Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Features General Description # Unity or a 2-gain bandwidth of 80 MHz # 70 dB off-channel isolation at 4 MHz # Directly drives high-impedance or 75X loads # .02% and .02§ differential gain and phase errors # 8 ns switching time # k 100 mV switching glitch # 0.2% loaded gain error # Compatible with g 3V to g 15V supplies # 160 mW maximum dissipation at g 5V supplies The EL44XX family of video multiplexed-amplifiers offers a very quick 8 ns switching time and low glitch along with very low video distortion. The amplifiers have good gain accuracy even when driving low-impedance loads. To save power, the amplifiers do not require heavy loading to remain stable. Ordering Information Part No. Temp. Range Package Outline EL4421CN b 40§ C to EL4421CS b 40§ C to EL4422CN b 40§ C to EL4422CS b 40§ C to a 85§ C 8-Pin PDIP a 85§ C 8-Pin SO a 85§ C 8-Pin PDIP a 85§ C 8-Pin SO EL4441CN b 40§ C to EL4441CS b 40§ C to EL4442CN b 40§ C to EL4442CS b 40§ C to a 85§ C 14-Pin PDIP MDP0031 a 85§ C 14-Pin SO MDP0027 a 85§ C 14-Pin PDIP MDP0031 a 85§ C 14-Pin SO MDP0027 EL4443CN b 40§ C to EL4443CS b 40§ C to EL4444CN b 40§ C to EL4444CS b 40§ C to a 85§ C 14-Pin PDIP MDP0031 a 85§ C 14-Pin SO MDP0027 a 85§ C 14-Pin PDIP MDP0031 a 85§ C 14-Pin SO MDP0027 MDP0031 MDP0027 MDP0031 MDP0027 The EL4421 and EL4422 are two-input multiplexed amplifiers. The -inputs of the input stages are wired together and the device can be used as a pin-compatible upgrade from the MAX453. EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C The EL4441 and EL4442 have four inputs, also with common feedback. These may be used as upgrades of the MAX454. The EL4443 and EL4444 are also 4-input multiplexed amplifiers, but both positive and negative inputs are wired separately. A wide variety of gain- and phase-switching circuits can be built using independent feedback paths for each channel. The EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 are internally compensated for unity-gain operation. The EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 are compensated for gains of a 2 or more, especially useful for driving back-matched cables. The amplifiers have an operational temperature of b 40§ C to a 85§ C and are packaged in plastic 8- and 14-pin DIP and 8- and 14-pin SO. The EL44XX multiplexed-amplifier family is fabricated with Elantec’s proprietary complementary bipolar process which gives excellent signal symmetry and is very rugged. Connection Diagrams EL4421/EL4422 EL4441/EL4442 4421 – 2 4421 – 3 Manufactured under U.S. Patent No. 5,352,987 Note: All information contained in this data sheet has been carefully checked and is believed to be accurate as of the date of publication; however, this data sheet cannot be a ‘‘controlled document’’. Current revisions, if any, to these specifications are maintained at the factory and are available upon your request. We recommend checking the revision level before finalization of your design documentation. © 1994 Elantec, Inc. January 1996 Rev C 4421 – 1 EL4443/EL4444 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Absolute Maximum Ratings Va VS VIN DVIN Positive Supply Voltage V a to Vb Supply Voltage Voltage at any Input or Feedback Difference between Pairs of Inputs or Feedback VLOGIC IIN 16.5V 33V V a to Vb IOUT PD 6V Voltage at A0 or A1 Current into any Input, Feedback, or Logic Pin Output Current Maximum Power Dissipation b 4V to 6V 4 mA 30 mA See Curves Important Note: All parameters having Min/Max specifications are guaranteed. The Test Level column indicates the specific device testing actually performed during production and Quality inspection. Elantec performs most electrical tests using modern high-speed automatic test equipment, specifically the LTX77 Series system. Unless otherwise noted, all tests are pulsed tests, therefore TJ e TC e TA. Test Level I II III IV V Test Procedure 100% production tested and QA sample tested per QA test plan QCX0002. 