DS2252T Soft Microcontroller Module www.maxim-ic.com GENERAL DESCRIPTION FEATURES The DS2252T secure microcontroller module is an 8051-compatible microcontroller based on nonvolatile RAM technology. It is designed for systems that need to protect memory contents from disclosure. This includes key data, sensitive algorithms, and proprietary information of all types. Like other members of the secure microcontroller family, it provides full compatibility with the 8051 instruction set, timers, serial port, and parallel I/O ports. By using NV RAM instead of ROM, the user can program, then reprogram the microcontroller while in-system. This allows frequent changing of sensitive processes with minimal effort. PIN CONFIGURATION DS2252T 1 20 21 40 40-Pin SIMM Operating information and detailed summary of this product’s security features are contained in the Secure Microcontroller User’s Guide. This data sheet provides ordering information, pinout, and electrical specifications. 8051-Compatible Microcontroller 8, 32, or 64kbytes of Nonvolatile SRAM for Program and/or Data Memory Storage In-System Programming via On-Chip Serial Port Capable of Modifying its Own Program and/or Data Memory in the End System Firmware Security Features Memory Stored in Encrypted Form Encryption Using On-Chip 64-Bit Key Automatic True Random Key Generator Self-Destruct Input (SDI) Improved Security Over Previous Generations Protects Memory Contents from Piracy Crashproof Operation Maintains All Nonvolatile Resources Up to 10 Years in the Absence of VCC at Room Temperature Power-Fail Reset Early Warning Power-Fail Interrupt Watchdog Timer Precision Reference for Power Monitor Fully 8051 Compatible 128 Bytes Scratchpad RAM Two Timer/Counters On-Chip Serial Port 32 Parallel I/O Port Pins Permanently Powered Real-Time Clock ORDERING INFORMATION PART RAM SIZE (kB) MAX CRYSTAL SPEED (MHz) TIMEKEEPING? DS2252T-64-16 64 16 Yes DS2252T-64-16# 64 16 Yes DS2252T-128-16 128 16 Yes DS2252T-128-16# 128 16 Yes # Denotes RoHS-compliant device that may contain lead exempt under the RoHS requirements. 1 of 16 REV: 061306 DS2252T DETAILED DESCRIPTION The DS2252T provides an array of mechanisms to prevent an attacker from examining the memory. It is designed to resist all levels of threat including observation, analysis, and physical attack. As a result, a massive effort would be required to obtain any information about memory contents. Furthermore, the “Soft” nature of the DS2252T allows frequent modification of secure information. This minimizes that value of any information that is obtained. Using a security system based on the DS5002FP, the DS2252T protects the memory contents from disclosure. It loads program memory via its serial port and encrypts it in real time prior to storing it in SRAM. Once encrypted, the RAM contents and the program flow are unintelligible. The real data exists only inside the processor chip after being decrypted. Any attempt to discover the on-chip data, encryption keys, etc., results in its destruction. Extensive use of nonvolatile lithium-backed technology creates a microcontroller that retains data for over 10 years at room temperature, but which can be erased instantly if tampered with. The DS2252T even interfaces directly to external tamper protection hardware. The DS2252T provides a permanently powered real time lock with interrupts for time stamp and date. It keeps time to one hundredth of a second using its onboard 32 kHz crystal. Like other Secure Microcontrollers in the family, the DS2252T provides crashproof operation in portable systems or systems with unreliable power. These features include the ability to save the operating state, Power-fail Reset, Power-fail Interrupt, and Watchdog Timer. All nonvolatile memory