5&'86% ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[ 0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFHIRU'HVNWRS$SSOLFDWLRQV Introduction Features The CONEXANT RC56D Modem Device Set supports the USB (Universal Serial Bus), as described by the Universal Serial Bus Specification Revision 1.0. USB provides a flexible interconnect between a PC and a wide range of peripherals, such as to a CONEXANT modem device set. • The CONEXANT RC56D family devices, in conjunction with the R8292 USB controller provide a complete USB modem solution. The supported modem feature set for the USB modem solution is the same as the standard RC56D parallel host interface device set (see “RC56D and RC336D Integrated V.90/K56flex/V.34 Modem Device Set for Desktop Applications” Data Sheet, Order No. MD211). The modem models, which include the R8292 UCU (USB Controller Unit in 68-PLCC), are listed in Table 1. Hardware A complete accelerator kit implementing the USB solution is offered as “Perth” (AK56-D540). This design consists of the RC56D parallel host interface device set and the R8292 USB Controller Unit (UCU). The R8292 operates with a 12 MHz crystal. A 32K x 8, 150 ns EEPROM is required for USB controller firmware. Additionally, one latch, one transistor, and two bus transceivers are required. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • All features supported by the RC56D family (see data sheet Order No. MD211) Universal Serial Bus Specification Rev 1.0 compliant Three function endpoint pairs with corresponding transmit/receive FIFO pairs Automatic transmit/receive FIFO management USB full speed 12Mbps USB low speed 1.5Mbps Reset separation Four LED driver outputs On-chip phase-locked loop (PLL) On-chip USB transceivers 256 bytes on-chip Data RAM Suspend/Resume Vendor specific descriptors Windows 98 support Windows 95 OSR 2.1 support Extension pickup/remote hang-up detection Line-in-use detection ® The R8292 USB Controller is based on the MCS 51 microcontroller. It is a hubless USB peripheral controller that supports suspend/resume modes and isochronous/non-isochronous transfers. Firmware Firmware for the R8292 controller is provided in object form, however, vendor specific descriptors can be customized with a supplied utility. Vendor ID, Product ID, Device Release Number, Manufacturer Name, Product Name, and Serial Number can all be modified. Drivers A complete set of software drivers is provided for Windows 98 and Windows 95 OSR 2.1 support. Sample INF files are also provided. 'DWD 6KHHW 2UGHU 1R 0' 5HY 'HFHPEHU 5&'86% ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH Table 1. Modem Models and Functions 0RGHO2UGHU3DUW 1XPEHUV 0DUNHWLQJ 0RGHO 1XPEHU 6XSSRUWHG )XQFWLRQV 'HYLFH 6HW 0&8 0'3 8&8 9 .IOH[ 'DWD 9 )D[ 2UGHU 1XPEHU >34)3@ >34)3@ >3/&&@ )D[ &O DQG 9RLFH7$0 3DUW 1R 3DUW 1R 3DUW 1R )'63 $XGLR6SDQ +RVW '69' 9 5&'6386% '6/ / 5 5 < < 5&'86% '6/ / 5 5 < ± 1RWHV 0RGHO RSWLRQV ' 'RZQORDGDEOH 63 6SHDNHUSKRQH 86% 6XSSRUWHG IXQFWLRQV < 86% LQWHUIDFH 6XSSRUWHG ± $XGLR6SDQ 1RW VXSSRUWHG $QDORJ VLPXOWDQHRXV YRLFH DQG GDWD '69' 'LJLWDO VLPXOWDQHRXV YRLFH DQG GDWD )D[ &O DQG )D[ &ODVV DQG )D[ &ODVV VXSSRUW )'63 )XOOGXSOH[ VSHDNHUSKRQH 9RLFH7$0 9RLFH DQG WHOHSKRQH DQVZHULQJ PDFKLQH VXSSRUW KDQGVHW VXSSRUW UHTXLUHV 63 PRGHO 5 LV WKH &21(;$17 LQWHUQDO SDUW QXPEHU IRU WKH ,QWHO $$ Information provided by CONEXANT SYSTEMS, INC. is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by CONEXANT for its use, nor any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent rights of CONEXANT other than for circuitry embodied in CONEXANT products. CONEXANT reserves the right to change circuitry at any time without notice. This document is subject to change without notice. K56flex is a trademark of CONEXANT SYSTEMS, INC. and Lucent Technologies. CONEXANT, “What's Next in Communications Technologies”, MNP 10EC, and ConfigurACE are trademarks of CONEXANT SYSTEMS, INC. MNP is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation. MCS is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. ©1998, CONEXANT SYSTEMS, INC. Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved 0' ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH 5&'86% System Architecture Hardware Interface A system block diagram is shown in Figure 1. The major interface signals are shown in Figure 2. MODEM DEVICE SET USB CONTROLLER UNIT (UCU) [68-PIN PLCC] (R8292/ 80931AA) USB INTERFACE MICRO CONTROLLER UNIT (MCU) [80-PIN PQFP] (L2800) MODEM DATA PUMP (MDP) [100-PIN PQFP] (R6764) 32K x 8 ROM TELEPHONE LINE TELEPHONE LINE/ TELEPHONE HANDSET/ AUDIO INTERFACE CIRCUIT TEL HANDSET HEADPHONE/ SPEAKER MICROPHONE 1M (128K x 8) RAM 2M (256K x 8) ROM/FLASH ROM MD234F1 BD Figure 1. Block Diagram ~RINGWAKE ~RLY1 (~OH) ~RLY2 (~VOICE) XTAL1 CRYSTAL CIRCUIT CRYSTAL CIRCUIT XTAL2 XTLI ~RLY3 (~MUTE) XTLO ~RLY4 (~CALLID) ~EXTOH TELEPHONE LINE LCS RINGD VCC VD3.3 SVCC VDD CLKOUT ~WKRESOUT DPIRQ RIN CLKIN TXA1 ~WKRES TXA2 DUSB CONTROLLER UNIT (UCU) MICRO CONTROLLER UNIT (MCU) TELEPHONE HANDSET MICROPHONE HEADPHONE/ SPEAKER IRQ D+ USB TELEPHONE LINE/ TELEPHONE HANDSET/ AUDIO INTERFACE CIRCUIT ~READ ~READ ~WRITE ~WRITE A0-A17 A0-A4 D0-D7 D0-D7 ~DPSEL MODEM DATA PUMP (MDP) TELIN* TELOUT* SPKM RS0-RS4 MICV* MICM** A0-A15 A0-A2 ~DPSEL D0-D7 D0-D7 ~ROMSEL ~CS ~RES1 ~RES2 ~RAMSEL DGND, AGND ~RESET VGG AVDD VAA SVCC (+5V) SVCC (+5V) SVCC (+5V) A0-A17 EXTERNAL BUS SVCC (+5V) D0-D7 ~READ VDD ~WRITE DGND 2M (256K X 8) ROM/ FLASH ROM ~ROMSEL A0-A16 D0-D7 ~READ A0-A15 D0-D7 ~READ 32K X 8 ~WRITE ROM ~RAMSEL 1M (128K X 8) RAM * SP MODEL. ** NON-SP MODEL. MD234F2 IF Figure 2. Hardware Interface Signals 0' 5&'86% ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH R8292 Signal Pin Assignments and Descriptions The R8292 68-pin PLCC signal pin assignments are shown in Figure 3. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 P2.0 P2.1 P2.2 P2.3 P2.4 P2.5 P2.6 P2.7 VSS VCCP EA# ALE PSEN# FSSEL VSSP Reserved (NC) Reserved (NC) The R8292 68-pin PLCC signals are described in Table 2. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 Reserved (NC) Reserved (NC) Reserved (NC) Reserved (NC) VCC DP0 DM0 ECAP VSSP VCCP VSS Reserved (NC) Reserved (NC) VSSP Reserved (NC) Reserved (NC) LED0 RD# P1.0/T2 P1.1/T2EX P1.2 P1.3 P1.4 P1.5 P1.6 P1.7 LED3 LED2 XTAL1 XTAL2 AVCC RST PLLSEL LED1 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 P0.7 P0.6 P0.5 P0.4 P0.3 P0.2 P0.1 P0.0 VSS VCC P3.0 P3.1/SOF# P3.2/INT0# P3.3/INT1# P3.4 P3.5 WR# MD234F3 PO R8292 68PLCC Figure 3. R8292 68-Pin PLCC Pin Signals 0' ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH 5&'86% Table 2. R8292 68-Pin PLCC Pin Signal Descriptions Signal Name Type Description ALE O Address Latch Enable. ALE signals the start of an external bus cycle and indicates that valid address information is available on lines A15:8 and AD7:0. An external latch can use ALE to demultiplex the address from the address/data bus. AVCC PWR Analog VCC. AVCC input for the phase locked loop circuitry. DM0, DP0 I/O USB Port 0. DP0 and DM0 are the differential data plus and data minus signals of USB port 0, the upstream differential port. These lines do not have internal pullup resistors. Provide an external 1.5 KΩ pullup resistor at DP0. If DP0 is not pulled high, a continuous SEO (USB reset) will be applied to these inputs causing the 8x931 to stay in reset. EA# I External Access. Directs program memory accesses to on-chip or off-chip code memory. For EA# strapped to ground, all program memory accesses are off-chip. For EA# strapped to VCC , program accesses on-chip ROM if the address is within the range of the on-chip ROM; otherwise the access is off-chip. The value of EA# is latched at reset. For devices without on-chip ROM, EA# must be strapped to ground. ECAP I External Capacitor. Connect a 2.2 µF capacitor between this pin and VSS to ensure proper operation of the differential line drivers. FSSEL I Full Speed Select. Connect to VCC for 12MHz Xtal and 12Mbps full speed USB rate. INT1# I HINT. Host bus interrupt input is set high by MCU when the MCU receiver error flag, received data available, transmitter holding register empty, or modem status interrupt is asserted. INT0# I RINGWAKE. Used to notify the host of an incoming ring in order to come out of suspend mode. LED3:0 O LED Drivers. Designed to drive LEDs connected directly to VCC. NC. OVRI#/P3.0 I Overcurrent Sense. Sense input to indicate an overcurrent condition on an external down-stream port. Active low with an internal pullup. NC. P0.7:0 I/O Address/Data Lines. Eight-bit, open-drain, bidirectional I/O lines with Schmitt trigger inputs that represent