HOLTEK HT83F10P

HT83FXX
Flash Type Voice OTP MCU
Technical Document
· Application Note
- HA0075E MCU Reset and Oscillator Circuits Application Note
Features
· Operating voltage: 2.7V~3.6V
· 4-level subroutine nesting
· System clock: 4MHz~8MHz
· 2.7V Low voltage detection, tolerance 5%
· Crystal and RC system oscillator
· Integrated LDO regulator in
HT83F10P/20P/40P/60P/80P
· 12 I/O pins
· Power-down function and wake-up feature reduce
· I2C/SPI Bus Serial Interface, shared with PB
power consumption
· 2K´15 OTP Program Memory
· Up to 1ms (0.5ms) instruction cycle with 4MHz (8MHz)
· Between 2M´8 bit and 128K´8 bit flash type data
system clock at VDD= 3.6V
memory
· 63 powerful instructions
· 80´8 Data Memory
· One reset pin
· Two 8-bit programmable timer counter with 8-stage
· Flash Data Memory can be re-programmed up to
prescaler and one time base counter
100,000 times
· 12-bit high quality voltage type D/A output
· Flash Data Memory data retention > 10 years
· PWM circuit direct drive speaker
· 44-pin QFP package
· Watchdog Timer function
General Description
The devices are excellent solutions for versatile voice
and sound effect product applications with their efficient
MCU instructions providing the user with programming
capability for powerful custom applications. The system
frequency can be up to 8MHz at an operating voltage of
2.7V and include a power-down function to reduce
power consumption.
The flash type voice series of MCUs have OTP type
Program Memory and Flash type Voice Memory.
The devices are 8-bit high performance microcontrollers
which include a voice synthesizer and tone generator.
They are designed for applications which require multiple
I/Os and sound effects, such as voice and melody. The
devices can provide various sampling rates and beats,
tone levels, tempos for speech synthesizer and melody
generator.
The MCU flash voice memory capacity ranges from
2M´8 bit to 128K´8 bit, into which the user can download their voice data repeatedly.
They also include two integrated high quality, voltage
type DAC outputs and voltage type PWM outputs.
Rev. 1.30
1
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Selection Table
The devices include a comprehensive range of features, with most features common to all devices. The main features
distinguishing them are Flash Voice Memory capacity. The functional differences between the devices are shown in the
following table.
Part No.
HT83F10
HT83F10P
HT83F20
HT83F20P
HT83F40
HT83F40P
HT83F60
HT83F60P
HT83F80
HT83F80P
VDD
VIN
2.7V~3.6V
¾
3.3V
3.6V~24V
2.7V~3.6V
¾
3.3V
3.6V~24V
2.7V~3.6V
¾
3.3V
3.6V~24V
2.7V~3.6V
¾
3.3V
3.6V~24V
2.7V~3.6V
¾
3.3V
3.6V~24V
OTP
Program
Memory
Data
Memory
Flash
Voice
Memory
Voice
Capacity
I/O
8-bit
Timer
I2C/
SPI
D/A
Package
Types
2K´15
80´8
128K´8
32sec
12
2
Ö
12-bit,
PWM
44QFP
2K´15
80´8
256K´8
64sec
12
2
Ö
12-bit,
PWM
44QFP
2K´15
80´8
512K´8
128sec
12
2
Ö
12-bit,
PWM
44QFP
2K´15
80´8
1024K´8
256sec
12
2
Ö
12-bit,
PWM
44QFP
2K´15
80´8
2048K´8
512sec
12
2
Ö
12-bit,
PWM
44QFP
Note: For devices that exist in more than one package formats, the table reflects the situation for the larger package.
Voice length is estimated by 32K-bit data rate, or 8K sampling rate and 4 bit ADPCM compress mode.
Block Diagram
W a tc h d o g
T im e r
H T 8 3 F 1 0 P /2 0 P /4 0 P /6 0 P /8 0 P
L D O
8 - b it
R IS C
M C U
C o re
S ta c k
O T P R O M
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
F la s h D a ta
M e m o ry
L o w
V o lta g e
D e te c tio n
R A M D a ta
M e m o ry
W a tc h d o g
T im e r O s c illa to r
R e s e t
C ir c u it
In te rru p t
C o n tr o lle r
R C /C ry s ta l
O s c illa to r
P W M
I/O
Rev. 1.30
P o rts
8 - b it
T im e r
S P I
F u n c tio n
D /A
C o n v e rte rs
I2C
F u n c tio n
2
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Pin Assignment
H O L
N
C
N
S
N
N
W
V S S
N
S C
H O L
N
C
N
S
N
N
W
V S S
N
S C
O
O
D
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
D
P
K
S
P
K
S
F
F
S I
A 7
A 6
A 5
A 4
A 3
A 2
A 1
A 0
B 0
B 1
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1
1
4 0 3 9 3 8 3 7 3 6 3 5 3 4
2
3
4
5
H T 8 3 F 1 0 /2 0 /4 0 /6 0 /8 0
4 4 Q F P -A
6
7
8
9
1 0
1 1
1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2
3 3
3 2
3 1
3 0
2 9
2 8
2 7
2 6
2 5
2 4
2 3
V D D
N C
N C
V S S
P W M
P W M
V D D
V D D
A U D
V S S
O S C
F
P
P
P
P
2
P
1
P
P
P
A
P
P
A
P
2
P
S I
A 7
A 6
A 5
A 4
A 3
A 2
A 1
A 0
B 0
B 1
4 4 4 3 4 2 4 1
1
4 0 3 9 3 8 3 7 3 6 3 5 3 4
3 3
2
3 2
3
3 1
4
3 0
5
H T 8 3 F 1 0 P /2 0 P /4 0 P /6 0 P /8 0 P
4 4 Q F P -A
6
7
2 9
2 8
2 7
8
2 6
9
2 5
1 0
1 1
2 4
1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2
2 3
V D D F
L D O _ O U T
L D O _ IN
V S S P
P W M 2
P W M 1
V D D P
V D D A
A U D
V S S A
O S C 2
O S C 1
R E S
V D D _ P B IO
V D D
V S S
S C S
D I
C L K
D O
P B 3
P B 2
O S C 1
R E S
V D D _ P B IO
V D D
V S S
S C S
D I
C L K
D O
P B 3
P B 2
Pin Description
Pin Name
PA0~PA7
I/O
Options
Description
I/O
Wake-up,
Pull-high
or None
Bidirectional 8-bit I/O port, Each bit can be configured as a wake-up input by
configuration option. Software instructions determine if the pin is a CMOS output or Schmitt trigger input. Configuration options determine which pins on this
port have pull-high resistors.
Bidirectional 4-bit I/O port. Each bit can be configured as a wake-up input by
configuration option. Software instructions determine if the pin is a CMOS output or Schmitt trigger input. Configuration options determine which pins on this
port have pull-high resistors. Pins PB0~PB3 are pin-shared with SPI flash
control and I2C control pins SDO/SDA, SCK/SCL, SDI and SCS.
PB0/SDO/SDA
PB1/SCK/SCL
PB2/SDI
PB3/SCS
I/O
Pull-high
or None
DO
O
¾
Data output pin
CLK
O
¾
Clock output pin.
DI
I
¾
Data input pin.
SCS
O
¾
Select signal.
AUD
O
CMOS
PWM1, PWM2
O
¾
PWM circuit direct speaker drive
RES
I
¾
Schmitt trigger reset input. Active low
OSC1
OSC2
¾
Crystal
or RC
VDD
¾
¾
Positive digital power supply
VSS
¾
¾
Negative digital power supply, ground
VSSP
¾
¾
PWM negative power supply, ground
VDDP
¾
¾
PWM positive power supply
VSSA
¾
¾
Negative DAC circuit power supply, ground
VDDA
¾
¾
Positive DAC circuit Power supply
Rev. 1.30
Audio output for driving external transistor or power amplifier.
OSC1, OSC2 are connected to an external RC network or external crystal, determined by configuration option, for the internal system clock. If the RC system clock option is selected, pin OSC2 can be used to measure the system
clock at 1/4 frequency.
3
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Pin Name
I/O
Options
Description
VDD_PBIO
¾
¾
PB I/O external positive power supply (determine by option)
LDO_OUT
O
¾
LDO output
LDO_IN
I
¾
LDO input
CS
I
¾
Flash data memory chip select pin
SI
I
¾
Flash data memory data input pin
SO
O
¾
Flash data memory data output pin
SCK
I
¾
Flash data memory clock input pin
HOLD
I
¾
Hold, pause the device without deselecting Flash data memory
WP
I
¾
Flash data memory write protect pin
VDDF
¾
¾
Positive Flash data memory Power supply
VSSF
¾
¾
Negative Flash data memory Power supply, ground
Note: Each pin on PA can be programmed through a configuration option to have a wake-up function.
Individual pins can be selected to have pull-high resistors.
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Supply Voltage ...........................VSS+2.7V to VSS+3.6V
Storage Temperature ..........................-50°C to +125°C
Input Voltage..............................VSS-0.3V to VDD+0.3V
IOL Total ..............................................................150mA
Total Power Dissipation .....................................500mW
Operating Temperature.........................-40°C to +85°C
IOH Total............................................................-100mA
Note: These are stress ratings only. Stresses exceeding the range specified under ²Absolute Maximum Ratings² may
cause substantial damage to the device. Functional operation of this device at other conditions beyond those listed
in the specification is not implied and prolonged exposure to extreme conditions may affect device reliability.
D.C. Characteristics
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
VDD
Operating Voltage
¾
fSYS
System Frequency
3V
IDD
Operating Current
3V
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
fSYS=4MHz/8MHz
2.7
¾
3.6
V
ROSC=275kW
¾
4
¾
MHz
ROSC=144kW
¾
8
¾
MHz
No load, fSYS=4MHz
¾
¾
3
mA
No load, fSYS=8MHz
¾
¾
5
mA
Conditions
ISTB1
Standby Current (WDT Off)
3V
No load, system HALT
¾
¾
1
mA
ISTB2
Standby Current (WDT On)
3V
No load, system HALT
¾
¾
7
mA
VIL1
Input Low Voltage for I/O Ports
3V
¾
¾
1
¾
V
VIH1
Input High Voltage for I/O Ports
3V
¾
¾
2
¾
V
VIL2
Input Low Voltage (RES)
3V
¾
¾
1.4
¾
V
VIH2
Input High Voltage (RES)
3V
¾
¾
2.1
¾
V
VLVD
2.565
2.700
2.835
V
3.2
3.3
3.4
V
3.6
¾
24
V
Low Voltage Detection
¾
LVD 2.7V
VLDO
LDO Output Voltage
¾
VLDO_IN>3.6V
VLDO_IN
LDO Input Voltage
¾
Rev. 1.30
¾
4
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Test Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Conditions
ILDO
LDO Output Current
¾
VLDO_IN=5.5V
60
100
¾
mA
IOL1
I/O Port Sink Current
3V
VOL=0.1VDD
7
¾
¾
mA
IOH1
I/O Port Source Current
3V
VOH=0.9VDD
-3.5
¾
¾
mA
IOL2
PWM1/PWM2 Sink Current
3V
VOL=0.1VDD
50
¾
¾
mA
IOH2
PWM1/PWM2 Sink Current
3V
VOH=0.9VDD
-14.5
¾
¾
mA
IAUD
AUD Source Current
3V
VOH=0.9VDD
¾
-3
¾
mA
RPH
Pull-high Resistance
3V
¾
20
60
100
kW
A.C. Characteristics
Ta=25°C
Test Conditions
Symbol
Parameter
VDD
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Unit
Conditions
fSYS
System Clock
(RC OSC, Crystal OSC)
¾
2.7V~3.6V
4
¾
8
MHz
fTIMER
Timer Inut Frequency
¾
2.7V~3.6V
0
¾
8
MHz
tWDTOSC
Watchdog Oscillator Period
3V
¾
45
90
180
ms
tWDT1
Watchdog Time-out Period
(WDT OSC)
3V
Without WDT prescaler
12
23
45
ms
tWDT2
Watchdog Time-out Period
(System Clock)
¾
Without WDT prescaler
¾
1024
¾
ms
tRES
External Reset Low Pulse Width
¾
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
tSST
System Start-up Timer Period
¾
¾
1024
¾
*tSYS
tINT
Interrupt Pulse Width
¾
1
¾
¾
ms
Wake-up from HALT
¾
Note: *tSYS=1/fSYS
Characteristics Curves
· R vs. F Chart Characteristics Curves
R v s . F C h a rt
1 0
F re q u e n c y (M H z )
8
6
3 .3 V
4
2
1 5 0
1 9 5
2 8 5
R
Rev. 1.30
5
3 7 6
4 4 5
(k W )
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
· T vs. F Chart Characteristics Curves
T v s . F C h a rt
1 .0 6
1 .0 4
S C
(2 5 ° C )
0 .9 8
V
D D
= 3 V
fO
fO
1 .0 0
S C
1 .0 2
0 .9 6
0 .9 4
-4 0
-2 0
0
2 0
4 0
6 0
8 0
T (° C )
· V vs. F Chart Characteristics Curves - 3.0V
V v s . F C h a r t (F o r 3 .0 V )
1 0
F re q u e n c y (M H z )
9
8 M H z /1 5 0 k W
8
6
7
2 .7
3 .0
3 .3
V
Rev. 1.30
6
D D
3 .6
(V )
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
System Architecture
nally generated non-overlapping clocks, T1~T4. The
Program Counter is incremented at the beginning of the
T1 clock during which time a new instruction is fetched.
The remaining T2~T4 clocks carry out the decoding and
execution functions. In this way, one T1~T4 clock cycle
forms one instruction cycle. Although the fetching and
execution of instructions takes place in consecutive instruction cycles, the pipelining structure of the
microcontroller ensures that instructions are effectively
executed in one instruction cycle. The exception to this
are instructions where the contents of the Program
Counter are changed, such as subroutine calls or
jumps, in which case the instruction will take one more
instruction cycle to execute.
A key factor in the high-performance features of the
Holtek range of Voice microcontrollers is attributed to
the internal system architecture. The range of devices
take advantage of the usual features found within RISC
microcontrollers providing increased speed of operation
and enhanced performance. The pipelining scheme is
implemented in such a way that instruction fetching and
instruction execution are overlapped, hence instructions
are effectively executed in one cycle, with the exception
of branch or call instructions. An 8-bit wide ALU is used
in practically all operations of the instruction set. It carries out arithmetic operations, logic operations, rotation,
increment, decrement, branch decisions, etc. The internal data path is simplified by moving data through the
Accumulator and the ALU. Certain internal registers are
implemented in the Data Memory and can be directly or
indirectly addressed. The simple addressing methods of
these registers along with additional architectural features ensure that a minimum of external components is
required to provide a functional I/O, voltage type DAC,
PWM direct drive output, capacitor/resistor sensor input
and external RC oscillator converter with maximum reliability and flexibility.
When the RC oscillator is used, OSC2 can be used used
as a T1 phase clock synchronizing pin. This T1 phase
clock has a frequency of fSYS/4 with a 1:3 high/low duty
cycle.
For instructions involving branches, such as jump or call
instructions, two machine cycles are required to complete instruction execution. An extra cycle is required as
the program takes one cycle to first obtain the actual
jump or call address and then another cycle to actually
execute the branch. The requirement for this extra cycle
should be taken into account by programmers in timing
sensitive applications.
Clocking and Pipelining
The main system clock, derived from either a Crystal/
Resonator or RC oscillator is subdivided into four inter-
O s c illa to r C lo c k
( S y s te m C lo c k )
P h a s e C lo c k T 1
P h a s e C lo c k T 2
P h a s e C lo c k T 3
P h a s e C lo c k T 4
P ro g ra m
C o u n te r
P ip e lin in g
P C
P C + 1
F e tc h In s t. (P C )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C -1 )
P C + 2
F e tc h In s t. (P C + 1 )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C )
F e tc h In s t. (P C + 2 )
E x e c u te In s t. (P C + 1 )
System Clocking and Pipelining
M O V A ,[1 2 H ]
2
C A L L D E L A Y
3
C P L [1 2 H ]
4
:
5
:
6
1
D E L A Y :
F e tc h In s t. 1
E x e c u te In s t. 1
F e tc h In s t. 2
E x e c u te In s t. 2
F e tc h In s t. 3
F lu s h P ip e lin e
F e tc h In s t. 6
E x e c u te In s t. 6
F e tc h In s t. 7
N O P
Instruction Fetching
Rev. 1.30
7
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Program Counter
cause program branching, so an extra cycle is needed
to pre-fetch. Further information on the PCL register can
be found in the Special Function Register section.
During program execution, the Program Counter is used
to keep track of the address of the next instruction to be
executed. It is automatically incremented by one each
time an instruction is executed except for instructions,
such as ²JMP² or ²CALL², that demand a jump to a
non-consecutive Program Memory address. Note that
the Program Counter width varies with the Program
Memory capacity depending upon which device is selected. However, it must be noted that only the lower 8
bits, known as the Program Counter Low Register, are
directly addressable by user.
Stack
This is a special part of the memory which is used to
save the contents of the Program Counter only. The
stack has 8 levels and is neither part of the data nor part
of the program space, and is neither readable nor
writable. The activated level is indexed by the Stack
Pointer, SP, and is neither readable nor writeable. At a
subroutine call or interrupt acknowledge signal, the contents of the Program Counter are pushed onto the stack.
At the end of a subroutine or an interrupt routine, signaled by a return instruction, ²RET² or ²RETI², the Program Counter is restored to its previous value from the
stack. After a device reset, the Stack Pointer will point to
the top of the stack.
