U-138 APPLICATION NOTE Zero Voltage Switching Resonant Power Conversion Bill Andreycak Abstract The technique of zero voltage switching in modern power conversion is explored. Several ZVS topologies and applications, limitations of the ZVS technique, and a generalized design procedure are featured. Two design examples are presented: a 50 Watt DC/DC converter, and an off-line 300 Watt multiple output power supply. This topic concludes with a performance comparison of ZVS converters to their square wave counterparts, and a summary of typical applications. Introduction Advances in resonant and quasi-resonant power conversion technology propose alternative solutions to a conflicting set of square wave conversion design goals; obtaining high efficiency operation at a high switching frequency from a high voltage source. Currently, the conventional approaches are by far, still in the production mainstream. However, an increasing challenge can be witnessed by the emerging resonant technologies, primarily due to their lossless switching merits. The intent of this presentation is to unravel the details of zero voltage switching via a comprehensive analysis of the timing intervals and relevant voltage and current waveforms. The concept of quasi-resonant, “lossless” switching is not new, most noticeably patented by one individual [1] and publicized by another at various power conferences [2,3]. Numerous efforts focusing on zero current switching ensued, first perceived as the likely candidate for tomorrow’s generation of high frequency power converters [4,5,6,7,8]. In theory, the onoff transitions occur at a time in the resonant cycle where the switch current is zero, facilitat3-329 ing zero current, hence zero power switching. And while true, two obvious concerns can impede the quest for high efficiency operation with high voltage inputs. By nature of the resonant tank and zero current switching limitation, the peak switch current is significantly higher than its square wave counterpart. In fact, the peak of the full load switch current is a minimum of twice that of its square wave kin. In its off state, the switch returns to a blocking a high voltage every cycle. When activated by the next drive pulse, the MOSFET output capacitance (Goss) is discharged by the FET, contributing a significant power loss at high frequencies and high voltages. Instead, both of these losses are avoided by implementing a zero voltage switching technique [9,lO]. Zero Voltage Switching Overview Zero voltage switching can best be defined as conventional square wave power conversion during the switch’s on-time with “resonant” switching transitions. For the most part, it can be considered as square wave power utilizing a constant off-time control which varies the conversion frequency, or on-time to maintain regulation of the output voltage. For a given unit of time, this method is similar to fixed frequency conversion which uses an adjustable duty cycle, as shown in Fig. 1. Regulation of the output voltage is accomplished by adjusting the effective duty cycle, performed by varying the conversion frequency. This changes the effective on-time in a ZVS design. The foundation of this conversion is simply the volt-second product equating of the input and output. It is virtually identical to that of square wave power conversion, and vastly U-138 APPLICATION NOTE Fig. 1 - Zero Voltage Switching vs. Conventional Square Wave unlike the energy transfer system of its electrical dual, the zero current switched converter. During the ZVS switch off-time, the L-C tank circuit resonates. This traverses the voltage across the switch from zero to its peak, and back down again to zero. At this point the switch can be reactivated, and lossless zero voltage switching facilitated. Since the output capacitance of the MOSFET switch (Co& has been discharged by the resonant tank, it does not contribute to power loss or dissipation in the switch. Therefore, the MOSFET transition losses go to zero - regardless of operating frequency and input voltage. This could represent a significant savings in power, and result in a substantial improvement in efficiency. Obviously, this attribute makes zero voltage switching a suitable candidate for high frequency, high voltage converter designs. Additionally, the gate drive requirements are somewhat reduced in a ZVS design due to the lack of the gate to drain (Miller) charge, which is deleted when V& equals zero. The technique of zero voltage switching is applicable to all switching topologies; the buck regulator and its derivatives (forward, half and full bridge), the flyback, and boost converters, to name a few. This presentation will focus on the continuous output current, buck derived topologies, however a list of references describing the others has been included in the appendix. 3-330 Fig. 2 - Resonant Switch Implementation Fig. 3 - General Waveforms ZVS Benefits n Zero power “Lossless” switching transitions n Reduced EMI / RFI at transitions n No power loss due to discharging Goss n No higher peak currents, (ie. ZCS) same as square wave systems n High efficiency with high voltage inputs at any frequency n Can incorporate parasitic circuit and component L & C APPLICATION NOTE n U-138 Reduced gate drive requirements (no “Miller” effects) filter section consisting of output inductor L.,,, and capacitor CO has a time constant several orders of magnitude larger than any power conversion period. The filter inductance is large in comparison to that of the resonant inductor’s value L, and the magnetizing current ML., as well as the inductor’s DC resistance is negligible. In addition, both the input voltage VjN and output voltage V. are purely DC, and do not vary during a given conversion cycle. Last, the converter is operating in a closed loop configuration which regulates the output voltage V. . Short circuit tolerant ZVS Differences: n Variable frequency operation (in general) q Higher off-state voltages in single switch, unclamped topologies W Relatively new technology - users must climb the learning curve W Conversion frequency is inversely proportional to load current w A more sophisticated control circuit may be required Initial Conditions: Time interval < +, ZVS Design Equations A zero voltage switched Buck regulator will be used to develop the design equations for the various voltages, currents and time intervals associated with each of the conversion periods which occur during one complete switching cycle. The circuit schematic, component references, and relevant polarities