CMLMICRO CMX883

CML Microcircuits
COMMUNICATION SEMICONDUCTORS
CMX883
Baseband Processor for
‘Leisure Radios’
D/883/7 March 2004
Provisional Issue
Full-Feature Audio-Processing and Signalling for
Half Duplex FRS, MURS, GMRS and PMR446 ‘Leisure’ Radios
Features
• Automatic signal type scanning and IRQ on
detection of valid Rx signals, level or RSSI
• Voice processing facilities, including Tx and Rx
gain setting and voice/subaudio filtering
• Tone generator for caller recognition tunes
• C-BUS serial host interface
• Programmable power down control
• RF interface allowing 1 or 2 point modulation
• Programmable signal detection thresholds
• Programmable soft limiter
• Low Power operation with ‘Zero Power’ mode
• Enhanced CTCSS and 23/24 bit DCS codecs
• Uncommitted Aux ADC with switchable input
to monitor signals
• Zero ‘Talkdown’ CTCSS decoder performance
prevents dropouts
• All call code and monitor modes for CTCSS
• Silent operation by removal of unwanted calls
• Audio scrambler
• XTCSS channel and data signalling
• Selectable voice companding
1.1
Brief Description
CMX883, a full-function half-duplex audio and signalling processor IC for FRS and PMR446 type facilities
for both complex and simple end-designs. Under the control of the host µC, all voiceband requirements
are catered for: voiceband and sub-audio filtering, pre/de-emphasis, compression and expansion and
audio routing and global level setting with single or two-point modulation in the transmit path.
The combination of new and standard signalling functions of this product offer, under software control,
increased functionality, versatility and privacy. Standard Extended-Code CTCSS and DCS are integrated
with the new XTCSS code implementation. XTCSS provides additional and improved squelch-centred
privacy codes with the added advantage of ‘silent operation’; no annoying interference from other subaudio users. XTCSS fitted radios enjoy more privacy and flexibility of operation.
With ultra low power requirements and graduated powersave, this product only requires a smaller, lowerpower µC than existing FRS/PMR446 solutions. It is available in compact SSOP and TSSOP packages.
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CMX883
CMX883 Functions and Facilities
Half Duplex Operation
Working in a half duplex mode, when the product is in Tx the Rx sections can be powered down to
extend battery life, conversely in Rx major sections of the Tx can be treated in the same manner.
Serial Control and Data Interfaces
C-BUS: Serial control, data and command program interface compatible with SCI, SPI and Microwire
type interfaces.
Power Requirements and Economy
With an ultra low power requirement, the CMX883 operates from a single 2.7 to 3.6 Volt supply with
graduated ‘Sleep Mode’ powersaving facilities for both Rx and Tx modes.
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Signalling:
XTCSS
A state-of-the-art (squelch) signalling format, employing both sub-audio (CTCSS) and in-band (XTC)
signalling concurrently, which offers more than twice as many privacy codes as standard CTCSS
operation and completely eliminates interference caused by other traffic on the channel (quiet operation).
Additionally, the XTCSS signalling can be employed as an over-air control for such features as voicecompression. XTCSS is fully compatible with both conventional and enhanced CTCSS signalling
operations and will implement the All Call Code function.
CTCSS
Zero ‘talkdown’ performance eliminates unwanted breaks in communication. The CMX883 is preprogrammed with 39 standard CTCSS (+ Notone and DCS ‘turn off’ tone) and 12 additional ‘split-tone’
frequencies. Any one of these can be selected for reception or transmission. Decoding is aided by the
use of adjustable decode bandwidths and threshold levels. Decoding is carried out rapidly thus avoiding
the loss of the beginning of speech or data signals. A CTCSS configuration of this product enables ‘Tone
Cloning’.
Two unique features of this product are its CTCSS ‘All Call Code’ and ‘All Codes Monitor’ modes:
All Call Code – transmissions using this code will be heard by all CMX883 enhanced radios regardless of
their selected CTCSS code. This provides an important benefit to both safety and convenience.
All Codes Monitor – selection of this code at the receiver enables all transmissions that are using a
CTCSS tone to be heard, and the tone number to be reported. Open channel noise or calls lacking
coding, will go unheard. This is a superior method of ‘channel monitoring’, which allows miscoded calls
from conventional CTCSS-party radios to be heard and directly responded to.
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DCS
The DCS code is in NRZ format and is transmitted at 134.4b/s in either 23 or 24 bit patterns. The code,
for transmission or reception is programmed via the host µC with the ‘turn off’ tone being supplied from
the CTCSS facility. Decoding is carried out rapidly thus avoiding the loss of the beginning of speech or
data signals.
Signal Monitor
An auxiliary circuit intended for the monitoring of any signal or level; both internal and external. This
function can be used in conjunction with the host µC to allow such activities as: VOX operation and/or the
‘wake-up’ of powered-down circuitry.
Audio Processing:
Adjustable Gain Input Amplifiers
Selectable, component adjustable inputs are available for microphone or line voiceband or discriminator
inputs. In either mode (Tx or Rx) the selected input can be further level adjusted under the control of the
host µC prior to signal or audio- processing.
Voiceband and Sub-Audio Filtering with Limiting
Both Rx and Tx paths present voiceband filtering; the Tx path filter can be configured to either 12.5 or 25
kHz channel spacing whilst the Rx path also includes a sub-audio passband filter.
Voiceband Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis
Voiceband pre-emphasis is selectable to either 12.5 or 25 kHz channel configurations in the Tx path; deemphasis at –6dB/ octave is selectable in the Rx path.
Software Adjustable Gains, Volume, Mixing and Routing
Providing total flexibility of operation, this product, under µC control has the ability to select and route
functions and audio and signal paths, set bandwidths and threshold levels, mix audio and sub bands and
vary both input and out gain/attenuation levels. Output levels from all analogue ports can be ‘ramped’ up
and down at independently programmed rates.
Attenuation-Adjustable Single/Two-Point Modulation Outputs
To facilitate a wide range of transmitter types, the CMX883 has the ability to provide, independently
programmable, modulation outputs; for single or two-point modulation schemes.
Scrambler
An optional frequency inversion scrambler is provided in both transmit and receive modes.
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CONTENTS
Page
Section
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
Features........................................................................................................................1
Brief Description............................................................................................................1
Block Diagram...............................................................................................................7
Signal List .....................................................................................................................8
External Components .................................................................................................. 10
1.4.1 PCB Layout Guidelines and Power Supply Decoupling ................................... 11
1.4.2 Modulator Outputs .......................................................................................... 12
General Description..................................................................................................... 13
1.5.1 Sleep Mode and Auto Start Up........................................................................ 15
1.5.2 Auxiliary ADC ................................................................................................. 15
1.5.3 Receive Mode................................................................................................. 16
1.5.4 Transmit Mode................................................................................................ 24
1.5.5 XTCSS Coding................................................................................................ 27
1.5.6 C-BUS Operation ............................................................................................ 29
C-BUS Register Description ........................................................................................ 30
Application Notes ........................................................................................................ 48
Performance Specification........................................................................................... 49
1.8.1 Electrical Performance.................................................................................... 49
1.8.2 Packaging....................................................................................................... 57
Table
Page
Table 1 Voice Processing Combinations ................................................................................... 14
Table 2 Concurrent Rx Signalling Modes Supported by the CMX883 ....................................... 16
Table 3 CTCSS Tones ............................................................................................................. 20
Table 4 DCS Modulation Modes............................................................................................... 20
Table 5 DCS 23 Bit Codes ....................................................................................................... 21
Table 6 In-band Tones ............................................................................................................. 22
Table 7 Concurrent Tx Modes Supported by the CMX883 ........................................................ 24
Figure
Page
Figure 1 Block Diagram ............................................................................................................. 7
Figure 2 Recommended External Components ........................................................................ 10
Figure 3 Power Supply Connections and De-coupling .............................................................. 11
Figure 4 Modulator output components to achieve -100dB/decade roll-off................................ 12
Figure 5 Rx Audio Filter Frequency Response ......................................................................... 17
Figure 6 De-emphasis Curve for TIA/EIA-603 Compliance....................................................... 17
Figure 7 Low Pass Sub-Audio Band Filter for CTCSS and DCS ......................................... 18
Figure 8 25kHz Channel Audio Filter Response Template........................................................ 25
Figure 9 12.5kHz Channel Audio Filter Response Template..................................................... 25
Figure 10 Audio Frequency Pre-emphasis Template ................................................................ 26
Figure 11 C-BUS Transactions................................................................................................. 29
Figure 12 Possible FRS Configuration ..................................................................................... 48
Figure 13 C-BUS Timing.......................................................................................................... 56
Figure 14 Mechanical Outline of 28-pin SSOP (D6): Order as part no. CMX883D6 ................ 57
Figure 15 Mechanical Outline of 28-pin TSSOP (E1): Order as part no. CMX883E1 .............. 57
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It is always recommended that you check for the latest product datasheet version from the Datasheets
page of the CML website: [www.cmlmicro.com].
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1.2
CMX883
Block Diagram
Figure 1 Block Diagram
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1.3
CMX883
Signal List
Package
D6, E1
Pin No.
Name
Type
23
VDD(D)
Power
The digital positive supply rail.
This pin should be
decoupled to VSS(D) by a capacitor mounted close to the
device pins.
5
VSS(D)
Power
The negative supply rail (digital ground).
18
VDD(A)
Power
The analogue positive supply rail. Levels and thresholds
within the device are proportional to this voltage. This pin
should be decoupled to VSS(A) by a capacitor mounted
close to the device pins.
9, 21
VSS(A)
Power
The negative supply rail. Both pins must be connected to
analogue ground.
Signal
1, 2
Description
NC
No connection should be made to these pins.
3
IRQN
O/P
A 'wire-ORable' output for connection to the Interrupt
Request input of the host. This output is pulled down to
VSS(D) when active and is high impedance when inactive.
An external pull-up resistor is required.
4
REPLY_DATA
T/S
The C-BUS serial data output to the host. This output is
held at high impedance when not sending data to the host.
6
SERIAL_CLOCK
I/P
The C-BUS serial clock input from the host.
7
CMD_DATA
I/P
The C-BUS serial data input from the host.
8
CSN
I/P
The C-BUS data loading control function. Data transfer
sequences are initiated, and completed by the CSN signal.
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1.3
CMX883
Signal List (continued)
Package
D6, E1
Pin No.
Name
Type
10
VBIAS
O/P
Internally generated bias voltage of approximately VDD(A)/2,
except when bias is power-saved when VBIAS will discharge
to VSS(A). This pin should be decoupled to VSS(A) by a
capacitor mounted close to the device pins.
11
DISC
I/P
Input terminal of discriminator input amplifier.
12
DISC_FB
O/P
Output / feedback terminal of discriminator input amplifier.
13
INPUT_2
I/P
Input terminal of amplifier 2, for either a second microphone
or discriminator input.
14
INPUT_2_FB
O/P
Output / feedback terminal of input amplifier 2.
15
MIC
I/P
Input terminal of microphone input amplifier.
16
MIC_FB
O/P
Output / feedback terminal of microphone input amplifier.
17
SIG_MONITOR
I/P
Signal Monitor input to the internal level detecting circuit.
19
MOD_1
O/P
Modulator 1 output.
20
MOD_2
O/P
Modulator 2 output.
22
AUDIO
O/P
Output of the audio section.
24
CLOCK/XTAL
I/P
The input to the on-chip oscillator for an external crystal or a
clock circuit.
25
CLOCK_OUT
O/P
Buffered (un-inverted) clock output available for use by
other devices in the system.
26
I/P
Test input, connect to VSS(D).
27, 28
NC
No connection should be made to these pins.
Signal
Notes: I/P
O/P
T/S
NC
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=
=
=
=
Description
Input
Output
3-state Output
No Connection
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1.4
CMX883
External Components
VDD(D)
NC
R1
NC
IRQN
REPLY_DATA
VSS(D)
C-BUS
Interface
SERIAL_CLOCK
CMD_DATA
CSN
Discriminator
VSS(A)
C8
R5
VBIAS
C5
DISC
DISC_FB
R6
INPUT_2
INPUT_2_FB
1
28
2
27
3
26
4
25
5
24
6
CMX883
7
23
22
8
21
9
20
10
19
11
18
12
17
13
16
14
15
NC
NC
VSS(D)
X1
CLOCK_OUT
CLOCK/XTAL
C2
AUDIO
R2
Loudspeaker amp
MOD_2
R3
Modulator reference
MOD_1
R4
Modulator control
VSS(A)
VDD(A)
C1
R7
C3
C4
SIG_MONITOR
MIC_FB
VSS(A)
MIC
C7
C6
VSS(D)
VDD(D)
C9*
R8
D1*
R9*
R10*
C10*
Microphone
VSS(A)
Figure 2 Recommended External Components
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
100kΩ
100kΩ
100kΩ
100kΩ
See note 2
100kΩ
See note 3
100kΩ
R9
R10
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
See note 6
See note 6
100pF
1nF
100pF
100pF
100pF
C6
C7
C8
C9/10
See note 4
200pF
See note 4
See note 6
X1
18.432MHz
D1
See note 6
See note 1
Resistors ±5%, capacitors and inductors ±20% unless otherwise stated.
Notes:
1. X1 can be a crystal or an external clock generator; this will depend on the application. The clock
drift requirement is defined in section 1.8.1. The tracks between the crystal and pin 24 and pin 5
should be as short as possible to achieve maximum stability and best start up performance.
2.
