................................50 mA
Maximum current sunk by PORTB........................................................................................................................150 mA
Maximum current sourced by PORTB...................................................................................................................100 mA
Note 1: Voltage spikes below VSS at the MCLR pin, inducing currents greater than 80 mA, may cause latch-up. Thus,
a series resistor of 50-100Ω should be used when applying a “low” level to the MCLR pin rather than pulling
this pin directly to VSS.
Note 2: Power dissipation is calculated as follows: Pdis = VDD x {IDD - ∑ IOH} + ∑ {(VDD-VOH) x IOH} + ∑(VOl x IOL).
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above
those indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure to maximum rating conditions
for extended periods may affect device reliability.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 41
PIC16F84A
TABLE 9-1
CROSS REFERENCE OF DEVICE SPECS FOR OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATIONS
AND FREQUENCIES OF OPERATION (COMMERCIAL DEVICES)
OSC
RC
XT
HS
LP
PIC16F84A-04
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
4.0V to 5.5V
4.5 mA max. at 5.5V
14 µA max. at 4V, WDT dis
4.0 MHz max. at 4V
4.0V to 5.5V
4.5 mA max. at 5.5V
14 µA max. at 4V, WDT dis
4.0 MHz max. at 4V
4.5V to 5.5V
4.5 mA typ. at 5.5V
1.0 µA typ. at 4.5V, WDT dis
4.0 MHz max. at 4.5V
4.0V to 5.5V
48 µA typ. at 32 kHz, 2.0V
0.6 µA typ. at 3.0V, WDT dis
200 kHz max. at 4V
PIC16F84A-20
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
4.5V to 5.5V
1.8 mA typ. at 5.5V
1.0 µA typ. at 5.5V, WDT dis
4..0 MHz max. at 4V
4.5V to 5.5V
1.8 mA typ. at 5.5V
1.0 µA typ. at 5.5V, WDT dis
4.0 MHz max. at 4.5V
4.5V to 5.5V
10 mA max. at 5.5V typ.
1.0 µA typ. at 4.5V, WDT dis
20 MHz max. at 4.5V
Do not use in LP mode
PIC16LF84A-04
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
2.0V to 5.5V
4.5 mA max. at 5.5V
7.0 µA max. at 2V WDT dis
2.0 MHz max. at 2V
2.0V to 5.5V
4.5 mA max. at 5.5V
7.0 µA max. at 2V WDT dis
2.0 MHz max. at 2V
Do not use in HS mode
VDD:
IDD:
IPD:
Freq:
2.0V to 5.5V
45 µA max. at 32 kHz, 2.0V
7 µA max. at 2.0V WDT dis
200 kHz max. at 2V
The shaded sections indicate oscillator selections which are tested for functionality, but not for MIN/MAX specifications. It is recommended that the user select the device type that ensures the specifications required.
DS35007A-page 42
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
9.1
DC CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Characteristics
Power Supply Pins
Parameter
No.
Sym
Characteristic
D001
D001A
D002*
VDD
Supply Voltage
VDR
D003
VPOR
D004*
D004A*
SVDD
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDD Start Voltage to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
VDD Rise Rate to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
Supply Current
(Note 2)
IDD
D010
D010A
D013
D020
D021
D021A
IPD
Power-down Current
(Note 3)
PIC16F84A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16F84A-20 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C (commercial)
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (industrial)
Min Typ† Max Units
Conditions
4.0
4.5
1.5*
—
—
—
5.5
5.5
—
V
V
V
XT, RC and LP osc configuration
HS osc configuration
Device in SLEEP mode
—
VSS
—
V
See section on Power-on Reset for details
0.05*
TBD
—
—
—
—
—
—
1.8
3
4.5
10
—
—
—
—
10
7.0
1.0
1.0
20
28
14
16
V/ms PWRT enabled (PWRTE bit clear)
PWRT disabled (PWRTE bit set)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
RC and XT osc configuration (Note 4)
mA
FOSC = 4.0 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
mA
FOSC = 4.0 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
(During Flash programming)
HS osc configuration (PIC16F84A-20)
FOSC = 20 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
mA
µA VDD = 4.0V, WDT enabled, industrial
µA VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, commercial
µA VDD = 4.0V, WDT disabled, industrial
Module Differential
Current (Note 5)
∆IWDT Watchdog Timer
—
6.0
20*
µA WDTE bit set, VDD = 4.0V, commercial
—
—
25*
µA WDTE bit set, VDD = 4.0V, extended
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5.0V, 25˚C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered without losing RAM data.
2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1=external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD, T0CKI = VDD,
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
3: The power down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
4: For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be estimated by the formula IR = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
5: The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD measurement.
D022*
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 43
PIC16F84A
9.2
DC CHARACTERISTICS:
DC Characteristics
Power Supply Pins
Parameter
No.
Sym
D001
D002*
VDD
VDR
D003
VPOR
D004*
D004A*
SVDD
IDD
D010
D010A
Characteristic
Supply Voltage
RAM Data Retention
Voltage (Note 1)
VDD Start Voltage to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
VDD Rise Rate to
ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
Supply Current
(Note 2)
D014
D020
D021
D021A
IPD
Power-down Current
(Note 3)
PIC16LF84A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C (commercial)
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (industrial)
Min Typ† Max Units
Conditions
2.0
1.5*
—
—
5.5
—
V
V
XT, RC, and LP osc configuration
Device in SLEEP mode
—
VSS
—
V
See section on Power-on Reset for details
0.05*
TBD
—
—
—
—
—
—
1
3
4
10
—
15
45
—
—
—
3.0
0.4
0.4
16
7.0
9.0
V/ms PWRT enabled (PWRTE bit clear)
PWRT disabled (PWRTE bit set)
See section on Power-on Reset for details
RC and XT osc configuration (Note 4)
mA
FOSC = 2.0 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
mA
FOSC = 2.0 MHz, VDD = 5.5V
(During Flash programming)
LP osc configuration
FOSC = 32 kHz, VDD = 2.0V,
µA
WDT disabled
µA VDD = 2.0V, WDT enabled, industrial
µA VDD = 2.0V, WDT disabled, commercial
µA VDD = 2.0V, WDT disabled, industrial
Module Differential
Current (Note 5)
∆IWDT Watchdog Timer
—
6.0 20*
µA WDTE bit set, VDD = 4.0V, commercial
—
—
25*
µA WDTE bit set, VDD = 4.0V, industrial
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in "Typ" column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in SLEEP mode without losing RAM data.