and resources are maintained for over 10 years at room temperature in the absence of power. A user loads programs into the DS2252T via its on-chip Serial Bootstrap Loader. This function supervises the loading of software into NV RAM, validates it, then becomes transparent to the user. It also manages the loading of new encryption keys automatically. Software is stored in onboard CMOS SRAM. Using its internal Partitioning, the DS2252T can divide a common RAM into user selectable program and data segments. This Partition can be selected at program loading time, but can be modified anytime later. The microcontroller will decode memory access to the SRAM, access memory via its Bytewide bus and write-protect the memory portion designated as program (ROM). 2 of 16 DS2252T DS2252T BLOCK DIAGRAM Figure 1 3 of 16 DS2252T PIN ASSIGNMENT PIN NAME PIN NAME PIN NAME PIN NAME 1 P1.0 11 P1.5 21 P3.1/TXD 31 P3.6/ WR 2 VCC 12 P0.4 22 ALE 32 P2.4 3 P1.1 13 P1.6 23 P3.2/ INT0 33 P3.7/ RD 4 P0.0 14 P0.5 24 PROG 34 P2.3 5 P1.2 15 P1.7 25 P3.3/ INT1 35 XTAL2 6 P0.1 16 P0.6 26 P2.7 36 P2.2 7 P1.3 17 RST 27 P3.4/T0 37 XTAL1 8 P0.2 18 P0.7 28 P2.6 38 P2.1 9 P1.4 19 P3.0/RXD 29 P3.5/T1 39 GND 10 P0.3 20 SDI 30 P2.5 40 P2.0 PIN DESCRIPTION PIN DESCRIPTION 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 P0.0 - P0.7. General purpose I/O Port 0. This port is open-drain and cannot drive a logic 1. It requires external pullups. Port 0 is also the multiplexed Expanded Address/Data bus. When used in this mode, it does not require pullups. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 P1.0 - P1.7. General purpose I/O Port 1. 40, 38, 36, 34, 32, 30, 28, 26 P2.0 - P2.7. General purpose I/O Port 2. Also serves as the MSB of the Expanded Address bus. 19 P3.0 RXD. General purpose I/O port pin 3.0. Also serves as the receive signal for the on board UART. This pin should NOT be connected directly to a PC COM port. 21 P3.1 TXD. General purpose I/O port pin 3.1. Also serves as the transmit signal for the on board UART. This pin should NOT be connected directly to a PC COM port. 23 P3.2 INT0 . General purpose I/O port pin 3.2. Also serves as the active low External Interrupt 0. This pin is also connected to the INTP output of the DS1283 Real Time Clock. 25 P3.3 INT1 . General purpose I/O port pin 3.3. Also serves as the active low External Interrupt 1. 27 P3.4 T0. General purpose I/O port pin 3.4. Also serves as the Timer 0 input. 29 P3.5 T1. General purpose I/O port pin 3.5. Also serves as the Timer 1 input. 31 P3.6 WR . General purpose I/O port pin. Also serves as the write strobe for Expanded bus operation. 33 P3.7 RD . General purpose I/O port pin. Also serves as the read strobe for Expanded bus operation. 4 of 16 DS2252T PIN DESCRIPTION 17 RST - Active high reset input. A logic 1 applied to this pin will activate a reset state. This pin is pulled down internally, can be left unconnected if not used. An RC poweron reset circuit is not needed and is NOT recommended. 22 ALE - Address Latch Enable. Used to de-multiplex the multiplexed Expanded Address/Data bus on Port 0. This pin is normally connected to the clock input on a ’373 type transparent latch. 35, 37 XTAL2, XTAL1. Used to connect an external crystal to the internal oscillator. XTAL1 is the input to an inverting amplifier and XTAL2 is the output. 39 GND - Logic ground. 2 VCC - +5V. 24 PROG - Invokes the Bootstrap loader on a falling edge. This signal should be debounced so that only one edge is detected. If connected to ground, the microcontroller will enter Bootstrap loading on power up. This signal is pulled up internally. 