DALLAS DS89C420-MCL

-
DS89C420
Ultra-High-Speed Microcontroller
www.maxim-ic.com
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
FEATURES
The DS89C420 offers the highest performance
available in 8051-compatible microcontrollers. It
features a redesigned processor core that executes
every 8051 instruction (depending on the instruction
type) up to 12 times faster than the original for the
same crystal speed. Typical applications see a speed
improvement of 10 times using the same code and
crystal. The DS89C420 offers a maximum crystal
speed of 33MHz, achieving execution rates up to 33
million instructions per second (MIPS).
§ On-Chip Memory
- 16kB Flash Memory
- In-System Programmable through Serial Port
- 1kB SRAM for MOVX
§ ROMSIZE Feature
- Selects Internal Program Memory Size from
0 to 16k
- Allows Access to Entire External Memory
Map
- Dynamically Adjustable By Software
APPLICATIONS
Data Logging
Vending
Automotive Test Equipment
Motor Control
Magstripe Reader/Scanner
Consumer Electronics
Gaming Equipment
Appliances (Washers, Microwaves, etc.)
Telephones
HVAC
Building Security and Door Access Control
Building Energy Control and Management
Uninterruptible Power Supplies
Programmable Logic Controllers
Industrial Control and Automation
See page 2 for a complete list of features.
PIN CONFIGURATIONS
TOP VIEW
ORDERING INFORMATION
MAX.
PART
TEMP RANGE
CLOCK
SPEED
PIN-PACKAGE
(MHz)
DS89C420MCL
0°C to +70°C
33
40 PDIP
DS89C420QCL
0°C to +70°C
33
44 PLCC
DS89C420ECL
0°C to +70°C
33
44 TQFP
§ 80C52 Compatible
- 8051 Pin and Instruction-Set Compatible
- Four Bidirectional I/O Ports
- Three 16-Bit Timer Counters
- 256 Bytes Scratchpad RAM
P1.0/T2
P1.1/T2EX
P1.2/RXD1
P1.3/TXD1
P1.4/INT2
P1.5/INT3
P1.6/INT4
P1.7/INT5
RST
P3.0/RXD0
P3.1/TXD0
P3.2/INT0
P3.3/INT1
P3.4/T0
P3.5/T1
P3.6/WR
P3.7/RD
XTAL2
XTAL1
VSS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 DS89C420
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
VCC
P0.0
P0.1
P0.2
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
EA/VPP
ALE/PROG
PSEN
P2.7
P2.6
P2.5
P2.4
P2.3
P2.2
P2.1
P2.0
DIP
Pin Configurations continued at end of data sheet.
Ordering information continued at end of data sheet.
Note: Some revisions of this device may incorporate deviations from published specifications known as errata. Multiple revisions of any device
may be simultaneously available through various sales channels. For information about device errata, click here: www.maxim-ic.com/errata.
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103102
DS89C420
FEATURES
§ 80C52 compatible
- 8051 pin and instruction-set compatible
- Four bidirectional I/O ports
- Three 16-bit timer counters
- 256 bytes scratchpad RAM
§
§ On-chip memory
- 16kB flash memory
- In-system programmable through serial
port
- 1kB SRAM for MOVX
§ ROMSIZE feature
- Selects internal program memory size from
0 to 16k
- Allows access to entire external memory
map
- Dynamically adjustable by software
High-speed architecture
- 1 clock-per-machine cycle
- DC to 33MHz operation
- Single-cycle instruction in 30ns
- Optional variable length MOVX to access
fast/slow peripherals
- Dual data pointers with auto
increment/decrement and toggle select
- Supports four paged modes
§ Power Management Mode
- Programmable clock divider
- Automatic hardware and software exit
§ Two full-duplex serial ports
§ Programmable watchdog timer
§ 13 interrupt sources (six external)
§ Five levels of interrupt priority
§ Power-fail reset
§ Early warning power-fail interrupt
DETAILED DESCRIPTION
The DS89C420 is pin compatible with all three packages of the standard 8051 and includes standard
resources such as three timer/counters, four 8-bit I/O ports, and a serial port. It features 16kB of in-system
programmable flash memory, which can be programmed in-system from an I/O port using a built-in
program memory loader. It can also be loaded externally using standard commercially available
programmers.
Besides greater speed, the DS89C420 includes 1kB of data RAM, a second full-hardware serial port,
seven additional interrupts, two more levels of interrupt priority, programmable watchdog timer, brownout monitor, and power-fail reset. The device also provides dual data pointers (DPTRs) to speed up
block-data memory moves. This feature is further enhanced with a new selectable automatic
increment/decrement and toggle-select operation. The speed of MOVX data memory access can be
adjusted by adding stretch values up to 10 machine cycle times for flexibility in selecting external
memory and peripherals.
A power management mode (PMM) significantly consumes less power by slowing the CPU execution
rate from 1 clock period per cycle to 1024 clock periods per cycle. A selectable switchback feature can
automatically cancel this mode to enable a normal speed response to interrupts.
The EMI reduction feature disables the ALE signal when the processor is not accessing external memory.
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DS89C420
Figure 1. Block Diagram
Control &
Sequencer
Interrupt
Internal
Registers
CPU
SFRs
PC
DPTR
AR Inc
DPTR1
AR
SP
Decoder
IR
Address Bus
Internal Control Bus
1Kx 8
RAM
Clock &
Reset
16K x 8
Flash
I/O Ports
ROM
Loader
ALE/PROG
PSEN
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EA
Memory
Control
RST
XTAL2
Watchdog Timer
&
Power Manager
Timer /
Counters
XTAL1
Serial I/O
P0 P1 P2 P3
DS89C420
Table 1. Pin Description
DIP
PIN
PLCC
TQFP
40
12, 44
6, 38
9
1, 22, 23,
34
10
16, 17,
28, 39
4
19
18
21
20
29
NAME
FUNCTION
VCC
VCC - +5V
GND
GND. Logic Ground
RST
External Reset. The RST input pin is bidirectional and contains
a Schmitt trigger to recognize external active-high reset inputs.
The pin also employs an internal pulldown resistor to allow for a
combination of wire OR’d external reset sources. An RC is not
required for power-up, since the device provides this function
internally.
15
14
XTAL1
XTAL2
XTAL1, XTAL2. The crystal oscillator pins XTAL1 and
XTAL2 provide support for fundamental mode parallel resonant,
AT cut crystals. XTAL1 also acts as an input if there is an
external clock source in place of a crystal. XTAL2 serves as the
output of the crystal amplifier.
32
26
PSEN
Program Store Enable. This signal is commonly connected to
optional external program memory as a chip enable. PSEN
provides an active-low pulse and is driven high when external
program memory is not being accessed. In 1-cycle page mode 1,
PSEN remains low for consecutive page hits.
30
33
27
ALE/ PROG Address Latch Enable. Functions as a clock to latch the
external address LSB from the multiplexed address/data bus on
Port 0. This signal is commonly connected to the latch enable of
an external 373 family transparent latch. In default mode, ALE
has a pulse width of 1.5 XTAL1 cycles and a period of four
XTAL1 cycles. In page mode, the ALE pulse width is altered
according to the page mode selection. In traditional 8051 mode,
ALE is high when using the EMI reduction mode and during a
reset condition. ALE can be enabled by writing ALEON = 1
(PMR.2). Note that ALE operates independently of ALEON
during external memory accesses. As an alternate mode, this pin
( PROG ) is used to execute the parallel program function.
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
P0.0 (AD0)
P0.1 (AD1)
P0.2 (AD2)
P0.3 (AD3)
P0.4 (AD4)
P0.5 (AD5)
P0.6 (AD6)
P0.7 (AD7)
20
Port 0 (AD0–7), I/O. Port 0 is an open-drain 8-bit, bidirectional
I/O port. As an alternate function, Port 0 can function as the
multiplexed address/data bus to access off-chip memory. During
the time when ALE is high, the LSB of a memory address is
presented. When ALE falls to a logic 0, the port transitions to a
bidirectional data bus. This bus is used to read external program
memory and read/write external RAM or peripherals. When
used as a memory bus, the port provides weak pullups for logic
1 outputs. The reset condition of Port 0 is three-state. Pullup
resistors are required when using Port 0 as an I/O port.
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DS89C420
DIP
PIN
PLCC
1–8
2–9
40–44
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
40
41
42
43
44
1
2
3
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
TQFP
NAME
FUNCTION
P1.0–P1.7 Port 1, I/O. Port 1 functions as both an 8-bit, bidirectional I/O
port and an alternate functional interface for timer 2 I/O, new
external interrupts, and new serial port 1. The reset condition of
port 1 is with all bits at a logic 1. In this state, a weak pullup
holds the port high. This condition also serves as an input state,
since any external circuit that writes to the port overcomes the
weak pullup. When software writes a 0 to any port pin, the
DS89C420 activates a strong pulldown that remains on until
either a 1 is written or a reset occurs. Writing a 1 after the port
has been at 0 causes a strong transition driver to turn on,
followed by a weaker sustaining pullup. Once the momentary
strong driver turns off, the port again becomes the output high
(and input) state. The alternate functions of Port 1 are outlined
below.
P2.0 (A8)
P2.1 (A9)
P2.2 (A10)
P2.3 (A11)
P2.4 (A12)
P2.5 (A13)
P2.6 (A14)
P2.7 (A15)
PORT
P1.0
P1.1
P1.2
P1.3
P1.4
P1.5
P1.6
ALTERNATE FUNCTION
T2
External I/O for Timer/Counter2
T2EX Timer 2 Capture/Reload Trigger
RXD1 Serial Port 1 Receive
TXD1 Serial Port 1 Transmit
INT2 External Interrupt 2 (Positive Edge Detect)
INT3 External Interrupt 3 (Negative Edge Detect)
INT4 External Interrupt 4 (Positive Edge Detect)
P1.7
INT5
External Interrupt 5 (Negative Edge Detect)
Port 2 (A8–15), I/O. Port 2 is an 8-bit, bidirectional I/O port.
The reset condition of port 2 is logic high. In this state, a weak
pullup holds the port high. This condition also serves as an
input mode, since any external circuit that writes to the port
overcomes the weak pullup. When software writes a 0 to any
port pin, the DS89C420 activates a strong pulldown that
remains on until either a 1 is written or a reset occurs. Writing a
1 after the port has been at 0 causes a strong transition driver to
turn on, followed by a weaker sustaining pullup. Once the
momentary strong driver turns off, the port again becomes both
the output high and input state. As an alternate function, port 2
can function as the MSB of the external address bus when
reading external program memory and read/write external
RAM or peripherals. In page mode 1, port 2 provides both the
MSB and LSB of the external address bus; in page mode 2, it
provides the MSB and data.
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DS89C420
DIP
10–17
PIN
PLCC
11, 13–
19
TQFP
5, 7–13
NAME
FUNCTION
P3.0–P3.7
Port 3, I/O. Port 3 functions as both an 8-bit, bidirectional I/O
port and an alternate functional interface for external interrupts,
serial port 0, timer 0 and 1 inputs, and RD and WR strobes. The
reset condition of port 3 is with all bits at a logic 1. In this state,
a weak pullup holds the port high. This condition also serves as
an input mode, since any external circuit that writes to the port
overcomes the weak pullup. When software writes a 0 to any
port pin, the DS89C420 activates a strong pulldown that
remains on until either a 1 is written or a reset occurs. Writing a
1 after the port has been at 0 causes a strong transition driver to
turn on, followed by a weaker sustaining pullup. Once the
momentary strong driver turns off, the port again becomes both
the output high and input state. The alternate modes of Port 3
are outlined below.
10
11
5
P3.0
11
13
7
P3.1
12
14
8
P3.2
13
15
9
P3.3
14
16
10
P3.4
15
17
11
P3.5
16
18
12
P3.6
17
31
19
35
13
29
P3.7
EA
PORT
P3.0
P3.1
P3.2
P3.3
P3.4
P3.5
P3.6
ALTERNATE FUNCTION
RXD0 Serial Port 0 Receive
TXD0 Serial Port 0 Transmit
INT0 External Interrupt 0
INT1 External Interrupt 1
T0
Timer 0 External Input
T1
Timer 1 External Input
WR
External Data Memory Write Strobe
P3.7
RD
External Data Memory Read Strobe
External Access. Allows selection of internal or external
program memory. Connect to ground to force the DS89C420 to
use an external memory-program memory. The internal RAM
is still accessible as determined by register settings. Connect to
VCC to use internal flash memory.
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DS89C420
Compatibility
The DS89C420 is a fully static CMOS 8051-compatible microcontroller similar to the DS87C520 in
functional features, but with much higher performance. In most cases the DS89C420 can drop into an
existing socket for the 8xC51 family to improve the operation significantly. While remaining familiar to
8051 family users, it has many new features. The DS89C420 runs the standard 8051 family instruction set
and is pin compatible with DIP, PLCC, and TQFP packages. In general, software written for existing
8051-based systems works without DS89C420 modification, with the exception of critical timing
routines, since the DS89C420 performs its instructions much faster than the original for any given crystal
selection.