2: The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors such as I/O pin
loading and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern, and temperature also have an
impact on the current consumption.
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are:
OSC1=external square wave, from rail to rail; all I/O pins tristated, pulled to VDD, T0CKI = VDD,
MCLR = VDD; WDT enabled/disabled as specified.
3: The power down current in SLEEP mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is
measured with the part in SLEEP mode, with all I/O pins in hi-impedance state and tied to VDD and VSS.
4: For RC osc configuration, current through Rext is not included. The current through the resistor can be
estimated by the formula IR = VDD/2Rext (mA) with Rext in kOhm.
5: The ∆ current is the additional current consumed when this peripheral is enabled. This current should be
added to the base IDD measurement.
D022*
DS35007A-page 44
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
9.3
DC CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16F84A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16F84A-20 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16LF84A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C (commercial)
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (industrial)
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec
Section 9.1 and Section 9.2.
DC Characteristics
All Pins Except
Power Supply Pins
Parameter
No.
Sym
VIL
D030
D030A
D031
D032
D033
D034
VIH
D040
D040A
D041
D042
D043
D043A
D050
VHYS
D070
IPURB
D060
IIL
D061
D063
Characteristic
Input Low Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP modes)
OSC1 (RC mode)
Input High Voltage
I/O ports
with TTL buffer
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1 (XT, HS and LP modes)
OSC1 (RC mode)
Hysteresis of
Schmitt Trigger inputs
PORTB weak pull-up current
Input Leakage Current
(Note 2,3)
I/O ports
MCLR, RA4/T0CKI
OSC1
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
VSS
VSS
VSS
Vss
Vss
Vss
—
0.8
0.16VDD
0.2VDD
0.2VDD
0.3VDD
0.1VDD
V
V
V
V
V
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V (Note 4)
entire range (Note 4)
entire range
V
V
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V (Note 4)
entire range (Note 4)
—
—
—
—
—
(Note 1)
—
2.0
0.25VDD
+0.8
0.8 VDD
0.8 VDD
0.7 VDD
0.9 VDD
—
—
VDD
VDD
—
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
—
0.1
—
V
V
V
V
50*
250*
400*
µA
VDD = 5.0V, VPIN = VSS
—
—
±1
µA
—
—
—
—
±5
±5
µA
µA
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD,
Pin at hi-impedance
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD
Vss ≤ VPIN ≤ VDD, XT, HS
and LP osc configuration
—
—
entire range
(Note 1)
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1 pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. Do not drive the PIC16F84A with an
external clock while the device is in RC mode, or chip damage may result.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as coming out of the pin.
4: The user may choose the better of the two specs.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 45
PIC16F84A
9.4
DC CHARACTERISTICS:
PIC16F84A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16F84A-20 (Commercial, Industrial)
PIC16LF84A-04 (Commercial, Industrial)
DC Characteristics
All Pins Except
Power Supply Pins
Parameter
No.
Sym
D080
D083
VOL
D090
D092
VOH
D150
VOD
D100
COSC2
D101
CIO
D120
D121
ED
VDRW
D122
TDEW
D130
D131
EP
VPR
Characteristic
Output Low Voltage
I/O ports
OSC2/CLKOUT
Output High Voltage
I/O ports (Note 3)
OSC2/CLKOUT (Note 3)
Open Drain High Voltage
RA4 pin
Capacitive Loading Specs
on Output Pins
OSC2 pin
All I/O pins and OSC2
(RC mode)
Data EEPROM Memory
Endurance
VDD for read/write
Erase/Write cycle time
Program Flash Memory
Endurance
VDD for read
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C (commercial)
-40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C (industrial)
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 9.1
and Section 9.2.
Min
Typ†
Max Units
Conditions
—
0.6
0.6
V
V
IOL = 8.5 mA, VDD = 4.5V
IOL = 1.6 mA, VDD = 4.5V,
(RC Mode Only)
VDD-0.7
VDD-0.7
—
—
—
—
V
V
IOH = -3.0 mA, VDD = 4.5V
IOH = -1.3 mA, VDD = 4.5V
(RC Mode Only)
—
—
8.5
V
—
—
15
pF
—
—
50
pF
1M*
VMIN
10M
—
—
5.5
—
4
8*
100*
VMIN
1000
—
—
5.5
—
—
—
In XT, HS and LP modes
when external clock is used to
drive OSC1.
E/W 25°C at 5V
V
VMIN = Minimum operating
voltage
ms
E/W
V
VMIN = Minimum operating
voltage
V
ms
—
D132
VPEW VDD for erase/write
4.5
5.5
D133
TPEW Erase/Write cycle time
—
4
8
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only
and are not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1 pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. Do not drive the PIC16F84A with an
external clock while the device is in RC mode, or chip damage may result.
2: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
3: Negative current is defined as coming out of the pin.
4: The user may choose the better of the two specs.
DS35007A-page 46
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
9.5
AC (Timing) Characteristics
9.5.1
TIMING PARAMETER SYMBOLOGY
The timing parameter symbols have been created following one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
2. TppS
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase symbols (pp) and their meanings:
pp
2
to
ck
CLKOUT
cy
cycle time
io
I/O port
inp
INT pin
mc
MCLR
Uppercase symbols and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (Hi-impedance)
L
Low
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
T
Time
os,osc
ost
pwrt
rbt
t0
wdt
OSC1
oscillator start-up timer
power-up timer
RBx pins
T0CKI
watchdog timer
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
High Impedance
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 47
PIC16F84A
9.5.2
TIMING CONDITIONS
The temperature and voltages specified in Table 9-2
apply to all timing specifications unless otherwise
noted. All timings are measure between high and low
measurement points as indicated in Figure 9-1.
Figure 9-2 specifies the load conditions for the timing
specifications.
