Data Sheet LM358, LM324 General Description FEATURES n Unity gain stable n 100dB voltage gain n 550kHz unity gain bandwidth n 0.5mA supply current n 20nA input bias current n 2mV input offset voltage n 3V to 36V single supply voltage range n ±1.5V to ±18V dual supply voltage range n Input common mode voltage range includes ground n 0V to VS-1.5V output voltage swing n Improved replacements for industry standard LM358 and LM324 n LM358: Pb-free SOIC-8 n LM324: Pb-free SOIC-14 The LM358 (dual), and LM324 (quad) are voltage feedback amplifiers that are internally frequency compensated to provide unity gain stability. At unity gain (G=1), these amplifiers offer 550kHz of bandwidth. They consume only 0.5mA of supply current over the entire power supply operating range. The LM358, and LM324 are specifically designed to operate from single or dual supply voltages. The LM358, and LM324 offer a common mode voltage range that includes ground and a wide output voltage swing. The combination of low-power, high supply voltage range, and low supply current make these amplifiers well suited for many general purpose applications and as alternatives to several industry standard amplifiers on the market today. Typical Application - Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) APPLICATIONS n Battery Charger n Active Filters n Transducer amplifiers n General purpose controllers n General purpose instruments 0.05µF R – 100k VCC 1/2 CLCx050 LM358 51k – + R/2 50k V+/2 51k 51k 1/2 CLCx050 LM358 Output 1 + 100k Output 2 10k LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers Rev 1A Ordering Information Part Number Package Pb-Free RoHS Compliant Operating Temperature Range Packaging Method LM358ISO8X SOIC-8 Yes Yes -40°C to +85°C Reel LM324ISO14X SOIC-14 Yes Yes -40°C to +85°C Reel Moisture sensitivity level for all parts is MSL-1. ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com Data Sheet LM358 Pin Configuration LM358 Pin Configuration 8 +VS -IN1 2 7 OUT2 +IN1 3 6 -IN2 -V S 4 5 +IN2 Pin Name Description 1 OUT1 Output, channel 1 2 -IN1 Negative input, channel 1 3 +IN1 Positive input, channel 1 4 -VS 5 +IN2 Positive input, channel 2 6 -IN2 Negative input, channel 2 7 OUT2 Output, channel 2 8 +VS Negative supply Positive supply LM324 Pin Configuration LM324 Pin Configuration Pin No. Pin Name Description 1 OUT1 Output, channel 1 2 -IN1 Negative input, channel 1 3 +IN1 Positive input, channel 1 4 +VS Positive supply 5 +IN2 Positive input, channel 2 1 14 OUT4 -IN1 2 13 -IN4 +IN1 3 12 +IN4 6 -IN2 Negative input, channel 2 +VS 4 11 -VS 7 OUT2 Output, channel 2 +IN2 5 10 +IN3 8 OUT3 Output, channel 3 -IN3 Negative input, channel 3 -IN2 6 9 -IN3 9 10 +IN3 Positive input, channel 3 7 8 OUT3 11 -VS 12 +IN4 Positive input, channel 4 13 -IN4 Negative input, channel 4 14 OUT4 Output, channel 4 OUT1 OUT2 LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers OUT1 1 Pin No. Negative supply Rev 1A ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com 2 Data Sheet Absolute Maximum Ratings The safety of the device is not guaranteed when it is operated above the “Absolute Maximum Ratings”. The device should not be operated at these “absolute” limits. Adhere to the “Recommended Operating Conditions” for proper device function. The information contained in the Electrical Characteristics tables and Typical Performance plots