Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Features General Description # Full function video fader # 0.02%/0.02§ differential gain/ phase @ 100% gain # 25 ns multiplexer included # Output amplifier included # Calibrated linear gain control # g 5V to g 15V operation # 60 MHz bandwidth # Low thermal errors The EL4095C is a versatile variable-gain building block. At its core is a fader which can variably blend two inputs together and an output amplifier that can drive heavy loads. Each input appears as the input of a current-feedback amplifier and with external resistors can separately provide any gain desired. The output is defined as: Video faders/wipers Gain control Graphics overlay Video text insertion Level adjust Modulation Temp. Range Package OutlineÝ EL4095CN b 40§ C to a 85§ C 14 Pin P-DIP MDP0031 EL4095CS b 40§ C to a 85§ C SO-14 where A and B are the fed-back gains of each channel. Signal bandwidth is 60 MHz, and gain-control bandwidth 20 MHz. The gain control recovers from overdrive in only 70 ns. Ordering Information Part No. VOUT e A*VINA (0. 5V a VGAIN) a B*VINB (0.5V–VGAIN), Additionally, two logic inputs are provided which each override the analog VGAIN control and force 100% gain for one input and 0% for the other. The logic inputs switch in only 25 ns and provide high attenuation to the off channel, while generating very small glitches. Applications # # # # # # EL4095C EL4095C MDP0027 The EL4095C operates from g 5V to g 15V power supplies, and is available in both 14-pin DIP and narrow surface mount packages. Connection Diagram 14-Pin DIP, SO Manufactured under U.S. Patent No. 5,321,371, 5,374,898 Note: All information contained in this data sheet has been carefully checked and is believed to be accurate as of the date of publication; however, this data sheet cannot be a ‘‘controlled document’’. Current revisions, if any, to these specifications are maintained at the factory and are available upon your request. We recommend checking the revision level before finalization of your design documentation. © 1992 Elantec, Inc. August 1996 Rev D 4095 – 1 Top View EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Supply Voltage Voltage between VS a and VSb Input Voltage a 18V a 33V (VSb) b0.3V to (VS a ) a 0.3V Current Into bVINA, bVINB Input Voltage Input Voltage b 1V to a 6V VFORCE Input Voltage g 35 mA IOUT Output Current b 40§ C to a 85§ C TA Operating Temperature Range TJ Operating Junction Temperature 0§ C to a 150§ C b 65§ C to a 150§ C TST Storage Temperature Range Internal Power Dissipation See Curves 5 mA VGAIN g 5V VSb to VS a TD is 0.7in Absolute Maximum Ratings (TA e 25§ C) VS a VS a VINA, a VINB IIN VGAIN VGAIN Important Note: All parameters having Min/Max specifications are guaranteed. The Test Level column indicates the specific device testing actually performed during production and Quality inspection. Elantec performs most electrical tests using modern high-speed automatic test equipment, specifically the LTX77 Series system. Unless otherwise noted, all tests are pulsed tests, therefore TJ e TC e TA. Test Level I II III IV V Test Procedure 100% production tested and QA sample tested per QA test plan QCX0002. 100% production tested at TA e 25§ C and QA sample tested at TA e 25§ C , TMAX and TMIN per QA test plan QCX0002. QA sample tested per QA test plan QCX0002. Parameter is guaranteed (but not tested) by Design and Characterization Data. Parameter is typical value at TA e 25§ C for information purposes only. Open Loop DC Electrical Characteristics Parameter Limits Description Min Typ Max Test Level Units mV VOS Input Offset Voltage 1.5 5 I IB a a VIN Input Bias Current 5 10 I mA IBb b VIN Input Bias Current 10 50 I mA CMRR Common Mode Rejection I dB b CMRR b VIN Input Bias Current I mA/V I dB I mA/V I MX 65 0.5 Common Mode Rejection PSRR Power Supply Rejection Ratio b IPSR b VIN Input Current 65 Transimpedance RINb b VIN Input Resistance VIN a VIN Range VO Output Voltage Swing ISC Output Short-Circuit Current VIH Input High Threshold at Force A or Force B Inputs VIL Input Low Threshold at Force A or Force B Inputs IFORCE, High Input Current of Force A or Force B, VFORCE e 5V IFORCE, Low Input Current of Force A or Force B, VFORCE e 0V 0.2 1.5 95 0.2 Power Supply Rejection Ratio ROL 80 2 0.4 V X (Vb) a 3.5 (V a ) b3.5 I V (Vb) a 2 (V a ) b2 I V 160 I mA 2.0 I V I V b 50 I mA b 650 I mA 80 80 125 0.8 b 440 2 TD is 4.0in VS e g 15V, TA e 25§ C, VGAIN ground unless otherwise specified EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Open Loop DC Electrical Characteristics Ð Contd. Parameter Limits Description Min Typ 60 75 Max Test Level Units I dB Feedthrough, Forced Feedthrough of Deselected Input to Output, Deselected Input at 100% Gain Control VGAIN, 100% Minimum Voltage at VGAIN for 100% Gain 0.45 0.5 0.55 I