Freescale Semiconductor Technical Data Document Number: MC13201 Rev. 1.3, 04/2008 MC13201 Package Information Plastic Package Case 1311-03 QFN -32 MC13201 2.4 GHz Low Power Transceiver for the IEEE® 802.15.4 Standard 1 Introduction The MC13201 is a short range, low power, 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band transceivers. The MC13201 contains a complete packet data modem which is compliant with the IEEE® 802.15.4 Standard PHY (Physical) layer. This allows the development of proprietary point-to-point and star networks based on the 802.15.4 packet structure and modulation format. For full 802.15.4 Standard compliance, the MC13202 and Freescale's 802.15.4 MAC software are required. Ordering Information Device Device Marking Package MC13201FC 13201 QFN-32 MC13201FCR2 (Tape and Reel) 13201 QFN-32 Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Block Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Data Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Electrical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Functional Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Pin Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Crystal Oscillator Reference Frequency . . 18 Packaging Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 When combined with an appropriate microcontroller (MCU), the MC13201 provides a cost-effective solution for short-range data links and networks. Interface with the MCU is accomplished using a four wire serial peripheral interface (SPI) connection and an interrupt request output which allows for the use of a variety of processors. The software and processor can be scaled to fit applications ranging from simple point-to-point systems to star networks. Freescale reserves the right to change the detail specifications as may be required to permit improvements in the design of its products. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. All rights reserved. For more detailed information about MC13201 operation, refer to the MC13201 Reference Manual, (MC13201RM). Applications include, but are not limited to, the following: • Residential and commercial automation — Lighting control — Security — Access control — Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning (HVAC) — Automated meter reading (AMR) • Industrial Control — Asset tracking and monitoring — Homeland security — Process management — Environmental monitoring and control — HVAC — Automated meter reading • Health Care — Patient monitoring — Fitness monitoring • Consumer — Human interface devices (keyboard, mice, etc.) — Remote control — Wireless toys The transceiver includes a low noise amplifier, 1.0 mW power amplifiers (PA), onboard RF transmit/receive (T/R) switch for single port use, PLL with internal voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), on-board power supply regulation, and full spread-spectrum encoding and decoding. The device supports 250 kbps Offset-Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (O-QPSK) data in 2.0 MHz channels with 5.0 MHz channel spacing per the 802.15.4 Standard. The SPI port and interrupt request output are used for receive (RX) and transmit (TX) data transfer and control. 2 Features • • • • • Recommended power supply range: 2.0 to 3.4 V Fully compliant 802.15.4 Standard transceiver supports 250 kbps O-QPSK data in 5.0 MHz channels and full spread-spectrum encode and decode Operates on one of 16 selectable channels in the 2.4 GHz band -1 to 0 dBm nominal output power, programmable from -27 dBm to +3 dBm typical Receive sensitivity of <-91 dBm (typical) at 1% PER, 20-byte packet, much better than the 802.15.4 Standard of -85 dBm MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 2 Freescale Semiconductor • • • • • • • • • • 2.1 Integrated transmit/receive switch Dual PA output pairs which can be programmed for full differential single port or dual port operation that supports an external LNA and/or PA Three power down modes for increased battery life — < 1 µA Off current — 1.0 µA Typical Hibernate current — 35 µA Typical Doze current (no CLKO) Programmable frequency clock output (CLKO) for use by MCU Onboard trim capability for 16 MHz crystal reference oscillator eliminates need for external variable capacitors and allows for automated production frequency calibration Four internal timer comparators available to supplement MCU timer resources Buffered transmit and receive data packets for simplified use with low cost MCUs Seven GPIO to supplement MCU GPIO Operating temperature range: -40 °C to 85 °C Small form factor QFN-32 Package — Meets moisture sensitivity level (MSL) 3 — 260 °C peak reflow temperature — Meets lead-free requirements Software Support Freescale provides a software suite to complement the MC13201 hardware which is called the Freescale Simple MAC (SMAC): • Simple proprietary wireless connectivity. • Small memory footprint (about 3 Kbytes typical) • Supports point-to-point and star network configurations • Proprietary networks • Source code and application examples provided MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 3 3 Block Diagrams Figure 1 shows a simplified block diagram of the MC13201 which is an 802.15.4 Standard compatible transceiver that provides the functions required in the physical layer (PHY) specification. CCA DC D Symbol Synch & Det 1s t IF M ix er IF = 65 M Hz A nalog R egulator Dec im ation B as eband M atc hed F ilter M ix er F ilter Correlator LN A 2nd IF M ix er IF = 1 M Hz P M A P ow er-U p C ontrol Logic P ac k et P roc es s or V DDA VBAT T Digital R egulator L V DDIN T Digital R egulator H V DDD C ry s tal R egulator R F IN _P (P A O _P ) R F IN _M (P A O _M ) VC O R egulator R ec eiv e R A M A rbiter R ec eiv e Pac k et R A M T/R AGC VD D L O 2 P rogram m able P res c aler ÷4 256 M Hz 24 B it E v ent T im er SERIAL PERIPHERAL INTERFACE (SPI) 4 P rogram m able T im er C om parators X T A L1 X T A L2 C rys ta l O s cilla to r 16 M Hz R XT XEN S equenc e M anager (C ontrol Logic ) C T_ B ia s T rans m it Pac k et R A M 1 2.45 G Hz V CO P A O _P P A O _M PA T rans m it R A M A rbiter IR Q A rbiter S y m bol G eneration P has e S hift M odulator IR Q C LK O MUX V DDLO 1 CE M OSI M IS O S P IC LK AT T N R ST G P IO 1 G P IO 2 G P IO 3 G P IO 4 G P IO 5 G P IO 6 G P IO 7 T rans m it Pac k et R A M 2 S y nthesizer V DDV C O FCS G eneration Header G eneration Figure 1. 