July 2000 ML4426* Bi-directional Sensorless BLDC Motor Controller GENERAL DESCRIPTION FEATURES The ML4426 PWM motor controller provides all of the functions necessary for starting and controlling the speed of delta or wye wound Brushless DC (BLDC) motors without Hall Effect sensors. Back EMF voltage is sensed from the motor windings to determine the proper commutation phase sequence using a PLL. This patented sensing technique will commutate a wide range of 3Phase BLDC motors and is insensitive to PWM noise and motor snubbing circuitry. ■ Motor starts and stops with power to IC ■ Bi-directional motor drive for applications requiring forward/ reverse operation ■ On-board start sequence: Align ® Ramp ® Set Speed ■ Patented Back-EMF commutation technique provides jitterless torque for minimum “spin-up” time ■ Onboard speed control loop The ML4426 limits the motor current using a constant offtime PWM control loop. The velocity loop is controlled with an onboard amplifier. The ML4426 has circuitry to ensure that there is no shoot-through in directly driven external power MOSFETs. ■ PLL used for commutation provides noise immunity from PWM spikes, compared to noise sensitive zero crossing technique ■ PWM control for maximum efficiency The timing of the start-up sequence is determined by the selection of three timing capacitors. This allows optimization for a wide range of motors and loads. ■ Direct FET drive for 12V motors; drives high voltage motors with IC buffers from IR, IXYS, Harris, Power Integrations, Siliconix, etc. (* Indicates Part Is End Of Life As Of July 1, 2000) BLOCK DIAGRAM (Pin Configuration Shown for 28 Pin Version) 17 VDD VDD CAT 21 CRT 750nA 1.5V FB C 24 15 16 SPEED CVCO FB RVCO – – + 1.5V + VDD FB B 23 20 CRR 750nA FB A 22 19 500nA BACK EMF SAMPLER VCO/TACH VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR 13 VCO OUT VCO OUT F/R R A 12 F B + – 8 E 3.9V SPEED SET COMMUTATION STATE MACHINE HA C HB D 5 – SPEED COMP 1.7V 6 CT 20kHz 1 ISENSE – ×5 1.7V GATING LOGIC & OUTPUT DRIVERS + – VREF + + 1.4V ILIMIT 1-SHOT HC LA LB LC UVLO VDD 16kΩ UV FAULT 4kΩ 2 3 4 9 10 11 18 REFERENCE 8kΩ 26 CIOS BRAKE 25 14 VDD GND 28 27 RREF 7 VREF 1 ML4426 PIN CONFIGURATION ML4426 28-Pin Narrow PDIP (P28N) 28-Pin SOIC (S28) ISENSE 1 28 GND HA 2 27 RREF HB 3 26 CIOS HC 4 25 BRAKE SPEED COMP 5 24 FB C CT 6 23 FB B VREF 7 22 FB A SPEED SET 8 21 CRR LA 9 20 SPEED FB LB 10 19 CRT LC 11 18 UV FAULT F/R 12 17 CAT VCO/TACH 13 16 RVCO VDD 14 15 CVCO TOP VIEW BRAKE FB C NC 2 23 FB B SPEED COMP 3 22 FB A CT 4 21 CRR VREF 5 20 SPEED FB SPEED SET 6 19 CRT LA 7 18 UV FAULT LB 8 RVCO NC CVCO NC VDD 17 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 VCO/TACH 9 LC 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 1 F/R H3 TOP VIEW 2 CIOS RREF GND NC ISENSE HA HB ML4425 32-Pin TQFP (H32-7) CAT ML4426 PIN DESCRIPTION (Pin number in parenthesis is for TQFP package) PIN NAME FUNCTION PIN 1(30) I SENSE Motor current sense input. When ISENSE exceeds 0.2 ´ ILIMIT, the output drivers LA, LB, and LC are shut off for a fixed time determined by CIOS 17(17) CAT A capacitor to GND sets the time that the controller stays in the align mode 18(18) UV FAULT This output goes low when VDD drops below the UVLO threshold, and indicates that all output drivers have been disabled 19(19) CRT A capacitor to GND sets the time that the controller stays in the ramp mode 20(20) SPEED FB Output of the back-EMF sampling circuit and input to the VCO. An RC network connected to SPEED FB sets the compensation for the PLL loop formed by the back-EMF sampling circuit, the VCO, and the commutation state machine 21(21) C RR A capacitor to between CRR and SPEED FB sets the ramp rate (acceleration) of the motor when the controller is in ramp mode 22(22) FB A The motor feedback voltage from phase A is monitored through a resistor divider for back-EMF sensing at this pin 23(23) FB B The motor feedback voltage from phase B is monitored through a resistor divider for back-EMF sensing at this pin 24(24) FB C The motor feedback voltage from phase C is monitored through a resistor divider for back-EMF sensing at this pin 25(25) BRAKE A logic low input activates motor braking by shutting off the highside output drivers and turning on the low-side output drivers 