ETC 818

818 Series
1 kHz to 1.28 MHz
8-Bit Programmable
2" x 4"
8-Pole Filters
Description
The 818 Series are digitally programmable low-pass
and high-pass active filters that are tunable over a
256:1 frequency range. 818 filters are available with
any one of five standard factory-set tuning ranges or
8-bit custom ranges from 1 kHz to 1.28 MHz. These
units contain 8 CMOS logic inputs.
818 Series models are convenient, low profile, easy
to use fully finished filters which require no external
components or adjustments. They feature low
harmonic distortion, and near theoretical amplitude
characteristics. 818 filters operate from non-critical
±12 to ±18 Vdc power supplies, have a 5 kΩ (min.)
input impedance, a 10Ω (max.) output impedance
and low-pass models offer dc voltage offset
adjustment.
Features/Benefits:
• Low harmonic distortion and wide signal-to-noise
ratio to 12-bit resolution
• Digitally programmable corner frequency allows
selecting cut-off frequencies specific to each
application
• Plug-in ready-to-use, reducing engineering design
and manufacturing cycle time
• Factory-set tuning range, no external clocks or
adjustments needed
• Broad range of transfer characteristics and corner
frequencies to meet a wide range of applications
Programmable Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page
Digital Tuning & Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Available Low-Pass Models: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page
818L8B 8-pole Butterworth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
818L8L
8-pole Bessel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
818L8E 8-pole, 6-zero elliptic, 1.77 . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
818L8D80 8-pole, 6-zero constant delay . . . . . . . . . . 3
Applications
• Anti-alias and band-pass filtering
• Data acquisition systems
• Satellite and telecommunications
• Acoustic and vibration analysis and control
• Aerospace, navigation and sonar
Available High-Pass Models: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page
818H8B 8-pole Butterworth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
818H8E 8-pole, 6-zero elliptic, 1.77 . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
General Specifications:
Phase and phase match considerations . . . . . . . 5 & 6
Ordering information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Pin-out/package data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
• Medical research and electronic equipment
• Engine test and simulation
• Noise elimination
• Video systems
• Signal reconstruction
25 Locust St, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 • Tel: 800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 • FAX: 978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com • Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com
818 Series
Digital Tuning &
Control Characteristics
8-Bit Programmable Filters
Digital Tuning Characteristics
Pin-Out Key
The digital tuning interface circuits are two 4042 quad CMOS
latches which accept the following CMOS-compatible inputs:
eight tuning bits (D0 - D7), a latch strobe bit (C), and a transition
polarity bit (P).
IN
OUT
GND
"P"
"C"
+Vs
-Vs
Os
NC
Filter tuning follows the tuning equation given below:
7
6
5
4
fc = ( fmax/256 ) [ 1 + D7 x 2 + D6 x 2 + D5 x 2 + D4 x 2 + D3 x
3
2
1
0
2 + D2 x 2 + D1 x 2 + D0 x 2 ]
where D1 - D7 = "0" or "1", and
fmax = Maximum tuning frequency;
fc = corner frequency;
Minimum tunable frequency = fmax/256 (D0 thru D7 = 0);
Minimum frequency step (Resolution) = fmax/256
Analog Input Signal
Analog Output Signal
Power and Signal Return
Transition Polarity Bit
Tuning Strobe Bit
Supply Voltage, Positive
Supply Voltage, Negative
Optional Offset Adjustment
No Connect (Highpass Models)
D7 Tuning
D6 Tuning
D5 Tuning
D4 Tuning
D3 Tuning
D2 Tuning
D1 Tuning
D0 Tuning
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
7 (MSB)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 (LSB)
OUT +Vs -Vs
D7
D6
D5
D4
Data Control Specifications
GND
Data Control Lines
Functions
D2
Data Control Modes
Mode 1
Mode 2
Input Data Levels
D3
IN Os/NC
P = 1; C = 1 frequency follows input codes
P = 1; C = 1⇓ frequency latched on falling edge
(CMOS Logic)
4 Vdc max.
15 Vdc max.
Input Current
High Level In
Low Level In
- 10 µA typ.
-5
+10 µA typ.
-1 mA max.
+1 µA max.
5 pF typ
7.5 pF max.