The DS89C420 provides three 16-bit timer/counters, two full-duplex serial ports, and 256 bytes of direct
RAM plus 1kB of extra MOVX RAM. I/O ports can operate as in standard 8051 products. Timers default
to a 12 clock-per-cycle operation to keep their timing compatible with original 8051 family systems.
However, timers are individually programmable to run at the new 1 clock-per-cycle if desired. The
DS89C420 provides several new hardware features implemented by new SFRs.
Performance Overview
The DS89C420 features a completely redesigned high-speed 8051-compatible core and allows operation
at a higher clock frequency, but the updated core does not have the dummy memory cycles that are
present in a standard 8051. A conventional 8051 generates machine cycles using the clock frequency
divided by 12. In the DS89C420, the same machine cycle takes 1 clock. Thus, the fastest instructions
execute 12 times faster for the same crystal frequency (and actually 24 times faster for the INC data
pointer instruction). It should be noted that this speed improvement reduces when using external memory
access modes that require more than 1 clock per cycle.
Improvement of individual programs depends on the actual instructions used. Speed-sensitive
applications make the most use of instructions that are 12 times faster. However, the sheer number of 12to-1 improved op codes makes dramatic speed improvements likely for any code. These architecture
improvements produce instruction cycle times as low as 30ns (33MIPs). The dual data pointer feature
also allows the user to eliminate wasted instructions when moving blocks of memory. The new page
modes allow for increased efficiency in external memory accesses.
Instruction Set Summary
All instructions perform the same functions as their 8051 counterparts. Their effect on bits, flags, and
other status functions is also identical. However, the timing of each instruction is different in both
absolute and relative number of clocks.
For absolute timing of real-time events, the timing of software loops can be calculated using information
in the “Instruction Set” table of the Ultra-High-Speed Flash Microcontroller User’s Guide. However,
counter/timers default to run at the older 12 clocks per increment. In this way, timer-based events occur at
the standard intervals with software executing at higher speed. Timers optionally can run at lower
numbers of clocks per increment to take advantage of faster processor operation.
The relative time of some instructions might be different in the new architecture than it was previously.
For example, in the original architecture, the “MOVX A, @DPTR” instruction and the “MOV direct,
direct” instruction used two machine cycles or 24 oscillator cycles. Therefore, they required the same
amount of time. In the DS89C420, the MOVX instruction takes as little as two machine cycles or two
oscillator cycles but the “MOV direct, direct” uses three machine cycles or three oscillator cycles. While
both are faster than their original counterparts, they now have different execution times. This is because
the DS89C420 usually uses one machine cycle for each instruction byte and requires one cycle for
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DS89C420
execution. The user concerned with precise program timing should examine the timing of each instruction
to become familiar with the changes.
Special Function Registers (SFRs)
All peripherals and operations that are not explicit instructions in the DS89C420 are controlled through
SFRs. The most common features basic to the architecture are mapped to the SFRs. These include the
CPU registers (ACC, B, and PSW), data pointers (DPTRs), stack pointer, I/O ports, timer/counters, and
serial ports. In many cases, an SFR controls an individual function or reports the function’s status. The
SFRs reside in register locations 80h–FFh and are only accessible by direct addressing. SFRs whose
addresses end in 0h or 8h are bit-addressable.
All standard SFR locations from the 8051 are duplicated in the DS89C420 and several SFRs have been
added for the unique features of the DS89C420. Most of these features are controlled by bits in SFRs
located in unused locations in the 8051 SFR map. This allows for increased functionality while
maintaining complete instruction set compatibility. Table 2 summarizes the SFRs and their locations.
Table 3 specifies the default reset condition for all SFR bits.
Data Pointers
The data pointers (DPTR and DPTR1) are used to assign a memory address for the MOVX instructions.
This address can point to a MOVX RAM location (on-chip or off-chip), or a memory-mapped peripheral.
Two pointers are useful when moving data from one memory area to another, or when using a memorymapped peripheral for both source and destination addresses. The user selects the active pointer through a
dedicated SFR bit (Sel = DPS.0), or activates an automatic toggling feature for altering the pointer
selection (TSL = DPS.5). An additional feature, if selected, provides automatic incrementing or
decrementing of the current DPTR.
Stack Pointer
The stack pointer denotes the register location at the top of the stack, which is the last used value. The
user can place the stack anywhere in the scratchpad RAM by setting the stack pointer to the desired
location, although the lower bytes are normally used for working registers.
I/O Ports
The DS89C420 offers four 8-bit I/O ports. Each I/O port is represented by an SFR location, and can be
written or read. The I/O port has a latch that contains the value written by software.
Counter/Timers
Three 16-bit timer/counters are available in the DS89C420. Each timer is contained in two SFR locations
that can be read or written by software. The timers are controlled by other SFRs described in the “SFR
Bit Description” section of the Ultra-High-Speed Flash Microcontroller User’s Guide.
Serial Ports
The DS89C420 provides two UARTs that are controlled and accessed by SFRs. Each UART has an
address that is used to read and write the UART. The same address is used for both read and write
operations, and the read and write operations are distinguished by the instruction. Each UART is
controlled by its own SFR control register.
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DS89C420
Table 2. Special Function Registers
REGISTER ADDR
BIT7
BIT6
BIT5
BIT4
BIT3
BIT2
BIT1
BIT0
P0.7
P0.5
—
P0.4
—
P0.3
—
P0.2
—
P0.1
—
P0.0
—
P0
80h
SP
81h
—
P0.6
—
DPL
82h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPH
83h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPL1
84h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPH1
85h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
DPS
86h
ID1
ID0
TSL
AID
—
—
—
SEL
PCON
87h
SMOD_0
SMOD0
OFDF
OFDE
GF1
GF0
STOP
IDLE
TCON
88h
TF1
TR1
TF0
TR0
IE1
IT1
IE0
IT0
TMOD
89h
GATE
C/ T
M1
M0
GATE
C/ T
M1
M0
TL0
8Ah
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TL1
8Bh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TH0
8Ch
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TH1
8Dh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CKCON
8Eh
WD1
WD0
T2M
T1M
T0M
MD2
MD1
MD0
P1
90h
P1.7/ INT5
P1.6/INT4
P1.5/ INT3
P1.4/INT2
P1.3/TXD1
P1.2/RXD1
P1.1/T2EX
P1.0/T2
EXIF
91h
IE5
IE4
IE3
IE2
CKRY
RGMD
RGSL
BGS
CKMOD
96h
—
—
T2MH
T1MH
T0MH
—
—
—
SCON0
98h
SM0/FE_0
SM1_0
SM2_0
REN_0
TB8_0
RB8_0
TI_0
RI_0
SBUF0
99h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ACON
9Dh
PAGEE
PAGES1
PAGES0
—
—
—
—
—
P2
A0h
P2.7
P2.6
P2.5
P2.4
P2.3
P2.2
P2.1
P2.0
IE
A8h
EA
ES1
ET2
ES0
ET1
EX1
ET0
EX0
SADDR0
A9h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SADDR1
AAh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P3
B0h
P3.7/ RD
P3.6/ WR
P3.5/T1
P3.4/T0
P3.3/ INT1
P3.2/ INT0
P3.1/TXD0
P3.0/RXD0
IP1
B1h
—
MPS1
MPT2
MPS0
MPT1
MPX1
MPT0
MPX0
IP0
B8h
—
LPS1
LPT2
LPS0
LPT1
LPX1
LPT0
LPX0
SADEN0
B9h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SADEN1
BAh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SCON1
C0h
SM0/FE_1
SM1_1
SM2_1
REN_1
TB8_1
RB8_1
TI_1
RI_1
SBUF1
C1h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
ROMSIZE
C2h
—
—
—
—
PRAME
RMS2
RMS1
RMS0
PMR
C4h
CD1
CD0
SWB
CTM
4X/ 2X
ALEON
DME1
DME0
STATUS
C5h
PIS2
PIS1
PIS0
—
SPTA1
SPRA1
SPTA0
SPRA0
TA
C7h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
T2CON
C8h
TF2
EXF2
RCLK
TCLK
EXEN2
TR2
C/ T 2
CP/ RL 2
T2MOD
C9h
—
—
—
—
—
—
T2OE
DCEN
CAh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RCAP2L
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DS89C420
REGISTER ADDR
BIT7
BIT6
BIT5
BIT4
BIT3
BIT2
BIT1
BIT0
RCAP2H
CBh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TL2
CCh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TH2
CDh
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
PSW
D0h
CY
AC
F0
RS1
RS0
OV
F1
P
—
D5h
FBUSY
FERR
—
FC3
FC2
FC1
FC0
FDATA
D6h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
WDCON
D8h
SMOD_1
POR
EPFI
PFI
WDIF
WTRF
EWT
RWT
ACC
E0h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EIE
E8h
—
—
—
EWDI
EX5
EX4
EX3
EX2
B
F0h
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
EIP1
F1h
—
—
—
MPWDI
MPX5
MPX4
MPX3
MPX2
EIP0
F8h
—
—
—
LPWDI
LPX5
LPX4
LPX3
LPX2
FCNTL
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DS89C420
Table 3. SFR Reset Value
REGISTER
ADDR
BIT7
BIT6
BIT5
BIT4
BIT3
BIT2
BIT1
BIT0
P0
80h
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
SP
81h
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
DPL
82h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DPH
83h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DPL1
84h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DPH1
85h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
DPS
86h
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
PCON
87h
0
0
Special
Special
0
0
0
0
TCON
88h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TMOD
89h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TL0
8Ah
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TL1
8Bh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TH0
8Ch
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TH1
8Dh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
CKCON
8Eh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
P1
90h
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
EXIF
91h
0
0
0
0
Special
Special
Special
0
CKMOD
96h
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
SCON0
98h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SBUF0
99h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ACON
9Dh
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
P2
A0h
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
IE
A8h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SADDR0
A9h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SADDR1
AAh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
P3
B0h
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
IP1
B1h
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
IP0
B8h
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SADEN0
B9h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SADEN1
BAh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SCON1
C0h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
SBUF1
C1h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ROMSIZE
C2h
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
PMR
C4h
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
STATUS
C5h
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
TA
C7h
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
T2CON
C8h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T2MOD
C9h
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
RCAP2L
CAh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RCAP2H
CBh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
11 of 59
DS89C420
REGISTER
ADDR
BIT7
BIT6
BIT5
BIT4
BIT3
BIT2
BIT1
BIT0
TL2
CCh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
TH2
CDh
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
PSW
D0h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
FCNTL
D5h
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
FDATA
D6h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
WDCON
D8h
0
Special
0
Special
0
Special
Special
0
ACC
E0h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EIE
E8h
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
B
F0h
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EIP1
F1h
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
EIP0
F8h
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
12 of 59
DS89C420
Memory Organization
There are three distinct memory areas in the DS89C420: scratchpad registers, program memory, and data
memory. All registers are located on-chip but the program and data memory spaces can be either on-chip,
off-chip, or both. There are 16kB of on-chip program memory implemented in flash memory and 1kB of
on-chip data memory space that can be configured as program space using the PRAME bit in the
ROMSIZE feature. The DS89C420 uses a memory-addressing scheme that separates program memory
from data memory. The program and data segments can be overlapped since they are accessed in different
ways. If the maximum address of on-chip program or data memory is exceeded, the DS89C420 performs
an external memory access using the expanded memory bus. The PSEN signal goes active low to serve
as a chip enable or output enable when performing a code fetch from external program memory. MOVX
instructions activate the RD or WR signal for external MOVX data memory access. The lower 128
bytes of on-chip flash memory store reset and interrupt vectors. The program memory ROMSIZE feature
allows software to dynamically configure the maximum address of on-chip program memory. This allows
the DS89C420 to act as a bootloader for an external flash or NV SRAM. It also enables the use of the
overlapping external program spaces.
256 bytes of on-chip RAM serve as a register area and program stack, which are separated from the data
memory.
Register Space
Registers are located in the 256 bytes of on-chip RAM, which can be divided into two subareas of 128
bytes each as illustrated in Figure 2. Separate classes of instructions are used to access the registers and
the program/data memory. The upper 128 bytes are overlapped with the 128 bytes of SFRs in the memory
map. The upper 128 bytes of scratchpad RAM are accessed by indirect addressing, and the SFR area is
accessed by direct addressing. The lower 128 bytes can be accessed by direct or indirect addressing.
There are four banks of eight individual working registers in the lower 128 bytes of scratchpad RAM.
The working registers are general-purpose RAM locations that can be addressed within the selected bank
by any instructions that use R0–R7. The register bank selection is controlled through the program status
register in the SFR area. The contents of the working registers can be used for indirectly addressing the
upper 128 bytes of scratchpad RAM.
To support the Boolean operations, there are individually addressable bits in both the RAM and SFR
areas. In the scratchpad RAM area, registers 20h–2Fh are bit-addressable by software using Boolean
operation instructions.
Another use of the scratchpad RAM area is for the stack. The stack pointer in the SFRs is used to select
storage locations for program variables and for return addresses of control operations.