26(26) CIOS A capacitor to GND sets the time that the low-side output drivers remain off after ISENSE exceeds its threshold 27(27) R REF An 137kW resistor to GND sets a current proportional to VREF that is used to set all the internal bias currents except for the VCO 28(28) GND Signal and power ground 2(31) HA Active low output driver for the phase A high-side switch 3(32) HB Active low output driver for the phase B high-side switch 4(1) HC Active low output driver for the phase C high-side switch 5(3) SPEED COMP Speed control loop compensation is set by a series resistor and capacitor from SPEED COMP to GND 6(4) CT A capacitor from CT to GND sets the PWM oscillator frequency 7(5) V REF 6.9V reference voltage output 8(6) SPEED SET Speed loop input which ranges from 0 (stopped) to VREF (maximum speed) 9(7) LA Active high output driver for the phase A low-side switch 10(8) LB Active high output driver for the phase B low-side switch 11(9) LC Active high output driver for the phase C low-side switch 12(10) F/R This TTL level input selects the direction of the motor by changing the sequence of the commutation state machine 13(11) VCO/TACH This TTL level output corresponds to the signal used to clock the commutation state machine. The output frequency is proportional to the motor speed when the backEMF sensing loop is locked onto the rotor position 14(12) V DD 12V power supply input 15(15) CVCO A capacitor to GND sets the voltage-to-frequency ratio of the VCO 16(16) RVCO An resistor to GND sets up a current proportional to the input voltage of the VCO NAME FUNCTION 3 ML4426 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Absolute maximum ratings are those values beyond which the device could be permanently damaged. Absolute maximum ratings are stress ratings only and functional device operation is not implied. V DD .......................................................................... 14V Logic Inputs (BRAKE, F/R) ...................... GND - 0.3 to 7V All Other Inputs and Outputs .. GND -0.3V to VDD + 0.3V Output Current (LA, LB, LC, HA, HB, HC) ............ ±50mA Junction Temperature .............................................. 150ºC Storage Temperature Range ...................... –65ºC to 150ºC Lead Temperature (Soldering 10 sec.) ..................... 260ºC Thermal Resistance (qJA) 28-Pin Narrow PDIP ......................................... 48ºC/W 28-Pin SOIC ..................................................... 75ºC/W 32-Pin TQFP ..................................................... 80ºC/W OPERATING CONDITIONS Temperature Range ML4426CX................................................. 0ºC to 70ºC ML4426IX ............................................... –40ºC to 85ºC V DD ......................................................... 10.8V to 13.2V ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Unless otherwise specified,VDD = 12V ± 10%, RSENSE = 1W, CVCO = 10nF, CIOS = 100pF, RREF = 137kW, TA = Operating Temperature Range (Notes 1, 2) SYMBOL PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS 6.5 6.9 7.5 V REFERENCE VREF Total Variation Line, Temp PWM OSCILLATOR Total Variation CT = 1nF 28 kHz Ramp Peak 3.9 V Ramp Valley 1.7 V ? µA Ramp Charging Current SPEED CONTROL LOOP SPEED SET Input Voltage Range 0 VREF V SPEED FB Input Voltage Range 0 VREF V SPEED COMP Output Current ±5 ±20 µA VSPEED SET = xV, VSPEED FB = yV 144 µ W SPEED SET Error Amp Transconductance START-UP CAT Charging Current C Suffix 0.68 0.98 µA I Suffix 0.5 1.1 µA 1.4 1.7 V C Suffix 0.68 0.98 µA I Suffix 0.5 1.1 µA 1.4 1.7 V 2.2 kHz CAT Threshold Voltage CRT Charging Current CRT Threshold Voltage VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR Frequency Range RVCO = 5V, SPEED FB = 6V 1.5 Frequency vs. SPEED FB RVCO = 5V, 0.5V £ SPEED FB £ 7V 1.85 300 Hz/V CURRENT LIMIT ISENSE Gain One Shot OFF-Time 4 4.5 CIOS = 100pF 5.0 5.5 V/V C Suffix 9 18 µs I Suffix 9 20 µs ML4426 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS SYMBOL (Continued) PARAMETER CONDITIONS MIN TYP MAX UNITS LOGIC INPUTS (BRAKE, F/R) (Note 3) V IH Input High Voltage 2 V VIL Input Low Voltage IIH Input High Current VIH = 2.4V 2.4 mA IIL Input Low Current VIL = 0.4V 2.9 mA 0.8 V LOGIC OUTPUTS (VCO/TACH, UV FAULT) (Note 3) VCO/TACH Output High