100% production tested at TA e 25§ C and QA sample tested at TA e 25§ C , TMAX and TMIN per QA test plan QCX0002. QA sample tested per QA test plan QCX0002. Parameter is guaranteed (but not tested) by Design and Characterization Data. Parameter is typical value at TA e 25§ C for information purposes only. Open-Loop DC Electrical Characteristics Parameter VOS IB IFB Description Input Offset Voltage Ê 21, Ê 41, and Ê 43 Ê 22, Ê 42, and Ê 44 Input Bias Current, Positive Inputs Only of the Ê 21, Ê 22, Ê 41, Ê 42, and All Inputs of the Ê 43 and Ê 44 Input Bias Currents of Common Feedback b Ê 21 and Ê 22 b Ê 41 and Ê 42 Min Typ Max Test Level Units b9 b7 g3 g2 9 7 I I mV b 12 b5 0 I mA b 24 b 48 b 10 b 20 0 0 I I mA mA IOS Input Offset Currents of the Ê 43 and Ê 44 60 350 I nA EG Gain Error of the Ê 21 and Ê 41 and Ê 43 (Note 1) Ê 22, Ê 42 and Ê 44 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.6 I I % V/V AVOL Open-Loop Gain (Note 1) VIN EL4443 EL4444 350 500 500 750 I I V/V V/V Input Signal Range, EL4421 and EL4441 (Note 2) g 2.5 g3 I V CMRR Common-Mode Rejection Ratio, EL4443 and EL4444 70 90 I dB PSRR Power Supply Rejection Ratio Vs from g 5V to g 15V 60 70 I dB 2 TD is 3.3in Power supplies at g 5V, TA e 25§ C, RL e 500X, unless otherwise specified EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Open-Loop DC Electrical Characteristics Ð Contd. Parameter Test Level Units g3 I V g 2.5 g 3.5 I V g 40 g 80 I mA 70 55 80 64 I I dB dB b 16 b8 0 I mA 2.0 I V 14 16 I mA Description Min Typ CMIR Common-Mode Input Range (Note 3) EL4443 and EL4444 g 2.5 VOUT Output Swing ISC Output Short-Circuit Current FT Unselected Channel Feedthrough ’21, ’41, ’43 Attenuation, (Note 1) ’22, ’42, ’44 ILOGIC Input Current at A0 and A1 with Input e 0V and 5V VLOGIC Logic Valid High and Low Input Levels IS Supply Current EL4421 and EL4422 EL4441, EL4442, EL4443, and EL4444 Max 0.8 11 13 TD is 2.2in Power supplies at g 5V, TA e 25§ C Note 1: The Ê 21, Ê 41, and Ê 43 devices are connected for unity-gain operation with 75X load and an input span of g 1V. The Ê 22, Ê 42, and Ê 44 devices are connected for a gain of a 2 with a 150X load and a g 1V input span with RF e RG e 270X. Note 2: The Ê 21 and Ê 41 devices are connected for unity gain with a g 3V input span while the output swing is measured. Note 3: CMIR is assured by passing the CMRR test at input voltage extremes. Closed-Loop AC Electrical Characteristics Parameter Description Min Typ Test Level Units V V MHz MHz BW b 3 dB b 3 dB Small-Signal Bandwidth, EL4421, ’41, ’43 EL4422, ’42, ’44 BW g 0.1 dB 0.1 dB Flatness Bandwidth 10 V MHz Peaking Frequency Response Peaking 0.5 V dB SR Slewrate, VOUT between b2.5V and a 2.5V, VS e g 12V EL4421, EL4441, EL4443 EL4422, EL4442, EL4444 200 240 I I V/msec V/msec 18 14 V V nV/rt-hz nV/rt-hz 0.01 0.10 0.02 0.11 V V V V % % % % Vn dG Input-Referred Noise Voltage Density EL4421, EL4441, EL4443 EL4422, EL4442, EL4444 Differential Gain Error, VOFFSET between b0.7V and a 0.7V EL4421, EL4441, EL4443 (VS e g 12V) EL4421, EL4441, EL4443 (VS e g 5V) EL4422, EL4442, EL4444 (VS e g 12V) EL4422, EL4442, EL4444 (VS e g 5V) 3 80 65 Max 150 180 TD is 2.6in Power supplies at g 5V. TA e 25§ C, for EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 AV e a 1 and RL e 500X, for EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 AV e a 2 and RL e 150X with RF e RG e 270X and CF e 3 pF; for all CL e 15 pF EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Closed-Loop AC Electrical Characteristics Parameter dO TMUX VGLITCH ISO Description Min Typ Max Test Level Units Differential Phase Error, VOFFSET between b0.7V and a 0.7V EL4421, EL4441, EL4443 (VS e g 12V) EL4421, EL4441, EL4443 (VS e g 5V) EL4422, EL4442, EL4444 (VS e g 12V) EL4422, EL4442, EL4444 (VS e g 5V) 0.01 0.1 0.02 0.15 V V V V § § § § Multiplex Delay Time, Logic Threshold to 50% Signal Change EL4421, ’22 EL4441, ’42, ’43, ’44 8 12 V V nsec nsec Peak Multiplex Glitch EL4421, ’22 EL4441, ’42, ’43, ’44 70 100 V V mV mV Channel Off Isolation at 3.58 MHz (See Text) EL4421, EL4441, EL4443 EL4422, EL4442, EL4444 76 63 V V