Input Data Format
Positive Logic
Bit Weighting
D0
D7
Frequency Range
D0
P C
Bottom View
P = 0; C = 0 frequency follows input codes
P = 0; C = 0⇑ frequency latched on rising edge
Input Voltage (Vs = 15 Vdc)
Low Level In
0 Vdc min.
High Level In
11 Vdc min.
Input Capacitance
Latch Response
1
Data Set Up Time
2
Data Hold Time
Strobe Pulse Width
D1
Latch Strobe (C)
Transition Polarity (P)
-5
25 nS
50 nS
80 nS min.
Frequency Select Bits
Logic "1" = +Vs
Logic "0" = Gnd
(Binary-Coded)
LSB (least significant bit)
MSB (most significant bit)
256 : 1, Binary Weighted
Bit
Weight
MSB
---
---
---
---
---
---
LSB
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
fc
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Corner
Frequency
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
fmax/256
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
fmax/128
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
fmax/64
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
fmax/32
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
fmax/16
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
fmax/8
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
fmax/4
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
fmax/2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
fmax
Notes:
1.Frequency data must be present before occurrence of strobe edge.
2.Frequency data must be present after occurrence of strobe edge.
2
25 Locust St, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 • Tel: 800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 • FAX: 978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com • Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com
818 Series
8-Pole
Low-Pass Filters
8-Bit Programmable
Model
818L8B
818L8L
818L8E
818L8D80
Transfer Function
8-Pole,
Butterworth
8-Pole,
Bessel
8-Pole, 6 zero,
Elliptic
8-Pole, 6 zero,
Constant Delay
Size
2.0” x 4.0” x 0.4”
2.0” x 4.0” x 0.4”
2.0” x 4.0” x 0.4”
2.0” x 4.0” x 0.4”
Range fc
1 kHz to 128 MHz
1 kHz to 1.28 MHz
1 kHz to 1.28 MHz
1 kHz to 1.28 MHz
Theoretical Transfer
Characteristics
Appendix A
Page 9
Appendix A
Page 4
Appendix A
Page 24
Appendix A
Page 21
Passband Ripple
0.0 dB
0.0 dB
± 0.035 dB
0.15 dB
0 ± 0.1 dB max.
0 ± 0.05 dB typ.
0 ± 0.1 dB max.
0 ± 0.05 dB typ.
0 ± 0.1 dB max.
0 ± 0.05 dB typ.
0 ± 0.1 dB max.
0 ± 0.05 dB typ.
Stopband
Attenuation Rate
48 dB/octave
48 dB/octave
80 dB min.
80 dB min.
Cutoff Frequency
Stability
Amplitude
Phase
fc
± 0.01% /°C
- 3 dB
-360°
Filter Attenuation
0.12 dB
3.01 dB
60.0 dB
80.0 dB
Product Specifications
(theoretical)
DC Voltage Gain
(non-inverting)
(theoretical)
± 3% max.
0.80 fc
1.00 fc
2.37 fc
3.16 fc
fc
± 0.01% /°C
- 3 dB
-182°
± 3% max.
1.91 dB
3.01 dB
60.0 dB
80.0 dB
0.80 fc
1.00 fc
4.52 fc
6.07 fc
fr
± 0.01% /°C
- 0.035 dB
- 323.5°
± 3% max.
0.035 dB
3.01 dB
60.0 dB
80.0 dB
1.00 fr
1.13 fr
1.67 fr
1.77 fr
fc
± 0.01% /°C
- 3 dB
-306°
± 3% max.
3.01 dB
60.0 dB
80.0 dB
1.00 fc
3.08 fc
3.57 fc
Phase Match1
See page 5 & 6
See page 5 & 6
See page 5 & 6
See page 5 & 6
Amplitude Accuracy
0 - 0.6 fc
± 0.5 dB max.
± 0.25 dB typ.
0.6 fc - 1.0 fc ± 1.0 dB max.
± 0.6 dB typ.
0 - fc
0 - 0.8 fr
± 0.5 dB max.
± 0.25 dB typ.
0.8 fc - 1.0 fr ± 1.0 dB max.
± 0.5 dB typ.
0 - 0.8 fc
Total Harmonic
Distortion @ 1 kHz
< - 88 dB typ.