R5 should be selected to provide the desired dc gain (assuming C8 is not present) of the
discriminator input, as follows:
GAINDisc = 100kΩ / R5
The gain should be such that the resultant output at the DISC_FB pin is within the discriminator input
signal range specified in section 1.8.1.
3.
R7 should be selected to provide the desired dc gain (assuming C6 is not present) of the microphone
input as follows:
GAINMic = 100kΩ / R7
The gain should be such that the resultant output at the MIC_FB pin is within the microphone input
signal range specified in section 1.8.1.
4.
C6 and C8 should be selected to maintain the lower frequency roll-off of the microphone and
discriminator inputs as follows:
C6 = 30nF × GAINMic
5.
and C6 > 1000µF / R7
C8 = 100nF × GAINDisc
and C8 > TBAµF / R5
INPUT_2 and INPUT_2_FB connections allow the user to have a second discriminator or
microphone input. Component connections and values are as for the networks around pins 11 and
12 or pins 15 and 16 respectively. If this input is not required pin 13 must be connected to pin 14.
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6.
CMX883
The circuit formed by D1, C9, C10, R9 and R10 is a peak detector, this is only required when the
signal monitor is connected to an ac signal (e.g. microphone or received signal). For a dc type
signal (e.g. RSSI) these components are not required. The values of C9 and R10 set the attack
time, C9 and R9 set the decay time. D1 can be any suitable small signal diode. R10 should be a
high enough value so as not to distort the signal source.
1.4.1
PCB Layout Guidelines and Power Supply Decoupling
Digital Ground
VSS(D)
provision for
wire link
VSS(A)
VBIAS
C15
1
28
2
27
3
26
4
25
5
24
6
23
CM X883
7
22
8
21
9
20
10
19
11
18
12
17
13
16
14
15
C11
C12
Digital
ground plane
+
Clock Output
L1
VDD(D)
Digital +ve Supply
VSS(A)
Analogue Ground
C13
C14
+
L2
VDD(A)
Analogue +ve Supply
Analogue
ground plane
Figure 3 Power Supply Connections and De-coupling
C11
C12
C13
10nF
10µF
10nF
C14
C15
10µF
100nF
L1
L2
100nH
100nH
See note 7
See note 7
Resistors ±5%, capacitors and inductors ±20% unless otherwise stated.
Notes:
7. The inductors L1 and L2 can be omitted but this may degrade system performance.
It is important to protect the analogue pins from extraneous inband noise and to minimise the impedance
between the CMX883 and the supply and bias de-coupling capacitors. The de-coupling capacitors C11,
C12, C13 and C14 should be as close as possible to the CMX883, particularly C11 and C13. It is
therefore recommended that the printed circuit board is laid out with separate ground planes for the
VSS(A) and VSS(D) in the area of the CMX883, with provision to make a link between them close to the
CMX883.
VBIAS is used as an internal reference for detecting and generating the various analogue signals. It must
be carefully decoupled, to ensure its integrity, so apart from the decoupling capacitor shown, no other
loads should be connected. If VBIAS needs to be used to set the discriminator mid-point reference, it
must be buffered with a high input impedance buffer.
The single ended microphone input(s) and audio output must be ac coupled as shown, so their return
paths can be connected to VSS(A) without introducing dc offsets. Further buffering of the audio output is
advised.
The crystal X1 can be replaced with an external clock source if required/desired. The internal clock
generating circuit can be placed in power-save mode if the clock is provided externally.
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1.4.2
Modulator Outputs
The combination of CMX883 and the modulator output components, R3/C3 and R4/C4, achieve roll-off
rates better than –60dB/decade. If required this can be increased to better than –100dB/decade by
replacing R3/C3 and R4/C4 with the active filter circuit shown in Figure 4.
C17/C19
MOD_1/2
+
R11/R13
R12/R14
C16/C18
Modulator 1 & 2
-
VSS(A)
Figure 4 Modulator output components to achieve -100dB/decade roll-off
R11
R12
R13
R14
120kΩ
120kΩ
120kΩ
120kΩ
C16
C17
C18
C19
220pF
440pF
220pF
440pF
(2 x C16)
(2 x C18)
Resistors ±5%, capacitors and inductors ±20% unless otherwise stated.
Notes:
8. The external op-amp must be chosen to ensure that the required signal output level can be driven
within acceptable distortion limits.
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1.5
CMX883
General Description
The CMX883 is intended for use in half duplex analogue two way land mobile radio (LMR) equipment and
is particularly suited to enhanced MURS / GMRS / FRS terminal designs. The CMX883 provides radio
signal encoder and decoder functions for: Voice, in-band tones, XTCSS, CTCSS and DCS permitting
simple to sophisticated levels of tone control and data transfer. Power control facilities allow the device
to be placed in varying levels of sleep allowing the user to fine tune the power depending on system
requirements. The CMX883 includes a crystal clock generator, with buffered output, to provide a
common system clock if required. A block diagram of the CMX883 is shown in Figure 1.
Tx functions
Audio
o Single/dual microphone inputs with input amplifier and programmable gain adjustment
o Filtering selectable for 12.5kHz and 25kHz channels
o Selectable pre-emphasis
o Selectable compression
o Selectable frequency inversion voice scrambling
o 2-point modulation outputs with programmable level adjustment
Signalling
o Pre-programmed 51 tone CTCSS encoder
o Programmable 23/24bit DCS encoder
o Programmable audio tone generator (for custom audio tones)
o Pre-programmed XTCSS and in-band tone encoder
Rx functions
Audio
o Single/dual demodulator inputs with input amplifier and programmable gain adjustment
o Voice-band and sub-audio rejection filtering
o Selectable de-emphasis
o Selectable expansion
o Selectable frequency inversion voice de-scrambling
o Software volume control
Signalling
o 1 from 51 CTCSS decoder + Tone Clone mode
o 23/24bit DCS decoder
o Pre-programmed in-band tone decode with XTCSS 4 tone addressing
o Signal Monitor (RSSI / Microphone / Rx channel level monitor)
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Voice Processing Combinations
Table 1 shows the valid voice processing combinations.
Table 1 Voice Processing Combinations
TX
Compress
Scramble
1
2
3
4
5
6
3
3
7
3
3
81
3
3
3
3
Pre-Emphasis
De-Emphasis
3
3
3
3
3
3
Filter Filter
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Not Valid
3
3
Not Recommended
3
3
RX
De-Scramble
3
3
3
3
3
3
Expand
3
3
3
3
Host Interface
A serial data interface (C-BUS) is used for command, status and data transfers between the CMX883 and
the host µC; this interface is compatible with microwire, SPI etc. Interrupt signals notify the host µC when
a change in status has occurred and the µC should read the status register across the C-BUS and
respond accordingly. Interrupts only occur if the appropriate mask bit has been set. See section 1.6.15.
Auxiliary (Signal Monitor) analogue signal
The CMX883 includes a Signal level monitor. This is an 8-bit successive approximation ADC and a two
level signal sensor. The two level sensor facility can be used in conjunction with the power saving mode
to wake up powered down blocks, and issue an interrupt on the IRQN line when the Signal exceeds the
preset threshold level. The auxiliary ADC voltage reference is taken directly from the VDD(A) supply, so
the Signal level being monitored should be derived from this supply voltage.
1
Audio quality is somewhat degraded.
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1.5.1
Sleep Mode and Auto Start Up
Power-on reset or C-BUS general reset places the CMX883 into sleep mode, which results in all internal
blocks, except the xtal clock circuit, being placed in power-saved mode. The xtal clock circuit can be
power-saved but this must be done by an explicit C-BUS command. Power saving is achieved by turning
off bias current sources or disabling local clocks, as appropriate.
During system standby periods, parts of the device can be put into sleep mode by the host to conserve
power. The Auxiliary ADC can be programmed so that when the level exceeds a threshold, an interrupt
is issued over the C-BUS and the selected mode (Tx or Rx) “woken up” within 400µs. If this time is too
long to ensure no part of the signal is lost, the DISC or MIC input and ADC path can be kept powered up
whilst in standby mode. The receive modes and transmit modes can also be activated by commands
from the C-BUS. On wake up, activation of the various signal path stages are phased appropriately to
avoid causing unwanted transients. More details are provided in section 1.6.4 on Signal Routing.
The CMX883 can be programmed to wake up its receive path automatically (automatic start-up) when the
DISC input level exceeds the ‘high’ level threshold. While the CMX883 is in automatic receive start-up
mode the DISC input must also be selected for the signal path. When not in automatic start-up mode it is
recommended that the required input is selected during Auxiliary ADC operation to avoid subsequent
switching of the input signal source.
1.5.2
Auxiliary ADC
This section of the CMX883 operates in both Tx and Rx modes and can be used to monitor one of 4
signal sources: Sig_Monitor pin, MIC1, Input_2 or DISC inputs. Activity on the selected input will
optionally issue an interrupt if host intervention is required. During idle periods the majority of the
CMX883 can be placed into low power mode. If monitoring ac signals connected to the Sig_Monitor pin
they must be rectified and filtered using passive external circuitry.
The Auxiliary ADC facility comprises an 8-bit ADC, a comparator, an 8-bit result data word and two 8-bit
threshold registers, one defining the ‘Signal high’ level and the other the ‘Signal low’ level. The two
threshold registers are combined into one 16-bit C-BUS register word. The ADC measures the Signal
level at intervals that are set by C-BUS command. It is advised that the interval be set to <125µs while
waiting for a new incoming signal so that the CMX883 and host µC can be powered up and put into the
correct mode in time to avoid missing any part of the signal. The default interval period following a reset
is 20.8µs. Power dissipation of the Auxiliary ADC can be reduced by increasing the conversion interval
time.
The result of the most recent Auxiliary ADC measurement can be read over the C-BUS whenever the
Signal Processing and Aux ADC circuits are powered up.
The Auxiliary ADC compares each conversion result with the values in the ‘Signal high’ or the ‘Signal low’
threshold registers. The CMX883 can, for example, issue an interrupt to the host µC to wake up the
receive path when the Auxiliary ADC input exceeds the ‘high’ level threshold. The CMX883 can also
issue an interrupt to the host µC to indicate a weak or absent signal when it falls below the ‘low’ level
threshold. This provides a user programmable hysteresis facility. The host must ensure that the value in
the ‘low’ register is always less than that of the ‘high’ register. The options for issuing interrupts and for
automatic start-up are selected by C-BUS command.
The Auxiliary ADC options are controlled by the $B2, $B3 and $C0 C-BUS registers.
The Auxiliary ADC requires the Auxiliary ADC, BIAS and Xtal clock to all be enabled in the Power Down
Control register.
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1.5.3
Receive Mode
The CMX883 can receive voice and various signal formats: CTCSS tone, DCS code and XTCSS / Inband tones. Reception of each of these signal types can be independently enabled/disabled by C-BUS
command. If enabled, an interrupt will be issued to notify the host µC of the presence and type of the
incoming signal.
In receive mode the CMX883 performs signal type identification in 2 frequency bands, sub-audio (60 260Hz) and voice band (300 - 3kHz), to determine what type of signal is being received. When an
enabled signal is detected this will be indicated to the host over the C-BUS and the CMX883 will continue
to process the received signal in its band. Identification / process mode will continue in the other band.
The CMX883 can process voice and simultaneously identify and process at least 2 other signal types
(one in the sub-audio in parallel with one in the voice band). See Table 2 for valid combinations. These
combinations can be used with Voice Processing, if desired.
The receive gain and audio output amplifier gain can be adjusted by the host µC, via C-BUS command,
to provide receive signal level adjustment and output volume control or muting.
Table 2 Concurrent Rx Signalling Modes Supported by the CMX883
Sub-Audio
All combinations of:
Voice band signalling
DCS
Inverted DCS
CTCSS
XTCSS or In-band tones
By disabling all the decoding modes, the device can be configured to receive voice only
signals with no decoding of the voice band, CTCSS or DCS signalling. This will result in reception of all
signals as if they are voice. In this case it is up to the user/host µC to respond appropriately to incoming
signals.
The CMX883 operates in half duplex, so whilst in receive mode the transmit path (microphone input and
modulator output amplifiers) can be disabled and powered down if required. The AUDIO output signal
level is equalised (to VBIAS) before switching between the audio port and the modulator ports, to minimise
unwanted audible transients. The Off/Power-save level of the modulator outputs is the same as the
VBIAS pin, so the audio output level must also be at this level before switching.
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1.5.3.1
Receiving Voice Band Signals
When a voice based signal is being received, it is up to the µC, in response to signal status information
provided by the CMX883, to control muting/enabling of the voice band signal to the AUDIO output.
The discriminator path through the device has a programmable gain stage. Whilst in receive mode this
should normally be set to 0dB (the default) gain.
Receive Filtering
The incoming signal is filtered, as shown in Figure 5, to remove sub-audio components and to minimise
high frequency noise. When appropriate the voice signal can then be routed to the AUDIO output.
10
250Hz
0
-10
Filter response
-20
-30
Template
-40
300Hz
3kHz
-50
-60
10Hz
100Hz
1000Hz
10000Hz
100000Hz
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 5 Rx Audio Filter Frequency Response
De-emphasis
Optional de-emphasis at -6dB per octave from 300Hz to 3000Hz (shown in Figure 6) can be selected to
facilitate compliance with TIA/EIA-603.