Voltage IOUT = –100µA VCO/TACH Output Low Voltage IOUT = 400µA UV FAULT Output High Voltage IOUT = –10µA UV FAULT Output Low Voltage 2.2 C Suffix 3.4 I Suffix 3.2 V 4.5 IOUT = 400µA 0.6 V 5.4 V 5.6 V 0.6 V 250 mV BACK-EMF SAMPLER SPEED FB Align Mode Voltage 125 SPEED FB Ramp Mode Current SPEED FB Run Mode Current C Suffix 500 720 nA I Suffix 500 750 nA C Suffix 30 90 µA I Suffix 27 90 µA State A, CRT = 5V, VPHB = VDD/2 –15 15 µA State A, CRT = 5V, C Suffix –90 –30 µA VPHB = 2´VDD/3 I Suffix –90 –27 µA 0.5 1.2 mA State A, CRT = 5V, VPHB = VDD/3 OUTPUT DRIVERS High Side Driver Output Low Current VHX = 2V High Side Driver Output High Voltage IHX = –10µA Low Side Driver Output Low Voltage ILX = 1mA Low Side Driver Output High Voltage V(ISENSE) = 0V VCC – 1.3 V 0.2 0.7 V C Suffix VDD – 2.2 V I Suffix VDD – 2.9 V Phase C Cross-conduction Lockout Threshold VDD – 3.0 V SUPPLY I DD VDD Current UVLO Threshold UVLO Hysteresis C Suffix 8.8 I Suffix 8.6 32 50 mA 9.5 10.2 V 10.3 V 150 mV Note 1: Limits are guaranteed by 100% testing, sampling, or correlation with worst case test conditions. Note 2: For explanation of states, see Figure 4 and Table 1. Note 3: The BRAKE and UV FAULT pins each have an internal 4kW resistor to the internal reference. 5 ML4426 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION GENERAL The ML4426 provides all the circuitry for sensorless speed control of 3-phase Brushless DC (BLDC) motors. Controller functions include start-up circuitry, back-EMF commutation control, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) speed control, fixed OFF-time current limiting, braking, and undervoltage protection. The start-up circuitry aligns the motor to a known position, then ramps up the motor speed to generate a back-EMF signal. A back-EMF sampling circuit controls commutation timing by forming a Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The commutation control circuitry also outputs a speed feedback (SPEED FB) signal used in the speed control loop. The speed control loop consists of an error amplifier and PWM comparator that produce a PWM duty cycle for speed regulation. Motor current is limited by a fixed OFF-time PWM shutdown comparator that is controlled by an external sense resistor. Commutation control, PWM speed control, and current limiting are combined to produce the output driver signals. Six output drivers are used to provide gating signals to an external 3 phase bridge power stage sized for the BLDC motor voltage and current requirements. Additional functions include a braking function and undervoltage protection circuit to shut down the output drivers in the event of a low voltage condition on VDD of the ML4426. COMPONENT SELECTION If one or more of the above values is not known, it is still possible to pick components for the ML4426, but some experimentation may be necessary to determine the optimal values. All quantities are in SI units unless otherwise specified. The following formulas should be considered as a starting point for optimization. All calculations for capacitors and resistors should be used as the first approximation for selecting the closest standard value. POWER SUPPLY AND REFERENCE The supply voltage (VDD) is nominally 12V ±10%. A 100nF bypass capacitor to ground should be placed as close as possible to VDD. A 6.9V voltage reference output (VREF) is provided to set the speed command and current limit of the ML4426. A 137kW from RREF to GND is required to set up a reference current for internal functions. OUTPUT DRIVERS The output drivers LA, LB, LC, HA, HB, and HC provide totem pole output drive signals for a 3 phase bridge power stage. All control functions in the ML4426 translate to outputs at these pins. LA, LB, and LC provide the low-side drive signals for phases A, B, and C of the 3 phase power stage and are 12V active high signals. HA, HB, and HC provide the high-side signals and are 12V active low signals. Selecting external components for the ML4426 requires calculations based on the motor’s electrical and mechanical parameters. The following is a list of the motor parameters needed for these calculations : DC motor supply voltage – VMOTOR (V) Maximum operating current – IMAX (A) Number of magnetic poles – N Back EMF constant – Ke (V-s/Rad) VMOTOR 12V Motor torque constant – Kt (Nm/A) (Kt = Ke in SI units) Maximum speed of operation RPMMAX (RPM) DC SUPPLY CAPACITOR Moment of inertia of the motor and load – J (Kg-m2) Viscous damping factor of the motor and load – z HA HB HC MOTOR PHASE A LA LB MOTOR PHASE B MOTOR PHASE C LC RSENSE Figure 1. Using RSENSE in a 3-Phase 12V Power Stage 6 ML4426 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (Continued) CURRENT LIMITING IN THE POWER STAGE FROM RSENSE PWM ON/OFF The current sense resistor (RSENSE) shown in Figure 1 regulates the maximum current in the power stage and the BLDC motor. Current regulation is accomplished by shutting off the output drivers LA, LB, and LC for a fixed amount of time if the voltage across RSENSE exceeds the current limit threshold. ISENSE ×5 – + VREF S Q R Q 16kΩ 2.9V R SENSE 8kΩ 0V STOP START 30µA CIOS The function of RSENSE is to provide a voltage proportional to the motor current to set the current limit trip point. The default trip voltage across RSENSE is 460mV, set by the internal ILIMIT divider ratio. The current sense resistor should be a low inductance resistor such as a carbon composition. For resistors in the milliohms range, wire-wound resistors tend to have low values of inductance. RSENSE should be sized to handle the power dissipation (IMAX2 ´ RSENSE). Figure 2. Current Sense Circuitry ISENSE Filter The ISENSE RC lowpass filter is placed in series with the current sense signal as shown in Figure 2. The purpose of this filter is to remove the diode reverse recovery shootthrough current. This current causes a voltage spike on the leading edge of the current sense signal which may falsely trigger the current limit. The current sense voltage waveform is shown before and after filtering in Figure 3. The recommended starting values for this circuit are R = 1kW and C = 330pF. This gives a time constant of 330ns, and will filter out spikes of shorter duration. C can be increased to as much as 2.2nF, but should not exceed a time constant of more than a few microseconds. 460mV 0V (a) (b) Figure 3. Current Sense Resistor Waveforms (a) Without Filtering, and (b) With Filtering C IOS When ISENSE exceeds 0.2 ´ ILIMIT, the current limit oneshot is activated, turning off LA, LB, and LC for a fixed amount of time (tOFF). tOFF is set by the amount of capacitance connected to CIOS. CIOS is usually set for a fixed off time equal to or less than the PWM period. For a 25kHz PWM frequency, the PWM period is 40µs; tOFF should be between 20µs and 40µs. The lower limit of tOFF is dictated by the minimum on time of the power stage; a safe approximation is 5µs or less. The equation for finding the CIOS capacitance value is as follows: COS = t OFF 50mA 2.4V (1) COMMUTATION CONTROL A 3-phase BLDC motor requires electronic commutation to achieve rotational motion. Electronic commutation requires the switching on and off of the power switches of a 3-phase half bridge. For torque production to be achieved in one direction, the commutation is dictated by the rotor position. Electronic commutation in the ML4426 is achieved by turning on and off, in the proper sequence, one N output from one phase and one P output from another phase. There are six combinations of N and P outputs (six switching states) that constitute a full commutation cycle. These combinations are illustrated in Table 1 and Figure 4, and are labeled states A through F. This sequence is programmed into the commutation state machine. Clocking of the commutation state machine is provided by a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). Forward/Reverse Control The commutation sequence is reversed by pulling the F/R pin to GND. This allows the motor to operate in the opposite direction. This pin should change state only when the motor is at rest. Either remove and restore power to the ML4426, or pull the BRAKE pin and CAT pin to 0V to stop the motor prior to changing the voltage on F/R. Either method resets the internal commutation state machine, and initiates a new start-up sequence. 