< - 88 dB typ.
< - 88 dB typ.
< - 88 dB typ.
Wide Band Noise
300 µVrms typ.
300 µVrms typ.
350 µVrms typ.
300 µVrms typ.
75 µVrms typ.
75 µVrms typ.
75 µVrms typ.
75 µVrms typ.
FMA-04A
FMA-04A
FMA-04A
FMA-04A
(theoretical)
± 0.8 dB max.
± 0.4 dB typ.
0.8 fc - 1.0 fc
± 0.5 dB max.
± 0.25 dB typ.
± 1.0 dB max.
± 0.5 dB typ.
(5 Hz - 2 MHz)
Narrow Band Noise
(5 Hz - 100 kHz)
Filter Mounting
Assembly
1.Unit to unit match for the same transfer function, set to the same frequency and operating configuration, and from the same manufacturing lot.
3
25 Locust St, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 • Tel: 800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 • FAX: 978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com • Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com
818 Series
8-Pole
High-Pass Filters
8-Bit Programmable
Model
818H8B
818H8E
Transfer Function
8-Pole,
Butterworth
8-Pole, 6-zero,
Elliptic
Size
2.0” x 4.0” x 0.4”
2.0” x 4.0” x 0.4”
Range fc
1 kHz to 1.28 MHz
1 kHz to 1.28 MHz
Theoretical Transfer
Characteristics
Appendix A
Page 29
Appendix A
Page 37
Passband Ripple
0.0 dB
± 0.035 dB
0 ± 0.5 dB to 1.28 MHz
0 ± 0.5 dB to 1.28 MHz
Power Bandwidth
(-6 dB) 5 MHz
(-6 dB) 5 MHz
Stopband
Attenuation Rate
48 dB/octave
80 dB
Cutoff Frequency
Stability
Amplitude
Phase
fc
± 0.01% /°C
- 3 dB
-360°
Filter Attenuation
80 dB
60 dB
3.01 dB
0.00 dB
Product Specifications
(theoretical)
Voltage Gain
(non-inverting)
(theoretical)
Amplitude Accuracy
± 3% max.
0.31 fc
0.42 fc
1.00 fc
2.00 fc
fr
± 0.01% /°C
- 0.035 dB
-323.5°
± 3% max.
80.0 dB
60.0 dB
3.01 dB
0.03 dB
00.0 dB
0.56 fr
0.60 fr
0.88 fr
1.00 fr
2.00 fr
1.0 - 1.25 fc ± 0.5 dB max.
± 0.3 dB typ.
1.25fc-1.28MHz± 1.0 dB max.
± 0.5 dB typ.
1.00 - 1.25 fr ± 0.5 dB max.
± 0.3 dB typ.
1.25fr-1.28MHz± 1.0 dB max.
± 0.5 dB typ.
Total Harmonic
Distortion @ 1 kHz
< - 88 dB typ.
< - 88 dB typ.
Wide Band Noise
400 µVrms typ.
450 µVrms typ.
Narrow Band Noise
100 µVrms typ.
100 µVrms typ.
Filter Mounting
Assembly
FMA-04A
FMA-04A
(theoretical)
1.Unit to unit match for the same transfer function, set to the same frequency and operating configuration, and from the same manufacturing lot.
4
25 Locust St, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 • Tel: 800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 • FAX: 978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com • Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com
818 Series
Phase and Phases
Match Considerations
1 kHz to 1.28 MHz
Phase Deviation from Theoretical:
EXAMPLE: Phase Match Calculation
The phase response of the amplifiers and the
capacitance of the frequency control switches of the 818
series contribute to the overall phase response and
cause it to deviate from theoretical. For the higher
frequency models ( -4 and -5 ), where the cutoff
frequencies can be programmed up to 1.28MHz, the
deviation from theoretical can be substantial.
∆Φ(f)max = 0.02° x Φτ(f) + 4.0° x f/fc x fmax/1.28MHz
4.0° - L8L
3.0° - L8B & L8D80
2.0° - L8L
∆Φ(f)typ =0.5 x ∆Φ(f)max
where: ∆Φ(f)
Φτ (f)
f
f max
fc
Figure 1 is a normalized plot of the phase deviation from
theoretical for an 818L8E-5 for programmed cutoff
frequencies from 5kHz ( fc min ) to 1.28MHz (fc max ).