When executing instructions requiring jumps to
non-consecutive addresses such as a jump instruction,
a subroutine call, interrupt or reset, etc., the
microcontroller manages program control by loading the
required address into the Program Counter. For conditional skip instructions, once the condition has been
met, the next instruction, which has already been
fetched during the present instruction execution, is discarded and a dummy cycle takes its place while the correct instruction is obtained.
P ro g ra m
T o p o f S ta c k
C o u n te r
S ta c k L e v e l 1
S ta c k L e v e l 2
The lower byte of the Program Counter, known as the
Program Counter Low register or PCL, is available for
program control and is a readable and writable register.
By transferring data directly into this register, a short
program jump can be executed directly, however, as
only this low byte is available for manipulation, the
jumps are limited to the present page of memory, that is
256 locations. When such program jumps are executed
it should also be noted that a dummy cycle will be inserted.
S ta c k
P o in te r
B o tto m
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
S ta c k L e v e l 3
o f S ta c k
S ta c k L e v e l 8
If the stack is full and an enabled interrupt takes place,
the interrupt request flag will be recorded but the acknowledge signal will be inhibited. When the Stack
Pointer is decremented, by RET or RETI, the interrupt
will be serviced. This feature prevents stack overflow allowing the programmer to use the structure more easily.
The lower byte of the Program Counter is fully accessible under program control. Manipulating the PCL might
Program Counter
Mode
*10
*9
*8
*7
*6
*5
*4
*3
*2
*1
*0
Initial Reset
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Timer Base Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
Timer Counter 0 Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
Timer Counter 1 Overflow
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
SIM Interrupt
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
Loading PCL
*10
*9
*8
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Jump, Call Branch
#10
#9
#8
#7
#6
#5
#4
#3
#2
#1
#0
Return from Subroutine
S10
S9
S8
S7
S6
S5
S4
S3
S2
S1
S0
Skip
Program Counter + 2
Program Counter
Note:
*10~*0: Program counter bits
#10~#0: Instruction code bits
Rev. 1.30
S10~S0: Stack register bits
@[email protected]: PCL bits
8
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
However, when the stack is full, a CALL subroutine instruction can still be executed which will result in a stack
overflow. Precautions should be taken to avoid such
cases which might cause unpredictable program
branching.
· Location 004H
Arithmetic and Logic Unit - ALU
· Location 008H
This vector is used by the external interrupt. If the external interrupt pin on the device goes low, the program will jump to this location and begin execution if
the external interrupt is enabled and the stack is not
full.
This vector is used by the 8-bit Timer 0. If a overflow
occurs, the program will jump to this location and begin execution if the timer interrupt is enabled and the
stack is not full.
The arithmetic-logic unit or ALU is a critical area of the
microcontroller that carries out arithmetic and logic operations of the instruction set. Connected to the main
microcontroller data bus, the ALU receives related instruction codes and performs the required arithmetic or
logical operations after which the result will be placed in
the specified register. As these ALU calculation or operations may result in carry, borrow or other status
changes, the status register will be correspondingly updated to reflect these changes. The ALU supports the
following functions:
· Location 00CH
This vector is used by the 8-bit Timer1. If a overflow
occurs, the program will jump to this location and begin execution if the timer interrupt is enabled and the
stack is not full.
· Location 010H
Reserved.
· Location 014H
· Arithmetic operations ADD, ADDM, ADC, ADCM,
SUB, SUBM, SBC, SBCM, DAA
This vector is used by the SIM Bus interrupt service
program. If the SIM Bus interrupt resulting from a
slave address is matched or if 8 bits of data have been
received or transmitted successfully from the I2C interface, or 8 bits of data have been received or transmitted successful from SPI interface, the program will
jump to this location and begin execution if the interrupt is enabled and the stack is not full.
· Logic operations AND, OR, XOR, ANDM, ORM,
XORM, CPL, CPLA
· Rotation RRA, RR, RRCA, RRC, RLA, RL, RLCA,
RLC
· Increment and Decrement INCA, INC, DECA, DEC
· Branch decision JMP, SZ, SZA, SNZ, SIZ, SDZ, SIZA,
SDZA, CALL, RET, RETI
0 0 0 H
Program Memory
0 0 4 H
The Program Memory is the location where the user
code or program is stored. By using the appropriate programming tools, this Program memory device offer users the flexibility to conveniently debug and develop
their applications while also offering a means of field
programming.
0 0 8 H
0 0 C H
In itia lis a tio n
V e c to r
T im e B a s e
In te rru p t V e c to r
T im e r C o u n te r 0
In te rru p t V e c to r
T im e r C o u n te r 1
In te rru p t V e c to r
0 1 0 H
Structure
0 1 4 H
The program memory stores the program instructions
that are to be executed. It also includes data, table and
interrupt entries, addressed by the Program Counter
along with the table pointer. The program memory size
is 2K ´15 bits. Certain locations in the program memory
are reserved for special usage.
S IM
In te rru p t V e c to r
0 1 5 H
7 F F H
1 5 b its
Program Memory Structure
Special Vectors
Within the Program Memory, certain locations are reserved for special usage such as reset and interrupts.
· Location 000H
This vector is reserved for use by the device reset for
program initialisation. After a device reset is initiated, the
program will jump to this location and begin execution.
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HT83FXX
Look-up Table
The following diagram illustrates the addressing/data
flow of the look-up table.
Any location within the Program Memory can be defined
as a look-up table where programmers can store fixed
data. To use the look-up table, table pointers are used to
setup the address of the data that is to be accessed from
the Program Memory. However, as some devices possess only a low byte table pointer and other devices possess both a high and low byte pointer it should be noted
that depending upon which device is used, accessing
look-up table data is implemented in slightly different
ways.
P ro g ra m C o u n te r
H ig h B y te
T B L H
H ig h B y te o f T a b le C o n te n ts
?
?
S p e c ifie d b y [m ]
L o w
B y te o f T a b le C o n te n ts
Look-up Table
There are two Table Pointer Registers known as TBLP
and TBHP in which the lower order and higher order address of the look-up data to be retrieved must be respectively first written. The additional TBHP register allows
the complete address of the look-up table to be defined
and consequently allow table data from any address
and any page to be directly accessed. For this device,
after setting up both the low and high byte table pointers,
the table data can then be retrieved from any area of
Program Memory using the ²TABRDC [m]² instruction or
from the last page of the Program Memory using the
²TABRDL [m]² instruction. When either of these instructions are executed, the lower order table byte from the
Program Memory will be transferred to the user defined
Data Memory register [m] as specified in the instruction.
The higher order table data byte from the Program
Memory will be transferred to the TBLH special register.
Any unused bits in this transferred higher order byte will
be read as ²0².
tempreg1 db
tempreg2 db
:
:
P ro g ra m
M e m o ry
T B L P
Table Program Example
The following example shows how the table pointer and
table data is defined and retrieved from the devices.
This example uses raw table data located in the last
page which is stored there using the ORG statement.
The value at this ORG statement is ²700H² which refers
to the start address of the last page within the
2048´15-bit Program Memory of the microcontroller.
The table pointer is setup here to have an initial value of
²06H². This will ensure that the first data read from the
data table will be at the Program Memory address
²706H² or 6 locations after the start of the last page.
Note that the value for the table pointer is referenced to
the first address of the present page if the ²TABRDC
[m]² instruction is being used. The high byte of the table
data which in this case is equal to zero will be transferred to the TBLH register automatically when the
²TABRDL [m]² instruction is executed.
; temporary register #1
; temporary register #2
mov a,06h
; initialise table pointer - note that this address is referenced
mov tblp,a
:
:
; to the last page or present page
tabrdl
;
;
;
;
tempreg1
dec tblp
tabrdl
transfers value in table referenced by table pointer
to tempregl
data at prog. memory address ²706H² transferred to
tempreg1 and TBLH
; reduce value of table pointer by one
tempreg2
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
transfers value in table referenced by table pointer
to tempreg2
data at prog.memory address ²705H² transferred to
tempreg2 and TBLH
in this example the data ²1AH² is transferred to
tempreg1 and data ²0FH² to register tempreg2
the value ²00H² will be transferred to the high byte
register TBLH
:
:
org 700h
dc
; sets initial address of HT83F10/20/40/60/80 last page
00Ah, 00Bh, 00Ch, 00Dh, 00Eh, 00Fh, 01Ah, 01Bh
:
:
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HT83FXX
Because the TBLH register is a read-only register and
cannot be restored, care should be taken to ensure its
protection if both the main routine and Interrupt Service
Routine use table read instructions. If using the table
read instructions, the Interrupt Service Routines may
change the value of the TBLH and subsequently cause
errors if used again by the main routine. As a rule it is
recommended that simultaneous use of the table read
instructions should be avoided. However, in situations
where simultaneous use cannot be avoided, the interrupts should be disabled prior to the execution of any
main routine table-read instructions. Note that all table
related instructions require two instruction cycles to
complete their operation.
Table Location
Instruction
*10
*9
*8
*7
*6
*5
*4
*3
*2
*1
*0
TABRDC [m]
P10
P9
P8
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
TABRDL [m]
1
1
1
@7
@6
@5
@4
@3
@2
@1
@0
Table Location
Note:
*10~*0: Current Program ROM table
@[email protected]: Write @[email protected] to TBLP pointer register
P10~P8: Write P12~P8 to TBHP pointer register
Data Memory
General Purpose Data Memory
The Data Memory is a volatile area of 8-bit wide RAM internal memory and is the location where temporary information is stored. Divided into two sections, the first of
these is an area of RAM where special function registers
are located. These registers have fixed locations and
are necessary for correct operation of the device. Many
of these registers can be read from and written to directly under program control, however, some remain
protected from user manipulation. The second area of
RAM Data Memory is reserved for general purpose use.
All locations within this area are read and write accessible under program control.
All microcontroller programs require an area of
read/write memory where temporary data can be stored
and retrieved for use later. It is this area of RAM memory
that is known as General Purpose Data Memory. This
area of Data Memory is fully accessible by the user program for both read and write operations. By using the
²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions individual bits
can be set or reset under program control giving the
user a large range of flexibility for bit manipulation in the
Data Memory.
Special Purpose Data Memory
Structure
This area of Data Memory, is located in Bank, where
registers, necessary for the correct operation of the
microcontroller, are stored. Most of the registers are
both readable and writable but some are protected and
are readable only, the details of which are located under
the relevant Special Function Register section. Note
that for locations that are unused, any read instruction to
these addresses will return the value ²00H².
The Data Memory has a bank, known as Bank, which is
implemented in 8-bit wide RAM. The RAM Data Memory
is located in Bank 0 which is also subdivided into two sections, the Special Purpose Data Memory and the General
Purpose Data Memory. The length of these sections is
dictated by the type of microcontroller chosen.
The start address of the RAM Data Memory for all devices is the address ²00H², and the last Data Memory
address is ²FFH². Registers which are common to all
microcontrollers, such as ACC, PCL, etc., have the
same Data Memory address.
0 0 H
2 F H
3 0 H
S p e c ia l P u r p o s e
D a ta M e m o ry
G e n e ra l P u rp o s e
D a ta M e m o ry
(8 0 B y te s )
7 F H
RAM Data Memory Structure
Note: Most of the RAM Data Memory bits can be directly manipulated using the ²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions with the exception of a few dedicated bits. The RAM Data Memory can also be accessed through the
Memory Pointer registers MP.
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HT83FXX
Special Function Registers
Indirect Addressing Register - IAR
To ensure successful operation of the microcontroller,
certain internal registers are implemented in the RAM
Data Memory area. These registers ensure correct operation of internal functions such as timers, interrupts,
watchdog, etc., as well as external functions such as I/O
data control. The location of these registers within the
RAM Data Memory begins at the address ²00H². Any
unused Data Memory locations between these special
function registers and the point where the General Purpose Memory begins is reserved for future expansion
purposes, attempting to read data from these locations
will return a value of ²00H².
0 0 H
0 1 H
0 2 H
0 3 H
0 4 H
0 5 H
0 6 H
0 7 H
0 8 H
0 9 H
0 A H
0 B H
0 C H
0 D H
0 E H
0 F H
1 0 H
1 1 H
1 2 H
1 3 H
1 4 H
1 5 H
1 6 H
1 7 H
1 8 H
1 9 H
1 A H
1 B H
1 C H
1 D H
1 E H
1 F H
2 0 H
2 1 H
2 2 H
2 3 H
2 4 H
2 5 H
2 6 H
2 7 H
2 8 H
2 9 H
2 A H
2 B H
2 C H
2 D H
2 E H
2 F H
The Indirect Addressing Register, IAR, although having
location in normal RAM register space, do not actually
physically exist as normal registers.
The method of indirect addressing for RAM data manipulation uses the Indirect Addressing Register and Memory Pointer, in contrast to direct memory addressing,
where the actual memory address is specified.
Actions on the IAR register will result in no actual read or
write operation to these register but rather to the memory location specified by their corresponding Memory
Pointer, MP. Acting as a pair, IAR and MP can together
only access data. As the Indirect Addressing Registers
are not physically implemented, reading the Indirect Addressing Register indirectly will return a result of ²00H²
and writing to the registers indirectly will result in no operation.
IA R
M P
A C C
P C L
T B L P
T B L H
W D T S
S T A T U S
IN T C
Memory Pointer - MP
For all devices, Memory Pointer, known as MP is provided. These Memory Pointers are physically implemented in the Data Memory and can be manipulated in
the same way as normal register providing a convenient
way with which to address and track data. When any operation to the relevant Indirect Addressing Registers is
carried out, the actual address that the microcontroller is
directed to, is the address specified by the related Memory Pointer. MP, together with Indirect Addressing Register, IAR, are used to access data. Note that bit 7 of the
Memory Pointers is not required to address the full
memory space and will return a value of ²1² if read.
T M R 0
T M R 0 C
T M R 1
T M R 1 C
P A
P A C
P B
P B C
IN T C H
S IM C
S IM C
S IM D
S IM A R /S
D A L
D A H
P W M C
P W M
P W M
V O L
0
1
R
H
IM C 2
L
R
: U n k n o w n
Special Purpose Data Memory Structure
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HT83FXX
The following example shows how to clear a section of four RAM locations already defined as locations adres1 to
adres4.
data .section ¢data¢
adres1
db ?
adres2
db ?
adres3
db ?
adres4
db ?
block
db ?
code .section at 0 ¢code¢
org 00h
start:
mov
mov
mov
mov
a,04h
block,a
a,offset adres1
mp,a
; setup size of block
loop:
clr
inc
sdz
jmp
IAR
mp
block
loop
; clear the data at address defined by MP
; increment memory pointer
; check if last memory location has been cleared
; Accumulator loaded with first RAM address
; setup memory pointer with first RAM address
continue:
The important point to note here is that in the example shown above, no reference is made to specific RAM addresses.
Accumulator - ACC
²INC² or ²DEC² instructions, allowing for easy table data
pointing and reading. TBLH is the location where the
high order byte of the table data is stored after a table
read data instruction has been executed. Note that the
lower order table data byte is transferred to a user defined location.
The Accumulator is central to the operation of any
microcontroller and is closely related with operations
carried out by the ALU. The Accumulator is the place
where all intermediate results from the ALU are stored.
Without the Accumulator it would be necessary to write
the result of each calculation or logical operation such
as addition, subtraction, shift, etc., to the Data Memory
resulting in higher programming and timing overheads.
Data transfer operations usually involve the temporary
storage function of the Accumulator; for example, when
transferring data between one user defined register and
another, it is necessary to do this by passing the data
through the Accumulator as no direct transfer between
two registers is permitted.
Watchdog Timer Register - WDTS
The Watchdog feature of the microcontroller provides
an automatic reset function giving the microcontroller a
means of protection against spurious jumps to incorrect
Program Memory addresses. To implement this, a timer
is provided within the microcontroller which will issue a
reset command when its value overflows. To provide
variable Watchdog Timer reset times, the Watchdog
Timer clock source can be divided by various division ratios, the value of which is set using the WDTS register.
By writing directly to this register, the appropriate division ratio for the Watchdog Timer clock source can be
setup. Note that only the lower 3 bits are used to set division ratios between 1 and 128.
Program Counter Low Register - PCL
To provide additional program control functions, the low
byte of the Program Counter is made accessible to programmers by locating it within the Special Purpose area
of the Data Memory. By manipulating this register, direct
jumps to other program locations are easily implemented. Loading a value directly into this PCL register
will cause a jump to the specified Program Memory location, however, as the register is only 8-bit wide, only
jumps within the current Program Memory page are permitted. When such operations are used, note that a
dummy cycle will be inserted.
Status Register - STATUS
This 8-bit register contains the zero flag (Z), carry flag
(C), auxiliary carry flag (AC), overflow flag (OV), power
down flag (PDF), and watchdog time-out flag (TO).
These arithmetic/logical operation and system management flags are used to record the status and operation of
the microcontroller.
Look-up Table Registers - TBLP, TBLH
With the exception of the TO and PDF flags, bits in the
status register can be altered by instructions like most
other registers. Any data written into the status register
will not change the TO or PDF flag. In addition, operations related to the status register may give different results due to the different instruction operations. The TO
flag can be affected only by a system power-up, a WDT
These two special function registers are used to control
operation of the look-up table which is stored in the Program Memory. TBLP is the table pointer and indicates
the location where the table data is located. Its value
must be setup before any table read commands are executed. Its value can be changed, for example using the
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HT83FXX
b 7
b 0
T O
P D F
O V
Z
A C
C
S T A T U S R e g is te r
A r
C a
A u
Z e
ith m e
r r y fla
x ilia r y
r o fla g
O v e r flo w
g
tic /L o g ic O p e r a tio n F la g s
c a r r y fla g
fla g
S y s te m M
P o w e r d o w
W a tc h d o g
N o t im p le m
a n
n
tim
e
a g e m e n t F la g s
fla g
e - o u t fla g
n te d , re a d a s "0 "
Status Register
time-out or by executing the ²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction. The PDF flag is affected only by executing the
²HALT² or ²CLR WDT² instruction or during a system
power-up.
routine is entered to disable further interrupt and is set
by executing the ²RETI² instruction.