7 ML4426 STATE LA LB LC OUTPUTS HA HB HC INPUT SAMPLING R A B C D E F OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF OFF ON OFF OFF ON ON OFF OFF OFF ON OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF N/A FB B FB A FB C FB B FB A FB C Table 1. Commutation State Functions (Forward Direction) A B C D E F A B C D E F HA HIGH SIDE DRIVE OUTPUTS HB HC LA LOW SIDE DRIVE OUTPUTS LB LC Figure 4. Output Commutation Sequence Timing Diagram (Forward Direction) Cycle 1 - Full Commutation, Cycle 2 - Commutation with 50% PWM Duty Cycle FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (Continued) Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) The VCO provides a TTL compatible clock output on the VCO/TACH pin proportional to the VCO input voltage at the SPEED FB pin. The proportion of frequency to voltage (VCO constant, Kv) is set by an 80.6kW resistor on RVCO and a capacitor on CVCO as shown in Figure 5. RVCO sets up a current proportional the VCO input voltage at SPEED FB. This current is used to charge and discharge CVCO between the threshold voltages of 2.3V and 4.3V. The resulting triangle wave on CVCO corresponds to the clock on VCO. Kv should be set so that the VCO output 8 frequency corresponds to the maximum commutation frequency or maximum motor speed when the VCO input is equal to or slightly less than VREF. CVCO is calculated using the following equation: C VCO = 6.5V 3101 . 10 -6 0.05 Hz Farad V Hz N SPEEDMAX RPM (2) The closest standard value that is equal to or less than the calculated CVCO should be used. ML4426 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (Continued) The maximum frequency on the VCO pin is found by: CVCO fMAX = 0.05 N RPMMAX RVCO (3) The voltage at the VCO/TACH pin is equal to the rotor speed. The voltage at SPEED FB is controlled by the back EMF sampler. SPEED CVCO FB RVCO BACK EMF SAMPLER FROM BACK EMF SAMPLER & RAMP GENERATOR The input to the voltage controlled oscillator is the back EMF sampler. The back EMF sense pins FB A, FB B, and FB C inputs to the back EMF sampler require a signal from the motor phase leads that is below the VDD of the ML4426. The phase sense input impedance is 8kW. This requires a series resistor RES1 from the motor phase lead as shown in Figure 6 based on the following equation: 1 RES1 = 670W / V VMOTOR - 10V 6 5V VCO/TACH 0V Figure 5. External VCO Component Connections The back EMF sampler measures the motor phase that is not driven (i.e. if LA and HB are on, then phase A is driven low, phase B is driven high, and phase C is MOTOR ΦC 2.3V (5) This allows the ML4426 to compare the back EMF signal to the motor's neutral point without the need for bringing out an extra wire on a WYE wound motor. For DELTA wound motors there is no physical neutral to bring out, so this reference point must be calculated in any case. MOTOR ΦB CVCO (4) PH1+ PH2 + PH3 3 MOTOR ΦA RESET (FROM CAT) VCO/TACH 4.3V The back EMF sampler takes the motor phase voltages divided down to signals that are less than VDD (12V nominal) and calculates the neutral point of the motor by the following equation: Neutral = VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR sampled). The sampled phase provides a back EMF signal that is compared against the neutral of the motor. The sampler is controlled by the commutation state machine. The sampled back EMF is compared to the neutral through an error amplifier. The output of the error amplifier outputs a charging or discharging current to SPEED FB, which provides the control voltage to the VCO. RES1 FB A RES2 FB B NEUTRAL SIMULATOR RES3 FB C ΦA + ΦB + ΦC 6 4kΩ 4kΩ gm = SIGN CHANGER 4kΩ + – 1 8kΩ TO SPEED FB MULTIPLEXER 4kΩ 4kΩ 4kΩ COMMUTATION STATE MACHINE Figure 6. Back EMF Sampler Detailed Block Diagram 9 ML4426 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (Continued) BACK EMF SENSING PLL COMMUTATION CONTROL CSPEEDFB1 Three blocks form a phase locked loop that locks the commutation clock onto the back EMF signal: the commutation state machine, the voltage controlled oscillator, and the back EMF sampler. The complete phase locked loop is illustrated in Figure 7. The phased locked loop requires a lead lag filter that is set by external components on SPEED FB. The components are selected as follows: K N = 0.25 M d ln f 100 f d = 2 M ln 100 N K 01- M5 =C 0M - 15 O1 CSPEEDFB1 S 2 VCO S CSPEEDFB2 SPEEDFB1 CSPEEDFB2 20 SPEED FB FB A VDD 22 FB B 23 FB C 24 500nA BACK EMF SAMPLER VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR VCO/TACH 13 2 VCO R SPEEDFB RSPEEDFB O1 2 (6a) F/R R 12 A (6b) F (6c) E B PHASE LOCKED LOOP C D COMMUTATION STATE MACHINE START-UP SEQUENCE When power is first applied to the ML4426 and the motor is at rest, the back EMF is equal to zero. The motor needs to be rotating for the back EMF sampler to lock onto the rotor position and commutate the motor. The ML4426 uses an open loop start-up technique to bring the rotor from rest up to a speed fast enough to allow back EMF sensing. Start-up is comprised of three modes: align mode, ramp mode, and run mode. Align Mode (RESET) Before the motor can be started, the rotor must be in a known position. When power is first applied to the ML4426, the controller is reset into the align mode. Align mode turns on the output drivers LB, HA, and HC which aligns the motor into a position 30 electrical degrees before the center of the first commutation state. This is shown as state R in the commutation states of Table 1. Align mode must last long enough to allow the motor and its load to settle into this position. The align mode time is set by a capacitor connected to the CAT pin as shown in Figure 8. CAT is charged by a constant 750µA current from GND to 1.5 V until the align comparator trips to end the align mode. A starting point for CAT is calculated as follows: C AT = t S 7.5 10 -7 amp 15 . V (7) If the align time is not long enough to allow the rotor to settle for reliable starting, then increase CAT until the desired performance is achieved. 10 Figure 7. Back EMF Commutation Phase Locked Loop Ramp Mode At the end of align mode the controller goes into ramp mode. Ramp mode starts commutating through the states A through F as shown in Table 1. This ramps up the commutation frequency, and therefore the motor speed, for a fixed length of time. This allows the motor to reach a sufficient speed for the back EMF sampler to lock commutation onto the motor's back EMF. The amount of time the ML4426 stays in ramp mode is determined by a capacitor connected to the CRT pin as shown in Figure 8. CRT is charged by a constant 750µA current from GND to 1.5 V until the ramp comparator trips to end the ramp mode. This gives a fixed ramp time. CRT is calculated as follows: CRT = 2p J 5 10 -7 amp K V IMAX K t 3 N (8) The rate at which the ML4426 ramps up the motor speed is determined by a fixed 500µA current source on the SPEED FB pin. The current sources charges up the PLL filter components causing the VCO frequency to ramp up. During ramp mode, the back EMF sampler is disabled to allow control of the ramping to be set only by the 500µA current source. The ramp based on the SPEED FB filter is generally too fast for the motor to keep up, so a capacitor from CRR to SPEED FB can be added to slow down the ramping rate. The optimal ramp rate is based on the motor and load parameters and is can be adjusted by varying the value of CRR. ML4426 CRR CAT VDD CRT VDD CAT FB C SPEED CVCO FB 1.5V RVCO – – FB B CRR CRT 750nA 750nA FB A TO SPEED FB FILTER + 1.5V + VDD 500nA BACK EMF SAMPLER VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR VCO/TACH TO RESET INPUT OF COMMUTATION STATE MACHINE Figure 8. ML4426 Start-up Circuitry for Controlling the Align and Ramp Times Run Mode (Back EMF Sensing) FROM SPEED FB At the end of ramp mode the controller goes into run mode. In run mode, the back EMF sensing is enabled and commutation is now under the control of the phase locked loop. Motor speed is now regulated by the speed control loop. TO GATING LOGIC & OUTPUT DRIVERS VREF + 10kΩ – 3.9V SPEED SET – PWM SPEED CONTROL RSC Speed control is accomplished by setting a speed command at SPEED SET with an input voltage from 0 to 6.9V (VREF). The accuracy of the speed command is determined by the external components RVCO and CVCO. There are a number of methods that can be used to control the speed command of the ML4426. One is to use a 10kW potentiometer from VREF to ground with the wiper connected to SPEED SET. If SPEED SET is controlled from a microcontroller, one of its DACs can be used with VREF as its input reference. The speed command is compared with the sensed speed from SPEED FB through a transconductance error amplifier. The output of the speed error amplifier is SPEED COMP. SPEED COMP is clamped