13 of 59
DS89C420
Figure 2. Memory Map
FFFF
FFFF
INTERNAL
MEMORY
03FF
INTERNAL
REGISTERS
128 Bytes SFR
0000
128 Bytes
Indirect
Addressing
2000
80
7F
External
Data
Memory
4000
8K x 8
Flash
Memory
(Program)
1FFF
8K x 8
Flash
Memory
(Program)
Bit Addressable
Bank 3
Bank 2
Bank 1
00
External
Program
Memory
Data OR
prog mem
addr from
400 - 7FF
3FFF
FF
2F
20
1F
1K x 8
SRAM
Bank 0
0000
03FF
0000
14 of 59
0000
DS89C420
Memory Configuration
As illustrated in Figure 2, the DS89C420 incorporates two 8kB flash memories for on-chip program
memory and 1kB of SRAM for on-chip data memory or a particular range (400–7FF) of “alternate”
program memory space. The DS89C420 uses an address scheme that separates program memory from
data memory, such that the 16-bit address bus can address each memory area up to 64kB.
Program Memory Access
On-chip program memory begins at address 0000h and is contiguous through 3FFFh (16kB). Exceeding
the maximum address of on-chip program memory causes the device to access off-chip memory.
However, the maximum on-chip decoded address is selectable by software using the ROMSIZE feature.
Software can cause the DS89C420 to behave like a device with less on-chip memory. This is beneficial
when overlapping external memory is used. The maximum memory size is dynamically variable. Thus, a
portion of memory can be removed from the memory map to access off-chip memory, then be restored to
access on-chip memory. In fact, all of the on-chip memory can be removed from the memory map
allowing the full 64kB memory space to be addressed from off-chip memory. Program memory addresses
that are larger than the selected maximum are automatically fetched from outside the part through ports 0
and 2 (Figure 2).
The ROMSIZE register is used to select the maximum on-chip decoded address for program memory.
Bits RMS2, RMS1, RMS0 have the following effect:
RMS2
RMS1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
RMS0
ADDRESS
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
MAXIMUM ON-CHIP
PROGRAM MEMORY
0k
1k/03FFh
2k/07FFh
4k/0FFFh
8k/1FFFh
16k (default)/3FFFh
Invalid–Reserved
Invalid–Reserved
The reset default condition is a maximum on-chip program-memory address of 16kB. When accessing
external program memory, the first 16kB would be inaccessible. To select a smaller effective program
memory size, software must alter bits RMS2–RMS0. Altering these bits requires a timed access
procedure as explained later.
Care should be taken so that changing the ROMSIZE register does not corrupt program execution. For
example, assume that a DS89C420 is executing instructions from internal program memory near the
12kB boundary (~3000h) and that the ROMSIZE register is currently configured for a 16kB internal
program space. If software reconfigures the ROMSIZE register to 4kB (0000h–0FFFh) in the current
state, the device immediately jumps to external program execution because program code from 4kB to
16kB (1000h–3FFFh) is no longer located on-chip. This could result in code misalignment and execution
of an invalid instruction. The recommended method is to modify the ROMSIZE register from a location
in memory that is internal (or external) both before and after the operation. In the above example, the
instruction that modifies the ROMSIZE register should be located below the 4kB (1000h) boundary or
above the 16kB (3FFFh) boundary so that it is unaffected by the memory modification. The same
precaution should be applied if the internal program memory size is modified while executing from
external program memory.
15 of 59
DS89C420
For non-page mode operations, off-chip memory is accessed using the multiplexed address/data bus on
P0 and the MSB address on P2. While serving as a memory bus, these pins are not I/O ports. This
convention follows the standard 8051 method of expanding on-chip memory. Off-chip program memory
access also occurs if the EA pin is a logic 0. EA overrides all bit settings. The PSEN signal goes active
(low) to serve as a chip enable or output enable when port 0 and port 2 fetch from external program
memory.
The RD and WR signals are used to control the external data memory device. Data memory is accessed
by MOVX instructions. The [email protected] instruction uses the value in the designated working register to
provide the LSB of the address, while port 2 supplies the address MSB. The [email protected] instruction
uses one of the two data pointers to move data over the entire 64kB external data memory space.
Software selects the data pointer to be used by writing to the SEL bit (DPS.0).
The DS89C420 also provides a user option for high-speed external memory access by reconfiguring the
external memory interface into page mode operation.
Note: When using the original 8051 expanded bus structure, the throughput is reduced by 75% compared
with that of internal operations. This is due to the CPU being stalled for three out of four clocks waiting
for the data fetch, which takes four clocks. Page Mode 1 is the only external addressing mode where the
CPU does not require stalls for external memory access, but page misses result in reduced external access
performance.
On-Chip Program Memory
The full on-chip program memory range can be fetched by the processor automatically. The reset routines
and all interrupt vectors are located in the lower 128 bytes of the on-chip program memory area.
On-chip program memory is logically divided into two 8kB flash memory banks and is designed to be
programmed with the standard 5V VCC supply by using a built-in program memory loader. It can also be
programmed in standard flash or EPROM programmers. The DS89C420 incorporates a memory
management unit (MMU) and other hardware to support any of the two programming methods. The
MMU controls program and data memory access, and provides sequencing and timing controls for
programming the on-chip program memory. There is also a separate security flash block that is used to
support a standard three-level lock, a 64-byte encryption array, and other flash options.
Security Features
The DS89C420 incorporates a 64-byte encryption array, allowing the user to verify program codes while
viewing the data in encrypted form. The encryption array is implemented in a security flash memory
block that has the same electrical and timing characteristics as the on-chip program memory. Once the
encryption array is programmed to non-FFh, the data presented in the verify mode is encrypted. Each
byte of data is XNOR’ed with a byte in the encryption array during verification.
A three-level lock restricts viewing of the internal program and data memory contents. By programming
the three lock bits, the user can select a level of security as specified in Table 4. Once a security level is
selected and programmed, the setting of the lock bits remains. Only a mass erase can erase these bits to
allow reprogramming the security level to a less restricted protection.
16 of 59
DS89C420
Table 4. Flash Memory Lock Bits
LEVEL
LB1
LB2
LB3
PROTECTION
1
1
1
1
No program lock. Encrypted verify if encryption array is
programmed.
2
0
1
1
Prevent MOVC in external memory from reading program code in
internal memory. EA is sampled and latched on reset. Allow no
further parallel or program memory loader programming.
3
X
0
1
Level 2 plus no verify operation. Also prevent MOVX in external
memory from reading internal SRAM.
4
X
X
0
Level 3 plus no external execution.
The DS89C420 provides user-selectable options that must be set before beginning software execution.
The option control register uses flash bits rather than SFRs, and is individually erasable and
programmable as a byte-wide register. Bit 3 of this register is defined as the watchdog POR default.
Setting this bit to 1 disables the watchdog reset function on power-up, and clearing this bit to 0 enables
the watchdog reset function automatically. Other bits of this register are undefined and are at logic 1
when read. The value of this register can be read at address FCh in parallel programming mode or when
executing a verify-option control-register instruction in ROM loader mode.
The signature bytes can be read in ROM loader mode or in parallel programming mode. Reading data
from addresses 30h, 31h, and 60h provides signature information about manufacturer, part, and extension
as follows:
ADDRESS VALUE
FUNCTION
30h DAh
Manufacturer ID
31h 42h
DS89C420 Device ID
60h 01h
Device Extension
ROM Loader
The full 16kB of on-chip flash program-memory space, security flash block, and external SRAM can be
programmed in-system from an external source through serial port 0 under the control of a built-in ROM
loader. The ROM loader also has an auto-baud feature that determines which baud rate frequencies are
being used for communication and sets up the baud rate generator for communication at that frequency.
When the DS89C420 is powered up and has entered its user operating mode, the ROM loader mode can
be invoked at any time by forcing RST = 1, EA = 0, and PSEN = 0. It remains in effect until powerdown or when the condition (RST = 1 and PSEN = EA = 0) is removed. Entering the ROM loader mode
forces the processor to start fetching from the 2kB internal ROM for program memory initialization and
other loader functions.
The read/write accessibility is determined by the state of the lock bits, which can be verified directly by
the ROM loader. In the ROM loader mode, a mass-erase operation also erases the memory bank select
and sets it to the default state. Otherwise, the memory bank select cannot be altered in the ROM loader
mode.
17 of 59
DS89C420
Flash programming is executed by a series of internal flash commands that are derived (by the built-in
ROM loader) from data transmitted over the serial interface from a host PC. PC-based software tools that
configure and load the microcontrollers are available at www.maxim-ic.com/micros/ftpinfo.html.
Full details of the ROM loader software and its implementation are given in the Ultra-High-Speed Flash
Microcontroller User’s Guide.
Figure 3. Interfacing the Bootloader to a PC
18 of 59
DS89C420
Parallel Programming
The DS89C420 allows parallel programming of its internal flash memory compatible with standard flash
or EPROM programmers. In parallel programming mode, a mass-erase command is used to erase all
memory locations in the 16kB program memory, the security block, and the memory bank select. Erasing
the memory bank select sets it to the default state; the memory bank select cannot be altered otherwise. If
lock bit LB2 has not been programmed, the program code can be read back for verification. The state of
the lock bits can also be verified directly in the parallel programming mode. One instruction is used to
read signature information (at addresses 30, 31, and 60h). Separate instructions are used for the option
control register.
The following sequence can be used to program the flash memory in the parallel programming mode:
1) The DS89C420 is powered up and running at a clock speed between 4MHz and 6MHz.
2) Set RST = EA = 1 and PSEN = 0.
3) Apply the appropriate logic combination to pins P2.6, P2.7, P3.6, and P3.7 to select one of the flash
instructions shown in Table 8.
- For program operation, apply the desired address to pins P1.7:0 and P2.5:0. Data is written to
port 0.
- For verify operation, apply the desired address to pins P1.7:0 and P2.5:0. Data is read at port 0.
4) Pulse ALE/ PROG once to perform an erase/program operation.
5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 as necessary.
19 of 59
DS89C420
Table 5. Parallel Programming Instruction Set
INSTRUCTION
Mass Erase
P2.5:0,
P1.7:0
P0.7:0
PROG P2.6
P2.7
P3.6
P3.7
OPERATION
(1)
PL
H
L
L
L
Mass erase the 16k x 8 program
memory, the security block and the
bank select. The contents of every
memory location is returned to FFh.
Don’t care
Don’t care
ADDR
DIN
PL(3)
L
H
H
H
Program the 16k program memory.
ADDR
DOUT
H(4)
L
L
H
H
Verify the 16k program memory.
ADDR
DIN
PL(3)
L
H
L
H
Program the 64 byte encryption
array.
Write LB1
Don’t care
Don’t care
PL(3)
H
H
H
H
Program LB1 to logic 0.
Write LB2
Don’t care
Don’t care
PL(3)
H
H
L
L
Program LB2 and LB1 to 00b.
Write LB3
Don’t care
Don’t care
PL(3)
H
L
H
L
Program LB3, LB2, and LB1 to
000b.
Write Program
Memory
Read Program
Memory
Write
Encryption
Array
Read Lock Bits
Don’t care
DOUT
H(4)
L
L
L
H
Verify the lock bits. The lock bits
are at address 40h and the three
LSBs of the DOUT are the logic
value of the lock bits LB3, LB2,
and LB1, respectively.
Write Option
Control
Register
Don’t care
DIN
PL(3)
L
H
L
L
Program the option control register.
Bit 3 of the DIN represents the
watchdog POR default setting.
H
Erase the option control register.
This operation disables the watchdog reset function on power-up.
L
30h = Manufacturer ID
31h = Device ID
60h = Device extension
FCh = Verify the option control
register. Bit 3 of the DOUT is the
logic value of the watchdog POR.
Erase Option
Control
Register
Read Address
30, 31, 60, FC
Don’t care
ADDR
Don’t care
DOUT
(2)
H
PL
H(4)
L
L
L
L
L
1)
Mass erase requires an active-low PROG pulse width of 828ms.
2)
Erase option control register requires an active-low PROG pulse width of 828ms.
3)
Byte program requires an active-low PROG pulse width of 100ms max.
4)
PROG is weakly pulled to a high internally.
Note 1: P3.2 is pulled low during programming to indicate Busy. P3.2 is pulled high again when programming is completed to indicate Ready.
Note 2: P3.0 is pulled high during programming to indicate an error.
20 of 59
DS89C420
On-Chip MOVX Data Memory
On-chip data memory is provided by the 1kB SRAM and occupies addresses 0000h through 03FFh. The
internal data memory is disabled after a power-on reset, and any MOVX instruction directs the data
memory access to the external data memory. To enable the internal data memory, software must
configure the data memory enable bits DME1 and DME0 (PMR.1-0). See “SFR Bit Descriptions” in the
Ultra-High-Speed Flash Microcontroller User’s Guide for data memory configurations. Once enabled,
MOVX instructions with addresses inside the 1k range access the on-chip data memory, and addresses
exceeding the 1k range automatically access external data memory.
An internal data memory cycle spans only one system clock period to support fast internal execution.