Note: In situations where other interrupts may require
servicing within present interrupt service routines, the EMI bit can be manually set by the program after the present interrupt service routine
has been entered.
The Z, OV, AC and C flags generally reflect the status of
the latest operations.
· C is set if an operation results in a carry during an ad-
dition operation or if a borrow does not take place during a subtraction operation; otherwise C is cleared. C
is also affected by a rotate through carry instruction.
Timer Registers
All devices contain two 8-bit Timers whose associated
registers are known as TMR0 and TMR1 which is the location where the associated timer's 8-bit value is located. Their associated control registers, known as
TMR0C and TMR1C, contain the setup information for
these timers.
· AC is set if an operation results in a carry out of the
low nibbles in addition, or no borrow from the high nibble into the low nibble in subtraction; otherwise AC is
cleared.
· Z is set if the result of an arithmetic or logical operation
Note that all timer registers can be directly written to in
order to preload their contents with fixed data to allow
different time intervals to be setup.
is zero; otherwise Z is cleared.
· OV is set if an operation results in a carry into the high-
est-order bit but not a carry out of the highest-order bit,
or vice versa; otherwise OV is cleared.
Input/Output Ports and Control Registers
· PDF is cleared by a system power-up or executing the
Within the area of Special Function Registers, the I/O
registers and their associated control registers play a
prominent role. All I/O ports have a designated register
correspondingly labeled as PA, PB etc. These labeled
I/O registers are mapped to specific addresses within
the Data Memory as shown in the Data Memory table,
which are used to transfer the appropriate output or input data on that port. With each I/O port there is an associated control register labeled PAC, PBC, etc., also
mapped to specific addresses with the Data Memory.
The control register specifies which pins of that port are
set as inputs and which are set as outputs. To setup a
pin as an input, the corresponding bit of the control register must be set high, for an output it must be set low.
During program initialisation, it is important to first setup
the control registers to specify which pins are outputs
and which are inputs before reading data from or writing
data to the I/O ports. One flexible feature of these registers is the ability to directly program single bits using the
²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions. The ability to
change I/O pins from output to input and vice-versa by
manipulating specific bits of the I/O control registers during normal program operation is a useful feature of
these devices.
²CLR WDT² instruction. PDF is set by executing the
²HALT² instruction.
· TO is cleared by a system power-up or executing the
²CLR WDT² or ²HALT² instruction. TO is set by a
WDT time-out.
In addition, on entering an interrupt sequence or executing a subroutine call, the status register will not be
pushed onto the stack automatically. If the contents of
the status registers are important and if the subroutine
can corrupt the status register, precautions must be
taken to correctly save it.
Interrupt Control Register - INTC, INTCH
Two 8-bit register, known as the INTC and INTCH registers, controls the operation of both external and internal
timer interrupts. By setting various bits within these registers using standard bit manipulation instructions, the
enable/disable function of the external and timer interrupts can be independently controlled. A master interrupt bit within this register, the EMI bit, acts like a global
enable/disable and is used to set all of the interrupt enable bits on or off. This bit is cleared when an interrupt
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HT83FXX
Voice Control and Audio output Registers DAL, DAH, VOL
Memory and RAM Data Memory, the Flash Data Memory
is not directly mapped and is therefore not directly accessible in the same way as the other types of memory.
The devices include a single 12-bit current type DAC
function for driving an external 8W speaker through an
external NPN transistor or Power Amplifier. The programmer must writer the voice data to these DAL/DAH
registers. The programmer can control the DAC volume
with 7-levels via the VOL register.
Accessing the Flash Data Memory
The Flash Data Memory is accessed using a set of
Macros in the library. These instructions control all functions of the Flash such as read, write, erase, enable etc.
The internal Flash structure is similar to that of a standard SPI Flash Memory, for which 4 pins are used for
transfer of instruction, address and data information.
These are the Chip Select pin, CS, Serial Clock pin,
SCK, Data In pin, SI and the Data Out pin, SO. All actions related to the Flash Memory must be conducted
through each of these four Flash Memory download
pins. By manipulating these four pin in the device, in accordance with the accompanying timing diagrams, the
microcontroller can communicate with the Flash Memory and carry out the required read and write instructions.
Pulse Width Modulator Registers PWMC, PWML, PWMH
Each device contains a single 12-bit PWM function for
driving an external 8W speaker. The programmer must
writer the voice data to PWML/PWMH register. The programmer can control the PWM volume with 8-levels via
the VOL register.
Serial Interface Module(SIM) Registers SIMC0, SIMC1, SIMAR/SIMC2, SIMDR
Each SIM contains SPI and I2C function for communicating with other microcontroller or SPI Flash Memory.
All devices contain an integrated I2C and SPI bus which
interfaces to the external shared pins SDA ,SCL and
SCSB ,SCK ,SDI ,SDO with PB on the microcontroller.
The I2C correct setup and data transfer operation of this
2-line bidirectional bus utilizes 4 special function registers. The SIMAR register sets the slave address of the
device while the SIMC0 is the control register that enables or disables the device as well as select whether it
is in I2C or SPI mode. The SIMC1 register is the I2C status register while the SIMDR register is the input/output
data register. The SPI correct setup and data transfer
operation of this 3-line bidirectional bus utilizes 3 special
function registers. The SIMC0 is the control register that
enables or disables the device as well as select whether
it is in I2C or SPI mode. The SIMC2 register is the SPI
status register while the SIMDR register is the input/output data register.
When reading data from the Flash Memory, CS should
be set to ²0² to start the data transmission. The data will
clocked out on the rising edge of SCK and appear on
SO. The SO pin will normally be in a high-impedance
condition unless a READ statement is being executed.
When writing to the Flash Memory the data must be presented first on SI and then clocked in on the rising edge
of SCK. After all the instruction, address and data information has been transmitted, CS should be set to ²1² to
terminate the data transmission. Note that after power
on the Flash Memory must be initialised as described.
READ
The ²READ² instruction is used to read out one or more
bytes of data from the Flash Data Memory. To instigate a
²READ² instruction, the CS bit should be set low, followed by a command instruction and then the instruction
code ²03², all transmitted via the SI bit. The address information should then follow with the MSB being transmitted first. After the last address bit, A0, has been
transmitted, the data can be clocked out, bit D7 first, on
the rising edge of the SCK clock signal and can be read
via the SO bit. The data information will first precede the
reading of the first data bit, D7. After the full byte has
been read out, the internal address will be automatically
incremented allowing the next consecutive data byte to
be read out without entering further address data. As
long as the CS bit remains low, data bit D7 of the next
address will automatically follow data bit D0 of the previous address being inserted between them. The address
will keep incrementing in this way until CS returns to a
high value. SO will normally be in a high impedance condition until the ²READ² instruction is executed.
Flash Data Memory
The Data Memory is the location where the user Data is
stored. For this device the Data Memory is a Flash type,
which means it can be programmed and reprogrammed
a large number of times, allowing the user the convenience of voice data modification using the same device. By using the appropriate programming tools, these
devices offer users the flexibility to conveniently change
and develop their applications while also offering a
means of field programming.
Flash Data Memory Structure
The internal Flash Data Memory has a capacity of between 2M´8 bit and 128K´8 bit. Unlike the Program
Rev. 1.30
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HT83FXX
Read Data Byte Timing
Page Program Timing
Earse All Timing
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HT83FXX
WRITE
ERAL
The ²WRITE² instruction is used to write a page byte of
data into the Flash Data Memory. To instigate a WRITE
instruction, the CS bit should be set low, then the instruction code ²02², all transmitted via the SI bit. For this
device, The address information should then follow with
the MSB bit being transmitted first. After the last address
bit, A0, has been transmitted, the data can be immediately transmitted MSB first. After all the WRITE instruction code, address and data have been transmitted, the
data will be written into the Flash Data Memory when the
CS bit is set to high. The Flash Data Memory does this
by executing an internal write-cycle, which will first
erase and then write the previously transmitted data
byte into the Flash Data Memory. This process takes
place internally using the Flash Data Memory¢s own internal clock and does not require any action from the
SCK clock. No further instructions can be accepted by
the Flash Data Memory until this internal write-cycle has
finished.
The ²ERAL² instruction is used to erase the whole contents of the Flash Data Memory. After it has been executed all the data in the Flash Data Memory will be set to
²1². To instigate this instruction, the CSB bit should be
set low. The instruction code ²60² or ²C7². Following on
from this, a ²60² or ²C7² should then be transmitted. After the ²ERAL² instruction code has been transmitted,
the Flash Data Memory data will be erased when the CS
bit is set to high.
Instruction
Function
The Flash Data Memory does this by executing an internal write-cycle. This process takes place internally using
the Flash Data Memory¢s own internal clock and does
not require any action from the SCK clock. No further instructions can be accepted by the Flash Data Memory
until this internal write-cycle has finished. To determine
when the write
Instruction Code
Address
Data
READ
Read Out Data
03
A23~A0
D7~D0
WRITE
Write Data Page Byte
02
A23~A0
D7~D0
ERAL
Erase All
60 or C7
¾
¾
Instruction Set Summary
In Circuit Programming
The provision of Flash type Data Memory gives the user
and designer the convenience of easy upgrades and
modifications to their Data on the same device. As an
additional convenience, Holtek has provided a means of
programming the microcontroller in-circuit. This provides manufacturers with the possibility of manufacturing their circuit boards complete with a programmed or
un-programmed microcontroller, and then programming
or upgrading the program at a later stage. This enables
product manufacturers to easily keep their manufactured products supplied with the latest data releases
without removal and re-insertion of the device.
The Data Memory can be programmed serially in-circuit
using a 8-wire interface. Data is downloaded and uploaded serially on two SI/SO pins with an additional line
for the clock. Two additional lines are required for the
power supply and one line for the select signal. The
technical details regarding the in-circuit programming of
the devices are beyond the scope of this document and
will be supplied in supplementary literature.
T a rg e t
M C U
W r ite r
C o n n e c to r
D a ta O u t
M O S I
Pin Name
Function
SI
Serial data input
SO
Serial data output
SCK
Serial clock
CS
Signal Select
VDD
Power supply
VSS
Ground
Rev. 1.30
N C
E rro P ro o f
S ig n a l S e le c t
D a ta In
S I
C L K
C lo c k
M IS O
C S
S O
P o w e r
V D D
G ro u n d
V S S
R e s e t
R e s e t
In-circuit Programming Interface
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Input/Output Ports
I/O Port Control Registers
Holtek microcontrollers offer considerable flexibility on
their I/O ports. With the input or output designation of every pin fully under user program control, pull-high options for all ports and wake-up options on certain pins,
the user is provided with an I/O structure to meet the
needs of a wide range of application possibilities.
Depending upon which device or package is chosen,
the microcontroller range provides from 12 bidirectional
input/output lines labeled with port names PA, PB, etc.
These I/O ports are mapped to the Data Memory with
specific addresses as shown in the Special Purpose
Data Memory table. All of these I/O ports can be used
for input and output operations. For input operation,
these ports are non-latching, which means the inputs
must be ready at the T2 rising edge of instruction ²MOV
A,[m]², where m denotes the port address. For output
operation, all the data is latched and remains unchanged until the output latch is rewritten.
Each I/O port has its own control register PAC and PBC,
to control the input/output configuration. With this control register, each CMOS output or input with or without
pull-high resistor structures can be reconfigured dynamically under software control. Each pin of the I/O ports is
directly mapped to a bit in its associated port control register. For the I/O pin to function as an input, the corresponding bit of the control register must be written as a
²1². This will then allow the logic state of the input pin to
be directly read by instructions. When the corresponding bit of the control register is written as a ²0², the I/O
pin will be setup as a CMOS output. If the pin is currently
setup as an output, instructions can still be used to read
the output register. However, it should be noted that the
program will in fact only read the status of the output
data latch and not the actual logic status of the output
pin.
Pull-high Resistors
Pin-shared Functions
Many product applications require pull-high resistors for
their switch inputs usually requiring the use of an external resistor. To eliminate the need for these external resistors, all I/O pins, when configured as an input have
the capability of being connected to an internal pull-high
resistor. These pull-high resistors are selectable via
configuration options and are implemented using a
weak PMOS transistor. Note that if the pull-high option is
selected, then all I/O pins on that port will be connected
to pull-high resistors, individual pins can be selected for
pull-high resistor options.
The flexibility of the microcontroller range is greatly enhanced by the use of pins that have more than one function. Limited numbers of pins can force serious design
constraints on designers but by supplying pins with
multi-functions, many of these difficulties can be overcome. For some pins, the chosen function of the
multi-function I/O pins is set by configuration options
while for others the function is set by application program control.
· Serial Interface Module
The device pins, PB0~PB3, are pin-shared with pins
SDA, SCL, SCS, SCK, SDI, SDO. The choice of which
function is used is selected using the SIMC0 register.
Port A Wake-up
Each device has a HALT instruction enabling the
microcontroller to enter a Power Down Mode and preserve power, a feature that is important for battery and
other low-power applications. Various methods exist to
wake-up the microcontroller, one of which is to change
the logic condition on one of the Port A pins from high to
low. After a ²HALT² instruction forces the microcontroller
into entering a HALT condition, the processor will remain idle or in a low-power state until the logic condition
of the selected wake-up pin on Port A changes from high
to low. This function is especially suitable for applications that can be woken up via external switches. Note
that each pin on Port A can be selected individually to
have this wake-up feature.
Rev. 1.30
· I/O Pin Structures
The following diagrams illustrate the I/O pin internal
structures. As the exact logical construction of the I/O
pin may differ from these drawings, they are supplied
as a guide only to assist with the functional understanding of the I/O pins.
Note also that the specified pins refer to the largest
device package, therefore not all pins specified will
exist on all devices.
18
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Programming Considerations
operation takes place. The microcontroller must first
read in the data on the entire port, modify it to the required new bit values and then rewrite this data back to
the output ports.
Within the user program, one of the first things to consider is port initialization. After a reset, all of the I/O data
and port control registers will be set high. This means
that all I/O pins will default to an input state, the level of
which depends on the other connected circuitry and
whether pull-high options have been selected. If the port
control registers, PAC, PBC etc., are then programmed
to setup some pins as outputs, these output pins will
have an initial high output value unless the associated
port data registers, PA, PB, etc., are first programmed.
Selecting which pins are inputs and which are outputs
can be achieved byte-wide by loading the correct values
into the appropriate port control register or by programming individual bits in the port control register using the
²SET [m].i² and ²CLR [m].i² instructions. Note that when
using these bit control instructions, a read-modify-write
T 1
S y s te m
T 2
T 3
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
W r ite to P o r t
T 4
R e a d fro m
P o rt
Port A has the additional capability of providing wake-up
functions. When the device is in the Power Down Mode,
various methods are available to wake the device up.
One of these is a high to low transition of any of the Port
A pins. Single or multiple pins on Port A can be setup to
have this function.
P u ll- H ig h
O p tio n
Q
C K
T 3
Read/Write Timing
C o n tr o l B it
D
T 2
P o rt D a ta
V
D a ta B u s
T 1
T 4
C lo c k
D D
W e a k
P u ll- u p
Q
S
C h ip R e s e t
P A 0 ~ P A 7
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
D a ta B it
Q
D
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
C K
Q
S
M
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
S y s te m
U
X
W a k e -u p
W a k e - u p O p tio n
PA Input/Output Port
V
P u ll- H ig h
O p tio n
C o n tr o l B it
D a ta B u s
Q
D
W r ite C o n tr o l R e g is te r
C K
D D
W e a k
P u ll- u p
Q
S
C h ip R e s e t
P B 0
P B 1
P B 2
P B 3
R e a d C o n tr o l R e g is te r
D a ta B it
Q
D
W r ite D a ta R e g is te r
P B
P B 0 /S
P B 1 /S
P B 2 /S D I, P
D a
D O
C K
B 3
ta
/S
/S
/S
B it
D A
C L
C S
C K
S
/S D
/S C
/S D
/S C
O /S D A
K /S C L
I
S
Q
M
M
U
X
U
A n a lo g S w itc h O p tio n
X
R e a d D a ta R e g is te r
PB Input/Output Port
Rev. 1.30
19
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Timers
are read, the timer clock will be blocked to avoid errors,
however, as this may result in certain timing errors, programmers must take this into account.
The provision of timers form an important part of any
microcontroller, giving the designer a means of carrying
out time related functions. These devices contain two
count up timers of 8-bit capacity. The provision of an internal prescaler to the clock circuitry of the timer gives
added range to the timer.
Timer Control Registers - TMR0C, TMR1C
Each timer has its respective timer control register,
known as TMR0C and TMR1C. It is the timer control
register together with their corresponding timer registers
that control the full operation of the timers. Before the
timers can be used, it is essential that the appropriate
timer control register is fully programmed with the right
data to ensure its correct operation, a process that is
normally carried out during program initialization. Bits 7
and 6 of the Timer Control Register, must be set to the
required logic levels. Bit 6 of the registers must always
be written with a ²1², and bit 7 must always be written
with a ²0². The timer-on bit, which is bit 4 of the Timer
Control Register and known as T0ON/ T1ON, depending upon which timer is used, provides the basic on/off
control of the respective timer. setting the bit high allows
the timer to run, clearing the bit stops the timer. For the
8-bit timers, which have prescalers, bits 0~2 of the
Timer Control Register determines the division ratio of
the input clock prescaler.