are shown in Fig. 4. Typical design procedure guidelines and “shortcuts” will be employed during the analysis’ for the purpose of brevity. At the onset, all components will be treated as though they were ideal which simplifies the generation of the basic equations and relationships. As this section progresses, losses and non-ideal characteristics of the components will be added to the formulas. The timing summary will expound upon the equations for a precise analysis. Another valid assumption is that the output Before analyzing the individual time intervals, the initial conditions of the circuit must be defined. The analysis will begin with switch Q, on, conducting a drain current ZD equal to the output current IO, and VDs = VCR = 0 (ideal). In series with the switch Q, is the resonant inductor L, and the output inductor L, which also conduct the output current I,. It has been established that the output inductance L, is large in comparison to the resonant inductor L, and all components are ideal. Therefore, the voltage across the output inductor V’ equals the input to output voltage differential; I/Lo = VIN - VO. The output filter section catch diode DO is not conducting and sees a reverse voltage equal to the input voltage; V’ = V,, observing the polarity shown in Figure 4. Table I - INITIAL CONDITIONS Capacitor Charging State: to - t, The conversion period is initiated at time t, when switch Q, is turned OFF. Since the current through resonant inductor L, and output inductor L, cannot change instantaneously, and no drain current flows in Q, while Fig. 4 - Zero Voltage Switched Buck Regulator 3-331 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE Table II - CAPACITOR CHARGING: b - tl Fig. 5 - Simplified Model Resonant State: t, - t, Fig. 6 - Resonant Capacitor Waveforms it is off, the current is diverted around the switch through the resonant capacitor CR. The constant output current will linearly increase the voltage across the resonant capacitor until it reaches the input voltage (VCR = VI,,,). Since the current is not changing, neither is the voltage across resonant inductor L,. At time t, the switch current IO “instantly” drops from IO to zero. Simultaneously, the resonant capacitor current IcR snaps from zero to I,, while the resonant inductor current ILR and output inductor current IL0 are constant and also equal to I, during interval toI. Voltage across output inductor Lo and output catch diode D, linearly decreases during this interval due to the linearly increasing voltage across resonant capacitor CR. At time tl , VCR equals and D, starts to conduct. 3-332 The resonant portion of the conversion cycle begins at tI when the voltage across resonant capacitor VCR equals the input voltage VIN, and the output catch diode begins conducting. At t, , current through the resonant components IcR and ILR equals the output current I,. The stimulus for this series resonant L-C circuit is output current I, flowing through the resonant inductor prior to time t,. The ensuing resonant tank current follows a cosine function beginning at time t,, and ending at time t2. At the natural resonant frequency OR9 each of the L-C tank components exhibit an impedance equal to the tank impedance, ZR. Therefore, the peak voltage across CR and switch Q, are a function of ZR and I, . The instantaneous voltage across CR and Q, can be evaluated over the resonant time interval using the following relationships: Of greater importance is the ability to solve the equations for the precise off-time of the switch. This off-time will vary with line and load changes and the control circuit must respond in order to facilitate true zero voltage switching. While some allowance does exist for a fixed off time technique, the degree of lati- APPLICATION NOTE U-138 tude is insufficient to accommodate typical input and output variations, The exact time is obtained by solving the resonant capacitor voltage equations for the condition when zero voltage is attained. VCR (t)ve LINE CHANGES The equation can be further simplified by extracting the half cycle (180 degrees) of conduction which is a constant for a given resonant frequency, and equal to ~rr/t+. Fig. 7 -- Resonant Capacitor Voltage vs. Line The resonant component current (IcR = IL.) is a cosine function between time tl and tz, described as: The absolute maximum duration for this interval occurs when 270 degrees (3x/2& of resonant operation is required to intersect the zero voltage axis. This corresponds to the limit of resonance as minimum load and maximum line voltage are approached. Contributions of line and load influences on the resonant time interval t12 can be analyzed individually as shown in Figs. 7 and 8. Prior to time tl, the catch diode Do was not conducting. Its voltage, VW, was linearly decreasing from V,N at time to to zero at tl while input source v,Jv was supplying full output current, IO. At time t,, however, this situation changes as the resonant capacitor initiates resonance, diverting the resonant inductor current away from the output filter section. Instantly, the output diode voltage, Vm, changes polarity as it begins to conduct, supplementing the decreasing resonant inductor current with diode current I’, extracted from stored energy in output inductor Lo. The diode current waveshape follows a cosine function during this interval, equalling IO minus IcR(t)# Also occurring at time t,, the output filter inductor Lo releases the stored energy required 3-333 Fig. 8 -- Resonant Capacitor Voltage vs. Load to maintain a constant output current I,. Its reverse voltage is clamped to the output voltage V. minus the diode voltage drop V’ by the convention followed by Figure 4. Table III - RESONANT INTERVAL: tl - b APPLICATION NOTE Table IV - INDUCTOR CHARGING: t2 - t3 Inductor Charging State: fi - t3 To facilitate zero voltage switching, switch Q, is activated once the voltage I& across Q, and resonant capacitor VCR has reached zero, occurring at time tZ. During this inductor charging interval tu resonant inductor current ILR is linearly returned from its negative peak of minus I, to its positive level of plus I,. The output catch diode D, conducts during the tu interval. It continues to freewheel the full output current I,, clamping one end of the resonant inductor to ground through Do. There is a constant voltage, V’,N - I& , across the resonant inductor. As a result, ILR rises linearly, I,, decreases linearly. Energy stored in output inductor L, continues to be delivered to the load during this time period. A