TI LM2991GW-QML

LM2991QML
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SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
LM2991QML Negative Low Dropout Adjustable Regulator
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FEATURES
DESCRIPTION
1
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
2
Output Voltage Adjustable From −2V to −25V
Output Current in Excess of 1A
Dropout Voltage Typically 0.6V at 1A Load
Low Quiescent Current
Internal Short Circuit Current Limit
Internal Thermal Shutdown with Hysteresis
TTL, CMOS Compatible ON/OFF Switch
Functional Complement to the LM2941 Series
APPLICATIONS
•
•
•
Post Switcher Regulator
Local, On-card, Regulation
Battery Operated Equipment
The LM2991 is a low dropout adjustable negative
regulator with a output voltage range between −2V to
−25V. The LM2991 provides up to 1A of load current
and features a On /Off pin for remote shutdown
capability.
The LM2991 uses new circuit design techniques to
provide a low dropout voltage, low quiescent current
and low temperature coefficient precision reference.
The dropout voltage at 1A load current is typically
0.6V and a ensured worst-case maximum of 1V over
the entire operating temperature range. The
quiescent current is typically 1 mA with a 1A load
current and an input-output voltage differential greater
than 3V. A unique circuit design of the internal bias
supply limits the quiescent current to only 9 mA
(typical) when the regulator is in the dropout mode
(VO − VI ≤ 3V).
The LM2991 is short-circuit proof, and thermal
shutdown includes hysteresis to enhance the
reliability of the device when inadvertently overloaded
for extended periods.
CONNECTION DIAGRAMS
Package Number NAC0016A (Top View)
16-Lead CLGA Package
1
2
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Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date.
Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas
Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not
necessarily include testing of all parameters.
Copyright © 2006–2011, Texas Instruments Incorporated
LM2991QML
SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
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These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam
during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.
EQUIVALENT SCHEMATIC
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
(1)
−26V to +0.3V
Input Voltage
Power Dissipation
(2)
Internally limited
Junction Temperature (TJmax)
150°C
Storage Temperature Range
−65°C ≤ TA ≤ +150°C
Thermal Resistance (3)
θJA CLGA (Still Air at 0.5°C/W) "GW”
130°C/W
θJA CLGA (500LF/Min Air flow at 0.5°C/W) “GW”
80°C/W
θJC CLGA “GW”
6°C/W
Package Weight “GW”
410mg
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec.)
ESD Susceptibility
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2
260°C
(4)
1,500V
Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for
which the device is functional, but do not ensure specific performance limits. For ensured specifications and test conditions, see the
Electrical Characteristics. The ensured specifications apply only for the test conditions listed. Some performance characteristics may
degrade when the device is not operated under the listed test conditions.
The maximum power dissipation must be derated at elevated temperatures and is dictated by TJmax (maximum junction temperature),
θJA (package junction to ambient thermal resistance), and TA (ambient temperature). The maximum allowable power dissipation at any
temperature is PDmax = (TJmax - TA)/θJA or the number given in the Absolute Maximum Ratings, whichever is lower.
The package material for these devices allows much improved heat transfer over our standard ceramic packages. In order to take full
advantage of this improved heat transfer, heat sinking must be provided between the package base (directly beneath the die), and either
metal traces on, or thermal vias through, the printed circuit board. Without this additional heat sinking, device power dissipation must be
calculated using θJA, rather than θJC, thermal resistance. It must not be assumed that the device leads will provide substantial heat
transfer out the package, since the thermal resistance of the leadframe material is very poor, relative to the material of the package
base. The stated θJC thermal resistance is for the package material only, and does not account for the additional thermal resistance
between the package base and the printed circuit board. The user must determine the value of the additional thermal resistance and
must combine this with the stated value for the package, to calculate the total allowed power dissipation for the device. The user must
determine the value of the additional thermal resistance and must combine this with the stated value for the package, to calculate the
total allowed power dissipation for the device.
Human body model, 1.5 kΩ in series with 100 pF.
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RECOMMENDED OPERATING CONDITIONS
(1)
−55°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C
Operating Temperature Range (TA)
−26V
Maximum Input Voltage (Operational)
(1)
Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for
which the device is functional, but do not ensure specific performance limits. For ensured specifications and test conditions, see the
Electrical Characteristics. The ensured specifications apply only for the test conditions listed. Some performance characteristics may
degrade when the device is not operated under the listed test conditions.
QUALITY CONFORMANCE INSPECTION
Mil-Std-883, Method 5005 - Group A
Subgroup
Description
Temp °C
1
Static tests at
+25
2
Static tests at
+125
3
Static tests at
-55
4
Dynamic tests at
+25
5
Dynamic tests at
+125
6
Dynamic tests at
-55
7
Functional tests at
+25
8A
Functional tests at
+125
8B
Functional tests at
-55
9
Switching tests at
+25
10
Switching tests at
+125
11
Switching tests at
-55
12
Settling time at
+25
13
Settling time at
+125
14
Settling time at
-55
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LM2991QML
SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
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LM2991 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS DC PARAMETERS
The following conditions apply, unless otherwise specified.