20 SDI – Self-Destruct Input. A logic 1 applied to this input causes a hardware unlock. This involves the destruction of Encryption Keys, Vector RAM, and the momentary removal of power from VCCO. This pin should be grounded if not used. INSTRUCTION SET The DS2252T executes an instruction set that is object code-compatible with the industry standard 8051 microcontroller. As a result, software development packages such as assemblers and compilers that have been written for the 8051 are compatible with the DS2252T. A complete description of the instruction set and operation are provided in the Secure Microcontroller User’s Guide. MEMORY ORGANIZATION Figure 2 illustrates the memory map accessed by the DS2252T. The entire 64k of program and 64k of data are available to the Byte-wide bus. This preserves the I/O ports for application use. An alternate configuration allows dynamic Partitioning of a 64k space as shown in Figure 3. Any data area not mapped into the NV RAM is reached via the Expanded bus on Ports 0 and 2. Off-board program memory is not available for security reasons. Selecting PES = 1 provides access to the real-time clock as shown in Figure 4. These selections are made using Special Function Registers. The memory map and its controls are covered in detail in the Secure Microcontroller User’s Guide. 5 of 16 DS2252T DS2252T MEMORY MAP IN NON-PARTITIONABLE MODE (PM = 1) Figure 2 FFFFh -- PROGRAM MEMORY DATA MEMORY (MOVX) NV RAM PROGRAM NV RAM DATA -- 64K 0000h -- DS2252T MEMORY MAP IN PARTITIONABLE (PM = 0) Figure 3 FFFFh -- PROGRAM MEMORY DATA MEMORY (MOVX) NV RAM DATA PARTITION NV RAM PROGRAM 0000h -NOTE: PARTITIONABLE MODE IS NOT SUPPORTED ON THE 128KB VERSION OF THE DS2252T. LEGEND: = NV RAM MEMORY = NOT AVAILABLE = EXPANDED BUS (PORTS 0 AND 2) 6 of 16 DS2252T DS2252T MEMORY MAP WITH (PES = 1) Figure 4 FFFFh -- PROGRAM MEMORY DATA MEMORY (MOVX) -- 64K C000h -PARTITION B000h -- 4000h -- NV RAM PROGRAM -- 16K REAL-TIME CLOCK 0000h -- = NOT ACCESSIBLE POWER MANAGEMENT The DS2252T monitors VCC to provide power-fail reset, early warning power-fail interrupt, and switchover to lithium backup. It uses an internal band-gap reference in determining the switch points. These are called VPFW, VCCMIN, and VLI respectively. When VCC drops below VPFW, the DS2252T will perform an interrupt vector to location 2Bh if the power-fail warning is enabled. Full processor operation continues regardless. When power falls further to VCCMIN, the DS2252T invokes a reset state. No further code execution will be performed unless power rises back above VCCMIN. All decoded chip enables and the R/ W signal go to an inactive (logic 1) state. VCC is still the power source at this time. When VCC drops further to below VLI, internal circuitry will switch to the built-in lithium cell for power. The majority of internal circuits will be disabled and the remaining nonvolatile states will be retained. The Secure Microcontroller User’s Guide has more information on this topic. The trip points VCCMIN and VPFW are listed in the electrical specifications. 7 of 16 DS2252T ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS Voltage Range on Any Pin Relative to Ground……………………………………...-0.3V to (VCC + 0.5V) Voltage Range on VCC Relative to Ground…………………………………………………-0.3V to +6.0V Operating Temperature Range……………………………………………………………...-40°C to +85°C Storage Temperature (Note 1)…………………………………………………………….