16
12
8
4
dB
0dB/octave
0
-6dB/octave
+1dB
-4
0dB
-8
-3dB
-12
-16
-18dB/octave
-20
1000
Frequency (Hz)
2500
250
100
10000
Figure 6 De-emphasis Curve for TIA/EIA-603 Compliance
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CMX883
Rx Companding (Expanding)
The CMX883 incorporates an optional syllabic compandor in both transmit and receive modes. This
expands received voice band signals that have been similarly compressed in the transmitter to enhance
dynamic range. The compandor attack, decay and 0dB point are defined in section 1.8.1. See section
1.6.9 for details of how to control this function.
Audio De-Scrambling
The CMX883 incorporates an optional frequency inversion de-scrambler receive mode. This descrambles received voice band signals that have been scrambled in the transmitter. See section 1.6.9 for
details of how to control this function.
Voice Processing Combinations
Table 1 shows the valid voice processing combinations. (See section 1.5).
1.5.3.2
Receiving and Decoding CTCSS Tones
The CMX883 is able to accurately detect valid CTCSS tones quickly to avoid losing the beginning of
voice or possibly data transmissions, and is able to continuously monitor the detected tone with minimal
probability of falsely dropping out. The received signal is filtered in accordance with the template shown
in Figure 7, to prevent signals outside the sub-audio range from interfering with the sub-audio tone
detection.
10
0
Gain (dB)
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
0
200
400
600
800
1000
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 7 Low Pass Sub-Audio Band Filter for CTCSS and DCS
Once a valid CTCSS tone has been detected, the voice band signal can be passed to the audio output.
The voice band signal is extracted from the received signal by band pass filtering as shown in Figure 5.
To help decode received CTCSS tones adjustable decoder bandwidths and threshold levels permit
decode certainty and signal to noise performance to be traded when congestion or range limits the
system performance. This entails setting the tone decoder bandwidth and threshold level in P2.1 of the
Programming register ($C8) and programming the Audio & Tx CTCSS Control register with the desired
tone.
Tone Cloning
TM
Tone Cloning facilitates the detection of CTCSS tones 1 to 39 in receive mode. This allows the device
to non-predictively detect any tone in this range. The range received tone number will be reported in the
 Tone Cloning is a trademark of CML Microsystems Plc.
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CMX883
Tones Status register. This tone code can then be programmed into the ‘Audio and Device Address
Control’ register, by the host µC. The cloned tone will only be active when CTCSS is enabled in the Mode
register.
Tone cloning should not be used in systems where tones 41 to 51 or other split tones (tones between the
frequencies of tones 1 to 40) may be received. The all call tone 40 can still be used after tone cloning
has been performed.
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CMX883
CTCSS Tones
Table 3 lists the CTCSS tones available. The tone numbers are decimal equivalents of the numbers
written to the Audio & Device Address Control register ($C2) and reported in the Tone Status register
($CC).
Tone
Number
1
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Freq.
(Hz)
No Tone
67.0
71.9
74.4
77.0
79.7
82.5
85.4
88.5
91.5
94.8
97.4
100.0
103.5
107.2
110.9
114.8
118.8
123.0
127.3
Table 3 CTCSS Tones
Tone
Freq.
Tone
Number
(Hz)
Number
2
20
131.8
40
21
136.5
41
22
141.3
42
23
146.2
43
24
151.4
44
25
156.7
45
26
162.2
46
27
167.9
47
28
173.8
48
29
179.9
49
30
186.2
50
31
192.8
51
32
203.5
52-54
33
210.7
553
34
218.1
35
225.7
>=56
36
233.6
37
241.8
38
250.3
39
69.3
Freq.
(Hz)
62.5*
159.8*
165.5*
171.3*
177.3*
183.5*
189.9*
196.6*
199.5*
206.5*
229.1*
254.1*
Reserved
Invalid
tone
Reserved
* Subaudio tone not in TIA-603A standard.
Notes:
1
2
3
Tone number 00 in the Tone Status register ($CC) indicates that none of the above subaudio
tones is being detected - see also section 1.6.19. If tone number 00 is programmed into the
Audio & Device Address Control register ($C2) only tone 40 will be scanned for - see note 2. If
CTCSS transmit is selected this tone setting will cause the CTCSS generator to output no
signal.
Tone number 40 provides an all user CTCSS tone option; regardless of the subaudio tones set,
the CMX883 will indicate to the host when this tone is detected whenever the CTCSS detector is
enabled. This feature is useful for implementing emergency type calls. e.g. all call.
Tone number 55 is reported in the Tone Status register ($CC), when CTCSS receive is enabled
and a subaudio tone is detected that does not correspond to the selected tone or the all-call tone
(tone number 40). This could be a tone in the subaudio band which is not in the table or a tone
in the table which is not the selected tone or all-call tone.
1.5.3.3
Receiving and Decoding DCS Codes
DCS Code is in NRZ format and transmitted at 134.4 ±0.4bps. The CMX883 is able to decode any 23 or
24 bit pattern in either of the two DCS modulation modes defined by TIA/EIA-603 and described in Table
4. The CMX883 can detect a valid DCS Code quickly enough to avoid losing the beginning of voice
transmissions.
Table 4 DCS Modulation Modes
Modulation Type:
Data Bit:
FM Frequency Change:
A
0
Minus frequency shift
1
Plus frequency shift
B
0
Plus frequency shift
1
Minus frequency shift
The CMX883 detects the DCS code that matches the programmed code defined in the ‘DCS Code’ words
(P2.2-3) in the Programming register ($C8).
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To detect the pre-programmed DCS code the signal is low pass filtered to suppress all but the sub-audio
band using the filter shown in Figure 7. Further equalisation filtering, signal slicing and level detection
are done to extract the code being received. The extracted code is then matched with the programmed
23 or 24-bit DCS code to be recognised, in the order least significant first through to most significant DCS
code bit last. Table 5 shows a selection of valid 23-bit DCS codes, this does not preclude other codes
being programmed. Recognition of a valid DCS Code will be flagged if the decode is successful (3 or
less errors). A failure to decode is indicated by a '0' flag. This flag is updated after the decoding of every
4th bit of the incoming signal.
Once a valid DCS Code has been detected, the voice band signal can be passed to the AUDIO output
under the control of the host µC. The voice signal is extracted from the received input signal by band
pass filtering; see Figure 5.
More details for programming DCS Codes are provided in section 1.6.20.3.
The end of DCS transmissions is indicated by a 134.4 ±0.5Hz tone for 150-200ms. Detection of the turn
off tone is enabled whenever DCS receive is active. To detect the DCS turn off tone while receiving
DCS, the DCS turn off tone option must be selected in the Audio and CTCSS Control ($C2) register and
CTCSS receive must also be enabled.
Table 5 DCS 23 Bit Codes
DCS
Code
023
025
026
031
032
043
047
051
054
065
071
072
073
074
114
115
116
125
131
132
134
143
152
155
156
162
165
172
DCS
bits
22-12
763
6B7
65D
51F
5F5
5B6
0FD
7CA
6F4
5D1
679
693
2E6
747
35E
72B
7C1
07B
3D3
339
2ED
37A
1EC
44D
4A7
6BC
31D
05F
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
DCS
bits
11-0
813
815
816
819
81A
823
827
829
82C
835
839
83A
83B
83C
84C
84D
84E
855
859
85A
85C
863
86A
86D
86E
872
875
87A
DCS
Code
174
205
223
226
243
244
245
251
261
263
265
271
306
311
315
331
343
346
351
364
365
371
411
412
413
423
431
432
DCS
bits
22-12
18B
6E9
68E
7B0
45B
1FA
58F
627
177
5E8
43C
794
0CF
38D
6C6
23E
297
3A9
0EB
685
2F0
158
776
79C
3E9
4B9
6C5
62F
21
DCS
bits
11-0
87C
885
893
896
8A3
8A4
8A5
8A9
8B1
8B3
8B5
8B9
8C6
8C9
8CD
8D9
8E3
8E6
8E9
8F4
8F5
8F9
909
90A
90B
913
919
91A
DCS
Code
445
464
465
466
503
506
516
532
546
565
606
612
624
627
631
632
654
662
664
703
712
723
731
732
734
743
754
DCS
bits
22-12
7B8
27E
60B
6E1
3C6
2F8
41B
0E3
19E
0C7
5D9
671
0F5
01F
728
7C2
4C3
247
393
22B
0BD
398
1E4
10E
0DA
14D
20F
DCS
bits
11-0
925
934
935
936
943
946
94E
95A
966
975
986
98A
994
997
999
99A
9AC
9B2
9B4
9C3
9CA
9D3
9D9
9DA
9DC
9E3
9EC
D/883/7
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CMX883
1.5.3.4
Receiving and Decoding In-band Tones
In-band tones can be used to flag the start of a call or to confirm the end of a call. If they occur during a
call the tone may be audible at the receiver. When enabled, an interrupt will be issued when a signal
matching a valid In-band tone is detected and when a present In-band tone turns off or changes (i.e. at
the start and at the end of each In-band tone).
The CMX883 implements QTC coding using the EEA tone set. Other addressing and data formats can
be implemented but will require more host intervention. The custom tones (1-4) permit other audio tones
to be encoded or decoded, the frequency of each tone is defined in the program registers P1.2-5.
In receive the CMX883 scans through the tone table sequentially, the code reported will be the first one
that matches the incoming frequency.
Adjustable decoder bandwidths, threshold levels are programmable via the Programming register and
permits certainty of detection and signal to noise performance to be traded when congestion or range
limits the system performance. The In-band signal is derived from the received input signal after the
band pass filtering shown in Figure 5.
Table 6 In-band Tones
Normal Tones
(5th bit = 1)
4 bit Code
Freq.
Dec Hex
(Hz)
0
0
1981
1
1
1124
2
2
1197
3
3
1275
4
4
1358
5
5
1446
6
6
1540
7
7
1640
8
8
1747
9
9
1860
10
A
1055
11
B
930
12
C
2247
13
D
991
2
14
E
2110
15
F
No Tone
Special / Information Tones
th
(5 bit = 0)
4 bit Code
Freq.
Dec Hex
(Hz)
0
0
No Tone
1
1
1
Custom Tone 0 P1.2
1
2
2
Custom Tone 1 P1.3
1
3
3
Custom Tone 2 P1.4
1
4
4
Custom Tone 3 P1.5
5
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9
Reserved
10
A
11
B
12
C
13
D
14
E
15
F
Notes:
1
2
Special tones 1-4 provide user programmable tone options for both transmit and receive modes
as set in the indicated Program register, for programming information see section 1.6.20.2.
Normal tone 14 is the repeat tone, this code is must be used in transmit when the new code to
be sent is the same as the previous one. e.g. to send ‘333’ the sequence ‘3R3’ should be sent,
where ‘R’ is the repeat tone. When receiving Selcall tones the CMX883 will indicate the repeat
tone when it is received, it is up to the host to interpret this and decode tones accordingly.
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1.5.3.5
Receiving XTCSS Signals
The CMX883 can decode and monitor for XTCSS signalling. XTCSS is used to identify the start and
optionally the end of voice/data/other calls. It provides additional information and control over the basic
CTCSS method of channel coding.
XTCSS coding starts with a 4 tone sequence indicating the address and content of the following
message. Immediately after the 4 tone sequence a sub-audio maintenance tone is sent for the duration
of the call. At the end of the call the maintenance tone is removed and an optional 4 tone sequence sent
indicating the end of message (EOM). For further details on XTCSS see section 1.5.5.
By enabling XTCSS reception the host instructs the CMX883 to search for a valid 4 tone sequence, an
interrupt (if enabled) will be generated when this occurs. The 4 tone sequence will be indicated in the CBUS register ($C9) for the host to read out using the tone numbers in Table 6.
The sub-audio tone will be searched for after a valid 4 tone In-band sequence if CTCSS detection is also
enabled. CTCSS codes will be decoded and reported as defined in section 1.5.3.2. It is not necessary to
enable CTCSS in the Mode Control register for the device to search for the XTCSS sub audio tone.
In receive, whenever the XTCSS detect bit is set the CMX883 will search for a valid 4 tone In-band
sequence however detection of a CTCSS tone will inhibit the search for 4 tone sequences. To be valid
the 4 tones must be preceded and followed by silence in the audio band (signals below the audio detect
level - see program register P1.1) for the programmed no tone time. The presence (or absence) of the
sub-audio maintenance tone will only be indicated to the host if the CTCSS detect bit is also set. After
the 4 tone sequence is detected the maintenance tone can be used by the host to detect fades and the
end of the message and hence can disable the audio path in sympathy with this tone being absent. At
any time the XTCSS enable bit is set and maintenance tone is not decoded the 4 tone set will be
automatically searched for.
It is possible (although unlikely) that a fade will exactly coincide and obliterate 2 lots of 4 tone sequence
indicating an EOM and the start of a new message. In this case, the host could misinterpret the received
signal as a long fade and enable the voice when the maintenance tone reappears. It is therefore
recommended that the host operates a timer that is started on loss of maintenance tone. If this times out
the host can then assume that the fade is long enough that the original call is lost or has become so
corrupted that it is not worth continuing with. The host could then choose only to restore the audio path
on the next occurrence of a valid XTCSS tone set. Note that the XTCSS detector operates independently
and the host may enable or disable the audio path at any time.
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1.5.4
Transmit Mode
The device operates in half duplex, so when the device is in transmit mode the receive path
(discriminator and audio output amplifiers) should be disabled, and can be powered down, by the host
µC.
Two modulator outputs with independently programmable gains are provided to facilitate single or twopoint modulation, separate sub-audio and voice band outputs. If one of the modulator outputs is not used
it can be disabled to conserve power.