lower byte of external memory address multiplexed with data. P1.7 I/O NC. Quasi-bidirectional I/O port with internal pullup. P1.6 O Ready Indicate. Active low output to drive READY LED. Port has internal pullup. P1.5 O DCD Indicate. Active low output to drive DCD LED. Port has internal pullup. P1.4 O DATA Indicate. Active low output to drive DATA LED. Port has internal pullup. P1.3 O MODEMPWRCNTRL. Active low output used to control power supply to non-USB side of isolation. Port has internal pullup. P1.2 O MDMRESET. Active low output used to reset the MCU and MDP. This port has an internal pullup. P1.1 I/O NC. Quasi-bidirectional I/O port with internal pullup. P1.0 I/O NC. Quasi-bidirectional I/O port with internal pullup. P2.7:0 O Address Lines. Eight-bit port with internal pullups used for upper byte of external memory address. P3.5 I/O NC. Quasi-bidirectional I/O port with internal pullup. P3.4 I/O NC. Quasi-bidirectional I/O port with internal pullup. PLLSEL I Phase-locked Loop Select. Connect to VCC for 12MHz Xtal and 12Mbps full speed USB rate. PSEN# O Program Store Enable. Read signal output. Asserted for read accesses to external program memory. RD# O Read. Asserted for read accesses to external data memory. RST I Reset. Reset input to the chip. Holding this pin high for 64 oscillator periods while the oscillator is running resets the device. The port pins are driven to their reset conditions when a voltage greater than VIH1 is applied, whether or not the oscillator is running. This pin has an internal pulldown resistor which allows the device to be reset by connecting a capacitor between this pin and VCC. SOF#/P3.1 O Asserting RST when the chip is in idle mode or powerdown mode returns the chip to normal operation. 0' Start of Frame. Start of frame pulse. Active low. Asserted for 8 states when frame timer is locked to USB frame timing and SOF token or artificial SOF is detected. NC. 5&'86% ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH Table 2. R8292 68-Pin PLCC Pin Signal Descriptions (Cont’d) Signal Name Type Description VCC PWR Supply Voltage. Connect this pin to the +5v supply voltage. VSS GND Circuit Ground. Connect this pin to ground. WR# O Write. Write signal output to external memory. XTAL1 I Oscillator Amplifier Input. When implementing the on-chip oscillator, connect the external crystal or ceramic resonator across XTAL1 and XTAL2. If an external clock source is used, connect it to this pin. XTAL2 O Oscillator Amplifier Output. When implementing the on-chip oscillator, connect the external crystal or ceramic resonator across XTAL1 and XTAL2. If an external oscillator is used, leave XTAL2 unconnected. 0' ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH 5&'86% USB General Operation Descriptors USB devices report their attributes using descriptors. A descriptor is a data structure with a defined format, which begins with a byte-wide field that contains the total number of bytes in the descriptor followed by a byte-wide field that identifies the descriptor type. Class and vendor specific descriptors may be returned in one of two ways. Class and vendor specific descriptors that are related to standard descriptors are returned in the same data buffer as the standard descriptor. If a class or vendor specific descriptor is not related to a standard descriptor, it is returned using class or vendor specific requests. Device Descriptor A device descriptor describes general information about a USB device, which applies globally to the device and all of the device’s configurations (see Table 3). A USB device has only one device descriptor. Vendor ID, Product ID, and Device Release Number can be changed. The Manufacturer Name, Product Name, and Serial Number can also be customized. 