ELANTEC EL2444CM

Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
Features
General Description
• 120MHz gain-bandwidth product
• Unity-gain stable
• Low supply current (per amplifier)
- 5.2mA at VS = ±15V
• Wide supply range - ±2V to ±18V
dual-supply, 2.5V to 36V singlesupply
• High slew rate - 325V/µs
• Fast settling - 80ns to 0.1% for a
10V step
• Low differential gain - 0.04% at
AV = +2, RL = 150¾
• Low differential phase - 0.15° at
AV = +2, RL = 150Ω
• Stable w/ unlimited capacitive load
• Wide output voltage swing ±13.6V with VS = ±15V, RL =
1000Ω, 3.8V/0.3V with VS = +5V,
RL = 500Ω
• Low cost, enhanced replacement
for the AD827
andLT1229/LT1230
The EL2244C/EL2444C are dual and quad versions of the popular
EL2044C. They are high speed, low power, low cost monolithic operational amplifiers built on Elantec's proprietary complementary
bipolar process. The EL2244C/EL2444C are unity-gain stable and
feature a 325V/µs slew rate and 120MHz gain-bandwidth product
while requiring only 5.2mA of supply current per amplifier.
Applications
Video amplifier
Single-supply amplifier
Active filters/integrators
High-speed sample-and-hold
High-speed signal processing
ADC/DAC buffer
Pulse/RF amplifier
Pin diode receiver
Log amplifier
Photo multiplier amplifier
Difference amplifier
The power supply operating range of the EL2244C/EL2444C is from
±18V down to as little as ±2V. For single-supply operation, the
EL2244C/EL2444C operate from 36V down to as little as 2.5V. The
excellent power supply operating range of the EL2244C/EL2444C
makes them an obvious choice for applications on a single +5V or
+3V supply.
The EL2244C/EL2444C also feature an extremely wide output voltage swing of ±13.6V with VS = ±15V and RL = 1000Ω. At ±5V,
output voltage swing is a wide ±3.8V with RL = 500Ω and ±3.2V with
RL = 150Ω. Furthermore, for single-supply operation at +5V, output
voltage swing is an excellent 0.3V to 3.8V with RL = 500Ω.
At a gain of +1, the EL2244C/EL2444C have a -3dB bandwidth of
120MHz with a phase margin of 50°. They can drive unlimited load
capacitance, and because of their conventional voltage-feedback
topology, the EL2244C/EL2444C allow the use of reactive or non-linear elements in their feedback network. This versatility combined with
low cost and 75mA of output-current drive make the
EL2244C/EL2444C an ideal choice for price-sensitive applications
requiring low power and high speed.
Connection Diagrams
EL2244CN/CS
Dual
EL2444CN/CS
Quad
Ordering Information
Part No.
Temp. Range
Package
Outline #
EL2244CN
-40°C to +85°C
8-Pin P-DIP
MDP0031
EL2244CS
-40°C to +85°C
8-Lead SO
MDP0027
EL2444CN
-40°C to +85°C
14-Pin P-DIP
MDP0031
EL2444CS
-40°C to +85°C
14-Lead SO
MDP0027
EL2444CM
-40°C to +85°C
16-Lead SOL
MDP0027
Note: All information contained in this data sheet has been carefully checked and is believed to be accurate as of the date of publication; however, this data sheet cannot be a “controlled document”. Current revisions, if any, to these
specifications are maintained at the factory and are available upon your request. We recommend checking the revision level before finalization of your design documentation.
© 2001 Elantec Semiconductor, Inc.
September 26, 2001
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EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
Absolute Maximum Ratings (T
Supply Voltage (VS)
Peak Output Current (IOP)
Output Short-Circuit Duration
A
= 25 °C)
±18V or 36V
Short-Circuit Protected
Infinite
Differential Input Voltage (dVIN)
Power Dissipation (PD)
Operating Temperature Range (TA)
Operating Junction Temperature (TJ)
Storage Temperature (TST)
A heat-sink is required to keep junction temperature
below absolute maximum when an output is shorted.