There are two types of register related to each Timer.
The first is the register that contains the actual value of
the timer and into which an initial value can be
preloaded. Reading from this register retrieves the contents of the Timer. All devices can have the timer clock
configured to come from the internal clock source.
Configuring the Timer Input Clock Source
The clock source for the 8-bit timers is the system clock
divided by four. The 8-bit timer clock source is also first divided by a, the division ratio of which is conditioned by the
three lower bits of the associated timer control register.
Timer Registers - TMR0, TMR1
The timer registers are special function registers located
in the special purpose Data Memory and is the place
where the actual timer value is stored. All devices contain two 8-bit timers, whose registers are known as
TMR0 and TMR1. The value in the timer registers increases by one each time an internal clock pulse is received. The timer will count from the initial value loaded
by the preload register to the full count of FFH for the
8-bit timer at which point the timer overflows and an internal interrupt signal is generated. The timer value will
then be reset with the initial preload register value and
continue counting.
Configuring the Timer
The Timer is used to measure fixed time intervals, providing an internal interrupt signal each time the Timer
overflows. To do this the Operating Mode Select bit pair
in the Timer Control Register must be set to the correct
value as shown.
Control Register Operating Mode
Select Bits
Note that to achieve a maximum full range count of FFH
for the 8-bit timer, the preload registers must first be
cleared to all zeros. It should be noted that after
power-on, the preload registers will be in an unknown
condition. Note that if the Timer Counters are in an OFF
condition and data is written to their preload registers,
this data will be immediately written into the actual counter. However, if the counter is enabled and counting, any
new data written into the preload data register during
this period will remain in the preload register and will
only be written into the actual counter the next time an
overflow occurs. Note also that when the timer registers
Bit7 Bit6
1
0
The internal clock, fSYS, is used as the Timer clock. However, this clock source is further divided by a prescaler,
the value of which is determined by the Prescaler Rate
Select bits, which are bits 0~2 in the Timer Control Register. After the other bits in the Timer Control Register
have been setup, the enable bit, which is bit 4 of the
Timer Control Register, can be set high to enable the
Timer to run. Each time an internal clock cycle occurs,
the Timer increments by one. When it is full and overflows, an interrupt signal is generated and the Timer will
D a ta B u s
P r e lo a d R e g is te r
T 1 P S C 2 ~ T 1 P S C 0
T 0 P S C 2 ~ T 0 P S C 0
fS
Y S
P r e s c a le r
(1 /2 ~ 1 /2 5 6 )
T 1 T M 1
T 0 T M 1
R e lo a d
T 1 T M 0
T 0 T M 0
T im e r
T im e r M o d e C o n tr o l
T 0 O N
T 1 O N
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
8 - B it C o u n te r
8-bit Timer Structure
Rev. 1.30
20
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
P r e s c a le r O u tp u t
In c re m e n t
T im e r C o n tr o lle r
T im e r + 1
T im e r + 2
T im e r + N
T im e r + N
+ 1
Timer Mode Timing Diagram
b 7
T M 1
b 0
T M 0
T O N
P S C 2
P S C 1
P S C 0
T M R 0 C /T M R 1 C
T im e r P r e s c a
T 0 P S C 2 T 0
T 1 P S C 2 T 1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
R e g is te r
le r R a te S e le c t
T 0 P S C 0
P S C 1
T 1 P S C 0
P S C 1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
T im e r
1 :2
1 :4
1 :8
1 :1
1 :3
1 :6
1 :1
1 :2
R a te
6
2
4
2 8
5 6
N o t im p le m e n t e d , r e a d a s " d o n 't c a r e "
T im e r C o u n tin g E n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
O p e r a tin g M o d e S e le c t
T 0 T M 0
T 0 T M 1
T 1 T M 0
T 1 T M 1
n o
0
0
n o
1
0
tim
0
1
1
1
n o
m o d
m o d
e r m
m o d
e a v a ila b le
e a v a ila b le
o d e
e a v a ila b le
Timer Control Register
must be taken to ensure that the timers are properly initialized before using them for the first time. The associated timer enable bits in the interrupt control register must
be properly set otherwise the internal interrupt associated
with the timer will remain inactive. The edge select, timer
mode and clock source control bits in timer control register must also be correctly set to ensure the timer is properly configured for the required application. It is also
important to ensure that an initial value is first loaded into
the timer registers before the timer is switched on; this is
because after power-on the initial values of the timer registers are unknown. After the timer has been initialized
the timer can be turned on and off by controlling the enable bit in the timer control register.
reload the value already loaded into the preload register
and continue counting. The interrupt can be disabled by
ensuring that the Timer Interrupt Enable bit in the Interrupt Control Register, INTC, is reset to zero.
Prescaler
All of the 8-bit timers possess a prescaler. Bits 0~2 of
their associated timer control register, define the
pre-scaling stages of the internal clock source of the
Timer. The Timer overflow signal can be used to generate signals for the Timer interrupt.
Programming Considerations
The internal system clock is used as the timer clock
source and is therefore synchronized with the overall
operation of the microcontroller. In this mode, when the
appropriate timer register is full, the microcontroller will
generate an internal interrupt signal directing the program flow to the respective internal interrupt vector.
When the Timer is read, the clock is blocked to avoid errors, however as this may result in a counting error, this
should be taken into account by the programmer. Care
Rev. 1.30
21
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Timer Program Example
The following example program section is based on the HT83F60 device, which contain two 8-bit timers. Programming
the timer for other devices is conducted in a very similar way. The program shows how the timer registers are setup
along with how the interrupts are enabled and managed. Points to note in the example are how, for the 8-bit timer. Note
how the timer is turned on by setting bit 4 of the respective timer control register. The timer can be turned off in a similar
way by clearing the same bit. This example program sets the timer to be in the timer mode which uses the internal fsys
as their clock source, and produce a timer 0 interrupt per 1ms.
#include HT83F60.inc
jmp begin
:
org 04h
;
reti
org 08h
;
jmp tmr0int
;
org 0Ch
reti
org 10h
reti
org 14h
reti
:
;
Tmr0int:
:
;
:
reti
:
begin:
;
mov a,06h
;
mov tmr0,a
;
mov a,094
;
mov tmr0c,a
;
;
mov a,05h
;
mov intc,a
;
Rev. 1.30
time base vector
timer 0 interrupt vector
jump here when timer 0 overflows every 1ms
internal timer 0 interrupt routine
timer 0 main program placed here
setup timer 0 registers
setup timer 0 low byte
flow byte must be setup before high byte
setup timer 0 control register
setup timer mode and clock source is fsys/32 prescaler
setup interrupt register
enable global interrupt
enable timer 0 interrupt
22
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Time Base
Time base Example
The Time Base function will generate a regular interrupt
signal synchronised to the system clock which can be
used by the application as a time base signal.
The following example program section is based on the
HT83F60 device. The program shows how the Time
Base registers are setup along with how the interrupts
are enabled and managed. The points to note in the example are how the Time Base is turned on by setting bit
4 of the INTC register. The Time Base can be turned off
in a similar way by clearing the same bit. This example
program sets the Time Base which uses the internal
system clock as their clock source, and produces a time
base interrupt every 0.5ms from a system source clock
of 8MHz.
Time Base Operation
The Time Base operation is a very simple function for
the generation of a regular time signal. This is implemented by generating a regular interrupt signal whose
enable/disabled and request flags are in the INTC register. The clock source for the time base is the internal
S y s te m
C lo c k /4
¸
1 0 2 4
O v e r flo w
to In te rru p t
fSYS/4 clock source, which is then divided internally by a
value of 1024. It is this divided signal that generates the
internal interrupt. The Time Base Interrupt is enabled by
the ETBI bit in the INTC register and interrupt request
flag is the TBF flag in the same register. A time base of
1ms will therefor be generated from a system clock of
4MHz and a time base of 0.5ms will be generated from a
system clock source of 8MHz.
#include HT83F60.inc
jmp begin
:
org 04h
jmp time_base_int
org 08h
reti
org 0Ch
reti
org 10h
reti
org 14h
reti
:
; time base vector
; jump here when time base overflows per 0.5ms
; time base interrupt routine
time_base_int:
:
; time base main program placed here
:
reti
:
begin:
mov
mov
Rev. 1.30
a,03h
intc,a
; setup interrupt register
; enable global and time base interrupt
; enable time base
23
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Serial Interface
2
The device contains both SPI and I C serial interface
functions, which allows two methods of easy communication with external peripheral hardware. As the SPI and
I2C function share the same external pins and internal
registers their function must first be chosen by selecting
the correct configuration option.
Serial Data Output lines, SCK is the Serial Clock line
and SCS is the Slave Select line. As the SPI interface
pins are pin-shared with segment pins and with the I2C
function pins, the SPI interface must first be enabled
by selecting the correct configuration option. After the
SPI configuration option has been selected it can then
also be selected using the SIMEN bit in the SIMC0
register.
SPI Interface
The SPI function in this device offers the following features:
The SPI interface is often used to communicate with external peripheral devices such as sensors, Flash or
EEPROM memory devices etc. Originally developed by
Motorola, the four line SPI interface is a synchronous
serial data interface that has a relatively simple communication protocol simplifying the programming requirements when communicating with external hardware
devices.
¨
Full duplex synchronous data transfer
¨
Both Master and Slave modes
¨
LSB first or MSB first data transmission modes
¨
Transmission complete flag
Several other configuration options also exist to setup
various SPI interface options as follows:
· SPI Interface Operation
The SPI interface is a full duplex synchronous serial
data link. Communication between devices connected to the SPI interface is carried out in a
slave/master mode with all data transfer initiations being implemented by the master. Multiple slave devices
can be connected to the SPI serial bus with each device controlled using its slave select line. The SPI is a
four line interface with pin names SDI, SDO, SCK and
SCS. Pins SDI and SDO are the Serial Data Input and
¨
SPI pin enabled
¨
WCOL bit enabled or disabled
¨
CSEN bit enabled or disabled
The status of the SPI interface pins is determined
by a number of factors, whether the device is in
master or slave mode and upon the condition of certain control bits such as CSEN and SIMEN.
D a ta B u s
S IM D R
( R e c e iv e d D a ta R e g is te r )
D 7 D 6 D 5 D 4 D 3 D 2 D 1 D 0
M
S D O
U
X
M
S C K
a n d , s ta rt
M
a n d , s ta rt
C lo c k P o la r ity
U
X
E N
S D O
S IM E N
M L S
In te r n a l B a u d R a te C lo c k
B u ffe r
S D I
U
X
T R F
C 0 C 1 C 2
M a s te r o r S la v e
A N D
In te r n a l B u s y F la g
S IM E N
a n d , s ta rt
E N
W r ite S B D R
W r ite S IM D R
S IM E N
W C O L F la g
E n a b le /D is a b le
W r ite S IM D R
S C S
M a s te r o r S la v e
S IM E N
C S E N
Block Diagram
Rev. 1.30
24
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Master (SIMEN=1)
Slave (SIMEN=1)
Master/Salve
(SIMEN=0)
CSEN=1
CSEN=0
CSEN=0
SCS line=0
(CSEN=1)
SCS line=1
(CSEN=1)
SCS
Z
L
Z
Z
I, Z
I, Z
SDO
Z
O
O
O
O
Z
SDI
Z
I, Z
I, Z
I, Z
I, Z
Z
Z
L(CPOL=1)
H(CPOL=0)
L(CPOL=1)
H(CPOL=0)
I, Z
I, Z
Z
SCK
²Z² floating, ²H² output high, ²L² output low, ²I² Input, ²O²output level, ²I,Z² input floating (no pull-high)
SPI Interface Pin Status
· SPI Registers
The SIMDR register is used to store the data being
transmitted and received. There are two control registers associated with the SPI interface, SIMC0 and
SIMC2 and one data register known as SIMDR. The
SIMC1 register is not used by the SPI function. Register SIMC0 is used to control the enable/disable function, the power down control and to set the data
transmission clock frequency. Register SIMC2 is used
for other control functions such as LSB/MSB selection, write collision flag etc.
The following gives further explanation of each bit:
¨
SIMEN
The SIMEN bit is the overall on/off control for the
SPI interface. When the SIMENbit is cleared to zero
to disable the SPI interface, the SDI, SDO, SCK and
SCS lines will be in a floating condition and the SPI
operating current will be reduced to <0.1mA at 5V.
When the bit is high the SPI interface is enabled.
Note that when the SIMEN bit changes from low to
high the contents of the SPI control registers will be
in an unknown condition and should therefore be initialised by the application program.
¨
SIM0~SIM2
These three bits control the Master/Slave selection
and also setup the SPI interface clock speed when
in the Master Mode. The SPI clock is a function of
the system clock whether it be RC type or Crystal
type. If the Slave Mode is selected then the clock
will be supplied by the external Master device.
The following gives further explanation of each bit:
¨
TRF
The TRF bit is the Transmit/Receive Complete flag
and is cleared by the application program and can
be used to generate an interrupt. When the bit is
high the data has been transmitted or received. If
the bit is low the data is being transmitted or has not
yet been received.
Rev. 1.30
¨
WCOL
The WCOL bit is used to detect if a data collision
has occurred. If this bit is high it means that data
has been attempted to be written to the SMDR register during a data transfer operation. This writing
operation will be ignored if data is being transferred.
The bit can be cleared by the application program.
Note that using the CSEN bit can be disabled or enabled via configuration option.
¨
CSEN
The CSEN bit is used as an on/off control for the
SCS pin. If this bit is low then the SCS pin will be disabled and placed into a floating condition. If the bit is
high the SCS pin will be enabled and used as a select pin.
¨
MLS
The MLS is used to select how the data is transferred, either MSB or LSB first. Setting the bit high
will select MSB first and low for LSB first.
Note that the SIMC2 register is the same as the
SIMAR register used by the I2C interface.
· SPI Communication
After the SPI interface is enabled by setting the
SIMEN bit high, then in the Master Mode, when data is
written to the SIMDR register, transmission/reception
will begin simultaneously. When the data transfer is
complete, the TRF flag will be set automatically. In the
Slave Mode, when the clock signal from the master
has been received, any data in the SIMDR register will
be transmitted and any data on the SDI pin will be
shifted into the SIMDR register. The master should
output an SCS signal before a clock signal is provided
and slave data transfers should be enabled/disabled
before/after an SCS signal is received.
25
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
S IM E N = 1 , C S E N = 0 ( E x te r n a l P u ll- H ig h )
S C S
S IM E N , C S E N = 1
S C K (C K P O L = 1 , C K E G = 0 )
S C K (C K P O L = 0 , C K E G = 0 )
S C K (C K P O L = 1 , C K E G = 1 )
S C K (C K P O L = 0 , C K E G = 1 )
S D O
(C K E G = 0 )
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
S D O
(C K E G = 1 )
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
S D I D a ta C a p tu re
W r ite to S IM D R
SPI Master Mode Timing
S C S
S C K (C K P O L = 1 )
S C K (C K P O L = 0 )
S D O
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
D 2 /D 5
D 1 /D 6
D 0 /D 7
S D I D a ta C a p tu re
W r ite to S IM D R
( S D O n o t c h a n g e u n til fir s t S C K e d g e )
SPI Slave Mode Timing (CKEG=0)
S C S
S C K (C K P O L = 1 )
S C K (C K P O L = 0 )
S D O
D 7 /D 0
D 6 /D 1
D 5 /D 2
D 4 /D 3
D 3 /D 4
S D I D a ta C a p tu re
W r ite to S IM D R
( S D O c h a n g e a s s o o n a s w r itin g o c c u r ; S D O = flo a tin g if S C S = 1 )
N o te : F o r S P I s la v e m o d e , if S IM E N = 1 a n d C S E N = 0 , S P I is a lw a y s e n a b le d
a n d ig n o r e th e S C S le v e l.
SPI Slave Mode Timing (CKEG=1)
Rev. 1.30
26
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
b 7
S IM 2
b 0
S IM 1
S IM E N
S IM 0
S IM C 0 R e g is te r
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
S P I O n /O ff c o n tro l
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d
S P I M a s te r /S la v e a n d C lo c k
S IM 2
S IM 1
S IM 0
0
0
m a s
0
0
0
m a s
1
1
0
0
m a s
1
0
m a s
1
0
1
R e s
0
0
1
s la v
1
1
1
R e s
0
1
1
R e s
1
C o n tro l
te
te
te
te
r,
r,
r,
r,
fS
fS
fS
fS
e rv e d
Y S
Y S
Y S
/4
/1 6
/6 4
Y S
e
e rv e d
e rv e d
SPI Control Register - SIMC0
b 0
b 7
C K P O L
C K E G
M L S
C S E N
W C O L
T R F
S IM C 2 R e g is te r
T r a n s m it/R e c e iv e c o m p le te fla g
1 : d a ta tr a n s fe r c o m p le te
0 : d a ta tr a n s fe r in c o m p le te
W r ite c o llis io n fla g
1 : d a ta c o llis io n
0 : n o c o llis io n
S C S p in e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le , S C S flo a tin g
D a ta s h ift o r d e r
1 : M S B fir s t
0 : L S B fir s t
S P I c lo c k e d g e s e le c tio n
1 : fa llin g e d g e
0 : r is in g e d g e
S P I c lo c k p o la r ity s e le c tio n
1 : lo w le v e l
0 : h ig h le v e l
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
SPI Control Register - SIMC2
Rev. 1.30
27
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
A
S P I tra n s fe r
W r ite D a ta
in to S IM D R
C le a r W C O L
m a s te r
m a s te r o r
s la v e
S IM [2 :0 ]= 0 0 0 ,
0 0 1 ,0 1 0 ,0 1 1
s la v e
Y
W C O L = 1 ?