TABLE 9-2
TEMPERATURE AND VOLTAGE SPECIFICATIONS - AC
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C for commercial
-40˚C ≤ TA ≤ +85˚C for industrial
Operating voltage VDD range as described in DC spec Section 9.1 and Section 9.2
AC CHARACTERISTICS
FIGURE 9-1:
PARAMETER MEASUREMENT INFORMATION
0.7 VDD XTAL
0.8 VDD RC (High)
0.9 VDD (High)
0.3 VDD XTAL
0.15 VDD RC (Low)
OSC1 Measurement Points
FIGURE 9-2:
0.1 VDD (Low)
I/O Port Measurement Points
LOAD CONDITIONS
Load Condition 1
Load Condition 2
VDD/2
RL
VSS
CL
Pin
CL
Pin
VSS
RL =
464Ω
CL =
50 pF
for all pins except OSC2.
15 pF
for OSC2 output.
DS35007A-page 48
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
9.5.3
TIMING DIAGRAMS AND SPECIFICATIONS
FIGURE 9-3:
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q3
Q2
Q4
Q1
OSC1
1
3
3
4
4
2
CLKOUT
TABLE 9-3
Parameter
No.
EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
FOSC
1
Tosc
Characteristic
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
External CLKIN Frequency(1)
DC
DC
DC
DC
—
—
—
—
2
4
20
200
MHz
MHz
MHz
kHz
XT, RC osc
XT, RC osc
HS osc
LP osc
(-04, LF)
(-04)
(-20)
(-04, LF)
Oscillator Frequency(1)
DC
DC
0.1
0.1
1.0
DC
—
—
—
—
—
—
2
4
2
4
20
200
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
kHz
RC osc
RC osc
XT osc
XT osc
HS osc
LP osc
(-04, LF)
(-04)
(-04, LF)
(-04)
(-20)
(-04, LF)
External CLKIN Period(1)
500
250
100
5.0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
ns
µs
XT, RC osc
XT, RC osc
HS osc
LP osc
(-04, LF)
(-04)
(-20)
(-04, LF)
Oscillator Period(1)
500
250
500
250
100
5.0
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
10,000
10,000
1,000
—
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
µs
RC osc
RC osc
XT osc
XT osc
HS osc
LP osc
(-04, LF)
(-04)
(-04, LF)
(-04)
(-20)
(-04, LF)
0.4
60 *
50 *
2.0 *
35 *
25 *
50 *
15 *
4/Fosc
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DC
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
µs
ns
ns
µs
ns
ns
ns
ns
XT osc
XT osc
LP osc
HS osc
XT osc
LP osc
HS osc
(-04, LF)
(-04)
(-04, LF)
(-20)
(-04)
(-04, LF)
(-20)
2
3
TCY
TosL,
TosH
Instruction Cycle Time(1)
Clock in (OSC1) High or Low
Time
4
TosR,
TosF
Clock in (OSC1) Rise or Fall Time
Conditions
*
†
These parameters are characterized but no tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time-base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code.
Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at "min." values with an external clock applied to the OSC1 pin.
When an external clock input is used, the "Max." cycle time limit is "DC" (no clock) for all devices.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 49
PIC16F84A
FIGURE 9-4:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Q1
Q4
Q2
Q3
OSC1
11
10
22
23
CLKOUT
13
12
19
18
14
16
I/O Pin
(input)
15
17
I/O Pin
(output)
new value
old value
20, 21
Note: All tests must be done with specified capacitive loads (Figure 9-2) 50 pF on I/O pins and CLKOUT.
TABLE 9-4
Parameter
No.
10
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Sym
TosH2ckL
Characteristic
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↓
10A
11
TosH2ckH
OSC1↑ to CLKOUT↑
11A
12
TckR
CLKOUT rise time
12A
13
TckF
CLKOUT fall time
13A
Min
Typ†
Max
Units
Conditions
Standard
—
15
30 *
ns
Note 1
Extended (LF)
—
15
120 *
ns
Note 1
Standard
—
15
30 *
ns
Note 1
Extended (LF)
—
15
120 *
ns
Note 1
Standard
—
15
30 *
ns
Note 1
Extended (LF)
—
15
100 *
ns
Note 1
Standard
—
15
30 *
ns
Note 1
Extended (LF)
—
15
100 *
ns
Note 1
14
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT ↓ to Port out valid
—
—
0.5TCY +20 *
ns
Note 1
15
TioV2ckH
Port in valid before
Standard
0.30TCY + 30 *
—
—
ns
Note 1
CLKOUT ↑
Extended (LF)
0.30TCY + 80 *
—
—
ns
Note 1
16
TckH2ioI
Port in hold after CLKOUT ↑
0*
—
—
ns
Note 1
17
TosH2ioV
OSC1↑ (Q1 cycle) to
Standard
—
—
125 *
ns
Port out valid
Extended (LF)
—
—
250 *
ns
OSC1↑ (Q2 cycle) to
Port input invalid
(I/O in hold time)
Standard
10 *
—
—
ns
Extended (LF)
10 *
—
—
ns
Port input valid to
OSC1↑
(I/O in setup time)
Standard
-75 *
—
—
ns
Extended (LF)
-175 *
—
—
ns
18
19
20
TosH2ioI
TioV2osH
TioR
Port output rise time
20A
21
TioF
Port output fall time
21A
22
Tinp
22A
23
Trbp
23A
Standard
—
10
35 *
ns
Extended (LF)
—
10
70 *
ns
Standard
—
10
35 *
ns
Extended (LF)
—
10
70 *
ns
INT pin high
Standard
20 *
—
—
ns
or low time
Extended (LF)
55 *
—
—
ns
RB7:RB4 change INT
Standard
TOSC §
—
—
ns
high or low time
Extended (LF)
TOSC §
—
—
ns
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
§ By design
Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC Mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
DS35007A-page 50
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
FIGURE 9-5:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
33
PWRT
Time-out
32
OSC
Time-out
Internal
RESET
Watchdog
Timer
RESET
31
34
34
I/O Pins
TABLE 9-5
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER REQUIREMENTS
Parameter
No.