dB dB Typical Performance Curves EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Small-Signal Transient Response VS e g 5V, RL e 500X EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Large-Signal Response VS e g 12V, RL e 500X 4421 – 5 4421 – 6 EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Frequency Response for Various Gains EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 Frequency Response for Various Gains 4421 – 7 4421 – 8 4 TD is 2.4in Power supplies at g 5V. TA e 25§ C, for EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 AV e a 1 and RL e 500X, for EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 AV e a 2 and RL e 150X with RF e RG e 270X and CF e 3 pF; for all CL e 15 pF Ð Contd. EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Frequency Response for Various Loads VS e g 5V, AV e a 1 EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 Frequency Response for Various Loads VS e g 5V, AV e a 2 4421 – 10 Frequency Response for Various Loads VS e g 15V, AV e a 1 4421 – 9 EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 Frequency Response for Various Loads VS e g 15V, AV e a 2 4421 – 11 4421 – 12 EL4443 Open-Loop Gain and Phase vs Frequency EL4444 Open-Loop Gain and Phase vs Frequency 4421 – 37 4421 – 13 5 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 b 3 dB Bandwidth, Slewrate, and Peaking vs Supply Voltage EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 b 3 dB Bandwidth, Slewrate, and Peaking vs Supply Voltage 4421 – 14 4421 – 15 EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Bandwidth, Slewrate, and Peaking vs Temperature, AV e a 1, RL e 500X EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 Bandwidth, Slewrate, and Peaking vs Temperature, AV e a 2, RL e 150X, RI e RG e 270X, CF e 3 pF 4421 – 16 4421 – 17 EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 b 3 dB Bandwidth and Gain Error vs Load Resistance Input Noise vs Frequency 4421 – 18 4421 – 19 6 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Differential Gain and Phase Errors, vs Input Offset, AV e a 1, RL e 500X, F e 3.58 MHz EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 Differential Gain and Phase Error vs Input Offset; AV e a 2, RL e 150X, F e 3.58 MHz 4421 – 21 4421 – 20 EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Differential Gain and Phase Error vs Load Resistance; AV e a 1, F e 3.58 MHz, VOFFSET e 0 0.714V EL4443 and EL4444 Open-Loop Gain vs Load Resistance x 4421 – 23 4421 – 22 Change in VOS, AV, and IB with Supply Voltage Change in VOS, IB, and AV vs Temperature 4421 – 24 4421 – 25 7 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. Switching Waveforms Switching from Grounded Input to Uncorrelated Sinewave and Back Channel-to-Channel Switching Glitch 4421 – 27 4421 – 26 EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 Unselected Channel Feedthrough vs Frequency EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 Unselected Channel Feedthrough vs Frequency 4421 – 28 4421 – 29 EL4443 and EL4444 Input and Output Range vs Supply Voltage (Output Unloaded) 4421 – 30 8 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Typical Performance Curves Ð Contd. Supply Current vs Supply Voltage 8-Pin Package Power Dissipation vs Ambient Temperature Supply Current vs Temperature 4421 – 31 14-Pin Package Power Dissipation vs Ambient Temperature 4421 – 33 4421 – 32 4421 – 34 Applications Information EL4443 and EL4444, on the other hand, have all a inputs and b inputs brought out separately so that the input stage can be wired for independent gains and gain polarities with separate feedback networks. General Description The EL44XX family of video mux-amps are composed of two or four input stages whose inputs are selected and control an output stage. One of the inputs is active at a time and the circuit behaves as a traditional voltage-feedback op-amp for that input, rejecting signals present at the unselected inputs. Selection is controlled by one or two logic inputs. The EL4421, EL4441, and EL4443 are compensated