Input Voltage (VIN)
±VS
±10V
See Curves
-40°C to +85°C
150°C
-65°C to +150°C
Important Note:
All parameters having Min/Max specifications are guaranteed. Typ values are for information purposes only. Unless otherwise noted, all tests are at the
specified temperature and are pulsed tests, therefore: TJ = TC = TA.
DC Electrical Characteristics
VS = ±15V, RL = 1000Ω, unless otherwise specified
Parameter
VOS
Description
Input Offset
Voltage
Condition
Average Offset Voltage Drift
[1]
IB
Input Bias
Current
VS = ±15V
Input Offset
Current
Average Offset Current Drift
AVOL
Open-Loop Gain
PSRR
CMRR
CMIR
VOUT
Typ
Max
0.5
4.0
mV
9.0
mV
All
10.0
25°C
2.8
TMIN, TMAX
VS = ±5V
25°C
2.8
VS = ±15V
25°C
50
TMIN, TMAX
VS = ±5V
TCIOS
Min
25°C
TMIN, TMAX
TCVOS
IOS
Temp
VS = ±15V
[1]
VS = ±15V,VOUT = ±10V, RL = 1000Ω
Unit
µV/°C
8.2
µA
11.2
µA
µA
300
nA
500
nA
25°C
50
nA
All
0.3
nA/°C
25°C
800
TMIN, TMAX
600
1500
V/V
V/V
VS = ±5V, VOUT = ±2.5V, RL = 500Ω
25°C
1200
V/V
VS = ±5V, VOUT = ±2.5V, RL = 150Ω
25°C
1000
V/V
Power Supply
Rejection Ratio
VS = ±5V to ±15V
25°C
65
TMIN, TMAX
60
Common-Mode
Rejection Ratio
VCM = ±12V, V OUT = 0V
Common-Mode
Input Range
VS = ±15V
25°C
±14.0
V
VS = ±5V
25°C
±4.2
V
VS = +5V
25°C
4.2/0.1
V
VS = ±15V, RL = 1000Ω
25°C
±13.4
±13.6
V
TMIN, TMAX
±13.1
VS = ±15V, RL = 500Ω
25°C
±12.0
±13.4
V
VS = ±5V, RL = 500Ω
25°C
±3.4
±3.8
V
±3.2
V
3.8/0.3
V
75
mA
Output Voltage
Swing
ISC
Output Short
Circuit Current
IS
Supply Current
(Per Amplifier)
25°C
70
TMIN, TMAX
70
VS = ±5V, RL = 150Ω
25°C
VS = +5V, RL = 500Ω
25°C
3.6/0.4
TMIN, TMAX
3.5/0.5
25°C
40
TMIN, TMAX
35
VS = ±15V, No Load
25°C
VS = ±5V, No Load
dB
dB
90
dB
dB
V
V
mA
5.2
7
mA
TMIN
7.6
mA
TMAX
7.6
mA
25°C
2
80
5.0
mA
DC Electrical Characteristics (Continued)