noteworthy peculiarity during this timespan can be seen in the switch dram current waveform. At time f2, when the switch is turned on, current is actually returning from the resonant tank to the input source, I&. This indicates the requirement for a reverse polarity diode across the switch to accommodate the bidirectional current. An interesting result is that the switch can be turned on at any time during the first half of the fB interval without affecting normal operation. A separate time interval could be used to identify this region if desired. Power Transfer State: t3 - tr Once the resonant inductor current ILR has reached I, at time tJ, the zero voltage switched converter resembles a conventional square wave power processor. During the remainder of 3-334 COMP. STATUS CIRCUIT VALUES the conversion period, most of the pertinent waveforms approach DC conditions. Assuming ideal components, with Q, closed, the input source supplies output current , and the output filter inductor voltage VLo equals VIN - Vo. The switch current and resonant inductor current are both equal to IO, and their respective voltage drops are zero (V& = V’,=O). Catch diode voltage Vm equals VIN, and Im = 0. In closed loop operation where the output voltage is in regulation, the control circuit essentially varies the on-time of the switch during the tJ4 interval. Variable frequency operation is actually the result of modulating the on-time as dictated by line and load conditions. Increasing the time duration, or lowering the conversion frequency has the same effect as widening the duty cycle in a traditional square wave converter. For example, if the output voltage were to drop in response to an increased load, the conversion frequency would decrease in order to raise the effective ON period. Conversely, at light loads where little energy is drawn from the output capacitor, the control circuit would adjust to minimize the lJ, duration by increasing the conversion frequency. In summary, the conversion frequency is inversely proportional to the power delivered to the load. l U-138 APPLICATION NOTE Table V - POWER TRANSFER: t3 - t, COMP. STATUS CIRCUIT VALUES Fig. 9 -- ZVS Buck Regulator Waveforms 3-335 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE ZVS Converter Limitations: In a ZVS converter operating under ideal conditions, the on-time of the switch (fZ+tJ4) approaches zero, and the converter will operate at maximum frequency and deliver zero output voltage. In a practical design , however, the switch on-time cannot go to zero for several reasons. First of all, the resonant tank components are selected based on the maximum input voltage TJJN- and minimum output current I Omin for the circuit to remain resonant over all operating conditions of line and load. If the circuit is to remain zero voltage switched, then the resonant tank current cannot be allowed to go to zero. It can, however, reach IO,,,,.,, . There is a finite switch on-time associated with the inductor charging interval tu where the resonant inductor current linearly increases from - I, to + I,. As the on-time in the power transfer interval tJr approaches zero, so will the converter output voltage. Therefore, the minimum on-time and the maximum conversion frequency can be calculated based upon the limitation of Iomin and zero output voltage. The limits of the four zero voltage switched time intervals will be analyzed when IO goes to IO minimum. Each solution will be retained in terms of the resonant tank frequency wR for generalization. Both the minimum on-time and maximum off-time have been described in terms of the resonant tank frequency , wR. Taking this one step further will result in the maximum conversion frequency fCoti, also as a function of the resonant tank frequency. Maximum Off-Time: The maximum conversion frequency corresponds to the minimum conversion period, TcoW,, , which is the sum of the minimum ontime and maximum off-time: The maximum conversion frequency, fcowm = l/Tcowti,, , equals The ratio of the maximum conversion frequency to that of the resonant tank frequency can be expressed as a topology coefficient, Kr. For this zero voltage switched Buck regulator and its derivatives, KTmax equals: 3-336 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE conversion period where tJ4 equals zero. Topology coefficient K-r will be incorporated to define the ratio of the maximum conversion frequency (minimum conversion period) to that of the resonant tank frequency, OR. Fig. IO -- Waveforms at Fcow = KT fR l In a realistic application, the output voltage of the power supply is held in regulation at VO which stipulates that the on-time in the power processing state, tJ4 , cannot go to zero as in the example above. The volt-second product requirements of the output must be satisfied during this period, just as in any square wave converter design. Analogous to minimum duty cycle, the minimum on-time for a given design will be a function of V’&, VO and the resonant tank frequency, oR. Although small, a specific amount of energy is transferred from the input to the output during the capacitor charging interval t,. The voltage into the output filter section linearly decreases from & at time t, to zero at tl, equal to an average value of V,,,,/2. In addition, a constant current equal to the output current I, was being supplied from the input source. The average energy transferred during this interval is defined as: The equation can be reorganized in terms of CR and f+ as: This minimum energy can be equated to minimum output watts by dividing it by its 3-337 This demonstrates that a zero power output is unobtainable in reality. The same is true for the ability to obtain zero output voltage. The equation can be rewritten as: Solving for the highest minimum output voltage, the worst case for occurs when I, equals Iomin and VIN is at its maximum, VlN-. Under normal circumstances the circuit will be operating far above this minimum requirement. In most applications, the amount of power transferred during the capacitor charging interval t, can be neglected as it represents less than seven percent (7%) of the minimum input power. This corresponds to less than one percent of the total input power assuming a 10:1 load range. ZVS Effective Duty Cycles: A valid assumption is that a negligible amount of power is delivered to the load during the capacitor charging interval to,. Also, no power is transferred during the resonant period from t,,. Although the switch is on during period tw, it is only recharging the