S IM [2 :0 ]= 1 0 1
N
c o n fig u r e
C S E N a n d M L S
T r a n s m is s io n
c o m p le te d ?
(T R F = 1 ? )
Y
R e a d D a ta
fro m S IM D R
S IM E N = 1
C le a r T R F
A
T ra n s fe r
F in is h e d ?
N
Y
E N D
SPI Transfer Control Flowchart
Rev. 1.30
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
I2C Interface
The SIMDR register is used to store the data being
transmitted and received on the I2C bus. Before the
microcontroller writes data to the I2C bus, the actual
data to be transmitted must be placed in the SIMDR
register. After the data is received from the I2C bus,
the microcontroller can read it from the SIMDR register. Any transmission of data to the I2C bus or reception of data from the I2C bus must be made via the
SIMDR register.
The SIMAR register is the location where the slave
address of the microcontroller is stored. Bits 1~7 of
the SIMAR register define the microcontroller slave
address. Bit 0 is not defined. When a master device,
which is connected to the I2C bus, sends out an address, which matches the slave address in the SIMAR
register, the microcontroller slave device will be selected.
Note that the SIMAR register is the same register as
SIMC2 which is used by the SPI interface.
The SIMC0 register is used for the I2C overall on/off
control.
2
The I C bus is a bidirectional 2-line communication interface originally developed by Philips. The possibility of
transmitting and receiving data on only 2 lines offers
many new application possibilities for microcontroller
based applications.
· I2C Interface Operation
As the I2C interface pins are pin-shared with segment
pins and with the SPI function pins, the I2C interface
must first be enabled by selecting the correct configuration option.
There are two lines associated with the I2C bus, the
first is known as SDA and is the Serial Data line, the
second is known as SCL line and is the Serial Clock
line. As many devices may be connected together on
the same bus, their outputs are both open drain types.
For this reason it is necessary that external pull-high
resistors are connected to these outputs. Note that no
chip select line exists, as each device on the I2C bus is
identified by a unique address which will be transmitted and received on the I2C bus.
When two devices communicate with each other on
the bidirectional I2C bus, one is known as the master
device and one as the slave device. Both master and
slave can transmit and receive data, however, it is the
master device that has overall control of the bus. For
this device, which only operates in slave mode, there
are two methods of transferring data on the I2C bus,
the slave transmit mode and the slave receive mode.
· I2C Configuration Option
There are several configuration options associated
with the I2C interface. One of these is to enable the
RNIC bit function which selects the RNIC bit in SIMC1
register. Another configuration option determines the
debounce time of the I2C interface. This add a
debounce delay time to the external clock to reduce
the possibility of glitches on the clock line causing erroneous operation. The debounce time if selected can
be chosen to be either 1 or 2 system clocks.
· I2C Registers
There are three control registers associated with the
I2C bus, SIMC0, SIMC1 and SIMAR and one data register, SIMDR.
b 7
S A 6
b 0
S A 5
S A 4
S A 3
S A 2
S A 1
S A 0
S IM A R
R e g is te r
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
I2C
d e v ic e s la v e a d d r e s s
Slave Address Register - SIMAR
b 7
S IM 2
b 0
S IM 1
S IM 0
S IM E N
S IM C 0 R e g is te r
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
I2C O n /O ff c o n tro l
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o t im p le m e n te d
I2 C M a s te r /S la v e a n d c lo c k
S IM 2
S IM 1
S IM 0
0
0
0
N o
1
0
0
N o
0
1
0
N o
1
1
0
N o
0
0
1
N o
1
0
1
N o
0
1
1
I2C
1
1
1
N o
c o n tro l
t u s
t u s
t u s
t u s
t u s
t u s
m o
t u s
e d
e d
e d
e d
e d
e d
d e
e d
I2C Control Register - SIMC0
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
b 7
H C F
b 0
H A A S
H B B
H T X
T X A K
S R W
R N IC
R X A K
S IM C 1 R e g is te r
R e c e iv e a c k n o w le d g e fla g
1 : n o t a c k n o w le d g e d
0 : a c k n o w le d g e d
I2 C r u n in g c lo c k
1 : I2 C r u n in g is n o t u s in g in te r n a l c lo c k
0 : I2 C r u n in g is u s in g in te r n a l c lo c k
M a s te r d a ta r e a d /w r ite r e q u e s t fla g
1 : re q u e s t d a ta re a d
0 : r e q u e s t d a ta w r ite
T r a n s m it a c k n o w le d g e fla g
1 : d o n 't a c k n o w le d g e
0 : a c k n o w le d g e
T r a n s m it/R e c e iv e m o d e
1 : tr a n s m it m o d e
0 : r e c e iv e m o d e
I2 C b u s b u s fla g
1 : b u s y
0 : n o t b u s y
C a llin g a d d r e s s m a tc h e d fla g
1 : m a tc h e d
0 : n o t m a tc h e d
D a ta tr a n s fe r fla g
1 : tr a n s fe r c o m p le te
0 : tr a n s fe r n o t c o m p le te
I2C Control Register - SIMC1
The following gives further explanation of each bit:
¨
¨
SRW
The SRW bit is the Slave Read/Write bit. This bit determines whether the master device wishes to
transmit or receive data from the I2C bus. When the
transmitted address and slave address match, that
is when the HAAS bit is set high, the device will
check the SRW bit to determine whether it should
be in transmit mode or receive mode. If the SRW bit
is high, the master is requesting to read data from
the bus, so the device should be in transmit mode.
When the SRW bit is zero, the master will write data
to the bus, therefore the device should be in receive
mode to read this data.
¨
RNIC
The RNIC bit is used as I2C running clock from Internal or external clock. If this bit is low then I2C running using internal clock and it will not wake-up
when I2C interrupts in the Power Down Mode. If the
bit is high I2C running using external clock and it will
wake-up when I2C interrupts in the Power Down
Mode.
¨
RXAK
The RXAK flag is the receive acknowledge flag.
When the RXAK bit has been reset to zero it means
that a correct acknowledge signal has been received at the 9th clock, after 8 bits of data have
been transmitted. When in the transmit mode, the
transmitter checks the RXAK bit to determine if the
receiver wishes to receive the next byte. The transmitter will therefore continue sending out data until
the RXAK bit is set to ²1². When this occurs, the
transmitter will release the SDA line to allow the
master to send a STOP signal to release the bus.
SIMEN
The SIMEN bit determines if the I2C bus is enabled
or disabled. If data is to be transferred or received
on the I2C bus then this bit must be set high.
The following gives further explanation of each bit:
¨
HCF
The HCF flag is the data transfer flag. This flag will
be zero when data is being transferred. Upon completion of an 8-bit data transfer the flag will go high
and an interrupt will be generated.
¨
HASS
The HASS flag is the address match flag. This flag
is used to determine if the slave device address is
the same as the master transmit address. If the addresses match then this bit will be high, if there is no
match then the flag will be low.
¨
HBB
The HBB flag is the I2C busy flag. This flag will be
high when the I2C bus is busy which will occur when
a START signal is detected. The flag will be reset to
zero when the bus is free which will occur when a
STOP signal is detected.
¨
HTX
The HTX flag is the transmit/receive mode bit. This
flag should be set high to set the transmit mode and
low for the receive mode.
¨
TXAK
The TXAK flag is the transmit acknowledge flag. After the receipt of 8-bits of data, this bit will be transmitted to the bus on the 9th clock. To continue
receiving more data, this bit has to be reset to zero
before further data is received.
Rev. 1.30
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HT83FXX
S T A R T s ig n a l
fro m M a s te r
S e n d s la v e a d d r e s s
a n d R /W b it fr o m M a s te r
A c k n o w le d g e
fr o m s la v e
S e n d d a ta b y te
fro m M a s te r
A c k n o w le d g e
fr o m s la v e
S T O P s ig n a l
fro m M a s te r
I2C Bus Communication
· Start Signal
The START signal can only be generated by the master device connected to the I2C bus and not by the
microcontroller, which is only a slave device. This
START signal will be detected by all devices connected to the I2C bus. When detected, this indicates
that the I2C bus is busy and therefore the HBB bit will
be set. A START condition occurs when a high to low
transition on the SDA line takes place when the SCL
line remains high.
2
Communication on the I C bus requires four separate
steps, a START signal, a slave device address transmission, a data transmission and finally a STOP signal.
When a START signal is placed on the I2C bus, all devices on the bus will receive this signal and be notified of
the imminent arrival of data on the bus. The first seven
bits of the data will be the slave address with the first bit
being the MSB. If the address of the microcontroller
matches that of the transmitted address, the HAAS bit in
the SIMC1 register will be set and an I2C interrupt will be
generated. After entering the interrupt service routine,
the microcontroller slave device must first check the
condition of the HAAS bit to determine whether the interrupt source originates from an address match or from
the completion of an 8-bit data transfer. During a data
transfer, note that after the 7-bit slave address has been
transmitted, the following bit, which is the 8th bit, is the
read/write bit whose value will be placed in the SRW bit.
This bit will be checked by the microcontroller to determine whether to go into transmit or receive mode. Before any transfer of data to or from the I2C bus, the
microcontroller must initialise the bus, the following are
steps to achieve this:
· Slave Address
The transmission of a START signal by the master will
be detected by all devices on the I2C bus. To determine which slave device the master wishes to communicate with, the address of the slave device will be
sent out immediately following the START signal. All
slave devices, after receiving this 7-bit address data,
will compare it with their own 7-bit slave address. If the
address sent out by the master matches the internal
address of the microcontroller slave device, then an
internal I2C bus interrupt signal will be generated. The
next bit following the address, which is the 8th bit, defines the read/write status and will be saved to the
SRW bit of the SIMC1 register. The device will then
transmit an acknowledge bit, which is a low level, as
the 9th bit. The microcontroller slave device will also
set the status flag HAAS when the addresses match.
As an I2C bus interrupt can come from two sources,
when the program enters the interrupt subroutine, the
HAAS bit should be examined to see whether the interrupt source has come from a matching slave address or from the completion of a data byte transfer.
When a slave address is matched, the device must be
placed in either the transmit mode and then write data
to the SIMDR register, or in the receive mode where it
must implement a dummy read from the SIMDR register to release the SCL line.
Step 1
Write the slave address of the microcontroller to the I2C
bus address register SIMAR.
Step 2
Set the SIMEN bit in the SIMC0 register to ²1² to enable
the I2C bus.
Step 3
Set the EHI bit of the interrupt control register to enable
the I2C bus interrupt.
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
S C L
S R W
S la v e A d d r e s s
S ta rt
0
1
S D A
1
1
0
1
0
1
D a ta
S C L
1
0
0
1
A C K
0
A C K
0
1
0
S to p
0
S D A
S = S
S A =
S R =
M = S
D = D
A = A
P = S
S
ta rt (1
S la v e
S R W
la v e d
a ta (8
C K (R
to p (1
S A
b it)
A d d r e s s ( 7 b its )
b it ( 1 b it)
e v ic e s e n d a c k n o w le d g e b it ( 1 b it)
b its )
X A K b it fo r tr a n s m itte r , T X A K b it fo r r e c e iv e r 1 b it)
b it)
S R
M
D
A
D
A
S
S A
S R
M
D
A
D
A
P
2
I C Communication Timing Diagram
· SRW Bit
the MSB first and the LSB last. After receipt of 8-bits of
data, the receiver must transmit an acknowledge signal, level ²0², before it can receive the next data byte.
If the transmitter does not receive an acknowledge bit
signal from the receiver, then it will release the SDA
line and the master will send out a STOP signal to release control of the I2C bus. The corresponding data
will be stored in the SIMDR register. If setup as a
transmitter, the microcontroller slave device must first
write the data to be transmitted into the SIMDR register. If setup as a receiver, the microcontroller slave device must read the transmitted data from the SIMDR
register.
The SRW bit in the SIMC1 register defines whether
the microcontroller slave device wishes to read data
from the I2C bus or write data to the I2C bus. The
microcontroller should examine this bit to determine if
it is to be a transmitter or a receiver. If the SRW bit is
set to ²1² then this indicates that the master wishes to
re a d dat a f r o m t h e I 2 C bus , t h e r ef o r e t h e
microcontroller slave device must be setup to send
data to the I2C bus as a transmitter. If the SRW bit is
²0² then this indicates that the master wishes to send
data to the I2C bus, therefore the microcontroller slave
device must be setup to read data from the I2C bus as
a receiver.
S C L
· Acknowledge Bit
After the master has transmitted a calling address,
any slave device on the I2C bus, whose own internal
address matches the calling address, must generate
an acknowledge signal. This acknowledge signal will
inform the master that a slave device has accepted its
calling address. If no acknowledge signal is received
by the master then a STOP signal must be transmitted
by the master to end the communication. When the
HAAS bit is high, the addresses have matched and
the microcontroller slave device must check the SRW
bit to determine if it is to be a transmitter or a receiver.
If the SRW bit is high, the microcontroller slave device
should be setup to be a transmitter so the HTX bit in
the SIMC1 register should be set to ²1² if the SRW bit
is low then the microcontroller slave device should be
setup as a receiver and the HTX bit in the SIMC1 register should be set to ²0².
S D A
S ta r t b it
D a ta
s ta b le
D a ta
a llo w
c h a n g e
S to p b it
Data Timing Diagram
· Receive Acknowledge Bit
When the receiver wishes to continue to receive the
next data byte, it must generate an acknowledge bit,
known as TXAK, on the 9th clock. The microcontroller
slave device, which is setup as a transmitter will check
the RXAK bit in the SIMC1 register to determine if it is
to send another data byte, if not then it will release the
SDA line and await the receipt of a STOP signal from
the master.
· Data Byte
The transmitted data is 8-bits wide and is transmitted
after the slave device has acknowledged receipt of its
slave address. The order of serial bit transmission is
Rev. 1.30
32
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
S ta rt
N o
N o
Y e s
H A A S = 1
?
Y e s
Y e s
H T X = 1
?
S R W = 1
?
N o
R e a d fro m
S IM D R
S E T H T X
C L R H T X
C L R T X A K
R E T I
W r ite to
S IM D R
D u m m y R e a d
F ro m S IM D R
R E T I
R E T I
Y e s
R X A K = 1
?
N o
C L R H T X
C L R T X A K
W r ite to
S IM D R
D u m m y R e a d
fro m S IM D R
R E T I
R E T I
I2C Bus ISR Flow Chart
S ta rt
W r ite S la v e
A d d re s s to S IM A R
S E T S IM [2 :0 ]= 1 1 0
S E T S IM E N
D is a b le
I2C B u s
In te rru p t= ?
E n a b le
C L R E S IM I
P o ll S IM F to d e c id e
w h e n to g o to I2C B u s IS R
S E T E S IM I
W a it fo r In te r r u p t
G o to M a in P r o g r a m
G o to M a in P r o g r a m
I2C Bus Initialisation Flow Chart
Rev. 1.30
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Interrupts
Interrupts are an important part of any microcontroller
system. When an internal function such as a Time Base
or Timer requires microcontroller attention, their corresponding interrupt will enforce a temporary suspension
of the main program allowing the microcontroller to direct attention to their respective needs. Each device
contains a Time Base interrupt and two internal timer interrupt functions. The Time Base interrupt is controlled
by bit 1 of INTC register, while the internal interrupt is
controlled by the Timer Counter overflow.
rupt vector. The microcontroller will then fetch its next
instruction from this interrupt vector. The instruction at
this vector will usually be a JMP statement which will
take program execution to another section of program
which is known as the interrupt service routine. Here is
located the code to control the appropriate interrupt. The
interrupt service routine must be terminated with a RETI
statement, which retrieves the original Program Counter
address from the stack and allows the microcontroller to
continue with normal execution at the point where the interrupt occurred.
Interrupt Register
The various interrupt enable bits, together with their associated request flags, are shown in the accompanying
diagram with their order of priority.
Overall interrupt control, which means interrupt enabling
and flag setting, is controlled using two registers, known
as INTC and INTCH, which are located in the Data
Memory. By controlling the appropriate enable bits in
these registers each individual interrupt can be enabled
or disabled. Also when an interrupt occurs, the corresponding request flag will be set by the microcontroller.
The global enable flag if cleared to zero will disable all
interrupts.
Once an interrupt subroutine is serviced, all the other interrupts will be blocked, as the EMI bit will be cleared automatically. This will prevent any further interrupt nesting
from occurring. However, if other interrupt requests occur during this interval, although the interrupt will not be
immediately serviced, the request flag will still be recorded. If an interrupt requires immediate servicing
while the program is already in another interrupt service
routine, the EMI bit should be set after entering the routine, to allow interrupt nesting. If the stack is full, the interrupt request will not be acknowledged, even if the
related interrupt is enabled, until the Stack Pointer is
decremented. If immediate service is desired, the stack
must be prevented from becoming full.
