EXAR XR16M770

XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
FEBRUARY 2009
REV. 1.0.0
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The XR16M7701 (M770) is an enhanced Universal
Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter (UART) with
64 bytes of transmit and receive FIFOs,
programmable transmit and receive FIFO trigger
levels, automatic hardware and software flow control,
and data rates of up to 16 Mbps at 3.3V, 12.5 Mbps at
2.5V and 7.5 Mbps at 1.8V with 4X data sampling
rate.
The Auto RS-485 Half-Duplex Direction control
feature simplifies both the hardware and software for
half-duplex RS-485 applications. In addition, the
Multidrop mode with Auto Address detection
increases the performance by simplifying the
software routines.
The Independent TX/RX Baud Rate Generator
feature allows the transmitter and receiver to operate
at different baud rates. Power consumption of the
M770 can be minimized by enabling the sleep mode
and PowerSave mode.
The M770 has a 16550 compatible register set that
provide users with operating status and control,
receiver error indications, and modem serial interface
controls. An internal loopback capability allows
onboard diagnostics. The M770 is available in 24-pin
QFN, 32-pin QFN and 25-pin BGA packages. All
three packages offer the 16 mode (Intel bus) interface
only.
NOTE:
1 Covered by U.S. Patent #5,649,122.
FEATURES
• Pin-to-pin compatible with XR16L570 in 24-QFN
and 32-QFN packages
• Intel data bus Interface
• 16 Mbps maximum data rate
• Programmable TX/RX FIFO Trigger Levels
• TX/RX FIFO Level Counters
• Independent TX/RX Baud Rate Generator
• Fractional Baud Rate Generator
• Auto RTS/CTS Hardware Flow Control
• Auto XON/XOFF Software Flow Control
• Auto RS-485 Half-Duplex Direction Control
• Multidrop mode w/ Auto Address Detect
• Sleep Mode with Automatic Wake-up
• PowerSave mode in 24-pin QFN package
• Infrared (IrDA 1.0 and 1.1) mode
• 1.62V to 3.63V supply operation
• Crystal oscillator or external clock input
APPLICATIONS
• Personal Digital Assistants (PDA)
• Cellular Phones/Data Devices
• Battery-Operated Devices
• Global Positioning System (GPS)
• Bluetooth
FIGURE 1. XR16M770 BLOCK DIAGRAM
VCC
(1 .6 2 to 3 .6 3 V )
P w rS a v e
A 2 :A 0
GND
D 7 :D 0
IO R #
UART
IO W #
UART
CS#
Regs
IN T
RESET
In te l
D a ta B u s
In te rfa c e
BRG
6 4 B y te T X F IF O
TX &
RX
IR
ENDEC
TX, RX,
RTS#, CTS#,
DTR#, DSR#,
R I# , C D #
6 4 B y te R X F IF O
C ry s ta l O s c /B u ffe r
XTAL1
XTAL2
Exar Corporation 48720 Kato Road, Fremont CA, 94538 • (510) 668-7000 • FAX (510) 668-7017 • www.exar.com
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
A2
10
GND
9
IOW#
D3 23
D4 24
8
CLK
D6
D7
RX
TX
PwrSave
A1
A2
A0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
CS
5
D7
RX
TX
4
16 NC
15 NC
14 IOR #
13 GND
12 IOW #
11 XTAL 2
10 XTAL 1
9 NC
32-pin QFN
D6
3
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
D4
2
7
6
CS#
1
D5
24-pin QFN
DSR#
CD#
RI#
VCC
D0
D1
D2
D3
IOR#
D2 22
D1 21
RTS#
INT
24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17
NC
D5
18 17 16 15 14 13
VCC 19
12
D0 20
11
RESET
DTR#
CTS#
A1
A0
INT
RTS#
Reset
CTS#
FIGURE 2. PIN OUT ASSIGNMENT FOR 24-PIN QFN, 32-PIN QFN AND 25-BGA PACKAGES
A1 Corner
1 2
3 4
5
A
B
C
D
E
Transparent Top View
CTS#
VCC
RESET
DTR#
INT
RTS#
A1
A0
A2
IOR#
D0
D6
D7
DSR#
IOW#
D3
D1
TX
CS#
XTAL1
D4
D2
D5
RX
GND
ORDERING INFORMATION
PART NUMBER
PACKAGE
OPERATING TEMPERATURE
RANGE
DEVICE STATUS
XR16M770IL24
24-Pin QFN
-40°C to +85°C
Active
XR16M770IL32
32-Pin QFN
-40°C to +85°C
Active
XR16M770IB25
25-Pin BGA
-40°C to +85°C
Active
2
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Pin Description
NAME
24-QFN
PIN#
32-QFN
PIN#
25-BGA
PIN#
TYPE
DESCRIPTION
Address lines [2:0]. These 3 address lines select the internal registers in UART during a data bus transaction.
DATA BUS INTERFACE
A2
A1
A0
12
13
14
17
18
19
A5
A4
B4
I
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
3
2
1
24
23
22
21
20
5
4
3
1
32
31
30
29
C3
C2
E3
E1
D1
E2
D2
C1
I/O
IOR#
11
14
B5
I
This input is read strobe (active low). The falling edge instigates an
internal read cycle and retrieves the data byte from an internal register pointed by the address lines [A2:A0], puts the data byte on the
data bus to allow the host processor to read it on the rising edge.
IOW#
9
12
C5
I
This input is write strobe (active low). The falling edge instigates the
internal write cycle and the rising edge transfers the data byte on
the data bus to an internal register pointed by the address lines.
CS#
6
8
D4
I
This input is chip select (active low) to enable the device.
INT
15
20
A3
Data bus lines [7:0] (bidirectional).
O
This output is the active high device interrupt output. The output
(OD) state is defined by the user through the software setting of MCR[3].
INT is set to the active mode when MCR[3] is set to a logic 1. INT is
set to the three state mode when MCR[3] is set to a logic 0. See
MCR[3].
MODEM OR SERIAL I/O INTERFACE
TX
5
7
D3
O
UART Transmit Data or infrared encoder data. Standard transmit
and receive interface is enabled when MCR[6] = 0. In this mode,
the TX signal will be a logic 1 during reset or idle (no data). Infrared
IrDA transmit and receive interface is enabled when MCR[6] = 1. In
the Infrared mode, the inactive state (no data) for the Infrared
encoder/decoder interface is a logic 0. If it is not used, leave it
unconnected.
RX
4
6
E4
I
UART Receive Data or infrared receive data. Normal receive data
input must idle at logic 1 condition. The infrared receiver idles at
logic 0. This input should be connected to VCC when not used.
RTS#
16
21
B3
O
UART Request-to-Send (active low) or general purpose output.
This output must be asserted prior to using auto RTS flow control,
see EFR[6], MCR[1] and IER[6].
CTS#
18
24
A1
I
UART Clear-to-Send (active low) or general purpose input. It can
be used for auto CTS flow control, see EFR[7], MSR[4] and IER[7].
This input should be connected to VCC when not used.
DTR#
-
22
B2
O
UART Data-Terminal-Ready (active low) or general purpose output.
3
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
Pin Description
NAME
24-QFN
PIN#
32-QFN
PIN#
25-BGA
PIN#
TYPE
DSR#
-
25
C4
I
UART Data-Set-Ready (active low) or general purpose input. This
input should be connected to VCC when not used.
CD#
-
26
-
I
UART Carrier-Detect (active low) or general purpose input. This
input should be connected to VCC when not used.
RI#
-
27
-
I
UART Ring-Indicator (active low) or general purpose input. This
input should be connected to VCC when not used.
DESCRIPTION
ANCILLARY SIGNALS
XTAL1
8
10
D5
I
Crystal or external clock input.
XTAL2
-
11
-
O
Crystal or buffered clock output.
PwrSave
7
-
-
I
Power-Save (active high). This feature isolates the M770’s data bus
interface from the host preventing other bus activities that cause
higher power drain during sleep mode. See Sleep Mode with Auto
Wake-up and Power-Save Feature section for details. This pin does
not have a pull-down resistor. This input should be connected to
GND when not used.
RESET
17
23
A2
I
This input is active high. A 40 ns minimum active pulse on this pin
will reset the internal registers and all outputs of the UART. The
UART transmitter output will be held at logic 1, the receiver input
will be ignored and outputs are reset during reset period (see UART
Reset Conditions).
VCC
19
28
B1
Pwr
1.62V to 3.63V power supply.
GND
10
13
E5
Pwr
Power supply common, ground.
GND
Center
Pad
Center
Pad
-
Pwr
The center pad on the backside of the QFN package is metallic and
should be connected to GND on the PCB. The thermal pad size on
the PCB should be the approximate size of this center pad and
should be solder mask defined. The solder mask opening should be
at least 0.0025" inwards from the edge of the PCB thermal pad.
NC
-
2, 9, 15,
16
-
-
No Connects.
Pin type: I=Input, O=Output, I/O= Input/output, OD=Output Open Drain.
4
XR16M770
REV. 1.0.0
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
1.0 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
The XR16M770 (M770) is a high performance single channel UART. The configuration registers set is 16550
UART compatible for control, status and data transfer. Additionally, the M770 channel has 64 bytes of transmit
and receive FIFOs, Automatic RTS/CTS Hardware Flow Control, Automatic Xon/Xoff and Special Character
Software Flow Control, infrared encoder and decoder (IrDA ver 1.0 and 1.1), programmable fractional baud
rate generator with a prescaler of divide by 1 or 4, and data rate up to 16 Mbps. The XR16M770 can operate
from 1.62 to 3.63 volts. The M770 is fabricated with an advanced CMOS process.
Larger FIFO
The M770 provides a solution that supports 64 bytes of transmit and receive FIFO memory, instead of 16 bytes
in the XR16L580. The M770 is designed to work with high performance data communication systems, that
requires fast data processing time. Increased performance is realized in the M770 by the larger transmit and
receive FIFOs, FIFO trigger level control and automatic flow control mechanism. This allows the external
processor to handle more networking tasks within a given time. For example, the XR16L580 with a 16 byte
FIFO, unloads 16 bytes of receive data in 1.53 ms (This example uses a character length of 11 bits, including
start/stop bits at 115.2Kbps). This means the external CPU will have to service the receive FIFO at 1.53 ms
intervals. However with the 64 byte FIFO in the M770, the data buffer will not require unloading/loading for 6.1
ms. This increases the service interval giving the external CPU additional time for other applications and
reducing the overall UART interrupt servicing time. In addition, the programmable FIFO level trigger interrupt
and automatic hardware/software flow control is uniquely provided for maximum data throughput performance
especially when operating in a multi-channel system. The combination of the above greatly reduces the CPU’s
bandwidth requirement, increases performance, and reduces power consumption.
Data Rate
The M770 is capable of operation up to 16 Mbps at 3.3V with 4X internal sampling clock rate. The device can
operate at 3.3V with a 24 MHz crystal on pins XTAL1 and XTAL2, or external clock source of 64 MHz on XTAL1
pin. With a typical crystal of 14.7456 MHz and through a software option, the user can set the prescaler bit and
sampling rate for data rates of up to 3.68 Mbps.
Enhanced Features
The rich feature set of the M770 is available through the internal registers. Automatic hardware/software flow
control, programmable transmit and receive FIFO trigger levels, selectable baud rates, infrared encoder/
decoder, modem interface controls, and a sleep mode are all standard features. MCR bit-5 provides a facility
for turning off (Xon) software flow control with any incoming (RX) character. The M770 includes new features
such as 9-bit (Multidrop) mode, auto RS-485 half-duplex direction control, different baud rate for TX and RX,
fast IR mode and fractional baud rate generator.
5
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
2.0 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTIONS
2.1
CPU Interface
The CPU interface is 8 data bits wide with 3 address lines and control signals to execute data bus read and
write transactions. The M770 data interface supports the Intel compatible types of CPUs. No clock (oscillator
nor external clock) is required for a data bus transaction. Each bus cycle is asynchronous using CS#, IOR#
and IOW# inputs. A typical data bus interconnection for Intel mode is shown in Figure 3.