0' 5&'86% ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH Table 3. Device Descriptors Offset Field Size Value Default 0 bLength 1 Number 12 1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant 01 2 bcdUSB 2 BCD 0100 4 bDeviceClass 1 Class 00 Description Size of this descriptor in bytes. DEVICE Descriptor Type. USB Specification Release Number in Binary-Coded Decimal (i.e., 2.10 is 0x210). This field identifies the release of the USB Specification that the device and its descriptors are compliant with. Class code (assigned by USB). If this field is reset to 0, each interface within a configuration specifies its own class information and the various interfaces operate independently. If this field is set to a value between 1 and 0xFE, the device supports different class specifications on different interfaces and the interfaces may not operate independently. This value identifies the class definition used for the aggregate interfaces. (For example, a CD-ROM device with audio and digital data interfaces that require transport control to eject CDs or start them spinning.) If this field is set to 0xFF, the device class is vendor specific. 5 bDeviceSubClass 1 SubClass 00 Subclass code (assigned by USB). These codes are qualified by the value of the bDeviceClass field. If the bDeviceClass field is reset to 0, this field must also be reset to 0. If the bDeviceClass field is not set to 0xFF, all values are reserved for assignment by USB. 6 bDeviceProtocol 1 Protocol 00 Protocol code (assigned by USB). These codes are qualified by the value of the bDeviceClass and the bDeviceSubClass fields. If a device supports class-specific protocols on a device basis as opposed to an interface basis, this code identifies the protocols that the device uses as defined by the specification of the device class. If this field is reset to 0, the device does not use class specific protocols on a device basis. However, it may use class specific protocols on an interface basis. If this field is set to 0xFF, the device uses a vendor specific protocol on a device basis. 7 bMaxPacketSize0 1 Number 08 Maximum packet size for endpoint zero (only 8, 16, 32, or 64 are valid). 8 idVendor 2 ID 1394 Vendor ID (assigned by USB). 10 idProduct 2 ID 7470 Product ID (assigned by the manufacturer). 12 bcdDevice 2 BCD 0100 14 iManufacturer 1 Index 01 Index of string descriptor describing manufacturer. 15 iProduct 1 Index 02 Index of string descriptor describing product. 16 iSerialNumber 1 Index 03 Index of string descriptor describing the device’s serial number. 17 bNumConfigurations 1 Number 02 Number of possible configurations. Device release number in binary-coded decimal. 0' ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH 5&'86% Configuration Descriptor A configuration descriptor describes information about a specific device configuration (see Table 4). The descriptor describes the number of interfaces provided by the configuration. Table 4. Configuration Descriptors Offset Field Size Value Default Description 0 bLength 1 Number 09 Size of this descriptor in bytes. 1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant 02 CONFIGURATION. 2 wTotalLength 2 Number 002E 4 bNumInterfaces 1 Number 01 Number of interfaces supported by this configuration. 5 bConfigurationValue 1 Number 01 Value to use as an argument to Set Configuration to select this configuration. 6 iConfiguration 1 Index 00 Index of string descriptor describing this configuration. 7 bmAttributes 1 Bitmap A0 Configuration characteristics Total length of data returned for this configuration. Includes the combined length of all descriptors (configuration, interface, endpoint, and class or vendor specific) returned for this configuration. D7 D6 D5 D4..0 Bus Powered Self Powered Remote Wakeup Reserved (reset to 0) A device configuration that uses power from the bus and a local source sets both D7 and D6. The actual power source at runtime may be determined using the Get Status device request. If a device configuration supports remote wakeup, D5 is set to 1. 8 MaxPower 1 mA C8 Maximum power consumption of USB device from the bus in this specific configuration when the device is fully operational. Expressed in 2 mA units (i.e., 50 = 100 mA). Note: A device configuration reports whether the configuration is bus-powered or self-powered. Device status reports whether the device is currently self-powered. If a device is disconnected from its external power source, it updates device status to indicate that it is no longer self-powered. A device may not increase its power draw from the bus, when it loses its external power source, beyond the amount reported by its configuration. If a device can continue to operate when disconnected from its external power source, it continues to do so. If the device cannot continue to operate, it fails operations it can no longer support. Host software may determine the cause of the failure by checking the status and noting the loss of the device’s power source. 