VS = ±15V, RL = 1000Ω, unless otherwise specified
Parameter
RIN
Description
Input Resistance
Condition
Temp
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
Differential
25°C
150
kΩ
Common-Mode
25°C
15
MΩ
CIN
Input Capacitance
AV = [email protected] 10MHz
25°C
1.0
pF
ROUT
Output Resistance
AV = +1
25°C
50
mΩ
PSOR
Power-Supply
Operating Range
Dual-Supply
25°C
±2.0
±18.0
V
Single-Supply
25°C
2.5
36.0
V
1. Measured from T MIN to TMAX.
3
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
Closed-Loop AC Electrical Characteristics
VS = ±15V, AV = +1, RL = 1000Ω unless otherwise specified
Parameter
BW
GBWP
Description
-3dB Bandwidth
(VOUT = 0.4VPP)
Gain-Bandwidth Product
Condition
Temp
Min
Typ
Max
Unit
VS = ±15V, AV = +1
25°C
120
MHz
VS = ±15V, AV = -1
25°C
60
MHz
VS = ±15V, AV = +2
25°C
60
MHz
VS = ±15V, AV = +5
25°C
12
MHz
VS = ±15V, AV = +10
25°C
6
MHz
VS = ±5V, AV = +1
25°C
80
MHz
VS = ±15V
25°C
60
MHz
VS = ±5V
25°C
45
MHz
PM
Phase Margin
RL = 1 k¾, CL = 10pF
25°C
50
°
CS
Channel Separation
f = 5MHz
25°C
85
dB
SR
Slew Rate [1]
VS = ±15V, RL = 1000Ω
25°C
325
V/µs
VS = ±5V, RL = 500Ω
25°C
VS = ±15V
25°C
250
200
V/µs
5.2
MHz
FPBW
Full-Power Bandwidth [2]
VS = ±5V
25°C
12.7
MHz
tr, tf
Rise Time, Fall Time
0.1V Step
25°C
3.0
ns
OS
Overshoot
0.1V Step
25°C
20
%
tPD
Propagation Delay
25°C
2.5
ns
ts
Settling to +0.1%
(AV = +1)
VS = ±15V, 10V Step
25°C
80
ns
VS = ±5V, 5V Step
25°C
60
ns
dG
Differential Gain [3]
NTSC/PAL
25°C
0.04
%
dP
Differential Phase [3]
NTSC/PAL
25°C
0.15
°
eN
Input Noise Voltage
10kHz
25°C
15.0
nV√Hz
iN
Input Noise Current
10kHz
25°C
1.50
pA√Hz
CI STAB
Load Capacitance Stability
AV = +1
25°C
Infinite
pF
4.0
1. Slew rate is measured on rising edge
2. For VS = ±15V, VOUT = 20VPP. For VS = ±5V, VOUT = 5VPP. Full-power bandwidth is based on slew rate measurement using: FPBW = SR/(2π *
Vpeak).
3. Video Performance measured at VS = ±15V, AV = +2 with 2 times normal video level across RL = 150Ω. This corresponds to standard video levels
across a back-terminated 75Ω load. For other values of RL, see curves.
4
Typical Performance Curves
Non-Inverting
Frequency Response
Inverting Frequency Response
Frequency Response for
Various Load Resistances
Open-Loop Gain and
Phase vs Frequency
Output Voltage Swing
vs Frequency
Equivalent Input Noise
CMRR, PSRR and Closed-Loop
Output Resistance vs Frequency
2nd and 3rd Harmonic
Distortion vs Frequency
Settling Time vs
Output Voltage Change
Supply Current vs
Supply Voltage
Common-Mode Input Range
vs Supply Voltage
Output Voltage Range
vs Supply Voltage
5
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
Gain-Bandwidth Product
vs Supply Voltage
Bias and Offset Current
vs Input Common-Mode Voltage
Open-Loop Gain
vs Supply Voltage
Open-Loop Gain
vs Load Resistance
Slew-Rate vs
Supply Voltage
Voltage Swing
vs Load Resistance
Offset Voltage
vs Temperature
Bias and Offset
Current vs Temperature
Supply Current
vs Temperature
Gain-Bandwidth Product
vs Temperature
Open-Loop Gain, PSRR
and CMRR vs Temperature
Slew Rate vs
Temperature
6
Short-Circuit Current
vs Temperature
Gain-Bandwidth Product
vs Load Capacitance
Small-Signal
Step Response
Overshoot vs
Load Capacitance
Large-Signal
Step Response
Differential Gain and
Phase vs DC Input
Offset at 3.58MHz
Differential Gain and
Phase vs DC Input
Offset at 4.43MHz
Differential Gain and
Phase vs Number of
150¾ Loads at 3.58MHz
Differential Gain and
Phase vs Number of
150¾ Loads at 4.43MHz
8-Pin Plastic DIP