for unity-gain stability, while the EL4422, EL4442, and EL4444 are compensated for a fedback gain of a 2, ideal for driving back-terminated cables or maintaining bandwidth at higher fed-back gains. The EL4421, EL4422, EL4441, and EL4442 have all b inputs wired in parallel, allowing a single feedback network to set the gain of all inputs. These devices are wired for positive gains. The 9 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Applications Information Ð Contd. CMOS drivers. The ground pin is the logic threshold biasing reference. The simplified input circuitry is shown below: Switching Characteristics The logic inputs work with standard TTL levels of 0.8V or less for a logic 0 and 2.0V or more for a logic 1, making them compatible for TTL and 4421 – 35 Figure 1. Simplified Logic Input Circuitry The ground pin draws a maximum DC current of 6 mA, and may be biased anywhere between (V b ) a 2.5V and (V a ) b 3.5V. The logic inputs may range from (V b ) a 2.5V to V a , and are additionally required to be no more negative than V(Gnd pin) b 4V and no more positive than V(Gnd pin) a 6V. For example, within these constraints, we can power the EL44XX’s from a 5V and a 12V without a negative supply by using these connections: 4421 – 36 Figure 2. Using the EL44XX Mux Amps with a 5V and a 12V Supplies 10 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Applications Information Ð Contd. is again g 3V and the output swing is g 6V. The EL4443 or EL4444 can be wired for inverting gain with even more amplitude possible. The logic input(s) and ground pin are shifted 2.5V above system ground to correctly bias the mux-amp. Of course, all the signal inputs and output will have to be shifted 2.5V above system ground to ensure proper signal path biasing. The output and positive inputs respond to overloading amplitudes correctly; that is, they simply clamp and remain monotonic with increasing a input overdrive. A condition exists, however, where the b input of an active stage is overdriven by large outputs. This occurs mainly in unitygain connections, and only happens for negative inputs. The overloaded input cannot control the feedback loop correctly and the output can become non-monotonic. A typical scenario has the circuit running on g 5V supplies, connected for unity gain, and the input is the maximum g 3V. Negative input extremes can cause the output to jump from b 3V to around b 2.3V. This will never happen if the input is restricted to g 2.5V, which is the guaranteed maximum input compliance with g 5V supplies, and is not a problem with greater supply voltages. Connecting the feedback network with a divider will prevent the overloaded output voltage from being large enough to overload the b input and monotonic A final caution: the ground pin is also connected to the IC’s substrate and frequency compensation components. The ground pin must be returned to system ground by a short wire or nearby bypass capacitor. In figure 2, the 22 KX resistors also serve to isolate the bypassed ground pin from the a 5V supply noise. Signal Amplitudes Signal input and output voltages must be between (V b ) a 2.5V and (V a ) b 2.5V to ensure linearity. Additionally, the differential voltage on any input stage must be limited to g 6V to prevent damage. In unity-gain connections, any input could have g 3V applied and the output would be at g 3V, putting us at our 6V differential limit. Higher-gain circuit applications divide the output voltage and allow for larger outputs. For instance, at a gain of a 2 the maximum input 11 EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Applications Information Ð Contd. behavior is assured. In any event, keeping signals within guaranteed compliance limits will assure freedom from overload problems. The maximum dissipation a package support is PD, max e (TD, max-TA, max)/RTH Where TD, max is the maximum die temperature, 150§ C for reliability, less to retain optimum electrical performance TA, max is the ambient temperature, 70§ for commercial and 85§ C for industrial range RTH is the thermal resistance of the mounted package, obtained from data sheet dissipation curves The input and output ranges are substantially constant with temperature. Power Supplies The mux-amps work well on any supplies from g 3V to g 15V. The supplies may be of different voltages as long as the requirements of the Gnd pin are observed (see the Switching Characteristics section for a discussion). The supplies should be bypassed close to the device with short leads. 