Sym
30
31
*
†
Characteristic
Min
TmcL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2*
—
—
µs
Twdt
Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
(No Prescaler)
7*
18
33 *
ms
32
Tost
Oscillation Start-up Timer Period
33
Tpwrt
34
TIOZ
Power-up Timer Period
I/O Hi-impedance from MCLR
Low or reset
Typ†
Max
1024TOSC
Units
Conditions
VDD = 5.0V, extended
VDD = 5.0V, extended
ms
TOSC = OSC1 period
28 *
72
132 *
ms
VDD = 5.0V, extended
—
—
100 *
ns
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 51
PIC16F84A
FIGURE 9-6:
TIMER0 CLOCK TIMINGS
RA4/T0CKI
40
41
42
TABLE 9-6
Parameter
No.
40
TIMER0 CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Sym
Characteristic
Min
Tt0H T0CKI High Pulse Width No Prescaler
With Prescaler
41
Tt0L T0CKI Low Pulse Width No Prescaler
With Prescaler
42
*
†
Tt0P T0CKI Period
Typ† Max Units
Conditions
0.5TCY + 20 *
—
—
ns
50 *
30 *
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
0.5TCY + 20 *
—
—
ns
50 *
20 *
—
—
—
—
ns
ns
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 3.0V
3.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 6.0V
TCY + 40 *
N
—
—
ns
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
2.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 3.0V
3.0V ≤ VDD ≤ 6.0V
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in "Typ" column is at 5.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
DS35007A-page 52
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
10.0
DC & AC CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS/TABLES
No data available at this time.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 53
PIC16F84A
NOTES:
DS35007A-page 54
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
11.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
11.1
Package Marking Information
Example
18L PDIP
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
18L SOIC
AABBCDE
20L SSOP
PIC16F84A-04
/SO
9848SAN
Example
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
AABBCDE
Legend: MM...M
XX...X
AA
BB
C
D
E
*
9832SAW
Example
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX
Note:
PIC16F84A-04I/P
PIC16F84A20/SS
9822CAN
Microchip part number information
Customer specific information*
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Facility code of the plant at which wafer is manufactured
O = Outside Vendor
C = 5” Line
S = 6” Line
H = 8” Line
Mask revision number
Assembly code of the plant or country of origin in which
part was assembled
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line thus limiting the number of available characters
for customer specific information.
Standard OTP marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code, facility code, mask
rev#, and assembly code. For OTP marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check with
your Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP price.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 55
PIC16F84A
11.2
K04-007 18-Lead Plastic Dual In-line (P) – 300 mil
E
D
2
n
α
1
E1
A1
A
R
L
c
A2
B1
β
p
B
eB
Units
Dimension Limits
PCB Row Spacing
Number of Pins
Pitch
Lower Lead Width
Upper Lead Width
Shoulder Radius
Lead Thickness
Top to Seating Plane
Top of Lead to Seating Plane
Base to Seating Plane
Tip to Seating Plane
Package Length
Molded Package Width
Radius to Radius Width
Overall Row Spacing
Mold Draft Angle Top
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
INCHES*
NOM
0.300
18
0.100
0.013
0.018
0.055
0.060
0.000
0.005
0.005
0.010
0.110
0.155
0.075
0.095
0.000
0.020
0.125
0.130
0.890
0.895
0.245
0.255
0.230
0.250
0.310
0.349
5
10
5
10
MIN
n
p
B
B1†
R
c
A
A1
A2
L
D‡
E‡
E1
eB
α
β
MAX
0.023
0.065
0.010
0.015
0.155
0.115
0.020
0.135
0.900
0.265
0.270
0.387
15
15
MILLIMETERS
NOM
MAX
7.62
18
2.54
0.33
0.46
0.58
1.40
1.52
1.65
0.00
0.13
0.25
0.13
0.25
0.38
2.79
3.94
3.94
1.91
2.41
2.92
0.00
0.51
0.51
3.18
3.30
3.43
22.61
22.73
22.86
6.22
6.48
6.73
5.84
6.35
6.86
7.87
8.85
9.83
5
10
15
5
10
15
MIN
* Controlling Parameter.
†
Dimension “B1” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003”
(0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B1.”
‡
Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not
exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.”
DS35007A-page 56
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
11.3
K04-051 18-Lead Plastic Small Outline (SO) – Wide, 300 mil
E1
p
E
D
2
B
1
n
X
45 °
α
L
R2
c
A
R1
β
Units
Dimension Limits
Pitch
Number of Pins
Overall Pack. Height
Shoulder Height
Standoff
Molded Package Length
Molded Package Width
Outside Dimension
Chamfer Distance
Shoulder Radius
Gull Wing Radius
Foot Length
Foot Angle
Radius Centerline
Lead Thickness
Lower Lead Width
Mold Draft Angle Top
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
L1
φ
A2
INCHES*
NOM
0.050
18
0.093
0.099
0.048
0.058
0.004
0.008
0.450
0.456
0.292
0.296
0.394
0.407
0.010
0.020
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.016
0.011
0
4
0.015
0.010
0.011
0.009
0.017
0.014
0
12
0
12
MIN
p
n
A
A1
A2
D‡
E‡
E1
X
R1
R2
L
φ
L1
c
B†
α
β
A1
MAX
0.104
0.068
0.011
0.462
0.299
0.419
0.029
0.010
0.010
0.021
8
0.020
0.012
0.019
15
15
MILLIMETERS
NOM
MAX
1.27
18
2.64
2.36
2.50
1.73
1.22
1.47
0.28
0.10
0.19
11.73
11.43
11.58
7.59
7.42
7.51
10.64
10.01
10.33
0.74
0.25
0.50
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.53
0.28
0.41
4
8
0
0.51
0.25
0.38
0.30
0.23
0.27
0.48
0.36
0.42
0
12
15
0
12
15
MIN
*
Controlling Parameter.
†
Dimension “B” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003”
(0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B.”
‡
Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not
exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.”