DC:
VI = −10V, VO = −3V, IO = 1A, CO = 47µF, RL = 2.7KΩ
Symbol
VRef
Parameter
Reference Voltage
VO
Conditions
Notes
Min
Max
Units
Subgroups
5mA ≤ IO ≤ 1A
-1.234 -1.186
V
1
5mA ≤ IO ≤ 1A,
VO - 1V ≥ VI ≥ -26V
-1.27
-1.15
V
2, 3
-3.0
V
1
V
1
Output Voltage Range
VI = -26V
-24
V
2, 3
VRLine
Line Regulation
IO = 5mA, VO - 1V ≥ VI ≥ -26V
-25
-26
+26
mV
1, 2, 3
VRLoad
Load Regulation
50mA ≤ IO ≤ 1A
-12
+12
mV
1
-15
+15
mV
2, 3
0.2
V
1
0.3
V
2, 3
0.8
V
1
VDO
Dropout Voltage
IO = 0.1A, ΔVO ≤ 100mV
IO = 1A, ΔVO ≤ 100mV
IQ
VON
1.0
V
2, 3
Quiescent Current
IO ≤ 1A
5.0
mA
1, 2, 3
Dropout Quiescent Current
VI = VO, IO ≤ 1A
50
mA
1, 2, 3
Output Noise
10Hz - 100KHz, IO = 5mA
450
µV
1
500
µV
2, 3
0.6
V
1, 2, 3
V
1, 2, 3
ON/OFF Input Voltage
VO : ON
VO : OFF
ON/OFF Input Current
2.4
VON/OFF = 0.6V (VO : ON)
10
µA
1
25
µA
2, 3
100
µA
1
150
µA
2, 3
250
µA
1
300
µA
2, 3
1.5
2.5
A
1
1.0
4.0
A
2, 3
Min
Max
Units
Subgroups
dB
1
VON/OFF = 2.4V (VO : OFF)
IL
Output Leakage Current
ILimit
Current Limit
VI = -26V, VON/OFF = 2.4V, VO = 0V
VO = 0V
LM2991 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS AC PARAMETERS
The following conditions apply, unless otherwise specified.
AC:
VI = −10V, VO = −3V, IO = 1A, CO = 47µF, RL = 2.7KΩ
Symbol
RR
Parameter
Ripple Rejection
Conditions
Notes
VRipple = 1VRMS, FRipple = 1KHz, IO = 5mA
50
LM2991 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS DC DRIFT PARAMETERS
The following conditions apply, unless otherwise specified. DC:
VI = −10V, VO = −3V, IO = 1A, CO = 47µF, RL = 2.7kΩ
Deltas not required on B−Level product. Deltas required for S−Level product ONLY.
Symbol
VRef
4
Parameter
Reference Voltage
Conditions
5mA ≤ IO ≤ 1A
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Notes
Min
Max
Units
Subgroups
±20
mV
1
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SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
Dropout Voltage
spacer
Normalized Output Voltage
spacer
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Output Voltage
spacer
Output Noise Voltage
spacer
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Quiescent Current
spacer
Maximum Output Current
spacer
Figure 5.
Figure 6.
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SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
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TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
6
Line Transient Response
spacer
Load Transient Response
spacer
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Maximum Output Current
spacer
Ripple Rejection
spacer
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Output Impedance
spacer
ON /OFF Control Voltage
spacer
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
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TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (continued)
Adjust Pin Current
spacer
Low Voltage Behavior
spacer
Figure 13.
Figure 14.
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SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
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APPLICATION HINTS
EXTERNAL CAPACITORS
Like any low-dropout regulator, external capacitors are reqired to stabilize the control loop. These capacitors
must be correctly selected for proper performance.
INPUT CAPACITOR
An input capacitor is required if the regulator is located more than 6" from the input power supply filter capacitor
(or if no other input capacitor is present).
A solid Tantalum or ceramic capacitor whose value is at least 1 µF is recommended, but an aluminum electrolytic
(≥ 10 µF) may be used. However, aluminum electrolytics should not be used in applications where the ambient
temperature can drop below 0°C because their internal impedance increases significantly at cold temperatures.
OUTPUT CAPACITOR
The output capacitor must meet the ESR limits shown in the graph, which means it must have an ESR between
about 25 mΩ and 10Ω.
A solid Tantalum (value ≥ 1 µF) is the best choice for the output capacitor. An aluminum electrolytic (≥ 10 µF)
may be used if the ESR is in the stable range.