0' 5&'86% ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH Interface Descriptor An interface descriptor describes a specific interface provided by the associated configuration (see Table 5). It is always returned as part of a configuration descriptor. An interface descriptor never includes endpoint zero in the number of endpoints. Table 5. Interface Descriptors Offset Size Value Default 0 bLength Field 1 Number 09 Description 1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant 04 INTERFACE Descriptor Type. 2 bInterfaceNumber 1 Number 00 Number of interface. Zero-based value identifying the index in the array of concurrent interfaces supported by this configuration. 3 bAlternateSetting 1 Number 00 Value used to select alternate setting for the interface identified in the prior field. 4 bNumEndpoints 1 Number 04 Number of endpoints used by this interface (excluding endpoint zero). If this value is 0, this interface only uses endpoint zero. 5 bInterfaceClass 1 Class 00 Class code (assigned by USB). Size of this descriptor in bytes. If this field is reset to 0, the interface does not belong to any USB specified device class. If this field is set to 0xFF, the interface class is vendor specific. All other values are reserved for assignment by USB. 6 bInterfaceSubClass 1 SubClass 00 Subclass code (assigned by USB). These codes are qualified by the value of the bInterfaceClass field. If the bInterfaceClass field is reset to 0, this field must also be reset to 0. If the bInterfaceClass field is not set to 0xFF, all values are reserved for assignment by USB. 7 bInterfaceProtocol 1 Protocol 00 Protocol code (assigned by USB). These codes are qualified by the value of the bInterfaceClass and the bInterfaceSubClass fields. If an interface supports class-specific requests, this code identifies the protocols that the device uses as defined by the specification of the device class. If this field is reset to 0, the device does not use a class specific protocol on this interface. If this field is set to 0xFF, the device uses a vendor specific protocol for this interface. 8 iInterface 1 Index 00 Index of string descriptor describing this interface. 0' ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH 5&'86% Endpoint Descriptor Each endpoint used for an interface has its own descriptor, which contains the information required by the host to determine the bandwidth requirements of each endpoint (see Table 6). An endpoint descriptor, like an Interface Descriptor, is always returned as part of a configuration descriptor. The default values are: Bulk In 1: 07058102100000 Bulk Out 1: 07050102100000 Bulk In 2: 07058203080064 Bulk Out 2: 07050202080000 Table 6. Endpoint Descriptors Offset Field Size Value Description 0 bLength 1 Number 1 bDescriptorType 1 Constant ENDPOINT Descriptor Type. 2 bEndpointAddress 1 Endpoint The address of the endpoint on the USB device described by this descriptor. The address is encoded as follows: Size of this descriptor in bytes. Bit 0..3: The endpoint number Bit 4..6: Reserved, reset to 0 Bit 7: Direction, ignored for control endpoints 0 OUT endpoint 1 IN endpoint 3 bmAttributes 1 Bit Map This field describes the endpoint’s attributes when it is configured using the bConfigurationValue. Bit 0..1: Transfer Type 00 Control 01 Isochronous 10 Bulk 11 Interrupt All other bits are reserved 4 wMaxPacketSize 2 Number Maximum packet size this endpoint is capable of sending or receiving when this configuration is selected. For isochronous endpoints, this value is used to reserve the bus time in the schedule, required for the per frame data payloads. The pipe may, on an ongoing basis, actually use less bandwidth than that reserved. The device reports, if necessary, the actual bandwidth used via its normal, non-USB defined mechanisms. For interrupt, bulk, and control endpoints smaller data payloads may be sent, but will terminate the transfer and may or may not require intervention to restart. Refer to Chapter 5 for more information. 6 bInterval 1 Number Interval for polling endpoint for data transfers. Expressed in milliseconds. This field is ignored for bulk and control endpoints. For isochronous endpoints this field must be set to 1. For interrupt endpoints, this field may range from 1 to 255. 