APPLICATION NOTE U-138 resonant and output inductors to maintain the minimum output current, Iolrdn. In summary, NO output power is derived from V”‘N during interval tm. The power required to support V0 at its current of I0 is obtained from the input source during the power transfer period tJ4. Therefore, an effective “duty cycle” can be used to describe the power transfer interval fJ4 to that of the entire switching period, tw, or Tconrv. ZVS - Effective Duty Cycle Calculations: could optionally be evaluated. A computer program to calculate the numerous time intervals and conversion frequencies as a function of line and load can simplify the design process, if not prove to be indispensable. Listed in the Appendix of this section is a BASIC language program which can be used to initiate the design procedure. To summarize: When the switch is on, replace v;N with KWv&(On)) = RDS(on))* When the free-wheeling diode is on, replace V. with (Vo+VF). (I/IN-IO l And can be analyzed over line and load ranges using previous equations for each interval. Accommodating Losses in the Design Equations: Equations for zero voltage switching using ideal components and circuit parameters have been generated, primarily to understand each of the intervals in addition to computer modeling purposes. The next logical progression is to modify the equations to accommodate voltage drops across the components due to series impedance, like RDSo, and the catch diode forward voltage drop. These two represent the most significant loss contributions in the buck regulator model. Later, the same equations will be adapted for the buck derived topologies which incorporate a transformer in the power stage. The procedure to modify the equations is straightforward. Wherever V,N appears in the equations while the switch is on it will be replaced by V,N-V~~~on~ , the latter being a function of the load current I,. The equations can be further adjusted to accept changes of R DS(on) and vF ? etc. with the device junction temperatures. Resonant component initial tolerances, and temperature variations likewise 3-338 Transformer Coupled Circuit Equations: The general design equations for the Buck topology also apply for its derivates; namely the forward, half-bridge, full-bridge and push-pull converters. Listed below are the modifications and circuit specifics to apply the previous equations to transformer coupled circuits. General Transformer Coupled Circuits. Maintaining the resonant tank components on the primary side of the transformer isolation boundary is probably the most common and simplest of configurations. The design procedure begins by transforming the output voltage and current to the primary side through the turns ratio, N. The prime (') designator will be used to signify the translated variables as seen by the primary side circuitry. U-138 APPLICATION NOTE N= Primary Turns Secondary Turns To satisfy the condition for resonance, IR c Iof Determining Transformer Turns Ratio (N): The transformer turns ratio is derived from the equations used to define the power transfer interval tM in addition to the maximum offtime, tcu. While this may first seem like an iterative process, it simplifies to the volt-second product relationship described. The general equations are listed below. The turns ratio N is derived by substituting The resonant tank component equations now become: NW0 for the output voltage V. in the power transfer interval tJ4 equation. Solving for N results in the relationship: I Note: the calculated resonant inductance value does not include any series inductance, typical of the transformer leakage and wiring inductances. The transformer magnetizing and leakage inductance is part of the resonant inductance. This requires adjustment of the resonant inductor value, or both the resonant tank impedance zR and frequency wR will be off-target. One Note: the calculated resonant capacitor value does not include any parallel capacitance, typical of a MOSFET output capacitance, Goss, in shunt. Multi-transistor variations of the buck topology should accommodate all switch capacitances in the analysis. Timing Equations (including N): Fig. 11 -- Transformer Inductance “Shim ” option is to design the transformer inductance to be exactly the required resonant inductance, thus eliminating one component. For precision applications, the transformer inductance should be made slightly smaller than required, and “shimmed” up with a small inductor. 3-339 APPLICATION NOTE Expanding ZVS to Other Topologies ZVS Forward Converter - Single Ended: The single ended forward converter can easily be configured for zero voltage switching with the addition of a resonant capacitor across the switch. Like the buck regulator, there is a high voltage excursion in the off state due to resonance, the amplitude of which varies with line and load. The transformer can be designed so that its magnetizing and leakage inductance equals the required resonant inductance. This simplifies transformer reset and eliminates one component. A general circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 12 below. The associated waveforms for when &RI e q uals LR are shown in Fig. 13. 0 Fig. 12 -- ZVS Forward Converter 3-340 l APPLICATION NOTE U-138 ZVS Clamped Configurations -- Half and Full Bridge Topologies: Zero voltage switching can be extended to multiple switch topologies for higher power levels, specifically the half and full bridge configurations. While the basic operation of each time interval remains similar, there is a difference in the resonant tlZ interval. While single switch converters have high offstate voltage, the bridge circuits clamp the switch peak voltages to the DC input rails, reducing the switch voltage stress. This alters the duration of the off segment of the resonant interval, since the opposite switch(es) must be activated long before the resonant cycle is completed. In fact, the opposite switch(es) should be turned on immediately after their voltage is clamped to the rails, where their drain to source voltage equals zero. If not, the resonant tank will continue to ring and return the switch voltage to its starting point, the opposite rail. Additionally, this off period varies with line and load changes. Examples of this are demonstrated in Figs. 14 and 15. To guarantee true zero voltage switching, it is recommended that the necessary sense circuitry be incorporated. 