reflect the operating conditions noted on the tables and plots. Supply Voltage Differential Input Voltage Input Voltage Power Dissipation (TA = 25°C) - SOIC-8 Power Dissipation (TA = 25°C) - SOIC-14 Min Max Unit 0 40 40 40 550 800 V V V mW mW -0.3 LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers Parameter Reliability Information Parameter Junction Temperature Storage Temperature Range Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10s) Package Thermal Resistance SOIC-8 SOIC-14 Min Typ -65 Max Unit 150 150 260 °C °C °C 100 88 °C/W °C/W Notes: Package thermal resistance (qJA), JDEC standard, multi-layer test boards, still air. Recommended Operating Conditions Parameter Operating Temperature Range Supply Voltage Range Min -40 3 (±1.5) Typ Max Unit +85 36 (±18) °C V Rev 1A ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com 3 Data Sheet Electrical Characteristics TA = 25°C (if bold, TA = -40 to +85°C), Vs = +5V, -Vs = GND, Rf = Rg =2kΩ, RL = 2kΩ to VS/2, G = 2; unless otherwise noted. Symbol Parameter Conditions Min Typ Max Units Frequency Domain Response Unity Gain Bandwidth BWSS -3dB Bandwidth BWLS Large Signal Bandwidth G = +1, VOUT = 0.2Vpp, VS = 5V 330 kHz G = +1, VOUT = 0.2Vpp, VS = 30V 550 kHz G = +2, VOUT = 0.2Vpp, VS = 5V 300 kHz G = +1, VOUT = 0.2Vpp, VS = 30V 422 kHz G = +2, VOUT = 1Vpp, VS = 5V 107 kHz G = +2, VOUT = 2Vpp, VS = 30V 76 kHz VOUT = 1V step; (10% to 90%), VS = 5V 4 µs VOUT = 2V step; (10% to 90%), VS = 30V 5.6 µs VOUT = 0.2V step 1 % 1V step, VS = 5V 200 V/ms 4V step, VS = 30V 285 V/ms 0.015 % > 10kHz, VS = 5V 45 nV/√Hz > 10kHz, VS = 30V 40 nV/√Hz Channel-to-channel, 1kHz to 20kHz 120 dB Time Domain Response tR, tF Rise and Fall Time OS Overshoot SR Slew Rate Distortion/Noise Response THD Total Harmonic Distortion en Input Voltage Noise XTALK Crosstalk VOUT = 2Vpp, f = 1kHz, G = 20dB, CL = 100pF, VS = 30V DC Performance VIO dVIO Ib Input Offset Voltage (1) Input Bias Current (1) 7 VCM = 0V PSRR Power Supply Rejection Ratio (1) DC, VS = 5V to 30V Supply Current, LM358 (1) +VS = 15V, RL = ≥2kΩ, VOUT = 1V to 11V mV 5 70 mV µV/°C 100 nA 200 nA 30 nA 100 nA 100 dB 100 dB 60 85 dB 80 dB RL = ∞, VS = 30V 0.7 2.0 mA RL = ∞, VS = 5V 0.5 1.2 mA RL = ∞, VS = 30V 1.0 3.0 mA RL = ∞, VS = 5V 0.7 1.2 mA +VS - 1.5 V Input Characteristics CMIR Common Mode Input Range (1,3) +VS = 30V CMRR Common Mode Rejection Ratio (1) DC, VCM = 0V to (+VS - 1.5V) 0 60 70 dB 60 dB 26 V Output Characteristics +VS = 30V, RL = 2kΩ VOH Output Voltage Swing, High (1) +VS = 30V, RL = 10kΩ VOL Output Voltage Swing, Low (1) ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC +VS = 5V, RL = 10kΩ 26 27 V 28 V 27 V 5 20 mV 30 mV www.cadeka.com 4 Rev 1A Supply Current, LM324 (1) 20 VCM = 0V Input Offset Current (1) Open-Loop Gain (1) 5 7 Average Drift IOS AOL 2 VOUT = 1.4V, RS = 0Ω, VS = 5V to 30V LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers UGBWSS Data Sheet Electrical Characteristics continued TA = 25°C (if bold, TA = -40 to +85°C), Vs = +5V, -Vs = GND, Rf = Rg =2kΩ, RL = 2kΩ to VS/2, G = 2; unless otherwise noted. Symbol Parameter Output Current, Sourcing (1) ISINK Output Current, Sinking (1) ISC Short Circuit Output Current VIN+ = 1V, VIN- = 0V, +VS = 15V, VOUT = 2V VIN+ = 0V, VIN- = 1V, +VS = 15V, VOUT = 2V VIN+ = 0V, VIN- = 1V, +VS = 15V, VOUT = 0.2V (1) +VS = 15V Min Typ Max Units 20 40 mA 15 mA 50 μA 20 10 LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers ISOURCE Conditions 5 12 40 60 mA Notes: 1. 