802.15.4 modem Simplified Block Diagram Figure 2 shows the basic system block diagram for the MC13201 in an application. Interface with the transceiver is accomplished through a 4-wire SPI port and interrupt request line. The media access control (MAC), drivers, and network and application software (as required) reside on the host processor. The host can vary from a simple 8-bit device up to a sophisticated 32-bit processor depending on application requirements. MC13201 Control Logic SPI and GPIO ROM (Flash) SPI Timer RAM Arbiter RAM IRQ Arbiter Frequency Generation Digital Transceiver Analog Receiver Timer Microcontroller CPU A/D Application Analog Transmitter Network Voltage Regulators Power Up Management Buffer RAM MAC PHY Driver Figure 2. System Level Block Diagram MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 4 Freescale Semiconductor 4 Data Transfer Mode The MC13201 has a data transfer mode called Packet Mode where data is buffered in on-chip Packet RAMs. There is a TX Packet RAM and an RX Packet RAM, each of which are 64 locations by 16 bits wide. 4.1 Packet Structure Figure 3 shows the packet structure of the MC13201 which is consistent with the 802.15.4 Standard. Payloads of up to 125 bytes are supported. The MC13201 adds a four-byte preamble, a one-byte Start of Frame Delimiter (SFD), and a one-byte Frame Length Indicator (FLI) before the data. A Frame Check Sequence (FCS) is calculated and appended to the end of the data. 4 bytes 1 byte 1 byte 125 bytes maximum 2 bytes Preamble SFD FLI Payload Data FCS Figure 3. MC13201 Packet Structure 4.2 Receive Path Description In the receive signal path, the RF input is converted to low IF In-phase and Quadrature (I & Q) signals through two down-conversion stages. A Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) can be performed based upon the baseband energy integrated over a specific time interval. The digital backend performs Differential Chip Detection (DCD), the correlator “de-spreads” the Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Offset QPSK (O-QPSK) signal, determines the symbols and packets, and detects the data. The preamble, SFD, and FLI are parsed and used to detect the payload data and FCS which are stored in RAM. A two-byte FCS is calculated on the received data and compared to the FCS value appended to the transmitted data, which generates a Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) result. Link Quality is measured over a 64 µs period after the packet preamble and stored in RAM. The MC13201 uses a packet mode where the data is processed as an entire packet and stored in Rx Packet RAM. The MCU is notified that an entire packet has been received via an interrupt. Figure 4 shows CCA reported power level versus input power. Note that CCA reported power saturates at about -57 dBm input power which is well above 802.15.4 Standard requirements. Figure 5 shows energy detection/LQI reported level versus input power. NOTE For both graphs, the required 802.15.4 Standard accuracy and range limits are shown. A 3.5 dBm offset has been programmed into the CCA reporting level to center the level over temperature in the graphs. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 5 -50 -60 -70 802.15.4 Accuracy and range Requirements -80 -90 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 Input Power (dBm) Figure 4. Reported Power Level versus Input Power in CCA Mode -15 Reported Power Level (dBm) -25 -35 -45 -55 -65 802.15.4 Accuracy and Range Requirements -75 -85 -85 -75 -65 -55 -45 -35 -25 -15 Input Power Level (dBm) Figure 5. Reported Power Level Versus Input Power for Energy Detect or Link Quality Indicator 4.3 Transmit Path Description For the transmit path, the TX data that was previously stored in TX Packet RAM is retrieved, formed into packets per the 802.15.4 PHY, spread, and then up-converted to the transmit frequency. Because the MC13201 is used in packet mode, data is processed as an entire packet. The data is first loaded into the TX buffer. The MCU then requests that the MC13201 transmit the data. The MCU is notified via an interrupt when the whole packet has successfully been transmitted. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 6 Freescale Semiconductor 5 Electrical Characteristics 5.1 Maximum Ratings Table 1. Maximum Ratings Rating Symbol Value Unit VBATT, VDDINT -0.3 to 3.6 Vdc Vin -0.3 to (VDDINT + 0.3) Pmax 10 dBm Junction Temperature TJ 125 °C Storage Temperature Range Tstg -55 to 125 °C Power Supply Voltage Digital Input Voltage RF Input Power Note: Maximum Ratings are those values beyond which damage to the device may occur. Functional operation should be restricted to the limits in the Electrical Characteristics or Recommended Operating Conditions tables. Note: Meets Human Body Model (HBM) = 2 kV. RF input/output pins have no ESD protection. 5.2 Recommended Operating Conditions Table 2. Recommended Operating Conditions Characteristic Symbol Min Typ Max Unit VBATT, VDDINT 2.0 2.7 3.4 Vdc Input Frequency fin 2.405 - 2.480 GHz Ambient Temperature Range TA -40 25 85 °C Logic Input Voltage Low VIL 0 - 30% VDDINT V Logic Input Voltage High VIH 70% VDDINT - VDDINT V SPI Clock Rate fSPI - - 8.0 MHz RF Input Power Pmax - - 10 dBm Power Supply Voltage (VBATT = VDDINT)1 Crystal Reference Oscillator Frequency (±40 ppm over operating conditions to meet the 802.15.4 Standard.) 1 fref 16 MHz Only If the supply voltage is produced by a switching DC-DC converter, ripple should be less than 100 mV peak-to-peak. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 7 5.3 DC Electrical Characteristics Table 3. DC Electrical Characteristics (VBATT, VDDINT = 2.7 V, TA = 25 °C, unless otherwise noted) Characteristic Symbol Min Typ Max Unit Ileakage ICCH ICCD ICCI ICCT ICCR - 0.2 1.0 35 500 30 37 2.5 22 154 1500 38 45 µA µA µA µA mA mA Input Current (VIN = 0 V or VDDINT) (All digital inputs) IIN - - ±1 µA Input Low Voltage (All digital inputs) VIL 0 - 30% VDDINT V Input High Voltage (all digital inputs) VIH 70% VDDINT - VDDINT V Output High Voltage (IOH = -1 mA) (All digital outputs) VOH 80% VDDINT - VDDINT V Output Low Voltage (IOL = 1 mA) (All digital outputs) VOL 0 - 20% VDDINT V Power Supply Current (VBATT + VDDINT) Off1 Hibernate1 Doze (No CLKO)1 2 Idle Transmit Mode (0 dBm nominal output power) Receive Mode 1 To attain specified low power current, all GPIO and other digital IO must be handled properly. See Section 8.3, “Low Power Considerations. 2 CLKO frequency at default value of 32.786 kHz. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 8 Freescale Semiconductor 5.4 AC Electrical Characteristics Table 4. Receiver AC Electrical Characteristics (VBATT, VDDINT = 2.7 V, TA = 25 °C, fref = 16 MHz, unless otherwise noted.) Characteristic Symbol Min Typ Max Unit SENSper - -91 - dBm - -91 -82 dBm - 10 - dBm Channel Rejection for 1% PER (desired signal -82 dBm) +5 MHz (adjacent channel) -5 MHz (adjacent channel) +10 MHz (alternate channel) -10 MHz (alternate channel) >= 15 MHz - 31 30 43 41 53 - dB dB dB dB dB Frequency Error Tolerance - - 200 kHz Symbol Rate Error Tolerance - - 80 ppm Sensitivity for 1% Packet Error Rate (PER) (-40 to +85 °C) Sensitivity for 1% Packet Error Rate (PER) (+25 °C) Saturation (maximum input level) SENSmax Table 5. Transmitter AC Electrical Characteristics (VBATT, VDDINT = 2.7 V, TA = 25 °C, fref = 16 MHz, unless otherwise noted.) Characteristic Min Typ Max Unit Power Spectral Density (-40 to +85 °C) Absolute limit - -47 - dBm Power Spectral Density (-40 to +85 °C) Relative limit - 47 - -5 -1 - Nominal Output Power 1 Symbol Pout Maximum Output Power2 Error Vector Magnitude 4 dBm - 20 45 % Output Power Control Range - 30 - dB Over the Air Data Rate - 250 - kbps 2nd Harmonic - TBD - dBc 3rd Harmonic - TBD - dBc 1 2 EVM dBm SPI Register 12 programmed to 0x00BC which sets output power to nominal (-1 dBm typical). SPI Register 12 programmed to 0x00FF which sets output power to maximum. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 9 Table 6. Digital Timing Specifications (VBATT, VDDINT = 2.7 V, TA = 25 °C, frequency = 16 MHz, unless otherwise noted. SPI timing parameters are referenced to Figure 8. Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Unit T0 SPICLK period 125 nS T1 Pulse width, SPICLK low 50 nS T2 Pulse width, SPICLK high 50 nS T3 Delay time, MISO data valid from falling SPICLK 15 nS T4 Setup time, CE low to rising SPICLK 15 nS T5 Delay time, MISO valid from CE low 15 nS T6 Setup time, MOSI valid to rising SPICLK 15 nS T7 Hold time, MOSI valid from rising SPICLK 15 nS RST minimum pulse width low (asserted) 250 nS Figure 6 shows a typical AC parameter evaluation circuit. U5 L1 PAO_M PAO_P RFIN_P RFIN_M CT_Bias 6 5 2 1 3 L2 6.8nH L4 MC1320x R1 0R Z1 1.8nH 3 1 2 5 4 6 LDB212G4005C-001 L3 3.9nH C1 1.0pF R2 0R Not Mounted ANT1 F_Antenna 1.8nH 2 3 4 5 1 C2 10pF J1 SMA_edge_Receptac Figure 6. RF Parametric Evaluation Circuit 6 Functional Description The following sections provide a detailed description of the MC13201 functionality, including operating modes, and the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). 6.1 MC13201 Operational Modes The MC13201 has a number of operational modes that allow for low-current operation. Transition from the Off to Idle mode occurs when RST is negated. Once in Idle, the SPI is active and is used to control the IC. Transition to Hibernate and Doze modes is enabled via the SPI. These modes are summarized, along with the transition times, in Table 7. Current drain in the various modes is listed in Table 3, DC Electrical Characteristics. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 10 Freescale Semiconductor Table 7. MC13201 Mode Definitions and Transition Times Mode Off Hibernate Doze Idle Transition Time To or From Idle Definition All IC functions Off, Leakage only. RST asserted. Digital outputs are tri-stated including IRQ 10 - 25 ms to Idle Crystal Reference Oscillator Off. (SPI not functional.) IC Responds to ATTN. Data is 7 - 20 ms to Idle retained. Crystal Reference Oscillator On but CLKO output available only if Register 7, Bit 9 = (300 + 1/CLKO) µs to Idle 1 for frequencies of 1 MHz or less. (SPI not functional.) Responds to ATTN and can be programmed to enter Idle Mode through an internal timer comparator. Crystal Reference Oscillator On with CLKO output available. SPI active. Receive Crystal Reference Oscillator On. Receiver On. 144 µs from Idle Transmit Crystal Reference Oscillator On. Transmitter On. 144 µs from Idle 6.2 Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) The host microcontroller directs the MC13201, checks its status, and reads/writes data to the device through the 4-wire SPI port. The transceiver operates as a SPI slave device only. A transaction between the host and the MC13201 occurs as multiple 8-bit bursts on the SPI. The SPI signals are: 1. Chip Enable (CE) - A transaction on the SPI port is framed by the active low CE input signal. A transaction is a minimum of 3 SPI bursts and can extend to a greater number of bursts. 2. SPI Clock (SPICLK) - The host drives the SPICLK input to the MC13201. Data is clocked into the master or slave on the leading (rising) edge of the return-to-zero SPICLK and data out changes state on the trailing (falling) edge of SPICLK. NOTE For Freescale microcontrollers, the SPI clock format is the clock phase control bit CPHA = 0 and the clock polarity control bit CPOL = 0. 3. Master Out/Slave In (MOSI) - Incoming data from the host is presented on the MOSI input. 4. Master In/Slave Out (MISO) - The MC13201 presents data to the master on the MISO output. A typical interconnection to a microcontroller is shown in Figure 7. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 11 MCU MC13201 Shift Register Baud Rate Generator RxD MISO TxD MOSI Sclk SPICLK Chip Enable (CE) Shift Register CE Figure 7. SPI Interface Although the SPI port is fully static, internal memory, timer and interrupt arbiters require an internal clock (CLKcore), derived from the crystal reference oscillator, to communicate from the SPI registers to internal registers and memory. 6.2.1 SPI Burst Operation The SPI port of an MCU transfers data in bursts of 8 bits with most significant bit (MSB) first. The master (MCU) can send a byte to the slave (transceiver) on the MOSI line and the slave can send a byte to the master on the MISO line. Although an MC13201 transaction is three or more SPI bursts long, the timing of a single SPI burst is shown in Figure 8. SPI Burst CE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SPICLK T4 Valid T6 T5 T2 T1 T3 T0 T7 MISO MOSI Valid Valid Figure 8. SPI Single Burst Timing Diagram SPI digital timing specifications are shown in Table 6. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 12 Freescale Semiconductor 6.2.2 SPI Transaction Operation Although the SPI port of an MCU transfers data in bursts of 8 bits, the MC13201 requires that a complete SPI transaction be framed by CE, and there will be three (3) or more bursts per transaction. The assertion of CE to low signals the start of a transaction. The first SPI burst is a write of an 8-bit header to the transceiver (MOSI is valid) that defines a 6-bit address of the internal resource being accessed and identifies the access as being a read or write operation. In this context, a write is data written to the MC13201 and a read is data written to the SPI master. The following SPI bursts will be either the write data (MOSI is valid) to the transceiver or read data from the transceiver (MISO is valid). Although the SPI bus is capable of sending data simultaneously between master and slave, the MC13201 never uses this mode. The number of data bytes (payload) will be a minimum of 2 bytes and can extend to a larger number depending on the type of access. The number of payload bytes sent will always be an even integer. After the final SPI burst, CE is negated to high to signal the end of the transaction. Refer to the MC13201 Reference Manual, (MC13201RM) for more details on SPI registers and transaction types. An example SPI read transaction with a 2-byte payload is shown in Figure 9. CE Clock Burst SPICLK MISO MOSI Valid Valid Valid Header Read data Figure 9. SPI Read Transaction Diagram MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 13 7 Pin Connections Table 8. Pin Function Description Pin # Pin Name Type Description Functionality 1 RFIN_M RF Input RF input/output negative. When used with internal T/R switch, this is a bi-directional RF port for the internal LNA and PA 2 RFIN_P RF Input RF input/output positive. When used with internal T/R switch, this is a bi-directional RF port for the internal LNA and PA 3 CT_Bias Control voltage Bias voltage/control signal for external When used with internal T/R switch, RF components provides RX ground reference and TX VDDA reference for use with external balun. Can also be used as a control signal for external LNA, PA, or T/R switch. 4 NC 5 PAO_P RF Output /DC Input RF Power Amplifier Output Positive. 6 PAO_M RF Output/DC Input RF Power Amplifier Output Negative. Open drain. Connect to VDDA through a bias network when used with an external balun. Not used when internal T/R switch is used. 7 SM Input 8 GPIO41 Digital Input/ Output General Purpose Input/Output 4. See Footnote 1. 9 GPIO31 Digital Input/ Output General Purpose Input/Output 3. See Footnote 1. 10 GPIO21 Digital Input/ Output General Purpose Input/Output 2. See Footnote 1. When gpio_alt_en, Register 9, Bit 7 = 1, GPIO2 functions as a “CRC Valid” indicator. 11 GPIO11 Digital Input/ Output General Purpose Input/Output 1. See Footnote 1. When gpio_alt_en, Register 9, Bit 7 = 1, GPIO1 functions as an “Out of Idle” indicator. 12 RST Digital Input Tie to Ground. Test mode pin. Open drain. Connect to VDDA through a bias network when used with an external balun. Not used when internal T/R switch is used. Must be grounded for normal operation. Active Low Reset. While held low, the IC is in Off Mode and all internal information is lost from RAM and SPI registers. When high, IC goes to IDLE Mode, with SPI in default state. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 14 Freescale Semiconductor Table 8. Pin Function Description (continued) Pin # Pin Name Type Description Functionality 13 RXTXEN2 Digital Input Active High. Low to high transition initiates RX or TX sequence depending on SPI setting. Should be taken high after SPI programming to start RX or TX sequence and should be held high through the sequence. After sequence is complete, return RXTXEN to low. When held low, forces Idle Mode. 14 ATTN2 Digital Input Active Low Attention. Transitions IC See Footnote 2 from either Hibernate or Doze Modes to Idle. 15 CLKO Digital Output Clock output to host MCU. Programmable frequencies of: 16 MHz, 8 MHz, 4 MHz, 2 MHz, 1 MHz, 62.5 kHz, 32.786+ kHz (default), and 16.393+ kHz. 16 SPICLK2 Digital Clock Input External clock input for the SPI interface. See Footnote 2 17 MOSI2 Digital Input Master Out/Slave In. Dedicated SPI data input. See Footnote 2 18 MISO3 Digital Output Master In/Slave Out. Dedicated SPI data output. See Footnote 3 19 CE2 Digital Input Active Low Chip Enable. Enables SPI See Footnote 2 transfers. 20 IRQ Digital Output Active Low Interrupt Request. Open drain device. Programmable 40 kΩ internal pull-up. Interrupt can be serviced every 6 µs with <20 pF load. Optional external pull-up must be >4 kΩ. 21 VDDD Power Output Digital regulated supply bypass. Decouple to ground. 22 VDDINT Power Input Digital interface supply & digital regulator input. Connect to Battery. 2.0 to 3.4 V. Decouple to ground. 