-55°C to +125°C Soldering Temperature………………………………………………………………+260°C for 10 seconds This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods of time may affect reliability. Note 1: Storage temperature is defined as the temperature of the device when VCC = 0V and VLI = 0V. In this state the contents of SRAM are not battery-backed and are undefined. DC CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = 0°C to +70°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN TYP MAX UNITS NOTES Input Low Voltage VIL -0.3 +0.8 V 1 Input High Voltage VIH1 2.0 VCC+0.3 V 1 Input High Voltage (RST, XTAL1, PROG ) VIH2 3.5 VCC+0.3 V 1 Output Low Voltage at IOL = 1.6mA (Ports 1, 2, 3) VOL1 0.15 0.45 V 1 Output Low Voltage at IOL = 3.2mA (Ports 0, ALE) VOL2 0.15 0.45 V 1 Output High Voltage at IOH = -80µA (Ports 1, 2, 3) VOH1 2.4 4.8 V 1 Output High Voltage at IOH = -400µA (Ports 0, ALE) VOH2 2.4 4.8 V 1 Input Low Current VIN = 0.45V (Ports 1, 2, 3) IIL -50 µA Transition Current; 1 to 0 VIN = 2.0V (Ports 1, 2, 3) ITL -500 µA Input Leakage Current 0.45 < VIN < VCC (Port 0) IIL ±10 µA RST Pulldown Resistor RRE 40 150 kΩ Power-Fail Warning Voltage VPRW 4.25 4.37 4.50 V 1 Minimum Operating Voltage VCCMIN 4.00 4.12 4.25 V 1 Operating Current at 16MHz ICC 45 mA 4 Idle Mode Current at 12MHz IIDLE 7.0 mA 5 Stop Mode Current ISTOP 80 µA 6 CIN 10 pF 7 Pin Capacitance 8 of 16 DS2252T DC CHARACTERISTICS (continued) (VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = 0°C to +70°C.) PARAMETER SYMBOL Reset Trip Point in Stop Mode MIN TYP MAX With BAT = 3.0V 4.0 With BAT = 3.3V 4.4 4.65 UNITS NOTES V 1 4.25 SDI Input High Voltage VIHS 2.0 VCC V 1, 2 SDI Input High Voltage VIHS 2.0 3.5 V 1, 2 SDI Pulldown Resistor RSDI 25 60 kΩ SYMBOL MIN MAX UNITS NOTES µs 10 µs 10 AC CHARACTERISTICS (VCC = 0V to 5V, TA = 0°C to +70°C.) PARAMETER (4.5V < VCC < 5.5V) SDI Pulse Reject SDI Pulse Accept tSPR 2 (VCC = 0V, VBAT = 2.9V) (4.5V < VCC < 5.5V) TYP 4 tSPA (VCC = 0V, VBAT = 2.9V) 10 50 9 of 16 DS2252T AC CHARACTERISTICS—EXPANDED BUS MODE TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = 0°C to +70°C.) # PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN MAX UNITS 1 Oscillator Frequency 1/tCLK 1.0 16 (-16) MHz 2 ALE Pulse Width tALPW 2tCLK - 40 ns 3 Address Valid to ALE Low tAVALL tCLK - 40 ns 4 Address Hold After ALE Low tAVAAV tCLK - 35 ns Pulse Width tRDPW 6tCLK - 100 ns Pulse Width tWRPW 6tCLK - 100 ns 14 RD 15 WR 16 RD 17 Data Hold after RD High tRDHDV 18 Data Float after RD High tRDHDZ 19 ALE Low to Valid Data In 20 Valid Address to Valid Data In 21 ALE Low to RD or WR Low tALLRDL 3tCLK - 50 22 Address Valid to RD or WR Low tAVRDL 4tCLK - 130 ns 23 Data Valid to WR Going Low tDVWRL tCLK - 60 ns 24 Data Valid to WR High tDVWRH 7tCLK - 150 25 Data Valid after WR High tWRHDV 26 RD Low to Address Float tRDLAZ 27 RD or WR High to ALE High tRDHALH Low to Valid Data In At 12MHz At 16MHz At 12MHz 5tCLK - 105 0 At 12MHz 8CLK - 150 8tCLK - 90 9tCLK - 165 tAVDV At 16MHz At 16MHz 9tCLK - 105 3tCLK + 50 EXPANDED DATA MEMORY READ CYCLE 10 of 16 ns ns ns ns ns 7tCLK - 90 tCLK - 50 tCLK - 40 ns ns 2tCLK - 70 tALLVD At 16MHz At 12MHz 5tCLK - 165 tRDLDV ns 0 ns tCLK + 50 ns DS2252T EXPANDED DATA MEMORY WRITE CYCLE 11 of 16 DS2252T AC CHARACTERISTICS—EXTERNAL CLOCK DRIVE (VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = 0°C to +70°C.) # PARAMETER 28 External Clock High Time 29 External Clock Low Time 30 External Clock Rise Time 31 External Clock Fall Time SYMBOL At 12MHz At 16MHz At 12MHz At 16MHz tCLKHPW tCLKLPW At 12MHz tCLKR At 16MHz At 12MHz tCLKF At 16MHz EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMING 12 of 16 MIN MAX 20 UNITS ns 15 20 ns 15 20 15 20 15 ns ns DS2252T AC CHARACTERISTICS—POWER CYCLE TIMING (VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = 0°C to +70°C.) # PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN tF 130 32 Slew Rate from VCCMIN to 3.3V 33 Crystal Startup Time tCSU (Note 8) 34 Power-On Reset Delay tPOR 21,504 POWER CYCLE TIMING 13 of 16 MAX UNITS µs tCLK DS2252T AC CHARACTERISTICS—SERIAL PORT TIMING: MODE 0 (VCC = 5V ±10%, TA = 0°C to +70°C.) # PARAMETER SYMBOL MIN 35 MAX Serial Port Clock Cycle Time tSPCLK 12tCLK µs 36 Output Data Setup to Rising Clock Edge tDOCH 10tCLK - 133 ns 37 Output Data Hold after Rising Clock Edge tCHDO 2tCLK - 117 ns 38 Clock Rising Edge to Input Data Valid tCHDV 39 Input Data Hold after Rising Clock Edge tCHDIV 10tCLK - 133 0 UNITS ns ns SERIAL PORT TIMING: MODE 0 NOTES: 1. All voltage referenced to ground. 