FIGURE 3. XR16M770 TYPICAL INTEL DATA BUS INTERCONNECTIONS
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
A0
A1
A2
A0
A1
A2
IOR#
IOR#
IOW#
IOW#
VCC
TX
RX
DTR#
RTS#
CTS#
DSR#
CD#
CS#
UART_CS#
UART_INT
INT
POWERSAVE
PwrSave
UART_RESET
RESET
RI#
GND
Intel Data Bus Interconnections
6
VCC
Serial Transceivers of
RS-232
RS-485
RS-422
Or Infrared
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
2.2
Serial Interface
The M770 is typically used with RS-232, RS-485 and IR transceivers. The following figure shows typical
connections from the UART to the different transceivers. For more information on RS-232 and RS-485/422
transceivers, go to www.exar.com or send an e-mail to [email protected]
FIGURE 4. XR16M770 TYPICAL SERIAL INTERFACE CONNECTIONS
VCC
UART
VCC
R S -2 3 2
T r a n s c e iv e r
TX
T 1 IN
RX
R1OUT
DTR#
T 2 IN
RTS#
T 3 IN
CTS#
R2O UT
DSR#
R 3O U T
CD#
R 4O U T
R I#
R 5O UT
GND
GND
R S - 2 3 2 F u ll -M o d e m S e r ia l In te r fa c e
VCC
VCC
TX
DI
RO
RX
UART
RS-485
Transceiver
Full-duplex
RTS#
NC
DTR#
NC
TX+
TX-
VCC
VCC
RX+
DE
CTS#
RXRE#
DSR#
CD#
RI #
GND
RS-485 Full-Duplex Serial Interface
7
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FIGURE 5. XR16M770 TYPICAL SERIAL INTERFACE CONNECTIONS
VCC
VCC
TX
DI
RX
RO
Y
Z
DE
RTS#
UART
RS-485
Transceiver
Half-duplex
VCC
NC
DTR#
A
RE#
CTS#
B
DSR#
CD#
RI #
GND
RS-485 Half-Duplex Serial Interface
VCC
UART
IR
Transceiver
VC C
TX
TXD
RX
RXD
DTR#
NC
RTS#
NC
VCC
CTS#
DSR#
CD#
R I#
GND
In frared C o nn ectio n
8
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
2.3
Device Reset
The RESET input resets the internal registers and the serial interface outputs to their default state (see
Table 18). An active high pulse of longer than 40 ns duration will be required to activate the reset function in
the device. Following a power-on reset or an external reset, the M770 is software compatible with previous
generation of UARTs, XR16L570 and ST16C550.
2.4
Internal Registers
The M770 has a set of 16550 compatible registers for controlling, monitoring and data loading and unloading.
These registers function as data holding registers (THR/RHR), interrupt status and control registers (ISR/IER),
a FIFO control register (FCR), receive line status and control registers (LSR/LCR), modem status and control
registers (MSR/MCR), programmable data rate (clock) divisor registers (DLL/DLM/DLD), and a user accessible
scratchpad register (SPR).
Beyond the general 16C550 features and capabilities, the M770 offers enhanced feature registers (EFR, Xon1/
Xoff 1, Xon2/Xoff 2, DLD, FCTR, EMSR, FC and TRIG) that provide automatic RTS and CTS hardware flow
control, automatic Xon/Xoff software flow control, 9-bit (Multidrop) mode, auto RS-485 half duplex control,
different baud rate for TX and RX and fractional baud rate generator. All the register functions are discussed in
full detail later in “Section 3.0, UART INTERNAL REGISTERS” on page 23.
2.5
INT Ouput
The interrupt outputs change according to the operating mode and enhanced features setup. Table 1 and 2
summarize the operating behavior for the transmitter and receiver. Also see Figure 19 through 22.
TABLE 1: INT PIN OPERATION FOR TRANSMITTER
FCR BIT-0 = 0 (FIFO DISABLED)
INT Pin
FCR BIT-0 = 1 (FIFO ENABLED)
LOW = One byte in THR
HIGH = THR empty
LOW = FIFO above trigger level
HIGH = FIFO below trigger level or FIFO empty
TABLE 2: INT PIN OPERATION FOR RECEIVER
FCR BIT-0 = 0 (FIFO DISABLED)
INT Pin
FCR BIT-0 = 1 (FIFO ENABLED)
HIGH = One byte in RHR
LOW = RHR empty
LOW = FIFO below trigger level
HIGH = FIFO above trigger level or RX Data Timeout
9
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
2.6
REV. 1.0.0
Crystal Oscillator or External Clock Input
The M770 includes an on-chip oscillator to produce a clock for the baud rate generators in the device when a
crystal is connected between XTAL1 and XTAL2 as show below. The CPU data bus does not require this clock
for bus operation. The crystal oscillator provides a system clock to the Baud Rate Generators (BRGs) in the
UART. XTAL1 is the input to the oscillator or external clock buffer input with XTAL2 pin being the output. For
programming details, see “Section 2.7, Programmable Baud Rate Generator with Fractional Divisor” on
page 11.
FIGURE 6. TYPICAL CRYSTAL CONNECTIONS
XTAL1
XTAL2
R2
500K - 1M
Y1
C1
22-47pF
R1
0-120
(Optional)
1.8432 MHz
to
24 MHz
C2
22-47pF
The on-chip oscillator is designed to use an industry standard microprocessor crystal (parallel resonant,
fundamental frequency with 10-22 pF capacitance load, ESR of 20-120 ohms and 100ppm frequency
tolerance) connected externally between the XTAL1 and XTAL2 pins. Typical oscillator connections are shown
in Figure 6. Alternatively, an external clock can be connected to the XTAL1 pin to clock the internal baud rate
generator for standard or custom rates. The BGA package has XTAL1 only, the external clock is required. For
further reading on oscillator circuit, see application note DAN108 on EXAR’s web site.
10
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
2.7
Programmable Baud Rate Generator with Fractional Divisor
The M770 has independent Baud Rate Generators (BRGs) with prescalers for the transmitter and receiver.
The prescalers are controlled by a software bit in the MCR register. The MCR register bit-7 sets the prescaler
to divide the input crystal or external clock by 1 or 4. The output of the prescaler clocks to the BRG. The BRG
further divides this clock by a programmable divisor between 1 and (216 - 0.0625) in increments of 0.0625 (1/
16) to obtain a 16X or 8X or 4X sampling clock of the serial data rate. The sampling clock is used by the
transmitter for data bit shifting and receiver for data sampling. For transmitter and receiver, the M770 provides
respective BRG divisors. The BRG divisor (DLL, DLM, and DLD registers) defaults to the value of ’1’ (DLL =
0x01, DLM = 0x00 and DLD = 0x00) upon reset. Therefore, the BRG must be programmed during initialization
to the operating data rate. The DLL and DLM registers provide the integer part of the divisor and the DLD
registers provides the fractional part of the divisor. The four lower bits of the DLD are used to select a value
from 0 (for setting 0000) to 0.9375 or 15/16 (for setting 1111). Programming the Baud Rate Generator
Registers DLL, DLM and DLD provides the capability for selecting the operating data rate. Table 3 shows the
standard data rates available with a 24MHz crystal or external clock at 16X clock rate. If the pre-scaler is used
(MCR bit-7 = 1), the output data rate will be 4 times less than that shown in Table 3. At 8X sampling rate, these
data rates would double. And at 4X sampling rate, they would quadruple. Also, when using 8X sampling mode,
please note that the bit-time will have a jitter (+/- 1/16) whenever the DLD is non-zero and is an odd number.
When using a non-standard data rate crystal or external clock, the divisor value can be calculated with the
following equation(s):
Required Divisor (decimal)=(XTAL1 clock frequency / prescaler) /(serial data rate x 16), with 16X mode, DLD[5:4]=’00’
Required Divisor (decimal)= (XTAL1 clock frequency / prescaler / (serial data rate x 8), with 8X mode, DLD[5:4] = ’01’
Required Divisor (decimal)= (XTAL1 clock frequency / prescaler / (serial data rate x 4), with 4X mode, DLD[5:4] = ’10’
The closest divisor that is obtainable in the M770 can be calculated using the following formula:
ROUND( (Required Divisor - TRUNC(Required Divisor) )*16)/16 + TRUNC(Required Divisor), where
DLM = TRUNC(Required Divisor) >> 8
DLL = TRUNC(Required Divisor) & 0xFF
DLD = ROUND( (Required Divisor-TRUNC(Required Divisor) )*16)
In the formulas above, please note that:
TRUNC (N) = Integer Part of N. For example, TRUNC (5.6) = 5.
ROUND (N) = N rounded towards the closest integer. For example, ROUND (7.3) = 7 and ROUND (9.9) = 10.
A >> B indicates right shifting the value ’A’ by ’B’ number of bits. For example, 0x78A3 >> 8 = 0x0078.
2.7.1
Independent TX/RX BRG
The XR16M770 has two independent sets of TX and RX baud rate generator. See Figure 7. TX and RX can
work in different baud rate by setting DLD, DLL and DLM register. For example, TX can transmit data to the
remote UART at 9600 bps while RX receives data from remote UART at 921.6 Kbps. For the baud rate setting,
please See ”Section 4.13, Baud Rate Generator Registers (DLL, DLM and DLD) - Read/Write” on
page 37.
11
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FIGURE 7. BAUD RATE GENERATOR
DLD[7]=0
Prescaler
Divide by 1
XTAL1
XTAL2
Crystal
Osc /
Buffer
MCR Bit -7= 0
(default)
16X or 8X or 4X
Sampling Rate Clock
to Transmitter
DLL
DLM
DLD[5:0]
0
Prescaler
Divide by 4
MCR Bit -7=1
DLD[7]=1
DLL
DLM
DLD[5:0]
16X or 8X or 4X
Sampling Rate Clock
to Receiver
1
DLD[6]
TABLE 3: TYPICAL DATA RATES WITH A 24 MHZ CRYSTAL OR EXTERNAL CLOCK AT 16X SAMPLING
Required
Output Data
Rate
DIVISOR FOR 16x
Clock
(Decimal)
DIVISOR
OBTAINABLE IN
M770
DLM PROGRAM
VALUE (HEX)
DLL PROGRAM
VALUE (HEX)
DLD PROGRAM
VALUE (HEX)
DATA ERROR
RATE (%)
400
3750
3750
E
A6
0
0
2400
625
625
2
71
0
0
4800
312.5
312 8/16
1
38
8
0
9600
156.25
156 4/16
0
9C
4
0
10000
150
150
0
96
0
0
19200
78.125
78 2/16
0
4E
2
0
25000
60
60
0
3C
0
0
28800
52.0833
52 1/16
0
34
1
0.04
38400
39.0625
39 1/16
0
27
1
0
50000
30
30
0
1E
0
0
57600
26.0417
26 1/16
0
1A
1
0.08
75000
20
20
0
14
0
0
100000
15
15
0
F
0
0
115200
13.0208
13
0
D
0
0.16
153600
9.7656
9 12/16
0
9
C
0.16
200000
7.5
7 8/16
0
7
8
0
225000
6.6667
6 11/16
0
6
B
0.31
230400
6.5104
6 8/16
0
6
8
0.16
250000
6
6
0
6
0
0
300000
5
5
0
5
0
0
400000
3.75
3 12/16
0
3
C
0
460800
3.2552
3 4/16
0
3
4
0.16
500000
3
3
0
3
0
0
750000
2
2
0
2
0
0
921600
1.6276
1 10/16
0
1
A
0.16
1000000
1.5
1 8/16
0
1
8
0
12
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
2.8
Transmitter
The transmitter section comprises of an 8-bit Transmit Shift Register (TSR) and 64 bytes of FIFO which
includes a byte-wide Transmit Holding Register (THR). TSR shifts out every data bit with the 16X/8X/4X
internal clock. A bit time is 16/8/4 clock periods. The transmitter sends the start-bit followed by the number of
data bits, inserts the proper parity-bit if enabled, and adds the stop-bit(s). The status of the FIFO and TSR are
reported in the Line Status Register (LSR bit-5 and bit-6).
2.8.1
Transmit Holding Register (THR) - Write Only
The transmit holding register is an 8-bit register providing a data interface to the host processor. The host
writes transmit data byte to the THR to be converted into a serial data stream including start-bit, data bits,
parity-bit and stop-bit(s). The least-significant-bit (Bit-0) becomes first data bit to go out. The THR is the input
register to the transmit FIFO of 64 bytes when FIFO operation is enabled by FCR bit-0. Every time a write
operation is made to the THR, the FIFO data pointer is automatically bumped to the next sequential data
location.
2.8.2
Transmitter Operation in non-FIFO Mode
The host loads transmit data to THR one character at a time. The THR empty flag (LSR bit-5) is set when the
data byte is transferred to TSR. THR flag can generate a transmit empty interrupt (ISR bit-1) when it is enabled
by IER bit-1. The TSR flag (LSR bit-6) is set when TSR becomes completely empty.
FIGURE 8. TRANSMITTER OPERATION IN NON-FIFO MODE
Data
Byte
16X or 8X or 4X
Clock
( DLD[5:4] )
Transmit
Holding
Register
(THR)
THR Interrupt (ISR bit-1)
Enabled by IER bit-1
Transmit Shift Register (TSR)
M
S
B
L
S
B
TXNOFIFO1
13
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
2.8.3
REV. 1.0.0
Transmitter Operation in FIFO Mode
The host may fill the transmit FIFO with up to 64 bytes of transmit data. The THR empty flag (LSR bit-5) is set
whenever the FIFO is empty. The THR empty flag can generate a transmit empty interrupt (ISR bit-1) when the
FIFO becomes empty. The transmit empty interrupt is enabled by IER bit-1. The TSR flag (LSR bit-6) is set
when TSR/FIFO becomes empty.