V VGAIN, 0% Maximum Voltage at VGAIN for 0% Gain b 0.55 b 0.5 b 0.45 I V NL, Gain Gain Control Non-linearity, VIN e g 0.5V 2 4 I % RIN, VG Impedance between VGAIN and VGAIN 5.5 6.5 I kX NL, AV e 1 AV e 0.5 AV e 0.25 Signal Non-linearity, VIN e g 1V, VGAIN e 0.55V Signal Non-linearity, VIN e g 1V, VGAIN e 0V Signal Non-linearity, VIN e g 1V, VGAIN e b0.25V 0.03 0.07 0.4 V V I % % % IS Supply Current 17 21 I mA 4.5 k 0.01 TD is 2.4in VS e g 15V, TA e 25§ C, unless otherwise specified Closed Loop AC Electrical Characteristics Parameter Limits Description Min SR Slew Rate; VOUT from b3V to a 3V Measured at b2V and a 2V BW Bandwidth dG di TS b 3 dB b 1 dB b 0.1 dB Test Level Units 330 V V/ms 60 30 6 V MHz MHz MHz Typ Max Differential Gain; AC Amplitude of 286 mVp-p at 3.58 MHz on DC Offset of b0.7V, 0V and a 0.7V AV e 100% AV e 50% AV e 25% 0.02 0.07 0.07 V % % % Differential Phase; AC Amplitude of 286 mVp-p at 3.58 MHz on DC Offset of b0.7V, 0V and a 0.7V AV e 100% AV e 50% AV e 25% 0.02 0.05 0.15 V § § § Settling Time to 0.2%; VOUT from b2V to a 2V AV e 100% AV e 25% 100 100 V ns ns TFORCE Propagation Delay from VFORCE e 1.4V to 50% Output Signal Enabled or Disabled Amplitude 25 V ns BW, Gain b 3 dB Gain Control Bandwidth, VGAIN Amplitude 0.5 VP-P 20 V MHz TREC, Gain Gain Control Recovery from Overload; VGAIN from b0.7V to 0V 70 V ns 3 TD is 3.8in VS e g 15V, AV e a 1, RF e RIN e 1 kX, RL e 500X, CL e 15 pF, CINb e 2 pF, TA e 25§ C, AV e 100% unless otherwise noted EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Typical Performance Curves Large-Signal Pulse Response Gain e a 1 Large-Signal Pulse Response Gain e b 1 4095 – 7 4095 – 6 Frequency Response for Different Gains-AV e a 1 Small-Signal Pulse Response for Various Gains 4095 – 8 4095 – 9 Frequency Response with Different Values of RF b Gain e a 1 Frequency Response with Different Values of RF b Gain e b 1 4095 – 10 4095 – 11 4 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. Frequency Response with Different Gains Frequency Response with Various Load Capacitances and Resistances Frequency Response with Various Values of Parasitic CIN b Input Noise Voltage and Current vs Frequency Change in Bandwidth and Slewrate with Supply Voltage b Gain e a 1 Change in Bandwidth and Slewrate with Supply Voltage b Gain e b 1 4095 – 12 5 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. Change in Bandwidth and Slewrate with Temperature b Gain e a 1 Change in Bandwidth and Slewrate with Temperature b Gain e b 1 DC Nonlinearity vs Input Voltage b Gain e a 1 Change in VOS and IB- vs die Temperature Differential Gain and Phase Errors vs Gain Control Setting b Gain e a 1 Differential Gain and Phase Errors vs Gain Control Setting b Gain e b 1 4095 – 13 6 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. Differential Phase Error vs DC Offset b Gain e a 1 Differential Phase Error vs DC Offset b Gain e a 1 Differential Phase Error vs DC Offset b Gain e b 1 Differential Phase Error vs DC Offset b Gain e b 1 Attenuation over Frequency b Gain e a 1 Attenuation over Frequency b Gain e b 1 4095 – 14 7 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. Gain Control Gain vs Frequency Gain vs VG (1 VDC at VINA) 4095 – 15 4095 – 16 Gain Control Response to a Non-Overloading Step, Constant Sinewave at VINA VGAIN Overload Recovery Delay 4095 – 18 4095 – 17 VGAIN Overload Recovery ResponseÐNo AC Input Cross-Fade Balance b 0V on AIN and BIN; Gain e a 1 4095 – 19 4095 – 20 8 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. Change in V100% and V0% of Gain Control vs Supply Voltage Change in V100% and V0% of Gain Control vs VGAIN Offset Change in V100% and V0% of Gain Control vs Die Temperature 4095 – 21 Force Response Force-Induced Output Transient 4095 – 22 4095 – 23 Package Power Dissipation vs Ambient Temperature Supply Current vs Supply Voltage 4095 – 25 4095 – 24 9 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Test Circuit, AV e a 1 4095 – 26 10 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Applications Information Frequency Response The EL4095 is a general-purpose two-channel fader whose input channels each act as a currentfeedback amplifier (CFA) input. Each input can have its own gain factor as established by external resistors. For instance, the Test Circuit shows two channels each arranged as a 1 gain, with the traditional single feedback resistor RF connected from VOUT to the b VIN of each channel. Like other CFA’s, there is a recommended feedback resistor, which for this circuit is 1 KX. The value of RF sets the closed-loop b 3 dB bandwidth, and has only a small range of practical variation. The user should consult the typical performance curves to find the optional value of RF for a given circuit gain. In general, the bandwidth will decrease slightly as closed-loop gain is increased; RF