Data Pointer Increment/Decrement and Options
The DS89C420 incorporates a hardware feature to assist applications that require data pointer
increment/decrement. Data pointer increment/decrement bits ID0 and ID1 (DPS.6 and DPS.7) define how
the INC DPTR instruction functions in relation to the active DPTR (selected by the SEL bit). Setting
ID0 = 1 and SEL = 0 enables the decrement operation for DPTR, and execution of the INC DPTR
instruction decrements the DPTR contents by 1. Similarly, setting ID1 = 1 and SEL = 1 enables the
decrement operation for DPTR1, and execution of the INC DPTR instruction decrements the DPTR1
contents by 1. With this feature, the user can configure the data pointers to operate in four ways for the
INC DPTR instruction:
ID1
ID0
SEL = 0
SEL = 1
0
0
Increment DPTR
Increment DPTR1
0
1
Decrement DPTR
Increment DPTR1
1
0
Increment DPTR
Decrement DPTR1
1
1
Decrement DPTR
Decrement DPTR1
The active data pointer is always selected by the SEL (DPS.0) bit. The DS89C420 offers a programmable
option that allows any instructions related to data pointer to toggle the SEL bit automatically. This option
is enabled by setting the toggle-select-enable bit (TSL-DPS.5) to a logic 1. Once enabled, the SEL bit is
automatically toggled after the execution of one of the following five DPTR-related instructions:
INC DPTR
MOV DPTR #data16
MOVC A, @A+DPTR
MOVX A, @DPTR
MOVX @DPTR, A
The DS89C420 also offers a programmable option that automatically increases (or decreases) the
contents of the selected data pointer by 1 after the execution of a DPTR-related instruction. The actual
function (increment or decrement) is dependent upon the setting of the ID1 and ID0 bits. This option is
enabled by setting the automatic increment/decrement enable (AID-DPS.4) to a logic 1 and is affected by
one of the following three instructions:
MOVC A, @A+DPTR
MOVX A, @DPTR
MOVX @DPTR, A
21 of 59
DS89C420
External Memory
The DS89C420 executes external memory cycles for code fetches and read/writes of external program
and data memory. A non-page external memory cycle is four times slower than the internal memory
cycles (i.e., an external memory cycle contains four system clocks)*. However, a page mode external
memory cycle can be completed in 1, 2, or 4 system clocks for a page hit and 2, 4, or 8 system clocks for
a page miss, depending on user selection. The DS89C420 also supports a second page mode operation
with a different external bus structure that provides for fast external code fetches but uses 4 system clock
cycles for data memory access.
*For this reason, although a DS89C420 can be substituted for a ROM-less 8051 device (DS80C310,
C320, etc.), there is no increase in execution speed.
External Program Memory Interface (Non-Page Mode)
Figure 4 shows the timing relationship for internal and external code fetches when CD1 and CD0 are set
to 10b, assuming the microcontroller is in non-page mode for external fetches. Note that an external
program fetch takes 4 system clocks, and an internal program fetch requires only 1 system clock.
As illustrated in Figure 4, ALE is deasserted when executing an internal memory fetch. The DS89C420
provides a programmable user option to turn on ALE during internal program memory operation. ALE is
automatically enabled for code fetch externally, independent of the setting of this option.
PSEN is only asserted for external code fetches, and is inactive during internal execution.
Figure 4. External Program Memory Access (Non-Page Mode and
CD1:CD0 = 10)
Internal Memory Cycles
Ext Memory Cycle
C1
C2
C3
C4
Ext Memory Cycle
C1
C2
C3
C4
XTAL1
ALE
PSEN
LSB Add
Data
LSB Add
Data
Port 0
Port 2
MSB Add
22 of 59
MSB Add
DS89C420
External Data Memory Interface in Non-Page Mode Operation
Just like the program memory cycle, the external data memory cycle is four times slower than the internal
data memory cycle in non-page mode. A basic internal memory cycle contains one system clock and a
basic external memory cycle contains four system clocks for non-page mode operation.
The DS89C420 allows software to adjust the speed of external data memory access by stretching the
memory bus cycle. CKCON (8Eh) provides an application-selectable stretch value for this purpose.
Software can change the stretch value dynamically by changing the setting of CKCON.2–CKCON.0.
Table 6 shows the data memory cycle stretch values and their effects on the external MOVX-memory bus
cycle and the control signal pulse width in terms of the number of oscillator clocks. A stretch machine
cycle always contains four system clocks.
Table 6. Data Memory Cycle Stretch Values
MD2:MD0
STRETCH
CYCLES
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
0
1
2
3
7
8
9
10
RD / WR PULSE WIDTH (IN NUMBER OF OSCILLATOR CLOCKS)
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 100
0.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 000
1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X10
2
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X11
2048
4096
8192
12288
16384
20480
24576
28672
As shown in Table 6, the stretch feature supports eight stretched external data-memory access cycles that
can be categorized into three timing groups. When the stretch value is cleared to 000b, there is no stretch
on external data memory access and a MOVX instruction is completed in two basic memory cycles.
When the stretch value is set to 1, 2, or 3, the external data-memory access is extended by 1, 2, or 3
stretch machine cycles, respectively. Note that the first stretch value does not result in adding four system
clocks to the RD / WR control signals. This is because the first stretch uses one system clock to create
additional setup time and one system clock to create additional address hold time. When using very slow
RAM and peripherals, a larger stretch value (4–7) can be selected. In this stretch category, one stretch
machine cycle (4 system clocks) is used to stretch the ALE pulse width, one stretch machine cycle is used
to create additional setup, one stretch machine cycle is used to create additional hold time, and one stretch
machine cycle is added to the RD or WR strobes.
Figures 5 and 6 illustrate the timing relationship for external data-memory access in full speed (stretch
value = 0), in the default stretch setting (stretch value =1), and slow data-memory accessing
(stretch value = 4) when the system clock is in divide by one mode (CD1:CD0 = 10b).
23 of 59
DS89C420
Figure 5. Non-Page Mode, External Data-Memory Access (Stretch = 0,
CD1:CD2 = 10)
MOVX Instruction
1st Machine Cycle
2nd Machine Cycle
XTAL1
ALE
PSEN
RD WR
Port 0
A
Port 2
MOVX
A
INST
A
A
DATA
A
MOVX
Instruction
Fetch
Memory
Access
Stretch = 0
Figure 6. Non-Page Mode, External Data-Memory Access (Stretch = 1,
CD1:CD2 = 10)
MOVX Instruction
1st Machine Cycle
2nd Machine Cycle
3rd Machine Cycle
XTAL1
ALE
PSEN
RD WR
Port 0
Port 2
A
MOVX
A
INST
A
A
DATA
A
MOVX
Instruction
Fetch
Memory Access
Stretch = 1
24 of 59
DS89C420
Page Mode, External Memory Cycle
Page mode retains the basic circuitry requirement for original 8051 external memory interface, but alters
the configuration of P0 and P2 for the purposes of address output and data I/O during external memory
cycles. Additionally, the functions of ALE and PSEN are altered to support this mode of operation.
Page mode is enabled by setting the PAGEE (ACON.7) bit to a logic 1. Clearing the PAGEE bit to a
logic 0 disables the page mode and the external bus structure defaults to the original 8051 expanded bus
configuration (non-page mode). The DS89C420 supports page mode in two external bus structures. The
logic value of the page mode select bits in the ACON register determines the external bus structure and
the basic memory cycle in the number of system clocks. Table 7 summarizes this option. The first three
selections use the same bus structure but with a different memory cycle time. Setting the select bits to 11b
selects another bus structure. Write access to the ACON register requires a timed access.
Table 7. Page Mode Select
PAGES1:PAGES0
CLOCKS PER MEMORY CYCLE
PAGE HIT
PAGE MISS
00
1
2
01
2
4
10
4
8
11
2
4
25 of 59
EXTERNAL BUS STRUCTURE
P0: Primary data bus.
P2: Primary address bus, multiplexing both
the upper byte and lower byte of the address.
P0: Primary data bus.
P2: Primary address bus, multiplexing both
the upper byte and lower byte of the address.
P0: Primary data bus.
P2: Primary address bus, multiplexing both
the upper byte and lower byte of the address.
P0: Lower address byte.
P2: The upper address byte is multiplexed
with the data byte.
Note: This setting affects external code
fetches only; accessing the external data
memory requires 4 clock cycles, regardless
of page hit or miss.
DS89C420
The first page mode (page mode 1) external bus structure uses P2 as the primary address bus,
(multiplexing both the most significant byte (MSB) and least significant byte (LSB) of the address for
each external memory cycle) and P0 is used as the primary data bus. During external code fetches, P0 is
held in a high-impedance state by the processor. Op codes are driven by the external memory onto P0 and
latched at the end of the external fetch cycle at the rising edge of PSEN . During external data read/write
operations, P0 functions as the data I/O bus. It is held in a high-impedance state for external reads from
data memory, and driven with data during external writes to data memory.
§
A page miss occurs when the MSB of the subsequent address is different from the last address.
The external memory machine cycle can be 2, 4, or 8 system clocks in length for a page miss.
§
A page hit occurs when the MSB of the subsequent address does not change from the last address.
The external memory machine cycle can be 1, 2, or 4 system clocks in length for a page hit.
During a page hit, P2 drives Addr0–7 of the 16-bit address while the most significant address byte is held
in the external address latches. PSEN , RD , and WR strobe accordingly for the appropriate operation on
the P0 data bus. There is no ALE assertion for page hits.
During a page miss, P2 drives the Addr [8:15] of the 16-bit address and holds it for the duration of the
first half of the memory cycle to allow the external address latches to latch the new most significant
address byte. ALE is asserted to strobe the external address latches. During this operation, PSEN , RD ,
and WR are all held in inactive states and P0 is in a high-impedance state. The second half of the
memory cycle is executed as a page-hit cycle and the appropriate operation takes place.
A page miss can occur at set intervals or during external operations that require a memory access into a
page of memory that has not been accessed during the last external cycle. Generally, the first external
memory access causes a page miss. The new page address is stored internally, and is used to detect a page
miss for the current external memory cycle.
Note that there are a few exceptions for this mode of operation when PAGES1 and PAGES2 are set to
00b:
§
§
§
PSEN is asserted for both page hit and page miss for a full clock cycle.
The execution of external MOVX instruction causes a page miss.
A page miss occurs when fetching the next external instruction following the execution of an external
MOVX instruction.
Figure 7 shows the external memory cycle for this bus structure. The first case illustrates a back-to-back
execution sequence for 1-cycle page mode (PAGES1 = PAGES0 = 0b). PSEN remains active during
page hit cycles, and page misses are forced during and after MOVX executions, independent of the most
significant byte of the subsequent addresses. The second case illustrates a MOVX execution sequence for
2-cycle page mode (PAGES1 = 0 and PAGES0 = 1). PSEN is active for a full clock cycle in code
fetches. Note that the page misses in this sequence are caused by changing the MSB of the data address.
The third case illustrates a MOVX execution sequence for 4-cycle page mode (PAGES1 = 1 and
PAGES0 = 0). There is no page miss in this execution cycle because the most significant byte of the data
address is assumed to match the last program address.
26 of 59
DS89C420
The second page mode (page mode 2) external bus structure multiplexes the most significant address byte
with data on P2, and uses P0 for the least significant address byte. This bus structure is used to speed up
external code fetches only. External data-memory access cycles are identical to the non-page mode except
for the different signals on P0 and P2. Figure 8 illustrates the memory cycle for external code fetches.
Figure 7. Page Mode 1, External Memory Cycle (CD1:CD0 = 10)
Internal Memory Cycles
External Memory Cycles
XTAL1
ALE
PSEN
RD / WR
PAGES=00
Port 0
Port 2
Inst
MSB
LSB
Inst
LSB
Page Miss
MOVX
LSB
MOVX
LSB
Page Hit
Inst
Data
MSB
LSB
MSB
Data Access
LSB
MSB
Page Miss
MOVX executed
Data
LSB
MSB
Data Access
MOVX executed
ALE
PSEN
RD / WR
PAGES=01
Port 0
Port 2
MOVX
MSBAdd
Page Miss
Inst
LSB Add
Data
LSB Add
MSBAdd
Page Hit
LSB Add
Data Access
MOVX executed
MSBAdd
Page Miss
next instruction
ALE
PSEN
RD / WR
PAGES=10
Port 0
Port 2
Inst
MSBAdd
LSB Add
Page Miss
27 of 59
Data
LSB Add
Data Access
DS89C420
Figure 8. Page Mode 2, External Code Fetch Cycle (CD1:CD0 = 10)
Ext Code Fetches
Internal Memory Cycles
Page Miss
C1
C2
C3
Page Hit
C4
C1
C2
Page Hit
C1 C2
XTAL1
ALE
PSEN
Port 0
LSB Add
Port 2
MSB Add
LSB Add
Data
Data
LSB Add
Data
Stretch External Data Memory Cycle in Page Mode
The DS89C420 allows software to adjust the speed of external data memory access by stretching the
memory bus cycle in page mode operation just like non-page mode operation. The following tables
summarize the stretch values and their effects on the external MOVX-memory bus cycle and the control
signals’ pulse width in terms of the number of oscillator clocks. A stretch machine cycle always contains
four system clocks, independent of the logic value of the page mode select bits.