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 57
PIC16F84A
11.4
K04-072 20-Lead Plastic Shrink Small Outine (SS) – 5.30 mm
E1
E
p
D
B
2
1
n
α
L
R2
c
A
A1
R1
φ
L1
A2
β
Units
Dimension Limits
Pitch
Number of Pins
Overall Pack. Height
Shoulder Height
Standoff
Molded Package Length
Molded Package Width
Outside Dimension
Shoulder Radius
Gull Wing Radius
Foot Length
Foot Angle
Radius Centerline
Lead Thickness
Lower Lead Width
Mold Draft Angle Top
Mold Draft Angle Bottom
INCHES
NOM
0.026
20
0.073
0.068
0.026
0.036
0.002
0.005
0.278
0.283
0.205
0.208
0.301
0.306
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.005
0.015
0.020
0
4
0.000
0.005
0.005
0.007
0.010
0.012
0
5
0
5
MIN
p
n
A
A1
A2
D‡
E‡
E1
R1
R2
L
φ
L1
c
B†
α
β
MAX
0.078
0.046
0.008
0.289
0.212
0.311
0.010
0.010
0.025
8
0.010
0.009
0.015
10
10
MILLIMETERS*
NOM
MAX
0.65
20
1.73
1.86
1.99
0.66
0.91
1.17
0.05
0.13
0.21
7.07
7.20
7.33
5.20
5.29
5.38
7.65
7.78
7.90
0.13
0.13
0.25
0.13
0.13
0.25
0.38
0.51
0.64
0
4
8
0.00
0.13
0.25
0.13
0.18
0.22
0.25
0.32
0.38
0
5
10
0
5
10
MIN
*
Controlling Parameter.
†
Dimension “B” does not include dam-bar protrusions. Dam-bar protrusions shall not exceed 0.003”
(0.076 mm) per side or 0.006” (0.152 mm) more than dimension “B.”
‡
Dimensions “D” and “E” do not include mold flash or protrusions. Mold flash or protrusions shall not
exceed 0.010” (0.254 mm) per side or 0.020” (0.508 mm) more than dimensions “D” or “E.”
DS35007A-page 58
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
APPENDIX A: REVISION HISTORY
Version
Date
Revision Description
A
9/14/98
This is a new data sheet. However, the devices described in this data sheet are
the upgrades to the devices found in the PIC16F8X Data Sheet, DS30430C.
APPENDIX B: CONVERSION CONSIDERATIONS
Considerations for converting from one PIC16X8X
device to another are listed in Table B-1.
TABLE B-1:
CONVERSION CONSIDERATIONS - PIC16C84, PIC16F83/F84, PIC16CR83/CR84,
PIC16F84A
Difference
PIC16C84
PIC16F83/F84
PIC16CR83/
CR84
PIC16F84A
Program Memory
size
1k x 14
512 x 14 / 1k x 14
512 x 14 / 1k x 14
1k x 14
Data Memory size
36 x 8
36 x 8 / 68 x 8
36 x 8 / 68 x 8
68 x 8
Voltage Range
2.0V - 6.0V
(-40°C to +85°C)
2.0V - 6.0V
(-40°C to +85°C)
2.0V - 6.0V
(-40°C to +85°C)
2.0V - 5.5V
(-40°C to +125°C)
Maximum Operating Frequency
10MHz
10MHz
10MHz
20MHz
Supply Current
(IDD). See parameter # D014 in the
electrical spec’s for
more detail.
IDD (typ) = 60µA
IDD (max) = 400µA
(LP osc, FOSC =
32kHz, VDD = 2.0V,
WDT disabled)
IDD (typ) = 15µA
IDD (max) = 45µA
(LP osc, FOSC =
32kHz, VDD = 2.0V,
WDT disabled)
IDD (typ) = 15µA
IDD (max) = 45µA
(LP osc, FOSC =
32kHz, VDD = 2.0V,
WDT disabled)
IDD (typ) = 15µA
IDD (max) = 45µA
(LP osc, FOSC =
32kHz, VDD = 2.0V,
WDT disabled)
Power-down Current
(IPD). See parameters # D020, D021,
and D021A in the
electrical spec’s for
more detail.
IPD (typ) = 26µA
IPD (max) = 100µA
(VDD = 2.0V, WDT
disabled, industrial)
IPD (typ) = 0.4µA
IPD (max) = 9µA
(VDD = 2.0V, WDT
disabled, industrial)
IPD (typ) = 0.4µA
IPD (max) = 6µA
(VDD = 2.0V, WDT
disabled, industrial)
IPD (typ) = 0.4µA
IPD (max) = 9µA
(VDD = 2.0V, WDT
disabled, industrial)
Input Low Voltage
(VIL). See parameters # D032 and
D034 in the electrical spec’s for more
detail.
VIL (max) = 0.2VDD
(Osc1, RC mode)
VIL (max) = 0.1VDD
(Osc1, RC mode)
VIL (max) = 0.1VDD
(Osc1, RC mode)
VIL (max) = 0.1VDD
(Osc1, RC mode)
Input High Voltage
(VIH). See parameter # D040 in the
electrical spec’s for
more detail.
VIH (min) = 0.36VDD
(I/O Ports with TTL,
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V)
VIH (min) = 2.4V
(I/O Ports with TTL,
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V)
VIH (min) = 2.4V
(I/O Ports with TTL,
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V)
VIH (min) = 2.4V
(I/O Ports with TTL,
4.5V ≤ VDD ≤ 5.5V)
Data EEPROM
Memory
Erase/Write cycle
time (TDEW). See
parameter # D122 in
the electrical spec’s
for more detail.
TDEW (typ) = 10ms
TDEW (max) = 20ms
TDEW (typ) = 10ms
TDEW (max) = 20ms
TDEW (typ) = 10ms
TDEW (max) = 20ms
TDEW (typ) = 4ms
TDEW (max) = 10ms
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 59
PIC16F84A
TABLE B-1:
CONVERSION CONSIDERATIONS - PIC16C84, PIC16F83/F84, PIC16CR83/CR84,
PIC16F84A
Difference
PIC16C84
PIC16F83/F84
PIC16CR83/
CR84
PIC16F84A
Port Output
Rise/Fall time
(TioR, TioF). See
parameters #20,
20A, 21, and 21A in
the electrical spec’s
for more detail.