0' 5&'86% ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH Enumeration The R8292 enumeration process consists of the following steps: 1. Get device descriptor. The host requests and reads the device descriptor to determine maximum packet size. 2. Set address. The host sends the R8292’s function address in a data packet using function endpoint 0. Device firmware interprets this data. 3. Get device descriptor. The host requests and reads the device descriptor to determine such information as device class, USB Specification compliance level, maximum packet size for endpoint 0, vendor id, product id. Etc. 4. Get configuration descriptor. The host requests and reads the device configuration descriptor to determine such information as the number of interfaces and endpoints; endpoint transfer type, packet size, and direction; power source ;maximum power; etc. When the host requests the configuration descriptor, all related interface and endpoint descriptors are returned. 5. Set configuration. The host assigns a configuration value to the device to establish the current configuration. Endpoint Pairs Data transfers with the host are made to/from endpoint pairs on the USB module. The R8292 provides three function endpoint pairs as follows. Table 7. Endpoint Pairs Endpoint Pair Transmit FIFO Receive FIFO USB Data Transfer Types Function Endpoint 0 8 bytes 8 bytes Control Function Endpoint 1 16 bytes 16 bytes Control, Interrupt, Bulk, Isochronous Function Endpoint 2 8 bytes 8 bytes Control, Interrupt, Bulk 0' ,QWHJUDWHG9.IOH[0RGHP'HYLFH6HWVZLWK86%,QWHUIDFH 5&'86% Design Considerations In addition to the design considerations found in the RC56D/RC336D Designer’s Guide (Order No. 1154), the following should be taken into account when designing a USB solution. Series Resistor Requirement for Impedance Matching Per USB rev. 1.0 specification, the impedance of the differential driver must be between 29 Ω and 33 Ω should be connected to each USB line; i.e., on DP0 and DM0. If the USB line is improperly terminated or not matched, then signal quality will suffer. This condition can be seen on an oscilloscope as excessive overshoot and undershoot, and will introduce errors and lower throughput. Pullup Resistor Requirement The USB specification requires a pullup resistor to allow the host to identify which devices are low speed and which devices are high speed in order to communicate at the appropriate data rate. For R8292, add a 1.5K Ω pullup to 3.0V – 3.6V, such as pin 53 (ECAP). These pullup resistors should be placed as close to the R8292 as possible. If ECAP is used, a 1 µF capacitor should be connected between ECAP and GND. Noise Considerations The R8292 high-speed logic can produce noise spikes on power and signal lines. Decoupling capacitors and transient absorbers will keep noise to a minimum. Connect 0.1µF bypass caps between VCC/AVCC and each VSS pin. Noise spikes on XTAL1 and XTAL2 can disrupt the timing of the R8292. Place the crystal and capacitors near the device and connect with short, direct traces. This will help minimize coupling between other digital circuits and the crystal. Additionally, place guard rings around the oscillator circuitry and ground the metal crystal case. Power-on Reset To automatically generate a reset when power is applied, connect the RST pin to VCC through a 0.33 µF capacitor. When VCC is applied, the RST pin rises to VCC, and does not decay below the threshold before the crystal stabilizes, plus two machine cycles. Excessive LED Current Pins LED3:0 (36, 37, 43, 44) were designed to drive LEDs connected directly to VCC. The LED driver is too strong, causing the device to sink excessive current. When all of the LED drivers are turned on at the same time, the current sinking capability of the device will be exceeded, causing excessive heating and reducing reliability of the device. By using a 250 Ω resistor in series with each LED, to avoid this problem. Electrical Characteristics and Timing For R8292 electrical characteristics and timing information, refer to Intel “8x931AA/8x931HA Universal Serial Bus Peripheral Controllers”, Order Number: 273108-002. 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