FIGURE 9. TRANSMITTER OPERATION IN FIFO AND FLOW CONTROL MODE
Transmit
Data Byte
Transmit
FIFO
THR Interrupt (ISR bit-1) falls
below the programmed Trigger
Level and then when becomes
empty. FIFO is Enabled by FCR
bit-0=1
Auto CTS Flow Control (CTS# pin)
Flow Control Characters
(Xoff1/2 and Xon1/2 Reg.)
Auto Software Flow Control
16X or 8X or 4X Clock
(DLD[5:4])
Transmit Data Shift Register
(TSR)
TXFIFO1
2.9
Receiver
The receiver section contains an 8-bit Receive Shift Register (RSR) and 64 bytes of FIFO which includes a
byte-wide Receive Holding Register (RHR). The RSR uses the 16X/8X/4X clock (DLD[5:4]) for timing. It
verifies and validates every bit on the incoming character in the middle of each data bit. On the falling edge of
a start or false start bit, an internal receiver counter starts counting at the 16X/8X/4X clock rate. After 8 clocks
(or 4 if 8X or 2 if 4X) the start bit period should be at the center of the start bit. At this time the start bit is
sampled and if it is still a logic 0 it is validated. Evaluating the start bit in this manner prevents the receiver from
assembling a false character. The rest of the data bits and stop bits are sampled and validated in this same
manner to prevent false framing. If there were any error(s), they are reported in the LSR register bits 2-4. Upon
unloading the receive data byte from RHR, the receive FIFO pointer is bumped and the error tags are
immediately updated to reflect the status of the data byte in RHR register. RHR can generate a receive data
ready interrupt upon receiving a character or delay until it reaches the FIFO trigger level. Furthermore, data
delivery to the host is guaranteed by a receive data ready time-out interrupt when data is not received for 4
word lengths as defined by LCR[1:0] plus 12 bits time. This is equivalent to 3.7-4.6 character times. The RHR
interrupt is enabled by IER bit-0. See Figure 10 and Figure 11 below.
2.9.1
Receive Holding Register (RHR) - Read-Only
The Receive Holding Register is an 8-bit register that holds a receive data byte from the Receive Shift
Register. It provides the receive data interface to the host processor. The RHR register is part of the receive
FIFO of 64 bytes by 11-bits wide, the 3 extra bits are for the 3 error tags to be reported in LSR register. When
the FIFO is enabled by FCR bit-0, the RHR contains the first data character received by the FIFO. After the
RHR is read, the next character byte is loaded into the RHR and the errors associated with the current data
byte are immediately updated in the LSR bits 2-4.
14
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FIGURE 10. RECEIVER OPERATION IN NON-FIFO MODE
16X or 8X or 4X Clock
( DLD[5:4] )
Receive Data Shift
Register (RSR)
Error
Tags in
LSR bits
4:2
Receive
Data Byte
and Errors
Receive Data
Holding Register
(RHR)
Data Bit
Validation
Receive Data Characters
RHR Interrupt (ISR bit-2)
RXFIFO1
FIGURE 11. RECEIVER OPERATION IN FIFO AND AUTO RTS FLOW CONTROL MODE
16X or 8X or 4X C lock
( D LD [5:4] )
R eceive D ata Shift
R egister (R SR )
D ata Bit
V alidation
64 bytes by 11-bit w ide
FIFO
Error Tags
(64-sets)
D ata falls to
8
R eceive
D ata FIFO
FIFO
Trigger=16
Error Tags in
LSR bits 4:2
D ata fills to
56
R eceive D ata
Byte and Errors
R eceive D ata C haracters
E xam ple
: - R X FIFO trigger level selected at 16 bytes
(See N ote Below )
R TS# re-asserts w hen data falls below the flow
control trigger level to restart rem ote transm itter.
Enable by EFR bit-6=1, M C R bit-1.
R H R Interrupt (IS R bit-2) program m ed for
desired FIFO trigger level.
FIFO is Enabled by FC R bit-0=1
R TS# de-asserts w hen data fills above the flow
control trigger level to suspend rem ote transm itter.
Enable by EFR bit-6=1, M C R bit-1.
R eceive
D ata
R XFIFO 1
15
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
2.10
REV. 1.0.0
Auto RTS (Hardware) Flow Control
Automatic RTS hardware flow control is used to prevent data overrun to the local receiver FIFO. The RTS#
output is used to request remote unit to suspend/resume data transmission. The auto RTS flow control
features is enabled to fit specific application requirement (see Figure 12):
• Enable auto RTS flow control using EFR bit-6.
• The auto RTS function must be started by asserting RTS# output pin (MCR bit-1 to logic 1 after it is enabled).
If using the Auto RTS interrupt:
• Enable RTS interrupt through IER bit-6 (after setting EFR bit-4). The UART issues an interrupt when the
RTS# pin makes a transition from low to high: ISR bit-5 will be set to logic 1.
2.11
Auto RTS Hysteresis
With the Auto RTS function enabled, an interrupt is generated when the receive FIFO reaches the selected RX
trigger level. The RTS# pin will not be forced HIGH (RTS off) until the receive FIFO reaches one trigger level
above the selected trigger level in the trigger table (Table 9). The RTS# pin will return LOW after the RX FIFO
is unloaded to one level below the selected trigger level. Under the above described conditions, the M770 will
continue to accept data until the receive FIFO gets full. The Auto RTS function is initiated when the RTS#
output pin is asserted LOW (RTS On).
TABLE 4: AUTO RTS (HARDWARE) FLOW CONTROL
2.12
RX TRIGGER LEVEL
INT PIN ACTIVATION
RTS# DE-ASSERTED (HIGH)
(CHARACTERS IN RX FIFO)
RTS# ASSERTED (LOW)
(CHARACTERS IN RX FIFO)
8
8
16
0
16
16
56
8
56
56
60
16
60
60
60
56
Auto CTS Flow Control
Automatic CTS flow control is used to prevent data overrun to the remote receiver FIFO. The CTS# input is
monitored to suspend/restart the local transmitter. The auto CTS flow control feature is selected to fit specific
application requirement (see Figure 12):
• Enable auto CTS flow control using EFR bit-7.
If needed, the CTS interrupt can be enabled through IER bit-7 (after setting EFR bit-4). The UART issues an
interrupt when the CTS# pin is de-asserted (HIGH): ISR bit-5 will be set to 1, and UART will suspend
16
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
transmission as soon as the stop bit of the character in process is shifted out. Transmission is resumed after
the CTS# input is re-asserted (LOW), indicating more data may be sent.
FIGURE 12. AUTO RTS AND CTS FLOW CONTROL OPERATION
Local UART
UARTA
Remote UART
UARTB
RXA
Receiver FIFO
Trigger Reached
RTSA#
Auto RTS
Trigger Level
Receiver FIFO
Trigger Reached
RTSB#
Assert RTS# to Begin
Transmission
1
ON
Auto RTS
Trigger Level
10
OFF
ON
7
2
CTSB#
Auto CTS
Monitor
RXB
CTSA#
Auto CTS
Monitor
Transmitter
CTSB#
TXA
Transmitter
RTSA#
TXB
ON
3
8
OFF
6
Suspend
11
ON
TXB
Data Starts
4
Restart
9
RXA FIFO
INTA
(RXA FIFO
Interrupt)
Receive
RX FIFO
Data
Trigger Level
5
RTS High
Threshold
RTS Low
Threshold
12
RX FIFO
Trigger Level
RTSCTS1
The local UART (UARTA) starts data transfer by asserting RTSA# (1). RTSA# is normally connected to CTSB# (2) of
remote UART (UARTB). CTSB# allows its transmitter to send data (3). TXB data arrives and fills UARTA receive FIFO
(4). When RXA data fills up to its receive FIFO trigger level, UARTA activates its RXA data ready interrupt (5) and continues to receive and put data into its FIFO. If interrupt service latency is long and data is not being unloaded, UARTA
monitors its receive data fill level to match the upper threshold of RTS delay and de-assert RTSA# (6). CTSB# follows
(7) and request UARTB transmitter to suspend data transfer. UARTB stops or finishes sending the data bits in its transmit shift register (8). When receive FIFO data in UARTA is unloaded to match the lower threshold of RTS delay (9),
UARTA re-asserts RTSA# (10), CTSB# recognizes the change (11) and restarts its transmitter and data flow again until
next receive FIFO trigger (12). This same event applies to the reverse direction when UARTA sends data to UARTB
with RTSB# and CTSA# controlling the data flow.
17
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
2.13
REV. 1.0.0
Auto Xon/Xoff (Software) Flow Control
When software flow control is enabled (See Table 17), the M770 compares one or two sequential receive data
characters with the programmed Xon or Xoff-1,2 character value(s). If receive character(s) (RX) match the
programmed values, the M770 will halt transmission (TX) as soon as the current character has completed
transmission. When a match occurs, the Xoff (if enabled via IER bit-5) flag will be set and the interrupt output
pin will be activated. Following a suspension due to a match of the Xoff character, the M770 will monitor the
receive data stream for a match to the Xon-1,2 character. If a match is found, the M770 will resume operation
and clear the flags (ISR bit-4).
Reset initially sets the contents of the Xon/Xoff 8-bit flow control registers to a logic 0. Following reset the user
can write any Xon/Xoff value desired for software flow control. Different conditions can be set to detect Xon/
Xoff characters (See Table 17) and suspend/resume transmissions. When double 8-bit Xon/Xoff characters
are selected, the M770 compares two consecutive receive characters with two software flow control 8-bit
values (Xon1, Xon2, Xoff1, Xoff2) and controls TX transmissions accordingly. Under the above described flow
control mechanisms, flow control characters are not placed (stacked) in the user accessible RX data buffer or
FIFO.
In the event that the receive buffer is overfilling and flow control needs to be executed, the M770 automatically
sends an Xoff message (when enabled) via the serial TX output to the remote modem. The M770 sends the
Xoff-1,2 characters two-character-times (= time taken to send two characters at the programmed baud rate)
after the receive FIFO crosses the programmed trigger level. To clear this condition, the M770 will transmit the
programmed Xon-1,2 characters as soon as receive FIFO is less than one trigger level below the programmed
trigger level. Table 5 below explains this.
TABLE 5: AUTO XON/XOFF (SOFTWARE) FLOW CONTROL
RX TRIGGER LEVEL
INT PIN ACTIVATION
XOFF CHARACTER(S) SENT
(CHARACTERS IN RX FIFO)
XON CHARACTER(S) SENT
(CHARACTERS IN RX FIFO)
8
8
8*
0
16
16
16*
8
56
56
56*
16
60
60
60*
56
* After the trigger level is reached, an xoff character is sent after a short span of time (= time required to send 2 characters);
for example, after 2.083ms has elapsed for 9600 baud and 10-bit word length setting.
2.14
Special Character Detect
A special character detect feature is provided to detect an 8-bit character when bit-5 is set in the Enhanced
Feature Register (EFR). When this character (Xoff2) is detected, it will be placed in the FIFO along with normal
incoming RX data.
The M770 compares each incoming receive character with Xoff-2 data. If a match exists, the received data will
be transferred to the RX FIFO and ISR bit-4 will be set to indicate detection of special character. Although the
Internal Register Table shows Xon, Xoff Registers with eight bits of character information, the actual number of
bits is dependent on the programmed word length. Line Control Register (LCR) bits 0-1 defines the number of
character bits, i.e., either 5 bits, 6 bits, 7 bits, or 8 bits. The word length selected by LCR bits 0-1 also
determines the number of bits that will be used for the special character comparison. Bit-0 in the Xon, Xoff
Registers corresponds with the LSB bit for the receive character.
2.15
Normal Multidrop Mode
Normal multidrop mode is enabled when MSR[6] = 1 (requires EFR[4] = 1) and EFR[5] = 0 (Special Character
Detect disabled). The receiver is set to Force Parity 0 (LCR[5:3] = ’111’) in order to detect address bytes.
With the receiver initially disabled, it ignores all the data bytes (parity bit = 0) until an address byte is received
(parity bit = 1). This address byte will cause the UART to set the parity error. The UART will generate an LSR
18
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
interrupt and place the address byte in the RX FIFO. The software then examines the byte and enables the
receiver if the address matches its slave address, otherwise, it does not enable the receiver.
If the receiver has been enabled, the receiver will receive the subsequent data. If an address byte is received,
it will generate an LSR interrupt. The software again examines the byte and if the address matches its slave
address, it does not have to do anything. If the address does not match its slave address, then the receiver
should be disabled.
2.15.1
Auto Address Detection
Auto address detection mode is enabled when MSR[6] = 1 (requires EFR[4] = 1) and EFR bit-5 = 1. The
desired slave address will need to be written into the XOFF2 register. The receiver will try to detect an address
byte that matches the porgrammed character in the XOFF2 register. If the received byte is a data byte or an
address byte that does not match the programmed character in the XOFF2 register, the receiver will discard
these data. Upon receiving an address byte that matches the XOFF2 character, the receiver will be
automatically enabled if not already enabled, and the address character is pushed into the RX FIFO along with
the parity bit (in place of the parity error bit). The receiver also generates an LSR interrupt. The receiver will
then receive the subsequent data. If another address byte is received and this address does not match the
programmed XOFF2 character, then the receiver will automatically be disabled and the address byte is
ignored. If the address byte matches XOFF2, the receiver will put this byte in the RX FIFO along with the parity
bit in the parity error bit.