23 GPIO51 Digital Input/Output General Purpose Input/Output 5. See Footnote 1 24 GPIO61 Digital Input/Output General Purpose Input/Output 6. See Footnote 1 25 GPIO71 Digital Input/Output General Purpose Input/Output 7. See Footnote 1 26 XTAL1 Input Crystal Reference oscillator input. Connect to 16 MHz crystal and load capacitor. See Footnote 2 MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 15 Table 8. Pin Function Description (continued) Pin # Pin Name Type Description Functionality 27 XTAL2 Input/Output Crystal Reference oscillator output Note: Do not load this pin by using it as a 16 MHz source. Measure 16 MHz output at Pin 15, CLKO, programmed for 16 MHz. See the MC13201 Reference Manual for details. Connect to 16 MHz crystal and load capacitor. 28 VDDLO2 Power Input LO2 VDD supply. Connect to VDDA externally. 29 VDDLO1 Power Input LO1 VDD supply. Connect to VDDA externally. 30 VDDVCO Power Output VCO regulated supply bypass. Decouple to ground. 31 VBATT Power Input Analog voltage regulators Input. Connect to Battery. Decouple to ground. 32 VDDA Power Output Analog regulated supply Output. Connect to directly VDDLO1 and VDDLO2 externally and to PAO± through a bias network. Note: Do not use this pin to supply circuitry external to the chip. Decouple to ground. EP Ground External paddle / flag ground. Connect to ground. 1 The transceiver GPIO pins default to inputs at reset. There are no programmable pullups on these pins. Unused GPIO pins should be tied to ground if left as inputs, or if left unconnected, they should be programmed as outputs set to the low state. 2 During low power modes, input must remain driven by MCU. 3 By default MISO is tri-stated when CE is negated. For low power operation, miso_hiz_en (Bit 11, Register 07) should be set to zero so that MISO is driven low when CE is negated. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 16 Freescale Semiconductor GPIO7 XTAL1 XTAL2 VDDLO2 VDDLO1 VDDVCO VBATT GPIO6 VDDD EP PAO_P IRQ MC13201 PAO_M CE SM MISO GPIO4 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 SPICLK 8 25 NC CLKO 7 26 VDDINT ATTN 6 27 CT_Bias RXTXEN 5 28 RST 4 29 GPIO5 GPIO1 3 30 RFIN_P GPIO2 2 RFIN_M GPIO3 1 31 VDDA 32 MOSI 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 Figure 10. Pin Connections (Top View) MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 17 8 Crystal Oscillator Reference Frequency This section provides application specific information regarding crystal oscillator reference design and recommended crystal usage. 8.1 Crystal Oscillator Design Considerations The 802.15.4 Standard requires that several frequency tolerances be kept within ± 40 ppm accuracy. This means that a total offset up to 80 ppm between transmitter and receiver will still result in acceptable performance. The MC13201 transceiver provides onboard crystal trim capacitors to assist in meeting this performance. The primary determining factor in meeting this specification is the tolerance of the crystal oscillator reference frequency. A number of factors can contribute to this tolerance and a crystal specification will quantify each of them: 1. The initial (or make) tolerance of the crystal resonant frequency itself. 2. The variation of the crystal resonant frequency with temperature. 3. The variation of the crystal resonant frequency with time, also commonly known as aging. 4. The variation of the crystal resonant frequency with load capacitance, also commonly known as pulling. This is affected by: a) The external load capacitor values - initial tolerance and variation with temperature. b) The internal trim capacitor values - initial tolerance and variation with temperature. c) Stray capacitance on the crystal pin nodes - including stray on-chip capacitance, stray package capacitance and stray board capacitance; and its initial tolerance and variation with temperature. 5. Whether or not a frequency trim step will be performed in production Freescale requires the use of a 16 MHz crystal with a <9 pF load capacitance. The MC13201 does not contain a reference divider, so 16 MHz is the only frequency that can be used. A crystal requiring higher load capacitance is prohibited because a higher load on the amplifier circuit may compromise its performance. The crystal manufacturer defines the load capacitance as that total external capacitance seen across the two terminals of the crystal. The oscillator amplifier configuration used in the MC13201 requires two balanced load capacitors from each terminal of the crystal to ground. As such, the capacitors are seen to be in series by the crystal, so each must be <18 pF for proper loading. In the Figure 11 crystal reference schematic, the external load capacitors are shown as 6.8 pF each, used in conjunction with a crystal that requires an 8 pF load capacitance. The default internal trim capacitor value (2.4 pF) and stray capacitance total value (6.8 pF) sum up to 9.2 pF giving a total of 16 pF. The value for the stray capacitance was determined empirically assuming the default internal trim capacitor value and for a specific board layout. A different board layout may require a different external load capacitor value. The on-chip trim capability may be used to determine the closest standard value by adjusting the trim value via the SPI and observing the frequency at CLKO. Each internal trim load capacitor has a trim range of approximately 5 pF in 20 fF steps. Initial tolerance for the internal trim capacitance is approximately ±15%. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 18 Freescale Semiconductor Since the MC13201 contains an on-chip reference frequency trim capability, it is possible to trim out virtually all of the initial tolerance factors and put the frequency within 0.12 ppm on a board-by-board basis. Individual trimming of each board in a production environment allows use of the lowest cost crystal, but requires that each board go through a trimming procedure. This step can be avoided by using/specifying a crystal with a tighter stability tolerance, but the crystal will be slightly higher in cost. A tolerance analysis budget may be created using all the previously stated factors. It is an engineering judgment whether the worst case tolerance will assume that all factors will vary in the same direction or if the various factors can be statistically rationalized using RSS (Root-Sum-Square) analysis. The aging factor is usually specified in ppm/year and the product designer can determine how many years are to be assumed for the product lifetime. Taking all of the factors into account, the product designer can determine the needed specifications for the crystal and external load capacitors to meet the 802.15.4 Standard. U6 XTAL1 26 Y1 16MHz XTAL2 C10 6.8pF 27 MC1320x C11 6.8pF Y1 = Daishinku KDS - DSX321G ZD00882 Figure 11. MC13201 Modem Crystal Circuit 8.2 Crystal Requirements The suggested crystal specification for the MC13201 is shown in Table 10. A number of the stated parameters are related to desired package, desired temperature range and use of crystal capacitive load trimming. For more design details and suggested crystals, see application note AN3251, Reference Oscillator Crystal Requirements for MC1319x, MC1320x, and MC1321x. Table 9. MC13201 Crystal Specifications1 Parameter Value Unit 16.000000 MHz Frequency tolerance (cut tolerance)2 ± 10 ppm at 25 °C Frequency stability (temperature drift)3 ± 15 ppm Over desired temperature range Aging4 ±2 ppm max Equivalent series resistance5 43 Ω max Load capacitance6 5-9 pF Shunt capacitance <2 pF Frequency Mode of oscillation 1 2 Condition max fundamental User must be sure manufacturer specifications apply to the desired package. A wider frequency tolerance may acceptable if application uses trimming at production final test. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 19 3 A wider frequency stability may be acceptable if application uses trimming at production final test. A wider aging tolerance may be acceptable if application uses trimming at production final test. 5 Higher ESR may be acceptable with lower load capacitance. 6 Lower load capacitance can allow higher ESR and is better for low temperature operation in Doze mode. 4 8.3 • Low Power Considerations Program and use the modem IO pins properly for low power operation — All unused modem GPIOx signals must be used one of 2 ways: – If the Off mode is to be used as a long term low power mode, unused GPIO should be tied to ground. The default GPIO mode is an input and there will be no conflict. – If only Hibernate and/or Doze modes are used as long term low power modes, the GPIO should programmed as outputs in the low state. — When modem GPIO are used as outputs: – Pullup resistors should be provided (can be provided by the MCU IO pin if tied to the MCU) if the modem Off condition is to be used as a long term low power mode. – During Hibernate and/or Doze modes, the GPIO will retain its programmed output state. — If the modem GPIO is used as an input, the GPIO should be driven by its source during all low power modes or a pullup resistor should be provided. — Digital outputs IRQ, MISO, and CLKO: – MISO - is always an output. During Hibernate, Doze, and active modes, the default condition is for the MISO output to go to tristate when CE is de-asserted, and this can cause a problem with the MCU because one of its inputs can float. Program Control_B Register 07, Bit 11, miso_hiz_en = 0 so that MISO is driven low when CE is de-asserted. As a result, MISO will not float when Doze or Hibernate Mode is enabled. – IRQ - is an open drain output (OD) and should always have a pullup resistor (typically provided by the MCU IO). IRQ acts as the interrupt request output. NOTE It is good practice to have the IRQ interrupt input to the MCU disabled during the hardware reset to the modem. After releasing the modem hardware reset, the interrupt request input to the MCU can then be enabled to await the IRQ that signifies the modem is ready and in Idle mode; this can prevent a possible extraneous false interrupt request. • – CLKO - is always an output. During Hibernate CLKO retains its output state, but does not toggle. During Doze, CLKO may toggle depending on whether it is being used. If the MCU is also going to be used in low power modes, be sure that all unused IO are programmed properly for low power operation (typically best case is as outputs in the low state). The MC13201 is commonly used with the Freescale MC9S08GT/GB 8-bit devices. For these MCUs: — Use only STOP2 and STOP3 modes (not STOP1) with these devices where the GPIO states are retained. The MCU must retain control of the MC13201 IO during low power operation. — As stated above all unused GPIO should be programmed as outputs low for lowest power and no floating inputs. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 20 Freescale Semiconductor — MC9S08GT devices have IO signals that are not pinned-out on the package. These signals must also be initialized (even though they cannot be used) to prevent floating inputs. 8.4 Transceiver RF Configurations and External Connections The MC13201 radio has features that allow for a flexible as well as low cost RF interface: • • • • • • 8.5 Programmable output power — 0 dBm nominal output power, programmable from -27 dBm to +4 dBm typical <-91 dBm (typical) receive sensitivity — At 1% PER, 20-byte packet (well above 802.15.4 Standard of -85 dBm) Optional integrated transmit/receive (T/R) switch for low cost operation — With internal PAs and LNA, the internal T/R switch allows a minimal part count radio interface using only a single balun to interface to a single-ended antenna Maximum flexibility — There are full differential RF I/O pins for use with the internal T/R switch. Optionally, these pins become the RF_IN signals and a separate set of full differential PA outputs are also provided. Separate inputs and outputs allow for a variety of RF configurations including external LNA and PA for increased range CT_Bias Output — The CT_Bias signal provides a switched bias reference for use with the internal T/R switch, and alternatively can be programmed as an antenna switch signal for use with an external antenna switch Onboard trim capability for 16 MHz crystal reference oscillator — The 802.15.4 Standard puts a +/- 40 ppm requirement on the carrier frequency. The onboard trim capability of the modem crystal oscillator eliminates need for external variable capacitors and allows for automated production frequency calibration. Also tighter tolerance can produce greater receive sensitivity RF Interface Pins Figure 12 shows the RF interface pins and the associated analog blocks. Notice that separate PA blocks are associated with RFIN_x and PAO_x signal pairs. The RF interface allows both single port differential operation and dual port differential operation. 