2. SDI should be taken to a logic high when VCC = +5V, and to approximately 3V when VCC < 3V. 3. SDI is deglitched to prevent accidental destruction. The pulse must be longer than tSPR to pass the deglitcher, but SDI is not guaranteed unless it is longer than tSPA. 4. Maximum operating ICC is measured with all output pins disconnected; XTAL1 driven with tCLKR, tCLKF=10 ns, VIL = 0.5V; XTAL2 disconnected; RST = PORT0 = VCC. 5. Idle mode IIDLE is measured with all output pins disconnected; XTAL1 driven with tCLKR, tCLKF = 10 ns, VIL = 0.5V; XTAL2 disconnected; PORT0 = VCC, RST = VSS. 6. Stop mode ISTOP is measured with all output pins disconnected; PORT0 = VCC; XTAL2 not connected; RST = XTAL1 = VSS. 7. Pin capacitance is measured with a test frequency—1 MHz, TA = +25°C. 8. Crystal startup time is the time required to get the mass of the crystal into vibrational motion from the time that power is first applied to the circuit until the first clock pulse is produced by the on-chip oscillator. The user should check with the crystal vendor for a worst-case specification on this time. 14 of 16 DS2252T PACKAGE DRAWING PKG MIN MAX A 2.645 2.655 B 2.379 2.389 C 0.995 1.005 D 0.395 0.405 E 0.245 0.255 F 0.050 BSC G 0.075 0.085 H 0.245 0.255 I 15 of 16 INCHES DIM 0.950 BSC J 0.120 0.130 K 1.320 1.330 L 1.445 1.455 M 0.057 0.067 N - 0.300 O - 0.165 P 0.047 0.054 DS2252T DATA SHEET REVISION SUMMARY The following represent the key differences between 12/13/95 and 08/16/96 version of the DS2252T data sheet. Please review this summary carefully. 1. Change VCC slew rate specification to reference 3.3V instead of VLI. 2. Add minimum value to PCB thickness. The following represent the key differences between 08/16/96 and 05/28/97 version of the DS2252T data sheet. Please review this summary carefully. 1. AC characteristics for battery-backed SDI pulse specification added. The following represent the key differences between 05/28/97 and 11/08/99 version of the DS2252T data sheet. Please review this summary carefully. (PCN I80903) 1. Correct Absolute Maximum Ratings to reflect changes to DS5002FP microprocessor. 2. Add note clarifying that SRAM contents are not defined under storage temperature conditions. The following represent the key differences between 11/08/99 and 01/18/00 version of the DS2252T data sheet. Please review this summary carefully. 1. Data sheet conversion from Interleaf to Word. The following represent the key differences between 01/18/00 and 06/13/06 version of the DS2252T data sheet. Please review this summary carefully. 1. Updated reference in Features (Crashproof Operation) to 10-year NV RAM data life to include room temperature caveat. 2. Added RoHS-compliant packages to Ordering Information table. 3. Replaced references to “Secure Microcontroller Data Book” with “Secure Microcontroller User’s Guide.” 16 of 16 Maxim/Dallas Semiconductor cannot assume responsibility for use of any circuitry other than circuitry entirely embodied in a Maxim/Dallas Semiconductor product. No circuit patent licenses are implied. Maxim/Dallas Semiconductor reserves the right to change the circuitry and specifications without notice at any time. Maxim Integrated Products, 120 San Gabriel Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 408-737-7600 © 2006 Maxim Integrated Products • Printed USA The Maxim logo is a registered trademark of Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. The Dallas logo is a registered trademark of Dallas Semiconductor Corporation.