2.16
Infrared Mode
The M770 UART includes the infrared encoder and decoder compatible to the IrDA (Infrared Data Association)
version 1.0 and 1.1. The IrDA 1.0 standard that stipulates the infrared encoder sends out a 3/16 of a bit wide
HIGH-pulse for each “0” bit in the transmit data stream with a data rate up to 115.2 Kbps. For the IrDA 1.1
standard, the infrared encoder sends out a 1/4 of a bit time wide HIGH-pulse for each "0" bit in the transmit
data stream with a data rate up to 1.152 Mbps. This signal encoding reduces the on-time of the infrared LED,
hence reduces the power consumption. See Figure 13 below.
The infrared encoder and decoder are enabled by setting MCR register bit-6 to a ‘1’. With this bit enabled, the
infrared encoder and decoder is compatible to the IrDA 1.0 standard. For the infrared encoder and decoder to
be compatible to the IrDA 1.1 standard, MSR bit-7 will also need to be set to a ’1’ when EFR bit-4 is set to ’1’.
Likewise, the RX input assumes an idle level of logic zero from a reset and power up, see Figure 13.
Typically, the wireless infrared decoder receives the input pulse from the infrared sensing diode on the RX pin.
Each time it senses a light pulse, it returns a logic 1 to the data bit stream.
19
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FIGURE 13. INFRARED TRANSMIT DATA ENCODING AND RECEIVE DATA DECODING
TX Data
0
Stop
Start
Character
Data Bits
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
Transmit
IR Pulse
(TX Pin)
Bit Time
1/2 Bit Time
3/16 or 1/4 Bit Time
IrEncoder-1
Receive
IR Pulse
(RX pin)
Bit Time
1/16 Clock Delay
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
Data Bits
1
Stop
0
Start
RX Data
Character
IRdecoder-1
2.17
Sleep Mode with Auto Wake-Up and Power-Save feature
The M770 supports low voltage system designs, hence, a sleep mode with auto wake-up and power-save
feature is included to reduce its power consumption when the chip is not actively used.
2.17.1
Sleep mode
All of these conditions must be satisfied for the M770 to enter sleep mode:
■
no interrupts pending (ISR bit-0 = 1)
■
sleep mode is enabled (IER bit-4 = 1)
■
modem inputs are not toggling (MSR bits 0-3 = 0)
■
RX input pin is idling HIGH in normal mode or LOW in infrared mode
■
divisor is non-zero
■
TX and RX FIFOs are empty
The M770 stops its crystal oscillator to conserve power in the sleep mode. User can check the XTAL2 pin for
no clock output as an indication that the device has entered the sleep mode.
The M770 resumes normal operation by any of the following:
■
a receive data start bit transition (HIGH to LOW)
■
a data byte is loaded to the transmitter, THR or FIFO
■
a change of logic state on any of the modem or general purpose serial inputs: CTS#, DSR#, CD#, RI#
If the M770 is awakened by any one of the above conditions, it will return to the sleep mode automatically after
all interrupting conditions have been serviced and cleared. If the M770 is awakened by the modem inputs, a
read to the MSR is required to reset the modem inputs. In any case, the sleep mode will not be entered while
20
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
an interrupt is pending from any channel. The M770 will stay in the sleep mode of operation until it is disabled
by setting IER bit-4 to a logic 0.
A word of caution: owing to the starting up delay of the crystal oscillator after waking up from sleep mode, the
first few receive characters may be lost. Also, make sure the RX pin is idling HIGH or “marking” condition
during sleep mode. This may not occur when the external interface transceivers (RS-232, RS-485 or another
type) are also put to sleep mode and cannot maintain the “marking” condition. To avoid this, the system design
engineer can use a 47k ohm pull-up resistor on each of the RX input.
2.17.2
Power-Save Feature
If the address lines, data bus lines, IOW#, IOR#, CS# and modem input lines remain steady when the M770 is
in sleep mode, the maximum current will be in the microamp range as specified in the DC Electrical
Characteristics on page 43. If the input lines are floating or are toggling while the M770 is in sleep mode, the
current can be up to 100 times more. If not using the Power-Save feature, an external buffer would be required
to keep the address and data bus lines from toggling or floating to achieve the low current. But if the PowerSave feature is enabled (PwrSave pin connected to VCC), this will eliminate the need for an external buffer by
internally isolating the address, data and control signals (see Figure 1 on page 1) from other bus activities that
could cause wasteful power drain. The M770 enters Power-Save mode when this pin is connected to VCC and
the M770 is in sleep mode (see Sleep Mode section above).
Since Power-Save mode isolates the address, data and control signals, the device will wake-up only by:
■
a receive data start bit transition (HIGH to LOW) at the RX input or
■
a change of logic state on the modem or general purpose serial input CTS#, DSR#, CD#, RI#
The M770 will return to the Power-Save mode automatically after a read to the MSR (to reset the modem input
CTS#) and all interrupting conditions have been serviced and cleared. The M770 will stay in the Power-Save
mode of operation until it is disabled by setting IER bit-4 to a logic 0 and/or the Power-Save pin is connected to
GND.
2.17.3
Wake-up Interrupt
The M770 has the wake up interrupt. By setting the FCR bit-3, wake up interrupt is enabled or disabled. The
default status of wake up interrupt is disabled. Please See ”Section 4.5, FIFO Control Register (FCR) Write-Only” on page 29.
21
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
2.18
REV. 1.0.0
Internal Loopback
The M770 UART provides an internal loopback capability for system diagnostic purposes. The internal
loopback mode is enabled by setting MCR register bit-4 to logic 1. All regular UART functions operate normally.
Figure 14 shows how the modem port signals are re-configured. Transmit data from the transmit shift register
output is internally routed to the receive shift register input allowing the system to receive the same data that it
was sending. The TX pin is held HIGH or mark condition while RTS# and DTR# are de-asserted, and CTS#,
DSR# CD# and RI# inputs are ignored. Caution: the RX input must be held HIGH during loopback test else
upon exiting the loopback test the UART may detect and report a false “break” signal.
FIGURE 14. INTERNAL LOOPBACK
VCC
TX
T ra n s m it S h ift R e g is te r
(T H R /F IF O )
R e c e iv e S h ift R e g is te r
(R H R /F IF O )
RX
VCC
RTS#
RTS#
Modem / General Purpose Control Logic
Internal Data Bus Lines and Control Signals
M C R b it-4 = 1
CTS#
CTS#
VCC
DTR#
DTR#
DSR#
DSR#
O P1#
R I#
R I#
O P2#
CD#
CD#
22
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
3.0 UART INTERNAL REGISTERS
The complete register set for the M770 is shown in Table 6 and Table 7.
TABLE 6: UART INTERNAL REGISTERS
A2 A1 A0
ADDRESSES
REGISTER
READ/WRITE
COMMENTS
16C550 COMPATIBLE REGISTERS
0
0 0
DREV - Device Revision
Read-only
0
0 1
DVID - Device Identification Register
Read-only
0
0 0
DLL - Divisor LSB Register
Read/Write
0
0 1
DLM - Divisor MSB Register
Read/Write
0
1 0
DLD - Divisor Fractional Register
Read/Write
0
0 0
RHR - Receive Holding Register
THR - Transmit Holding Register
Read-only
Write-only
LCR[7] = 1, LCR ≠ 0xBF,
DLL = 0x00, DLM = 0x00
LCR[7] = 1, LCR ≠ 0xBF
See DLD[7:6]
LCR[7] = 1, LCR ≠ 0xBF,
EFR[4] = 1
LCR[7] = 0
0
0 1
IER - Interrupt Enable Register
Read/Write
0
1 0
ISR - Interrupt Status Register
FCR - FIFO Control Register
Read-only
Write-only
0
1 1
LCR - Line Control Register
Read/Write
1
0 0
MCR - Modem Control Register
Read/Write
1
0 1
LSR - Line Status Register
Read-only
1
1 0
MSR - Modem Status Register
Read-only
1
1 0
MSR - Modem Status Register
Write-only
LCR ≠ 0xBF
EFR[4] = 1
1
1 1
SPR - Scratch Pad Register
Read/Write
LCR ≠ 0xBF, FCTR[6] = 0
1
1 1
EMSR - Enhanced Mode Select Register
Write-only
1
1 1
FC - RX/TX FIFO Level Counter Register
Read-only
LCR[7] = 0 if EFR[4] = 1
or
LCR ≠ 0xBF if EFR[4] = 0
LCR ≠ 0xBF
LCR ≠ 0xBF, FCTR[6] = 1
ENHANCED REGISTERS
0
0 0
FC - RX/TX FIFO Level Counter Register
Read-only
0
0 0
TRIG - RX/TX FIFO Trigger Level Register
Write-only
0
0 1
FCTR - Feature Control Register
Read/Write
0
1 0
EFR - Enhanced Function Reg
Read/Write
1
0 0
Xon-1 - Xon Character 1
Read/Write
1
0 1
Xon-2 - Xon Character 2
Read/Write
1
1 0
Xoff-1 - Xoff Character 1
Read/Write
1
1 1
Xoff-2 - Xoff Character 2
Read/Write
LCR = 0xBF
23
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
TABLE 7: INTERNAL REGISTERS DESCRIPTION. SHADED BITS ARE ENABLED WHEN EFR BIT-4=1
ADDRESS
A2-A0
REG
NAME
READ/
WRITE
BIT-7
BIT-6
BIT-5
BIT-4
BIT-3
BIT-2
BIT-1
BIT-0
COMMENT
16C550 Compatible Registers
000
RHR
RD
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
000
THR
WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
001
IER
RD/WR
0/
0/
0/
0/
CTS#
Int.
Enable
RTS#
Int.
Enable
Xoff Int.
Enable
Sleep
Mode
Enable
0/
0/
INT
Source
Bit-3
FIFOs
FIFOs
Enabled Enabled
Modem RX Line
TX
RX
LCR[7] = 0
Stat. Int.
Stat.
Empty
Data
Enable
Int.
Int
Int.
Enable Enable Enable
010
ISR
RD
010
FCR
WR
011
LCR
RD/WR
Divisor
Enable
Set TX
Break
Set
Parity
Even
Parity
Parity
Enable
Stop
Bits
Word
Word
Length Length
Bit-1
Bit-0
100
MCR
RD/WR
0/
0/
0/
Internal
Lopback
Enable
INT Output
Enable
(OP2#)
OP1#
RTS# DTR#
Output Output
Control Control
RX Break RX Framing Error
RX
Parity
Error
INT
INT
INT
Source Source Source
LCR[7] = 0
RTS
Xoff
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
if
EFR[4]=1
CTS
Interrupt
Interrupt
or
LCR≠0xBF
TX
RX FIFO RX FIFO TX FIFO TX FIFO Wake up
RX
FIFOs
if EFR[4]=0
Trigger Int Enable FIFO
Trigger Trigger Trigger
FIFO Enable
Reset Reset
BRG
Prescaler
101
110
LSR
MSR
RD
RX FIFO
Global
Error
IR Mode XonAny
ENable
THR &
TSR
Empty
THR
Empty
RX
Overrun
Error
RX
Data
Ready
LCR≠0xBF
RD
CD#
Input
RI#
Input
DSR#
Input
CTS#
Input
Delta
CD#
Delta
RI#
Delta
DSR#
Delta
CTS#
WR
Fast IR
Enable
9-bit
mode
Disable
RX
Disable
TX
0
0
0
0
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
Invert
RTS in
RS485
mode
Send
TX
immediate
Bit-3
Bit-2
111
SPR
RD/WR
111
EMSR
WR
111
FC
RD
Xoff
LSR
RTS
RTS
interrupt interrupt delay bit- delay bitmode
mode
3
2
select
select
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
24
LCR≠0xBF
FCTR[6]=0
FIFO
FIFO
count
count
control control LCR≠0xBF
bit-1
bit-0 FCTR[6]=1
Bit-1
Bit-0
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
TABLE 7: INTERNAL REGISTERS DESCRIPTION. SHADED BITS ARE ENABLED WHEN EFR BIT-4=1
ADDRESS
A2-A0
REG
NAME
READ/
WRITE
BIT-7
BIT-6
BIT-5
BIT-4
BIT-3
BIT-2
BIT-1
BIT-0
COMMENT
LCR[7] = 1
LCR≠0xBF
DLL= 0x00
DLM= 0x00
Baud Rate Generator Divisor
000
DREV
RD
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
001
DVID
RD
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
000
DLL
RD/WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
001
DLM
RD/WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
010
DLD
RD/WR
BRG
select
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
Enable 4X Mode 8X Mode
Independent
BRG
LCR[7] = 1
LCR≠0xBF
DLD[7:6]
LCR[7] = 1
LCR≠0xBF
EFR[4] = 1
Enhanced Registers
000
FC
RD
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
000
TRIG
WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
001
FCTR RD/WR
RX/TX
select
Swap
SCR
trigger
mode
bit-1
trigger
mode
bit-0
RS485
interrupt
mode
invert
RX IR
RTS
delay
bit-1
RTS
delay
bit-0
Auto
CTS#
Enable
Auto
RTS#
Enable
Special
Char
Select
Enable
IER [7:4],
ISR [5:4],
FCR[5:3],
MCR[7:5],
DLD
Software
Flow
Cntl
Bit-3
Software
Flow
Cntl
Bit-2
Software
Flow
Cntl
Bit-1
Software
Flow
Cntl
Bit-0
010
EFR
RD/WR
100
XON1 RD/WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
101
XON2 RD/WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
110
XOFF1 RD/WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
111
XOFF2 RD/WR
Bit-7
Bit-6
Bit-5
Bit-4
Bit-3
Bit-2
Bit-1
Bit-0
4.0 INTERNAL REGISTER DESCRIPTIONS
4.1
Receive Holding Register (RHR) - Read- Only
SEE”RECEIVER” ON PAGE 14.