Maximum Power Dissipation
vs Ambient Temperature
8-Lead SO
Maximum Power Dissipation
vs Ambient Temperature
7
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
14-Pin Plastic DIP
Maximum Power Dissipation
vs Ambient Temperature
14-Lead SO
Maximum Power Dissipation
vs Ambient Temperature
Simplified Schematic (Per Amplifier)
8
Channel Separation
vs Frequency
Burn-In Circuit (Per Amplifier)
All Packages Use the Same Schematic
9
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
Applications Information
Product Description
V outmax =Maximum Output Voltage Swing of the
Application
The EL2244C/EL2444C are low-power wideband
monolithic operational amplifiers built on Elantec's proprietary high-speed complementary bipolar process. The
EL2244C/EL2444C use a classical voltage-feedback
topology which allows them to be used in a variety of
applications where current-feedback amplifiers are not
appropriate because of restrictions placed upon the feedback element used with the amplifier. The conventional
topology of the EL2244C/EL2444C allows, for example, a capacitor to be placed in the feedback path,
making it an excellent choice for applications such as
active filters, sample-and-holds, or integrators. Similarly, because of the ability to use diodes in the feedback
network, the EL2244C/EL2444C are an excellent choice
for applications such as fast log amplifiers.
RL =Load Resistance
To serve as a guide for the user, we can calculate maximum allowable supply voltages for the example of the
video cable-driver below since we know that TJmax =
150°C, Tmax = 75°C, ISmax = 7.6mA, and the package
θJAs are shown in Table 1. If we assume (for this example) that we are driving a back-terminated video cable,
then the maximum average value (over duty-cycle) of
Voutmax is 1.4V, and RL = 150¾, giving the results seen
in Table 1.
Table 1
Duals
Package
θJA
Max PDiss @ Tmax
Max VS
EL2244CN
PDIP8
95°C/W
0.789W @ 75°C
±16.6V
Power Dissipation
EL2244CS
SO8
150°C/W
0.500W @ 75°C
±10.7V
With the wide power supply range and large output drive
capability of the EL2244C/EL2444C, it is possible to
exceed the 150°C maximum junction temperatures
under certain load and power-supply conditions. It is
therefore important to calculate the maximum junction
temperature (TJmax) for all applications to determine if
power supply voltages, load conditions, or package type
need to be modified for the EL2244C/EL2444C to
remain in the safe operating area. These parameters are
related as follows:
EL2444CN
PDIP14
70°C/W
1.071W @ 75°C
±11.5V
EL2444CS
SO14
110°C/W
0.682W @ 75°C
±7.5V
QUADS
Single-Supply Operation
The EL2244C/EL2444C have been designed to have a
wide input and output voltage range. This design also
makes the EL2244C/EL2444C an excellent choice for
single-supply operation. Using a single positive supply,
the lower input voltage range is within 100mV of ground
(R L = 500Ω), and the lower output voltage range is
within 300 mV of ground. Upper input voltage range
reaches 4.2V, and output voltage range reaches 3.8V
with a 5V supply and RL = 500Ω. This results in a 3.5V
output swing on a single 5V supply. This wide output
voltage range also allows single-supply operation with a
supply voltage as high as 36V or as low as 2.5V. On a
single 2.5V supply, the EL2244C/EL2444C still have
1V of output swing.
TJmax = Tmax + (θJA* (PDmaxtotal))
where PDmaxtotal is the sum of the maximum power
dissipation of each amplifier in the package (PDmax).