can be reduced to make up for bandwidth loss. Too small a value of RF will cause frequency response peaking and ringing during transients. On the other hand, increasing RF will reduce bandwidth but improve stability. The EL4095 can be connected as an inverting amplifier in the same manner as any CFA: EL4095C In Inverting Connection 4095 – 27 11 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer If maximum bandwidth is not required, distortion can be reduced greatly (and signal voltage range enlarged) by increasing the value of RF and any associated gain-setting resistor. Applications Information Ð Contd. Stray capacitance at each b VIN terminal should absolutely be minimized, especially in a positivegain mode, or peaking will occur. Similarly, the load capacitance should be minimized. If more than 25 pF of load capacitance must be driven, a load resistor from 100X to 400X can be added in parallel with the output to reduce peaking, but some bandwidth degradation may occur. A ‘‘snubber’’ load can alternatively be used. This is a resistor in series with a capacitor to ground, 150X and 100 pF being typical values. The advantage of a snubber is that it does not draw DC load current. A small series resistor, low tens of ohms, can also be used to isolate reactive loads. 100% Accuracies When a channel gain is set to 100%, static and gain errors are similar to those of a simple CFA. The DC output error is expressed by VOUT, Offset e VOS* AV a (IB b )*RF. The input offset voltage scales with fed-back gain, but the bias current into the negative input, IB b , adds an error not dependent on gain. Generally, IB b dominates up to gains of about seven. Distortion The fractional gain error is given by The signal voltage range of the a VIN terminals is within 3.5V of either supply rail. EGAIN e (RF a AV*RIN b ) RF a AV RIN)/ROL One must also consider the range of error currents that will be handled by the b VIN terminals. Since the b VIN of a CFA is the output of a buffer which replicates the voltage at a VIN, error currents will flow into the b VIN terminal. When an input channel has 100% gain assigned to it, only a small error current flows into its negative input; when low gain is assigned to the channel the output does not respond to the channel’s signal and large error currents flow. The gain error is about 0.3% for a gain of one, and increases only slowly for increasing gain. RIN b is the input impedance of the input stage buffer, and ROL is the transimpedance of the amplifier, 80 kX and 350 kX respectively. Gain Control Inputs The gain control inputs are differential and may be biased at any voltage as long as VGAIN is less than 2.5V below V a and 3V above V b . The differential input impedance is 5.5 kX, and a common-mode impedance is more than 500 kX. With zero differential voltage on the gain inputs, both signal inputs have a 50% gain factor. Nominal calibration sets the 100% gain of VINA input at a 0.5V of gain control voltage, and 0% at b 0.5V of gain control. VINB’s gain is complementary to that of VINA; a 0.5V of gain control sets 0% gain at VINB and b 0.5V gain control sets 100% VINB gain. The gain control does not have a completely abrupt transition at the 0% and 100% points. There is about 10 mV of ‘‘soft’’ transfer at the gain endpoints. To obtain the most accurate 100% gain factor or best attenuation of 0% gain, it is necessary to overdrive the gain control input by about 30 mV. This would set the gain control voltage range as b 0.565 mV to a 0.565V, or 30 mV beyond the maximum guaranteed 0% to 100% range. Here are a few idealized examples, based on a gain of a 1 for channels A and B and RF e 1 kX for different gain settings: Gain VINA VINB I (bVINA) I (bVINB) VOUT 100% 75% 50% 25% 0% 1V 1V 1V 1V 1V 0 0 0 0 0 0 b 250 mA b 500 mA b 750 mA b 1 mA 1 mA 750 mA 500 mA 250 mA 0 1V 0.75V 0.5V 0.25V 0V Thus, either b VIN can receive up to 1 mA error current for 1V of input signal and 1 kX feedback resistors. The maximum error current is 3 mA for the EL4095, but 2 mA is more realistic. The major contributor of distortion is the magnitude of error currents, even more important than loading effects. The performance curves show distortion versus input amplitude for different gains. 12 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Applications Information Ð Contd. Force Inputs In fact, the gain control internal circuitry is very complex. Here is a representation of the terminals: The Force inputs completely override the VGAIN setting and establish maximum attainable 0% and 100% gains for the two input channels. They are activated by a TTL logic low on either of the FORCE pins, and perform the analog switching very quickly and cleanly. FORCEA causes 100% gain on the A channel and 0% on the B channel. FORCEB does the reverse, but there is no defined output state when FORCEA and FORCEB are simultaneously asserted. Representation of Gain Control Inputs VG and VG The Force inputs do not incur recovery time penalties, and make ideal multiplexing controls. A typical use would be text overlay, where the A channel is a video input and the B channel is digitally created text data. The FORCEA input is set low normally to pass the video signal, but released to display overlay data. The gain control can be used to set the intensity of the digital overlay. 