MPY100 ® MULTIPLIER-DIVIDER FEATURES APPLICATIONS ● LOW COST ● DIFFERENTIAL INPUT ● MULTIPLICATION ● DIVISION ● ACCURACY 100% TESTED AND GUARANTEED ● NO EXTERNAL TRIMMING REQUIRED ● LOW NOISE: 90µVrms, 10Hz to 10kHz ● HIGHLY RELIABLE ONE-CHIP DESIGN ● ● ● ● ● ● ● DIP OR TO-100 TYPE PACKAGE ● WIDE TEMPERATURE OPERATION SQUARING SQUARE ROOT LINEARIZATION POWER COMPUTATION ANALOG SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGEBRAIC COMPUTATION ● TRUE RMS-TO-DC CONVERSION DESCRIPTION The MPY100 multiplier-divider is a low cost precision device designed for general purpose application. In addition to four-quadrant multiplication, it also performs analog square root and division without the bother of external amplifiers or potentiometers. Lasertrimmed one-chip design offers the most in highly reliable operation with guaranteed accuracies. Because of the internal reference and pretrimmed accuracies the MPY100 does not have the restrictions of other low cost multipliers. It is available in both TO-100 and DIP ceramic packages. X1 V-I X2 Multiplier Core Y1 V-I Out A Y2 Z1 V-I Attenuator High Gain Output Amplifier Z2 International Airport Industrial Park • Mailing Address: PO Box 11400 Tel: (520) 746-1111 • Twx: 910-952-1111 • Cable: BBRCORP • © 1987 Burr-Brown Corporation • Tucson, AZ 85734 • Street Address: 6730 S. Tucson Blvd. • Tucson, AZ 85706 Telex: 066-6491 • FAX: (520) 889-1510 • Immediate Product Info: (800) 548-6132 PDS-412D Printed in U.S.A. March, 1995 SPECIFICATIONS At TA = +25°C and ±VS = 15VDC, unless otherwise specified. MPY100A PARAMETER CONDITIONS MULTIPLIER PERFORMANCE Transfer Function MIN MPY100B/C TYP MAX (X1 – X2)(Y1 –Y2) –10V ≤ X, Y ≤ 10V TA = +25°C –25°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C –55°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C ±50/25 ±2.0/±0.7 ±0.025 * ±0.05 ±7 ±50 ±0.3 * ±0.7 mV mV/°C mV/°C mV/% ±0.05 */* ±0.008 * ±0.08 ±0.08 */* */* * * % FSR % FSR 100 6 0.1 30/30 */* */* 30 * 0.15 */* 0.1 * mVp-p mVp-p mVp-p/°C mVp-p/°C mVp-p/% */* * ±1.5 ±0.75/0.35 ±0.35 % FSR ±4.0 ±2.0/1.0 ±1.0 % FSR ±5.0 ±2.5/1.0 ±1.0 % FSR */* * ±1.2 ±0.6/0.3 ±0.3 % FSR +√10(Z2 – Z1) + X2 ±2 */* ±1/0.5 * ±0.5 % FSR 550 70 5 320 20 2 0.2 */* */* */* */* */* */* */* * * * * * * * kHz kHz kHz kHz V/µs µs µs 10(Z2 – Z1) (X1 – X2)2 10 –10V ≤ X ≤ +10V Small-Signal Small-Signal |VO| = 10V, RL = 2kΩ |VO| = 10V, RL = 2kΩ ε = ±1%, ∆VO = 20V 50% Output Overload ±10 X, Y, Z(2) X, Y, Z + Y1 + Z2 * */* * ±VCC */* */* 1.5 * * */* 2 * V mA Ω * */* */* ±10 ±5 * * V V MΩ µA */* 10 1.4 ® MPY100 % FSR % FSR/°C % FSR/°C % FSR/% % FSR % FSR/°C % FSR/°C % FSR % SQUARER PERFORMANCE Transfer Function OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS Rated Output Voltage IO = ±5mA Current VO = ±10V Output Resistance f = DC ±0.5 * */* */* X = 10V –10V ≤ Z ≤ +10V X = 1V –1V ≤ Z ≤ +1V +0.2V ≤ X ≤ +10V –10V ≤ Z ≤ +10V INPUT CHARACTERISTICS Input Voltage Range Rated Operation Absolute Maximum Input Resistance Input Bias Current UNITS ±0.12 ±0.008 (X1 – X2) AC PERFORMANCE Small-Signal Bandwidth % Amplitude Error % (0.57°) Vector Error Full Power Bandwidth Slew Rate Settling Time Overload Recovery ±10/7 ±0.7/0.3 MAX */* X1 > X2 Total Error ±100 ±2.0 TYP ±0.25 X = 20Vp-p; Y = ±10VDC Y = 20Vp-p: X = ±10VDC f = 50Hz X = 20Vp-p; Y = 0 Y = 20Vp-p; X = 0 –25°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C –55°C ≤ TA ≤ 125°C SQUARE ROOTER PERFORMANCE Transfer Function Z 1 < Z2 Total Error 1V ≤ Z ≤ 10V MIN */* ±50 ±0.7 TA = +25°C –25°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C –55°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C