DELTA NE12S0A0V06PNFA

FEATURES
Š
High Efficiency: 94.5% @ 12Vin, 5V/6A out
Š
Size: Vertical :
10.4mm x 16.5mm x 11.0 mm
(0.41” × 0.65” × 0.43”)
Horizontal:
10.4mm x 16.5mm x 11.5 mm
(0.41” × 0.65” × 0.45”)
Š
Wide input range: 3.1V~13.8V
Š
Output voltage programmable from
0.59Vdc to 5.1Vdc via external resistors
Š
No minimum load required
Š
Fixed frequency operation
Š
Input UVLO, output OCP
Š
Remote ON/OFF (Positive, 5 pin version)
Š
ISO 9001, TL 9000, ISO 14001, QS9000,
OHSAS18001 certified manufacturing facility
Š
UL/cUL 60950-1 (US & Canada)
Recognized, and TUV (EN60950-1) Certified
Š
Delphi NE Series Non-Isolated Point of Load
DC/DC Modules: 3.1~13.8Vin, 0.59V-5.1Vout, 6Aout
The Delphi NE 6A Series, 3.1~13.8V wide input, wide trim single
output, non-isolated point of load (POL) DC/DC converters are the
latest offering from a world leader in power systems technology and
manufacturing — Delta Electronics, Inc. The NE product family is
the second generation, non-isolated point-of-load DC/DC power
modules which cut the module size by almost 50% in most of the
cases compared to the first generation NC series POL modules. The
NE 6A product family provides an ultra wide input range to support
3.3V, 5V, 8V, 9.6V, and 12V bus voltage point-of-load applications and
it offers up to 6A of output current in a vertically or horizontally
mounted through-hole miniature package and the output can be
resistor trimmed from 0.59Vdc to 5.1Vdc. It provides a very cost
effective, high efficiency, and high density point of load solution. With
creative design technology and optimization of component
placement, these converters possess outstanding electrical and
thermal performance, as well as extremely high reliability under highly
stressful operating conditions.
DATASHEET
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
CE mark meets 73/23/EEC and 93/68/EEC
directives
OPTIONS
Vertical or horizontal versions
Š
APPLICATIONS
Š
DataCom
Š
Distributed power architectures
Š
Servers and workstations
Š
LAN/WAN applications
Š
Data processing applications
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
(Ambient Temperature=25°C, minimum airflow=200LFM, nominal Vin=12Vdc unless otherwise specified.)
PARAMETER
NOTES and CONDITIONS
NE12S0A0V/H06
Min.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Input Voltage
Operating Temperature (Vertical)
Operating Temperature (Horizontal)
Storage Temperature
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Operating Input Voltage
Input Under-Voltage Lockout
Turn-On Voltage Threshold
Turn-Off Voltage Threshold
Lockout Hysteresis Voltage
Maximum Input Current
No-Load Input Current
Off Converter Input Current
Input Reflected-Ripple Current
Input Ripple Rejection
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Output Voltage Adjustment Range
Output Voltage Set Point
Output Voltage Regulation
Over Load
Over Line
Over Temperature
Total output range
Output Voltage Ripple and Noise
Peak-to-Peak
Peak-to-Peak
Peak-to-Peak
Peak-to-Peak
RMS
Output Current Range
Output Voltage Over-shoot at Start-up
Output Voltage Under-shoot at Power-Off
Output DC Current-Limit Inception
Output short-circuit current RMS value
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Output Dynamic Load Response
Positive Step Change in Output Current
Negative Step Change in Output Current
Settling Time
Turn-On Transient
Start-Up Time, from On/Off Control
Start-Up Time, from input power
Minimum Output Capacitive Load
Maximum Output Startup Capacitive Load
EFFICIENCY
Vo=0.59V
Vo=0.9V
Vo=2.5V
Vo=5.0V
SINK EFFICIENCY
Vo=5.0V
FEATURE CHARACTERISTICS
Switching Frequency
ON/OFF Control
Logic High
Logic Low
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Calculated MTBF
Weight
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
Typ.
Max.