TioR, TioF (max) =
25ns (C84)
TioR, TioF (max) =
60ns (LC84)
TioR, TioF (max) =
35ns (C84)
TioR, TioF (max) =
70ns (LC84)
TioR, TioF (max) =
35ns (C84)
TioR, TioF (max) =
70ns (LC84)
TioR, TioF (max) =
35ns (C84)
TioR, TioF (max) =
70ns (LC84)
MCLR on-chip filter. See parameter
#30 in the electrical
spec’s for more
detail.
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
PORTA and crystal
oscillator values
less than 500kHz
For crystal oscillator configurations
operating below
500kHz, the device
may generate a spurious internal
Q-clock when
PORTA<0> switches
state.
N/A
N/A
N/A
RB0/INT pin
TTL
TTL/ST*
(* Schmitt Trigger)
TTL/ST*
(* Schmitt Trigger)
TTL/ST*
(* Schmitt Trigger)
EEADR<7:6> and
IDD
It is recommended
that the
EEADR<7:6> bits
be cleared. When
either of these bits is
set, the maximum
IDD for the device is
higher than when
both are cleared.
N/A
N/A
N/A
The polarity of the
PWRTE bit
PWRTE
PWRTE
PWRTE
PWRTE
Recommended
value of REXT for RC
oscillator circuits
REXT = 3kΩ - 100kΩ
REXT = 5kΩ - 100kΩ
REXT = 5kΩ - 100kΩ
REXT = 3kΩ - 100kΩ
GIE bit unintentional enable
If an interrupt occurs
while the Global
Interrupt Enable
(GIE) bit is being
cleared, the GIE bit
may unintentionally
be re-enabled by the
user’s Interrupt Service Routine (the
RETFIE instruction).
N/A
N/A
N/A
Packages
PDIP, SOIC
PDIP, SOIC
PDIP, SOIC
PDIP, SOIC, SSOP
DS35007A-page 60
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
NOTES:
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 61
PIC16F84A
APPENDIX C: MIGRATION FROM
BASELINE TO
MIDRANGE DEVICES
To convert code written for PIC16C5X to PIC16F84A,
the user should take the following steps:
This section discusses how to migrate from a baseline
device (i.e., PIC16C5X) to a midrange device (i.e.,
PIC16CXXX).
2.
The following is the list of feature improvements over
the PIC16C5X microcontroller family:
3.
1.
4.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Instruction word length is increased to 14 bits.
This allows larger page sizes both in program
memory (2K now as opposed to 512 before) and
the register file (128 bytes now versus 32 bytes
before).
A PC latch register (PCLATH) is added to handle
program memory paging. PA2, PA1 and PA0 bits
are removed from the status register and placed
in the option register.
Data memory paging is redefined slightly. The
STATUS register is modified.
Four new instructions have been added:
RETURN, RETFIE, ADDLW, and SUBLW. Two
instructions, TRIS and OPTION, are being
phased out although they are kept for
compatibility with PIC16C5X.
OPTION and TRIS registers are made
addressable.
Interrupt capability is added. Interrupt vector is
at 0004h.
Stack size is increased to 8 deep.
Reset vector is changed to 0000h.
Reset of all registers is revisited. Five different
reset (and wake-up) types are recognized.
Registers are reset differently.
Wake up from SLEEP through interrupt is
added.
Two separate timers, the Oscillator Start-up
Timer (OST) and Power-up Timer (PWRT), are
included for more reliable power-up. These
timers are invoked selectively to avoid
unnecessary delays on power-up and wake-up.
PORTB has weak pull-ups and interrupt on
change features.
T0CKI pin is also a port pin (RA4/T0CKI).
FSR is a full 8-bit register.
"In system programming" is made possible. The
user can program PIC16CXX devices using only
five pins: VDD, VSS, VPP, RB6 (clock) and RB7
(data in/out).
DS35007A-page 62
1.
5.
Preliminary
Remove any program memory page select
operations (PA2, PA1, PA0 bits) for CALL, GOTO.
Revisit any computed jump operations (write to
PC or add to PC, etc.) to make sure page bits
are set properly under the new scheme.
Eliminate any data memory page switching.
Redefine data variables for reallocation.
Verify all writes to STATUS, OPTION, and FSR
registers since these have changed.
Change reset vector to 0000h.
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
INDEX
A
Absolute Maximum Ratings ............................................... 41
AC (Timing) Characteristics ............................................... 47
Architecture, Block Diagram ................................................ 3
Assembler
MPASM Assembler .................................................... 37
B
Banking, Data Memory .................................................... 6, 8
C
CLKIN Pin ............................................................................ 4
CLKOUT Pin ........................................................................ 4
Code Protection ........................................................... 21, 32
Configuration Bits ............................................................... 21
Conversion Considerations ................................................ 59
D
Data EEPROM Memory ..................................................... 19
EEADR Register .................................................... 7, 24
EECON1 Register ............................................ 7, 19, 24
EECON2 Register ............................................ 7, 19, 24
EEDATA Register .................................................. 7, 24
Write Complete Enable (EEIE Bit) ....................... 10, 29
Write Complete Flag (EEIF Bit) ............................ 19, 29
Data EEPROM Write Complete ......................................... 29
Data Memory ....................................................................... 6
Bank Select (RP0 Bit) .............................................. 6, 8
Banking ........................................................................ 6
DC & AC Characteristics Graphs/Tables ........................... 53
DC Characteristics ........................................... 43, 44, 45, 46
Development Support ........................................................ 35
Development Tools ............................................................ 35
E
EECON1 Register .............................................................. 19
EEIF Bit ................................................................ 19, 29
RD Bit ......................................................................... 19
WR Bit ........................................................................ 19
WREN Bit ................................................................... 19
WRERR Bit ................................................................ 19
Electrical Characteristics .................................................... 41
Endurance ............................................................................ 1
Errata ................................................................................... 2
External Power-on Reset Circuit ........................................ 25
F
Firmware Instructions ......................................................... 33
ftp site ................................................................................ 65
Fuzzy Logic Dev. System (fuzzyTECH-MP) ................... 37
I
I/O Ports ............................................................................. 13
ICEPIC Low-Cost PIC16CXXX In-Circuit Emulator ........... 35
ID Locations ................................................................. 21, 32
In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) .......................... 21, 32
Indirect Addressing ............................................................ 11
FSR Register ............................................... 6, 7, 11, 24
INDF Register ........................................................ 7, 24
Instruction Format .............................................................. 33
Instruction Set .................................................................... 33
Summary Table .......................................................... 34
INT Interrupt (RB0/INT) ...................................................... 29
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
INTCON Register ........................................ 7, 10, 18, 24, 28
EEIE Bit ............................................................... 10, 29
GIE Bit ........................................................... 10, 28, 29
INTE Bit ............................................................... 10, 29
INTF Bit ............................................................... 10, 29
RBIE Bit ............................................................... 10, 29