It should be noted that the ESR of a typical aluminum electrolytic will increase by as much as 50X as the
temperature is reduced from 25°C down to −40°C, while a Tantalum will exhibit an ESR increase of about 2X
over the same range. For this and other reasons, aluminum electrolytics should not be used in applications
where low operating temperatures occur.
The lower stable ESR limit of 25 mΩ means that ceramic capacitors can not be used directly on the output of an
LDO. A ceramic (≥ 2.2 µF) can be used on the output if some external resistance is placed in series with it (1Ω
recommended). Dielectric types X7R or X5R must be used if the temperature range of the application varies
more than ± 25°C from ambient to assure the amount of capacitance is sufficient.
CERAMIC BYPASS CAPACITORS
Many designers place distributed ceramic capacitors whose value is in the range of 1000 pF to 0.1 µF at the
power input pins of the IC's across a circuit board. These can cause reduced phase margin or oscillations in LDO
regulators.
The advent of multi-layer boards with dedicated power and ground planes has removed the trace inductance that
(previously) provided the necessary "decoupling" to shield the output of the LDO from the effects of bypass
capacitors.
These capacitors should be avoided if possible, and kept as far away from the LDO output as is practical.
Figure 15. Output Capacitor ESR Range
8
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SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
MINIMUM LOAD
A minimum load current of 500 μA is required for proper operation. The external resistor divider can provide the
minimum load, with the resistor from the adjust pin to ground set to 2.4 kΩ.
SETTING THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE
The output voltage of the LM2991 is set externally by a resistor divider using the following equation:
VOUT = VREF x (1 + R2/R1) − (IADJ x R2)
where VREF = −1.21V. The output voltage can be programmed within the range of −3V to −24V, typically an even
greater range of −2V to −25V. The adjust pin current is about 60 nA, causing a slight error in the output voltage.
However, using resistors lower than 100 kΩ makes the adjust pin current negligible. For example, neglecting the
adjust pin current, and setting R2 to 100 kΩ and VOUT to −5V, results in an output voltage error of only 0.16%.
ON/OFF PIN
The LM2991 regulator can be turned off by applying a TTL or CMOS level high signal to the ON/OFF pin (see
Adjustable Current Sink Application).
FORCING THE OUTPUT POSITIVE
Due to an internal clamp circuit, the LM2991 can withstand positive voltages on its output. If the voltage source
pulling the output positive is DC, the current must be limited to 1.5A. A current over 1.5A fed back into the
LM2991 could damage the device. The LM2991 output can also withstand fast positive voltage transients up to
26V, without any current limiting of the source. However, if the transients have a duration of over 1 mS, the
output should be clamped with a Schottky diode to ground.
Typical Applications
VO = VRef (1 + R2/R1)
*Required if the regulator is located further than 6 inches from the power supply filter capacitors. A 1 μF solid
tantalum or a 10 μF aluminum electrolytic capacitor is recommended.
**Required for stability. Must be at least a 10 μF aluminum electrolytic or a 1 μF solid tantalum to maintain stability.
May be increased without bound to maintain regulation during transients. Locate the capacitor as close as possible to
the regulator. The equivalent series resistance (ESR) is critical, and should be less than 10Ω over the same operating
temperature range as the regulator.
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Figure 16. Fully Isolated Post-Switcher Regulator
Figure 17. Adjustable Current Sink
10
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SNVS392A – MARCH 2006 – REVISED OCTOBER 2011
REVISION HISTORY
Released
Revision
03/10/06
A
New Release, Corporate format
Section
1 MDS data sheet converted into one Corp. data
sheet format. MNLM2991-X Rev 1A1 will be archived.
Changes
05–Oct-2011
B
Ordering Information, Absolute Maximum
Ratings
Added new 'GW' NSID and —02 SMD part number.
Added Theta JA & Theta JC as well as the weight for
the 'GW' device. LM2991QML Rev A will be archived.
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
11-Apr-2013
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
(2)
MSL Peak Temp
Op Temp (°C)
Top-Side Markings
(3)
(4)
5962-9650502QXA
ACTIVE
CFP
NAC
16
42
TBD
Call TI
Call TI
-55 to 125
LM2991GWQML Q
5962-96505
02QXA ACO
02QXA >T
LM2991GW-QML
ACTIVE
CFP
NAC
16
42
TBD
Call TI
Call TI
-55 to 125
LM2991GWQML Q
5962-96505
02QXA ACO
02QXA >T
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
Eco Plan - The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS), Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt), or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) - please check http://www.ti.com/productcontent for the latest availability
information and additional product content details.
TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined.
Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances, including the requirement that
lead not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes.
Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package, or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between
the die and leadframe. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.
Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible), and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0.1% by weight
in homogeneous material)
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. -- The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
Multiple Top-Side Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Top-Side Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a
continuation of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Top-Side Marking for that device.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
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11-Apr-2013
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
Addendum-Page 2
MECHANICAL DATA
NAC0016A
WG16A (RevG)
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