Units
Refer to Fig. 26 for the measuring point
Refer to Fig. 34 for the measuring point
3.1
-40
-40
-55
13.8
113
118
125
Vdc
°C
°C
°C
Vo≦Vin-0.5V
3.1
13.8
V
3.1
2.8
0.3
6
50
10
5
60
Vin=3.1V to 13.8V, Io=Io,max
Vin=12V, Vout=5V
Remote OFF
120Hz
With a 0.1% trim resistor
Io=Io_min to Io_max
Vin=Vin_min to Vin_max
Ta=0~70°C
Over load, line, temperature regulation and set point
5Hz to 20MHz bandwidth
Full Load, 10uF Tan cap, 12Vin, 0.5Vo
Full Load, 10uF Tan cap, 12Vin, 0.9Vo
Full Load, 10uF Tan cap, 12Vin, 2.5Vo
Full Load, 10uF Tan cap, 12Vin, 5Vo
Full Load, 10uF Tan cap, 12Vin, 5Vo
0.59
-1
± 0.3
± 0.1
± 0.2
-2
10
V
V
V
A
mA
mA
mA
dB
5.1
+1
V
%
± 0.5
± 0.2
± 0.3
+2
%
%
15
20
30
50
10
%
13.5
3.7
mV
mV
mV
mV
mV
A
%Vo
mV
A
Arms
12Vin, 2.5Vout, 10µF ceramic cap
50~100% load , 10A/uS
50~100% load , 10A/uS
Settling to be within regulation band (to 10% Vo deviation)
150
150
50
mV
mV
µs
From Enable high to 90% of Vo
From Vin=12V to 90% of Vo
2
2
0
Vin=12V, Turn ON
Vin=12V, Turn OFF
Hiccup mode
6
0.5
100
3
3
0
1000
turn on overshoot <1% vo ,ESR≥1mΩ
ms
ms
µF
µF
Vin=12V, Io=6A
Vin=12V, Io=6A
Vin=12V, Io=6A
Vin=12V, Io=6A
72
79
90.5
94.5
%
%
%
%
Vin=12V, Io=6A
92
%
Fixed
Positive logic (internally pulled high)
Module On (or leave the pin open)
Module Off
600
KHz
Ta=25℃, 300LFM, 80% load
0.8
0
5.0
0.3
18.0
2
V
V
Mhours
grams
2
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS CURVE
Figure 1: Converter efficiency vs. output current
(0.59V output voltage, 12V input voltage)
Figure 2: Converter efficiency vs. output current
(0.9V output voltage, 12V input voltage)
Figure 3: Converter efficiency vs. output current
(1.8V output voltage, 12V input voltage)
Figure 4: Converter efficiency vs. output current
(2.5V output voltage, 12V input voltage)
Figure 5: Converter efficiency vs. output current
(3.3V output voltage, 12V input voltage)
Figure 6: Converter efficiency vs. output current
(5.0V output voltage, 12V input voltage)
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
3
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS CURVES (CON.)
Figure 7: Output ripple & noise at 12Vin, 0.59V/6A out
Figure 8: Output ripple & noise at 12Vin, 0.9V/6A out
Figure 9: Output ripple & noise at 12Vin, 1.8V/6A out
Figure 10: Output ripple & noise at 12Vin, 2.5V/6A out
Figure 11: Output ripple & noise at 12Vin, 3.3V/6A out
Figure 12: Output ripple & noise at 12Vin, 5.0V/6A out
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
4
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS CURVES (CON.)
0
0
0
0
Figure 13: Turn on delay time at 12Vin, 1.0V/6A out
Ch1: Vin Ch4: Vout
Figure 14: Turn on delay time Remote On/Off, 1.5V/6A out
Ch1:Enable Ch4: Vout
0
0
0
0
Figure 15: Turn on delay time at 12Vin, 2.5V/6A out
Ch1: Vin Ch4: Vout
Figure 16: Turn on delay time at Remote On/Off, 3.3V/6A out
Ch1: Enable Ch4: Vout
0
0
Figure 17: Typical transient response to step load change at
10A/μS from 50%~100% load, at 12Vin, 2.5V out
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
5
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The NE12S0A0V(H)06 uses a single phase and voltage
mode controlled buck topology. The output can be
trimmed from 0.59Vdc to 5.1Vdc by a resistor from Trim
pin to Ground.