3-341 Fig. 14 -- Clamped ZVS Configuration APPLICATION NOTE ZVS Half Bridge: The same turns ratio, N, relationship applies to the half bridge topology when & in the previous equations is considered to be one-half of the bulk rail-torail voltage. V’& is the voltage across the transformer primary when either switch is on. Refer to the circuit and waveforms of Figs. 14 and 15. CR, the resonant capacitor becomes the parallel combination of the two resonant capacitors, the ones across each switch. Although the resonant inductor value is unaffected, all series leakage and wiring inductance must be taken into account. U-138 Fig. 16 -- ZVS Half Bridge Circuit The off state voltages of the switches will try to exceed the input bulk voltage during the resonant stages. Automatic clamping to the input bulk rails occurs by the MOSFET body diode, which can be externally shunted with a higher performance variety. Unlike the forward converter which requires a core reset equal to the applied volt second product, the bidirectional switching of the half (and full) bridge topology facilitate automatic core reset during consecutive switching cycles [ll,l2]. Fig. 17 -- ZVS Half Bridge Wavefoms 3-342 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE ZVS Full Bridge: The equations represented for the forward topology apply equally well for one conversion cycle of the full bridge topology, including the transformer turns ratio. Since the resonant capacitors located at each switch are “in-circuit” at all times, the values should be adjusted accordingly. As with the half bridge converter, the resonant capacitors’ voltage will exceed the bulk rails, and clamping via the FET body diodes or external diodes to the rails is common [13]. Fig. 18 -- ZVS Full Bridge Circuit Fig. 19 -- ZVS Full Bridge Wavefoms 3-343 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE ZVS Design Procedure Buck Derived Topologies -- Continuous output Current: 1. List all input/output specs and ranges. VrN min & max ; Vo ; I, min & max 2. Estimate the maximum switch voltages. For unclamped applications (buck and forward): VDSmru Note: Increase IO,,,,.,, if V’s= is too high if possible). applications 9. Debug and modify the circuit as required to accommodate component parasitics, layout concerns or packaging considerations. Avoiding Parasitics = J%hltLz(l + (lomru/lomin) For clamped VDSnw = bvnuu 8. Breadboard the circuit carefully using RF techniques wherever possible. Remember -parasitic inductances and capacitances prefer to resonate upon stimulation, and quite often, unfavorably. (bridges): 3. Select a resonant tank frequency, OR (HINT: OR = 2x&). 4. Calculate the resonant tank impedance and component values. Ringing of the catch diode junction capacitance with circuit inductance (and package leads) will significantly degrade the circuit performance. Probably the most common solution to this everyday occurrance in square wave converters is to shunt the diode with an R-C snubber. Although somewhat dissipative, a compromise can be established between snubber losses and parasitic overshoot caused by the ringing. Unsnubbed examples of various applicable diodes are shown in Fig. 20 below. 5. Calculate each of the interval durations (toI thru fM) and their ranges as a function of all line and load combinations. (See Appendix for a sample computer program written in BASIC) Additionally, summarize the results to establish the range of conversion frequencies, peak voltages and currents, etc. 6. Analyze the results. Determine if the frequency range is suitable for the application. If not, a recommendation is to limit the load range by raising rod,, and start the design procedure again. Verify also that the design is feasible with existing technology and components. 7. Finalize the circuit specifics and details. 0 Derive the transformer turns ratio. (nonbuck applications) 0 Design the output filter section based upon the lowest conversion frequency and output ripple current&( 0 Select applicable components; diode, MOSFET etc. 3-344 Fig. 20 -- Catch Diode Ringing l APPLICATION NOTE U-138 Multiresonant ZVS Conversion Another technique to avoid the parasitic resonance involving the catch diode capacitance is to shunt it with a capacitor much larger than the junction capacitance. Labelled CD, this element introduces favorable switching characteristics for both the switch and catch diode. The general circuit diagram and associated waveforms are shown below, but will not be explored further in this presentation [14,15]. Fig. 22 -- Multiresonant Waveforms Fig. 21 -- Multiresonant ZVS Circuit Current Mode Controlled ZVS Conversion Variable frequency power converters can also benefit from the use of current mode control. Two loops are used to determine the precise ON time of the power switch -- an “outer” voltage feedback loop, and an “inner” current sensing loop. The advantage to this approach is making the power stage operate as a voltage controlled current source. This eliminates the two pole output inductor characteristics in addition to providing enhanced dynamic transient response. Principles of operation. Two control ICS are utilized in this design example. The UC3843A PWM performs the current mode control by providing an output pulse width determined by the two control loop inputs. This pulse width, or repetition rate is used to set the conversion period of the UC3864 ZVS resonant controller. Rather than utilize its voltage controlled oscillator to generate the conversion period, it is determined by the UC3843A output pulse width. Zero voltage switching is performed by the UC3864 one-shot timer and zero crossing detection circuitry. When the resonant capacitor voltage crosses zero, the UC3864 output goes high. This turns ON the power switch and recycles the UC3843A to initiate the next current mode controlled period. The UC3864 fault circuitry functions, but its error amplifier and VCO are not used. 3-345 387 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE ZVS Forward Converter -- Design Example Table VI - Interval Durations vs. Line & Load 1. List circuit specifications: &N = 18 to 26 V vo = 5.0 V ; I, = 2.5 to 10 A 2. Estimate the maximum voltage across the switch: =26•(1+(10/2.5)) = 26•5 = 130 V 3. Select a resonant tank frequency, oR’ A resonant tank period frequency of 500KHz will be used. It was selected as a compro- mise between high frequency operation and low parasitic effects of the components and layout. 