4.2
Transmit Holding Register (THR) - Write-Only
SEE”TRANSMITTER” ON PAGE 13.
25
LCR=0XBF
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
4.3
REV. 1.0.0
Interrupt Enable Register (IER) - Read/Write
The Interrupt Enable Register (IER) masks the interrupts from receive data ready, transmit empty, line status
and modem status registers. These interrupts are reported in the Interrupt Status Register (ISR).
4.3.1
IER versus Receive FIFO Interrupt Mode Operation
When the receive FIFO (FCR BIT-0 = 1) and receive interrupts (IER BIT-0 = 1) are enabled, the RHR interrupts
(see ISR bits 2 and 3) status will reflect the following:
A. The receive data available interrupts are issued to the host when the FIFO has reached the programmed
trigger level. It will be cleared when the FIFO drops below the programmed trigger level.
B. FIFO level will be reflected in the ISR register when the FIFO trigger level is reached. Both the ISR register
status bit and the interrupt will be cleared when the FIFO drops below the trigger level.
C. The receive data ready bit (LSR BIT-0) is set as soon as a character is transferred from the shift register to
the receive FIFO. It is reset when the FIFO is empty.
4.3.2
IER versus Receive/Transmit FIFO Polled Mode Operation
When FCR BIT-0 equals a logic 1 for FIFO enable; resetting IER bits 0-3 enables the XR16M770 in the FIFO
polled mode of operation. Since the receiver and transmitter have separate bits in the LSR either or both can
be used in the polled mode by selecting respective transmit or receive control bit(s).
A. LSR BIT-0 indicates there is data in RHR or RX FIFO.
B. LSR BIT-1 indicates an overrun error has occurred and that data in the FIFO may not be valid.
C. LSR BIT 2-4 provides the type of receive data errors encountered for the data byte in RHR, if any.
D. LSR BIT-5 indicates THR is empty.
E. LSR BIT-6 indicates when both the transmit FIFO and TSR are empty.
F. LSR BIT-7 indicates a data error in at least one character in the RX FIFO.
IER[0]: RHR Interrupt Enable
The receive data ready interrupt will be issued when RHR has a data character in the non-FIFO mode or when
the receive FIFO has reached the programmed trigger level in the FIFO mode.
Logic 0 = Disable the receive data ready interrupt (default).
Logic 1 = Enable the receiver data ready interrupt.
IER[1]: THR Interrupt Enable
This bit enables the Transmit Ready interrupt which is issued whenever the THR becomes empty in the nonFIFO mode or when data in the FIFO falls below the programmed trigger level in the FIFO mode. If the THR is
empty when this bit is enabled, an interrupt will be generated.
Logic 0 = Disable Transmit Ready interrupt (default).
Logic 1 = Enable Transmit Ready interrupt.
IER[2]: Receive Line Status Interrupt Enable
If any of the LSR register bits 1, 2, 3 or 4 is a logic 1, it will generate an interrupt to inform the host controller
about the error status of the current data byte in FIFO. LSR bit-1 generates an interrupt immediately when an
overrun occurs. LSR bits 2-4 generate an interrupt when the character in the RHR has an error. However,
when EMSR bit-6 changes to 1 (default is 0), LSR bit 2-4 generate an interrupt when the character is received
in the RX FIFO. Please refer to “Section 4.12, Enhanced Mode Select Register (EMSR) - Write-only” on
page 36.
• Logic 0 = Disable the receiver line status interrupt (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable the receiver line status interrupt.
26
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
IER[3]: Modem Status Interrupt Enable
• Logic 0 = Disable the modem status register interrupt (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable the modem status register interrupt.
IER[4]: Sleep Mode Enable (requires EFR[4] = 1)
• Logic 0 = Disable Sleep Mode (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable Sleep Mode. See Sleep Mode section for further details.
IER[5]: Xoff Interrupt Enable (requires EFR[4]=1)
• Logic 0 = Disable the software flow control, receive Xoff interrupt. (default)
• Logic 1 = Enable the software flow control, receive Xoff interrupt. See Software Flow Control section for
details.
IER[6]: RTS# Output Interrupt Enable (requires EFR[4]=1)
• Logic 0 = Disable the RTS# interrupt (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable the RTS# interrupt. The UART issues an interrupt when the RTS# pin makes a transition
from LOW to HIGH (if enabled by EFR bit-6).
IER[7]: CTS# Input Interrupt Enable (requires EFR[4]=1)
• Logic 0 = Disable the CTS# interrupt (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable the CTS# interrupt. The UART issues an interrupt when CTS# pin makes a transition from
LOW to HIGH (if enabled by EFR bit-7).
4.4
Interrupt Status Register (ISR) - Read-Only
The UART provides multiple levels of prioritized interrupts to minimize external software interaction. The
Interrupt Status Register (ISR) provides the user with six interrupt status bits. Performing a read cycle on the
ISR will give the user the current highest pending interrupt level to be serviced, others are queued up to be
serviced next. No other interrupts are acknowledged until the pending interrupt is serviced. The Interrupt
Source Table, Table 8, shows the data values (bit 0-5) for the interrupt priority levels and the interrupt sources
associated with each of these interrupt levels.
4.4.1
Interrupt Generation:
• LSR is by any of the LSR bits 1, 2, 3 and 4.
• RXRDY is by RX trigger level.
• RXRDY Time-out is by a 4-char plus 12 bits delay timer.
• TXRDY is by TX trigger level or TX FIFO empty.
• MSR is by any of the MSR bits 0, 1, 2 and 3.
• Receive Xon/Xoff/Special character is by detection of a Xon, Xoff or Special character.
• CTS# is when the remote transmitter toggles the input pin (from LOW to HIGH) during auto CTS flow control.
• RTS# is when its receiver toggles the output pin (from LOW to HIGH) during auto RTS flow control.
• Wakeup interrupt is generated when the M770 wakes up from the sleep mode.
27
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
4.4.2
REV. 1.0.0
Interrupt Clearing:
• LSR interrupt is cleared by a read to the LSR register.
• RXRDY interrupt is cleared by reading data until FIFO falls below the trigger level.
• RXRDY Time-out interrupt is cleared by reading RHR.
• TXRDY interrupt is cleared by a read to the ISR register or writing to THR.
• MSR interrupt is cleared by a read to the MSR register.
• Xon or Xoff interrupt is cleared by a read to the ISR register. See EMSR[7].
• Special character interrupt is cleared by a read to ISR register or after next character is received. See
EMSR[7].
• RTS# and CTS# flow control interrupts are cleared by a read to the MSR register.
• Wakeup interrupt is cleared by a read to ISR register.
]
TABLE 8: INTERRUPT SOURCE AND PRIORITY LEVEL
PRIORITY
ISR REGISTER STATUS BITS
SOURCE OF INTERRUPT
LEVEL
BIT-5
BIT-4
BIT-3
BIT-2
BIT-1
BIT-0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
LSR (Receiver Line Status Register)
2
0
0
1
1
0
0
RXRDY (Receive Data Time-out)
3
0
0
0
1
0
0
RXRDY (Received Data Ready)
4
0
0
0
0
1
0
TXRDY (Transmit Ready)
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
MSR (Modem Status Register)
6
0
1
0
0
0
0
RXRDY (Received Xon, Xoff or Special character)
7
1
0
0
0
0
0
CTS#, RTS# change of state
-
0
0
0
0
0
1
None (default) or Wakeup interrupt
ISR[0]: Interrupt Status
• Logic 0 = An interrupt is pending and the ISR contents may be used as a pointer to the appropriate interrupt
service routine.
• Logic 1 = No interrupt pending (default condition).
ISR[3:1]: Interrupt Status
These bits indicate the source for a pending interrupt at interrupt priority levels (See Interrupt Source Table 8).
ISR[4]: Interrupt Status (requires EFR bit-4 = 1)
This bit is enabled when EFR bit-4 is set to a logic 1. ISR bit-4 indicates that the receiver detected a data match
of the Xoff, Xon or special character(s).
ISR[5]: Interrupt Status (requires EFR bit-4 = 1)
ISR bit-5 indicates that CTS# or RTS# has changed state from LOW to HIGH.
ISR[7:6]: FIFO Enable Status
These bits are set to a logic 0 when the FIFOs are disabled. They are set to a logic 1 when the FIFOs are
enabled.
28
XR16M770
REV. 1.0.0
4.5
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
FIFO Control Register (FCR) - Write-Only
This register is used to enable the FIFOs, clear the FIFOs, set the transmit/receive FIFO trigger levels, and
enable the wake up interrupt. They are defined as follows:
FCR[0]: TX and RX FIFO Enable
• Logic 0 = Disable the transmit and receive FIFO (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable the transmit and receive FIFOs. This bit must be set to logic 1 when other FCR bits are
written or they will not be programmed.
FCR[1]: RX FIFO Reset
This bit is only active when FCR bit-0 is a ‘1’.
• Logic 0 = No receive FIFO reset (default)
• Logic 1 = Reset the receive FIFO pointers and FIFO level counter logic (the receive shift register is not
cleared or altered). This bit will return to a logic 0 after resetting the FIFO.
FCR[2]: TX FIFO Reset
This bit is only active when FCR bit-0 is a ‘1’.
• Logic 0 = No transmit FIFO reset (default).
• Logic 1 = Reset the transmit FIFO pointers and FIFO level counter logic (the transmit shift register is not
cleared or altered). This bit will return to a logic 0 after resetting the FIFO.
FCR[3]: Enable wake up interrupt (requires EFR bit-4 = 1)
• Logic 0 = Disable the wake up interrupt (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable the wake up interrupt.
Please refer to “Section 2.17.3, Wake-up Interrupt” on page 21.
FCR[5:4]: Transmit FIFO Trigger Select (requires EFR bit-4 = 1)
These 2 bits set the trigger level for the transmit FIFO. The UART will issue a transmit interrupt when the
number of characters in the FIFO falls below the selected trigger level, or when it gets empty in case that the
FIFO did not get filled over the trigger level on last re-load. Table 9 below shows the selections. Note that the
receiver and the transmitter cannot use different trigger tables. Whichever selection is made last applies to
both the RX and TX side.
FCR[7:6]: Receive FIFO Trigger Select
These 2 bits are used to set the trigger level for the receive FIFO. The UART will issue a receive interrupt when
the number of the characters in the FIFO crosses the trigger level. Table 9 shows the complete selections.
Note that the receiver and the transmitter cannot use different trigger tables. Whichever selection is made last
applies to both the RX and TX side.
29
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
TABLE 9: TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE FIFO TRIGGER TABLE AND LEVEL SELECTION
TRIGGER
TABLE
FCTR
BIT-5
FCTR
BIT-4
Table-A
0
0
FCR
BIT-7
FCR
BIT-6
0
0
1
1
Table-B
0
Table-D
4.6
1
1
1
0
0
X
X
COMPATIBILITY
16C550, 16C2550,
16C2552, 16C554,
16C580
16
8
24
30
16C650A
8
16
32
56
16C654
8
16
24
28
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
TRANSMIT
TRIGGER
LEVEL
1 (default)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
RECEIVE
TRIGGER LEVEL
1 (default)
4
8
14
0
0
1
1
0
1
FCR
BIT-4
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
Table-C
FCR
BIT-5
0
1
0
1
8
16
56
60
X
X
Programmable Programmable 16L2752, 16C2850,
16C2852, 16C850,
via TRG
via TRG
16C854, 16C864
register.
register.
FCTR[7] = 0.
FCTR[7] = 1.
Line Control Register (LCR) - Read/Write
The Line Control Register is used to specify the asynchronous data communication format. The word or
character length, the number of stop bits, and the parity are selected by writing the appropriate bits in this
register.
LCR[1:0]: TX and RX Word Length Select
These two bits specify the word length to be transmitted or received.