PDmax for each amplifier can be calculated as follows:
PDmax= (2*VS*ISmax+(VS-Voutmax)*(Voutmax/RL))
where:
Tmax =Maximum Ambient Temperature
θJA =Thermal Resistance of the Package
Gain-Bandwidth Product and the-3dB
Bandwidth
PDmax =Maximum Power Dissipation of 1 Amplifier
The EL2244C/EL2444C have a gain-bandwidth product
of 120 MHz while using only 5.2mA of supply current
per amplifier. For gains greater than 4, their closed-loop
-3 dB bandwidth is approximately equal to the gain-
VS =Supply Voltage
ISmax =Maximum Supply Current of 1 Amplifier
10
characterized over the entire DC offset range from 0.714V to +0.714V. For more information, refer to the
curves of dG and dP vs DC Input Offset.
bandwidth product divided by the noise gain of the circuit. For gains less than 4, higher-order poles in the
amplifiers' transfer function contribute to even higher
closed loop bandwidths. For example, the
EL2244C/EL2444C have a -3dB bandwidth of 120MHz
at a gain of +1, dropping to 60MHz at a gain of +2. It is
important to note that the EL2244C/EL2444C have been
designed so that this “extra” bandwidth in low-gain
applications does not come at the expense of stability.
As seen in the typical performance curves, the
EL2244C/EL2444C in a gain of +1 only exhibit 1.0dB
of peaking with a 1000Ω load.
Output Drive Capability
The EL2244C/EL2444C have been designed to drive
low impedance loads. They can easily drive 6VPP into a
150¾ load. This high output drive capability makes the
EL2244C/EL2444C an ideal choice for RF, IF and video
applications. Furthermore, the current drive of the
EL2244C/EL2444C remains a minimum of 35 mA at
low temperatures. The EL2244C/EL2444C are currentlimited at the output, allowing it to withstand shorts to
ground. However, power dissipation with the output
shorted can be in excess of the power-dissipation capabilities of the package.
Video Performance
An industry-standard method of measuring the video
distortion of components such as the EL2244C/
EL2444C is to measure the amount of differential gain
(dG) and differential phase (dP) that they introduce. To
make these measurements, a 0.286VPP (40 IRE) signal is
applied to the device with 0V DC offset (0 IRE) at either
3.58MHz for NTSC or 4.43MHz for PAL. A second
measurement is then made at 0.714V DC offset (100
IRE). Differential gain is a measure of the change in
amplitude of the sine wave, and is measured in percent.
Differential phase is a measure of the change in phase,
and is measured in degrees.
Capacitive Loads
For ease of use, the EL2244C/EL2444C have been
designed to drive any capacitive load. However, the
EL2244C/EL2444C remain stable by automatically
reducing their gain-bandwidth product as capacitive
load increases. Therefore, for maximum bandwidth,
capacitive loads should be reduced as much as possible
or isolated via a series output resistor (Rs). Similarly,
coax lines can be driven, but best AC performance is
obtained when they are terminated with their characteristic impedance so that the capacitance of the coaxial
cable will not add to the capacitive load seen by the
amplifier. Although stable with all capacitive loads,
some peaking still occurs as load capacitance increases.
A series resistor at the output of the EL2244C/EL2444C
can be used to reduce this peaking and further improve
stability.
For signal transmission and distribution, a back-terminated cable (75Ω in series at the drive end, and 75Ω to
ground at the receiving end) is preferred since the
impedance match at both ends will absorb any reflections. However, when double termination is used, the
received signal is halved; therefore a gain of 2 configuration is typically used to compensate for the
attenuation.
The EL2244C/EL2444C have been designed as an economical solution for applications requiring low video
distortion. They have been thoroughly characterized for
video performance in the topology described above, and
the results have been included as typical dG and dP
specifications and as typical performance curves. In a
gain of +2, driving 150Ω, with standard video test levels
at the input, the EL2244C/EL2444C exhibit dG and dP
of only 0.04% and 0.15° at NTSC and PAL. Because dG
and dP can vary with different DC offsets, the video performance of the EL2244C/EL2444C has been
Printed-Circuit Layout
The EL2244C/EL2444C are well behaved, and easy to
apply in most applications. However, a few simple techniques will help assure rapid, high quality results. As
with any high-frequency device, good PCB layout is
necessary for optimum performance. Ground-plane construction is highly recommended, as is good power
supply bypassing. A 0.1 µF ceramic capacitor is recommended for bypassing both supplies. Lead lengths
should be as short as possible, and bypass capacitors
should be as close to the device pins as possible. For
11
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
good AC performance, parasitic capacitances should be
kept to a minimum at both inputs and at the output.