Interrupt Operation
A timer or Time Base overflow or by setting their corresponding request flag, if their appropriate interrupt enable bit is set. When this happens, the Program
Counter, which stores the address of the next instruction
to be executed, will be transferred onto the stack. The
Program Counter will then be loaded with a new address which will be the value of the corresponding inter-
b 7
b 0
T 1 F
T 0 F
T B F
E T 1
E T 0
E T B I
E M I
IN T C R e g is te r
M a s te r In te r r u p t G lo b a l E n a b le
1 : g lo b a l e n a b le
0 : g lo b a l d is a b le
T im e B a s e In te r r u p t E n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
T im e r 0 In te r r u p t E n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
T im e r 1 In te r r u p t E n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
T im e B a s e In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
T im e r 0 In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
T im e r 1 In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
N o im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
Interrupt Control Register
Rev. 1.30
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
b 7
b 0
S IF
E S II
IN T C H
R e g is te r
N o im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
C o n tr o l s e r ia l in te r fa c e in te r r u p t
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
N o im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
S e r ia l in te r fa c e in te r r u p t r e q u e s t fla g
1 : a c tiv e
0 : in a c tiv e
N o im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
INTCH Register
A u to m a tic a lly C le a r e d b y IS R
M a n u a lly S e t o r C le a r e d b y S o ftw a r e
A u to m a tic a lly D is a b le d b y IS R
C a n b e E n a b le d M a n u a lly
P r io r ity
T im e B a s e
R e q u e s t F la g E IF
E E I
T im e r 0
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T 0 F
E T 0
T im e r 1
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g T 1 F
E T 1
S IM
In te r r u p t R e q u e s t F la g S IF
E S II
E M I
H ig h
In te rru p t
P o llin g
L o w
Interrupt Structure
Interrupt Priority
Time Base Interrupt
Interrupts, occurring in the interval between the rising
edges of two consecutive T2 pulses, will be serviced on
the latter of the two T2 pulses, if the corresponding interrupts are enabled. In case of simultaneous requests, the
accompanying table shows the priority that is applied.
Each device contains a Time Base whose corresponding interrupt enable bits are known as ETBI and is located in the INTC register. For a Time Base generated
interrupt to occur, the corresponding Time Base interrupt enable bit must be first set. Time Base also has a
corresponding Time Base interrupt request flag, which
is known as TBF, also located in the INTC register.
When the master interrupt and corresponding timer interrupt enable bits are enabled, the stack is not full, and
when the corresponding timer overflows a subroutine
call to the corresponding Time Base interrupt vector will
occur. The corresponding Program Memory vector locations for the Time Base is 04H. After entering the interrupt execution routine, the corresponding interrupt
request flag, TBF will be reset and the EMI bit will be
cleared to disable other interrupts.
Interrupt
Vector
HT83FXX
Priority
Time Base Interrupt
04H
1
Timer 0 Overflow
08H
2
Timer 1 Overflow
0CH
3
SIM Interrupt
14H
4
Interrupt Source
Suitable masking of the individual interrupts using the
INTC and INTCH registers can prevent simultaneous
occurrences.
Rev. 1.30
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
For an I2C interrupt to occur, the corresponding interrupt
enable bit ESII must be first set. An actual I2C interrupt
will be initialized when the SIM interrupt request flag,
SIF, is set, a situation that will occur when a matching
I2C slave address is received or from the completion of
an I2C data byte transfer. When the interrupt is enabled,
the stack is not full and a SIM interrupt occurs, a subroutine call to the SIM interrupt vector at location 14H, will
2
take place When an I C interrupt occurs, the interrupt request flag SIF will be reset and the EMI bit will be
cleared to disable other interrupts.
Timer Interrupt
For a timer generated interrupt to occur, the corresponding timer interrupt enable bit must be first set. Each device contains two 8-bit timers whose corresponding
interrupt enable bits are known as ET0 and ET1and are
located in the INTC register. Each timer also has a corresponding timer interrupt request flag, which are
known as T0F and T1F, also located in the INTC register. When the master interrupt and corresponding timer
interrupt enable bits are enabled, the stack is not full,
and when the corresponding timer overflows a subroutine call to the corresponding timer interrupt vector will
occur. The corresponding Program Memory vector locations for Timer 0 and Timer1 are 08H and 0CH. After entering the interrupt execution routine, the corresponding
interrupt request flags, T0F or T1F will be reset and the
EMI bit will be cleared to disable other interrupts.
Programming Considerations
By disabling the interrupt enable bits, a requested interrupt can be prevented from being serviced, however,
once an interrupt request flag is set, it will remain in this
condition in the INTC or INTCH register until the corresponding interrupt is serviced or until the request flag is
cleared by a software instruction.
Serial Interface Module - SIM - Interrupt
2
It is recommended that programs do not use the ²CALL
subroutine² instruction within the interrupt subroutine.
Interrupts often occur in an unpredictable manner or
need to be serviced immediately in some applications. If
only one stack is left and the interrupt is not well controlled, the original control sequence will be damaged
once a ²CALL subroutine² is executed in the interrupt
subroutine.
SIM Interrupts include both the SPI and I C Interrupts.
The SIM Mode is determined by the SIM2, SIM1 and
SIM0 bits in the SIMC0 register.
For a SPI Interrupt to occur, the global interrupt enable
bit, EMI, and the corresponding SIM interrupt enable bit,
ESII, must be first set. The SIMEN bit in the SIMC0 register must also be set. An actual SPI Interrupt will take
place when the flag, SIF, is set, a situation that will occur
when 8-bits of data are transferred or received from either of the SPI interfaces. When the interrupt is enabled,
the stack is not full and an SIM interrupt occurs, a subroutine call to the SIM interrupt vector at location 14H,
will take place. When the interrupt is serviced, the SPI
interrupt request flag, SIF, will be automatically reset
and the EMI bit will be automatically cleared to disable
other interrupts.
Rev. 1.30
All of these interrupts have the capability of waking up
the processor when in the Power Down Mode. Only the
Program Counter is pushed onto the stack. If the contents of the register or status register are altered by the
interrupt service program, which may corrupt the desired control sequence, then the contents should be
saved in advance.
36
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Reset and Initialisation
A reset function is a fundamental part of any
microcontroller ensuring that the device can be set to
some predetermined condition irrespective of outside
parameters. The most important reset condition is after
power is first applied to the microcontroller. In this case,
internal circuitry will ensure that the microcontroller, after a short delay, will be in a well defined state and ready
to execute the first program instruction. After this
power-on reset, certain important internal registers will
be set to defined states before the program commences. One of these registers is the Program Counter,
which will be reset to zero forcing the microcontroller to
begin program execution from the lowest Program
Memory address.
V D D
0 .9 V
R E S
tR
D D
S T D
S S T T im e - o u t
In te rn a l R e s e t
Power-On Reset Timing Chart
For most applications a resistor connected between
VDD and the RES pin and a capacitor connected between VSS and the RES pin will provide a suitable external reset circuit. Any wiring connected to the RES
pin should be kept as short as possible to minimise
any stray noise interference.
In addition to the power-on reset, situations may arise
where it is necessary to forcefully apply a reset condition
when the microcontroller is running. One example of this
is where after power has been applied and the
microcontroller is already running, the RES line is forcefully pulled low. In such a case, known as a normal operation reset, some of the microcontroller registers remain
unchanged allowing the microcontroller to proceed with
normal operation after the reset line is allowed to return
high. Another type of reset is when the Watchdog Timer
overflows and resets the microcontroller. All types of reset operations result in different register conditions being setup.
V D D
1 0 0 k W
R E S
0 .1 m F
V S S
Basic Reset Circuit
For applications that operate within an environment
where more noise is present the Enhanced Reset Circuit shown is recommended.
0 .0 1 m F
V D D
1 0 0 k W
Reset Functions
R E S
There are five ways in which a microcontroller reset can
occur, through events occurring both internally and externally:
1 0 k W
0 .1 m F
V S S
· Power-on Reset
Enhanced Reset Circuit
The most fundamental and unavoidable reset is the
one that occurs after power is first applied to the
microcontroller. As well as ensuring that the Program
Memory begins execution from the first memory address, a power-on reset also ensures that certain
other registers are preset to known conditions. All the
I/O port and port control registers will power up in a
high condition ensuring that all pins will be first set to
inputs.
Although the microcontroller has an internal RC reset
function, if the VDD power supply rise time is not fast
enough or does not stabilise quickly at power-on, the
internal reset function may be incapable of providing
proper reset operation. For this reason it is recommended that an external RC network is connected to
the RES pin, whose additional time delay will ensure
that the RES pin remains low for an extended period
to allow the power supply to stabilise. During this time
delay, normal operation of the microcontroller will be
inhibited. After the RES line reaches a certain voltage
value, the reset delay time tRSTD is invoked to provide
an extra delay time after which the microcontroller will
begin normal operation. The abbreviation SST in the
figures stands for System Start-up Timer.
Rev. 1.30
More information regarding external reset circuits is
located in Application Note HA0075E on the Holtek
website.
· RES Pin Reset
This type of reset occurs when the microcontroller is
already running and the RES pin is forcefully pulled
low by external hardware such as an external switch.
In this case as in the case of other reset, the Program
Counter will reset to zero and program execution initiated from this point.
R E S
0 .4 V
0 .9 V
D D
D D
tR
S T D
S S T T im e - o u t
In te rn a l R e s e t
RES Reset Timing Chart
37
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
· Watchdog Time-out Reset during Normal Operation
The following table indicates the way in which the various components of the microcontroller are affected after
a power-on reset occurs.
The Watchdog time-out Reset during normal operation is the same as a hardware RES pin reset except
that the Watchdog time-out flag TO will be set to ²1².
Item
W D T T im e - o u t
tR
S T D
S S T T im e - o u t
In te rn a l R e s e t
WDT Time-out Reset during Normal Operation
Timing Chart
Program Counter
Reset to zero
Interrupts
All interrupts will be disabled
WDT
Clear after reset, WDT begins
counting
Timer
All Timer will be turned off
Prescaler
The Timer Prescaler will be
cleared
Input/Output Ports
I/O ports will be setup as inputs
Stack Pointer
Stack Pointer will point to the top
of the stack
· Watchdog Time-out Reset during Power Down
The Watchdog time-out Reset during Power Down is
a little different from other kinds of reset. Most of the
conditions remain unchanged except that the Program Counter and the Stack Pointer will be cleared to
²0² and the TO flag will be set to ²1². Refer to the A.C.
Characteristics for tSST details.
Condition After RESET
W D T T im e - o u t
tS
S T
S S T T im e - o u t
WDT Time-out Reset during Power Down
Timing Chart
Reset Initial Conditions
The different types of reset described affect the reset
flags in different ways. These flags, known as PDF and
TO are located in the status register and are controlled
by various microcontroller operations, such as the
Power Down function or Watchdog Timer. The reset
flags are shown in the table:
TO PDF
RESET Conditions
0
0
RES reset during power-on
u
u
RES or LVR reset during normal operation
1
u
WDT time-out reset during normal operation
1
1
WDT time-out reset during Power Down
Note: ²u² stands for unchanged
Rev. 1.30
38
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
The different kinds of resets all affect the internal registers of the microcontroller in different ways. To ensure reliable
continuation of normal program execution after a reset occurs, it is important to know what condition the microcontroller
is in after a particular reset occurs. The following table describes how each type of reset affects each of the
microcontroller internal registers. Note that where more than one package type exists the table will reflect the situation
for the larger package type.
Register
Reset
(Power-on)
WDT Time-out
RES Reset
(Normal Operation) (Normal Operation)
RES Reset
(HALT)
WDT Time-out
from HALT
-xxx xxxx
-uuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
-uuu uuuu
ACC
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PCL
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
TBLP
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
TBLH
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
WDTS
0000 0111
0000 0111
0000 0111
0000 0111
uuuu uuuu
STATUS
--00 xxxx
-- 1u uuuu
--uu uuuu
-- 01 uuuu
--11 uuuu
INTC
-000 0000
-000 0000
-000 0000
-000 0000
-uuu uuuu
TMR0
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TMR0C
0100 0000
0100 0000
0100 0000
0100 0000
uuuu uuuu
TMR1
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
TMR1C
0100 0000
0100 0000
0100 0000
0100 0000
uuuu uuuu
PA
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PAC
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
1111 1111
uuuu uuuu
PB
---- 1111
---- 1111
---- 1111
---- 1111
---- uuuu
PBC
---- 1111
---- 1111
---- 1111
---- 1111
---- uuuu
INTCH
--00 --00
--00 --00
--00 --00
--00 --00
--uu --uu
SIMC0
111x xx0-
111x xx0-
111x xx0-
111x xx0-
uuux xxu-
SIMC1
100x x0x1
100x x0x1
100x x0x1
100x x0x1
uuux xuxu
SIMDR
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
xxxx xxxx
SIMAR/
SIMC2
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
0000 0000
uuuu uuuu
DAL
xxxx ----
uuuu ----
uuuu ----
uuuu ----
uuuu ----
DAH
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
PWMCR
0--- 0000
0--- 0000
0--- 0000
0--- 0000
u--- uuuu
PWML
xxxx ----
uuuu ----
uuuu ----
uuuu ----
uuuu ----
PWMH
xxxx xxxx
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
uuuu uuuu
VOL
xxxx -xxx
uuuu -uuu
uuuu -uuu
uuuu -uuu
uuuu -uuu
MP
Note: ²u² stands for unchanged
²x² stands for unknown
²-² stands for undefined
Rev. 1.30
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June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Oscillator
Various oscillator options offer the user a wide range of
functions according to their various application requirements. Two types of system clocks can be selected
while various clock source options for the Watchdog
Timer are provided for maximum flexibility. All oscillator
options are selected through the configuration options.
External RC Oscillator
Using the external system RC oscillator requires that a
resistor, with a value between 150kW and 300kW, is connected between OSC1 and VSS. The generated system
clock divided by 4 will be provided on OSC2 as an output which can be used for external synchronization purposes. Note that as the OSC2 output is an NMOS
open-drain type, a pull high resistor should be connected if it to be used to monitor the internal frequency.
Although this is a cost effective oscillator configuration,
the oscillation frequency can vary with VDD, temperature and process variations and is therefore not suitable
for applications where timing is critical or where accurate oscillator frequencies are required. For the value of
the external resistor ROSC refer to the Holtek website for
typical RC Oscillator vs. Temperature and VDD characteristics graphics. Note that it is the only microcontroller
internal circuitry together with the external resistor, that
determine the frequency of the oscillator. The external
capacitor shown on the diagram does not influence the
frequency of oscillation.
The two methods of generating the system clock are:
· External crystal/resonator oscillator
· External RC oscillator
One of these two methods must be selected using the
configuration options.
More information regarding the oscillator is located in
Application Note HA0075E on the Holtek website.
External Crystal/Resonator Oscillator
The simple connection of a crystal across OSC1 and
OSC2 will create the necessary phase shift and feedback for oscillation, and will normally not require external capacitors. However, for some crystals and most
resonator types, to ensure oscillation and accurate frequency generation, it may be necessary to add two
small value external capacitors, C1 and C2. The exact
values of C1 and C2 should be selected in consultation
C 1
R f
C a
C b
fS
Y S
O S C
/4 N M O S O p e n D r a in
O S C 2
External RC Oscillator
T o in te r n a l
c ir c u its
O S C 2
C 2
R
In te r n a l
O s c illa to r
C ir c u it
O S C 1
R p
O S C 1
Watchdog Timer Oscillator
The WDT oscillator is a fully self-contained free running
on-chip RC oscillator with a typical period of 65ms at 5V
requiring no external components. When the device enters the Power Down Mode, the system clock will stop
running but the WDT oscillator continues to free-run and
to keep the watchdog active. However, to preserve
power in certain applications the WDT oscillator can be
disabled via a configuration option.
N o te : 1 . R p is n o r m a lly n o t r e q u ir e d .
2 . A lth o u g h n o t s h o w n O S C 1 /O S C 2 p in s h a v e a p a r a s itic
c a p a c ita n c e o f a r o u n d 7 p F .
Crystal/Resonator Oscillator
with the crystal or resonator manufacturer¢s specification. The external parallel feedback resistor, Rp, is normally not required but in some cases may be needed to
assist with oscillation start up.
Internal Ca, Cb, Rf Typical Values @ 5V, 25°C
Ca
Cb
Rf
11~13pF
13~15pF
800kW
Oscillator Internal Component Values
Rev. 1.30
40
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Power Down Mode and Wake-up
Power Down Mode
Wake-up
All of the Holtek microcontrollers have the ability to enter
a Power Down Mode, also known as the HALT Mode or
Sleep Mode. When the device enters this mode, the normal operating current, will be reduced to an extremely
low standby current level. This occurs because when
the device enters the Power Down Mode, the system
oscillator is stopped which reduces the power consumption to extremely low levels, however, as the device
maintains its present internal condition, it can be woken
up at a later stage and continue running, without requiring a full reset. This feature is extremely important in application areas where the MCU must have its power
supply constantly maintained to keep the device in a
known condition but where the power supply capacity is
limited such as in battery applications.
After the system enters the Power Down Mode, it can be
woken up from one of various sources listed as follows:
· An external reset
· An external falling edge on Port A
· A system interrupt
· A WDT overflow
If the system is woken up by an external reset, the device will experience a full system reset, however, if the
device is woken up by a WDT overflow, a Watchdog
Timer reset will be initiated. Although both of these
wake-up methods will initiate a reset operation, the actual source of the wake-up can be determined by examining the TO and PDF flags. The PDF flag is cleared by a
system power-up or executing the clear Watchdog
Timer instructions and is set when executing the ²HALT²
instruction. The TO flag is set if a WDT time-out occurs,
and causes a wake-up that only resets the Program
Counter and Stack Pointer, the other flags remain in
their original status.
Entering the Power Down Mode
There is only one way for the device to enter the Power
Down Mode and that is to execute the ²HALT² instruction in the application program. When this instruction is
executed, the following will occur:
Each pin on Port A can be setup via an individual configuration option to permit a negative transition on the pin
to wake-up the system. When a Port A pin wake-up occurs, the program will resume execution at the instruction following the ²HALT² instruction.
· The system oscillator will stop running and the appli-
cation program will stop at the ²HALT² instruction.
· The Data Memory contents and registers will maintain
their present condition.