RBIF Bit ......................................................... 10, 15, 29
T0IE Bit ................................................................ 10, 29
T0IF Bit .......................................................... 10, 18, 29
Interrupt Sources ......................................................... 21, 28
Block Diagram ........................................................... 28
Data EEPROM Write Complete ........................... 28, 31
Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4) ................ 4, 15, 28, 31
RB0/INT Pin, External ............................... 4, 16, 28, 31
TMR0 Overflow .................................................... 18, 28
Interrupts, Context Saving During ..................................... 29
Interrupts, Enable Bits
Data EEPROM Write Complete Enable
(EEIE Bit) ............................................................. 10, 29
Global Interrupt Enable (GIE Bit) ............................... 10
Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4) Enable
(RBIE Bit) ................................................................... 10
RB0/INT Enable (INTE Bit) ........................................ 10
TMR0 Overflow Enable (T0IE Bit) ............................. 10
Interrupts, Flag Bits ........................................................... 28
Data EEPROM Write Complete Flag
(EEIF Bit) ............................................................. 19, 29
Interrupt on Change (RB7:RB4) Flag (RBIF Bit) ....... 10
RB0/INT Flag (INTF Bit) ............................................ 10
TMR0 Overflow Flag (T0IF Bit) .................................. 10
K
KeeLoq Evaluation and Programming Tools .................. 38
M
Master Clear (MCLR)
MCLR Pin .....................................................................4
MCLR Reset, Normal Operation ................................ 23
MCLR Reset, SLEEP .......................................... 23, 31
Memory Organization ...........................................................5
Data EEPROM Memory ............................................ 19
Data Memory ................................................................6
Program Memory ..........................................................5
Migration from Baseline to Midrange Devices ................... 62
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment
Software ............................................................................ 37
O
On-Line Support ................................................................ 65
OPCODE Field Descriptions ............................................. 33
OPTION_REG Register ................................. 7, 9, 16, 18, 24
INTEDG Bit ............................................................ 9, 29
PS2:PS0 Bits ......................................................... 9, 17
PSA Bit .................................................................. 9, 17
RBPU Bit ......................................................................9
T0CS Bit .......................................................................9
T0SE Bit .......................................................................9
OSC1 Pin ..............................................................................4
OSC2 Pin ..............................................................................4
Oscillator Configuration ............................................... 21, 22
HS ........................................................................ 22, 28
LP ........................................................................ 22, 28
RC ................................................................. 22, 23, 28
Selection (FOSC1:FOSC0 Bits) ................................ 21
XT ........................................................................ 22, 28
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 63
PIC16F84A
P
S
Packaging .......................................................................... 55
PICDEM-1 Low-Cost PICmicro Demo Board ..................... 36
PICDEM-2 Low-Cost PIC16CXX Demo Board .................. 36
PICDEM-3 Low-Cost PIC16CXXX Demo Board ................ 36
PICSTART Plus Entry Level Development System ........ 35
Pinout Descriptions .............................................................. 4
Pointer, FSR ....................................................................... 11
PORTA ........................................................................... 4, 13
Initializing ................................................................... 13
PORTA Register ........................................ 7, 13, 14, 24
RA3:RA0 Block Diagram ............................................ 13
RA4 Block Diagram .................................................... 14
RA4/T0CKI Pin ................................................. 4, 13, 17
TRISA Register .................................... 7, 13, 14, 18, 24
PORTB ........................................................................... 4, 15
Initializing ................................................................... 15
PORTB Register ........................................ 7, 15, 16, 24
Pull-up Enable (RBPU Bit) ........................................... 9
RB0/INT Edge Select (INTEDG Bit) ............................. 9
RB0/INT Pin, External ...................................... 4, 16, 29
RB3:RB0 Block Diagram ............................................ 15
RB7:RB4 Block Diagram ............................................ 15
RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change ......................... 4, 15, 29
RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change Enable (RBIE Bit) ...... 10
RB7:RB4 Interrupt on Change Flag (RBIF Bit) .... 10, 15
TRISB Register .......................................... 7, 15, 16, 24
Power-on Reset (POR) .......................................... 21, 23, 25
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ........................... 21, 25
PD Bit ............................................. 8, 23, 28, 31, 32, 34
Power-up Timer (PWRT) ..................................... 21, 25
PWRT Enable (PWRTE Bit) ....................................... 21
Time-out Sequence .................................................... 28
Time-out Sequence on Power-up ........................ 26, 27
TO Bit ....................................... 8, 23, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34
Prescaler ............................................................................ 17
Assignment (PSA Bit) ............................................ 9, 17
Block Diagram ............................................................ 18
Rate Select (PS2:PS0 Bits) ................................... 9, 17
Switching Prescaler Assignment ................................ 18
PRO MATE II Universal Programmer .............................. 35
Product Identification System ............................................. 67
Program Counter ................................................................ 11
PCL Register .................................................... 7, 11, 24
PCLATH Register ............................................ 7, 11, 24
Reset Conditions ........................................................ 24
Program Memory ................................................................. 5
General Purpose Registers .......................................... 6
Interrupt Vector ...................................................... 5, 29
Reset Vector ................................................................ 5
Special Function Registers ...................................... 6, 7
Programming, Device Instructions ..................................... 33
Saving W Register and STATUS in RAM .......................... 29
SEEVAL Evaluation and Programming System .............. 37
SLEEP ............................................................. 21, 23, 29, 31
Software Simulator (MPLAB-SIM) ..................................... 37
Special Features of the CPU ............................................. 21
Special Function Registers .............................................. 6, 7
Speed, Operating ..................................................... 1, 22, 49