Total Error (with external adjustments) MAX ±1.0/0.5 ±0.008/0.008 ±0.02/0.02 ±0.05 TA = +25°C –25°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C –55°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C DIVIDER PERFORMANCE Transfer Function ±2.0 ±0.05 ±0.017 TYP */* + Z2 10 Total Error Initial vs Temperature vs Temperature vs Supply(1) Individual Errors Output Offset Initial vs Temperature vs Temperature vs Supply(1) Scale Factor Error Initial vs Temperature vs Temperature vs Supply(1) Nonlinearity X Input Y Input Feedthrough X Input Y Input vs Temperature vs Temperature vs Supply(1) MIN MPY100S SPECIFICATIONS (CONT) At TA = +25°C and ±VS = 15VDC, unless otherwise specified. MPY100A PARAMETER CONDITIONS OUTPUT NOISE VOLTAGE fO = 1Hz fO = 1kHz l/f Corner Frequency fB = 5Hz to 10kHz fB = 5Hz to 5MHz MIN TYP MPY100B/C MAX MIN MPY100S TYP MAX MIN TYP MAX UNITS X=Y=0 6.2 0.6 110 60 1.3 POWER SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS Rated Voltage Operating Range Derated Performance Quiescent Current TEMPERATURE RANGE (Ambient) Specification Operating Range Derated Performance Storage ±8.5 */* */* */* */* */* ±15 */* ±20 ±5.5 * */* */* * */* –25 –55 –65 +85 +125 +150 µV/√Hz µV/√Hz Hz µVrms mVrms * * * * * * VDC VDC mA +125 * * °C °C °C * */* */* */* */* */* */* –55 * * * Same as MPY100A specification. */* B/C grades same as MPY100A specification. NOTES: (1) Includes effects of recommended null pots. (2) Z2 input resistance is 10MΩ, typical, with VOS pin open. If VOS pin is grounded or used for optional offset adjustment, the Z2 input resistance may be as low as 25kΩ PIN CONFIGURATIONS Top View Top View DIP TO-100 Y2 Z1 1 14 +VCC Out 2 13 Y1 –VCC 3 12 Y2 NC 4 11 VOS NC 5 10 Z2 NC 6 9 X2 X1 7 8 NC Y1 10 VOS 9 1 +VCC 2 8 Z2 Z1 3 7 X2 Out 6 4 X1 5 –VCC NOTES: (1) VOS adjustment optional not normally recommended. VOS pin may be left open or grounded. (2) All unused input pins should be grounded. NOTES: (1) VOS adjustment optional not normally recommended. VOS pin may be left open or grounded. (2) All unused input pins should be grounded. ORDERING INFORMATION ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS MODEL MPY100AG MPY100AM MPY100BG MPY100BM MPY100CG MPY100CM MPY100SG MPY100SM Supply ........................................................................................... ±20VDC Internal Power Dissipation(1) .......................................................... 500mW Differential Input Voltage(2) ........................................................... ±40VDC Input Voltage Range(2) ................................................................. ±20VDC Storage Temperature Range ......................................... –65°C to +150°C Operating Temperature Range .................................... –55°C to +125°C Lead Temperature (soldering, 10s) ............................................... +300°C Output Short-circuit Duration(3) ................................................ Continuous Junction Temperature .................................................................... +150°C PACKAGE TEMPERATURE RANGE 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 –25°C to +85°C –25°C to +85°C –25°C to +85°C –25°C to +85°C –25°C to +85°C –25°C to +85°C –55°C to +125°C –55°C to +125°C PACKAGE INFORMATION NOTES: (1) Package must be derated on θJC = 15°C/W and θJA = 165°C/W for the metal package and θJC = 35°C/W and θJA = 220°C/ W for the ceramic package. (2) For supply voltages less than ±20VDC, the absolute maximum input voltage is equal to the supply voltage. (3) Short-circuit may be to ground