4095 – 28 For gain control inputs between g 0.5V ( g 90 mA), the diode bridge is a low impedance and all of the current into VG flows back out through VG. When gain control inputs exceed this amount, the bridge becomes a high impedance as some of the diodes shut off, and the VG impedance rises sharply from the nominal 5.5 KX to over 500 KX. This is the condition of gain control overdrive. The actual circuit produces a much sharper overdrive characteristics than does the simple diode bridge of this representation. Other Applications Circuits The EL4095 can also be used as a variable-gain single input amplifier. If a 0% lower gain extreme is required, one channel’s input should simply be grounded. Feedback resistors must be connected to both b VIN terminals; the EL4095 will not give the expected gain range when a channel is left unconnected. The gain input has a 20 MHz b 3 dB bandwidth and 17 ns risetime for inputs to g 0.45V. When the gain control voltage exceeds the 0% or 100% values, a 70 ns overdrive recovery transient will occur when it is brought back to linear range. If quicker gain overdrive response is required, the Force control inputs of the EL4095 can be used. This circuit gives a 0.5 to a 2.0 gain range, and is useful as a signal leveller, where a constant output level is regulated from a range of input amplitudes: 13 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Application Information Ð Contd. Leveling Circuit with 0.5 s AV s 2 4095 – 29 For video levels, however, these constants can give fairly high differential gain error. The problem occurs for large inputs. Assume that a ‘‘twice-size’’ video input occurs. The A-side stage sees the full amplitude, but the gain would be set to 100% B-input gain to yield an overall gain of Here the A input channel is configured for a gain of a 2 and the B channel for a gain of a 1 with its input attenuated by (/2. The connection is virtuous because the distortions do not increase monotonically with reducing gain as would the simple single-input connecton. 14 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer RFA could be increased together in value to reduce the error current and distortions, but increasing RFA would lower bandwidth. A solution would be to simply attenuate the input signal magnitude and restore the EL4095 output level to standard level with another amplifier so: Application Information Ð Contd. (/2 to produce a standard video output. The b VIN of the A side is a buffer output that reproduces the input signal, and drives RGA and RFA. Into the two resistors 2.1 mA of error current flows for a typical 1.4V of input DC offset, creating distortion in a A-side input stage. RGA and Reduced-Gain Leveler for Video Inputs and Differential Gain and Phase Performance (see text) 4095 – 30 4095 – 31 15 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer than the unrestored possible span of g 0.7V (for standard-sized signals). For the preceding leveler circuit, the black level should be set more toward b 0.7V to accommodate the largest input, or made to vary with the gain control itself (large gain, small offset; small gain, larger offset). Application Information Ð Contd. Although another amplifier is needed to gain the output back to standard level, the reduced error currents bring the differential phase error to less than 0.1Ê over the entire input range. A useful technique to reduce video distortion is to DC-restore the video level going into the EL4095, and offsetting black level to b 0.35V so that the entire video span encompasses g 0.35V rather The EL4095 can be wired as a four quadrant multiplier: EL4095 Connected as a Four-Quadrant Multiplier 4095 – 32 16 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer Application Information Ð Contd. The two input channels can be connected to a common input through two dissimilar filters to create a DC-controlled variable filter. This circuit provides a controlled range of peaking through rolloff characteristics: The A channel gains the input by a 1 and the B channel by b 1. Feedthrough suppression of the Y input can be optimized by introducing an offset between channel A and B. This is easily done by injecting an adjustable current into the summing junction ( b VIN terminal) of the B input channel. Variable Peaking Filter 4095 – 33 4095 – 34 17 