For fc of 5kHz, the deviation from the 323° theoretical
phase shift is 2° but for fc of 1.28MHz the deviation is
78°. This set of curves can be used to estimate the
deviation from theoretical phase for other models in the
818 series.
=
=
=
=
=
phase match at frequency f
theoretical phase shift at f
frequency of interest
maximum fc of the model
frequency to which the filter is
programmed
Eg. - for an 818L8E-3, the phase deviation from
theoretical at a frequency of 192kHz, when the cutoff
frequency fc is programmed to 384kHz is:
Figure 1 represents a "maximum deviation from
theoretical phase" situation. Other models (i.e. -1 to -4)
will exhibit a similar set of phase deviation curves with
the phase scale being reduced by the ratio of the f max
of the model to the f max of the -5. For example, an L8E1, whose programming frequency range is from 1kHz to
256kHz (1/5 of the range of the -5 model) will have a
similar set of phase deviation curves but the maximum
phase deviation, at the highest frequency setting (fc
max), will be approximately 1/5 that of the -5 model (78/5
= 15.6°). The other programmed settings of the -1 will
also produce proportionally reduced phase deviations.
Phase Match:
∆Φ(f)max = 0.02° x Φτ(f) + 4.0° x f/fc x fmax/1.28MHz
= 0.02 x (-133°) + 4.0° x 0.5 x 768kHz/1.28MHz
= 2.66° + 1.20° = +3.86°
Unit to Unit Phase Match2
Theoretical vs. Normalized Input Frequency
f/fc = 192kHz/384kHz = 0.5, fmax = 768kHz
Φτ(f) = 133° (from data table at f/fc = 0.5)
∆Φ(f)typ =0.5 x ∆Φ(f)max = 0.5° x 3.86° = 1.93°
818L8E Phase Deviation (in degrees “°”) from
programmed setting of fc
f/fc
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
The actual phase shift through a filter at a frequency " f "
is determined by its programmed frequency " fc ", the
theoretical phase response of the transfer function (B, L,
E, or D80) and the phase deviation from theoretical
which in turn depends upon component tolerances, the
model # (i.e. -1 through -5) and frequency to which it is
programmed. It is therefore not possible to have a
meaningful unit to unit phase match that is specified by a
single number.
For a group of the same model type and number,
programmed to the same frequency, the unit to unit
phase match can be approximated as a percentage of
the theoretical phase shift with a correction term added
to accommodate amplifier induced phase deviations.
5kHz
0.15
0.30
0.34
0.20
0.20
0.00
-0.21
-0.50
-0.80
-1.20
-1.90
-2.50
10kHz
0.18
0.32
0.42
0.40
0.32
0.00
-0.30
-0.60
-1.00
-1.60
-2.40
-3.30
20kHz
0.17
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
-0.10
-0.60
-1.30
-1.80
-2.50
-3.50
-4.60
40kHz
0.08
0.17
-0.18
-0.20
-0.40
-0.80
-1.30
-2.10
-2.80
-3.70
-4.80
-6.20
80kHz
-0.12
-0.39
-0.57
-0.90
-1.20
-1.90
-2.70
-3.80
-4.70
-5.80
-7.30
-8.90
160kHz
-0.52
-1.03
-1.59
-2.30
-3.00
-4.10
-5.40
-7.20
-8.40
-10.00
-12.00
-14.10
320kHz
-1.18
-2.41
-3.66
-5.10
-6.70
-8.70
-11.00
-13.90
-15.80
-18.40
-21.10
-24.30
640kHz 1.28MHz
-2.57 -5.32
-5.17 -10.76
-7.89 -16.29
-10.80 -22.10
-14.00 -28.20
-17.70 -35.10
-21.80 -42.60
-26.90 -51.30
-30.10 -56.40
-33.80 -62.30
-38.30 -69.20
-43.30 -77.50
5
25 Locust St, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 • Tel: 800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 • FAX: 978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com • Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com
818 Series
Phase Deviation from Theoretical
5k
10 Hz
20 kH
kH z
z
10
0
40kHz
80kHz
-10
160kHz
-20
degrees "°"
320kHz
-30
-40
640kHz
-50
-60
-70
1.28MHz
-80
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
f/fc
6
25 Locust St, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 • Tel: 800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 • FAX: 978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com • Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com
818 Series
Pin-Out and Package Data
Ordering Information
Specification
(25°C and Vs ± 15 Vdc)
Analog Input Characteristics1
Impedance
Voltage Range
Max. Safe Voltage
Analog Output Characteristics
Impedance (Closed Loop)
Linear Operating Range
Maximum Current2
Offset Voltage3
Offset Temp. Coeff.