2 RFIN_P (PAO_P) 1 RFIN_M (PAO_M) RX SW ITCH LNA RX SIGNAL RX ENABLE PA2 3 PA2 ENABLE CT_Bias CT_Bias Generator CT_Bias CONTROL 5 PAO_P 6 PAO_M PA1 FROM TX PSM PA1 ENABLE Figure 12. RF Interface Pins MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 21 8.5.1 Single Port Operation The integrated RF switch allows users to operate in a single port configuration. In Single Port Mode, an internal RX switch and separate PA are used and pins RFIN_P (PAO_P) and RFIN_M (PAO_M) become bidirectional and connect both for TX and RX. When receiving, the RX switch is enabled to the internal LNA and the TX PA is disabled. When transmitting, the RX switch is disabled (isolating the LNA) and a TX PA is enabled. The optional CT_Bias pin provides a reference or bias voltage which is at VDDA for transmit and is at ground for receive. This signal can be used to provide the proper bias voltage to a balun that converts a single-ended antenna to the differential interface required by the transceiver. RFIN_P (PAO_P) Balun RFIN_M (PAO_M) CT_Bia s MC13201 Bypass PAO_P PAO_M Figure 13. Single Port RF Operation with a Balun Figure 13 shows a single port example with a balun. The CT_Bias is connected to the balun center-tap providing the proper DC bias voltage to the balun depending on RX or TX. 8.5.2 Dual Port Operation A second set of pins designated PAO_P and PAO_N allow operation in a dual port configuration. There are separate paths for transmit and receive with the optional CT_Bias pin providing a signal that indicates if the radio is in TX or RX Mode which then can be used to drive an external low noise amplifier, power amplifier, or antenna switch. In dual port operation, the RFIN_P and RFIN_N are inputs only, the internal RX switch to the LNA is enabled to receive, and the associated TX PA stays disabled. Pins PAO_P and PAO_N become the differential output pins and the associated TX PA is enabled for transmit. Figure 14 shows two dual port configurations. First is a single antenna configuration with an external low noise amplifier (LNA) for greater range. An external antenna switch is used to multiplex the antenna between receive and transmit. An LNA is in the receive path to add gain for greater receive sensitivity. Two external baluns are required to convert the single-ended antenna switch signals to the differential signals required by the radio. Separate RFIN and PAO signals are provided for connection with the baluns, and the CT_bias signal is programmed to provide the external switch control. The polarity of the external switch control is selectable. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 22 Freescale Semiconductor Figure 14 also shows a dual antenna configuration where there is a RX antenna and a TX antenna. For the receive side, the RX antenna is ac-coupled to the differential RFIN inputs and these capacitors along with inductor L1 form a matching network. Inductors L2 and L3 are ac-coupled to ground to form a frequency trap. For the transmit side, the TX antenna is connected to the differential PAO outputs, and inductors L4 and L5 provide DC-biasing to VDDA but are ac-isolated. CT_Bias is not required or used. VDD Ant Sw RFIN_P (PAO_P) LNA Balun RFIN_M (PAO_M) Bypass MC13201 VDDA CT_Bia s PAO_P Balun PAO_M Bypass RX Antenna Using External Antenna Switch with LNA L2 L3 L1 RFIN_P (PAO_P) RFIN_M (PAO_M) TX Antenna MC13201 VDDA Bypass L4 Bypass L5 CT_Bias PAO_P PAO_M Using Dual Antenna Figure 14. Dual Port RF Configuration Examples MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 23 8.6 Controlling RF Modes of Operation Use of the RF interface pins and RF modes of operation are controlled through several bits of modem Control_B Register 07. Figure 15 shows the model for Register 07 with the RF interface control bits highlighted. 0 0 0 1 1 7 6 5 r/w 0 8 0 4 3 2 1 0 doze_en miso_hiz_en 0 9 hib_en RF_switch_mode r/w r/w r/w r/w r/w 10 use_strm_mode 11 rx_done_mask 12 tx_done_mask 13 0x07 clko_doze_en 14 ct_bias_inv TYPE 15 ct_bias_en BIT tmr_load Register 07 r/w r/w r/w r/w r/w 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 RESET 0x0C00 Figure 15. Control_B Register 07 Model The RF interface control bits include: • RF_switch_mode (Bit 12) - This bit selects Dual Port Mode versus Single Port Mode: — The default condition (Bit 12 = 0) is Dual Port Mode where the RF inputs are RFIN_M and RFIN_P and the RF outputs are PAO_M and PAO_P, and operation is as described in Section 8.5.2, “Dual Port Operation. The use of CT_Bias pin in Dual Port Mode is controlled by Bit 13 and Bit 12. — When Bit = 1, the Single Port Mode is selected where RFIN_M (PAO_M) and RFIN_P (PAO_P) become bidirectional pins and operation is as described in Section 8.5.1, “Single Port Operation. The use of CT_Bias pin in Dual Port Mode in controlled by Bit 13 and Bit 12. • Ct_bias_en (Bit 14) - This bit is the enable for the CT_Bias output. When Bit 14 = 0 (default), the CT_Bias is disabled and stays in a Hi-Z or tri-stated condition. When Bit 14 = 1, the CT_Bias output is active and its state is controlled by the selected mode (Bit 12), ct_bias_inv, and operation of the radio. • Ct_bias_inv (Bit 13) - This bit only affects the state of CT_Bias when Dual Port Mode is selected and CT_bias is active. The CT_Bias changes state in Dual Port Mode based on the TX or RX state of the radio. The ct_bias_inv bit causes the sense of the active state to change or invert based on Bit 13’s setting. In this manner, the user can select the CT_Bias as a control signal for external components and make the control signal active high or active low. MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 24 Freescale Semiconductor Table 10 summarizes the operation of the RF interface control bits. Table 10. RF Interface Control Bits Bit Designation Default Operation 14 ct_bias_en 0 1 = CT_Bias enabled. Output state is defined by Table 11. 