The converter can be turned ON/OFF by remote control
with positive on/off (ENABLE pin) logic. The converter DC
output is disabled when the signal is driven low (below
0.3V). This pin is also used as the input turn on threshold
judgment. Its voltage is percent of Input voltage during
floating due to internal connection. So we do not suggest
using an active high signal (higher than 0.8V) to turn on
the module because this high level voltage will disable
UVLO function. The module will turn on when this pin is
floating and the input voltage is higher than the threshold.
The converter can protect itself by entering hiccup mode
against over current and short circuit condition. Also, the
converter will shut down when an over voltage protection
is detected.
Safety Considerations
It is recommended that the user to provide a very
fast-acting type fuse in the input line for safety. The output
voltage set-point and the output current in the application
could define the amperage rating of the fuse.
FEATURES DESCRIPTIONS
Enable (On/Off)
The ENABLE (on/off) input allows external circuitry to put
the NE converter into a low power dissipation (sleep)
mode. Positive ENABLE is available as standard. With
the active high function, the output is guaranteed to turn
on if the ENABLE pin is driven above 0.8V. The output will
turn off if the ENABLE pin voltage is pulled below 0.3V.
Undervoltage Lockout
The ENABLE pin is also used as input UVLO function.
Leaving the enable floating, the module will turn on if the
input voltage is higher than the turn-on threshold and turn
off if the input voltage is lower than the turn-off threshold.
The default turn-on voltage is 3.1V with 300mV
hysteresis.
The turn-on voltage may be adjusted with a resistor
placed between the “Enable” pin and “Ground” pin. The
equation for calculating the value of this resistor is:
15.05 × (R + 6.34 )
+ 0.8
6.34 × R
= VEN _ RTH − 0.3V
V EN _ RTH =
VEN _ FTH
VEN _ FTH is the turn-off threshold
VEN _ RTH is the turn-on threshold
R (Kohm) is the outen resistor connected from Enable pin
to the GND
Enable
NE10A/6A
R
Fig. 18. UVLO setting
An active high voltage will disable the input UVLO
function.
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
6
FEATURES DESCRIPTIONS (CON.)
The ENABLE input can be driven in a variety of ways as
shown in Figures 18 and 19. If the ENABLE signal comes
from the primary side of the circuit, the ENABLE can be
driven through either a bipolar signal transistor (Figure
19).If the enable signal comes from the secondary side,
then an opto-coupler or other isolation devices must be
used to bring the signal across the voltage isolation
(please see Figure 20).
Output Voltage Programming
The output voltage of the NE series is trimmable by
connecting an external resistor between the trim pin and
output ground as shown Figure 21 and the typical trim
resistor values are shown in Figure 22.
ND
6A/10A
NE6A/10A
Vin
Trim
Enable
ND6A/10A
NE6A/10A
Vin
Trim
Ground
Ground
Figure 19: Enable Input drive circuit for NE series
ND
6A/10A
NE6A/10A
Enable
Ground
Rs
Vout
Enable
Vin
Vout
Vout
Trim
Ground
Figure 20: Enable input drive circuit example with isolation.
Input Under-Voltage Lockout
The input under-voltage lockout prevents the converter
from being damaged while operating when the input
voltage is too low. The lockout occurs between 2.8V to
3.1V.
Over-Current and Short-Circuit Protection
Ground
Ground
Figure 21: Trimming Output Voltage
The NE06 module has a trim range of 0.59V to 5.0V.
The trim resistor equation for the NE06A is :
Rs (Ω) =
1184
Vout − 0.592
Vout is the output voltage setpoint
Rs is the resistance between Trim and Ground
Rs values should not be less than 240Ω
Output Voltage
Rs (Ω)
0.59V
+1 V
+1.5 V
+2.5 V
+3.3 V
open
2.9k
1.3K
619
436
+5.0V
268
Figure 22: Typical trim resistor values
The NE series modules have non-latching over-current
and short-circuit protection circuitry. When over current
condition occurs, the module goes into the non-latching
hiccup mode. When the over-current condition is
removed, the module will resume normal operation.