Power Supply (±Vs)
Rated Voltage
Operating Range
Maximum Safe Voltage
Quiescent Current
Pin-Out & Package Data
5 k Ω min.
± 10 Vpeak
±Vs
11 Ω typ.
10 Ω max.
±10V
±5 mA
22 mV typ.
10 mV max.
50 µV/°C
4.00
0.4
0.2 min
0.04 Dia.
Side View
All dimensions are in inches
All Case Dimensions ± 0.02"
Grid Dimensions 0.1" x 0.1"
OUT +Vs -Vs
D7
D6
±15 Vdc
±12 to ±18 Vdc
±18 Vdc
D5
D4
GND
2.00
100 mA typ.
120 mA max.
D3
D2
D1
Temperature
Operating
Storage
D0
-20 to +70°C
-25 to +85°C
4
IN Os /NC
Notes:
Bottom View
P C
Filter Mounting Assembly-See FMA-04A
1. Input and output signal voltage referenced to supply common.
2. Output is short circuit protected to common.
Ordering Information
DO NOT CONNECT TO ±Vs.
3. Adjustable to zero.
Filter Type
Transfer Function
4. Units operate with or without offset pin connected.
L - Low Pass
H - High Pass
B - Butterworth
L - Bessel
E - elliptic
D80 - constant delay
DC Offset Adjustment
± Vs
818L8E-5
Do not connect
if trim is not
required.
20 k Ω
(Cermet)
Model
Number
1
2
3
4
5
OS
- Vs
Tuning
Range (kHz)
1kHz to 256kHz
2kHz to 512kHz
3kHz to 768kHz
4kHz to 1,024kHz
5kHz to 1,280kHz
Minimum
Step (kHz)
1kHz
2kHz
3kHz
4kHz
5kHz
We hope the information given here will be helpful. The information is based on data and our best knowledge, and we consider the information to be true and accurate. Please read all statements,
recommendations or suggestions herein in conjunction with our conditions of sale which apply to all goods supplied by us. We assume no responsibility for the use of these statements,
recommendations or suggestions, nor do we intend them as a recommendation for any use which would infringe any patent or copyright.
IN-00818-01
7
25 Locust St, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 • Tel: 800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 • FAX: 978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com • Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com
8-Pole
Bessel
Appendix A
Low-Pass
Theoretical Transfer Characteristics
1
f/fc
Amp
Phase
Delay
(Hz)
(dB)
(deg)
(sec)
0.00
0.00
0.00
.506
0.10
-0.029
-18.2
.506
0.20
-0.117
-36.4
.506
0.30
-0.264
-54.7
.506
0.40
-0.470
-72.9
.506
0.50
-0.737
-91.1
.506
0.60
-1.06
-109
.506
0.70
-1.45
-128
.506
0.80
-1.91
-146
.506
0.85
-2.16
-155
.506
0.90
-2.42
-164
.506
0.95
-2.71
-173
.506
1.00
-3.01
-182
.506
-3.67
1.10
-200
.506
-4.40
1.20
-219
.506
-5.20
1.30
-237
.506
1.40
-6.10
-255
.505
1.50
-7.08
-273
.504
1.60
-8.16
-291
.502
1.70
-9.36
-309
.498
1.80
-10.7
-327
.492
1.90
-12.1
-345
.482
2.00
-13.7
-362
.468
2.25
-18.1
-402
.417
2.50
-23.1
-436
.352
2.75
-28.3
-465
.291
3.00
-33.4
-489
.241
3.25
-38.3
-509
.201
3.50
-43.1
-526
.170
4.00
-51.8
-552
.126
5.00
-66.8
-587
.077
6.00
-79.2
-610
.052
7.00
-89.8
-626
.038
8.00
-99.0
-638
.029
9.00
-107
-647
.023
10.0
-114
-655
.018
Frequency Response
Amp (dB)
0
-40
-60
-80
-100
0.1
2
3 4 5 6 78
1.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 10.0
Normalized Frequency(f/fc)
Delay (Normalized)
Delay (sec)
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
0.15 2
3
4
5 6 7 89
1.0
1.5
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Step Response (V/V)
Step Response
1.Normalized Group Delay:
The above delay data is normalized to a corner frequency
of 1.0Hz.The actual delay is the normalized delay divided
by the actual corner frequency (fc).