4.7 mF tantalum capacitors are very good, and no smaller bypasses need be placed in parallel. Capacitors as small as 0.01 mF can be used if small load currents flow. The most difficult case is the SO-8 package. With a maximum die temperature of 150§ C and a maximum ambient temperature of 85§ , the 65§ temperature rise and package thermal resistance of 170§ /W gives a maximum dissipation of 382 mW. This allows a maximum supply voltage of g 9.2V for the EL4422 operated in our example. If the % ), EL4421 were driving a light load (RPAR it could operate on g 15V supplies at a 70§ maximum ambient. Single-polarity supplies, such as a 12V with a 5V can be used as described in the Switching Characteristics section. The inputs and outputs will have to have their levels shifted above ground to accommodate the lack of negative supply. x The EL4441 through EL4444 can operate on g 12V supplies in the SO package, and all parts can be powered by g 15V supplies in DIP packages. The dissipation of the mux-amps increases with power supply voltage, and this must be compatible with the package chosen. This is a close estimate for the dissipation of a circuit: Output Loading The output stage of the mux-amp is very powerful, and can source 80 mA and sink 120 mA. Of course, this is too much current to sustain and the part will eventually be destroyed by excessive dissipation or by metal traces on the die opening. The metal traces are completely reliable while delivering the 30 mA continuous output given in the Absolute Maximum Ratings table in this data sheet, or higher purely transient currents. PD e 2VS c Is,max a (VS – VO) c VO/RPAR Where Is, max is the maximum supply current VS is the g supply voltage (assumed equal) VO if the output voltage RPAR is the parallel of all resistors loading the output Gain or gain accuracy degrades only 10% from no load to 100X load. Heavy resistive loading will degrade frequency response and video distortion only a bit, becoming noticeably worse for loads k 100X. For instance, the EL4422 draws a maximum of 14 mA and we might require a 2V peak output into 150X and a 270X a 270X feedback divider. The RPAR is 117X. The dissipation with g 5V supplies is 191 mW. The maximum Supply voltage that the device can run on for a given PD and the other parameter is VS, max e (PD a VO2/RPAR)/2Is a VO/RPAR) 12 TD is 0.5in EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers Applications Information Ð Contd. Capacitive loads will cause peaking in the frequency response. If capacitive loads must be driven, a small-valued series resistor can be used to isolate it. 12X to 51X should suffice. A 22X series resistor will limit peaking to 2.5 dB with even a 220 pF load. The other major concern about the divider concerns unselected-channel crosstalk. The differential input impedance of each input stage is around 200 KX. The unselected input’s signal sources thus drive current through that input impedance into the feedback divider, inducing an unwanted output. The gain from unselected input to output, the crosstalk attenuation, if RF/ RIN. In unity-gain connection the feedback resistor is 0X and very little crosstalk is induced. For a gain of a 2, the crosstalk is about b 60 dB. Input Connections The input transistors can be driven from resistive and capacitive sources but are capable of oscillation when presented with an inductive input. It takes about 80 nH of series inductance to make the inputs actually oscillate, equivalent to four inches of unshielded wiring or about 6× of unterminated input transmission