4. Calculate the resonant tank impedance and component values. Resonant tank impedance, ZR > VIN,,,Joti,, Fig. 23 - Switch Times vs. Line & Load To accommodate the voltage drop across the MOSFET, calculate VDs(on~min, which equals 5. Calculate each of the interval durations @,, thru f& and ranges as they vary with line and load changes. The zero voltage switched buck converter “gain” in kiloHertz per volt of V,N and kHz per amp of IO can be evaluated over the specified ranges. A summary of these follows: 3-346 It may be necessary to use the highest gain values to design the control loop compensation for stability over all operating conditions. While this may not optimize the loop transient response for all operating loads, it will guarantee stability over the extremes of line and load. l APPLICATION NOTE U-138 A. Output Filter Section: Select L, and CO for operation at the lowest conversion frequency and designed ripple current. B. Heatsink Requirements: An estimate of the worst case power dissipation of the power switch and output catch diode can be made over line and load ranges. C. Control Circuit: The UC3861-64 series of controllers will be examined and programmed per the design requirements. Programming the Control Circuit Fig. 24 - Conversion Freq. vs. Line & Load 6. Analyze the results. The resonant component values, range of conversion frequencies, peak voltage and current ratings seem well within the practical limits of existing components and technology. 7. Finalize the circuit specifics and details based on the information obtained above. One-shot= Accommodating Off-time Variations. The switch off-time varies with line and load by == ± 35% in this design example using ideal components. Accounting for initial tolerances and temperature effects results in an much wider excursion. For all practical purposes, a true fixed off-time technique will n o t work. Incorporated into the UC3861 family of ZVS controllers is the ability to modulate this off- Fig. 25 -- The UC3861-64 ZVS Controllers -- Block Diagram 3-347 APPLICATION NOTE U-138 lated range of conversion frequencies spans 87 to 310 kHz. These values will be used for this “first cut” draft of the control circuit programming. Due to the numerous circuit specifics omitted from the computer program for simplicity, the actual range of conversion frequencies will probably be somewhat wider than planned. Later, the actual timing component values can be adjusted to accommodate these differences. First, a minimum fc o f 7 5 k H z h a s b e e n selected and programmed according to the following equation: Fig. 26 -- CR Volts & Off-time vs. Line & Load time. Initially, the one-shot is programmed for the maximum off-time, and modulated via the ZERO detection circuitry. The switch drainsource voltage is sensed and scaled to initiate turn-on when the precision 0.5V threshold is crossed. This offset was selected to accommodate propogation delays between the instant the threshold is sensed and the instant that the switch is actually turned on. Although brief, these delays can become significant in high frequency applications, and if left unaccounted, can cause NONZERO switching transitions. Referring to Fig. 26, in this design, the offtime varies between 1.11 and 1.80 microseconds, using ideal components and neglecting temperature effects on the resonant components. Since the ZERO detect logic will facilitate “true” zero voltage switching, the off-time can be set for a much greater period. The one-shot has a 3:1 range capability and will be programmed for 2.2 U S ( m a x ) , c o n t r o l l a b l e d o w n t o 0 . 7 5 U S. Programming of the one-shot requires a single R-C time constant, and is straightforward using the design information and equations from the data sheet. Implementation of this feature is shown in the control circuit schematic. The maximumfc of 350 kHZ is programmed by: Numerous values of Rti,, and C,, will satisfy the equations. The procedure can be simplified by letting Rtin equal 100K. The VCO gain in frequency per volt from the error amplifier output is approximated by: with an approximate 3.6 volt delta from the error amplifier. VOLTAGE CONTROLLED OSCILLATOR Programming the VCO. The calcu- Fig. 27 -- E/A - VCO Block Diagram 3-348 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE Fault Protection - Soft Start & Restart Delay One of the unique features of the UC 3861 family of resonant mode controllers can be found in its fault management circuitry. A single pin connection interfaces with the soft start, restart delay and programmable fault mode protection circuits. In most applications, one capacitor to ground will provide full protection upon power-up and during overload conditions. Users can reprogram the timing relationships or add control features (latch off following fault, etc) with a single resistor. Selected for this application is a 1 uF softrestart capacitor value, resulting in a soft-start duration of 10 ms and a restart delay of approximately 200 ms. The preprogrammed ratio of 19:l (restart delay to soft start) will be utilized, however the relevant equations and relationships have also been provided for other applications. Primary current will be utilized as the fault trip mechanism, indicative of an overload or short circuit current condition. A current transformer is incorporated to maximize efficiency when interfacing to the three volt fault threshold. Optional Programming of Tss and Tm : Soft Start: Tss = CSR. 10K Restart Delay: Tm = CsR. 1 9 O K Timing Ratio: Tm:Tss = 1 9 : l Gate Drive: Another unique feature of the UC 3861-64 family of devices is the optimal utilization of the silicon devoted to output totem pole drivers. Each controller uses two pins for the A and B outputs which are internally configured to operate in either unison or in an alternating configuration. Typical performance for these 1 Amp peak totem pole outputs shows 30 ns rise and fall times into 1 n F . Loop Compensation -- General Information. The ZVS technique is similar to that of conventional voltage mode square wave conversion which utilizes a single voltage feedback loop. Unlike the dual loop system of current mode control, the ZVS output filter section exhibits 3-349 Fig. 28 -- Programming Tss and TRD FAULT Fig. 29 -- Fault Operational Waveforms a two pole-zero pair and is compensated accordingly. Generally, the overall loop is designed to cross zero dB at a frequency below one-tenth that of the switching frequency. In this variable frequency converter, the lowest conversion frequency will apply, corresponding to approximately 85 KHz, for a zero crossing of 8.5 KHz. Compensation should be optimized for the highest low frequency gain in addition to ample phase margin at crossover. Typical examples utilize two