To avoid erroneous transmission of out of band frequencies when changing from Rx to Tx the MOD_1
and MOD_2 outputs are ramped to the quiescent modulator output level, VBIAS before switching.
Similarly, when starting a transmission, the transmitted signal strength is ramped up from the quiescent
VBIAS level and when ending a transmission the transmitted signal strength is ramped down to the
quiescent VBIAS level. The ramp rates are set in the Programming register P4.6. When the modulator
outputs are disabled, their outputs will be set to VBIAS. When the modulator output drivers are powered
down, their outputs will be floating (high impedance), so the RF modulator will need to be turned off.
Table 7 Concurrent Tx Modes Supported by the CMX883
Sub-Audio
CTCSS
CTCSS
CTCSS
CTCSS^
DCS
DCS
DCS
Voice band
+
+
+
Voice
In-band tone
XTCSS
+
+
Voice
In-band tone
Voice
In-band tone
XTCSS
^ Special subaudio tone only
For all transmissions the host must only enable signals after the appropriate data and settings for those
signals are loaded into the C-BUS registers. As soon as any signalling is enabled the CMX883 will use
the settings to control the way information is transmitted.
A programmable gain stage in the microphone input path facilitates a host controlled VOGAD capability.
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CMX883
1.5.4.1 Processing Voice Signals for Transmission over Analogue Channels
The microphone input(s), with programmable gain, can be selected as the voice input source. Preemphasis is selectable with either version of the 2 analogue Tx audio filters (for 12.5kHz and 25kHz
channel spacing).
These are designed for use in ETS-300-086 and/or TIA/EIA-603 compliant
applications. Both filters attenuate sub-audio frequencies below 250Hz by more than 33dB wrt the signal
level at 1kHz. These filters together with a built in limiter help ensure compliance with ETS-300-086
(25kHz and 12.5kHz channel spacing) when levels and gain settings are set up correctly in the target
system.
10
reference 0dB at 1kHz
3kHz
+0.5dB/-2dB wrt ref.
0
-30
-14dB/octave
300Hz
-20
250Hz
Gain (dB)
-10
-33dB
-40
-50
-60
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 8 25kHz Channel Audio Filter Response Template
The filter characteristics of the 12.5kHz channel filter fits the filter template shown in Figure 9 (solid
outline). This filter also facilitates implementation of systems compliant with TIA/EIA-603 ‘A’ and ‘B’
bands. To achieve attenuation above 3kHz of better than −100dB/decade for TIA/EIA-603 ‘C’ bands
(dashed outline), additional external circuitry is required, such as suggested in section 1.4.2.
10
reference 0dB at 1kHz
+0.5dB/-2dB wrt ref.
0
3kHz
-30
-60dB/decade wrt ref.
2.55kHz
250Hz
Gain (dB)
-20
300Hz
-10
-33dB
-40
(-50dB)
-50
20kHz
-60
-100dB/decade
-70
(-82.5dB)
-80
20kHz
-90
10
100
1000
10000
100000
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 9 12.5kHz Channel Audio Filter Response Template
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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CMX883
The CMX883 provides selectable pre-emphasis filtering of +6dB per octave from 300Hz to 3000Hz,
matching the template shown in Figure 10.
16
12
+6dB/octave
8
+1dB
4
dB
0dB
0
-4
-3dB
-8
-12
-16
+12dB/octave
-20
1000
Frequency (Hz)
2500
250
100
10000
Figure 10 Audio Frequency Pre-emphasis Template
Modulator Output Routing
The sub-audio component can be combined with the voice band signal and this composite signal routed
to both MOD_1 and MOD_2 outputs, or the sub-audio and voice band signal can be output separately
(sub-audio to MOD_2 and voice band to MOD_1), in accordance with the settings of the Signal Routing
register ($B1).
Tx Companding (Compressing)
The CMX883 incorporates an optional syllabic compandor in both transmit and receive modes. This
compresses voice band signals before transmission to enhance dynamic range. The compandor attack,
decay and 0dB point are defined in section 1.8.1. See section 1.6.9 for details of how to control this
function.
Audio Scrambling
The CMX883 incorporates an optional frequency inversion scrambler in transmit mode. This scrambles
voice band signals to be de-scrambled in the receiver. See section 1.6.9 for details of how to control this
function.
Voice Processing Combinations
Table 1 shows the valid voice processing combinations (see section 1.5).
1.5.4.2 CTCSS Tone
The sub-audio CTCSS tone generated is defined in the Tx CTCSS register ($C2). Table 3 lists the
CTCSS tones and the corresponding value for programming the TX TONE bits.
1.5.4.3
DCS Code
A 23 or 24-bit sub-audio DCS Code can be generated, as defined by the ‘DCS Code’ words (P2.4-5) of
the Programming register ($C8); the same DCS Code pattern is used for detection and transmission.
The DCS Code is NRZ encoded at 134.4±0.4 bits/s, low pass filtered and added to the voice band signal,
prior to passing the signal to the modulator output stages. Valid 23-bit DCS codes and the corresponding
settings for the DCS Code Register are shown in Table 5, this does not preclude other codes being
programmed. The least significant bit of the DCS code is transmitted first and the most significant bit is
transmitted last. The CMX883 is able to encode and transmit either of the two DCS modulation modes
defined by TIA/EIA-603 and described in Table 4.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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CMX883
To signal the end of the DCS transmission, the host should set the special sub-audio bits in the Audio &
CTCSS Control register ($C2) to enable the DCS turn off tone for 150ms to 200ms. After this time period
has elapsed the host should then disable DCS in the Mode register ($C1). Do not enable CTCSS in the
Mode Control ($C1) register when transmitting the DCS turn off tone. To summarize, detection of DCS
turn off tone requires the CTCSS decoder to be enabled, whereas generation of the DCS turn off tone
requires the CTCSS encoder to be disabled.
1.5.4.4
Transmitting In-band Tones
The In-band tone to be generated is defined in the Tx Tone register ($C3). The tone level is set in the
Programming register (P1.4). The In-band tone must be transmitted without other signals in the voice
band, so the host µC must disable the voice path prior to initiating transmission of a In-band tone, and
restore the voice path after the In-band tone transmission is complete. Table 6 shows valid In-band
tones, together with the values for programming the In-band bits of the Tx Tone register.
Custom In-band tone frequencies are set in the program register ($C8) P1.6-9. See section 1.6.20.2 for
programming details.
1.5.4.5
Transmitting XTCSS Signalling
XTCSS signals can be transmitted by loading the 4 tone pattern and CTCSS tone into the C-BUS
registers and enabling XTCSS. The device will transmit the 4 tones in sequence, raise an interrupt when
this is complete and then automatically generate the CTCSS tone (if enabled). At the end of the
message the CTCSS tone can be disabled by setting the CTCSS enable bit to '0'. The XTCSS 4 tone
sequence must be transmitted on its own, so if a voice or a data signal is being transmitted, this must be
disabled during the XTCSS 4 tone transmission. See section 1.5.5 for more information.
1.5.5
XTCSS Coding
The CMX883 allows addressed calling using a 4 tone In-band tone burst followed by an optional subaudio ‘XTCSS maintenance tone’ (at 64.7Hz). In transmit the CMX883 handles the transmission of the 4
tone sequence and the sub-audio tone. In receive the CMX883 will search for valid In-band tone
sequences containing the previously programmed address.
The over air signalling of XTCSS is shown below:
XTCSS sub-audio
A
In-band tones
A1 A0 S0 S1
B
Voice / Data
Notes:
• To reduce 'cut on' time with XTCSS voice calls, the host can enable the receive audio path at 'B'
(as soon as the 4 tone sequence is available), before the sub-audio is detected.
• XTCSS 4 tone sequences must be prefixed and suffixed with a silent 'no-tone' period of at least
the length of each tone. See also programming register P1.1.
In-band tones A1 and A0 are the BCD (binary coded decimal) representation of the Device Address bits
of $C2 register, the valid XTCSS address range is 01 to 99, A0 is the least significant digit. The XTCSS
address '40' is reserved for an all call address - regardless of the XTCSS address being searched for the
CMX883 will always indicate when a valid 4 tone set containing address '40' has been received.
In transmit the CMX883 will only generate the sub-audio maintenance tone when the CTCSS enable bit is
set to '0'. The sub-audio tone (if enabled) will be automatically output after the 4th XTCSS tone has been
transmitted. An XTCSS interrupt is generated (if enabled) at point 'A' - see diagram above, the host
should then wait before enabling the audio path (or transmitting data) to ensure sufficient no-tone suffix to
the XTCSS 4 tone set. To summarize, detection of XTCSS sub-audio maintenance tone requires the
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
CTCSS decoder to be enabled, whereas generation of the XTCSS sub-audio maintenance tone requires
the CTCSS encoder to be disabled.
In-band tone S0 is selected from the normal tone range of $B - $D to maintain compatibility with HSC
type addressing. In-band tone S1 is selected from the normal tone range $0 - $9. The bit patterns for S0
and S1 indicate the type of information to follow according to the following tables:
In-band tone S0
Dec
Hex
0-10
0-$A
11
$B
12
$C
13
$D
Reserved, do not use for S0
Silent (non-voice) call to follow, see S1a
Voice to follow - see S1b
Reserved, do not use for S0
In-band tone S1a
Dec
Hex
0-3
0-3
4-7
4-7
8
8
9-13
9-$D
User option for S1a
Reserved - do not use for S1a
End of XTCSS coded message (EOM)
Reserved - do not use for S1a
In-band tone S1b
Dec
Hex
0
0
1
1
2-13
2-$D
Voice message Compressed
No
Yes
Reserved, do not use for S1b
Note: Tone numbers in the above tables refer to the Normal tone column as defined in Table 6.
Examples:
Device
address
$22
$03
$2C
Note:
Over air
4 tones
34C0
03C1
4EB0
Meaning
Address 34, Un-compressed voice to follow
Address 03, Compressed voice to follow
Address 44, Non voice, user option 0, (E is repeat character)
For all XTCSS coding the CMX883 will add (in Tx) and strip out (in Rx) the repeat tone as
required. The host µC need only load or read out the normal tones listed in Table 6.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.5.6
C-BUS Operation
This block provides for the transfer of data and control or status information between the CMX883’s
internal registers and the µC over the C-BUS serial interface. Each transaction consists of a single
Register Address byte sent from the µC which may be followed by one or more data byte(s) sent from the
µC to be written into one of the CMX883’s Write Only Registers, or one or more data byte(s) read out
from one of the CMX883’s Read Only Registers, as illustrated in Figure 11.
Data sent from the µC on the Command Data line is clocked into the CMX883 on the rising edge of the
Serial_Clock input. Reply Data sent from the CMX883 to the µC is valid when the Serial_Clock is high.
The CSN line must be held low during a data transfer and kept high between transfers. The C-BUS
interface is compatible with most common µC serial interfaces and may also be easily implemented with
general purpose µC I/O pins controlled by a simple software routine.
The number of data bytes following an A/C byte is dependent on the value of the A/C byte. The most
significant bit of the address or data are sent first. For detailed timings see section 1.8.1.
C-BUS Write:
See Note 1
See Note 2
CSN
Serial_Clock
CMD_DATA
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
MSB
0
7
LSB
MSB
Address / Command byte
6
…
0
7
LSB
MSB
Upper 8 bits
…
0
LSB
Lower 8 bits
REPLY_DATA
High Z state
C-BUS Read:
See Note 2
CSN
Serial_Clock
CMD_DATA
7
6
5
4
3
2
MSB
1
0
LSB
Address byte
Upper 8 bits
REPLY_DATA
7
High Z state
Data value unimportant
6
…
MSB
Repeated cycles
Lower 8 bits
0
7
LSB
MSB
…
0
LSB
Either logic level valid
Figure 11 C-BUS Transactions
Notes:
1. For Command byte transfers only the first 8 bits are transferred ($01 = Reset).
2. For single byte data transfers only the first 8 bits of the data are transferred.
3. The CMD_DATA and REPLY_DATA lines are never active at the same time. The Address byte
determines the data direction for each C-BUS transfer.
4. The Serial_Clock input can be high or low at the start and end of each C-BUS transaction.
5. The gaps shown between each byte on the CMD_DATA and REPLY_DATA lines in the above
diagram are optional, the host may insert gaps or concatenate the data as required.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.6
C-BUS Register Description
1.6.1
C-BUS Register Summary
C-BUS Write Only Registers
ADDR.
(hex)
$01
$B0
$B1
$B2
$B3
$C0
$C1
$C2
$C3
$C7
$C8
$CA
$CB
$CD
$CE
$CF
REGISTER
C-BUS RESET
ANALOGUE GAIN
SIGNAL ROUTING
AUXILIARY ADC THRESHOLDS
AUXILIARY ADC CONTROL
POWER DOWN CONTROL
MODE CONTROL
AUDIO & DEVICE ADDRESS CONTROL
TX TONE
RESERVED REGISTER ADDRESS
PROGRAMMING REGISTER
RESERVED REGISTER ADDRESS
XTCSS TX DATA
AUDIO TONE
INTERRUPT MASK
RESERVED REGISTER ADDRESS
Word Size
(bits)
0
16
16
16
8
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
The C-BUS addresses $C7, $CA and $CF are allocated for production testing and must not be accessed
in normal operation.