line. The oscillation has a characteristic frequency of 500 MHz. Feedthrough Attenuation The channels have different crosstalk levels with different inputs. Here is the typical attenuation for all combinations of inputs for the mux-amps at 3.58 MHz: Often simply placing one’s finger (via a metal probe) or an oscilloscope probe on the input will kill the oscillation. Normal high-frequency construction obviates any such problems, where the input source is reasonably close to the mux-amp input. If this is not possible, one can insert series resistors of around 51X to de-Q the inputs. Feedthrough of EL4441 and EL4443 at 3.58 MHz 00 Select Inputs, A1A0 Feedback Connections A feedback divider is used to increase circuit gain, and some precautions should be observed. The first is that parasitic capacitance at the b input will add phase lag to the feedback path and increase frequency response peaking or even cause oscillation. One solution is to choose feedback resistors whose parallel value is low. The pole frequency of the feedback network should be maintained above at least 200 MHz. For a 3 pF parasitic, this requires that the feedback divider have less than 265X impedance, equivalent to two 510X resistors when a gain of a 2 is desired. Alternatively, a small capacitor across RF can be used to create more of a frequency-compensated divider. The value of the capacitor should match the parasitic capacitance at the b input. It is also practical to place small capacitors across both the feedback resistors (whose values maintain the desired gain) to swamp out parasitics. For instance, two 10 pF capacitors across equal divider resistors will dominate parasitic effects and allow a higher divider resistance. In1 In2 In3 In4 b 90 dB b 92 dB Selected b 77 dB 01 b 80 dB Selected b 77 dB b 90 dB 10 b 101 dB b 76 dB Selected b 66 dB 11 b 96 dB b 84 dB b 66 dB Selected Channel Select Input, A0 In1 In2 0 Selected b 88 dB 1 b 93 dB Selected Switching Glitches The output of the mux-amps produces a small ‘‘glitch’’ voltage in response to a logic input change. A peak amplitude of only about 90 mV occurs, and the transient settles out in 20 ns. The glitch does not change amplitude with different gain settings. With the four-input multiplexers, when two logic inputs are simultaneously changed, the glitch amplitude doubles. The increase can be a avoided by keeping transitions at least 6 ns apart. This can be accomplished by inserting one gate delay in one of the two logic inputs when they are truly synchronous. 13 TD is 0.5in Feedthrough of EL4421 at 3.58 MHz 14 BLANK 15 BLANK EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C EL4421C/22C/41C/42C/43C/44C Multiplexed-Input Video Amplifiers General Disclaimer Specifications contained in this data sheet are in effect as of the publication date shown. Elantec, Inc. reserves the right to make changes in the circuitry or specifications contained herein at any time without notice. Elantec, Inc. assumes no responsibility for the use of any circuits described herein and makes no representations that they are free from patent infringement. January 1996 Rev C WARNING Ð Life Support Policy Elantec, Inc. products are not authorized for and should not be used within Life Support Systems without the specific written consent of Elantec, Inc. Life Support systems are equipment intended to support or sustain life and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions provided can be reasonably expected to result in significant personal injury or death. Users contemplating application of Elantec, Inc. products in Life Support Systems are requested to contact Elantec, Inc. factory headquarters to establish suitable terms & conditions for these applications. Elantec, Inc.’s warranty is limited to replacement of defective components and does not cover injury to persons or property or other consequential damages. Elantec, Inc. 1996 Tarob Court Milpitas, CA 95035 Telephone: (408) 945-1323 (800) 333-6314 Fax: (408) 945-9305 European Office: 44-71-482-4596 16 Printed in U.S.A.