· The WDT will be cleared and resume counting if the
If the system is woken up by an interrupt, then two possible situations may occur. The first is where the related
interrupt is disabled or the interrupt is enabled but the
stack is full, in which case the program will resume execution at the instruction following the ²HALT² instruction.
In this situation, the interrupt which woke-up the device
will not be immediately serviced, but will rather be serviced later when the related interrupt is finally enabled or
when a stack level becomes free. The other situation is
where the related interrupt is enabled and the stack is
not full, in which case the regular interrupt response
takes place. If an interrupt request flag is set to ²1² before entering the Power Down Mode, the wake-up function of the related interrupt will be disabled.
WDT clock source is selected to come from the WDT
oscillator. The WDT will stop if its clock source originates from the system clock.
· The I/O ports will maintain their present condition.
· In the status register, the Power Down flag, PDF, will
be set and the Watchdog time-out flag, TO, will be
cleared.
Standby Current Considerations
As the main reason for entering the Power Down Mode
is to keep the current consumption of the MCU to as low
a value as possible, perhaps only in the order of several
micro-amps, there are other considerations which must
also be taken into account by the circuit designer if the
power consumption is to be minimized. Special attention must be made to the I/O pins on the device. All
high-impedance input pins must be connected to either
a fixed high or low level as any floating input pins could
create internal oscillations and result in increased current consumption. Care must also be taken with the
loads, which are connected to I/Os, which are setup as
outputs. These should be placed in a condition in which
minimum current is drawn or connected only to external
circuits that do not draw current, such as other CMOS
inputs. Also note that additional standby current will also
be required if the configuration options have enabled the
Watchdog Timer internal oscillator.
Rev. 1.30
No matter what the source of the wake-up event is, once
a wake-up situation occurs, a time period equal to 1024
system clock periods will be required before normal system operation resumes. However, if the wake-up has
originated due to an interrupt, the actual interrupt subroutine execution will be delayed by an additional one or
more cycles. If the wake-up results in the execution of
the next instruction following the ²HALT² instruction, this
will be executed immediately after the 1024 system
clock period delay has ended.
41
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Low Drop Output - LDO
period of 17ms. Note that this period can vary with VDD,
temperature and process variations. For longer WDT
time-out periods the WDT prescaler can be utilized. By
writing the required value to bits 0, 1 and 2 of the WDTS
register, known as WS0, WS1 and WS2, longer time-out
periods can be achieved. With WS0, WS1 and WS2 all
equal to 1, the division ratio is 1:128 which gives a maximum time-out period of about 2.1s.
All device include a fully integrated LDO regulator which
can be used to provide a fixed voltage for user applications. The integrated LDO is a simple three terminal device with an external input pin, LDO_IN, external output
pin, LDO_OUT, and a ground pin connected to the device VSS pin. Implemented in CMOS technology, it can
deliver a 100mA output current and allow an input voltage as high as 24V. It will supply a fixed output voltage
level of 3.3V. Using CMOS technology ensures that the
regulator has a low dropout voltage and a low quiescent
current.
A configuration option can select the instruction clock,
which is the system clock divided by 4, as the WDT clock
source instead of the internal WDT oscillator. If the instruction clock is used as the clock source, it must be
noted that when the system enters the Power Down
Mode, as the system clock is stopped, then the WDT
clock source will also be stopped. Therefore the WDT
will lose its protecting purposes. In such cases the system cannot be restarted by the WDT and can only be restarted using external signals. For systems that operate
in noisy environments, using the internal WDT oscillator
is therefore the recommended choice.
Low Voltage Detector - LVD
The Low Voltage Detector internal function provides a
means for the user to monitor when the power supply
voltage falls below a certain fixed level as specified in
the DC characteristics.
Operation
The Low Voltage Detector must first be enabled using a
configuration option.
Under normal program operation, a WDT time-out will
initialise a device reset and set the status bit TO. However, if the system is in the Power Down Mode, when a
WDT time-out occurs, only the Program Counter and
Stack Pointer will be reset. Three methods can be
adopted to clear the contents of the WDT and the WDT
prescaler. The first is an external hardware reset, which
means a low level on the RES pin, the second is using
the watchdog software instructions and the third is via a
²HALT² instruction.
The LVD control bit is bit 2 of the PWMCR regsiter and is
known as LVDF. Under normal operation, and when the
power supply voltage is above the specified VLVD value
in the DC characteristic section, the LVDF bit will remain
at a zero value. If the power supply voltage should fall below this VLVD value then the LVDF bit will change to a
high value indicating a low voltage condition. Note that
the LVDF bit is a read-only bit. By polling the LVDF bit in
the PWMCR register, the application program can therefore determine the presence of a low voltage condition.
There are two methods of using software instructions to
clear the Watchdog Timer, one of which must be chosen
by configuration option. The first option is to use the single ²CLR WDT² instruction while the second is to use
the two commands ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2². For
the first option, a simple execution of ²CLR WDT² will
clear the WDT while for the second option, both ²CLR
WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2² must both be executed to
successfully clear the WDT. Note that for this second
option, if ²CLR WDT1² is used to clear the WDT, successive executions of this instruction will have no effect,
only the execution of a ²CLR WDT2² instruction will
clear the WDT. Similarly, after the ²CLR WDT2² instruction has been executed, only a successive ²CLR WDT1²
instruction can clear the Watchdog Timer.
Watchdog Timer
The Watchdog Timer is provided to prevent program
malfunctions or sequences from jumping to unknown locations, due to certain uncontrollable external events
such as electrical noise. It operates by providing a device reset when the WDT counter overflows. The WDT
clock is supplied by one of two sources selected by configuration option: its own self-contained dedicated internal WDT oscillator, or the instruction clock which is the
system clock divided by 4. Note that if the WDT configuration option has been disabled, then any instruction relating to its operation will result in no operation.
The internal WDT oscillator has an approximate period
of 65ms at a supply voltage of 5V. If selected, it is first divided by 256 via an 8-stage counter to give a nominal
Rev. 1.30
42
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
b 7
b 0
W S 2
W S 1
W S 0
W D T S R e g is te r
W D T p r e s c a le r r a te s e le c t
W D T R
W S 0
W S 1
W S 2
1 :1
0
0
0
1 :2
1
0
0
1 :4
0
1
0
1 :8
1
1
0
1 :1
0
0
1
1 :3
1
0
1
1 :6
0
1
1
1 :1
1
1
1
a te
6
2
4
2 8
N o t u s e d
Watchdog Timer Register
C L R
W D T 1 F la g
C L R
W D T 2 F la g
C le a r W D T T y p e
C o n fig u r a tio n O p tio n
1 o r 2 In s tr u c tio n s
fS
Y S
/4
W D T O s c illa to r
C L R
W D T C lo c k S o u r c e
C o n fig u r a tio n O p tio n
C L R
8 - b it C o u n te r
(¸ 2 5 6 )
7 - b it P r e s c a le r
W D T C lo c k S o u r c e
W S 0 ~ W S 2
8 -to -1 M U X
W D T T im e - o u t
Watchdog Timer
Voice Output
b 7
The device contains an internal 12-bit DAC function
which can be used for audio signal generation.
D 3
b 0
D 2
D 1
D 0
D A L R e g is te r
N o t u s e d , re a d a s "0 "
Voice Control
A u d io o u tp u t
D A L R e g is te r
Two internal registers DAL and DAH contain the 12-bit
digital value for conversion by the internal DAC. There is
also a DAC enable/disable control bit in the PWMC control register for overall on/off control of the DAC circuit. If
the DAC circuit is not enabled, the DAH/DAL value outputs will be invalid. Writing a ²1² to the DAC bit in bit1 of
PWMCR will enable the enable DAC circuit, while writing a ²0² to the DAC bit will disable the DAC circuit.
b 7
D 1 1
D 9
D 8
D 7
D 6
D 5
D 4
D A H R e g is te r
A u d io o u tp u t
D A H R e g is te r
b 7
V 3
b 0
V 2
V 1
V 0
V O L 2 V O L 1 V O L 0
V O L R e g is te r
D A C v o lu m e c o n tr o l
Audio Output and Volume Control - DAL, DAH, VOL
N o t u s e d , re a d a s "0 "
P W M
The audio output is 12-bits wide whose highest 8-bits
are written into the DAH register and whose lowest four
bits are written into the highest four bits of the DAL register. Bits 0~3 of the DAL register are always read as zero.
There are 8 levels of volume which are setup using the
VOL register. Only the lowest 3-bits of this register are
used for volume control.
Rev. 1.30
b 0
D 1 0
v o lu m e c o n tr o l
V o ic e C o n tr o l R e g is te r
43
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Pulse Width Modulation Output
All devices include a single 12-bit PWM function which
can directly drive external audio components such as
speakers.
The two PWM outputs will initially be at low levels, and if
the PWM function is stopped will also return to a low
level. If the PWMCC bit changes from low to high then
the PWM function will start running and latch new data.
If the data is not updated then the old value will remain. If
the PWMCC bit changes from high to low, at the end of
the duty cycle, the PWM output will stop.
Pulse Width Modulator Operation
The PWM output is provided on two complimentary outputs on the PWM1 and PWM2 pins, providing a differential output pair and thus capable of higher drive power.
These two pins can directly drive a piezo buzzer or an 8
ohm speaker without using external components. The
PWM outputs can also be used single ended, where the
signal is provided on the PWM1 output, and again can
also be used by itself alone to drive a piezo buzzer or an
8 ohm speaker without external components. This single end output drive type is chosen using the Single_PWM bit in the PWMCR register.
b 7
b 0
P 3
P 2
P 1
P 0
P W M L R e g is te r
N o t u s e d , re a d a s "0 "
P W M
P u ls e W id th M o d u la to r D a ta L o w
b 7
b 0
P 1 1
P 1 0
P 9
P 8
P 7
P 6
P 5
P 4
P W M H
P W M
If the MSB_SIGN bit is low, then the signal that is provided on PWM1and PWM2 will obtain a GND level voltage after setting the PWMCC bit high. If the MSB_SIGN
bit is high, then the signal that is provided on PWM2 and
PWM1 will have a GND level voltage when the PWMCC
bit is set high.
o u tp u t
R e g is te r
R e g is te r
o u tp u t
P u ls e W id th M o d u la to r D a ta H ig h R e g is te r
b 7
V 3
b 0
V 2
V 1
V 0
V O L 2 V O L 1 V O L 0
V O L R e g is te r
D A C
v o lu m e c o n tr o l
N o t u s e d , re a d a s "0 "
P W M
v o lu m e c o n tr o l
V o ic e C o n tr o l R e g is te r
P W M 1
P W M 2
S p e a k e r
0 .0 1 m F *
0 .0 1 m F *
N o te : " * " F o r r e d u c in g th e d ig ita l n o is e th a t P W M m a y
c a u s e , c a n c o n s id e r in c r e m e n t c a p a c ito r s .
b 7
M S B _ S IG N
b 0
S in g le _ P W M
L V D F
D A C
P W M C C
P W M C
R e g is te r
P W M E n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
D A C e n a b le
1 : e n a b le
0 : d is a b le
L V D d e te c tio n fla g
1 : L V D d e te c tio n
0 : L V D n o n - d e te c tio n
S in g le P W M O u tp u t
1 : s in g le o u tp u t
0 : d u a l o u tp u ts
N o t im p le m e n te d , r e a d a s " 0 "
P 1 1 P a r a lle l D a ta P o la r ity
1 : P 1 1 n o n - in v e r t
0 : P 1 1 in v e r t
Pulse Width Modulator Control Register
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Configuration Options
Configuration options refer to certain options within the MCU that are programmed into the device during the programming process. During the development process, these options are selected using the HT-IDE software development
tools. As these options are programmed into the device using the hardware programming tools, once they are selected
they cannot be changed later by the application software.
No.
Options
I/O Options
1
PA0~PA7: wake-up enable or disable
2
PA0~PA7: pull-high enable or disable
3
PB0~PB3: pull-high enable or disable
Oscillator Options
4
OSC type selection: RC or crystal
Watchdog Options
5
WDT: enable or disable
6
WDT clock source: WDROSC or T1
PB I/O Port Output Voltage Options
7
VDD_PBIO/VDD type selection: VDD_PBIO or VDD for Port B, SPI, I2C I/O per bit
LVD Options
8
LVD function: enable or disable
SIM Options
9
SIM Function: enable or disable
10
SPI S/W CSEN: enable or disable
11
SPI S/W WCOL: enable or disable
2
I C Options
12
I2C RNIC: enable or disable
13
I2C debounce time: 0/1/2 system clocks
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Application Circuits
VDD=2.7V~3.6V
V
D D
1 0 W
W P
H O L D
V D D F
V D D P
V D D _ P B IO
V
V D D A
4 7 m F
0 .1 m F
T r a n s is to r O u tp u t
V
O S C 2
O S C 1
D D
A U D
R 2
P B 0 ~ P B 3
R E S
N o te : R 1 > R 2
A U D
0 .1 m F
V S
V S S
V S S
V S S
A
S
P o w e r A m p lifie r O u tp u t
P
C E
F
A U D
S I
D O
D I
S O
S C S
C S
1
5
S C K
C L K
0 .1 m F
2
A u d io In
3
1 0 m F
H T 8 3 F 1 0 /2 0 /4 0 /6 0 /8 0
V
8 0 5 0
R 1
P A 0 ~ P A 7
1 0 0 k W
S P K
(8 W /1 6 W )
0 .1 m F
1 5 0 k W ~
3 0 0 k W
V D D
1 0 0 m F
D D
V
O U T N
V D D
H T 8 2 V 7 3 3
V R E F
N C
6
O U T P
7
D D
8
4 7 m F
S P K
(8 W /1 6 W )
4
D D
4 7 m F
H O L D
W P
V D D F
V D D _ P B IO
V D D A
O S C 2
O S C 1
D D
V D D
1 0 0 m F
V D D P
V
4 M H z ~
8 M H z
P A 0 ~ P A 7
P B 0 ~ P B 3
1 0 0 k W
R E S
0 .1 m F
V S
V S S
V S S
V S S
S
A
P
F
P W M 1
P W M 2
C L K
S P K
(8 W /1 6 W )
S C K
S I
D O
D I
S O
S C S
C S
H T 8 3 F 1 0 /2 0 /4 0 /6 0 /8 0
N o te : T h e P W M
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VIN=3.6V~24V
V
D D
1 0 W
W P
V D D F
H O L D
V D D _ P B IO
IN
V D D P
V
V
V D D A
4 7 m F
0 .1 m F
T r a n s is to r O u tp u t
L D O _ O U T
O S C 2
L D O _ IN
O S C 1
D D
A U D
P B 0 ~ P B 3
R E S
V S
V S S
V S S
V S S
S
A
C E
F
D I
S O
S C S
C S
0 .1 m F
2
A u d io In
3
1 0 m F
H T 8 3 F 1 0 P /2 0 P /4 0 P /6 0 P /8 0 P
V
1
5
A U D
S I
D O
R 2
P o w e r A m p lifie r O u tp u t
P
S C K
C L K
8 0 5 0
N o te : R 1 > R 2
A U D
0 .1 m F
S P K
(8 W /1 6 W )
R 1
P A 0 ~ P A 7
1 0 0 k W
D D
0 .1 m F
1 5 0 k W ~
3 0 0 k W
V D D
1 0 0 m F
V
V
O U T N
V D D
H T 8 2 V 7 3 3
V R E F
N C
6
O U T P
7
D D
8
4 7 m F
S P K
(8 W /1 6 W )
4
D D
4 7 m F
W P
O S C 2
O S C 1
4 M H z ~
8 M H z
P A 0 ~ P A 7
V D D
1 0 0 m F
V D D F
L D O _ IN
H O L D
D D
V D D P
V
L D O _ O U T
IN
V D D _ P B IO
V D D A
V
1 0 0 k W
R E S
P B 0 ~ P B 3
V S
V S S
V S S
V S S
S
A
P
F
0 .1 m F
P W M 1
P W M 2
C L K
D O
S P K
(8 W /1 6 W )
S C K
S I
D I
S O
S C S
C S
H T 8 3 F 1 0 P /2 0 P /4 0 P /6 0 P /8 0 P
N o te : T h e P W M
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HT83FXX
Instruction Set
subtract instruction mnemonics to enable the necessary
arithmetic to be carried out. Care must be taken to ensure correct handling of carry and borrow data when results exceed 255 for addition and less than 0 for
subtraction. The increment and decrement instructions
INC, INCA, DEC and DECA provide a simple means of
increasing or decreasing by a value of one of the values
in the destination specified.
Introduction
C e n t ra l t o t he s uc c es s f ul oper a t i on o f a n y
microcontroller is its instruction set, which is a set of program instruction codes that directs the microcontroller to
perform certain operations. In the case of Holtek
microcontrollers, a comprehensive and flexible set of
over 60 instructions is provided to enable programmers
to implement their application with the minimum of programming overheads.
Logical and Rotate Operations
For easier understanding of the various instruction
codes, they have been subdivided into several functional groupings.
The standard logical operations such as AND, OR, XOR
and CPL all have their own instruction within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set. As with the case of most
instructions involving data manipulation, data must pass
through the Accumulator which may involve additional
programming steps. In all logical data operations, the
zero flag may be set if the result of the operation is zero.
Another form of logical data manipulation comes from
the rotate instructions such as RR, RL, RRC and RLC
which provide a simple means of rotating one bit right or
left. Different rotate instructions exist depending on program requirements. Rotate instructions are useful for
serial port programming applications where data can be
rotated from an internal register into the Carry bit from
where it can be examined and the necessary serial bit
set high or low. Another application where rotate data
operations are used is to implement multiplication and
division calculations.