between one diode drop above 3.9V (approximately 4.6V) and one diode drop below 1.7V (approximately 1V) to prevent speed loop “wind-up”. Speed loop compensation components are connected to this pin as shown in Figure 9. The speed loop compensation components are calculated as follows: CSC = R SC = SPEED COMP 26.9 N VMOTOR C VCO 2 . + 98.696 tm fSB fSB K e 25 2 10 2p fSB CSC Where fSB is the speed loop bandwidth in Hz. (9a) (9b) + 1.7V CSC CT CT 20kHz 1.7V PWM ON/OFF FROM ILIMIT ONE-SHOT Figure 9. Speed Control Loop Component Connections The voltage on SPEED COMP is compared with a ramp oscillator to create a PWM duty cycle. The PWM ramp oscillator creates a sawtooth function from 1.7V to 3.9V as shown in Figure 9. A negative clamp at one diode drop below 1.7V (approximately 1V) starts the oscillator on power up. The frequency of the ramp oscillator is set by a capacitor to ground CIOS and is selected using the following equation: 1 CT = 50mA fPWM 2.4V (10) Where fPWM is the PWM frequency in Hz. The PWM duty cycle from the speed control loop is gated the current limit one shot that controls the LA, LB, and LC output drivers. 11 ML4426 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION (Continued) CROSS CONDUCTION COMPARATOR When the ML4426 goes from align mode into ramp mode, there is a possibility of cross conduction in phase 3 of the bridge power stage. This cross conduction can happen when HC is on in the align mode shown as state R in Table 1, and the controller transitions to state A in ramp mode where HC is turned off and LC is turned on. Cross conduction can appear due to the differences in turn on and turn off times of the power devices. To solve this problem, the LC output driver is gated off until the HC is equal to VDD – 3V as shown in Figure 10. FROM COMMUTATION STATE MACHINE UNDERVOLTAGE LOCKOUT Undervoltage lockout is used to protect the 3-phase bridge power stage from a low VDD condition. Undervoltage is triggered at VDD of 9.5V or less and is indicated by a TTL low output on the UV FAULT pin. Undervoltage lockout also turns off all output drivers (LA, LB, LC, HA, HB, and HC). The comparator that triggers undervoltage lockout has 150mV of hystresis. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS INTERFACING TO A 3-PHASE BRIDGE POWER STAGE The ML4426 output drivers are configured to drive a 3 phase bridge power stage. For applications with buss voltages from 12V up to 80V, level shifting circuitry can be used to drive higher voltage P-channel MOSFETS for the high side switches as shown in Figure 11. The most flexible configuration is to use high side drivers to control N-Channel MOSFETs (or IGBTs) which allows applications from less than 12V up to 600V. Figure 12 shows the interface between the ML4426 and IR2118 high side drivers from International Rectifier. This configuration is capable of driving motors from busses of up to 320V. The BRAKE pin can be pulsed prior to startup with an RC circuit. This charges the bootstrap capacitors (C19, C20, and C21) for the three high side drivers, allowing the reset phase to operate normally. These capacitors must be sized so that they stay sufficiently charged during the align mode. Refer to AN-43 for additional applications information on the ML4426. 12 HB GATING LOGIC & OUTPUT DRIVERS – + 1.4V 9.5V HC LA LB + LC – VDD UV FAULT 4kΩ BRAKING When the BRAKE pin is pulled below 1.4V, the low side output drivers LA, LB, and LC are turned on and the high side output drivers HA, HB, HC are turned off. Braking causes rapid deceleration of the motor and current limiting is de-activated, and care should be taken when using the BRAKE pin. BRAKE is has an internal 4kW pullup as shown in Figure 10, and can be driven by a switch to ground, an open collector or drain logic signal, or a TTL logic signal. HA FROM SPEED CONTROL LOOP & CURRENT LIMIT 2 3 4 9 10 11 18 REFERENCE BRAKE 25 14 VDD GND 28 27 RREF 7 VREF Figure 10. Cross Conduction, Brake, and UVLO Circuits ML4426 VBUSS 24V–80V 12V C2 330µF 100V C1 100nF 100V R2 10kΩ R3 10kΩ R4 10kΩ Q4 IRFR9120 Q5 IRFR9120 Q6 IRFR9120 Q1 2N6718 Q2 2N6718 Q3 2N6718 Q7 IRFR120 Q8 IRFR120 C3 1µF Q9 IRFR120 MOTOR R1 470mΩ 2W R12 2kΩ R14 2kΩ R13 2kΩ R15 1kΩ C5 2.2nF ML4425 R16 10kΩ C9 100nF C17 1nF C12 ISENSE GND