100% tested at 25°C. (Limits over the full temperature range are guaranteed by design.) 2. The input common mode voltage of either input signal voltage should be kept > 0.3V at 25°C. The upper end of the common-mode voltage range is +VS - 1.5V at 25°C, but either or both inputs can go to +36V without damages, independent of the magnitude of VS. Rev 1A ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com 5 Data Sheet Typical Performance Characteristics TA = 25°C, +Vs = 30V, -Vs = GND, Rf = Rg =2kΩ, RL = 2kΩ, G = 2; unless otherwise noted. Non-Inverting Frequency Response Inverting Frequency Response 0 G=1 Rf = 0 -5 G=2 -10 G=5 -15 G = 10 -20 Normalized Gain (dB) Normalized Gain (dB) 5 0 G = -1 -5 G = -2 -10 -15 -20 VOUT = 0.2Vpp -25 G = -5 G = -10 VOUT = 0.2Vpp -25 0.01 0.1 1 10 0.01 0.1 Frequency (MHz) Frequency Response vs. CL CL = 10nF Rs = 0Ω CL = 5nF Rs = 0Ω -15 -20 RL = 2K -10 RL = 5K -15 -20 -25 RL = 1K -5 VOUT = 0.2Vpp RL = 10K VOUT = 0.2Vpp -25 0.1 1 10 0.01 0.1 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) Frequency Response vs. VOUT -3dB Bandwidth vs. VOUT 5 500 400 -3dB Bandwidth (KHz) Vout = 2Vpp -5 Vout = 4Vpp -10 -15 Rev 1A Normalized Gain (dB) 0 300 200 100 -20 -25 0.01 10 0 CL = 100pF Rs = 0Ω Normalized Gain (dB) Normalized Gain (dB) 0 0.01 1 5 CL = 1nF Rs = 0Ω -10 10 Frequency Response vs. RL 5 -5 1 Frequency (MHz) 0 0.1 1 Frequency (MHz) ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC 10 LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers 5 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 VOUT (VPP) www.cadeka.com 6 Data Sheet Typical Performance Characteristics TA = 25°C, +Vs = 30V, -Vs = GND, Rf = Rg =2kΩ, RL = 2kΩ, G = 2; unless otherwise noted. Non-Inverting Frequency Response at VS = 5V Inverting Frequency Response at VS = 5V 0 G=1 Rf = 0 -5 G=2 -10 G=5 -15 -20 0 Normalized Gain (dB) Normalized Gain (dB) 5 G = 10 -5 -25 G = -2 -10 G = -5 -15 -20 VOUT = 0.2Vpp G = -1 G = -10 VOUT = 0.2Vpp -25 0.01 0.1 1 10 0.01 0.1 Frequency (MHz) Frequency Response vs. CL at VS = 5V 5 Normalized Gain (dB) Normalized Gain (dB) -15 -20 -5 RL = 2K RL = 5K -15 -20 -25 RL = 1K -10 VOUT = 0.2Vpp 0.01 RL = 10K VOUT = 0.2Vpp -25 0.1 1 10 0.01 0.1 Frequency (MHz) Frequency (MHz) Frequency Response vs. VOUT at VS = 5V -3dB Bandwidth vs. VOUT at VS = 5V 5 400 350 0 -3dB Bandwidth (KHz) Normalized Gain (dB) -5 Vout = 2Vpp -10 -15 -20 Rev 1A Vout = 1Vpp 300 250 200 150 100 50 -25 0.01 10 0 CL = 5nF Rs = 0Ω -10 1 5 CL = 100pF Rs = 0Ω CL = 10nF Rs = 0Ω -5 10 Frequency Response vs. RL at VS = 5V CL = 1nF Rs = 0Ω 0 1 Frequency (MHz) 0 0.1 1 Frequency (MHz) ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC 10 LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers 5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 VOUT (VPP) www.cadeka.com 7 Data Sheet Typical Performance Characteristics - Continued TA = 25°C, +Vs = 30V, -Vs = GND, Rf = Rg =2kΩ, RL = 2kΩ, G = 2; unless otherwise noted. Small Signal Pulse Response Large Signal Pulse Response 4.00 Output Voltage (V) Output Voltage (V) 2.60 2.55 2.50 2.45 3.00 2.00 1.00 2.40 0.00 2.35 0 10 20 30 40 0 50 10 20 Small Signal Pulse Response at VS = 5V 40 50 Large Signal Pulse Response at VS = 5V 2.65 4.00 2.60 3.50 Output Voltage (V) Output Voltage (V) 30 Time (us) Time (us) 2.55 2.50 2.45 2.40 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 2.35 1.