Actual Delay =
-20
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-0.0
-0.2
0
1
2
3
4
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Normalized Delay
Actual Corner Frequency (fc) in Hz
4
25 Locust St., Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 ∑Tel:800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 ∑FAX:978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com ∑Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com ∑Fax on Demand: 978/521-5178
5
Low-Pass
8-Pole
Appendix A
Butterworth
Theoretical Transfer Characteristics
1
f/fc
Amp
Phase
Delay
(Hz)
(dB)
(deg)
(sec)
0.00
0.00
0.00
.816
0.10
0.00
-29.4
.819
0.20
0.00
-59.0
.828
0.30
0.00
-89.1
.843
0.40
0.00
-120
.867
0.50
0.00
-152
.903
0.60
-0.001
-185
.956
0.70
-0.014
-221
1.04
0.80
-0.121
-261
1.19
0.85
-0.311
-283
1.29
0.90
-0.738
-307
1.40
0.95
-1.58
-333
1.48
1.00
-3.01
-360
1.46
1.10
-7.48
-408
1.17
1.20
-12.9
-445
.873
1.30
-18.2
-472
.672
1.40
-494
.540
-23.4
1.50
-511
.448
-28.2
1.60
-526
.380
-32.7
1.70
-539
.328
-36.9
1.80
-550
.287
-40.8
1.90
-44.6
-560
.253
2.00
-48.2
-568
.226
2.25
-56.3
-586
.174
2.50
-63.7
-600
.139
2.75
-70.3
-611
.113
3.00
-76.3
-621
.094
3.25
-81.9
-629
.080
3.50
-87.1
-635
.069
4.00
-96.3
-646
.052
5.00
-112
-661
.033
6.00
-125
-671
.023
7.00
-135
-678
.017
8.00
-144
-683
.013
9.00
-153
-687
.010
10.0
-160
-691
.008
Frequency Response
Amp (dB)
0
-40
-60
-80
-100
0.1
2
3 4 5 6 78 1.0
2
3 4 5 67
10.0
Normalized Frequency(f/fc)
Delay (Normalized)
Delay (sec)
2.0
1.0
0.0
0.1
0.15 2
3
4
5 6 7 8 9 1.0 1.5
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Step Response (V/V)
Step Response
1.Normalized Group Delay:
The above delay data is normalized to a corner frequency
of 1.0Hz.The actual delay is the normalized delay divided
by the actual corner frequency (fc).