0 = CT_Bias disabled. Output state is tri-stated. 13 ct_bias_inv 0 The output state of CT_Bias under varying conditions is defined in Table 11. This bit only has effect for dual port operation. 1 = CT_Bias inverted. 0 = CT_Bias not inverted 12 RF_switch_mode 0 1= Single Port Mode selected where RF switch is active and RFIN_M and RFIN_P and bidirectional signals. 0 = Dual Port Mode selected where RFIN_M and RFIN_P are inputs only and PAO_P and PAO_N are separate outputs. (This is default operation). 8.7 RF Control Output CT_Bias CT_Bias is a useful signal for interface with external RF components. It must be enabled via the ct_bias_en control bit, and then its state is determined first by the selected RF mode and then by the active state of the radio, i.e., whether a TX or RX operation is active: • Single Port Operation - In this mode, the CT_Bias can be used to establish the proper DC bias voltage to a balun depending on the RX state versus TX state as described in Section 8.5.1, “Single Port Operation. Note that in single port operation, the ct_bias_inv has no effect and CT_Bias is at VDDA for TX and is at ground for RX. • Dual Port Operation - In this mode, the CT_Bias can be used as a control signal to enable a LNA or PA or to determine the direction of an antenna switch as described in Section 8.5.2, “Dual Port Operation. In dual port operation, ct-bias_inv is used to control the sense of the output control, i.e., CT_Bias can be active high or active low for TX and vice-versa for RX. Table 11 defines the CT_Bias output state depending on control bits and operation mode of the modem. Note that the output state is also defined in Idle, Hibernate, and Doze state as well as RX and TX operation. Table 11. CT_Bias Output vs. Register Settings Mode CT_Bias_en RF_switch_mode CT_Bias_inv CT_Bias RX 1 1 0 0 RX 1 1 1 0 RX 1 0 0 0 RX 0 X X Hi-Z RX 1 1 0 1 TX 1 1 0 1 TX 1 1 1 1 TX 1 0 0 1 MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 25 Table 11. CT_Bias Output vs. Register Settings (continued) 8.8 Mode CT_Bias_en RF_switch_mode CT_Bias_inv CT_Bias TX 1 0 1 0 TX 0 X X Hi-Z Idle 1 X X 0 Idle 0 X X Hi-Z Doze 1 X X 0 Doze 0 X X Hi-Z Hibernate 1 X X 0 (Low-Z) Hibernate 0 X X Hi-Z Off X X X Unknown RF Single Port Application with an F Antenna Figure 16 shows a typical single port RF application in which part count is minimized and a printed copper F antenna is used for low cost. Only the RFIN port of the MC13201 is required because the differential port is bi-directional and uses the on-chip T/R switch. Matching to near 50 Ohms is accomplished with L1, L2, L3, and the traces on the PCB. A balun transforms the differential signal to single-ended to interface with the F antenna. The proper DC bias to the RFIN_x (PAO_x) pins is provided through the balun. The CT_Bias pin provides the proper bias voltage point to the balun depending on operation, that is, CT_Bias is at VDDA voltage for transmit and is at ground for receive. CT_Bias is switched between these two voltages based on the operation. Capacitor C2 provides some high frequency bypass to the DC bias point. The L3/C1 network provides a simple bandpass filter to limit out-of-band harmonics from the transmitter. U5 L1 PAO_M PAO_P RFIN_P RFIN_M CT_Bias 6 5 2 1 3 L2 6.8nH L4 MC1320x R1 0R Z1 1.8nH 3 1 2 5 4 6 LDB212G4005C-001 L3 3.9nH C1 1.0pF R2 0R Not Mounted ANT1 F_Antenna 1.8nH 2 3 4 5 1 C2 10pF J1 SMA_edge_Receptac Figure 16. RF Single Port Application with an F-Antenna MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, 26 Freescale Semiconductor 9 Packaging Information PIN 1 INDEX AREA 0.1 0.1 C 2X 5 A M C 0.1 2X C G 1.0 0.8 1.00 0.75 0.05 C 5 5 (0.25) 0.05 0.00 (0.5) C SEATING PLANE DETAIL G VIEW ROTATED 90° CLOCKWISE M B 0.1 C A DETAIL M PIN 1 INDEX 3.25 2.95 EXPOSED DIE ATTACH PAD 25 NOTES: 1. ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS. 2. DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING PER ASME Y14.5M, 1994. 3. THE COMPLETE JEDEC DESIGNATOR FOR THIS PACKAGE IS: HF-PQFP-N. 4. CORNER CHAMFER MAY NOT BE PRESENT. DIMENSIONS OF OPTIONAL FEATURES ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY. 5. COPLANARITY APPLIES TO LEADS, CORNER LEADS, AND DIE ATTACH PAD. 6. FOR ANVIL SINGULATED QFN PACKAGES, MAXIMUM DRAFT ANGLE IS 12°. B 32 24 1 0.25 3.25 2.95 0.1 A C B 0.217 0.137 16 32X 0.5 8 17 32X 0.3 VIEW M-M 0.217 0.137 N 9 0.5 28X 0.30 0.18 (0.25) 0.1 M C 0.05 M C A (0.1) B DETAIL S PREFERRED BACKSIDE PIN 1 INDEX (45 5) 32X 0.065 0.015 DETAIL S 0.60 0.24 (1.73) 0.60 0.24 (0.25) DETAIL N DETAIL N PREFERRED CORNER CONFIGURATION DETAIL M PREFERRED BACKSIDE PIN 1 INDEX CORNER CONFIGURATION OPTION 4 4 5 1.6 1.5 DETAIL T BACKSIDE PIN 1 INDEX (90 ) 0.475 0.425 2X R DETAIL M BACKSIDE PIN 1 INDEX OPTION 0.39 0.31 0.25 0.15 DETAIL M BACKSIDE PIN 1 INDEX OPTION 2X 0.1 0.0 DETAIL T BACKSIDE PIN 1 INDEX OPTION Figure 17. Outline Dimensions for QFN-32, 5x5 mm (Case 1311-03, Issue E) MC13201 Technical Data, Rev. 1.3, Freescale Semiconductor 27 How to Reach Us: Home Page: www.freescale.com E-mail: s[email protected] USA/Europe or Locations Not Listed: Freescale Semiconductor Technical Information Center, CH370 1300 N. Alma School Road Chandler, Arizona 85224 +1-800-521-6274 or +1-480-768-2130 [email protected] Europe, Middle East, and Africa: Freescale Halbleiter Deutschland GmbH Technical Information Center Schatzbogen 7 81829 Muenchen, Germany +44 1296 380 456 (English) +46 8 52200080 (English) +49 89 92103 559 (German) +33 1 69 35 48 48 (French) [email protected] Japan: Freescale Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Headquarters ARCO Tower 15F 1-8-1, Shimo-Meguro, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0064, Japan 0120 191014 or +81 3 5437 9125 [email protected] Asia/Pacific: Freescale Semiconductor Hong Kong Ltd. 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