Resistor values should be kept under 5 kΩ because of
the RC time constants associated with the parasitic
capacitance. Metal-film and carbon resistors are both
acceptable, use of wire-wound resistors is not recommended because of their parasitic inductance. Similarly,
capacitors should be low-inductance for best
performance.
The EL2244C/EL2444C Macromodel
This macromodel has been developed to assist the user
in simulating the EL2244C/EL2444C with surrounding
circuitry. It has been developed for the PSPICE simulator (copywritten by the Microsim Corporation), and may
need to be rearranged for other simulators. It approximates DC, AC, and transient response for resistive
loads, but does not accurately model capacitive loading.
This model is slightly more complicated than the models
used for low-frequency op-amps, but it is much more
accurate for AC analysis.
The model does not simulate these characteristics
accurately:
noise
non-linearities
settling-time
temperature effects
CMRR
manufacturing variations
PSRR
12
EL2244C/EL2444 Macromodel
* Connections: +input
*
| -input
*
| | +Vsupply
*
| | | -Vsupply
*
| | | | output
*
| | | | |
.subckt M2244 3 2 7 4 6
*
* Input stage
*
ie 7 37 1mA
r6 36 37 800
r7 38 37 800
rc1 4 30 850
rc2 4 39 850
q1 30 3 36 qp
q2 39 2 38 qpa
ediff 33 0 39 30 1.0
rdiff 33 0 1Meg
*
* Compensation Section
*
ga 0 34 33 0 1m
rh 34 0 2Meg
ch 34 0 1.3pF
rc 34 40 1K
cc 40 0 1pF
*
* Poles
*
ep 41 0 40 0 1
rpa 41 42 200
cpa 42 0 1pF
rpb 42 43 200
cpb 43 0 1pF
*
* Output Stage
*
ios1 7 50 1.0mA
ios2 51 4 1.0mA
q3 4 43 50 qp
q4 7 43 51 qn
q5 7 50 52 qn
q6 4 51 53 qp
ros1 52 6 25
ros2 6 53 25
*
* Power Supply Current
*
ips 7 4 2.7mA
*
* Models
*
.model qn npn(is=800E-18 bf=200 tf=0.2nS)
.model qpa pnp(is=864E-18 bf=100 tf=0.2nS)
.model qp pnp(is=800E-18 bf=125 tf=0.2nS)
.ends
13
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C/EL2444C Macromodel
EL2244C/EL2444C Model
14
15
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
EL2244C, EL2444C
EL2244C, EL2444C
Dual/Quad Low-Power 120MHz Unity-Gain Stable Op Amp
General Disclaimer
Specifications contained in this data sheet are in effect as of the publication date shown. Elantec, Inc. reserves the right to make changes in the circuitry or specifications contained herein at any time without notice. Elantec, Inc. assumes no responsibility for the use of any circuits described
herein and makes no representations that they are free from patent infringement.
September 26, 2001
WARNING - Life Support Policy
Elantec, Inc. products are not authorized for and should not be used
within Life Support Systems without the specific written consent of
Elantec, Inc. Life Support systems are equipment intended to support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used
in accordance with instructions provided can be reasonably
expected to result in significant personal injury or death. Users contemplating application of Elantec, Inc. Products in Life Support
Systems are requested to contact Elantec, Inc. factory headquarters
to establish suitable terms & conditions for these applications. Elantec, Inc.’s warranty is limited to replacement of defective
components and does not cover injury to persons or property or
other consequential damages.
Elantec Semiconductor, Inc.
675 Trade Zone Blvd.
Milpitas, CA 95035
Telephone: (408) 945-1323
(888) ELANTEC
Fax:
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