BIT-1
BIT-0
WORD LENGTH
0
0
5 (default)
0
1
6
1
0
7
1
1
8
30
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
LCR[2]: TX and RX Stop-bit Length Select
The length of stop bit is specified by this bit in conjunction with the programmed word length.
LENGTH
STOP BIT LENGTH
(BIT TIME(S))
0
5,6,7,8
1 (default)
1
5
1-1/2
1
6,7,8
2
WORD
BIT-2
LCR[3]: TX and RX Parity Select
Parity or no parity can be selected via this bit. The parity bit is a simple way used in communications for data
integrity check. See Table 10 for parity selection summary below.
• Logic 0 = No parity.
• Logic 1 = A parity bit is generated during the transmission while the receiver checks for parity error of the
data character received.
LCR[4]: TX and RX Parity Select
If the parity bit is enabled with LCR bit-3 set to a logic 1, LCR BIT-4 selects the even or odd parity format.
• Logic 0 = ODD Parity is generated by forcing an odd number of logic 1’s in the transmitted character. The
receiver must be programmed to check the same format (default).
• Logic 1 = EVEN Parity is generated by forcing an even number of logic 1’s in the transmitted character. The
receiver must be programmed to check the same format.
LCR[5]: TX and RX Parity Select
If the parity bit is enabled, LCR BIT-5 selects the forced parity format.
• LCR BIT-5 = logic 0, parity is not forced (default).
• LCR BIT-5 = logic 1 and LCR BIT-4 = logic 0, parity bit is forced to a logical 1 for the transmit and receive
data.
• LCR BIT-5 = logic 1 and LCR BIT-4 = logic 1, parity bit is forced to a logical 0 for the transmit and receive
data.
TABLE 10: PARITY SELECTION
LCR BIT-5 LCR BIT-4 LCR BIT-3
PARITY SELECTION
X
X
0
No parity
0
0
1
Odd parity
0
1
1
Even parity
1
0
1
Force parity to mark, HIGH
1
1
1
Forced parity to space, LOW
31
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
LCR[6]: Transmit Break Enable
When enabled, the Break control bit causes a break condition to be transmitted (the TX output is forced to a
“space’, logic 0, state). This condition remains, until disabled by setting LCR bit-6 to a logic 0.
• Logic 0 = No TX break condition. (default)
• Logic 1 = Forces the transmitter output (TX) to a “space”, logic 0, for alerting the remote receiver of a line
break condition.
LCR[7]: Baud Rate Divisors Enable
Baud rate generator divisor (DLL/DLM/DLD) enable.
• Logic 0 = Data registers are selected. (default)
• Logic 1 = Divisor latch registers are selected.
4.7
Modem Control Register (MCR) or General Purpose Outputs Control - Read/Write
The MCR register is used for controlling the serial/modem interface signals or general purpose inputs/outputs.
MCR[0]: DTR# Output
The DTR# pin is a modem control output. If the modem interface is not used, this output may be used as a
general purpose output.
• Logic 0 = Force DTR# output HIGH (default).
• Logic 1 = Force DTR# output LOW.
MCR[1]: RTS# Output
The RTS# pin is a modem control output and may be used for automatic hardware flow control by enabled by
EFR bit-6. If the modem interface is not used, this output may be used as a general purpose output.
• Logic 0 = Force RTS# output HIGH (default).
• Logic 1 = Force RTS# output LOW. It is required to start Auto RTS Flow Control.
MCR[2]: Reserved
OP1# is not available as an output pin on the M770. But it is available for use during Internal Loopback Mode.
In the Loopback Mode, this bit is used to write the state of the modem RI# interface signal.
MCR[3]: INT Output Enable
Enable or disable INT outputs to become active or in three-state. This bit is also used to control the OP2#
signal during internal loopback mode.
• Logic 0 = INT output disabled (three state) in the 16 mode (default). During internal loopback mode, OP2# is
HIGH.
• Logic 1 = INT output enabled (active) in the 16 mode. During internal loopback mode, OP2# is LOW.
TABLE 11: INT OUTPUT MODES
MCR
BIT-3
INT OUTPUT IN 16 MODE
0
Three-State
1
Active
32
XR16M770
REV. 1.0.0
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
MCR[4]: Internal Loopback Enable
• Logic 0 = Disable loopback mode (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable local loopback mode, see loopback section and Figure 14.
MCR[5]: Xon-Any Enable (requires EFR bit-4 = 1)
• Logic 0 = Disable Xon-Any function (for 16C550 compatibility, default).
• Logic 1 = Enable Xon-Any function. In this mode, any RX character received will resume transmit operation.
The RX character will be loaded into the RX FIFO , unless the RX character is an Xon or Xoff character and
the M770 is programmed to use the Xon/Xoff flow control.
MCR[6]: Infrared Encoder/Decoder Enable (requires EFR bit-4 = 1)
• Logic 0 = Enable the standard modem receive and transmit input/output interface. (Default)
• Logic 1 = Enable infrared IrDA receive and transmit inputs/outputs. The TX/RX output/input are routed to the
infrared encoder/decoder. The data input and output levels conform to the IrDA infrared interface
requirement. The RX FIFO may need to be flushed upon enable. While in this mode, the infrared TX output
will be LOW during idle data conditions.
MCR[7]: Clock Prescaler Select (requires EFR bit-4 = 1)
• Logic 0 = Divide by one. The input clock from the crystal or external clock is fed directly to the Programmable
Baud Rate Generator without further modification, i.e., divide by one (default).
• Logic 1 = Divide by four. The prescaler divides the input clock from the crystal or external clock by four and
feeds it to the Programmable Baud Rate Generator, hence, data rates become one forth.
4.8
Line Status Register (LSR) - Read Only
This register provides the status of data transfers between the UART and the host. If IER bit-2 is enabled, LSR
bit 1 will generate an interrupt immediately and LSR bits 2-4 will generate an interrupt when a character with an
error is in the RHR.
LSR[0]: Receive Data Ready Indicator
• Logic 0 = No data in receive holding register or FIFO (default).
• Logic 1 = Data has been received and is saved in the receive holding register or FIFO.
LSR[1]: Receiver Overrun Flag
• Logic 0 = No overrun error (default).
• Logic 1 = Overrun error. A data overrun error condition occurred in the receive shift register. This happens
when additional data arrives while the FIFO is full. In this case the previous data in the receive shift register
is overwritten. Note that under this condition the data byte in the receive shift register is not transferred into
the FIFO, therefore the data in the FIFO is not corrupted by the error.
LSR[2]: Receive Data Parity Error Tag
• Logic 0 = No parity error (default).
• Logic 1 = Parity error. The receive character in RHR does not have correct parity information and is suspect.
This error is associated with the character available for reading in RHR.
LSR[3]: Receive Data Framing Error Tag
• Logic 0 = No framing error (default).
• Logic 1 = Framing error. The receive character did not have a valid stop bit(s). This error is associated with
the character available for reading in RHR.
33
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
LSR[4]: Receive Break Tag
• Logic 0 = No break condition (default).
• Logic 1 = The receiver received a break signal (RX was LOW for at least one character frame time). In the
FIFO mode, only one break character is loaded into the FIFO. The break indication remains until the RX
input returns to the idle condition, “mark” or HIGH.
LSR[5]: Transmit Holding Register Empty Flag
This bit is the Transmit Holding Register Empty indicator. The THR bit is set to a logic 1 when the last data byte
is transferred from the transmit holding register to the transmit shift register. The bit is reset to logic 0
concurrently with the data loading to the transmit holding register by the host. In the FIFO mode this bit is set
when the transmit FIFO is empty, it is cleared when the transmit FIFO contains at least 1 byte.
LSR[6]: THR and TSR Empty Flag
This bit is set to a logic 1 whenever the transmitter goes idle. It is set to logic 0 whenever either the THR or
TSR contains a data character. In the FIFO mode this bit is set to a logic 1 whenever the transmit FIFO and
transmit shift register are both empty.
LSR[7]: Receive FIFO Data Error Flag
• Logic 0 = No FIFO error (default).
• Logic 1 = A global indicator for the sum of all error bits in the RX FIFO. At least one parity error, framing error
or break indication is in the FIFO data. This bit clears when there is no more error(s) in any of the bytes in the
RX FIFO.
4.9
Modem Status Register (MSR) - Read Only
This register provides the current state of the modem interface input signals. Lower four bits of this register are
used to indicate the changed information. These bits are set to a logic 1 whenever a signal from the modem
changes state. These bits may be used for general purpose inputs when they are not used with modem
signals. Reading the higher four bits shows the status of the modem signals.
MSR[0]: Delta CTS# Input Flag
• Logic 0 = No change on CTS# input (default).
• Logic 1 = The CTS# input has changed state since the last time it was monitored. A modem status interrupt
will be generated if MSR interrupt is enabled (IER bit-3).
MSR[1]: Delta DSR# Input Flag
• Logic 0 = No change on DSR# input (default).
• Logic 1 = The DSR# input has changed state since the last time it was monitored. A modem status interrupt
will be generated if MSR interrupt is enabled (IER bit-3).
MSR[2]: Delta RI# Input Flag
• Logic 0 = No change on RI# input (default).
• Logic 1 = The RI# input has changed from LOW to HIGH, ending of the ringing signal. A modem status
interrupt will be generated if MSR interrupt is enabled (IER bit-3).
MSR[3]: Delta CD# Input Flag
• Logic 0 = No change on CD# input (default).
• Logic 1 = Indicates that the CD# input has changed state since the last time it was monitored. A modem
status interrupt will be generated if MSR interrupt is enabled (IER bit-3).
34
XR16M770
REV. 1.0.0
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
MSR[4]: CTS Input Status
CTS# pin may function as automatic hardware flow control signal input if it is enabled and selected by Auto
CTS (EFR bit-7). Auto CTS Flow Control allows starting and stopping of local data transmissions based on the
modem CTS# signal. A HIGH on the CTS# pin will stop UART transmitter as soon as the current character has
finished transmission, and a LOW will resume data transmission. Normally MSR bit-4 bit is the complement of
the CTS# input. However in the loopback mode, this bit is equivalent to the RTS# bit in the MCR register. The
CTS# input may be used as a general purpose input when the modem interface is not used.
MSR[5]: DSR Input Status
Normally this bit is the complement of the DSR# input. In the loopback mode, this bit is equivalent to the DTR#
bit in the MCR register. The DSR# input may be used as a general purpose input when the modem interface is
not used.
MSR[6]: RI Input Status
Normally this bit is the complement of the RI# input. In the loopback mode this bit is equivalent to bit-2 in the
MCR register. The RI# input may be used as a general purpose input when the modem interface is not used.
MSR[7]: CD Input Status
Normally this bit is the complement of the CD# input. In the loopback mode this bit is equivalent to bit-3 in the
MCR register. The CD# input may be used as a general purpose input when the modem interface is not used.
4.10
Modem Status Register (MSR) - Write Only
This register provides the advanced features of XR16M770. Lower four bits of this register are reserved.
Writing to the higher four bits enables additional functions.
MSR[3:0]: Reserved
MSR[4]: Enable/Disable Transmitter (Requires EFR[4] = 1)
• Logic 0 = Enable Transmitter (default).
• Logic 1 = Disable Transmitter.
MSR[5]: Enable/Disable Receiver (Requires EFR[4] = 1)
• Logic 0 = Enable Receiver (default).
• Logic 1 = Disable Receiver.
MSR[6]: Enable/Disable 9-bit mode (Requires EFR[4] = 1)
For the 9-bit mode information, See ”Section 2.15, Normal Multidrop Mode” on page 18.
• Logic 0 = Normal 8-bit mode (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable 9-bit or Multidrop mode.
MSR[7]: Enable/Disable fast IR mode (Requires EFR[4] = 1)
The M770 supports the new fast IR transmission with data rate up to 1.152 Mbps.
• Logic 0 = IrDA version 1.0, 3/16 pulse ratio, data rate up to 115.2 Kbps (default).
• Logic 1 = IrDA version 1.1, 1/4 pulse ratio, data rate up to 1.152 Mbps. For more IR mode information, please
See ”Section 2.16, Infrared Mode” on page 19.
4.11
Scratch Pad Register (SPR) - Read/Write
This is a 8-bit general purpose register for the user to store temporary data. The content of this register is
preserved during sleep mode but becomes 0xFF (default) after a reset or a power off-on cycle.
35
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
4.12
REV. 1.0.0
Enhanced Mode Select Register (EMSR) - Write-only
This register replaces SPR (during a Write) and is accessible only when FCTR[6] = 1.
EMSR[1:0]: Receive/Transmit FIFO Level Count
When Scratchpad Swap (FCTR[6]) is asserted, EMSR bits 1-0 controls what mode the FIFO Level Counter is
operating in.