Table 8. Page Mode 1, Data Memory Cycle Stretch Values
(Pages1:Pages0 = 00)
MD2:MD0
STRETCH
CYCLES
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
0
1
2
3
7
8
9
10
RD / WR PULSE WIDTH (IN NUMBER OF OSCILLATOR CLOCKS)
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 100
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 000
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X10
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X11
0.25
0.75
1.75
2.75
3.75
4.75
5.75
6.75
0.5
1.5
3.5
5.5
7.5
9.5
11.5
13.5
1
3
7
11
15
19
23
27
1024
3072
7168
11,264
15,360
19,456
23,552
27,648
28 of 59
DS89C420
Table 9. Page Mode 1, Data Memory Cycle Stretch Values
(Pages1:Pages0 = 01)
MD2:MD0
STRETCH
CYCLES
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
0
1
2
3
7
8
9
10
RD / WR PULSE WIDTH (IN NUMBER OF OSCILLATOR CLOCKS)
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 100
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 000
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X10
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X11
0.25
0.75
1.75
2.75
3.75
4.75
5.75
6.75
0.5
1.5
3.5
5.5
7.5
9.5
11.5
13.5
1
3
7
11
15
19
23
27
1024
3072
7168
11,264
15,360
19,456
23,552
27,648
Table 10. Page Mode 1, Data Memory Cycle Stretch Values
(Pages1:Pages0 = 10)
MD2:MD0
STRETCH
CYCLES
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
0
1
2
3
7
8
9
10
RD / WR PULSE WIDTH (IN NUMBER OF OSCILLATOR CLOCKS)
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 100
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 000
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X10
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X11
0.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
2048
4096
8192
12,288
16,384
20,480
24,576
28,672
29 of 59
DS89C420
Table 11. Page Mode 2, Data Memory Cycle Stretch Values
(Pages1:Pages0 = 11)
MD2:MD0
STRETCH
CYCLES
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
0
1
2
3
7
8
9
10
RD / WR PULSE WIDTH (IN NUMBER OF OSCILLATOR CLOCKS)
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 100
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = 000
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X10
4X/2X, CD1,
CD0 = X11
0.5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
2
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
2048
4096
8192
12,288
16,384
20,480
24,576
28,672
As shown in the previous tables, the stretch feature supports eight stretched external data-memory access
cycles that can be categorized into three timing groups. When the stretch value is cleared to 000b, there is
no stretch on external data-memory access and a MOVX instruction is completed in two basic memory
cycles. When the stretch value is set to 1, 2, or 3, the external data memory access is extended by 1, 2, or
3 stretch memory cycles, respectively. Note that the first stretch value does not result in adding four
system clocks to the control signals. This is because the first stretch uses one system clock to create
additional address setup and data bus float time, and one system clock to create additional address and
data hold time. When using very slow RAM and peripherals, a larger stretch value (4–7) can be selected.
In this stretch category, two stretch cycles are used to create additional setup (the ALE pulse width is also
stretched by one stretch cycle for page miss) and one stretch cycle is used to create additional hold time.
The following timing diagrams illustrate the external data-memory access at divide by 1 system clock
mode (CD1:CD0 = 10b).
30 of 59
DS89C420
Figure 9. Page Mode 1, External Data Memory Access (Pages = 01,
Stretch = 1, CD = 10)
XTAL1
MOVX Instruction
ALE
PSEN
RD / WR
Port 0
Inst
Inst
Port 2
LSB Addr
LSB Addr
MOVX
MSB Addr
LSB Addr
Data
Inst
LSB Addr
LSB Addr
Inst
Inst
LSB Addr
LSB Addr
Memory Access (Stretch =1)
MOVX Instruction
ALE
PSEN
RD / WR
Port 0
Inst
Port 2
LSB Addr
MOVX
LSB Addr
Data
Inst
MSB Addr
LSB Addr
MOVX Inst
Fetch
LSB Addr
Inst
Inst
Inst
LSB Addr
LSB Addr
LSB Addr
Inst
Inst
Inst
LSB Addr
LSB Addr
LSB Addr
Memory Access (Stretch =1)
MOVX Instruction
ALE
PSEN
RD / WR
Port 0
Inst
Port 2
LSB Addr
MOVX
LSB Addr
MOVX Inst
Fetch
Inst
LSB Addr
Data
MSB Addr
LSB Addr
Memory Access (Stretch =1)
Figure 9 illustrates the external data-memory stretch cycle timing relationship when PAGEE = 1 and
PAGES1:PAGES0 = 01. The stretch cycle shown is for a stretch value of 1 and is coincident with a page
miss. Note that the first stretch value does not result in adding four system clocks to the RD / WR control
signals. This is because the first stretch uses one system clock to create additional setup and one system
clock to create additional hold time.
31 of 59
DS89C420
Figure 10. Page Mode 1, External Data Memory Access (Pages = 01,
Stretch = 4, CD = 10)
MOVX Instruction (Page miss)
1st
Cycle
2nd
Cycle
3rd
Cycle
4th
Cycle
9th
Cycle
XTAL1
ALE
PSEN
RD / WR
Inst
Inst
Inst
Inst
Inst
Port 0
Port 2
Inst
Data
LSB
LSB
LSB
LSB
MSB
MOVX
Instruction
Fetch
LSB
LSB
LSB
Memory Access (Stretch = 4)
MOVX Instruction (Page hit)
1st
2nd
Cycle Cycle
ALE
3rd
Cycle
4th
Cycle
5th
Cycle
9th
Cycle
PSEN
RD / WR
Port 0
Port 2
Inst
Inst
Inst
Inst
Inst
Inst
Inst
Data
LSB
LSB
LSB
MOVX
Instruction
Fetch
LSB
LSB
LSB
LSB
LSB
Memory Access (Stretch = 4)
Figure 10 shows the timing relationship for a slow peripheral interface (stretch value = 4). Note that a
page hit data-memory cycle is shorter than a page miss data-memory cycle. The ALE pulse width is also
stretched by a stretch cycle in the case of page miss.
The stretched data-memory bus-cycle timing relationship for PAGES = 11 is identical to non-page mode
operation since the basic data-memory cycle always contains four system clocks in this page mode
operation.
32 of 59
DS89C420
Interrupts
The DS89C420 provides 13 interrupt vector sources. All interrupts, with the exception of the power-fail,
are controlled by a series combination of individual enable bits and a global enable (EA) in the interrupt
enable register (IE.7). Setting EA to a logic 1 allows individual interrupts to be enabled. Setting EA to a
logic 0 disables all interrupts regardless of the individual interrupt enable settings. The power-fail
interrupt is controlled by its individual enable only.
The interrupt enables and priorities are functionally identical to those of the 80C52, except that the
DS89C420 supports five levels of interrupt priorities instead of the original two.
Interrupt Priority
There are five levels of interrupt priority: level 4 to 0. The highest interrupt priority is level 4, which is
reserved for the power-fail interrupt. All other interrupts have individual priority bits in the interrupt
priority registers to allow each interrupt to be assigned a priority level from 3 to 0. The power-fail
interrupt always has the highest priority if it is enabled. All interrupts also have a natural hierarchy. In
this manner, when a set of interrupts has been assigned the same priority, a second hierarchy determines
which interrupt is allowed to take precedence. The natural hierarchy is determined by analyzing potential
interrupts in a sequential manner with the order listed in Table 12.
33 of 59
DS89C420
Table 12. Interrupt Summary
INTERRUPT
VECTOR
NATURAL
FLAG
ORDER
0
PFI (WDCON.4)
(Highest)
ENABLE
Power-Fail
33h
External Interrupt 0
03h
1
IE0 (TCON.1)**
EX0 (IE.0)
Timer 0 Overflow
0Bh
2
TF0 (TCON.5)*
ET0 (IE.1)
External Interrupt 1
13h
3
IE1 (TCON.3)**
EX1 (IE.2)
Timer 1 Overflow
1Bh
4
TF1 (TCON.7)*
ET1 (IE.3)
Serial Port 0
23h
5
RI_0 (SCON0.0)
TI_0 (SCON0.1)
ES0 (IE.4)
Timer 2 Overflow
2Bh
6
Serial Port 1
3Bh
7
External Interrupt 2
43h
8
IE2 (EXIF.4)
EX2 (EIE.0)
External Interrupt 3
4Bh
9
IE3 (EXIF.5)
EX3 (EIE.1)
External Interrupt 4
53h
10
IE4 (EXIF.6)
EX4 (EIE.2)
External Interrupt 5
5Bh
11
IE5 (EXIF.7)
EX5 (EIE.3)
Watchdog
63h
12
(Lowest)
TF2 (T2CON.7)
EXF2 (T2CON.6)
RI_1 (SCON1.0)
TI_1 (SCON1.1)
PRIORITY
CONTROL
EPFI(WDCON.5) N/A
ET2 (IE.5)
ES1 (IE.6)
WDIF (WDCON.3) EWDI (EIE.4)
LPX0 (IP0.0)
MPX0 (IP1.0)
LPT0 (IP0.1)
MPT0 (IP1.1)
LPX1 (IP0.2)
MPX1 (IP1.2)
LPT1 (IP0.3)
MPT1 (IP1.3)
LPS0 (IP0.4)
MPS0 (IP1.4)
LPT2 (IP0.5)
MPT2 (IP1.5)
LPS1 (IP0.6)
MPS1 (IP1.6)
LPX2 (EIP0.0)
MPX2 (EIP1.0)
LPX3 (EIP0.1)
MPX3 (EIP1.1)
LPX4 (EIP0.2)
MPX4 (EIP1.2)
LPX5 (EIP0.3)
MPX5 (EIP1.3)
LPWDI (EIP0.4)
MPWDI (EIP1.4)
*Cleared automatically by hardware when the service routine is vectored to.
**If the interrupt is edge triggered, cleared automatically by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. If the interrupt is level triggered,
the flag follows the state of the pin.
The processor indicates that an interrupt condition occurred by setting the respective flag bit. This bit is
set regardless of whether the interrupt is enabled or disabled. Unless marked in Table 12, all of these flags
must be cleared by software.
Timer/Counters
Three 16-bit timers are incorporated in the DS89C420. All three timers can be used as either counters of
external events, where 1-to-0 transitions on a port pin are monitored and counted, or timers that count
oscillator cycles. Table 13 summarizes the timer functions.
Timers 0 and 1 both have three modes of operations. They can each be used as a 13-bit timer/counter, a
16-bit timer/counter, or an 8-bit timer/counter with auto-reload. Timer 0 has a fourth operating mode as
two 8-bit timer/counters without auto-reload. Each timer can also be used as a counter of external pulses
34 of 59
DS89C420
on the corresponding T0/T1 pin for 1-to-0 transitions. The mode of operation is controlled by the timer
mode (TMOD) register. Each timer consists of a 16-bit register in 2 bytes, which can be found in the SFR
map as TL0, TH0, TL1, and TH1. Timers 0 and 1 are enabled by the timer control (TCON) register.
Table 13. Timer Functions
FUNCTIONS
Timer/Counter
Timer with Capture
External Control-Pulse Counter
Up/Down Auto-Reload Timer/Counter
Baud Rate Generator
Timer-Output Clock Generator
TIMER 0
TIMER 1
TIMER 2
13/16/8*/2 x 8 bit
No
Yes
No
No
No
13/16/8* bit
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
16 bit
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
* 8-bit timer/counter includes auto-reload feature; 2 x 8-bit mode does not.
Timer 2 is a true 16-bit timer/counter that, with a 16-bit capture (RCAP2L and RCAP2H) register, is able
to provide some unique functions like up/down auto-reload timer/counter and timer-output clock
generation. Timer 2 (registers TL2 and TH2) is enabled by the T2CON register, and its mode of operation
is selected by the T2MOD register.
Each timer has a selectable time base (Table 15). Following a reset, the timers default to divide by 12 to
maintain drop-in compatible with the 8051. If Timer 2 is used as a baud rate generator or clock output, its
time base is fixed at divide by 2, regardless of the setting of its timer mode bits.
For details of operation, refer to “Programmable Timers” in the Ultra-High-Speed Flash Microcontroller
User’s Guide.
35 of 59
DS89C420
Timed Access
The timed access function provides control verification to system functions. The timed access function
prevents an errant CPU from making accidental changes to certain SFR bits that are considered vital to
proper system operation. This is achieved by using software control when accessing the following SFR
control bits:
WDCON.0
WDCON.1
WDCON.3
WDCON.6
EXIF.0
ACON.5
ACON.6
ACON.7
ROMSIZE.0
ROMSIZE.1
ROMSIZE.2
ROMSIZE.3
FCNTL.0
FCNTL.1
FCNTL.2
FCNTL.3
RWT
EWT
WDIF
POR
BGS
PAGES0
PAGES1
PAGEE
RMS0
RMS1
RMS2
PRAME
FC0
FC1
FC2
FC3
Reset Watchdog Timer
Watchdog Reset Enable
Watchdog Interrupt Flag
Power-On Reset Flag
Bandgap Select
Page Mode Select Bit 0
Page Mode Select Bit 1
Page Mode Enable
Program Memory Size Select Bit 0
Program Memory Size Select Bit 1
Program Memory Size Select Bit 2
Program RAM Enable
Flash Command Bit 0
Flash Command Bit 1
Flash Command Bit 2
Flash Command Bit 3
Before these bits can be altered, the processor must execute the timed access sequence. This sequence
consists of writing an AAh to the timed access (TA, C7h) register, followed by writing a 55h to the same
register within three machine cycles. This timed sequence of steps then allows any of the timed accessprotected SFR bits to be altered during the three machine cycles, following the writing of the 55h.