C-BUS Read Only Registers
ADDR
(hex)
$B4
$C5
$C6
$C9
$CC
REGISTER
AUXILIARY ADC DATA
RESERVED REGISTER ADDRESS
STATUS
XTCSS RX DATA
TONE STATUS
Word Size
(bits)
8
16
16
16
16
Interrupt Operation
The CMX883 will issue an interrupt on the IRQN line when the IRQ bit (bit 15) of the Status register and
the IRQ Mask bit (bit 15) are both set to ‘1’. The IRQ bit is set when the state of the interrupt flag bits in
the Status register change from a '0' to a '1' and the corresponding mask bit(s) in the Interrupt Mask
register is(are) set.
All interrupt flag bits in the Status register except the Programming Flag (bit 0) are cleared and the
interrupt request is cleared following the command/address phase of a C-BUS read of the flag register.
The Programming Flag bit is cleared only when it is permissible to write a new word to the Programming
register.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.2
CMX883
$01 C-BUS RESET: address only.
The reset command has no data attached to it. It sets the device registers into the states listed below.
Addr.
REG.
$B0
$B1
ANALOGUE GAIN
SIGNAL ROUTING
AUXILIARY ADC
THRESHOLDS
AUXILIARY ADC CONTROL
AUXILIARY ADC DATA
POWER DOWN CONTROL
MODE CONTROL
AUDIO & DEVICE ADDRESS
CONTROL
TX TONE
STATUS
Reserved Register Address
PROGRAMMING REGISTER
XTCSS RX DATA
XTCSS TX DATA
TONE STATUS
AUDIO TONE
INTERRUPT MASK
Reserved Register Address
Transmit Limiter Control
$B2
$B3
$B4
$C0
$C1
$C2
$C3
$C6
$C7
$C8
$C9
$CB
$CC
$CD
$CE
$CF
P4.7
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
X
0
0
0 0
X X
0 0
0 0
0
X
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
X
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
-
Following a C-BUS reset all of the programming registers (P0 – P4) are reset to zero.
The transmit limiter value is initialised to the maximum limit.
To initialise the device following power-up, or to clear the current device state, apply the following
sequence of C-Bus actions:
1. Send a C-Bus Reset command.
2. Send $2001 to the Mode Control register (C-Bus address $C1).
3. Send $0000 to the Mode Control register.
The device is now ready to be configured for its next application.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.3
Bit:
CMX883
$B0 ANALOGUE GAIN: 16-bit write-only
15
14
Inv_1
13
12
MOD_1
Attenuation
11
10
Inv_2
9
8
7
MOD_2
Attenuation
6
5
4
3
Input
Gain
0
2
1
0
Audio Output
Attenuation
Bits 15 and 11 set the phase of the MOD_1 and MOD_2 outputs. When set to '0' the 'true' signal (0°
phase shift) will be produced, when set to '1' the signal will be inverted (180° phase shift). This can be
useful when interfacing with rf circuitry or when generating an inverted turn off tone for CTCSS. Any
change will take place immediately after these bits are changed.
The output paths provide user programmable attenuation stages to independently adjust the output levels
of the modulators. Finer level control of the MOD_1 and MOD_2 outputs can be achieved with the FINE
OUTPUT GAIN 1 and FINE OUTPUT GAIN 2 registers (P4.2-3).
Bit 14 Bit 13 Bit 12
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
MOD_1 Output
Attenuation
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
MOD_2 Output
Attenuation
>40dB
12dB
10dB
8dB
6dB
4dB
2dB
0dB
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
>40dB
12dB
10dB
8dB
6dB
4dB
2dB
0dB
Bit 7 is reserved - set to 0.
Bits 6 to 4 control the input path programmable gain stage - useful when amplifying low power voice
signals from the microphone inputs. Finer gain control can be achieved with the ‘FINE INPUT GAIN’
control register (P4.0). In receive mode it is recommended to set the gain to 0dB.
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Input Gain
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Audio Output
Attenuation
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0dB
3.2dB
6.4dB
9.6dB
12.8dB
16.0dB
19.2dB
22.4dB
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
>60dB
44.8dB
41.6dB
38.4dB
35.2dB
32.0dB
28.8dB
25.6dB
22.4dB
19.2dB
16.0dB
12.8dB
9.6dB
6.4dB
3.2dB
0dB
Bits 3 to 0 control the output path programmable attenuation stage to adjust the volume of the audio
output signal. Finer volume control can be achieved with the ‘FINE OUTPUT GAIN 1’ control register
(P4.2).
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.4
Bit:
CMX883
$B1 SIGNAL ROUTING: 16-bit write-only
15
14
0
0
13
12
Tx MOD_1 and
MOD_2 Routing
11
10
9
8
7
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
4
3
Analogue
i/p select
2
AUDIO
o/p select
1
0
Ramp
Up
Ramp
Down
Bits 15 and 14 reserved - set to 0.
Bits 13 and 12 select the routing of the transmit signals allowing 1 or 2 point modulation and interfaces.
Bit 13
Bit 12
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Tx MOD_1 and MOD_2 routing
Tx, MOD_1 and MOD_2 outputs set to bias.
Tx, In-band signals to MOD_1, Subaudio signals to MOD_2
Tx, In-band and Subaudio to MOD_1, MOD_2 set to vbias
Tx, In-band and Subaudio to both MOD_1 and MOD_2
‘In-Band’ in this context refers to any of the signals; Voice, In-band tone etc.
Bits 11 to 6 are reserved - set to 0.
Bit 5
Bit 4
Analogue Input select
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Bit 3
Bit 2
AUDIO Output select
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
No output selected (Output = VBIAS)
Received Voice signal
MOD_1 signal (for Tx monitoring)
Reserved, do not use
No input selected (Input = VBIAS)
Input amplifier 2 (Input_2 i/p)
Microphone (MIC i/p)
Discriminator (DISC i/p)
When bits 1 or 0 are set to '1' output signals are ramped up (bit 1) or ramped down (bit 0) to reduce
transients in the transmitted signal. Time to ramp up / down is set in the 'Ramp Rate Control' section of
the Programming register (P4.6).
1.6.5
Bit:
$B2 AUXILIARY ADC THRESHOLDS: 16-bit write-only
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
High Threshold [Range: 0 to 255]
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Low Threshold [Range: 0 to 255]
If the selected signal level exceeds the High Threshold, the ‘Signal High’ bit of the Status register will be
set to 1. If the Signal level falls below the Low Threshold, the ‘Signal Low’ bit of the Status register will
be set to 1. If the corresponding interrupt bit is enabled, a C-BUS interrupt will be generated. These
status bits are cleared when the Status register is read. The behaviour of the CMX883 is not defined if
the high threshold is less than the low threshold.
Threshold resolution:
Threshold accuracy:
Differential linearity:
VDD(A)/256 per LSB
±2 LSB
±1 LSB [monotonic]
The ‘Auxiliary ADC Thresholds’ register must not be updated whilst the Auxiliary ADC is enabled.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
33
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.6
Bit:
CMX883
$B3 AUXILIARY ADC CONTROL: 8-bit write-only
7
6
5
4
3
Aux ADC i/p select
2
1
0
Conversion Interval
The ‘Conversion Interval’ (bits 5 to 0) defines the time between measurements whilst the Auxiliary ADC is
enabled. This allows the user to trade-off device power consumption with response time.
(approximate)
= 0.5mW/VDD(A)/conversion
(approximate)
= 20.8µs per LSB.
The user should set an interval to ensure that no part of a received signal is missed, so that the signal
type can be correctly identified. If using the Rx Auto start-up feature the recommended maximum
Conversion Interval is 125µs. The ‘Auxiliary ADC’ register must not be updated whilst the Aux ADC is
enabled.
Auxiliary ADC power
Conversion Interval
The Aux ADC i/p select (bits 7 to 6) control the input to the Auxiliary ADC. Control is independent of the
Analogue i/p select bits and hence the Aux ADC can monitor any one of the 4 inputs independently.
1.6.7
Bit:
Bit:
Bit 7
Bit 6
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Auxiliary ADC input from:
Signal monitor (Sig_Monitor i/p)
Input amplifier 2 (Input_2 i/p)
Microphone (MIC i/p)
Discriminator (DISC i/p)
$C0 POWER DOWN CONTROL: 16-bit write-only
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
Input_2
amp
MIC
amp
Disc
amp
Input
Gain
Output Fine
Gain 1
Output Fine
Gain 2
O/P Coarse
Gain 1
O/P Coarse
Gain 2
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Audio
Output
BIAS
Signal
Processing
Prog Reg
Save
Xtal_N
Clock_Out_N
Enable
Aux ADC
Rx Auto
start-up
Bits 15 to 5 provide the power control of the specified blocks. If a bit is '1', the corresponding block is on,
else it is powered down. A C-BUS or Power up reset clears all bits in this register to '0'.
If bit 5 is '0' the internal signal processing blocks are reset and placed into a power-save mode.
Bit 4 should be set to a '1' if any of the program registers (1.6.20) have been programmed as this
prevents them being reset after a Rx Auto start-up or when the Signal Processing blocks come out of
power save. If bit 4 is set to '0' the program registers will be reset to the C-BUS or Power-up reset state
whenever the Signal Processing blocks come out of power save.
Bits 3 and 2 control the xtal clock circuit. The xtal circuit is powered down by setting bit 3 to '1'. Note:
The Clock/Xtal pin may be driven by an external clock source regardless of the setting of these bits. The
Clock_Out pin is disabled (held low) by setting bit 2 to ‘1’. After a Power-up or C-BUS reset bits 2 and 3
are cleared to ‘0’, so that both the xtal circuit and clock output are enabled.
Bit 1 controls the Auxiliary ADC. If set to '1' the Auxiliary ADC will generate interrupts in accordance with
the settings of the interrupt mask bits. If bit 1 is '0' the Auxiliary ADC is disabled and powered down.
Bit 0 controls Rx Auto start up. If bit 0 is set to '1' and the Aux ADC input rises above the ‘High
Threshold’ the device will automatically enter receive mode and initiate Rx signal type identification for
those signals enabled in the Mode register. The correct Aux ADC input, Rx signal routing and power
down bits must be set for automatic receive start up to operate, the mode control bits should be set to '00'
in this case. If bit 0 is cleared to '0' the CMX883 will not automatically start-up and it is up to the host to
respond to Aux ADC interrupts in this case. Bit 0 must be set to '0' whilst writing through register $C8 Programming Register.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
34
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.8
Bit:
CMX883
$C1 MODE CONTROL: 16-bit write-only
15
14
Enable
Voice
Bit:
13
In band signalling:
In-band tone, XTCSS
12
11
10
9
8
Generate
Audio Tone
Enable
CTCSS
Enable DCS
Enable DCS
Inverse
0
1
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
Mode Select
Bits 1 and 0 control the overall mode of the CMX883 according to the table below:
Bit 1
Bit 0
Device Mode
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Idle
Receive Mode
Transmit Mode
Reserved - do not use
During transmit, only one signal type may be enabled for each of the sub-audio and voice bands, see
Table 7. During receive the CMX883 will search for all signals enabled in this register and report those
that are successfully decoded. See also Table 2 in section 1.5.3.
In transmit mode the CMX883 begins transmission of a selected signal immediately after it has been
enabled. The host µC must ensure all associated data and control bits have been set to their required
values before enabling the signal in this register.
Bits 2 to 8 are reserved - set to '0'.
Bits 11 to 9 determine the sub-audio transmission / reception signalling:
Bit 11
Bit 10
Bit 9
Tx - Transmitted signal:
Rx - Monitored signal(s):
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
No Sub-Audio Transmitted
Inverted DCS*
DCS
Do not use
CTCSS
Do not use
Do not use
Do not use
No Sub-audio Monitoring
Inverted DCS*
DCS
DCS + inv DCS*
CTCSS
CTCSS + inv DCS*
CTCSS + DCS
CTCSS + DCS + inv DCS*
* See Table 4 DCS Modulation Modes.
Bit 12 enables Audio tone generation (see section 1.6.14). This operates in transmit and receive modes.
In transmit mode this bit will only enable the Audio Generator when no other voice band signals are being
transmitted i.e. bits 14 and 13 set to '0'.
Bits 14 and 13 determine the voice band tone transmission and reception. When transmitting or
receiving audio band signals the voice path must be disabled by clearing ‘Voice Enable’ bit 15 to '0'.
Bit 14
Bit 13
Tx - Transmitted signal
Rx - Monitored signal
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
No voice band tone transmitted
In-band tone
Reserved
XTCSS
No voice band tones monitored
In-band tone
Reserved
XTCSS
When set to '1', bit 15 enables the voice path. In transmit mode the selected audio input is routed to the
modulator outputs. In receive mode the voice processing path is enabled to the audio output. In transmit
mode bit 15, if set to '1', will be temporarily disabled (cleared to '0') whenever any of the bits 12, 13 and
14 are set to '1'. In receive mode bit 15, if set to '1', will be temporarily disabled (cleared to '0') whenever
bit 12 is set to '1'. It is up to the host µC to control bit 15 when voice band signals are received.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
35
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
The Mode Control register ($C1) may be written to at any time (subject to C-BUS timing restrictions). If
the enable bit of the currently decoded signal is disabled whilst in phase 2 the CMX883 will return to
phase 1 for that band. If the same signal needs to be searched for again then the appropriate bit needs
to be set back to ‘1’ in $C1. However, to de-emphasise in-band tones, bit 15 must be set to ‘1’.
The CMX883 will only detect signals when their amplitude is above the threshold set for each band (subaudio and voice), as set in the program registers. Therefore even if valid tones or signals are present the
CMX883 will ignore them unless they exceed the detect threshold. Time and level hysteresis is applied
to reduce chattering in marginal conditions.