An over current condition is detected by measuring the
voltage drop across the MOSFETs. The voltage drop
across the MOSFET is also a function of the MOSFET’s
Rds(on). Rds(on) is affected by temperature, therefore
ambient temperature will affect the current limit inception
point.
The detection of the Rds(on) of MOSFETs also acts as
an over temperature protection since high temperature
will cause the Rds(on) of the MOSFETs to increase,
eventually triggering over-current protection.
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
7
FEATURES DESCRIPTIONS (CON.)
Output Capacitance
Voltage Margining Adjustment
There is internal output capacitor on the NE series
modules. Hence, no external output capacitor is required
for stable operation.
Output voltage margin adjusting can be implemented in
the NE modules by connecting a resistor, Rmargin-up, from
the Trim pin to the Ground for margining up the output
voltage. Also, the output voltage can be adjusted lower
by connecting a resistor, Rmargin-down, from the Trim pin to
the voltage source Vt. Figure 23 shows the circuit
configuration for output voltage margining adjustment.
Vt
ND
6A/10A
NE6A/10A
Vin
Reflected Ripple Current and Output Ripple and
Noise Measurement
The measurement set-up outlined in Figure 24 has been
used for both input reflected/ terminal ripple current and
output voltage ripple and noise measurements on NE
series converters.
Rmargin-down
Input reflected current measurement point
Vout
Ltest
DC-DC Converter
Vin+
Load
Trim
Enable
Rmargin-up
Cs
Cin
1uF
Ceramic
Rs
Ground
Ground
10uF
Tan
Output voltage ripple noise measurement point
Figure 23: Circuit configuration for output voltage margining
Cs=270μF*1, Ltest=2uH, Cin=270μF*1
Paralleling
Figure 24: Input reflected ripple/ capacitor ripple current and
output voltage ripple and noise measurement setup for NE06
NE06 converters do not have built-in current sharing
(paralleling) ability. Hence, paralleling of multiple NE06
converters is not recommended.
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
8
THERMAL CONSIDERATION
THERMAL CURVES (VERTICAL)
Thermal management is an important part of the system
design. To ensure proper, reliable operation, sufficient
cooling of the power module is needed over the entire
temperature range of the module. Convection cooling is
usually the dominant mode of heat transfer.
Hence, the choice of equipment to characterize the
thermal performance of the power module is a wind
tunnel.
Thermal Testing Setup
Delta’s DC/DC power modules are characterized in
heated vertical wind tunnels that simulate the thermal
environments encountered in most electronics
equipment. This type of equipment commonly uses
vertically mounted circuit cards in cabinet racks in which
the power modules are mounted.
Figure 26: Temperature measurement location* The allowed
maximum hot spot temperature is defined at 113℃
Output Current (A)
NE12S0A0V06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=12V Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
6
The following figure shows the wind tunnel
characterization setup. The power module is mounted
on a test PWB and is vertically positioned within the
wind tunnel. The space between the neighboring PWB
and the top of the power module is constantly kept at
6.35mm (0.25’’).
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
4
200LFM
300LFM
3
400LFM
2
Thermal Derating
1
Heat can be removed by increasing airflow over the
module. To enhance system reliability, the power
module should always be operated below the maximum
operating temperature. If the temperature exceeds the
maximum module temperature, reliability of the unit may
be affected.