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 Time (us) 30 40 50 Time (us) Supply Current vs. Supply Voltage Input Voltage Range vs. Power Supply 1 15 0.9 Input Voltage (+/-Vdc) CLC4050 0.7 0.6 0.5 CLC2050 0.4 CLC1050 0.3 0.2 Rev 1A Supply Current (mA) 0.8 10 NEGATIVE POSITIVE 5 VOUT = 0.2Vpp 0.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Supply Voltage (V) ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC 30 35 40 0 0 5 LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers 5.00 2.65 10 15 Power Supply Voltage (+/-Vdc) www.cadeka.com 8 Data Sheet Typical Performance Characteristics - Continued TA = 25°C, +Vs = 30V, -Vs = GND, Rf = Rg =2kΩ, RL = 2kΩ, G = 2; unless otherwise noted. Voltage Gain vs. Supply Voltage Input Current vs. Temperature 20 18 RL=2K 16 90 Input Current (nA) Voltage Gain (dB) 105 RL=20K 14 12 10 75 8 6 4 VOUT = 0.2Vpp 2 60 0 0 8 16 24 32 40 -50 -25 0 Power Supply Voltage (V) 25 50 75 100 125 Temperature (°C) Functional Block Diagram VCC 6µA 4µA 100µA Q5 Q6 Q2 – Q3 Cc Q7 Q4 Q1 Rsc Inputs Output + Q11 Q10 Q8 Q9 Q13 Q12 50µA LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers 120 Rev 1A ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com 9 Data Sheet Power Dissipation Basic Operation Power dissipation should not be a factor when operating under the stated 2k ohm load condition. However, applications with low impedance, DC coupled loads should be analyzed to ensure that maximum allowed junction temperature is not exceeded. Guidelines listed below can be used to verify that the particular application will not cause the device to operate beyond it’s intended operating range. Figures 1, 2, and 3 illustrate typical circuit configurations for non-inverting, inverting, and unity gain topologies for dual supply applications. They show the recommended bypass capacitor values and overall closed loop gain equations. +Vs Input 6.8μF 0.1μF + Output - RL 0.1μF Rg Rf 6.8μF Figure 1. Typical Non-Inverting Gain Circuit +Vs R1 Input Rg Output 6.8μF -Vs RL Pload = ((VLOAD)RMS2)/Rloadeff G = - (Rf/Rg) For optimum input offset voltage set R1 = Rf || Rg Rloadeff in figure 3 would be calculated as: RL || (Rf + Rg) 6.8μF 0.1μF + The effective load resistor (Rloadeff) will need to include the effect of the feedback network. For instance, Output - RL 0.1μF 6.8μF -Vs G=1 Figure 3. Unity Gain Circuit ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC These measurements are basic and are relatively easy to perform with standard lab equipment. For design purposes however, prior knowledge of actual signal levels and load impedance is needed to determine the dissipated power. Here, PD can be found from PD = PQuiescent + PDynamic - PLoad Quiescent power can be derived from the specified IS values along with known supply voltage, VSupply. Load power can be calculated as above with the desired signal amplitudes using: www.cadeka.com 10 Rev 1A Input Vsupply = VS+ - VSPower delivered to a purely resistive load is: Rf Figure 2. Typical Inverting Gain Circuit +Vs PD = Psupply - Pload Psupply = Vsupply × IRMS supply 0.1μF In order to determine PD, the power dissipated in the load needs to be subtracted from the total power delivered by the supplies. Supply power is calculated by the standard power equation. 