HA RREF HB CIOS HC BRAKE SPEED COMP FB C CT FB B VREF FB A R7 100Ω R6 100Ω S1 R8 (RES1) R9 (RES1) BRAKE C14 CRR LA SPEED FB LB CRT LC UV FAULT F/R R5 100Ω RUN C16 330pF R10 (RES1) SPEED SET R18 10kΩ R21 787Ω R20 137kΩ C8 1µF R17 10kΩ C6 1µF C7 100nF CAT VCO/TACH RVCO VDD CVCO C15 470nF FORWARD C4 R19 80.5kΩ 12V REVERSE C14 1µF C13 100nF Figure 11. Driving Lower Voltage Motors (12 to 80V) 13 ML4426 12V IR2118 C16 100nF 25V VCC IN VBUSS 24V–80V C5 330µF 400V D1 MUR150 VB HO COM VS NC NC R6 100Ω IR2118 C17 100nF 25V VCC IN C19 2.2µF 25V R7 100Ω Q1 IRF720 VB HO COM VS NC NC IR2118 C18 100nF 25V VCC IN C20 2.2µF 25V D3 MUR150 VB HO COM VS NC NC C21 2.2µF 25V R8 100Ω Q3 IRF720 Q2 IRF720 D2 MUR150 Q5 IRF720 Q4 IR720 Q6 IRF720 MOTOR R12 470mΩ 2W R1 1kΩ C1 2.2nF BOOTSTRAP PRE-CHARGE CAPACITOR ML4425 R5 10kΩ C4 1nF C3 100nF C15 100nF R20 10kΩ R9 100Ω D6 (3×1N5819) HA RREF HB CIOS HC BRAKE SPEED COMP FB C CT FB B VREF FB A R11 100Ω R18 137kΩ R14 (RES1) SPEED FB LB CRT LC UV FAULT R17 10kΩ C12 1µF C10 1µF C11 100nF CAT VCO/TACH RVCO VDD CVCO C9 470nF R16 80.6kΩ 12V C7 100nF Figure 12. ML4426 High Voltage Motor Drive Application Circuit 14 BRAKE RAMP COMP LA C8 10nF C6 1µF S1 R15 (RES1) C13* FORWARD REVERSE RUN C14 330pF R13 (RES1) F/R R10 100Ω D5 GND SPEED SET R19 787Ω D4 ISENSE ML4426 PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS inches (millimeters Package: H32-7 32-Pin (7 x 7 x 1mm) TQFP 0.354 BSC (9.00 BSC) 0.276 BSC (7.00 BSC) 0º - 8º 0.003 - 0.008 (0.09 - 0.20) 25 1 PIN 1 ID 0.276 BSC (7.00 BSC) 0.354 BSC (9.00 BSC) 0.018 - 0.030 (0.45 - 0.75) 17 9 0.032 BSC (0.8 BSC) SEATING PLANE 0.048 MAX (1.20 MAX) 0.012 - 0.018 (0.29 - 0.45) 0.037 - 0.041 (0.95 - 1.05) Package: P28N 28-Pin Narrow PDIP 1.355 - 1.365 (34.42 - 34.67) 28 0.280 - 0.296 0.299 - 0.325 (7.11 - 7.52) (7.60 - 8.26) PIN 1 ID 1 0.045 - 0.055 (1.14 - 1.40) 0.100 BSC (2.54 BSC) 0.020 MIN (0.51 MIN) 0.180 MAX (4.57 MAX) 0.125 - 0.135 (3.18 - 3.43) 0.015 - 0.021 (0.38 - 0.53) SEATING PLANE 0º - 15º 0.008 - 0.012 (0.20 - 0.31) 15 ML4426 PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS inches (millimeters) Package: S28 28-Pin SOIC 0.699 - 0.713 (17.75 - 18.11) 28 0.291 - 0.301 0.398 - 0.412 (7.39 - 7.65) (10.11 - 10.47) PIN 1 ID 1 0.024 - 0.034 (0.61 - 0.86) (4 PLACES) 0.050 BSC (1.27 BSC) 0.095 - 0.107 (2.41 - 2.72) 0º - 8º 0.012 - 0.020 (0.30 - 0.51) 0.090 - 0.094 (2.28 - 2.39) SEATING PLANE 0.005 - 0.013 (0.13 - 0.33) 0.022 - 0.042 (0.56 - 1.07) 0.009 - 0.013 (0.22 - 0.33) ORDERING INFORMATION © Micro Linear 1998. PART NUMBER TEMPERATURE RANGE PACKAGE ML4426CP (End of Life) ML4426CS (End of Life) ML4426CH (End of Life) 0ºC to 70ºC 0ºC to 70ºC 0ºC to 70ºC 28-Pin PDIP (P28N) 28-Pin SOIC (S28) 32-Pin TQFP (H32-7) ML4426IP (End of Life) ML4426IS (End of Life) ML4426IH (End of Life) –40ºC to 85ºC –40ºC to 85ºC –40ºC to 85ºC 28-Pin PDIP (P28N) 28-Pin SOIC (S28) 32-Pin TQFP (H32-7) is a registered trademark of Micro Linear Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Products described herein may be covered by one or more of the following U.S. patents: 4,897,611; 4,964,026; 5,027,116; 5,281,862; 5,283,483; 5,418,502; 5,508,570; 5,510,727; 5,523,940; 5,546,017; 5,559,470; 5,565,761; 5,592,128; 5,594,376; 5,652,479; 5,661,427; 5,663,874; 5,672,959; 5,689,167; 5,714,897; 5,717,798; 5,742,151; 5,747,977; 5,754,012; 5,757,174; 5,767,653;. Japan: 2,598,946; 2,619,299; 2,704,176. Other patents are pending. Micro Linear reserves the right to make changes to any product herein to improve reliability, function or design. Micro Linear does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any product described herein, neither does it convey any license under its patent right nor the rights of others. The circuits contained in this data sheet are offered as possible applications only. Micro Linear makes no warranties or representations as to whether the illustrated circuits infringe any intellectual property rights of others, and will accept no responsibility or liability for use of any application herein. The customer is urged to consult with appropriate legal counsel before deciding on a particular application. 16 DS4426-01 2092 Concourse Drive San Jose, CA 95131 Tel: 408/433-5200 Fax: 408/432-0295 www.microlinear.com 7/6/98 Printed in U.S.A.