Writing to a timed access-protected bit outside of these three machine cycles has no effect on the bit.
The timed access process is address-, data-, and time-dependent. A processor running out of control and
not executing system software cannot statistically perform this timed sequence of steps, and as such, will
not accidentally alter the protected bits. It should be noted that this method should be used in the main
body of the system software and never used in an interrupt routine in conjunction with the watchdog
reset. Interrupt routines using the timed-access watchdog-reset bit (RWT) can recover a lost system and
allow the resetting of the watchdog, but the system returns to a lost condition once the RETI is executed,
unless the stack is modified. It is advisable that interrupts be disabled (EA = 0) when executing the timed
access sequence, since an interrupt during the sequence adds time, making the timed access attempt fail.
36 of 59
DS89C420
Power Management and Clock-Divide Control
The DS89C420 incorporates power management features that monitor the power-supply voltage levels
and support low-power operation with three power-saving modes. Such features include a bandgap
voltage monitor, watchdog timer, selectable internal ring oscillator, and programmable system clock
speed. The SFRs that provide control and application software access are the watchdog control
(WDCON, D8h), extended interrupt enable (EIE, E8h), extended interrupt flag (EXIF, 91h), and power
control (PCON, 87h) registers.
System Clock-Divide Control
The programmable clock-divide control bits (CD1 and CD0) provide the processor with the ability to
adapt to different crystals and also to slow the system clocks providing lower power operation when
required. An on-chip crystal multiplier allows the DS89C420 to operate at two or four times the crystal
frequency by setting the 4X/ 2X bit and is enabled by setting the CTM bit to a logic 1. An additional
circuit provides a clock source at divide-by-1024. When used with a 7.372MHz crystal, for example, the
processor executes machine cycle in times ranging from 33.9ns (divide-by-0.25) to 138.9µs (multiply by
1024), and maintains a highly accurate serial port baud rate while allowing the use of more cost-effective,
lower-frequency crystals. Although the clock-divide control bits can be written at any time, certain
hardware features have been provided to enhance the use of these clock controls to guarantee proper
serial port operation, and also to allow for a high-speed response to an external interrupt. The 01b setting
of CD1 and CD0 is reserved, and has the same effect as the 10b setting, which forces the system clock
into a divide by 1 mode. The DS89C420 defaults to divide-by-1 clock mode on all forms of reset.
When programmed to the divide-by-1024 mode, and the switchback bit (PMR.5:SWB) is also set, the
system forces the clock-divide control bits to reset automatically to the divide-by-1 mode whenever the
system has detected externally enabled interrupts.
The oscillator divide ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 are also used to provide standard baud-rate generation for
the serial ports through a forced divide-by-12 input clock (TxMH, TxM = 00b, x = 1, 2, or 3) to the
timers.
When in divide-by-1024 mode, in order to allow a quick response to incoming data on a serial port, the
system uses the switchback mode to automatically revert to divide-by-1 mode whenever a start bit is
detected. This automatic switchback is only enabled during divide-by-1024 mode, and all other clock
modes are unaffected by interrupts and serial port activity. See Power Management Mode for more
details.
Use of the divide-by-0.25 or 0.5 options through the clock-divide control bits requires that the crystal
multiplier be enabled and the specific system-clock-multiply value be established by the 4X/ 2X bit in the
PMR register. The multiplier is enabled through the CTM (PMR.4) bit but cannot be automatically
selected until a startup delay has been established through the CKRY bit in the status register. The
4X/ 2X bit can only be altered when the CTM bit is cleared to a logic 0. This prevents the system from
changing the multiplier until the system has moved back to the divide by 1 mode and the multiplier has
been disabled through the CTM bit. The CTM bit can only be altered when the CD1 and CD0 bits are set
to divide-by-1 mode and the RGMD bit is cleared to 0. Setting the CTM to a logic 1 from a previous
logic 0 automatically clears the CKRY bit in the status register and starts the multiplier startup timeout in
37 of 59
DS89C420
the multiplier startup counter. During the multiplier startup period the CKRY bit remains cleared and the
CD1 and CD0 clock controls cannot be set to 00b. The CTM bit is cleared to a logic 0 on all resets.
Figure 11 gives a simplified diagram of the generation of the system clocks. Specifics of hardware
restrictions associated with the use of the 4X/ 2X CTM, CKRY, CD1, and CD0 bits are outlined in the
SFR description.
Figure 11. System Clock Sources
4X/2X
CTM
Clock
Multiplier
Crystal
Oscillator
MUX
Divide 1024
System
Clock
Ring
Oscillator
Ring
Enable
CD0
Selector
CD1
Bandgap-Monitored Interrupt and Reset Generation
The power monitor in the DS89C420 monitors the VCC pin in relation to the on-chip bandgap voltage
reference. Whenever VCC falls below VPFW, an interrupt is generated if the corresponding power-fail
interrupt-enable bit EPFI (WDCON.5) is set, causing the device to vector to address 33h. The power-fail
interrupt-status bit PFI (WDCON.4) is set anytime VCC transitions below VPFW, and can only be cleared
by software once set. Similarly, as VCC falls below VRST, a reset is issued internally to halt program
execution. Following power-up, a power-on reset initiates a power-on reset timeout before starting
program execution. When VCC is first applied to the DS89C420, the processor is held in reset until
VCC > VRST and a delay of 65,536 oscillator cycles has elapsed, to ensure that power is within tolerance
and the clock source has had time to stabilize. Once the reset timeout period has elapsed, the reset
condition is removed automatically and software execution begins at the reset vector location of 0000h.
The power-on reset flag POR (WDCON.6) is set to logic 1 to indicate a power-on reset has occurred, and
can only be cleared by software.
38 of 59
DS89C420
When the DS89C420 enters stop mode, the bandgap, reset comparator, and power-fail interrupt
comparator are automatically disabled to conserve power, if the BGS (EXIF.0) bit is set to a logic 0. This
is the lowest power mode. If BGS is set to a logic 1, the bandgap reference, reset comparator, and the
power-fail comparator are powered up, although in a reduced fashion, while in stop mode.
Watchdog Timer
The watchdog timer functions as the source of both the watchdog interrupt and the watchdog reset. When
the clock divider is set to 10b, the interrupt timeout has a default divide ratio of 217 of the crystal oscillator
clock, with the watchdog reset set to timeout 512 system clock cycles later. This results in a 33MHz
crystal oscillator producing an interrupt timeout every 3.9718ms, followed 15.5µs later by a watchdog
reset. The watchdog timer is reset to the default divide ratio following any reset. Using the WD0 and
WD1 bits in the clock control (CKCON.6 and 7) register, other divide ratios can be selected for longer
watchdog interrupt periods. Table 14 summarizes the watchdog bit settings and the timeout values.
Note: All watchdog-timer reset timeouts follow the programmed interrupt timeouts by 512 system clock
cycles, which equates to varying numbers of oscillator cycles depending on the clock-divide (CD1:0) and
crystal multiplier settings.
Table 14. Watchdog Timeout Value (in Number of Oscillator Clocks)
4X/ 2X CD1:0
WATCHDOG INTERRUPT TIMEOUT
WD1:0 = 00
WD1:0 = 01 WD1:0 = 10 WD1:0 = 11
15
18
21
24
WATCHDOG RESET TIMEOUT
WD1:0 = 00
15
WD1:0 = 01
18
WD1:0 = 10
21
WD1:0 = 11
1
0
x
x
00
00
01
10
2
216
217
217
2
219
220
220
2
222
223
223
2
225
226
226
2 + 128
216 + 256
217 + 512
217 + 512
2 + 128
219 + 256
220 + 512
220 + 512
2 + 128
222 + 256
223 + 512
223 + 512
224 + 128
225 + 256
226 + 512
226 + 512
x
11
227
230
233
236
227 + 524,288
230 + 524,288
233+ 524,288
236 + 524,288
A watchdog control (WDCON) SFR is used for programming the functions. EWT (WDCON.1) is the
enable for the watchdog-timer reset function and RWT (WDCON.0) is the bit used to restart the
watchdog timer. Setting the RWT bit restarts the timer for another full interval. If the watchdog timer
reset function is masked by the EWT bit and no resets are issued to the timer through the RWT bit, the
watchdog timer generates interrupt timeouts at a rate determined by the programmed divide ratio. WDIF
(WDCON.3) is the interrupt flag set at timer termination and WTRF (WDCON.2) is the reset flag set
following a watchdog reset timeout. The watchdog interrupt is enabled by the EWDI bit (EIE.4) when it
is set to 1. The watchdog timer reset and interrupt timeouts are measured by counting system clock
cycles.
An independent watchdog timer functions as the crystal startup counter to count 65,536 crystal clock
cycles before allowing the crystal oscillator to function as the system clock. This warmup time is verified
by the watchdog timer following each power-up as well as each time the crystal is restarted following a
stop mode. The watchdog is also used to establish a startup time whenever the CTM in the PMR register
is set to enable the crystal multiplier (4X/ 2X ).
One of the applications of the watchdog timer is for the watchdog to wake up the system from idle mode.
The watchdog interrupt can be programmed to allow a system to wake up periodically to sample the
external world.
39 of 59
DS89C420
External Reset
If the RST input is taken to a logic 1, the device is forced into a reset state. An external reset is
accomplished by holding the RST pin high for at least 3 clock cycles while the oscillator is running. Once
the reset state is invoked, it is maintained as long as RST is pulled to logic 1. When the RST is removed,
the processor exits the reset state within 4 clock cycles and begins execution at address 0000h. If a RST is
applied while the processor is in stop mode, the RST causes the oscillator to begin running and forces the
program counter to 0000h. There is a reset delay of 65,536 clock cycles to allow the oscillator to stabilize.
The RST pin is a bidirectional I/O. If a reset is caused by a power-fail reset, a watchdog timer reset, or an
internal system reset, an output-reset pulse is also generated at the RST pin. This reset pulse is asserted as
long as an internal reset is asserted and may not be able to drive the reset signal out if the RST pin is
connected to an RC circuit. Connecting the RST pin to a capacitor does not affect the internal reset
condition.
Oscillator-Fail Detect
The DS89C420 incorporates an oscillator fail-detect circuit that, when enabled, causes a reset if the
crystal oscillator frequency falls below 20kHz and holds the chip in reset with the ring oscillator
operating. The circuit is enabled by setting the OFDE (PCON.4) bit to a logic 1. The OFDE bit is only
cleared from a logic 1 to a logic 0 by a power-fail reset or by software. A reset caused by an oscillator
failure also sets the OFDF (PCON.5) to a logic 1. This flag is cleared by software or power-on reset.
Note that this circuit does not force a reset when the oscillator is stopped by the software-enabled stop
mode.
Power Management Mode
Power management mode offers a software-controllable power-saving scheme by providing a reduced
instruction cycle speed, which allows the DS89C420 to continue to operate while using an internally
divided version of the clock source to save power. Power management mode is invoked by software
setting the clock-divide control bits CD1 and CD0 (PMR.7-6) bits to 11b, which sets an operating rate of
1024 oscillator cycles for 1 machine cycle. On all forms of reset, the clock-divide control bits default to
10b, which selects 1 oscillator cycle per machine cycle.
Since the clock speed choice affects all functional logic including timers, the DS89C420 implements
several hardware switchback features that allow the clock speed to automatically return to the divide-by-1
mode from a reduced cycle rate. This switchback function is enabled by setting the SWB (PMR.5) bit to a
1 in software.
When CD1 and CD0 are programmed to the divide-by-1024 mode and the SWB bit is also enabled, the
system forces the clock-divide control bits to automatically reset to the divide-by-1 mode whenever the
system detects an externally enabled (and allowed through nesting priorities) interrupt. The switchback
occurs whenever one of the two conditions occur. The first switchback condition is initiated by the
detection of a low on either INT0 , INT1 , INT3 , or INT5 , or a high on INT2 or INT4 when the respective
pin has been programmed and allowed (through nesting priorities) to issue an interrupt. The second
switchback condition occurs when either serial port is enabled to receive data and is found to have an
active-low transition on the respective receive input pin. Serial port transmit activity also forces a
40 of 59
DS89C420
switchback if the SWB is set. Note that the serial port activity, as related to the switchback, is
independent of the serial port interrupt relationship. Any attempt to change the clock divider to the
divide-by-1024 mode while the serial port is either transmitting or receiving has no effect, leaving the
clock control in the divide-by-1 mode. Note also that the switchback interrupt relationship requires that
the respective external interrupt source is allowed to actually generate an interrupt as defined by the
priority of the interrupt and the state of the nested interrupts, before the switchback can actually occur. An
interrupt by the serial port is not required, nor is the setting of serial port enable. Disabling external
interrupts and serial port receive/transmission mode disable the automatic switchback mode. Clearing the
SWB bit also disables the switchback, and all interrupt and serial port controls of the clock divider are
disabled. All other clock modes ignore the switchback relationship and are unaffected by interrupts and
serial port activity.