only. Rating applies to +85°C ambient for the metal package and +65°C for the ceramic package. MODEL MPY100AG MPY100AM MPY100BG MPY100BM MPY100CG MPY100CM MPY100SG MPY100SM PACKAGE PACKAGE DRAWING NUMBER(1) 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 14-Pin Ceramic DIP Metal TO-100 169 007 169 007 169 007 169 007 NOTE: (1) For detailed drawing and dimension table, please see end of data sheet, or Appendix D of Burr-Brown IC Data Book. ® 3 MPY100 SIMPLIFIED SCHEMATIC +VCC A Z2 Out 25kΩ X1 X2 25kΩ 25kΩ Y2 3.8kΩ Y1 25kΩ 25kΩ 25kΩ 25kΩ Z1 25kΩ VOS 500µA 500µA 500µA –VCC CONNECTION DIAGRAM +15VDC +VS X1 Z1 VO X2 Out Y1 Y2 VOS –VS Z2 (X1 – X2)(Y1 – Y2) 10 (1) NOTE: (1) Optional component. 100kΩ –15VDC DICE INFORMATION PAD FUNCTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Y2 VOS Z2 X2 X1 VO Z1 +V –V Y1 Substrate Bias: –VCC MECHANICAL INFORMATION Die Size Die Thickness Min. Pad Size Backing MPY100 DIE TOPOGRAPHY ® MPY100 4 MILS (0.001") MILLIMETERS 107 x 93 ±5 20 ±3 4x4 2.72 x 2.36 ±0.13 0.51 ±0.08 0.10 x 0.10 Gold TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES At TA = +25°C and ±VS = 15VDC, unless otherwise specified. NONLINEARITY vs FREQUENCY 100 Input Signal = 20Vp-p 10 Nonlinearity (% of FSR) Magnitude of Total Output Error (% of FSR) TOTAL ERROR vs AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 10 1 1 X 0.1 Y 0.01 0.001 0.1 –100 –50 0 100 50 10 150 100 1k 100k 10k FEEDTHROUGH vs FREQUENCY OUTPUT AMPLITUDE vs FREQUENCY 5 1000 Small Signal 500 Feedthrough Voltage (mVp-p) 1M Frequency (Hz) Ambient Temperature (°C) Output Amplitude (dB) Input Signal = 20Vp-p 200 100 X Feedthrough 50 20 0 –5 X –10 Y –15 10 Y Feedthrough –20 5 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10k 10M 100k Frequency (Hz) LARGE SIGNAL RESPONSE 10M INPUT VOLTAGE FOR LINEAR RESPONSE 10 20 Input Output 16 5 0 RL = 2kΩ CL = 150pF –5 Positive Common-Mode Differential Negative Common-Mode 18 Input Range (V) Output Voltage (V) 1M Frequency (Hz) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 –10 0 1 3 2 4 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Power Supply Voltage (±VCC) Time (µs) ® 5 MPY100 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES (CONT) At TA = +25°C and ±VS = 15VDC, unless otherwise specified. OUTPUT VOLTAGE vs OUTPUT CURRENT COMMON-MODE REJECTION vs FREQUENCY 80 25 Output Voltage (±V) X = 12Vp-p Y = ±10VDC 60 50 40 20 VCC = ±20V 15 VCC = ±15V VCC = ±10V 10 VCC = ±8.5V 5 30 0 20 10 100 1k 10k 100k 1M 10M 0 2 4 Frequency (Hz) SUPPLY CURRENT vs AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 14 12 5mA Load 10 8 6 Quiescent 4 2 0 –100 –50 0 50 Ambient Temperature (°C) ® MPY100 6 8 10 Output Current (±mA) 16 Supply Current (mA) CMR (dB) +25°C –55°C Y = 12Vp-p X = ±10VDC 70 6 100 150 12 14 16 THEORY OF OPERATION and is modulated by the voltage, V2, to give The MPY100 is a variable transconductance multiplier consisting of three differential voltage-to-current converters, a multiplier core and an output differential amplifier as illustrated in Figure 1. Substituting this into the original equation yields the overall transfer function The basic principle of the transconductance multiplier can be demonstrated by the differential stage in Figure 2. which shows the output voltage to be the product of the two input voltages, V1 and V2. For small values of the input voltage, V1, that are much smaller than VT, the transistor’s thermal voltage, the differential output voltage, VO, is: Variations in IE due to V2 cause a large common-mode voltage swing in the circuit. The errors associated with this common-mode voltage