Actual Delay =
-20
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-0.0
0
1
2
3
4
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Normalized Delay
Actual Corner Frequency (fc) in Hz
9
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e-mail: sales@freqdev.com ∑Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com ∑Fax on Demand: 978/521-5178
5
8-Pole, 6-Zero
Constant Delay
Appendix A
Low-Pass (80 dB)
Theoretical Transfer Characteristics
1
f/fc
Amp
Phase
Delay
(Hz)
(dB)
(deg)
(sec)
0.00
0.00
.852
0.00
0.017
-30.7
.852
0.10
0.058
-61.3
.852
0.20
0.099
-92.0
.852
0.30
0.105
-123
.852
0.40
0.034
-153
.852
0.50
-0.157
-184
.852
0.60
-0.510
-215
.852
0.70
-1.07
-245
.851
0.80
-1.44
-261
.850
0.85
-1.89
-276
.849
0.90
-2.41
-291
.846
0.95
-3.01
-306
.841
1.00
-4.50
-336
.821
1.10
-6.39
-365
.783
1.20
-11.3
-417
.656
1.40
-17.1
-459
.512
1.60
-23.2
-492
.396
1.80
-29.1
-517
.312
2.00
-36.3
-542
.239
2.25
2.50
-43.4
-561
.189
2.75
-50.3
-576
.153
3.00
-57.6
-589
.127
3.25
-62.5
-599
.107
3.50
-75.4
-608
.092
3.75
-98.3
-616
.079
4.00
-86.3
-442
.069
4.25
-84.1
-448
.061
4.50
-85.1
-454
.054
4.75
-87.9
-458
.049
5.00
-92.8
-462
.044
5.25
-104
-466
.040
5.50
-101
-289
.036
5.75
-93.3
-293
.033
6.00
-89.9
-295
.030
-86.6
-300
.026
6.50
-85.1
-305
.022
7.00
-84.1
-312
.017
8.00
-84.3
-317
.013
9.00
-84.9
-321
.011
10.0
Frequency Response
Amp (dB)
0
-40
-60
-80
-100
0.1
2
3 4 5 6 78
1.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 10.0
Normalized Frequency(f/fc)
Delay (Normalized)
Delay (sec)
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.1
0.15 2
3
4
5 6 7 89
1.0 1.5
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Step Response (V/V)
Step Response
1.Normalized Group Delay:
The above delay data is normalized to a corner frequency
of 1.0Hz.The actual delay is the normalized delay divided
by the actual corner frequency (fc).
Actual Delay =
-20
Normalized Delay
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-0.0
-0.2
0
1
2
3
4
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Actual Corner Frequency (fc) in Hz
21
25 Locust St., Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 ∑Tel :800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 ∑FAX:978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com ∑Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com ∑Fax on Demand: 978/521-5178
5
8-Pole, 6-Zero
Elliptic, 1.77
Appendix A
Low-Pass
Theoretical Transfer Characteristics
1
f/fc
Amp
Phase
Delay
(Hz)
(dB)
(deg)
(sec)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.713
0.10
-0.004
-25.7
0.716
0.20
-0.014
-51.6
0.724
0.30
-0.024
-77.9
0.740
0.40
-0.020
-105
0.767
0.50
0.007
-133
0.811
0.55
0.022
-148
0.840
0.60
0.033
-163
0.872
0.65
0.031
-179
0.908
0.70
0.014
-196
0.946
0.75
-0.015
-213
0.989
0.80
-0.041
-232
1.04
0.85
-0.046
-251
1.12
0.90
-0.016
-272
1.23
0.95
-0.025
-296
1.40
1.00
-0.035
-323
1.65
1.10
-1.76
-392
2.14
1.20
-8.28
-467
1.86
1.30
-18.4
-522
1.19
1.40
-29.3
-558
0.753
1.50
-40.1
-578
0.517
1.60
-51.5
-594
0.381
1.70
-65.2
-606
0.296
1.75
-75.0
-611
0.265
1.80
-113.0
-616
0.239
1.85
-83.6
-440
0.217
1.90
-82.0
-444
0.198
1.95
-83.7
-447
0.182
2.00
-87.8
-450
0.168
2.20
-85.8
-280
0.126
2.40
-82.0
-289
0.099
2.60
-83.5
-295
0.081
2.80
-88.2
-301
0.067
3.00
-99.9
-305
0.057
3.50
-87.2
-134
0.040
4.00
-83.1
-140
0.030
5.00
-82.1
-148
0.018
6.00
-83.1
-154
0.013
7.00
-84.6
-157
0.009
8.00
-86.2
-160
0.007
9.00
-87.8
-163
0.005
10.0
-89.3
-164
0.004
Frequency Response
Amp (dB)
0
-40
-60
-80
-100
0.1
2
3 4 5 6 78
1.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 10.0
Normalized Frequency(f/fc)
Delay (Normalized)
Delay (sec)
4.0
2.0
0.8
0.0
0.1
0.15 2
3
4
5 6 7 89
1.0 1.5
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Step Response (V/V)
Step Response
1.Normalized Group Delay:
The above delay data is normalized to a corner frequency
of 1.0Hz.The actual delay is the normalized delay divided
by the actual corner frequency (fc).