The basic divide-by-12 mode for the timers (TxMH, TxM = 00b), as well as the divide-by-32 and 64 for
mode 2 on the serial ports, are maintained when running the processor with the oscillator divide ratio of
0.25, 0.5, and 1. Serial ports and timers track the oscillator cycles per machine cycle when the higher
divide ratio of 1024 is selected, and require the switchback function to automatically return to the
divide-by-1 mode for proper operation when a qualified event occurs. Table 15 summarizes the effect of
clock mode on timer operation.
It is possible to enable a receive function on a serial port when incoming data is not present and then
change to the higher divide ratio. An inactive serial port receive/transmit mode requires the receive input
pin to remain high and all outgoing transmissions to be completed. During this inactive receive mode it is
possible to change the clock-divide control bits from a divide-by-1 to a 1024 divide ratio. In the case
when the serial port is being used to receive or transmit data it is very important to validate an attempted
change in the clock-divide control bits (read CD1 and CD0 to verify write was allowed) before
proceeding with low-power program functions.
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DS89C420
Table 15. Effect of Clock Mode on Timer Operation (in Number of Oscillator
Clocks)
OSC.
CYCLES
4X/2X, CD1, CD0
PER
MACHINE
CYCLE
OSC. CYCLES PER
TIMERS (0, 1, 2)
CLOCK
TxMH, TxM
OSC. CYCLES
PER TIMER 2
CLOCK
BAUD RATE
GENERATOR
=
00
01
1x
OSC. CYCLES
PER SERIAL
PORT CLOCK
MODE 0
SM2 = 0
OSC. CYCLES PER
SERIAL PORT
CLOCK MODE 2
SM2 = 1 SMOD = 0 SMOD = 1
T2MH, T2M = xx
100
0.25
12
1
0.25
2
3
1
64
32
000
0.5
12
2
0.5
2
6
2
64
32
x01
1 (reserved)
x10
1 (default)
x11
1,024
—
12
4
12,288 4,096
—
—
—
1
2
12
4
64
32
1,024
2,048
12,288
4,096
65,536
32,768
x = don’t care
Ring Oscillator
A ring oscillator, which typically runs at 10MHz, allows the processor to recover instantly from the stop
mode.
When the system is in stop mode the crystal is disabled. When stop mode is removed, the crystal requires
a period of time to start up and stabilize. To allow the system to begin immediate execution of software
following the removal of the stop mode, the ring oscillator is used to supply a system clock until the
crystal startup time is satisfied. Once this time has passed, the ring oscillator is switched off and the
system clock is switched over to the crystal oscillator. This function is programmable and is enabled by
setting the RGSL bit (EXIF.1) to logic 1. When it is logic 0, the processor delays software execution until
after the 65,536 crystal clock periods. To allow the processor to know whether it is being clocked by the
ring or the crystal oscillator, an additional bit, termed the RGMD bit, indicates which clock source is
being used. When the processor is running from the ring, the clock-divide control bits (CD1 and CD0 in
the PMR register) are locked into the divide-by-1 mode (CD1:CD0 = 10b). The clock-divide control bits
cannot be changed from this state until after the system clock transitions to the crystal oscillator
(RGMD = 0).
Note: The watchdog is permanently connected to the crystal oscillator and continues to run at the
external clock rate. It is not driven by the ring oscillator.
Idle Mode
Idle mode suspends the processor by holding the program counter in a static state. No instructions are
fetched and no processing occurs. Setting the IDLE bit (PCON.0) to logic 1 invokes idle mode. The
instruction that executes this step is the last instruction prior to freezing the program counter. Once in Idle
mode, all resources are preserved but all peripheral clocks remain active, and the timers, watchdog, serial
ports, and power monitor functions continue to operate, so that the processor can exit the idle mode using
any interrupt sources that are enabled. The oscillator-detect circuit also continues to function when
enabled. The IDLE bit is cleared automatically once idle mode is exited. On returning from the interrupt
42 of 59
DS89C420
vector using the RETI instruction, the next address is the one that immediately follows the instruction that
invoked the idle mode. Any processor resets also remove the idle mode.
Stop Mode
The stop mode disables all circuits within the processor. All on-chip clocks, timers, and serial port
communication are stopped, and no processing is possible.
Stop mode is invoked by setting the STOP bit (PCON.1) to logic 1. The processor enters the stop mode
on the instruction that sets the bit. The processor can exit stop mode by using any of the six external
interrupts that are enabled.
An external reset by the RST pin unconditionally exits the processor from stop mode. If the BGS bit is set
to logic 1, the bandgap provides a reset while in stop mode if VCC should drop below the VRST level. If
BGS is 0, no reset is generated if VCC drops below VRST.
When the stop mode is removed, the processor waits for 65,536 clock cycles for the internal flash
memory to warm up before starting normal execution. Also, the processor waits for the crystal warmup
period if not using the ring oscillator.
Serial I/O
The DS89C420 provides a serial port (UART) that is identical to the 80C52. In addition, it includes a
second hardware serial port that is a full duplicate of the standard one. This port optionally uses pins P1.2
(RXD1) and P1.3 (TXD1) and has duplicate control functions included in new SFR locations.
Both ports can operate simultaneously but can be at different baud rates or even in different modes. The
second serial port has similar control registers (SCON1 at C0h, SBUF1 at C1h) as the original. The new
serial port can only use timer 1 for timer-generated baud rates.
Control for serial port 0 is provided by the SCON0 register while its I/O buffer is SBUF0. Registers
SCON1 and SBUF1 provide the same functions for the second serial port. A full description of the use
and operation of both serial ports is in the Ultra-High-Speed Flash Microcontroller User’s Guide.
Instruction Set
The DS89C420 instructions are 100% binary compatible with the industry standard 8051, and are only
different in the number of machine cycles used for the instructions. Some special conditions and features
should be considered when analyzing the DS89C420 instruction set. Full details are given in the UltraHigh-Speed Flash Microcontroller User’s Guide.
43 of 59
DS89C420
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Voltage Range on Any Pin Relative to Ground
Voltage Range on VCC Relative to Ground
Operating Temperature Range
Storage Temperature Range
Soldering Temperature
-0.3V to (VCC + 0.5V)
-0.3V to +6.0V
-40°C to +85°C
-55°C to +125°C
See IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020A
These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or other conditions beyond those indicated in the operations
sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods of time can affect reliability.
Table 16. DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
(VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V; TA = -40°C to +85°C) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
NOTES
Supply Voltage
VCC
4.5
5.0
5.5
V
2, 13
Power-Fail Warning
VPFW
4.2
4.375
4.6
V
2, 12
Reset Trip Point
VRST
3.95
4.125
4.35
V
2, 12, 13
ICC
100
150
mA
3
Supply Current Idle Mode at 33MHz
IIDLE
40
50
mA
4
Supply Current Stop Mode, Bandgap Disabled
ISTOP
40
mA
5
Supply Current Stop Mode, Bandgap Enabled
ISPBG
40
mA
5
Supply Current Active Mode
Input Low Level
VIL
-0.3
+0.8
V
2
Input High Level
VIH
2.0
VCC + 0.3
V
2
Input High Level XTAL and RST
VIH2
3.5
VCC + 0.3
V
2
Output Low Voltage; Port 1 and 3 at IOL = 1.6mA
VOL1
0.15
0.45
V
2
VOL2
0.15
0.45
V
2
Output Low Voltage; Port 0 and 2, ALE,
PSEN
at IOL = 3.2mA
Output High Voltage; Port 1, 2, and 3, ALE,
IOH = -50µA
PSEN at
VOH1
2.4
V
2, 7
Output High Voltage; Port 1, 2, and 3 at IOH = -1.5mA
VOH2
2.4
V
2, 8
Output High Voltage; Port 0 and 2 in Bus Mode at
IOH = -8mA
VOH3
2.4
V
2, 6
Output High Voltage, RST at IOL = -0.4mA
VOH4
2.4
V
2, 14
Input Low Current; Port 1, 2, and 3 at 0.4V
IIL
-55
µA
Transition Current from 1 to 0; Port 1, 2, and 3 at 2V
ITL
-650
µA
9
Input Leakage Current, Port 0 in I/O Mode and EA
IL
-10
+10
µA
11
Input Leakage Current, Port 0 in Bus Mode
IL
-300
+300
µA
10
RRST
50
170
kΩ
11
RST Pulldown Resistance
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DS89C420
Note 1: Specifications to -40°C are guaranteed by design and not production tested.
Note 2: All voltages are referenced to ground.
Note 3: Active current is measured with a 33MHz clock source driving XTAL1, VCC = RST = 5.5V. All other pins disconnected.
Note 4: Idle mode current measured with a 33MHz clock source driving XTAL1, VCC = 5.5V, RST at ground. All other pins disconnected.
Note 5: Stop mode measured with XTAL and RST grounded, VCC = 5.5V. All other pins disconnected.
Note 6: When addressing external memory.
Note 7: RST = 5.5V. This condition mimics the operation of pins in I/O mode.
Note 8: During a 0-to-1 transition, a one-shot drives the ports hard for two clock cycles. This measurement reflects a port pin in transition mode.
Note 9: Ports 1, 2, and 3 source transition current when being pulled down externally. The current reaches its maximum at approximately 2V.
Note 10: This port is a weak address holding latch in bus mode. Peak current occurs near the input transition point of the holding latch at
approximately 2V.
Note 11: RST = 5.5V. Port 0 floating during reset and when in the logic-high state during I/O mode.
Note 12: While the specifications for VPFW and VRST overlap, the design of the hardware makes it such that this is not possible. Within the ranges
given, there is a guaranteed separation between these two voltages.
Note 13: The user should note that this part is tested and guaranteed to operate down to 4.5V (10%) and that VRST (min) is specified below that
point. This indicates that there is a range of voltages [VMIN to VRST (min)] where the processor’s operation is not guaranteed, but the
reset trip point has not been reached. This should not be an issue in most applications, but should be considered when proper
operation must be maintained at all times. For these applications, it may be desirable to use a more accurate external reset.
Note 14: Guaranteed by design.
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DS89C420
Table 17. AC CHARACTERISTICS
(VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V; TA = -40°C to +85°C)*
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
1 CYCLE
2 CYCLE
4 CYCLE
PAGE MODE 1
PAGE MODE 1
PAGE MODE 1
PAGE MODE 2
NON-PAGE MODE
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
1 / tCLCL
0
33
0
33
0
33
0
33
0
33
External Crystal
1 / tCLCL
1
33
1
33
1
33
1
33
1
33
ALE Pulse Width
tLHLL
0.5tCLCL - 2
+ tSTC3
Port 0 Instruction Address
Valid to ALE Low
tAVLL
Port 2 Instruction Address
Valid to ALE Low
tAVLL2
Port 0 Data AddressValid
to ALE Low
tAVLL3
Program Address Hold
After ALE Low
tLLAX
0.5tCLCL - 8
1.5tCLCL - 8
Address Hold After ALE
Low MOVX Write
tLLAX2
0.5tCLCL - 8
+ tSTC4
Address Hold After ALE
Low MOVX Read
tLLAX3
0.5tCLCL - 8
+ tSTC4
ALE Low to Valid
Instruction In
tLLIV
ALE Low to PSEN Low
tLLPL
PSEN Pulse Width for
Program Fetch
tPLPH
System Clock
External Oscillator
0.5tCLCL - 4
tCLCL - 2 +
tSTC3
MHz
1
2
1.5tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC3
ns
tCLCL - 2
0.5tCLCL - 2
ns
0.5tCLCL - 2
tCLCL - 2
ns
tCLCL - 2 +
tSTC3
0.5tCLCL - 2 +
tSTC3
ns
2.5tCLCL - 8
0.5tCLCL - 8
0.5tCLCL - 8
ns
1.5tCLCL - 8
+ tSTC4
2.5tCLCL - 8
+ tSTC4
0.5tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC4
0.5tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC4
ns
1.5tCLCL - 8
+ tSTC4
2.5tCLCL - 8
+ tSTC4
0.5tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC4
0.5tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC4
ns
1.5tCLCL - 5
2.5tCLCL - 20
tCLCL - 5
NOTES
1.5tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC3
0.5tCLCL - 4
2tCLCL - 4 +
tSTC3
UNITS
tCLCL - 5
2tCLCL - 5
46 of 59
2.5tCLCL - 20
ns
1.5tCLCL - 6
0.5tCLCL - 6
ns
tCLCL - 5
2tCLCL - 5
ns
DS89C420
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
1 CYCLE
2 CYCLE
4 CYCLE
PAGE MODE 1
PAGE MODE 1
PAGE MODE 1
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
PAGE MODE 2
MIN
MAX
NON-PAGE MODE
MIN
UNITS
NOTES
MAX
PSEN Low to Valid
Instruction In
tPLIV
Input Instruction Hold
After PSEN
tPXIX
Input Instruction Float
After PSEN
tPXIZ
tCLCL - 5
tCLCL - 5
ns
Port 0 Address to Valid
Instruction In
tAVIV0
1.5tCLCL - 20
3tCLCL - 20
ns
Port 2 Address to Valid
Instruction In
tAVIV2
3tCLCL - 20
3.5tCLCL - 20
ns
PSEN Low to Port 0
Address Float
tPLAZ
0
0
ns
RD Pulse Width (P3.7)
tRLRH
tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
2tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
2tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
2tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
ns
2
WR Pulse Width (P3.6)
tWLWH
tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
2tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
2tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
2tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC1
ns
2
RD (P3.7) Low to Valid
Data In
tRLDV
ns
2
Data Hold After RD (P3.7)
tRHDX
Data Float After RD (P3.7)
tRHDZ
tCLCL - 5
tCLCL - 5
ns
MOVX ALE Low to Input
Data Valid
tLLDV
2.5tCLCL - 20
+ tSTC1
2.5tCLCL - 20
+ tSTC1
ns
2
Port 0 Address to Valid
Data In
tAVDV0
3tCLCL - 20 +
tSTC1
3tCLCL - 20 +
tSTC1
ns
2
tCLCL - 18
0
tCLCL - 18
0
tCLCL - 18
0
1.5tCLCL - 18
tCLCL - 15 +
tSTC1
0
2tCLCL - 18
0
2.5tCLCL - 18
tCLCL - 15 +
tSTC1
0
tCLCL - 18
2tCLCL - 15 +
tSTC1
0
47 of 59
2tCLCL - 18
0
2tCLCL - 15 +
tSTC1
0
ns
ns
2tCLCL - 15 +
tSTC1
0
ns
DS89C420
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
1 CYCLE
2 CYCLE
4 CYCLE
PAGE MODE 1
PAGE MODE 1
PAGE MODE 1
MIN
Port 2 Address to Valid
Data In
ALE Low to RD or WR
Low
Port 0 Address Valid to
RD or WR Low
Port 2 Address Valid to
RD or WR Low
(tLLWL)
MIN
tCLCL - 16 +
tSTC1
tAVDV2
tLLRL
MAX
0.5tCLCL - 8
+ tSTC2
0.5tCLCL + 1
+ tSTC2
MAX
MIN
1.5tCLCL - 16
+ tSTC1
2tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC2
2tCLCL + 8 +
tSTC2
MAX
4tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC2
4tCLCL + 8 +
tSTC2
(tAVWL0)
(tAVWL2)
MIN
3.5tCLCL - 16
+ tSTC1
tAVRL0
tAVRL2
PAGE MODE 2
MAX
NON-PAGE MODE
MIN
3.0tCLCL - 16
+ tSTC1
0.5tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC2
0.5tCLCL + 4
+ tSTC2
0.5tCLCL - 8 +
tSTC2
UNITS
NOTES
3.5tCLCL - 20
+ tSTC1
ns
2
0.5tCLCL + 4
+ tSTC2
ns
2
MAX
1.5tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC2
tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC2
ns
2
0 + tSTC5 - 5
0.5tCLCL - 5
+ tSTC5
1.5tCLCL - 5
+ tSTC5
tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC5
1.5tCLCL - 5 +
tSTC5
ns
2
Data Out Valid to WR
Transition
tQVWX
-5
-5
-5
-5
-5
ns
1
Data Hold After WR
tWHQX
20
20
20
20
20
ns
1
RD or WR High to ALE
High
(tWHLH)
ns
1
tRHLH
tSTC2 - 2
tSTC2 + 6
tSTC2 - 2
tSTC2 + 6
tSTC2 - 2
*Specifications to -40°C are guaranteed by design and not production tested.