1.6.9
Bit:
$C2 AUDIO & DEVICE ADDRESS CONTROL: 16-bit write-only
15
14
13
12
0
Scramble
Compand
11
10
Voice filter mode
9
8
7
6
5
Special
Sub-Audio
4
3
2
1
0
Device Address
Bit 14 controls the audio band scrambler. When set to ‘1’ voice signals are scrambled, by frequency
inversion, in transmit and receive modes. When set to ‘0’ no scrambling is performed.
Bits 7 to 0 define the device address. This setting is used for the CTCSS and XTCSS address in both Tx
and Rx modes. The range of valid addresses is: CTCSS tone (1-51 in decimal) and XTCSS (1-99 in
decimal). In Tx this number will be used to select the addressing of the enabled signal, if the address is
outside the valid range no signalling will occur. In Rx this address (along with the all call address of '40')
will be searched for each signalling format enabled in the Mode register, the detected signal type will be
reported in the Status register $C6 and the address will be indicated in the XTCSS Rx Data register $C9
or the Tone Status register $CC.
Bits 9 to 8 select special sub-audio tones in accordance with the following table. Selecting the ‘DCS turn
off tone’ during DCS transmit will cause the DCS turn off tone to be transmitted; this will override the
DCS data being transmitted. ‘DCS turn off tone’ must be selected in this register to enable detection of
the DCS turn off tone during receive. To transmit the 64.7Hz XTCSS maintenance tone, XTCSS transmit
must be selected in the Mode Control register and XTCSS maintenance tone must be selected in this
register. Transmission of the maintenance tone overrides any other CTCSS tone being transmitted. The
XTCSS maintenance tone decoder is enabled by selecting XTCSS receive mode, so it is not necessary to
TM
select the XTCSS maintenance tone in this register when receiving. If the Tone Clone mode is
selected this allows the device in Rx to non-predictively detect any CTCSS frequency in the range of
valid tones, the received tone number will be reported in the Tone Status register $CC.
Bit 9
Bit 8
Freq (Hz)
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
134.4
64.7
Clone
Special Sub-Audio tone
None
DCS turn off tone
XTCSS maintenance tone
CTCSS Tone clone mode (Rx only)
The voice filter control bits 12 and 11 determine the Voice Band Filter mode applied to the voice signal
before it is transmitted or after it has been received. Bit 10 controls the de-emphasis (Rx) or preemphasis (Tx) mode of the voice band filtering.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
Bit 12
Bit 11
Bit 10
X
X
0
0
1
1
X
X
0
1
0
1
0
1
X
X
X
X
Voice filter mode
Disable de/pre-emphasis
Enable de/pre-emphasis
No filtering applied
12.5kHz channel filtering
25.0kHz channel filtering
Reserved – do not use
Bit 13 controls the audio band compandor. When set to '1' audio band signals are compressed in
transmit mode and expanded in receive mode. When set to '0' no companding is performed.
Bits 14 to 15 are reserved, set to '0'.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
37
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.10
Bit:
CMX883
$C3 Tx In-Band Tones: 16-bit write-only
15
14
13
12
11
Tx In-band tone
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Bits 15 to 11 define the tone transmitted when Tx In-band tone is enabled. The frequency is as defined in
Table 6 In-band Tones.
1.6.11
$C7 Reserved - Do not write to this register
1.6.12
$C8 PROGRAMMING REGISTER: 16-bit write-only
Bit:
15
14
13
First
Word
Block
Number
12
11
10
9
8
7
Block /
Data
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Programming Data
See section 1.6.20 for a description of this register.
1.6.13
Bit:
$CB XTCSS Codes: 16-bit write-only
15
14
13
12
XTCSS Tone 3 (S1)
11
10
9
8
XTCSS Tone 2 (S0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
$CB holds the codes to be used when transmitting an XTCSS type tone set. Each 4 bits define the Inband tone used, see Table 6 In-band Tones. S0 and S1 are the information section of the 4 tone set.
This register must be set to the required value before XTCSS transmission is enabled. For more details
see section 1.5.6. Note The address used is defined in the Audio & Device Address Control register.
1.6.14
Bit:
$CD AUDIO TONE: 16-bit write only
15
14
13
12
0
0
0
0
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Audio Tone
When the required bits of the Mode Control register ($C1) are set an audio tone will be generated with
the frequency set by bits (11-0) of this register in accordance with the formula below. If bits 11-0 are
programmed with '0' no tone (i.e. Vbias) will be generated when the Audio Tone is enabled.
frequency = Audio Tone (i.e. 1Hz per LSB)
The Audio Tone frequency must only be set to generate frequencies from 300Hz to 3000Hz.
The host must suppress other voice band signalling and set the correct audio routing before generating
an audio tone and re-enable signalling and audio routing on completion of the audio tone. The timing of
intervals between these actions is also controlled by the host µC.
This register may be written to whilst the audio tone is being generated, any change in frequency will take
place after the end of the C-BUS write to this register. This allows complex sequences (e.g. ring or alert
tunes) to be generated for the local speaker (Tx or Rx via the AUDIO pin) or transmitted signal (Tx via
the MOD1/2 pins).
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
38
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.15
CMX883
$CE INTERRUPT MASK: 16-bit write-only
Bit:
15
14
IRQ
MASK
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Prog
Flag
MASK
Bit:
Bit
15
Value
1
0
14
13
1
12
0
1
11
0
1
10
0
1
0
1
0
9, 8
7-1
0
1
0
13
12
11
Rx CTCSS
Rx In-band
XTCSS MASK
detect MASK
detect MASK
10
9
8
Rx DCS
Aux ADC High Aux ADC Low
detect MASK
MASK
MASK
Function
Enable selected interrupts
Disable all interrupts (IRQN pin not activated)
Reserved – Set to 0
Enable interrupt when a change to a In-band tone is detected as indicated
by a '0' to '1' change of bit 13 of the Status register
Disabled
Enable interrupt when a valid XTCSS 4 tone set is detected or has
finished being transmitted as indicated by a '0' to '1' change on bit 12 of
the Status register
Disabled
Enable interrupt when a change to a programmed CTCSS tone is
detected as indicated by a '0' to '1' change of bit 11 of the Status register
Disabled
Enable interrupt on a change in the detect status of the DCS decoder as
indicated by a change of state on bit 10 of the Status register
Disabled
Enable interrupt when the corresponding Aux ADC status bit changes
Disabled
Reserved - Set to 0
Enable interrupt when Prog Flag bit of the Status register changes from '0'
to '1' (see Programming register $C8)
Disabled
The following 4 registers are read only
1.6.16
Bit:
$B4 AUX ADC MONITOR DATA: 8-bit read-only
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Signal Monitor Data
This data holds the result of the last measurement performed by the auxiliary ADC.
The signal processor must be on to read Auxiliary ADC data, so Power Down Control register b5 must be
set to ‘1’. This is independent of whether Tx or Rx modes are selected.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
39
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.17
CMX883
$C6 STATUS: 16-bit read-only
Bit:
Bit:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
IRQ
0
In-band
tone state
change
XTCSS 4
tone set
complete
CTCSS
state
change
DCS
state
change
Aux ADC
Monitor High
Aux ADC
Monitor Low
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Programming
Flag
This word holds the current status of the CMX883: the value read out is only valid when bit 5 of the Power
Down Control register ($C0) is set to '1'. Changes in the Status register will cause the IRQ bit (bit 15) to
be set to '1' if the corresponding interrupt mask bit is enabled. An interrupt request is issued on the IRQN
pin when the IRQ bit is '1' and the IRQ MASK bit (bit 15 of register $CE) is set to '1'.
Bits 1 to 15 of the Status register are cleared to '0' after the Status register is read. Bit 0 is only cleared
by writing to the Programming Register.
Bits 14 and 7 to 1 are reserved.
Bits 13, 11 and 10 indicate that a In-band tone, CTCSS or DCS event caused the interrupt, the host
should then read the Tones Status register ($CC) for further information. In transmit these bits will be set
to '0'. Detection of the DCS turn off tone and removal of DCS turn off tone are both flagged as DCS
events in the Status register not as CTCSS events. The assertion or removal of the ‘XTCSS Maintenance
Tone’ (64.7Hz) is flagged as a CTCSS event.
In receive bit 12 indicates that a valid XTCSS 4 tone set with the correct addressing (see $C2) has been
detected, the 4 received tones are indicated in $CB. In Tx mode bit 12 will be set to '1' at the end of the
th
4 XTCSS tone transmitted.
Aux ADC High (bit 9) and Aux ADC Low (bit 8) reflect the recent history of the Aux ADC level, with
respect to the high and low thresholds. The most recent Aux ADC reading can be read from $B4.
Aux ADC
Monitor High
0
0
1
1
Aux ADC
Monitor Low
0
1
0
1
Aux ADC history since last reading:
Neither threshold crossed
Signal gone below low threshold
Signal gone above high threshold
Signal gone below low threshold and above high
threshold
Programming Flag, bit 0: The Programming Register ($C8) should only be written to when bit 0 is set to
'1' (with both Mode select bits set low – See register $C8). Writing to the Programming Register ($C8)
clears bit 0 to '0'. Bit 0 is restored to '1' when the programming action is complete, normally within 250µs,
when it is then safe to write to the Programming Register.
1.6.18
Bit:
$C9 XTCSS RX DATA: 16-bit read-only
15
14
13
12
XTCSS Tone 3 (S1)
11
10
9
8
XTCSS Tone 2 (S0)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
XTCSS received address
$C9 holds the information decoded after receiving an XTCSS type tone set. Bits 7 to 0 represent the
received address in hex based on the XTCSS tones A1 and A0. This register will only be updated if the
received address matches the one programmed in the Audio and Device Address Control register or is
the all call address of '40'. Bits 15 to 12 and 11 to 8 defines the received S1 and S0 tones, see Table 6
In-band Tones and section 1.5.6.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
40
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.19
Bit:
CMX883
$CC TONES STATUS: 16-bit read-only
15
14
13
12
11
Detected In-band tone frequency
10
9
8
7
6
Sub-Audio Status
0
0
5
4
3
2
1
0
Detected CTCSS code
This word holds the current status of the CMX883 sub-audio and In-band tone sections. This word should
be read by the host after an interrupt caused by a DCS, CTCSS or In-band tone event.
The value in bits 5 to 0, Detected CTCSS code, identifies the detected sub-audio tone by its position in
Table 3 CTCSS Tones. If bits 5 to 0 = '000000' there is no CTCSS tone currently being detected. If bits
5 to 0 = '110111' (= 55 in decimal) this indicates that an Invalid Tone has been detected. An Invalid Tone
is any tone in the subaudio band which is not the selected subaudio tone nor the all-call tone, or is a tone
not listed in Table 3. A change in the state of bits 5-0 to Invalid Tone from the no tone condition will not
cause Status register ($C6), b11 to be set to '1'. Any other change in the state of bits 5-0 will cause the
Status register ($C6), b11 to be set to '1'.
A detected In-band frequency is indicated by the value in bits 15 to 11, ‘Detected In-band tone
frequency’, identifies the frequency by its position in Table 6 In-band Tones. If bits 15 to 11 = '00000'
there is no In-band tone currently being detected. A change in the state of bits 15 to 11 will cause bit 13
of the Status register ($C6), ‘In-band tone State Change’, to be set to '1'.
Bits 10 to 8 indicate the DCS and special sub-audio tone status. The Status register ($C6) will indicate
the type of signal detected. If DCS or special CTCSS tones are detected they will be indicated in bits 10
to 8 according to the table below and bits 7 to 0 will be set to '00000000'. If a normal CTCSS tone is
detected bits 10 to 8 will be set to '000' and bits 7 to 0 will indicate the decoded tone. A change in the
state of bits 10 to 8 will cause the relevant bit (10 or 11) of the Status register to be set to '1'.
Bit 10
Bit 9
Bit 8
Sub-Audio status
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
No DCS or special CTCSS detected
Reserved
DCS sequence detected
inverted DCS sequence detected
Reserved
134.4Hz DCS turn off tone detected
64.7Hz XTCSS sub-audio tone detected
Reserved
Only enabled with DCS
Only enabled with DCS
Only enabled with DCS
Only enabled with XTCSS
When the relevant detection mode is not enabled, the associated bits will be set to '0'. In Tx mode this
register will be set to '0'.
During the DCS receive, the device can flag an interrupt when the DCS code fails to be recognised. This
may be due to code dropout. The turn off tone may be flagged shortly after, if the transmission is ending.
Alternatively the DCS link may be restored and DCS detection will be flagged again.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
41
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
1.6.20
Bit:
CMX883
$C8 PROGRAMMING REGISTER: 16-bit write-only
15
14
First
Word
Block
Num.
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
Block Num.
or Data
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Programming Data
This register is used for programming various gains, levels, offset compensations, tones and codes. If
the user programs any of these values then bit 4 of $C0 (Power Down Control) must be set to '1'.
Following a C-BUS Reset or a Power Up Reset, the programmed values are initialised in accordance with
the settings described in section 1.6.2 (C-BUS Reset).
The Signal Processing function and the XTAL clock circuit must both be enabled in order to write to the
Programming Register, so Power Down Control register bit 5 must be set to '1' and bit 3 must be set to
'0'.