TABLE 12: SCRATCHPAD SWAP SELECTION
FCTR[6] EMSR[1]
EMSR[0] Scratchpad is
0
X
X
Scratchpad
1
X
0
RX FIFO Level Counter Mode
1
0
1
TX FIFO Level Counter Mode
1
1
1
Alternate RX/TX FIFO Counter Mode
During Alternate RX/TX FIFO Level Counter Mode, the first value read after EMSR bits 1-0 have been
asserted will always be the RX FIFO Level Counter. The second value read will correspond with the TX FIFO
Level Counter. The next value will be the RX FIFO Level Counter again, then the TX FIFO Level Counter and
so on and so forth.
EMSR[2]: Send TX Immediately
• Logic 0 = Do not send TX immediately (default).
• Logic 1 = Send TX immediately. When FIFO is enabled and this bit is set, the next data will be to the TX shift
register. Thus, the data will be sent out immediately instead of queuing in the FIFO. Every time, only 1 byte
will be send out. Once this byte has been sent out, the EMSR[2] will go back to 0 automatically. If more than
1 byte will be sent out, EMSR[2] needs to be set to 1 for each byte.
EMSR[3]: Invert RTS in RS485 mode
• Logic 0 = RTS# output is a logic 0 during TX and a logic 1 during RX (default).
• Logic 1 = RTS# output is a logic 1 during TX and a logic 0 during RX.
36
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
EMSR[5:4]: Extended RTS Hysteresis
TABLE 13: AUTO RTS HYSTERESIS
EMSR
BIT-5
EMSR
BIT-4
FCTR
BIT-1
FCTR
BIT-0
RTS#
HYSTERESIS
(CHARACTERS)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
±4
±6
±8
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
±8
±16
±24
±32
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
±40
±44
±48
±52
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
±12
±20
±28
±36
EMSR[6]: LSR Interrupt Mode
• Logic 0 = LSR Interrupt Delayed (default). LSR bits 2, 3, and 4 will generate an interrupt when the character
with the error is in the RHR.
• Logic 1 = LSR Interrupt Immediate. LSR bits 2, 3, and 4 will generate an interrupt as soon as the character is
received into the FIFO.
EMSR[7]: Xoff/Special character Interrupt Mode Select
This bit selects how the Xoff and Special character interrupt is cleared. The XON interrupt can only be cleared
by reading the ISR register.
• Logic 0 = Xoff interrupt is cleared by either reading ISR register or when an XON character is received.
Special character interrupt is cleared by either reading ISR register or when next character is received.
(default).
• Logic 1 = Xoff/Special character interrupt can only be cleared by reading the ISR register.
4.13
Baud Rate Generator Registers (DLL, DLM and DLD) - Read/Write
These registers make-up the value of the baud rate divisor. The M770 has different DLL, DLM and DLD for
transmitter and receiver. It provides more convenience for the transmitter and receiver to transmit data with
different rate. The M770 uses DLD[7:6] to select TX or RX. Then it provides DLD[5:0] to select the sampling
frequency and fractional baud rate divisor. The concatenation of the contents of DLM and DLL gives the 16-bit
divisor value. The value is added to DLD[3:0]/16 to achieve the fractional baud rate divisor. DLD must be
enabled via EFR bit-4 before it can be accessed. See Table 14 below and See ”Section 2.7, Programmable
Baud Rate Generator with Fractional Divisor” on page 11.
37
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
DLD[5:4]: Sampling Rate Select
These bits select the data sampling rate. By default, the data sampling rate is 16X. The maximum data rate will
double if the 8X mode is selected and will quadruple if the 4X mode is selected. See Table 14 below.
TABLE 14: SAMPLING RATE SELECT
DLD[5]
DLD[4]
SAMPLING RATE
0
0
16X
0
1
8X
1
X
4X
DLD[6]: Independent BRG enable
• Logic 0 = The Transmitter and Receiver uses the same Baud Rate Generator. (default).
• Logic 1 = The Transmitter and Receiver uses different Baud Rate Generators. Use DLD[7] for selecting
which baud rate generator to configure.
DLD[7]: BRG select
When DLD[6] = 1, this bit selects whether the values written to DLL, DLM and DLD[5:0] will be for the Transmit
Baud Rate Generator or the Receive Baud Rate Generator. When DLD[6] = 0 (same Baud Rate Generator
used for both TX and RX), this bit must be a logic 0 to properly write to the appropriate DLL, DLM and
DLD[5:0]. .
TABLE 15: BRG SELECT
DLD[7]
DLD[6]
BRG
0
0
Transmitter and Receiver uses same BRG.
Writing to DLL, DLM and DLD[5:0] configures the BRG for both the TX and RX.
0
1
Transmitter and Receiver uses different BRGs.
Writing to DLL, DLM and DLD[5:0] configures the BRG for TX.
1
1
Transmitter and Receiver uses different BRGs.
Writing to DLL, DLM and DLD[5:0] configures the BRG for RX.
1
0
Transmitter and Receiver uses same BRG.
Writing to DLL, DLM and DLD[5:0] has no effect on BRG used by the TX and RX.
4.14
Trigger Level Register (TRG) - Write-Only
User Programmable Transmit/Receive Trigger Level Register.
TRG[7:0]: Trigger Level Register
These bits are used to program desired trigger levels when trigger Table-D is selected. FCTR bit-7 selects
between programming the RX Trigger Level (a logic 0) and the TX Trigger Level (a logic 1).
4.15
RX/TX FIFO Level Count Register (FC) - Read-Only
This register replaces SPR (during a read) and is accessible when FCTR[6] = 1. This register is also
accessible when LCR = 0xBF. It is suggested to read the FIFO Level Count Register at the Scratchpad
Register location when FCTR bit-6 = 1. See Table 12.
38
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FC[7:0]: RX/TX FIFO Level Count
Receive/Transmit FIFO Level Count. Number of characters in Receiver FIFO (FCTR[7] = 0) or Transmitter
FIFO (FCTR[7] = 1) can be read via this register. Reading this register is not recommended when transmitting
or receiving data.
4.16
Feature Control Register (FCTR) - Read/Write
FCTR[1:0]: RTS Hysteresis
User selectable RTS# hysteresis levels for hardware flow control application. After reset, these bits are set to
“0” to select the next trigger level for hardware flow control. See Table 13 for more details.
FCTR[2]: IrDa RX Inversion
• Logic 0 = Select RX input as encoded IrDa data (Idle state will be LOW).
• Logic 1 = Select RX input as inverted encoded IrDa data (Idle state will be HIGH).
FCTR[3]: Auto RS-485 Direction Control
• Logic 0 = Standard ST16C550 mode. Transmitter generates an interrupt when transmit holding register
becomes empty and transmit shift register is shifting data out.
• Logic 1 = Enable Auto RS485 Direction Control function. The direction control signal, RTS# pin, changes its
output logic state from LOW to HIGH one bit time after the last stop bit of the last character is shifted out.
Also, the Transmit interrupt generation is delayed until the transmitter shift register becomes empty. The
RTS# output pin will automatically return to a LOW when a data byte is loaded into the TX FIFO. However,
RTS# behavior can be inverted by setting EMSR[3] = 1.
FCTR[5:4]: Transmit/Receive Trigger Table Select
See Table 16 for more details.
TABLE 16: TRIGGER TABLE SELECT
FCTR
BIT-5
FCTR
BIT-4
TABLE
0
0
Table-A (TX/RX)
0
1
Table-B (TX/RX)
1
0
Table-C (TX/RX)
1
1
Table-D (TX/RX)
FCTR[6]: Scratchpad Swap
• Logic 0 = Scratch Pad register is selected as general read and write register. ST16C550 compatible mode.
• Logic 1 = FIFO Count register (Read-Only), Enhanced Mode Select Register (Write-Only). Number of
characters in transmit or receive FIFO can be read via scratch pad register when this bit is set. Enhanced
Mode Select Register is selected when it is written into.
FCTR[7]: Programmable Trigger Register Select
• Logic 0 = Registers TRG and FC selected for RX.
• Logic 1 = Registers TRG and FC selected for TX.
4.17
Enhanced Feature Register (EFR) - Read/Write
Enhanced features are enabled or disabled using this register. Bit 0-3 provide single or dual consecutive
character software flow control selection (see Table 17). When the Xon1 and Xon2 and Xoff1 and Xoff2 modes
are selected, the double 8-bit words are concatenated into two sequential characters. Caution: note that
whenever changing the TX or RX flow control bits, always reset all bits back to logic 0 (disable) before
programming a new setting.
39
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
EFR[3:0]: Software Flow Control Select
Single character and dual sequential characters software flow control is supported. Combinations of software
flow control can be selected by programming these bits.
TABLE 17: SOFTWARE FLOW CONTROL FUNCTIONS
EFR BIT-3
CONT-3
EFR BIT-2
CONT-2
EFR BIT-1
CONT-1
EFR BIT-0
CONT-0
0
0
0
0
No TX and RX flow control (default and reset)
0
0
X
X
No transmit flow control
1
0
X
X
Transmit Xon1, Xoff1
0
1
X
X
Transmit Xon2, Xoff2
1
1
X
X
Transmit Xon1 and Xon2, Xoff1 and Xoff2
X
X
0
0
No receive flow control
X
X
1
0
Receiver compares Xon1, Xoff1
X
X
0
1
Receiver compares Xon2, Xoff2
1
0
1
1
Transmit Xon1, Xoff1
Receiver compares Xon1 or Xon2, Xoff1 or Xoff2
0
1
1
1
Transmit Xon2, Xoff2
Receiver compares Xon1 or Xon2, Xoff1 or Xoff2
1
1
1
1
Transmit Xon1 and Xon2, Xoff1 and Xoff2,
Receiver compares Xon1 and Xon2, Xoff1 and Xoff2
0
0
1
1
No transmit flow control,
Receiver compares Xon1 and Xon2, Xoff1 and Xoff2
TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE SOFTWARE FLOW CONTROL
EFR[4]: Enhanced Function Bits Enable
Enhanced function control bit. This bit enables IER bits 4-7, ISR bits 4-5, FCR bits 3-5, MCR bits 5-7, and DLD
to be modified. After modifying any enhanced bits, EFR bit-4 can be set to a logic 0 to latch the new values.
This feature prevents legacy software from altering or overwriting the enhanced functions once set. Normally, it
is recommended to leave it enabled, logic 1.
• Logic 0 = modification disable/latch enhanced features. IER bits 4-7, ISR bits 4-5, FCR bits 3-5, MCR bits 57, and DLD are saved to retain the user settings. After a reset, the IER bits 4-7, ISR bits 4-5, FCR bits 3-5,
and MCR bits 5-7, and DLD are set to a logic 0 to be compatible with ST16C550 mode (default).
• Logic 1 = Enables the EFR[3:0] register bits to be modified by the user.
EFR[5]: Special Character Detect Enable
• Logic 0 = Special Character Detect Disabled (default).
• Logic 1 = Special Character Detect Enabled. The UART compares each incoming receive character with
data in Xoff-2 register. If a match exists, the receive data will be transferred to FIFO and ISR bit-4 will be set
to indicate detection of the special character. Bit-0 corresponds with the LSB bit of the receive character. If
flow control is set for comparing Xon1, Xoff1 (EFR [1:0]= ‘10’) then flow control and special character work
normally. However, if flow control is set for comparing Xon2, Xoff2 (EFR[1:0]= ‘01’) then flow control works
normally, but Xoff2 will not go to the FIFO, and will generate an Xoff interrupt and a special character
interrupt, if enabled via IER bit-5.
40
XR16M770
REV. 1.0.0
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
EFR[6]: Auto RTS Flow Control Enable
RTS# output may be used for hardware flow control by setting EFR bit-6 to logic 1. When Auto RTS is
selected, an interrupt will be generated when the receive FIFO is filled to the programmed trigger level and
RTS de-asserts HIGH at the next upper trigger level/hysteresis level. RTS# will return LOW when FIFO data
falls below the next lower trigger level/hysteresis level. The RTS# output must be asserted (LOW) before the
auto RTS can take effect. RTS# pin will function as a general purpose output when hardware flow control is
disabled.
• Logic 0 = Automatic RTS flow control is disabled (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable Automatic RTS flow control.
EFR[7]: Auto CTS Flow Control Enable
Automatic CTS Flow Control.
• Logic 0 = Automatic CTS flow control is disabled (default).
• Logic 1 = Enable Automatic CTS flow control. Data transmission stops when CTS# input de-asserts to logic
1. Data transmission resumes when CTS# returns to a logic 0.
4.18
Software Flow Control Registers (XOFF1, XOFF2, XON1, XON2) - Read/Write
These registers are used as the programmable software flow control characters xoff1, xoff2, xon1, and xon2.
For more details, see Table 5. The xoff2 is also used as auto address detect register when the auto 9-bit mode
enabled. See ”Section 2.15.1, Auto Address Detection” on page 19.
41
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
TABLE 18: UART RESET CONDITIONS
REGISTERS
RESET STATE
DLM, DLL
DLM = 0x00 and DLL = 0x01. Only resets to these val(Both TX and RX) ues during a power up. They do not reset when the
Reset Pin is asserted.