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer package has a thermal resistance of 65§ C/W, and can thus dissipate 1.15W at a 75§ C ambient temperature. The device draws 20 mA maximum supply current, only 600 mW at g 15V supplies, and the circuit has no dissipation problems in this package. Applications Information Ð Contd. The EL4095 is connected as a unity-gain fader, with an LRC peaking network connected to the A-input and an RC rolloff network connected to the B-input. The plot shows the range of peaking controlled by the VGAIN input. This circuit would be useful for flattening the frequency response of a system, or for providing equalization ahead of a lossy transmission line. The SO-14 surface-mount package has a 105§ C/W thermal resistance with the EL4095, and only 714 mW can be dissipated at 75§ C ambient temperature. The EL4095 thus can be operated with g 15V supplies at 75§ C, but additional dissipation caused by heavy loads must be considered. If this is a problem, the supplies should be reduced to g 5V to g 12V levels. Noise The electrical noise of the EL4095 has two components: the voltage noise in series with a VIN is 5 nV 0Hz wideband, and there is a current noise injected into b VIN of 35 pA0Hz. The output noise will be The output will survive momentary short-circuits to ground, but the large available current will overheat the die and also potentially destroy the circuit’s metal traces. The EL4095 is reliable within its maximum average output currents and operating temperatures. Vn, out e 0 (AV # Vn, input)2 a (In, input # RF)2, and the input-referred noise is Vn, input-referred e 0 (Vn, input)2 a (In, input # RF/AV)2 where AV is the fed-back gain of the EL4095. Here is a plot of input-referred noise vs AV: EL4095C Macromodel This macromodel is offered to allow simulation of general EL4095 behavior. We have included these characteristics: Input-Referred Noise vs Closed-Loop Gain Small-signal frequency response Output loading effects Input impedance Off-channel feedthrough Output impedance over frequency Signal path DC distoritons VGAIN I-V characteristics VGAIN overdrive recovery delay 100% gain error FORCE operation b VIN characteristics and sensitivity to parasitic capacitance These will give a good range of results of various operating conditions, but the macromodel does not behave identically as the circuit in these areas: 4095 – 35 Thus, for a gain of three or more the fader has a noise as good as an op-amp. The only trade-off is that the dynamic range of the input is reduced by the gain due to the nonlinearity caused by gained-up output signals. Temperature effects Signal overload effects Signal and VG operating range Current-limit Video and high-frequency distortions Glitch and delay from FORCE inputs Power Dissipation Peak die temperature must not exceed 150§ C. This allows 75§ C internal temperature rise for a 75§ C ambient. The EL4095 in the 14-pin PDIP 18 Manufacturing tolerances Supply voltage effects Slewrate limitations Noise Power supply interactions EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer EL4095C Macromodel Ð Contd. 4095 – 36 19 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer EL4095C Macromodel Ð Contd. 4095 – 37 20 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer EL4095C Macromodel Ð Contd. The EL4095 Macromodel Schematic 4095 – 38 21 EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer EL4095C Macromodel Ð Contd. 4095 – 39 22 23 BLANK EL4095C EL4095C Video Gain Control/Fader/Multiplexer General Disclaimer Specifications contained in this data sheet are in effect as of the publication date shown. Elantec, Inc. reserves the right to make changes in the circuitry or specifications contained herein at any time without notice. Elantec, Inc. assumes no responsibility for the use of any circuits described herein and makes no representations that they are free from patent infringement. August 1996 Rev D WARNING Ð Life Support Policy Elantec, Inc. products are not authorized for and should not be used within Life Support Systems without the specific written consent of Elantec, Inc. Life Support systems are equipment intended to support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions provided can be reasonably expected to result in significant personal injury or death. Users contemplating application of Elantec, Inc. products in Life Support Systems are requested to contact Elantec, Inc. factory headquarters to establish suitable terms & conditions for these applications. Elantec, Inc.’s warranty is limited to replacement of defective components and does not cover injury to persons or property or other consequential damages. Elantec, Inc. 1996 Tarob Court Milpitas, CA 95035 Telephone: (408) 945-1323 (800) 333-6314 Fax: (408) 945-9305 European Office: 44-71-482-4596 24 Printed in U.S.A.