The Programming Register should only be written to when the Programming Flag bit (bit 0) of the Status
register is set to '1' and the Rx and Tx modes are disabled (bits 0 and 1 of the Mode Control register both
'0'). The Programming Flag is cleared when the Programming Register is written to. When the
corresponding programming action has been completed (normally within 250µs) the CMX883 will set the
flag back to '1' to indicate that it is now safe to write the next programming value. The Programming
Register must not be written to while the Programming Flag bit is '0'. Programming is done by writing a
sequence of 16-bit words to the Programming Register, in the order shown in the following tables.
Writing data to the Programming Register must be performed in the order shown for each of the blocks,
however the order in which the blocks are written is not critical. If later words in a block do not require
updating the user may stop programming that block when the last change has been performed. e.g. If
only 'Fine output gain 1' needs to be changed the host will need to write to P4.0, P4.1 and P4.2 only.
The user must not exceed the defined word counts for each block. The word P4.8 is allocated for
production testing and must not be accessed in normal operation.
The high order bits of each word define which block the word belongs to, and if it is the first word of that
block:
Bit 15
1
0
X
X
X
X
X
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
Bit 14
X
X
1
1
1
1
0
Bit 13
X
X
0
0
1
1
Bit 12
X
X
0
1
0
1
Write to
42
Bit 11 – Bit 0
1 data for each block
nd
2 and following data
Reserved - do not use
Write to block 1 (12 bit words)
Write to block 2 (12 bit words)
Reserved - do not use
block 4 (14 bit words)
st
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
Block 0 – Reserved. Do not use.
Block 1 – XTCSS and In-band tone Setup:
Bit:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
P1.0
1
1
0
1
P1.1
0
1
0
1
P1.2
0
1
0
1
0
Programmable In-band Tone 0
P1.3
0
1
0
1
0
Programmable In-band Tone 1
P1.4
0
1
0
1
0
Programmable In-band Tone 2
P1.5
0
1
0
1
0
Programmable In-band Tone 3
2
1
0
Audio band Tx level
XTCSS
tone length
Emph
In-band tone detect
bandwidth
Audio band detect threshold
Block 2 – CTCSS and DCS Setup:
Bit:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
P2.0
1
1
1
0
P2.1
0
1
1
0
P2.2
0
1
1
0
DCS Code bits 11 – 0
P2.3
0
1
1
0
DCS Code bits 23/22 – 12
P2.4
0
1
1
0
2
1
0
CTCSS and DCS Tx level
DCS
24
0
CTCSS detect
bandwidth
CTCSS and DCS detect threshold
Sub-audio drop out
time
0
Block 3 – Reserved. Do not use.
Block 4 – Gain and Offset Setup:
Bit:
15
14
13
P4.0
1
0
Fine Input Gain
P4.1
0
0
Reserved - set to '0'
P4.2
0
0
Fine Output Gain 1
P4.3
0
0
Fine Output Gain 2
P4.4
0
0
Output 1 Offset Control
P4.5
0
0
Output 2 Offset Control
P4.6
0
0
Ramp Rate Control
P4.7
0
0
Limiter Setting (all 1's = Vbias +/- 0.5 Vdd)
P4.8
0
0
Special Programming Register (Production Test Only)
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
12
11
10
9
8
43
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.6.20.1 PROGRAMMING REGISTER Block 0 – Reserved
1.6.20.2 PROGRAMMING REGISTER Block 1 – XTCSS and In-band tone Setup:
$C8 (P1.0)
Voice band tones Tx Level
Bit:
15
14
13
12
P1.0
1
1
0
1
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Voice band tones Tx level
0
Emph
Bits 11 (MSB) to 1 (LSB) set the transmitted In-band tone and Audio Tone signal level (pk-pk) with a
resolution of VDD(A)/2048 per LSB (1.465mV per LSB at VDD(A)=3V). Valid range for this value is 0 to
1536.
Bit 0 controls Rx In-band tone de-emphasis. When set to '0' the signal going to the In-band tone detector
is not de-emphasised. When voice processing is enabled in the Mode register, de/pre-emphasis is
enabled in the Audio & Device Address register and this bit (b0) is set to '1', signals going to the In-band
tone detector are de-emphasised in accordance with Figure 6.
$C8 (P1.1)
In-band tone Detect Bandwidth and Audio Band Detect Threshold
Bit:
15
14
13
12
P1.1
0
1
0
1
11
10
9
XTCSS
tone length
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
In-band tone detect
bandwidth
Audio band detect threshold
XTCSS tone length (bits 11 to 10) set the transmit tone length for each of the 4 tones in a XTCSS
sequence. In receive these bits define the minimum silent prefix and suffix qualification periods for
successful reception, also the maximum receive tone length is double the time set (e.g. for 60ms setting
each received tone must be less than 120ms in length for successful XTCSS decoding). '00' = 40ms,
'01' = 60ms, '10' = 80ms and '11' = 100ms.
The ‘detect threshold’ bits (bits 9 to 4) set the minimum In-band tone signal level that will be detected.
The levels are set according to the formula:
Minimum Level = Detect Threshold × 3.63mV rms at VDD(A) = 3V
(2.93mV per LSB at VDD(A)=3V)
The In-band detected bandwidth is set in accordance with the following table:
BANDWIDTH
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Will Decode
Will Not Decode
1
0
0
0
±1.1%
±2.4%
1
0
0
1
±1.3%
±2.7%
Recommended for EEA ⇒
1
0
1
0
±1.6%
±2.9%
1
0
1
1
±1.8%
±3.2%
$C8 (P1.2-5)
Bit:
15
Programmable In-band Tones
14
13
12
11
10
9
P1.2-5
0
1
0
1
8
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Programmable In-band Tone
N (see below)
R (see below)
These words set the programmable In-band tones used in transmit and receive. The frequency is set in
bits 11-0 for each word according to the formula:
N = Integer part of (0.042666 x frequency)
R = (0.042666 x frequency - N) x 6000 / frequency (round to nearest integer)
Example: For 1010Hz, N = 43, R = 1. The programmed tones must only be set to frequencies from
400Hz to 3000Hz.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
44
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.6.20.3 PROGRAMMING REGISTER Block 2 – CTCSS and DCS Setup:
$C8 (P2.0)
CTCSS and DCS TX LEVEL
Bit:
15
14
13
12
P2.0
1
1
1
0
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CTCSS and DCS Level
Bits 11 (MSB) to 0 (LSB) set the transmitted CTCSS or DCS sub-audio signal level (pk-pk) with a
resolution of VDD(A)/16384 per LSB (0.183mV per LSB at VDD(A)=3V, giving a range 0 to 749.8mV pkpk).
$C8 (P2.1)
Bit:
P2.1
CTCSS TONE BW AND LEVEL
15
14
0
1
13
1
12
11
0
DCS
24
10
9
0
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
CTCSS detect
bandwidth
CTCSS and DCS detect threshold
Bit 11, DCS 24, sets the length of DCS code transmitted or searched for. When this bit is set to ‘1’ 24 bit
codes are transmitted and decoded. When this bit is set to ‘0’ 23 bit codes are used.
The ‘detect threshold’ bits (bits 9 to 4) set the minimum CTCSS or DCS signal level that will be detected.
The levels are set according to the formula:
Minimum Level = Detect Threshold × 2mV rms at VDD(A)
= 3V
[0.37mV per LSB at VDD(A)=3V]
The CTCSS detected tone bandwidth is set in accordance with the following table:
Recommended for use
with split tones
Recommended for CTCSS
⇒
$C8 (P2.2-3)
BANDWIDTH
Will Decode
Will Not Decode
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
±0.5%
±0.8%
±1.1%
±1.8%
±2.1%
±2.4%
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
1
±1.3%
±1.6%
±1.8%
±2.7%
±2.9%
±3.2%
DCS CODE (LOWER) and DCS CODE (UPPER)
Bit:
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
P2.2
0
1
1
0
DCS Data (bits 11-0)
P2.3
0
1
1
0
DCS Data (bits 23/22-12)
3
2
1
0
These words set the DCS code to be transmitted or searched for. The least significant bit (bit 0) of the
DCS code is transmitted or compared first and the most significant bit is transmitted or compared last.
Note that DCS Data bit 23 is only used when bit 11 (DCS 24) of P2.1 is set to ‘1’.
$C8 (P2.4)
SUBAUDIO DROP OUT TIME
Bit:
15
14
13
12
P2.4
0
1
1
0
11
10
9
8
Subaudio Drop Out Time
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
The Subaudio Drop Out Time defines the time that the sub-audio signal detection can drop out before
loss of sub-audio is asserted. The period is set according to the formula:
Time = Subaudio Drop Out Time × 8.0ms
[range 0 to 120ms]
The setting of this register defines the maximum drop out time that the device can tolerate. The setting of
this register also determines the de-response time, which is typically 40ms longer than the programmed
drop out time.
1.6.20.4 PROGRAMMING REGISTER Block 3 – Reserved
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.6.20.5 PROGRAMMING REGISTER Block 4 – Gain and Offset Setup
$C8 (P4.0)
FINE INPUT GAIN
Bit:
15
14
P4.0
1
0
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Fine Input Gain (unsigned integer)
Gain = 20 × log([32768-IG]/32768)
IG is the unsigned integer value in the ‘Fine Input Gain’ field
Fine input gain adjustment should be kept within the range 0 to -3.5dB.
$C8 (P4.1)
Reserved
Bit:
15
14
P4.1
0
0
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
4
3
2
1
0
Reserved - set to '0'
This register is reserved and should be set to '0'.
$C8 (P4.2-3)
FINE OUTPUT GAIN 1 and FINE OUTPUT GAIN 2
Bit:
15
14
P4.2
0
0
13
12
11
Fine Output Gain 1 (unsigned integer)
P4.3
0
0
Fine Output Gain 2 (unsigned integer)
Gain = 20 × log([32768-OG]/32768)
10
9
8
7
6
5
OG is the unsigned integer value in the ‘Fine Output Gain’ field
Fine output gain adjustment should be kept within the range 0dB to -3.5dB.
$C8 (P4.4-5)
OUTPUT 1 OFFSET and OUTPUT 2 OFFSET
Bit:
15
14
P4.4
0
0
13
12
2’s complement offset for MOD_1, resolution = VDD(A)/16384 per LSB
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
P4.5
0
0
2’s complement offset for MOD_2, resolution = VDD(A)/16384 per LSB
1
0
Can be used to compensate for inherent offsets in the output path via MOD_1 (Output 1 Offset) and
MOD_2 (Output 2 Offset). It is recommended that the offset correction is kept within the range +/-50mV.
$C8 (P4.6)
RAMP RATE CONTROL
Bit:
15
14
P4.6
0
0
13
12
11
10
9
8
Ramp Rate Up Control (RRU)
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Ramp Rate Down control (RRD)
The ramp-up rate and ramp-down rates can be independently programmed. The ramp rates apply to all
the analogue output ports. They only affect those ports being turned on (ramp-up) or turned off (ramp
down). The ramp rates should be programmed before ramping any outputs.
Time to ramp-up to full gain =
Time to ramp down to zero gain =
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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(1 + RRU) × 1.333ms
(1 + RRD) × 1.333ms
D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
$C8 (P4.7)
CMX883
TRANSMIT LIMITER CONTROL
Bit:
15
14
P4.7
0
0
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Limiter Setting, resolution = VDD(A)/16384 LSB
This unsigned number sets the clipping point (maximum deviation from the centre value) for the MOD_1
and MOD_2 pins. The maximum setting ($2000) is +/- VDD(A)/2 i.e. output limited from 0 to VDD(A).
Any settings above $2000 will limit to the $2000 setting. The limiter is set to maximum following a C-BUS
Reset or a Power Up Reset. The limiter is only applied to voice signals, not internally generated audio
band signals. The levels of internally generated signals must be limited by setting appropriate transmit
levels.
$C8 (P4.8)
Special Programming Register – do not access.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.7 Application Notes
R a dio S e ction
Rx
D e m od u la to r
RF
R eceive
D iscrim in ato r
inp ut
A udio ou tpu t
V oice+ SubA udio
CM X883
M od ula tor
ou tpu t 1
2-p oin t T x
M o du lator
A udio inpu t 1
T ransm it
M od ula tor
ou tpu t 2
M IC 1
A udio inpu t 2
M IC 2
V oice+ SubA udio
C -B U S
D isp lay
H o st
M icro C o ntro lle r
K e yp ad
Figure 12 Possible FRS Configuration
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.8 Performance Specification
1.8.1
Electrical Performance
The performance data are target figures, that may change subject to the outcome of device evaluation.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Exceeding these maximum ratings can result in damage to the device.
Min.
−0.3
−0.3
−0.3
−0.3
−30
−20
Max.
7.0
7.0
VDD(D) + 0.3
VDD(A) + 0.3
+30
+20
Unit
V
V
V
V
mA
mA
0
0
0.3
50
V
mV
D6 Package (SSOP)
Total Allowable Power Dissipation at Tamb = 25°C
... Derating
Storage Temperature
Operating Temperature
Min.
Max.
550
9
+125
+85
Unit
mW
mW/°C
°C
°C
E1 Package (TSSOP)
Total Allowable Power Dissipation at Tamb = 25°C
... Derating
Storage Temperature
Operating Temperature
Min.
−55
−40
Max.
400
5.3
+125
+85
Unit
mW
mW/°C
°C
°C
Min.
2.7
−40
18.3
Max.
3.6
+85
18.6
Unit
V
°C
MHz
Supply: VDD(D)- VSS(D)
VDD(A)- VSS(A)
Voltage on any pin to VSS(D)
Voltage on any pin to VSS(A)
Current into or out of VDD(A), VSS(A), VDD(D) and VSS(D)
Current into or out of any other pin
Voltage differential between power supplies:
VDD(D) and VDD(A)
VSS(D) and VSS(A)
−55
−40
Operating Limits
Correct operation of the device outside these limits is not implied.