DLD
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
RHR
Bits 7-0 = 0xXX
THR
Bits 7-0 = 0xXX
IER
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
FCR
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
ISR
Bits 7-0 = 0x01
LCR
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
MCR
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
LSR
Bits 7-0 = 0x60
MSR
Bits 7-0 =0xX0 (Read-only)
Bits 7-4 = 0000 (Write-only)
SPR
Bits 7-0 = 0xFF
EMSR
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
FC
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
TRG
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
FCTR
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
EFR
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
XON1
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
XON2
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
XOFF1
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
XOFF2
Bits 7-0 = 0x00
I/O SIGNALS
RESET STATE
TX
HIGH
RTS#
HIGH
DTR#
HIGH
INT
Three-State Condition
42
REV. 1.0.0
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Power Supply Range
3.6 Volts
Voltage at Any Pin
GND-0.3 V to 3.6 V
Operating Temperature
-40o to +85oC
Storage Temperature
-65o to +150oC
Package Dissipation
500 mW
TYPICAL PACKAGE THERMAL RESISTANCE DATA (MARGIN OF ERROR: ± 15%)
Thermal Resistance (32-QFN)
theta-ja = 33oC/W, theta-jc = 22oC/W
Thermal Resistance (24-QFN)
theta-ja = 38oC/W, theta-jc = 26oC/W
Thermal Resistance (25-BGA)
theta-ja = 166oC/W, theta-jc = 98.2oC/W
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
DC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED: TA = -40O TO +85OC, VCC IS 1.62 TO 3.63V
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
LIMITS
1.8V
MIN
MAX
LIMITS
2.5V
MIN
MAX
LIMITS
3.3V
MIN
MAX
UNITS
VILCK
Clock Input Low Level
-0.3
0.3
-0.3
0.4
-0.3
0.6
V
VIHCK
Clock Input High Level
1.4
VCC
2.0
VCC
2.4
VCC
V
VIL
Input Low Voltage
-0.3
0.2
-0.3
0.5
-0.3
0.7
V
VIH
Input High Voltage
1.4
VCC
1.8
VCC
2.0
VCC
V
VOL
Output Low Voltage
0.4
V
V
V
0.4
0.4
VOH
2.0
Output High Voltage
V
V
1.8
1.4
CONDITIONS
IOL = 6 mA
IOL = 4 mA
IOL = 1.5 mA
IOH = -4 mA
IOH = -2 mA
IOH = -200 uA
IIL
Input Low Leakage Current
±15
±15
±15
uA
IIH
Input High Leakage Current
±15
±15
±15
uA
CIN
Input Pin Capacitance
5
5
5
pF
ICC
Power Supply Current
1.5
2
2.5
mA
Ext Clk = 5MHz
3
6
15
uA
See Test 1
ISLEEP/
Sleep / Power Save Current
IPWRSV
Test 1: The following inputs remain steady at VCC or GND state to minimize Sleep current: A0-A2, D0-D7, IOR#, IOW#,
CS#. Also, RX input must idle at HIGH while asleep. For Power-Save, the UART internally isolates all of these inputs (except the modem inputs and Reset pins) therefore eliminating any unnecessary external buffers to keep the inputs steady.
43
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
SEE”POWER-SAVE FEATURE” ON PAGE 21. To achieve minimum power drain, the voltage at any of the inputs of the
M770 should NOT be lower than its VCC supply.
AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
TA = -40O TO +85OC, VCC IS 1.62 TO 3.6V, 70 PF LOAD WHERE APPLICABLE
LIMITS
1.8V ± 10%
MAX
MIN
LIMITS
2.5V ± 10%
MAX
MIN
LIMITS
3.3V ± 10%
MAX
MIN
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
UNIT
XTAL1
UART Crystal Frequency
24
24
24
MHz
ECLK
External Clock Frequency
30
50
64
MHz
TECLK
External Clock Time Period
15
9
7
ns
TAS
Address Setup Time
0
0
0
ns
TAH
Address Hold Time
0
0
0
ns
TCS
Chip Select Width
90
60
35
ns
TRD
IOR# Strobe Width
90
60
35
ns
TDY
Read Cycle Delay
90
60
35
ns
TRDV
Data Access Time
85
55
30
ns
TDD
Data Disable Time
25
10
5
ns
TWR
IOW# Strobe Width
90
60
35
ns
TDY
Write Cycle Delay
90
60
35
ns
TDS
Data Setup Time
30
15
10
ns
TDH
Data Hold Time
3
3
3
ns
TWDO
Delay From IOW# To Output
50
50
50
ns
TMOD
Delay To Set Interrupt From MODEM
Input
50
50
50
ns
TRSI
Delay To Reset Interrupt From IOR#
50
50
50
ns
TSSI
Delay From Stop To Set Interrupt
1
1
1
Bclk
TRRI
Delay From IOR# To Reset Interrupt
45
45
45
ns
TSI
Delay From Start To Interrupt
45
45
45
ns
TINT
Delay From Initial INT Reset To
Transmit Start
24
Bclk
TWRI
Delay From IOW# To Reset Interrupt
45
45
45
ns
TSSR
Delay From Stop To Set RXRDY#
1
1
1
Bclk
TRR
Delay From IOR# To Reset RXRDY#
45
45
45
ns
TWT
Delay From IOW# To Set TXRDY#
45
45
45
ns
8
24
44
8
24
8
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
AC ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
TA = -40O TO +85OC, VCC IS 1.62 TO 3.6V, 70 PF LOAD WHERE APPLICABLE
LIMITS
1.8V ± 10%
MAX
MIN
SYMBOL
PARAMETER
TSRT
Delay From Center of Start To Reset
TXRDY#
TRST
Reset Pulse Width
Bclk
Baud Clock
LIMITS
2.5V ± 10%
MAX
MIN
8
LIMITS
3.3V ± 10%
MAX
MIN
8
40
40
8
40
Hz
FIGURE 15. CLOCK TIMING
CLK
EXTERNAL
CLOCK
OSC
FIGURE 16. MODEM INPUT/OUTPUT TIMING
IO W #
IO W
A c t iv e
TW
RTS#
DTR#
C h a n g e o f s ta te
DO
C h a n g e o f s ta te
CD#
CTS#
DSR#
C h a n g e o f s ta te
C h a n g e o f s ta te
TMOD
TMOD
IN T
A c t iv e
A c t iv e
A c t iv e
T RSI
IO R #
A c t iv e
A c t iv e
A c t iv e
TMOD
C h a n g e o f s ta te
R I#
45
Bclk
ns
16X or 8X or 4X of data rate
CLK
UNIT
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FIGURE 17. DATA BUS READ TIMING
A0-A2
Valid Address
TAS
TCS
Valid Address
TAS
TAH
TAH
TCS
CS#
TDY
TRD
TRD
IOR#
TDD
TRDV
TDD
TRDV
Valid Data
D0-D7
Valid Data
RDTm
FIGURE 18. DATA BUS WRITE TIMING
A0-A2
Valid Address
TAS
TCS
Valid Address
TAS
TAH
TAH
TCS
CS#
TDY
TWR
TWR
IOW#
TDS
D0-D7
TDH
Valid Data
TDS
TDH
Valid Data
16Write
46
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FIGURE 19. RECEIVE READY & INTERRUPT TIMING [NON-FIFO MODE]
RX
Start
Bit
Stop
Bit
D0:D7
INT
D0:D7
D0:D7
TSSR
TSSR
TSSR
1 Byte
in RHR
1 Byte
in RHR
1 Byte
in RHR
TSSR
TSSR
Active
Data
Ready
Active
Data
Ready
RXRDY#
TRR
TSSR
Active
Data
Ready
TRR
TRR
IOR#
(Reading data
out of RHR)
RXNFM
FIGURE 20. TRANSMIT READY & INTERRUPT TIMING [NON-FIFO MODE]
TX
(Unloading)
Start
Bit
IER[1]
enabled
Stop
Bit
D0:D7
D0:D7
ISR is read
D0:D7
ISR is read
ISR is read
INT*
TWRI
TWRI
TWRI
TSRT
TSRT
TSRT
TXRDY#
TWT
TWT
TWT
IOW#
(Loading data
into THR)
*INT is cleared when the ISR is read or when data is loaded into the THR.
47
TXNonFIFO
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
FIGURE 21. RECEIVE READY & INTERRUPT TIMING [FIFO MODE]
Start
Bit
RX
S D0:D7
S D0:D7 T
D0:D7
Stop
Bit
S D0:D7 T
S D0:D7 T S D0:D7 T
S D0:D7 T
RX FIFO drops
below RX
Trigger Level
TSSI
INT
FIFO
Empties
TSSR
RX FIFO fills up to RX
Trigger Level or RX Data
Timeout
RXRDY#
First Byte is
Received in
RX FIFO
TRRI
TRR
IOR#
(Reading data out
of RX FIFO)
RXINTDMA#
FIGURE 22. TRANSMIT READY & INTERRUPT TIMING [FIFO MODE]
TX FIFO
Empty
TX
Start
Bit
Stop
Bit
S D0:D7 T
(Unloading)
IER[1]
enabled
Last Data Byte
Transmitted
T S D0:D7 T S D0:D7 T
S D0:D7 T S D0:D7 T
TSI
ISR is read
S D0:D7 T
ISR is read
TSRT
INT*
TX FIFO fills up
to trigger level
TXRDY#
Data in
TX FIFO
TX FIFO
Empty
TWRI
TX FIFO drops
below trigger level
TWT
IOW#
(Loading data
into FIFO)
*INT is cleared when the ISR is read or when TX FIFO fills up to the trigger level.
48
TXDMA#
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS (24 PIN QFN - 4 X 4 X 0.9 mm)
Note: the actual center pad
is metallic and the size (D2)
is device-dependent with a
typical tolerance of 0.3mm
Note: The control dimension is in millimeter.
INCHES
MILLIMETERS
SYMBOL
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
A
0.031
0.039
0.80
1.00
A1
0.000
0.002
0.00
0.05
A3
0.006
0.010
0.15
0.25
D
0.154
0.161
3.90
4.10
D2
0.098
0.110
2.50
2.80
b
0.007
0.012
0.18
0.30
e
0.0197 BSC
0.50 BSC
L
0.014
0.018
0.35
0.45
k
0.008
-
0.20
-
49
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS (32 PIN QFN - 5 X 5 X 0.9 mm)
Note: the actual center pad
is metallic and the size (D2)
is device-dependent with a
typical tolerance of 0.3mm
Note: The control dimension is in millimeter.
INCHES
MILLIMETERS
SYMBOL
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
A
0.031
0.039
0.80
1.00
A1
0.000
0.002
0.00
0.05
A3
0.006
0.010
0.15
0.25
D
0.193
0.201
4.90
5.10
D2
0.138
0.150
3.50
3.80
b
0.007
0.012
0.18
0.30
e
0.0197 BSC
0.50 BSC
L
0.012
0.020
0.35
0.45
k
0.008
-
0.20
-
50
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
PACKAGE DIMENSIONS (25 PIN BGA - 3 X 3 X 0.8 mm)
5
4
3
2
1
A1 corner
A
B
D
C
D1
D
E
D1
D
(A1 corner feature is mfger option)
Seating
Plane
A
A1
b
A2
e
Note: The control dimension is the millimeter column
INCHES
MILLIMETERS
SYMBOL
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
A
0.028
0.031
0.70
0.80
A1
0.005
0.007
0.13
0.19
A2
0.022
0.024
0.57
0.61
D
0.114
0.122
2.90
3.10
D1
b
e
0.079 BSC
0.008
2.00 BSC
0.012
0.020 BSC
0.20
0.30
0.50 BSC
51
XR16M770
1.62V TO 3.63V HIGH PERFORMANCE UART WITH 64-BYTE FIFO
REV. 1.0.0
REVISION HISTORY
DATE
REVISION
DESCRIPTION
September 2008
Rev 1.0.0
Final Datasheet.
February 2009
Rev 1.0.0
Added 32-QFN pin package on page 2 to replace the grey block.
NOTICE
EXAR Corporation reserves the right to make changes to the products contained in this publication in order to
improve design, performance or reliability. EXAR Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use of any
circuits described herein, conveys no license under any patent or other right, and makes no representation that
the circuits are free of patent infringement. Charts and schedules contained here in are only for illustration
purposes and may vary depending upon a user’s specific application. While the information in this publication
has been carefully checked; no responsibility, however, is assumed for inaccuracies.
EXAR Corporation does not recommend the use of any of its products in life support applications where the
failure or malfunction of the product can reasonably be expected to cause failure of the life support system or
to significantly affect its safety or effectiveness. Products are not authorized for use in such applications unless
EXAR Corporation receives, in writing, assurances to its satisfaction that: (a) the risk of injury or damage has
been minimized; (b) the user assumes all such risks; (c) potential liability of EXAR Corporation is adequately
protected under the circumstances.
Copyright 2009 EXAR Corporation
Datasheet February 2009.
Send your UART technical inquiry with technical details to hotline: [email protected]
Reproduction, in part or whole, without the prior written consent of EXAR Corporation is prohibited.
52