zeros in the error amplifier compensation at a frequency equal to that of the output filter’s two pole break. An additional high frequency pole is placed in the loop to combat the zero due to the output capacitance ESR, assuming adequate error amplifier gainbandwidth. A noteworthy alternative is the use of a two loop approach which is similar to current mode control, eliminating one of the output poles. One technique known as Multi-Loop Control for Quasi-Resonant Converters [18] has been APPLICATION NOTE U-138 developed. Another, called Average Current Mode Control is also a suitable candidate, Fig. 30 - Error Amplifier Compensation Summary The zero voltage switched quasi-resonant technique is applicable to most power conversion designs, but is most advantageous to those operating from a high voltage input. In these applications, losses associated with discharging of the MOSFET output capacitance can be significant at high switching frequencies, impairing efficiency. Zero voltage switching avoids this penalty by negating the drain-to-source, “off-state” voltage via the resonant tank. A high peak voltage stress occurs across the switch during resonance in the buck regulator and single switch forward converters. Limiting this excursion demands limiting the useful load range of the converter as well, an unacceptable solution in certain applications. For these situations, the zero voltage switched multiresonant approach [14,15] could prove more beneficial than the quasi-resonant ZVS variety. Significant improvements in efficiency can be obtained in high voltage, half and full bridge ZVS applications when compared to their square wave design complements. Clamping of Fig. 31 - Zero Voltage Switched Forward Converter 3-350 APPLICATION NOTE U-138 the peak resonant voltage to the input rails avoids the high voltage overshoot concerns of the single switch converters, while transformer reset is accomplished by the bidirectional switching. Additionally, the series transformer primary and circuit inductances can beneficial, additives in the formation of the total resonant inductor value. This not only reduces size, but incorporates the detrimental parasitic generally snubbed in square wave designs, further enhancing efficiency. A new series of control ICs has been developed specifically for the zero voltage switching techniques with a list of features to facilitate lossless switching transitions with complete fault protection. The multitude of functions and ease of programmability greatly simplify the interface to this new generation of power conversion techniques; those developed in response to the demands for increased power density and efficiency. Fig. 32 -- Zero Voltage Switched Half-Bridge Converter 3-351 U-138 APPLICATION NOTE References “Forward Converter Vinciarelli, [1] P. Switching At Zero Current,” U.S. Patent # 4,415,959 (1983) [2] K. H. Liu and F. C. Lee, “Resonant Switches - a U n i f i e d A p p r o a c h t o I m proved Performances of Switching Converters,” International Telecommunications Energy Conference; New Orleans, 1984 [3] K. H. Lieu, R. Oruganti, F. C. Lee, “Resonant Switches - Topologies and Characteristics,” IEEE PESC 1985 (France) [4] M. Jovanovic, D. Hopkins, F. C. Lee, “Design Aspects For High Frequency Off-line Quasi-resonant Converters,” High Frequency Power Conference, 1987 [12] R. Steigerwald, “A Comparison of HalfBridge Resonant Converter Topologies,” IEEE 1987 [13] J. Sabate, F. C. Lee, “Offline Application of the Fixed Frequency Clamped Mode Series-Resonant Converter,” IEEE APEC Conference, 1989 [14] W . T a b i s z , F . C . L e e , “ Z e r o V o l t a g e Switching Multi-Resonant Technique - a Novel Approach to Improve Performance of High Frequency Quasi-Resonant Converters,” IEEE PESC, 1988 [15] W. Tabisz, F. C. Lee, “A Novel, ZeroVoltage Switched Multi-Resonant Forward Converter,” High Frequency Power Conference, 1988 D. Hopkins, M. Jovanovic, F. C. Lee, F. Stephenson, “ T w o M e g a h e r t z O f f - L i n e Hybridized Quasi-resonant Converter,” IEEE APEC Conference, 1987 [16] L. Wofford, “A New Family of Integrated Circuits Controls Resonant Mode Power Converters,” Power Conversion and [6] W. M. Andreycak, “1 Megahertz 150 Watt Resonant Converter Design Review, Unitrode Power Supply Design Seminar Handbook SEM-600A, 1988 [17] W. Andreycak, “Controlling Zero Voltage Switched Power Supplies,” High Frequency Power Conference, 1990 [7] A. Heyman, “Low Profile High Frequency Off-line Quasi Resonant Converter,” IEEE 1987 [5] [8] W. M. Andreycak, UC3860 Resonant Control IC Regulates Off-Line 150 Watt Converter Switching at 1 MHz,” H i g h Frequency Power Conference 1989 [9] M. Schlect, L. Casey, “Comparison of the Square-wave and Quasi-resonant Topologies,” IEEE APEC Conference, 1987 [10] M. Jovanovic, R. Farrington, F. C. Lee, “Comparison of Half-Bridge, ZCS-QRC and ZVS-MRC For Off-Line Applications,” IEEE APEC Conference, 1989 [11] M. Jovanovic, W. Tabisz, F. C. Lee, “ Zero Voltage-Switching Technique in HighFrequency Off-Line Converters,” I E E E PESC, 1988 3-352 Intelligent Motion Conference, 1989 [18] R. B. Ridley, F. C. Lee, V. Vorperian, “Multi-Loop Control for Quasi-Resonant Converters,” High Frequency Power Conference Proceedings, 1987 Additional References: l “High Frequency Resonant, Quasi-Resonant and Multi-Resonant Converters,” Virginia Power Electronics Center, (Phone # 703-9614536), Edited by Dr. Fred C. Lee l “Recent Developments in Resonant Power Conversion,” Intertec Communication Press (Phone # 805-658-0933), Edited by K Kit Sum U-138 APPLICATION NOTE 10 ' Zero Voltage Switching Calculations and Equations 20 ' Using the Continuous Current Buck Topology 30 ' in a Typical DC/DC Converter Power Supply Application 40 ' 50 PRINTER$ = "lptl:": ' Printer at parallel port #l ********** 60 ' 70 ' Summary of Variables and Abbreviations 80 ' 90 ' Cr = Resonant Capacitor 100 ' Lr = Resonant Inductor 110 ' Zr = Resonant Tank Impedance 120 ' Fres = Resonant Tank Frequency (Hz) 130 ' 140 ' VImin = Minimum DC Input Voltage 150 ' VImax = Maximum DC Input Voltage 160 ' Vdson = Mosfet On Voltage = Io*Rds 170 ' Rds = Mosfet On Resistance 180 ' Vdsmax = Peak MOSFET Off State Voltage 190 ’ Vo = DC Output Voltage 200 ' Vdo = Output Diode Voltage Drop 210 ' Iomax = Maximum Output Current 220 ' Iomin = Minimum Output Current 230 ' 240 ' Start with parameters for low voltage dc/dc buck regulator 250 ' 260 ' ****Define 5 Vi and 5 Io data points ranging from min to max***** 270 ' (Suggestion: With broad ranges, use logarithmic spread) 280 DATA 18,20,22,24,27 : 'Vi data 290 DATA 2.5,4,6,8,10 : ‘Io data 300 FRES = 500000! 