can be eliminated by using two differential stages in parallel and cross-coupling their outputs as shown in Figure 3. gm ≈ V2/VTRE VO = gmRLV1 = V1V2 (RL/VTRE) VO = gm RLV1 The transconductance gm of the stage is given by: gm = IE/VT +VS RL Stable Reference and Bias RL + +VS VO = A (X1 – X2)(Y1 – Y2) 10 X1 V-I – VO –VS I1 – (Z1 – Z2) Q1 + Transfer Function I2 I3 Q2 I4 Q3 Q4 V1 X2 Multiplier Core – Y1 Q5 V-I RE Out RE Q6 A Y2 + V2 High Gain Output Amplifier Z1 V-I – Attenuator IT Z2 –VCC FIGURE 1. MPY100 Functional Block Diagram. FIGURE 3. Cross-Coupled Differential Stages as a VariableTransconductance Multiplier. An analysis of the circuit in Figure 3 shows it to have the same overall transfer function as before: +VCC I1 RL RL I2 VO = V1V2 (RL/VTRE). For input voltages larger than VT, the voltage-to-current transfer characteristics of the differential pair Q1, Q2 or Q3 and Q4 are no longer linear. Instead, their collector currents are related to the applied voltage V1 – VO + Q1 + Q2 V1 – I1 Q3 + RE I2 IE = I3 I4 V1 =e VT The resultant nonlinearity can be overcome by developing V1 logarithmically to exactly cancel the exponential relationship just derived. This is done by diodes D1 and D2 in Figure 4. V2 – The emitter degeneration resistors, RX and RY, in Figure 4, provide a linear conversion of the input voltages to differential current, IX and IY, where: FIGURE 2. Basic Differential Stage as a Transconductance Multiplier. ® 7 MPY100 IX = VX/RX and IY = VY/RY CAPACITIVE LOADS Analysis of Figure 4 shows the voltage VA to be: VA = (2RL/I1)(IXIY) Stable operation is maintained with capacitive loads to 1000pF in all modes, except the square root mode for which 50pF is a safe upper limit. Higher capacitive loads can be driven if a 100Ω resistor is connected in series with the MPY100’s output. Since IX and IY are linearly related to the input voltages VX and VY, VA may also be written: VA = KVXVY where K is a scale factor. In the MPY100, K is chosen to be 0.1. DEFINITIONS The addition of the Z input alters the voltage VA to: VA = KVXVY – VZ TOTAL ERROR (Accuracy) Total error is the actual departure of the multiplier output voltage form the ideal product of its input voltages. It includes the sum of the effects of input and output DC offsets, gain error and nonlinearity. Therefore, the output of the MPY100 is: VO = A[KVXVY – VZ] where A is the open-loop gain of the output amplifier. Writing this last equation in terms of the separate inputs to the MPY100 gives VO = A (X1 – X2)(Y1 – Y2) 10 OUTPUT OFFSET Output offset is the output voltage when both inputs VX and VY are 0V. – (Z1 – Z2) SCALE FACTOR ERROR the transfer function of the MPY100. Scale factor error is the difference between the actual scale factor and the ideal scale factor. WIRING PRECAUTIONS In order to prevent frequency instability due to lead inductance of the power supply lines, each power supply should be bypassed. This should be done by connecting a 10µF tantalum capacitor in parallel with a 1000pF ceramic capacitor from the +VCC and –VCC pins of the MPY100 to the power supply common. The connection of these capacitors should be as close to the MPY100 as practical. NONLINEARITY Nonlinearity is the maximum deviation from a best straightline (curve fitting on input-output graph) expressed as a percent of peak-to-peak full scale output. FEEDTHROUGH Feedthrough is the signal at the output for any value of VX or VY within the rated range, when the other input is zero. +VCC RCM RL RL I4 D1 D2 I1 I2 I3 + VA – VO A + V1 – X1 Q7 Q1 Q8 Q2 Q3 Q5 Q4 Q6 Z1 Q10 + RX 2 RX 2 RY 2 RY 2 – + VY RZ 2 RZ 