Notes
Supply (VDD - VSS)
Operating Temperature
Clock/Xtal Frequency
Notes:
11
11
Nominal clock frequency is 18.432MHz.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
Operating Characteristics
For the following conditions unless otherwise specified:
External components as recommended in Figure 2.
Maximum load on digital outputs = 30pF.
Xtal Frequency = 18.432MHz ±0.01% (100ppm).
VDD = 2.7V to 3.6V; Tamb = −40°C to +85°C.
Reference Signal Level = 308mV rms at 1kHz with VDD = 3V.
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) in bit rate bandwidth.
Input stage gain = 0dB.
Output stage attenuation = 0dB.
DC Parameters
Notes
Supply Current
IDD(D) (VDD = 3.0V)
IDD(A) (VDD = 3.0V)
IDD(D) (All Power-saved) (VDD = 3.0V)
IDD(A) (All Power-saved) (VDD = 3.0V)
21
21
21
21
C-BUS Interface
Input Logic ‘1’
Input Logic ‘0’
Input Leakage Current (Logic ‘1’ or ‘0’)
Input Capacitance
Output Logic ‘1’
(IOH = 120µA)
Output Logic ‘0’
(IOL = 360µA)
“Off” State Leakage Current
IRQN
(Vout = VDD(D))
REPLY_DATA (output HiZ)
CLOCK_OUT
Output Logic ‘1’
Output Logic ‘0’
Max.
Unit
4.5
1.0
2.0
2.0
8.0
2.0
10
10
mA
mA
µA
µA
−1.0
−1.0
(IOH = 120µA)
(IOH = 1mA)
(IOL = 360µA)
(IOL = -1.5mA)
10%
10
1.0
1.0
VDD
VDD
µA
pF
VDD
VDD
µA
µA
µA
10%
15%
VDD
VDD
VDD
VDD
30%
1.0
7.5
−1.0
90%
90%
80%
22
VBIAS
Output voltage offset wrt VDD/2 (IOL < 1µA)
Output impedance
23
21
22
23
Typ.
70%
CLOCK/XTAL
Input Logic ‘1’
Input Logic ‘0’
Input current (Vin = VDD)
Input current (Vin = VSS)
Notes:
Min.
70%
30%
40
−40
-2%
+2%
22
VDD
VDD
µA
µA
VDD
kΩ
Not including any current drawn from the device pins by external circuitry.
Characteristics when driving the CLOCK/XTAL pin with an external clock source.
Applies when utilising VBIAS to provide a reference voltage to other parts of the
system. When using VBIAS as a reference, VBIAS must be buffered. VBIAS must
always be decoupled with a capacitor as shown in Figure 2.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
AC Parameters
CLOCK/XTAL Input
'High' pulse width
'Low' pulse width
Input impedance (at 18.432MHz)
Powered-up
Resistance
Capacitance
Powered-down
Resistance
Capacitance
Clock frequency
Notes
Min.
31
31
21
21
32
32
33
33
22
22
VBIAS
Start up time (from power-save)
kΩ
pF
kΩ
pF
MHz
400
ppm
ms
15
15
27.13
27.13
ns
ns
ns
ns
33
33
30
Microphone, Input_2 and Disc Inputs
(MIC, INPUT_2, DISC)
Input impedance
Input signal range
Load resistance (pin 12, 14 and 16)
Amplifier open loop voltage gain 

(I/P = 1mV rms at 100Hz)
Unity gain bandwidth
Programmable Input Gain Stage
Gain (at 0dB)
Cumulative Gain Error


(wrt attenuation at 0dB)
34
35
Unit
ns
ns
±100
CLOCK_OUT Output
CLOCK/XTAL input to CLOCK_OUT timing:
(in high to out high)
(in low to out low)
'High' pulse width
'Low' pulse width
31
32
33
34
35
36
Max.
150
20
300
20
18.432
Clock stability/accuracy
Clock start up (from power-save)
Notes:
Typ.
ms
1
10
80
90
60
1.0
MΩ
%VDD
kΩ
dB
MHz
36
−0.5
−1.0
0
0.5
dB
1.0
dB
Timing for an external input to the CLOCK/XTAL pin.
CLOCK/XTAL input driven by external source.
18.432MHz XTAL fitted.
With no external components connected
After multiplying by gain of input circuit, with external components connected.
Gain applied to signal on output of buffer amplifier, pin 12, 14 or 16
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
AC Parameters
Notes
Modulator Outputs 1 and 2 and Audio Output
(MOD_1, MOD_2, AUDIO)
Power-up to output stable
Modulator Attenuators
Attenuation (at 0dB)
Cumulative Attenuation Error


(wrt attenuation at 0dB)
Output Impedance
 Enabled
 Disabled
Audio Attenuator
Attenuation (at 0dB)
Cumulative Attenuation Error


(wrt attenuation at 0dB)
Output Impedance
 Enabled
 Disabled
Feedback load resistance
Amplifier open loop voltage gain 

(I/P = 1mV rms at 100Hz)
Unity gain bandwidth
Notes:
37
38
Min.
37
−0.2
Typ.
Max.
Unit
50
100
µs
0
0.2
dB
0.6
dB
Ω
kΩ
0.5
dB
1.0
600
500
dB
Ω
kΩ
kΩ
60
1.0
dB
MHz
−0.6
38
38
600
500
−0.5
0
−1.0
38
38
80
Power-up refers to issuing a C-BUS command to turn on an output. These limits
apply only if VBIAS is on and stable. At power supply switch-on, the default state
is for all blocks, except the XTAL and C-BUS interface, to be in placed in powersave mode.
Small signal impedance, at VDD = 3.0V and Tamb = 25°C.
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
AC Parameters (cont.)
Auxiliary ADC (Signal Monitor)
8 Bit ADC Mode
Resolution
Input Range
Conversion time
Input impedance
Resistance
Capacitance
Zero error
(input offset to give ADC output = 0)
Integral Non-linearity
Notes
41






45
45
46
47
47
48
90%
20.8
Bits
VDD(A)
µs
10
5
MΩ
pF
+20
2
4
1
3
24
mV
LSB
LSB
LSB
LSB
kΩ
VDD(A)
VTH
120
60
Bits
V
V
µs
µs
8
Audio Compandor
Attack time
Decay time
0dB point
Compression / Expansion ratio
45
46
Unit
−20
Level Threshold Detect Mode
Threshold Resolution
Upper threshold range (VTH)
Lower threshold range (VTL)
Signal Monitor change to IRQ
Signal Monitor change to Receiver-Turn-On
41
42
43
44
Max.
8
Source output impedance
Notes:
Typ.
10%
42
43
42
43
44
Differential Non-linearity
Min.
48
VTL
VSS(A)
4.0
13
100
2:1
ms
ms
mVrms
With clock frequency of 18.432MHz.
VDD(A) >= 3.0V
VDD(A) < 3.0V
Denotes output impedance of the driver of the Signal Monitor input, to ensure < 1
bit additional error under nominal conditions.
Upper threshold > Lower threshold
Time from Signal Monitor input rising above Upper Threshold or falling below
Lower Threshold, to IRQN being asserted.
Time from Signal Monitor input rising above Upper Threshold to receiver path
powering up, settling and starting automatic signal type identification.
VDD(A) = 3.0V
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
AC Parameters (cont.)
Notes
Min.
Receiver Signal Type Identification
Probability of correctly identifying signal
type
(SNR = 12dB)
CTCSS Detector
Sensitivity
Response Time
De-response Time
Dropout immunity
Frequency Range
IN-BAND TONE Detector
Sensitivity
Response Time
De-response Time
Dropout immunity
Frequency Range
DCS Decoder
Sensitivity
Bit-Rate Sync Time
Response Time
Notes:
51
52
53
54
Typ.
Max.
>>99.9
(Pure Tone)
(Composite Signal)
(Composite Signal)
(Composite Signal)
51
52
52, 54
52, 54
-26
140
210
160
60
(Pure Tone)
(Good Signal)
(Good Signal)
(Good Signal)
(In-band tone)
53
51
58
2
TBD
(Good Signal)
%
260
dB
ms
ms
ms
Hz
45
20
3000
dB
ms
ms
ms
Hz
250
-26
35
400
Unit
mVp-p
edges
ms
Sub-Audio Detection Level threshold set to 16mV.
Composite signal = 308mV rms at 1kHz + 75mV rms Noise + 31mV rms SubAudio signal. Noise bandwidth = 5kHz Band Limited Gaussian.
In-band Tone Detection Level threshold set to 16mV.
With sub-audio dropout time (P2.4) set to ≥ 120ms. The typical dropout immunity
is approximately 40ms more than the programmed dropout immunity. The typical
de-response time is approximately 90ms longer than the programmed dropout
immunity. See section 1.6.20.3, P2.4.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
AC Parameters (cont.)
Notes
CTCSS Encoder
Frequency Range
Tone Frequency Accuracy
Tone Amplitude Tolerance
Total Harmonic Distortion
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
2.0
260
±0.3
+1.0
4.0
Hz
%
dB
%
2.0
3000
±0.3
+1.0
4.0
Hz
%
dB
%
bits/s
dB
60.0
61
62
-1.0
In-band tone Encoder
Frequency Range
Tone Frequency Accuracy
Tone Amplitude Tolerance
Total Harmonic Distortion
63
62
-1.0
DCS Encoder
Bit Rate
Amplitude Tolerance
61
-1.0
+1.0
64
65
66
300
300
300
3000
2550
3000
400
134.4
Analogue Channel Audio Filtering
Pass-band (nominal bandwidth):
Received voice
12.5kHz channel transmitted voice
25kHz channel transmitted voice
Pass-band Gain (at 1.0kHz)
Pass-band Ripple (wrt gain at 1.0kHz)
Stop-band Attenuation
Residual Hum and Noise
Audio Scrambler
Inversion frequency
Pass band
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
-50
67
68
6
−6
dB/oct
dB/oct
0
-2
33.0
Pre-emphasis
De-emphasis
Notes:
69
Hz
Hz
Hz
dB
dB
dB
dBp
+0.5
3300
300
3000
Hz
Hz
VDD(A) = 3.0V and Tx Sub-Audio Level set to 88mV p-p (31mV rms).
Measured at MOD_1 or MOD_2 output.
VDD(A) = 3.0V and Tx Audio Level set to 871mV p-p (308mV rms).
The receiver voice filter complies with the characteristic shown in Figure 5. The
high pass filtering removes sub-audio components from the audio signal.
The 12.5kHz channel filter complies with the characteristic shown in Figure 9.
The 25kHz channel filter complies with the characteristic shown in Figure 8.
The pre-emphasis filter complies with the characteristic shown in Figure 10.
The de-emphasis filter complies with the characteristic shown in Figure 6.
dBp represents a psophometrically weighted measurement.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
C-BUS Timing
Figure 13 C-BUS Timing
C-BUS Timing
tCSE
CSN Enable to SClk high time
tCSH
Last SClk high to CSN high time
SClk low to ReplyData Output Enable
tLOZ
Time
tHIZ
CSN high to ReplyData high impedance
CSN high time between transactions
tCSOFF
Inter-byte time
tNXT
SClk cycle time
tCK
SClk high time
tCH
SClk low time
tCL
Command Data setup time
tCDS
Command Data hold time
tCDH
Reply Data setup time
tRDS
Reply Data hold time
tRDH
Notes:
Notes
Min.
100
100
0.0
1.0
200
200
100
100
75
25
50
0
Typ.
Max.
Unit
ns
ns
ns
1.0
µs
µs
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
1. Depending on the command, 1 or 2 bytes of COMMAND DATA are transmitted to the
peripheral MSB (Bit 7) first, LSB (Bit 0) last. REPLY DATA is read from the peripheral
MSB (Bit 7) first, LSB (Bit 0) last.
2. Data is clocked into the peripheral on the rising SERIAL_CLOCK edge.
3. Commands are acted upon at the end of each command (rising edge of CSN).
4. To allow for differing µC serial interface formats C-BUS compatible ICs are able to work
with SERIAL_CLOCK pulses starting and ending at either polarity.
5. Maximum 30pF load on IRQN pin and each C-BUS interface line.
These timings are for the latest version of C-BUS and allow faster transfers than the original C-BUS
timing specification. The CMX883 can be used in conjunction with devices that comply with the slower
timings, subject to system throughput constraints.
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
1.8.2 Packaging
Figure 14 Mechanical Outline of 28-pin SSOP (D6): Order as part no. CMX883D6
Figure 15 Mechanical Outline of 28-pin TSSOP (E1): Order as part no. CMX883E1
 2004 CML Microsystems Plc
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D/883/7
FRS Signalling Processor
CMX883
Handling precautions: This product includes input protection, however, precautions should be taken to prevent device damage
from electro-static discharge. CML does not assume any responsibility for the use of any circuitry described. No IPR or circuit
patent licences are implied. CML reserves the right at any time without notice to change the said circuitry and this product
specification. CML has a policy of testing every product shipped using calibrated test equipment to ensure compliance with this
product specification. Specific testing of all circuit parameters is not necessarily performed.
www.cmlmicro.com
For FAQs see: www.cmlmicro.com/products/faqs/
For a full data sheet listing see: www.cmlmicro.com/products/datasheets/download.htm
For detailed application notes: www.cmlmicro.com/products/applications/
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Technical Support:
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