310 VO = 5! 320 VDO = .8 330 RDS = .8 340 SAFT = .95 350 ' 360 FOR J = 1 TO 5: READ VI(J): NEXT 370 FOR K = 1 TO 5: READ IO(K): NEXT 380 CLS 390 PRINT "For output to screen, enter 'S' or 'S'." 400 INPUT "Otherwise output will be sent to printer : ", K$ 410 IF K$ = "S" OR K$ = "s" THEN K$ = "scrn:" ELSE K$ = PRINTER$ 420 OPEN K$ FOR OUTPUT AS #1: CLS 430 PRINT #1, "================================================" 440 PRINT #1, "Zero Voltage Switching Times (uSec) vs. Vi, I O ” 450 PRINT #1,"==========================================================" 460 ' 3-353 APPLICATION NOTE U-138 470 ' '========HERE GOES======== 480 ' 490 VIMAX = VI(5): IOMIN = IO(1): IOMAX = IO(5) 500 ZR = (VIMAX - (RDS * IOMIN)) / (IOMIN * SAFT) 510 WR = 6.28 * FRES 520 CR = 1 / (ZR * WR) 530 LR = ZR / WR 540 ' 550 FOR J = 1 TO 5: VI = VI(J) Input Voltage = ###.## V"; VI 560 PRINT #l, USING " 570 FOR K = 1 TO 5: IO = IO(K) 580 RSIN = (VI / (IO * ZR)): VDSON = RDS * IO 590 ' 600 D(0, K) = IO * .00000l: ' Compensate for later mult. by 10^6 610 D(l, K) = (CR * VI) / IO: 'dtO1 620 D(2, K) = (3.14 / WR) + (1 / WR) * ATN(RSIN / (1 - RSIN ^ 2)): ‘dt12 630 D(3, K) = (2 * LR * IO) / VI: 'dt23 640 D(6, K) = D(1, K) + D(2, K) + D(3, K): ' dt03 650 D(4, K) = ((VO + VDO) * D(6, K)) / ((VI - VDSON) - (VO + VDO)): 'dt34 660 D(5, K) = D(1 K) + D(2, K) + D(3, K) + D(4, K): 'Tconv 670 NEXT K 680 ' 690 PAR$(0) = “Io (A) =" 700 PAR$(l) = “dt01 =" 710 PAR$(2) = “dt12 =" 720 PAR$(3) = "dt23 =" 730 PAR$(4) = "dt34 =" 740 PAR$(5) = "Tconv =" 750 PAR$(6) = "dt03 =" 760 ' FOR P = 0 TO 6 770 780 PRINT #1, PAR$(P); 790 FOR K = 1 TO 5 800 PRINT #l, USING " ####.###"; D(P, K) * l000000!; NEXT K: PRINT #l, 810 820 NEXT P 830 PRINT #l, 840 NEXT J 850 ' 860 PRINT #l, "Additional Information:” 870 PRINT #l, “Zr(Ohms) =“; INT(l000! * ZR) / 1000 880 PRINT #l, “wR(KRads)=“; INT(WR / 1000) 890 PRINT #l. "Cr(nF) =“; INT((l000 * CR) / 10 ^ -9) / 1000 900 PRINT #l, “Lr(uH) ="; INT((1000 * LR) / 10 ^ -6) / 1000 910 PRINT #l, “Vdsmax ="; VIMAX * (1 + IOMAX / IOMIN) 920 END 3-354 APPLICATION NOTE U-138 I O (A) dt01 dt12 dt23 dt34 Tconv dt03 = = = = = = = Input Voltage 2.500 4.000 0.218 0.136 1.290 1.153 0.931 1.490 1.791 1.387 4.571 3.825 2.439 2.780 = 18.00 6.000 0.091 1.096 2.235 2.682 6.103 3.421 I O (A) dt01 dt12 dt23 dt34 Tconv dt03 = = = = = = = Input Voltage 2.500 4.000 0.242 0.151 1.339 1.175 0.838 1.341 1.150 1.406 3.569 4.074 2.419 2.667 = 20.00 V 8.000 6.000 0.076 0.101 1.079 1.108 2.011 2.682 1.987 2.852 5.207 6.688 3.220 3.836 10.000 0.061 1.062 3.352 4.186 8.661 4.475 I O (A) dt01 dt12 dt23 dt34 Tconv dt03 = = Input Voltage 2.500 4.000 0.266 0.166 1.390 1.198 0.762 1.219 1.153 0.988 3.406 3.737 2.418 2.584 = 22.00 6.000 0.111 1.120 1.829 1.557 4.616 3.060 V 8.000 0.083 1.087 2.438 2.136 5.744 3.608 10.000 0.067 1.069 3.048 2.958 7.141 4.183 Io (A) dt01 dt12 dt23 dt34 Tconv dt03 = = = = = = = Input Voltage 2.500 4.000 0.290 0.182 1.442 1.223 0.698 1.117 0.870 0.975 3.498 3.301 2.431 2.522 = 24.00 6.000 0.121 1.133 1.676 1.268 4.199 2.930 V 8.000 0.091 1.096 2.235 1.682 5.103 3.421 10.000 0.073 1.075 2.794 2.241 6.183 3.941 I O (A) dt01 dt12 dt23 dt34 Tconv dt03 = = = = = = = Input Voltage 2.500 4.000 0.204 0.327 1.264 0.516 0.993 0.621 0.442 0.793 1.906 3.254 1.464 2.461 = 27.00 6.000 0.136 1.153 1.490 0.983 3.763 2.780 V 8.000 0.102 1.109 1.987 1.253 4.451 3.198 10.000 0.082 1.085 2.483 1.604 5.254 3.650 = = = = = V 8.000 10.000 0.068 0.054 1.070 1.056 2.980 3.725 4.118 6.677 8.236 11.511 4.118 4.835 Additional Information: Zr(Ohms) = 10.526 wR(KRads)= 3140 Cr(nF) = 30.254 = 3.352 Lr(uH) Vdsmax = 135 UNITRODE CORPORATION 7 CONTINENTAL BLVD.. MERRIMACK, NH 03054 TEL. (603) 424-2410. FAX (603) 424-3460 3-355 IMPORTANT NOTICE Texas Instruments and its subsidiaries (TI) reserve the right to make changes to their products or to discontinue any product or service without notice, and advise customers to obtain the latest version of relevant information to verify, before placing orders, that information being relied on is current and complete. All products are sold subject to the terms and conditions of sale supplied at the time of order acknowledgement, including those pertaining to warranty, patent infringement, and limitation of liability. TI warrants performance of its semiconductor products to the specifications applicable at the time of sale in accordance with TI’s standard warranty. Testing and other quality control techniques are utilized to the extent TI deems necessary to support this warranty. Specific testing of all parameters of each device is not necessarily performed, except those mandated by government requirements. CERTAIN APPLICATIONS USING SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS MAY INVOLVE POTENTIAL RISKS OF DEATH, PERSONAL INJURY, OR SEVERE PROPERTY OR ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE (“CRITICAL APPLICATIONS”). TI SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTS ARE NOT DESIGNED, AUTHORIZED, OR WARRANTED TO BE SUITABLE FOR USE IN LIFE-SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS OR OTHER CRITICAL APPLICATIONS. INCLUSION OF TI PRODUCTS IN SUCH APPLICATIONS IS UNDERSTOOD TO BE FULLY AT THE CUSTOMER’S RISK. In order to minimize risks associated with the customer’s applications, adequate design and operating safeguards must be provided by the customer to minimize inherent or procedural hazards. TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any patent right, copyright, mask work right, or other intellectual property right of TI covering or relating to any combination, machine, or process in which such semiconductor products or services might be or are used. TI’s publication of information regarding any third party’s products or services does not constitute TI’s approval, warranty or endorsement thereof. Copyright 1999, Texas Instruments Incorporated

- Similar pages
- Reference Design - International Rectifier
- FAIRCHILD AN-9738
- TI LMR62421XSDX
- FAIRCHILD AN-8035
- TI LMR10510YSDX
- TI LM10500
- TI UCC1972_13
- FAIRCHILD AN-9731
- TI LMR10515XMF
- IRF IRISMPS1
- Designing Single-Switch, Resonant-Reset, Forward
- Solution for 150 W half bridge resonant DC
- IRAUDPS3-30V + - International Rectifier
- Easy Design a SRC Converter By CM6900G
- AN4446, Using the MMA9550 Intelligent Accelerometer to Detect the
- Easy Design a SRC Converter By CM6900G
- TI SN54F623J
- TI UCC28231PWR
- TI UC1862
- STMICROELECTRONICS VIPER53DIP
- TI UC1845AJ883B
- FAIRCHILD FAN8705