2 – 211 211 –VCC FIGURE 4. MPY100 Simplified Circuit Diagram. ® 8 VZ – Y2 X2 MPY100 Q9 Y1 + VX Out Z2 211 εDIVIDER = 10 εMULTIPLIER/(X1 – X2) SMALL SIGNAL BANDWIDTH It is obvious from this error equation that divider error becomes excessively large for small values of X1 – X2. A 10to-1 denominator range is usually the practical limit. If more accurate division is required over a wide range of denominator voltages, an externally generated voltage may be Small signal bandwidth is the frequency at which the output is down 3dB from its low-frequency value for nominal output amplitude of 10% of full scale. 1% AMPLITUDE ERROR The 1% amplitude error is the frequency the output amplitude is in error by 1%, measured with an output amplitude of 10% of full scale. (X1 – X2)(Y1 – Y2) VO = VX, ±10V, FS 1% VECTOR ERROR The 1% vector error is the frequency at which a phase error of 0.01 radians (0.57°) occurs. This is the most sensitive measure of dynamic error of a multiplier. X1 10 + Z2 Z1 VO, ±10V, FS X2 MPY100 Out Y1 VY, ±10V, FS Y2 VOS –VCC +VCC Optional Summing Input, ±10V, FS Z2 (1) TYPICAL APPLICATIONS NOTE: (1) Optional balance potentiometer. 100kΩ MULTIPLICATION –15VDC Figure 5 shows the basic connection for four-quadrant multiplication. +15VDC FIGURE 5. Multiplier Connection. The MPY100 meets all of its specifications without trimming. Accuracy can, however be improved over a limited range by nulling the output offset voltage using the 100Ω optional balance potentiometer shown in Figure 5. +VCC 50kΩ 470kΩ To the appropriate input terminal. AC feedthrough may be reduced to a minimum by applying an external voltage to the X or Y input as shown in Figure 6. 1kΩ –VCC Z2, the optional summing input, may be used to sum a voltage into the output of the MPY100. If not used, this terminal, as well as the X and Y input terminals, should be grounded. All inputs should be referenced to power supply common. FIGURE 6. Optional Trimming Configuration. R2 10kΩ Figure 7 shows how to achieve a scale factor larger than the nominal 1/10. In this case, the scale factor is unity which makes the transfer function X1 MPY100 VO = KVXVY = K(X1 – X2)(Y1 – Y2).K = R1 90kΩ Z1 X2 VO Out Y1 1 + (R1/R2) Z2 Y2 10 0.1 ≤ K ≤ 1 This circuit has the disadvantage of increasing the output offset voltage by a factor of 10, which may require the use of the optional balance control as in Figure 1 for some applications. In addition, this connection reduces the small signal bandwidth to about 50kHz. FIGURE 7. Connection for Unity Scale Factor. VO = VXDemonimator ±0.2V to +10V, FS DIVISION Figure 8 shows the basic connection for two-quadrant division. This configuration is a multiplier-inverted analog divider, i.e., a multiplier connected in the feedback loop of an operational amplifier. In the case of the MPY100, this operational amplifier is the output amplifier shown in Figure 1. X1 (X1 – X2) Z1 + Y1 VO = ±10V, FS X2 MPY100 Optional Summing Input, ±10V, FS 10(Z2 – Z1) Out Y1 Z2 Y2 V2 Numerator ±10V, FS The divider error with a multiplier-inverted analog divider is approximately: FIGURE 8. Divider Connection. ® 9 MPY100 MORE CIRCUITS The theory and procedures for developing virtually any function generator or linearization circuit can be found in the Burr-Brown/McGraw Hill book “FUNCTION CIRCUITS Design and Applications.” applied to the unused X-input (see Optional Trim Configuration). To trim, apply a ramp of +100mV to +1V at 100Hz to both X1 and Z1 if X2 is used for offset adjustment, otherwise reverse the signal polarity and adjust the trim voltage to minimize the variation in the output. An