6.8μF 0.1μF + TJunction = TAmbient + (ӨJA × PD) Where TAmbient is the temperature of the working environment. G = 1 + (Rf/Rg) -Vs Maximum power levels are set by the absolute maximum junction rating of 150°C. To calculate the junction temperature, the package thermal resistance value ThetaJA (ӨJA) is used along with the total die power dissipation. LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers Application Information Data Sheet (VLOAD)RMS = VPEAK / √2 ( ILOAD)RMS = ( VLOAD)RMS / Rloadeff The dynamic power is focused primarily within the output stage driving the load. This value can be calculated as: RS (Ω) -3dB BW (kHz) 1nF 0 485 5nF 0 390 10nF 0 260 100 0 440 Assuming the load is referenced in the middle of the power rails or Vsupply/2. Figure 4 shows the maximum safe power dissipation in the package vs. the ambient temperature for the packages available. Maximum Power Dissipation (W) 2.5 SOIC-16 SOT23-6 1 0.5 SOT23-5 0 -40 -20 0 20 40 For a given load capacitance, adjust RS to optimize the tradeoff between settling time and bandwidth. In general, reducing RS will increase bandwidth at the expense of additional overshoot and ringing. Overdrive Recovery 2 1.5 Table 1: Recommended RS vs. CL 60 80 Ambient Temperature (°C) An overdrive condition is defined as the point when either one of the inputs or the output exceed their specified voltage range. Overdrive recovery is the time needed for the amplifier to return to its normal or linear operating point. The recovery time varies, based on whether the input or output is overdriven and by how much the range is exceeded. The LM358/LM324 will typically recover in less than 30ns from an overdrive condition. Figure 6 shows the LM358 in an overdriven condition. Figure 4. Maximum Power Derating 4 VIN = 1.25Vpp G=5 3.5 3 Input Voltage (V) Increased phase delay at the output due to capacitive loading can cause ringing, peaking in the frequency response, and possible unstable behavior. Use a series resistance, RS, between the amplifier and the load to help improve stability and settling performance. Refer to Figure 5. 3 Input 2.5 2.5 2 2 1.5 1.5 Output 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 + Rs Rf 0 -0.5 Output CL RL Rev 1A Input 3.5 Output Voltage (V) Driving Capacitive Loads 4 -0.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (us) Figure 6. Overdrive Recovery Rg Figure 5. Addition of RS for Driving Capacitive Loads Table 1 provides the recommended RS for various capacitive loads. The recommended RS values result in <=1dB peaking in the frequency response. The Frequency Response vs. CL plot, on page 6, illustrates the response of the LM358/LM324. ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers PDYNAMIC = (VS+ - VLOAD)RMS × ( ILOAD)RMS CL (pF) 11 Data Sheet Layout Considerations LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers General layout and supply bypassing play major roles in high frequency performance. CADEKA has evaluation boards to use as a guide for high frequency layout and as an aid in device testing and characterization. Follow the steps below as a basis for high frequency layout: • Include 6.8µF and 0.1µF ceramic capacitors for power supply decoupling • Place the 6.8µF capacitor within 0.75 inches of the power pin • Place the 0.1µF capacitor within 