Actual Delay =
-20
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
-0.0
0
1
2
3
4
Normalized Time (1/f sec)
Normalized Delay
Actual Corner Frequency (fc) in Hz
24
25 Locust St., Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 ∑Tel :800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 ∑FAX:978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com ∑Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com ∑Fax on Demand: 978/521-5178
5
High-Pass
8-Pole
Appendix A
Butterworth
Theoretical Transfer Characteristics
1
f/fc
Amp
Phase
Delay
(Hz)
(dB)
(deg)
(sec)
0.10
-160
691
0.819
0.20
-112
661
0.828
0.30
-83.7
631
0.843
0.40
-63.7
600
0.867
0.50
-48.2
568
0.903
0.60
-35.5
535
.956
499
0.70
-24.8
1.04
459
0.80
-15.6
1.19
437
0.85
-11.6
1.29
413
0.90
-8.06
1.40
0.95
-5.15
386
1.48
360
1.00
-3.01
1.46
275
1.20
-0.229
0.873
226
1.40
-0.020
0.540
-0.002
194
1.60
0.380
170
1.80
0.00
0.287
152
0.00
2.00
0.226
120
0.139
0.00
2.50
0.094
0.00
99.2
3.00
0.052
0.00
74.0
4.00
5.00
0.00
59.0
0.033
49.0
0.023
6.00
0.00
0.00
42.1
0.017
7.00
0.00
36.8
0.013
8.00
0.00
32.7
0.010
9.00
10.0
0.00
29.4
0.008
Frequency Response
Amp (dB)
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
0.1
2
3 4 5 6 78
1.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 10.0
Normalized Frequency(f/fc)
1.Normalized Group Delay:
The above delay data is normalized to a corner frequency
of 1.0Hz.The actual delay is the normalized delay divided
by the actual corner frequency (fc).
Actual Delay =
Normalized Delay
Actual Corner Frequency (fc) in Hz
29
25 Locust St., Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 ∑Tel :800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 ∑FAX:978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com ∑Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com ∑Fax on Demand: 978/521-5178
8-Pole, 6-Zero
Elliptic, 1.77
Appendix A
High-Pass
Theoretical Transfer Characteristics
1
f/fc
Amp
Phase
Delay
(Hz)
(dB)
(deg)
(sec)
0.10
-89.3
164
0.440
0.20
-82.1
148
0.459
0.30
-90.6
131
0.495
292
0.40
-82.4
0.559
-87.8
450
0.50
0.671
0.55
-90.0
0.761
437
-60.2
0.60
0.890
603
-32.4
0.70
1.37
563
-13.1
0.80
2.35
498
-6.28
0.85
2.77
451
0.90
-2.21
401
2.66
358
0.95
-0.51
2.15
324
1.00
-0.03
1.64
277
1.10
-0.01
1.04
225
1.20
-0.05
0.757
1.30
-0.03
221
0.596
1.40
0.01
201
0.486
1.50
0.03
185
0.409
1.60
0.03
172
0.347
1.70
0.03
160
0.299
1.80
0.02
150
0.260
1.90
0.01
141
0.229
2.00
0.01
133
0.203
2.50
-0.02
105
0.123
3.00
-0.02
86.9
0.083
4.00
-0.02
64.7
0.046
5.00
-0.01
51.6
0.029
6.00
-0.01
42.9
0.020
-0.01
0.015
7.00
36.8
-0.01
0.011
8.00
32.1
9.00
-0.01
28.6
0.009
10.0
0.00
25.7
0.007
Frequency Response
Amp (dB)
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
0.1
2
3 4 5 6 78 1.0
2
3 4 5 67
10.0
Normalized Frequency(f/fc)
1.Normalized Group Delay:
The above delay data is normalized to a corner frequency
of 1.0Hz.The actual delay is the normalized delay divided
by the actual corner frequency (fc).
Actual Delay =
Normalized Delay
Actual Corner Frequency (fc) in Hz
37
25 Locust St., Haverhill, Massachusetts 01830 ∑Tel :800/252-7074, 978/374-0761 ∑FAX:978/521-1839
e-mail: sales@freqdev.com ∑Web Address: http://www.freqdev.com ∑Fax on Demand: 978/521-5178