alternative to this procedure would be to use the Burr-Brown DIV100, a precision log-antilog divider. VO = + 10(Z2 – Z1) +X2 SQUARING VO = (X1 – X2)2 10 Optional Summing Input, ±10V, FS + Z2 X1 Z1 VO X2 MPY100 Out Y1 X1 Z1 X2 MPY100 VZ Out Y1 VX ±10V, FS +0.2V ≤ (Z2 – Z1) ≤ +10V (a) Circuit for positive VZ. Z2 Y2 RL Z2 Y2 VO = ±10V, FS Optional Summing Input, ±10V, FS Optional Summing Input, ±10V, FS FIGURE 9. Squarer Connection. VO = – 10(Z2 – Z1) +X2 X1 Z1 VO X2 MPY100 SQUARE ROOT Y1 Figure 10 shows the connection for taking the square root of the voltage VZ. The diode prevents a latching condition which could occur if the input momentarily changed polarity. This latching condition is not a design flaw in the MPY100, but occurs when a multiplier is connected in the feedback loop of an operational amplifier to perform square root functions. Y2 Out RL Z2 VZ +0.2V ≤ (Z2 – Z1) ≤ +10V (b) Circuit for negative VZ. FIGURE 10. Square Root Connection. The load resistance, R L, must be in the range of 10kΩ ≤ RL ≤ 1MΩ. This resistance must be in the circuit as it provides the current necessary to operate the diode. VO = (V2 – V1) V1 100 1% per volt V1 PERCENTAGE COMPUTATION +0.2V ≤ V1 ≤ +10V The circuit of Figure 11 has a sensitivity of 1V/% and is capable of measuring 10% deviations. Wider deviation can be measured by decreasing the ratio of R2/R1. X1 Z1 X2 MPY100 Y1 Y2 BRIDGE LINEARIZATION Z2 9kΩ V2 1kΩ The use of the MPY100 to linearize the output from a bridge circuit makes the output VO independent of the bridge supply voltage. See Figure 12. FIGURE 11. Percentage Computation. TRUE RMS-TO-DC CONVERSION The rms-to-DC conversion circuit of Figure 13 gives greater accuracy and bandwidth but with less dynamic range than most rms-to-DC converters. SINE FUNCTION GENERATOR The circuit in Figure 14 uses implicit feedback to implement the following sine function approximation: VO = (1.5715V1 – 0.004317V13)/(1 + 0.001398V12) = 10 sin (9V1) ® MPY100 VO Out 10 RG 40kΩ V R + ∆R R Z1 X1 V1 INA101 MPY100 Y2 V1 = V 2 1 2R 1+ ∆R V2 = V VO Out Y1 G=2 R R Z1 X2 V2 1 2R 1+ ∆R VO = 5 R1 Z2 R2 R1 + R2 ∆R R R2 NOTE: V should be as large as possible to minimize divider errors. But V ≤ [10 + (20R/∆R)] to keep V2 within the input voltage limits of the MPY100. FIGURE 12. Bridge Linearization. Matched to 0.025% R1 10kΩ 20kΩ R2 10kΩ OPA111 VIN (±5V pk) 10µF X1 Z1 10kΩ X2 DC MPY100 Out C2 10µF Y1 AC 10kΩ Y2 Z2 VO VO = VIN2 0 to 5V Mode Switch OPA111 +VS 10MΩ 50kΩ Zero Adjust –VS 10kΩ 20kΩ FIGURE 13. True RMS-to-DC Conversion. ® 11 MPY100 23.165kΩ 71.548kΩ X1 10kΩ Z1 X2 MPY100 VO = 10 sin 9V1 Out Y1 Y2 V1 X1 Z2 5.715kΩ Z1 X2 MPY100 10kΩ Out Y1 Z2 Y2 (–10V ≤ V1 ≤ +10V, and 1V = 9°) FIGURE 14. Sine Function Generator IL ei(t) = 2 Eirms Sin ωt iL(t) = 2 ILrms Sin (ωt + θ ) ei R4 Load ∝ei R1 R2 R5 ∝ =R5/(R4 +R5) γ =(–R1R3)/R2 X XY R3 10 γiL Instantaneous Power Y Real Power (∝γ/10)(EirmsILrms cosθ ) FIGURE 15. Single-Phase Instantaneous and Real Power Measurement. The information provided herein is believed to be reliable; however, BURR-BROWN assumes no responsibility for inaccuracies or omissions. BURR-BROWN assumes no responsibility for the use of this information, and all use of such information shall be entirely at the user’s own risk. Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice. No patent rights or licenses to any of the circuits described herein are implied or granted to any third party. BURR-BROWN does not authorize or warrant any BURR-BROWN product for use in life support devices and/or systems. ® MPY100 12

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