0
25
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 27: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=12V, Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
PWB
FACING PWB
30
Output Current (A)
NE12S0A0V06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=12V Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
6
MODULE
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
200LFM
4
300LFM
AIR VELOCITY
AND AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
MEASURED BELOW
THE MODULE
3
50.8 (2.0”)
400LFM
500LFM
2
AIR FLOW
1
11 (0.43”)
22 (0.87”)
Note: Wind tunnel test setup figure dimensions are in
millimeters and (Inches)
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 28: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=12V, Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
Figure 25: Wind tunnel test setup
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
9
THERMAL CURVES (VERTICAL)
Output Current (A)
NE12S0A0V06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=3.3V Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
NE12S0A0V06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=12V Vout=5.0V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
6
6
Natural
Convection
5
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
200LFM
4
4
300LFM
3
400LFM
3
500LFM
2
2
600LFM
1
1
0
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 29: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=12V, Vout=5.0V (Either Orientation)
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 32: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=3.3V, Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
NE12S0A0V06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=3.3V Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
NE12S0A0V06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=5.0V Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
Output Current (A)
6
6
Natural
Convection
5
Natural
Convection
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
0
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 33: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity@ Vin =3.3V, Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
Figure 30: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity@ Vin =5V, Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
NE12S0A0V06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=5.0V Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
6
Natural
Convection
5
4
3
2
1
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 31: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity@ Vin =5V, Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
10
THERMAL CURVES (HORIZONTAL)
Output Current (A)
NE12S0A0H06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=12V Vout=5.0V (Either Orientation)
6
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
4
200LFM
300LFM
3
400LFM
500LFM
2
600LFM
1
0
25
Figure 34: Temperature measurement location* The allowed
maximum hot spot temperature is defined at 118℃
Output Current (A)
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 37: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=12V, Vout=5.0V (Either Orientation)
NE12S0A0H06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=12V Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
6
30
NE12S0A0H06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=5.0V Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
6
Natural
Convection
5
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
4
100LFM
4
200LFM
300LFM
3
3
400LFM
500LFM
2
2
1
1
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 35: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=12V, Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
Figure 38: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity@ Vin =5V, Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
NE12S0A0H06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=12V Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
6
NE12S0A0H06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=5.0V Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
6
Natural
Convection
5
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
4
100LFM
200LFM
4
300LFM
3
3
400LFM
2
500LFM
2
600LFM
1
1
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 36: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=12V, Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
Figure 39: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity@ Vin =5V, Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
11
THERMAL CURVES (HORIZONTAL)
NE12S0A0H06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=3.3V Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
6
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
4
3
2
1
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 40: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity @Vin=3.3V, Vout=0.9V (Either Orientation)
NE12S0A0H06(standard) Output Current vs. Ambient Temperature and Air Velocity
@Vin=3.3V Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
Output Current (A)
6
Natural
Convection
5
100LFM
4
3
2
1
0
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Ambient Temperature (℃)
Figure 41: Output current vs. ambient temperature and air
velocity@ Vin =3.3V, Vout=2.5V (Either Orientation)
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
12
MECHANICAL DRAWING
VERTICAL
DS_NE12S06A_10032008
HORIZONTAL
13
PART NUMBERING SYSTEM
NE
12
S
0A0
Product
Series
Input
Voltage
Number of
outputs
Output
Voltage
V
06
P
N
Mounting
Output
Current
ON/OFF
Logic
Pin
Length
H- Horizontal
06-06A
P- Positive
N- 0.150”
NE- Non-isolated 12- 3.1~13.8V S- Single
0A0 -
Series
programmable V- Vertical
output
F
A
Option
Code
F- RoHS 6/6
A - 5 pins
(Lead Free)
MODEL LIST
Model Name
Packaging
Input Voltage
Output Voltage
Output Current
Efficiency
12Vin @ 100% load
NE12S0A0V06PNFA
Vertical
3.1V~ 13.8Vdc
0.59V~ 5.1Vdc
6A
94.5% @5Vout
NE12S0A0H06PNFA
Horizontal
3.1V~ 13.8Vdc
0.59V~ 5.1Vdc
6A
94.5% @5Vout
CONTACT: www.delta.com.tw/dcdc
USA:
Telephone:
East Coast: (888) 335 8201
West Coast: (888) 335 8208
Fax: (978) 656 3964
Email: DCDC@delta-corp.com
Europe:
Telephone: +41 31 998 53 11
Fax: +41 31 998 53 53
Email: DCDC@delta-es.tw
Asia & the rest of world:
Telephone: +886 3 4526107 ext. 6220
Fax: +886 3 4513485
Email: DCDC@delta.com.tw
WARRANTY
Delta offers a two (2) year limited warranty. Complete warranty information is listed on our web site or is available upon
request from Delta.
Information furnished by Delta is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Delta
for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties, which may result from its use. No license
is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Delta. Delta reserves the right to revise these
specifications at any time, without notice.
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