48 of 59
tSTC2 + 6
tSTC2 - 2
tSTC2 + 6
tSTC2 - 2
tSTC2 + 6
DS89C420
Note 1: The system clock frequency is dependent on the oscillator frequency and the setting of the clock-divide control bits (CD1 and CD0) and the crystal
multiplier control bits (4X/ 2 X and CTM) in the PMR register. The term “1 / tCLCL” used in the variable timing table is calculated through the use
of the table given below.
4X/ 2 X
CD1
CD0
1
0
X
X
X
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
NUMBER OF OSCILLATOR CYCLES
PER SYSTEM CLOCK (1 / tCLCL)
4 Oscillator Cycles
2 Oscillator Cycles
Reserved
1 Oscillator Cycle
1 / 1024 Oscillator Cycle
Note 2: External MOVX instruction times are dependent on the setting of the MD2, MD1, and MD0 bits in the clock control register. The terms
“tSTC1, tSTC2, tSTC3” used in the variable timing table are calculated through the use of the table given below.
0
1
0
1
MOVX INSTRUCTION TIME
(MACHINE CYCLES)
2
3
4
5
tSTC1
(tCLCL)
0
2
6
10
tSTC2
(tCLCL)
0
1
1
1
tSTC3
(tCLCL)
0
0
0
0
tSTC4
(tCLCL)
0
0
0
0
tSTC5
(tCLCL)
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1
9
10
14
18
5
5
4
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
11
22
5
4
1
1
1
1
1
12
26
5
4
1
1
MD2
MD1
MD0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
Note 3: Maximum load capacitance (to meet the above timing) for Port 0, ALE,
(except for P3.6,
PSEN , WR , and RD is limited to 60pF. Port 1, 2, 3, and 4
WR and P3.7, RD ) are tested with a capacitance of 50pF. XTAL1 and XTAL2 load capacitance is dependent on
the frequency of the selected crystal.
49 of 59
DS89C420
Figure 12. Non-Page Mode Timing
XTAL1
tCLCL
tLHLL
ALE
tAVLL2
tAVLL
PSEN
tLLPL
tPXIX
RD
WR
tPLPH
tRLRH
tPLIV
tAVDV0
tLLIV
LSB
MOVX
tPXIZ
tAVIV0
tWHLH
tLLWL
tWLWH
LSB
MOVX
MSB
tAVWL0
tRHDX
tRLDV
tWHQX
tQVWX
tRHDZ
LSB
DATA
OPCODE
LSB
LSB
DATA
tAVWL2
tAVDV2
Port 2
tPLAZ
tLLDV
tLLAX
Port 0
tLLAX2
tAVLL3
tLLAX3
MSB
MSB
50 of 59
tAVIV2
MSB
MSB
DS89C420
Figure 13. Page-Mode 1 Timing
XTAL1
tCLCL
tLHLL
ALE
tAVLL2
tPLPH
tLLAX
tLLAX3
tWHLH
tLLAX2
PSEN
tLLWL
RD
tRLRH
WR
tPXIX
tRHDX
tAVIV2
Port 0
MOVX
MOVX
tWLWH
tAVWL2
tPLIV
tRLDV
OPCODE
tWHQX
tQVWX
DATA
DATA
OPCODE
tAVDV2
Port 2
LSB
LSB
LSB
MSB
LSB
MSB
MSB
LSB
LSB
MSB
Figure 14. Page-Mode 2 Timing
XTAL1
tCLCL
tLHLL
ALE
tAVLL
tAVLL2
PSEN
tLLAX3
tRLRH
tLLPL
tPLIV
RD
tLLDV
WR
tAVIV0
tLLIV
tLLWL
LSB
LSB
MSB
OPCODE
LSB
MOVX
MSB
51 of 59
tWHQX
LSB
LSB
tRHDZ
tAVIV2
tAVDV2
MOVX
tAVWL0
tRHDX
tPXIZ
tLLAX
Port 2
tWLWH
tRLDV
tAVDV0
LSB
tWHLH
tPLAZ
tAVWL2
tPXIX
Port 0
tLLAX2
tAVLL3
tPLPH
DATA
MSB
tQVWX
OPCODE
MSB
DATA
DS89C420
EXTERNAL CLOCK CHARACTERISTICS
(VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V; TA = -40°C to +85°C)*
PARAMETER
Clock High Time
Clock Low Time
Clock Rise Time
Clock Fall Time
SYMBOL
tCHCX
tCLCX
tCLCH
tCHCL
MIN
10
10
MAX
UNITS
ns
ns
ns
ns
5
5
*Specifications to -40°C are guaranteed by design and not production tested.
SERIAL PORT MODE 0 TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
(VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V; TA = -40°C to +85°C)*
PARAMETER
Clock Cycle Time
SM2 = 0
tXLXL
SM2 = 1
Output Data Setup to Clock Rising
SM2 = 0
tQVXH
SM2 = 1
Output Data Hold to Clock Rising
SM2 = 0
tXHQX
SM2 = 1
Input Data Hold after Clock Rising
SM2 = 0
tXHDX
SM2 = 1
Clock Rising Edge to Input Data Valid
SM2 = 0
33MHz
SYMBOL
MIN
VARIABLE
MAX
MIN
360
12tCLCL
120
4tCLCL
200
40
10tCLCL 100
3tCLCL - 10
50
2tCLCL - 10
20
tCLCL - 100
0
0
0
0
tXHDV
200
40
SM2 = 1
MAX
MAX
ns
ns
ns
ns
10tCLCL 100
3tCLCL - 50
ns
*Specifications to -40°C are guaranteed by design and not production tested.
Note: SM2 is the serial port 0, mode bit 2. When serial port 0 is operating in mode 0 (SM0 = SM1 = 0), SM2 determines the number of crystal clocks in a
serial-port clock cycle.
52 of 59
DS89C420
Figure 15. Serial Port Timing
SERIAL PORT (SYNCHRONOUS MODE)
SM2 = 1 TDX CLOCK = XTAL FREQ/4
ALE
PSEN
tQVXH
WRITE TO SBUF
RXD DATA OUT
D0
tXHQX
DI
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
TRANSMIT
TXD CLOCK
tXLXL
TI
WRITE TO SCON
TO CLEAR RI
RXD DATA IN
D0
DI
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RECEIVE
TXD CLOCK
tXHDV
tXHDX
R1
SERIAL PORT (SYNCHRONOUS MODE)
SM2 = 0 TDX CLOCK = XTAL FREQ/12
ALE
PSEN
1/(XTAL FREQ/12)
WRITE TO SBUF
D0
DI
D6
D7
TRANSMIT
RXD DATA OUT
TXD CLOCK
TI
WRITE
TO SCON
TXD CLOCK
TO CLEAR RI
D0
TXD CLOCK
R1
53 of 59
DI
D6
D7
RECEIVE
RXD DATA IN
DS89C420
POWER CYCLE TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
(VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V; TA = -40°C to +85°C) (Note 1)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNITS
NOTES
Crystal Startup Time
tCSU
8
ms
2
Power-On Reset Delay
tPOR
65,536
tCLCL
3
Note 1: Specifications to -40°C are guaranteed by design and not production tested.
Note 2: Startup time for a crystal varies with load capacitance and manufacturer. Time shown is for a 11.0592MHz crystal manufactured by Fox
Electronics.
Note 3: Reset delay is a synchronous counter of crystal oscillations after crystal startup. Counting begins when the level on the XTAL1 pin
meets the VIH2 criteria. At 33MHz, this time is 1.99ms.
FLASH MEMORY PROGRAMMING CHARACTERISTICS
(VCC = 4.5V to 5.5V; TA = +21°C to +27°C)
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
MIN
1 / tCLCL
4
tAVGL
48tCLCL
Address Hold After PROG
tGHAX
48tCLCL
Data Setup to
tDVGL
48tCLCL
tGHDX
48tCLCL
tGLGH
85
Oscillator Frequency
Address Setup to
PROG
Data Hold After
PROG
PROG
Low
Low
PROG
Pulse Width
TYP
MAX
UNITS
6
MHz
100
ms
Address to Data Valid
tAVQV
48tCLCL
Enable Low to Data Valid
tELQV
48tCLCL
Data Float After Enable
tEHQZ
0
tGHGL
10
PROG
High to
PROG
Low
54 of 59
48tCLCL
ms
DS89C420
PACKAGE DRAWINGS
40-PIN PDIP (600MIL)
PKG
40-PIN
DIM
MIN
MAX
A
—
0.200
A1
0.015
—
A2
0.140
0.160
b
0.014
0.022
c
0.008
0.012
D
1.980
2.085
E
0.600
0.625
E1
0.530
0.555
e
0.090
0.110
L56–G5000–000
0.115
0.145
Dimensions are in inches (in).
eB
0.600
0.700
55 of 59
DS89C420
44-PIN PLCC
Note 1: Pin 1 identifier to be located in zone indicated.
Note 2: Controlling dimensions are in inches (in).
56 of 59
DS89C420
44-PIN TQFP
57 of 59
DS89C420
PIN CONFIGURATIONS
TOP VIEW
TOP VIEW
33
6
1
23
40
7
39
34
22
DS89C420
DS89C420
44
17
12
29
18
28
1
PLCC
TQFP
ORDERING INFORMATION
PART
TEMP RANGE
DS89C420-MCL
DS89C420-QCL
DS89C420-ECL
DS89C420-MNL
DS89C420-QNL
DS89C420-ENL
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
0°C to +70°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
-40°C to +85°C
11
MAX. CLOCK
SPEED (MHz)
33
33
33
33
33
33
58 of 59
PIN-PACKAGE
40 PDIP
44 PLCC
44 TQFP
40 PDIP
44 PLCC
44 TQFP
DS89C420
REVISION HISTORY
1) Original issue, 092200.
2) Added errata, 122601. (See www.maxim-ic.com/errata for more details.)
3) Official product introduction release, 042702.
4) Inserted Table 17, 051302.
5) Removed (Min Operating Voltage) from DC Electrical Characteristics; inserted diagram of ROM loader
interface circuit, 103102.
59 of 59