0.1 inches of the power pin • Remove the ground plane under and around the part, especially near the input and output pins to reduce parasitic capacitance • Minimize all trace lengths to reduce series inductances Refer to the evaluation board layouts below for more information. Figure 7. CEB006 Schematic Evaluation Board Information The following evaluation boards are available to aid in the testing and layout of these devices: Evaluation Board # CEB006 CEB018 Products LM358 LM324 Evaluation Board Schematics Evaluation board schematics and layouts are shown in Figures 7-12. These evaluation boards are built for dual- supply operation. Follow these steps to use the board in a single-supply application: Figure 8. CEB006 Top View 1. Short -Vs to ground. Rev 1A 2. Use C3 and C4, if the -VS pin of the amplifier is not directly connected to the ground plane. Figure 9. CEB006 Bottom View ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com 12 Data Sheet LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers Figure 11 CEB018 Top View Figure 10. CEB018 Schematic Figure 12. CEB018 Bottom View Typical Applications R1 Rev 1A Opto Isolator R6 – AC Line VCC 1/2 LM358 CLCx050 SMPS + R3 R4 Current Sense R2 Battery Pack GND R7 R5 – + Figure 13. Battery Charger ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC VCC 1/2 CLCx050 LM358 AZ431 GND R8 www.cadeka.com 13 Data Sheet Vcc R1 R2 91K VCC + 2V – 1/2 CLCx050 LM358 + 2V – R3 2k R1 2k R2 LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers +VIN 100K R3 910K – VO + – 1/2 CLCx050 LM358 RL I1 + I2 1mA R4 3k Figure 14. Power Amplifier Figure 17. Fixed Current Sources +V1 +V2 +V3 +V4 R1 100k + R2 1/2 100k VO CLCx050 LM358 R5 100k R1 – 1M R3 100k R6 R4 100k R2 0.001µF 100k – 100k 1/2 LM358 CLCx050 VO + Figure 15. DC Summing Amplifier R3 Vcc 100k R5 R4 100k 100k Figure 18. Pulse Generator C1 0.1µF R1 R2 100k 1M CIN CO RB 6.2k + AC R3 1M R4 100k C2 10µF R5 100k VO C1 0.01µF RL 10k VCC Rev 1A – 1/2 LM358 CLCx050 VIN R1 R2 16k 16k C2 0.01µF AV = 1 + R2/R1 AV = 11 (As shown) + 1/2 CLCx050 LM358 – VO R3 100k VO 0 fO fO=1kHz Q=1 AV=2 R4 100k Figure 16. AC-Coupled Non-Inverting Amplifier Figure 19. DC-Coupled Low-Pass Active Filter ©2011 CADEKA Microcircuits LLC www.cadeka.com 14 Data Sheet Mechanical Dimensions SOIC-8 Package LM358, LM324 Low Power, 3V to 36V, Single/Dual/Quad Amplifiers SOIC-14 Package Rev 1A For additional information regarding our products, please visit CADEKA at: cadeka.com CADEKA Headquarters Loveland, Colorado T: 970.663.5452 T: 877.663.5452 (toll free) CADEKA, the CADEKA logo design, COMLINEAR, and the COMLINEAR logo design are trademarks or registered trademarks of CADEKA Microcircuits LLC. All other brand and product names may be trademarks of their respective companies. CADEKA reserves the right to make changes to any products and services herein at any time without notice. CADEKA does not assume any responsibility or liability arising out of the application or use of any product or service described herein, except as expressly agreed to in writing by CADEKA; nor does the purchase, lease, or use of a product or service from CADEKA convey a license under any patent rights, copyrights, trademark rights, or any other of the intellectual property rights of CADEKA or of third parties. Copyright ©2011 by CADEKA Microcircuits LLC. All rights reserved.