Stack .................................................................................. 11
STATUS Register ................................................ 7, 8, 24, 29
C Bit ....................................................................... 8, 34
DC Bit .................................................................... 8, 34
PD Bit ............................................ 8, 23, 28, 31, 32, 34
Reset Conditions ....................................................... 24
RP0 Bit .................................................................... 6, 8
TO Bit ...................................... 8, 23, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34
Z Bit ....................................................................... 8, 34
T
Time-out (TO) Bit. See Power-on Reset (POR)
Timer0 ................................................................................ 17
Block Diagram ........................................................... 17
Clock Source Edge Select (T0SE Bit) ......................... 9
Clock Source Select (T0CS Bit) .................................. 9
Overflow Enable (T0IE Bit) .................................. 10, 29
Overflow Flag (T0IF Bit) ................................ 10, 18, 29
Overflow Interrupt ................................................ 18, 29
RA4/T0CKI Pin, External Clock ................................. 17
TMR0 Register ................................................ 7, 18, 24
Timing Diagrams
Diagrams and Specifications ..................................... 49
Time-out Sequence on Power-up ........................ 26, 27
W
W Register ................................................................... 24, 29
Wake-up from SLEEP ................................ 21, 25, 28, 29, 31
Interrupts ............................................................. 31, 32
MCLR Reset .............................................................. 31
WDT Reset ................................................................ 31
Watchdog Timer (WDT) ............................................... 21, 30
Block Diagram ........................................................... 30
Enable (WDTE Bit) .................................................... 21
Programming Considerations .................................... 30
RC Oscillator ............................................................. 30
Time-out Period ......................................................... 30
WDT Reset, Normal Operation .................................. 23
WDT Reset, SLEEP ............................................ 23, 31
WWW, On-Line Support ................................................ 2, 65
R
RAM. See Data Memory
Reader Response .............................................................. 66
Register File ......................................................................... 6
Reset ............................................................................ 21, 23
Block Diagram ............................................................ 23
Reset Conditions for All Registers ............................. 24
Reset Conditions for Program Counter ...................... 24
Reset Conditions for STATUS Register ..................... 24
WDT Reset. See Watchdog Timer (WDT)
Revision History ................................................................. 59
DS35007A-page 64
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
ON-LINE SUPPORT
Systems Information and Upgrade Hot Line
Microchip provides on-line support on the Microchip
World Wide Web (WWW) site.
The web site is used by Microchip as a means to make
files and information easily available to customers. To
view the site, the user must have access to the Internet
and a web browser, such as Netscape or Microsoft
Explorer. Files are also available for FTP download
from our FTP site.
The Systems Information and Upgrade Line provides
system users a listing of the latest versions of all of
Microchip's development systems software products.
Plus, this line provides information on how customers
can receive any currently available upgrade kits.The
Hot Line Numbers are:
1-800-755-2345 for U.S. and most of Canada, and
1-602-786-7302 for the rest of the world.
Connecting to the Microchip Internet Web Site
980106
The Microchip web site is available by using your
favorite Internet browser to attach to:
www.microchip.com
The file transfer site is available by using an FTP service to connect to:
ftp://ftp.futureone.com/pub/microchip
The web site and file transfer site provide a variety of
services. Users may download files for the latest
Development Tools, Data Sheets, Application Notes,
User's Guides, Articles and Sample Programs. A variety of Microchip specific business information is also
available, including listings of Microchip sales offices,
distributors and factory representatives. Other data
available for consideration is:
• Latest Microchip Press Releases
• Technical Support Section with Frequently Asked
Questions
• Design Tips
• Device Errata
• Job Postings
• Microchip Consultant Program Member Listing
• Links to other useful web sites related to
Microchip Products
• Conferences for products, Development Systems, technical information and more
• Listing of seminars and events
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Trademarks: The Microchip name, logo, PIC, PICSTART,
PICMASTER and PRO MATE are registered trademarks of
Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other
countries. PICmicro, FlexROM, MPLAB and fuzzyLAB are
trademarks and SQTP is a service mark of Microchip in
the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of
their respective companies.
Preliminary
DS35007A-page 65
PIC16F84A
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our documentation
can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at (602) 786-7578.
Please list the following information, and use this outline to provide us with your comments about this Data Sheet.
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Application (optional):
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Literature Number: DS35007A
Questions:
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2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this data sheet easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the data sheet do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the data sheet could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
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DS35007A-page66
Preliminary
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F84A
PIC16F84A PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
Device
X
-XX
Frequency Temperature
Range
Range
/XX
XXX
Package
Pattern
Device
PIC16F84A(1), PIC16F84AT(2)
PIC16LF84A(1), PIC16LF84AT(2)
Frequency
Range
04
20
= 4 MHz
= 20 MHz
Temperature
Range
blank
I
= 0°C to
= -40°C to
Package
P
SO
SS
= PDIP
= SOIC (Gull Wing, 300 mil body)
= SSOP
Pattern
a)
b)
c)
+70°C
+85°C
(Commercial)
(Industrial)
3-digit Pattern Code for QTP, ROM (blank otherwise)
 1998 Microchip Technology Inc.
Examples:
Preliminary
PIC16F84A -04/P 301 = Commercial
temp., PDIP package, 4 MHz, normal
VDD limits, QTP pattern #301.
PIC16LF84A - 04I/SO = Industrial temp.,
SOIC package, 200 kHz, Extended VDD
limits.
PIC16F84A - 20I/P = Industrial temp.,
PDIP package, 20MHz, normal VDD limits.
Note 1:
2:
F
LF
T
= Standard VDD range
= Extended VDD range
= in tape and reel - SOIC, SSOP
packages only.
DS35007A-page 67
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
AMERICAS
AMERICAS (continued)
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ASIA/PACIFIC
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ASIA/PACIFIC (continued)
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11/15/99
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Chandler and Tempe, Arizona in July 1999. The
Company’s quality system processes and
procedures are QS-9000 compliant for its
PICmicro® 8-bit MCUs, KEELOQ® code hopping
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system for the design and manufacture of
development systems is ISO 9001 certified.
All rights reserved. © 1999 Microchip Technology Incorporated. Printed in the USA. 11/99
Printed on recycled paper.
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 1999 Microchip Technology Inc.