Instruction Timing
Most instructions are implemented within one instruction cycle. The exceptions to this are branch, call, or table read instructions where two instruction cycles are
required. One instruction cycle is equal to 4 system
clock cycles, therefore in the case of an 8MHz system
oscillator, most instructions would be implemented
within 0.5ms and branch or call instructions would be implemented within 1ms. Although instructions which require one more cycle to implement are generally limited
to the JMP, CALL, RET, RETI and table read instructions, it is important to realize that any other instructions
which involve manipulation of the Program Counter Low
register or PCL will also take one more cycle to implement. As instructions which change the contents of the
PCL will imply a direct jump to that new address, one
more cycle will be required. Examples of such instructions would be ²CLR PCL² or ²MOV PCL, A². For the
case of skip instructions, it must be noted that if the result of the comparison involves a skip operation then
this will also take one more cycle, if no skip is involved
then only one cycle is required.
Branches and Control Transfer
Program branching takes the form of either jumps to
specified locations using the JMP instruction or to a subroutine using the CALL instruction. They differ in the
sense that in the case of a subroutine call, the program
must return to the instruction immediately when the subroutine has been carried out. This is done by placing a
return instruction RET in the subroutine which will cause
the program to jump back to the address right after the
CALL instruction. In the case of a JMP instruction, the
program simply jumps to the desired location. There is
no requirement to jump back to the original jumping off
point as in the case of the CALL instruction. One special
and extremely useful set of branch instructions are the
conditional branches. Here a decision is first made regarding the condition of a certain data memory or individual bits. Depending upon the conditions, the program
will continue with the next instruction or skip over it and
jump to the following instruction. These instructions are
the key to decision making and branching within the program perhaps determined by the condition of certain input switches or by the condition of internal data bits.
Moving and Transferring Data
The transfer of data within the microcontroller program
is one of the most frequently used operations. Making
use of three kinds of MOV instructions, data can be
transferred from registers to the Accumulator and
vice-versa as well as being able to move specific immediate data directly into the Accumulator. One of the most
important data transfer applications is to receive data
from the input ports and transfer data to the output ports.
Arithmetic Operations
The ability to perform certain arithmetic operations and
data manipulation is a necessary feature of most
microcontroller applications. Within the Holtek
microcontroller instruction set are a range of add and
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Bit Operations
Other Operations
The ability to provide single bit operations on Data Memory is an extremely flexible feature of all Holtek
microcontrollers. This feature is especially useful for
output port bit programming where individual bits or port
pins can be directly set high or low using either the ²SET
[m].i² or ²CLR [m].i² instructions respectively. The feature removes the need for programmers to first read the
8-bit output port, manipulate the input data to ensure
that other bits are not changed and then output the port
with the correct new data. This read-modify-write process is taken care of automatically when these bit operation instructions are used.
In addition to the above functional instructions, a range
of other instructions also exist such as the ²HALT² instruction for Power-down operations and instructions to
control the operation of the Watchdog Timer for reliable
program operations under extreme electric or electromagnetic environments. For their relevant operations,
refer to the functional related sections.
Instruction Set Summary
The following table depicts a summary of the instruction
set categorised according to function and can be consulted as a basic instruction reference using the following listed conventions.
Table Read Operations
Table conventions:
Data storage is normally implemented by using registers. However, when working with large amounts of
fixed data, the volume involved often makes it inconvenient to store the fixed data in the Data Memory. To overcome this problem, Holtek microcontrollers allow an
area of Program Memory to be setup as a table where
data can be directly stored. A set of easy to use instructions provides the means by which this fixed data can be
referenced and retrieved from the Program Memory.
Mnemonic
x: Bits immediate data
m: Data Memory address
A: Accumulator
i: 0~7 number of bits
addr: Program memory address
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1
1Note
1
1Note
1Note
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
Z, C, AC, OV
C
1
1
1
1Note
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
1
1Note
1
1Note
Z
Z
Z
Z
Arithmetic
ADD A,[m]
ADDM A,[m]
ADD A,x
ADC A,[m]
ADCM A,[m]
SUB A,x
SUB A,[m]
SUBM A,[m]
SBC A,[m]
SBCM A,[m]
DAA [m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Add ACC to Data Memory
Add immediate data to ACC
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Add ACC to Data memory with Carry
Subtract immediate data from the ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry, result in Data Memory
Decimal adjust ACC for Addition with result in Data Memory
Logic Operation
AND A,[m]
OR A,[m]
XOR A,[m]
ANDM A,[m]
ORM A,[m]
XORM A,[m]
AND A,x
OR A,x
XOR A,x
CPL [m]
CPLA [m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Logical AND immediate Data to ACC
Logical OR immediate Data to ACC
Logical XOR immediate Data to ACC
Complement Data Memory
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment & Decrement
INCA [m]
INC [m]
DECA [m]
DEC [m]
Rev. 1.30
Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Increment Data Memory
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Decrement Data Memory
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HT83FXX
Mnemonic
Description
Cycles
Flag Affected
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
1
1Note
None
None
C
C
None
None
C
C
Move Data Memory to ACC
Move ACC to Data Memory
Move immediate data to ACC
1
1Note
1
None
None
None
Clear bit of Data Memory
Set bit of Data Memory
1Note
1Note
None
None
Jump unconditionally
Skip if Data Memory is zero
Skip if Data Memory is zero with data movement to ACC
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is zero
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Subroutine call
Return from subroutine
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Return from interrupt
2
1Note
1note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
1Note
2
2
2
2
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
2Note
2Note
None
None
No operation
Clear Data Memory
Set Data Memory
Clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Enter power down mode
1
1Note
1Note
1
1
1
1Note
1
1
None
None
None
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
TO, PDF
None
None
TO, PDF
Rotate
RRA [m]
RR [m]
RRCA [m]
RRC [m]
RLA [m]
RL [m]
RLCA [m]
RLC [m]
Data Move
MOV A,[m]
MOV [m],A
MOV A,x
Bit Operation
CLR [m].i
SET [m].i
Branch
JMP addr
SZ [m]
SZA [m]
SZ [m].i
SNZ [m].i
SIZ [m]
SDZ [m]
SIZA [m]
SDZA [m]
CALL addr
RET
RET A,x
RETI
Table Read
TABRDC [m]
TABRDL [m]
Miscellaneous
NOP
CLR [m]
SET [m]
CLR WDT
CLR WDT1
CLR WDT2
SWAP [m]
SWAPA [m]
HALT
Note: 1. For skip instructions, if the result of the comparison involves a skip then two cycles are required,
if no skip takes place only one cycle is required.
2. Any instruction which changes the contents of the PCL will also require 2 cycles for execution.
3. For the ²CLR WDT1² and ²CLR WDT2² instructions the TO and PDF flags may be affected by
the execution status. The TO and PDF flags are cleared after both ²CLR WDT1² and
²CLR WDT2² instructions are consecutively executed. Otherwise the TO and PDF flags
remain unchanged.
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Instruction Definition
ADC A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADCM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory, Accumulator and the carry flag are added. The
result is stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m] + C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,[m]
Add Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADD A,x
Add immediate data to ACC
Description
The contents of the Accumulator and the specified immediate data are added. The result is
stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC + x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
ADDM A,[m]
Add ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator are added. The result is
stored in the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
AND A,[m]
Logical AND Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
AND A,x
Logical AND immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical AND
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²AND² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ANDM A,[m]
Logical AND ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical AND operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²AND² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
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CALL addr
Subroutine call
Description
Unconditionally calls a subroutine at the specified address. The Program Counter then increments by 1 to obtain the address of the next instruction which is then pushed onto the
stack. The specified address is then loaded and the program continues execution from this
new address. As this instruction requires an additional operation, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Stack ¬ Program Counter + 1
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m]
Clear Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m] ¬ 00H
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR [m].i
Clear bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is cleared to 0.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
CLR WDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT1
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT2 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT2 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT2 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
CLR WDT2
Pre-clear Watchdog Timer
Description
The TO, PDF flags and the WDT are all cleared. Note that this instruction works in conjunction with CLR WDT1 and must be executed alternately with CLR WDT1 to have effect. Repetitively executing this instruction without alternately executing CLR WDT1 will have no
effect.
Operation
WDT cleared
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 0
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
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CPL [m]
Complement Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
CPLA [m]
Complement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is logically complemented (1¢s complement). Bits
which previously contained a 1 are changed to 0 and vice versa. The complemented result
is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
DAA [m]
Decimal-Adjust ACC for addition with result in Data Memory
Description
Convert the contents of the Accumulator value to a BCD ( Binary Coded Decimal) value resulting from the previous addition of two BCD variables. If the low nibble is greater than 9 or
if AC flag is set, then a value of 6 will be added to the low nibble. Otherwise the low nibble
remains unchanged. If the high nibble is greater than 9 or if the C flag is set, then a value of
6 will be added to the high nibble. Essentially, the decimal conversion is performed by adding 00H, 06H, 60H or 66H depending on the Accumulator and flag conditions. Only the C
flag may be affected by this instruction which indicates that if the original BCD sum is
greater than 100, it allows multiple precision decimal addition.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC + 00H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 06H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 60H or
[m] ¬ ACC + 66H
Affected flag(s)
C
DEC [m]
Decrement Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
DECA [m]
Decrement Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is decremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
HALT
Enter power down mode
Description
This instruction stops the program execution and turns off the system clock. The contents
of the Data Memory and registers are retained. The WDT and prescaler are cleared. The
power down flag PDF is set and the WDT time-out flag TO is cleared.
Operation
TO ¬ 0
PDF ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
TO, PDF
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INC [m]
Increment Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
INCA [m]
Increment Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory is incremented by 1. The result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Affected flag(s)
Z
JMP addr
Jump unconditionally
Description
The contents of the Program Counter are replaced with the specified address. Program
execution then continues from this new address. As this requires the insertion of a dummy
instruction while the new address is loaded, it is a two cycle instruction.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ addr
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,[m]
Move Data Memory to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV A,x
Move immediate data to ACC
Description
The immediate data specified is loaded into the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
MOV [m],A
Move ACC to Data Memory
Description
The contents of the Accumulator are copied to the specified Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC
Affected flag(s)
None
NOP
No operation
Description
No operation is performed. Execution continues with the next instruction.
Operation
No operation
Affected flag(s)
None
OR A,[m]
Logical OR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
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HT83FXX
OR A,x
Logical OR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²OR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
ORM A,[m]
Logical OR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical OR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²OR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
RET
Return from subroutine
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
Affected flag(s)
None
RET A,x
Return from subroutine and load immediate data to ACC
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the Accumulator loaded with the
specified immediate data. Program execution continues at the restored address.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
ACC ¬ x
Affected flag(s)
None
RETI
Return from interrupt
Description
The Program Counter is restored from the stack and the interrupts are re-enabled by setting the EMI bit. EMI is the master interrupt global enable bit. If an interrupt was pending
when the RETI instruction is executed, the pending Interrupt routine will be processed before returning to the main program.
Operation
Program Counter ¬ Stack
EMI ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
RL [m]
Rotate Data Memory left
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
RLA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated left by 1 bit with bit 7 rotated into bit
0. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
None
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HT83FXX
RLC [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 0.
Operation
[m].(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
[m].0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RLCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory left through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated left by 1 bit. Bit 7 replaces
the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into the bit 0. The rotated result is stored in
the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.(i+1) ¬ [m].i; (i = 0~6)
ACC.0 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].7
Affected flag(s)
C
RR [m]
Rotate Data Memory right
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into
bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit with bit 0 rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data
Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
RRC [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0
replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7.
Operation
[m].i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
[m].7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
RRCA [m]
Rotate Data Memory right through Carry with result in ACC
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the carry flag are rotated right by 1 bit. Bit 0 replaces the Carry bit and the original carry flag is rotated into bit 7. The rotated result is
stored in the Accumulator and the contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.i ¬ [m].(i+1); (i = 0~6)
ACC.7 ¬ C
C ¬ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
C
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HT83FXX
SBC A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result
of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or
zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SBCM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with Carry and result in Data Memory
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory and the complement of the carry flag are subtracted from the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is
positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m] - C
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SDZ [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0 the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SDZA [m]
Skip if decrement Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first decremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] - 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m]
Set Data Memory
Description
Each bit of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ FFH
Affected flag(s)
None
SET [m].i
Set bit of Data Memory
Description
Bit i of the specified Data Memory is set to 1.
Operation
[m].i ¬ 1
Affected flag(s)
None
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HT83FXX
SIZ [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is 0
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while
the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program
proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
[m] ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SIZA [m]
Skip if increment Data Memory is zero with result in ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are first incremented by 1. If the result is 0, the
following instruction is skipped. The result is stored in the Accumulator but the specified
Data Memory contents remain unchanged. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not
0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m] + 1
Skip if ACC = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SNZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is not 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is not 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i ¹ 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SUB A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUBM A,[m]
Subtract Data Memory from ACC with result in Data Memory
Description
The specified Data Memory is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result
is stored in the Data Memory. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will
be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will be set to 1.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC - [m]
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
SUB A,x
Subtract immediate data from ACC
Description
The immediate data specified by the code is subtracted from the contents of the Accumulator. The result is stored in the Accumulator. Note that if the result of subtraction is negative, the C flag will be cleared to 0, otherwise if the result is positive or zero, the C flag will
be set to 1.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC - x
Affected flag(s)
OV, Z, AC, C
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HT83FXX
SWAP [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged.
Operation
[m].3~[m].0 « [m].7 ~ [m].4
Affected flag(s)
None
SWAPA [m]
Swap nibbles of Data Memory with result in ACC
Description
The low-order and high-order nibbles of the specified Data Memory are interchanged. The
result is stored in the Accumulator. The contents of the Data Memory remain unchanged.
Operation
ACC.3 ~ ACC.0 ¬ [m].7 ~ [m].4
ACC.7 ~ ACC.4 ¬ [m].3 ~ [m].0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0
Description
If the contents of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As
this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a
two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZA [m]
Skip if Data Memory is 0 with data movement to ACC
Description
The contents of the specified Data Memory are copied to the Accumulator. If the value is
zero, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two cycle instruction. If the result is not 0 the
program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
ACC ¬ [m]
Skip if [m] = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
SZ [m].i
Skip if bit i of Data Memory is 0
Description
If bit i of the specified Data Memory is 0, the following instruction is skipped. As this requires the insertion of a dummy instruction while the next instruction is fetched, it is a two
cycle instruction. If the result is not 0, the program proceeds with the following instruction.
Operation
Skip if [m].i = 0
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDC [m]
Read table (current page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (current page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
TABRDL [m]
Read table (last page) to TBLH and Data Memory
Description
The low byte of the program code (last page) addressed by the table pointer (TBLP) is
moved to the specified Data Memory and the high byte moved to TBLH.
Operation
[m] ¬ program code (low byte)
TBLH ¬ program code (high byte)
Affected flag(s)
None
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HT83FXX
XOR A,[m]
Logical XOR Data Memory to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified Data Memory perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XORM A,[m]
Logical XOR ACC to Data Memory
Description
Data in the specified Data Memory and the Accumulator perform a bitwise logical XOR operation. The result is stored in the Data Memory.
Operation
[m] ¬ ACC ²XOR² [m]
Affected flag(s)
Z
XOR A,x
Logical XOR immediate data to ACC
Description
Data in the Accumulator and the specified immediate data perform a bitwise logical XOR
operation. The result is stored in the Accumulator.
Operation
ACC ¬ ACC ²XOR² x
Affected flag(s)
Z
Rev. 1.30
60
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
44-pin QFP (10mm´10mm) Outline Dimensions
H
C
D
G
2 3
3 3
I
3 4
2 2
L
F
A
B
E
1 2
4 4
K
a
J
1
Symbol
Dimensions in inch
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
0.512
¾
0.528
B
0.390
¾
0.398
C
0.512
¾
0.528
D
0.390
¾
0.398
E
¾
0.031
¾
F
¾
0.012
¾
G
0.075
¾
0.087
H
¾
¾
0.106
I
0.010
¾
0.020
J
0.029
¾
0.037
K
0.004
¾
0.008
L
¾
0.004
¾
a
0°
¾
7°
Symbol
Rev. 1.30
1 1
Dimensions in mm
Min.
Nom.
Max.
A
13.00
¾
13.40
B
9.90
¾
10.10
C
13.00
¾
13.40
D
9.90
¾
10.10
E
¾
0.80
¾
F
¾
0.30
¾
G
1.90
¾
2.20
H
¾
¾
2.70
I
0.25
¾
0.50
J
0.73
¾
0.93
K
0.10
¾
0.20
L
¾
0.10
¾
a
0°
¾
7°
61
June 7, 2010
HT83FXX
Holtek Semiconductor Inc. (Headquarters)
No.3, Creation Rd. II, Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan
Tel: 886-3-563-1999
Fax: 886-3-563-1189
http://www.holtek.com.tw
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Tel: 886-2-2655-7070
Fax: 886-2-2655-7373
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Tel: 1-510-252-9880
Fax: 1-510-252-9885
http://www.holtek.com
Copyright Ó 2010 by HOLTEK SEMICONDUCTOR INC.
The information appearing in this Data Sheet is believed to be accurate at the time of publication. However, Holtek assumes no responsibility arising from the use of the specifications described. The applications mentioned herein are used
solely for the purpose of illustration and Holtek makes no warranty or representation that such applications will be suitable
without further modification, nor recommends the use of its products for application that may present a risk to human life
due to malfunction or otherwise. Holtek¢s products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices
or systems. Holtek reserves the right to alter its products without prior notification. For the most up-to-date information,
please visit our web site at http://www.holtek.com.tw.
Rev. 1.30
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