ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 Wide Input 2A Step Down Converter FEATURES GENERAL DESCRIPTION • • • • • • • • • • The ACT4072 is a current-mode step-down DC/DC converter that generates up to 2A output current at 420kHz switching frequency. The device utilizes Active-Semi’s proprietary ISOBCD30 process for operation with input voltage up to 30V. 2A Output Current Up to 95% Efficiency Up to 30V Input Range 6µA Shutdown Supply Current Consuming only 6µA in shutdown mode, the ACT4072 is highly efficient with peak efficiency at 95% when in operation. Protection features include cycle-by-cycle current limit, thermal shutdown, and frequency fold-back at short circuit. 420kHz Switching Frequency Adjustable Output Voltage Cycle-by-Cycle Current Limit Protection Thermal Shutdown Protection The ACT4072 is available in SOP-8 package and requires very few external devices for operation. Frequency Fold-Back at Short Circuit Stability with Wide Range of Capacitors, Including Low ESR Ceramic Capacitors • SOP-8 Package APPLICATIONS • • • • • • TFT LCD Monitors or Televisions and HDTV Portable DVD Players Car-Powered or Battery-Powered Equipment Set-Top Boxes Telecom Power Supplies DSL and Cable Modems and Routers TYPICAL APPLICATION CIRCUIT VIN BS Up to 30V IN SW VOUT ACT4072 EN ENABLE FB G COMP + Innovative PowerTM -1- www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 ORDERING INFORMATION PART NUMBER TEMPERATURE RANGE PACKAGE PINS PACKING ACT4072SH -40°C to 85°C SOP-8 8 TUBE ACT4072SH-T -40°C to 85°C SOP-8 8 TAPE & REEL PIN CONFIGURATION BS 1 IN 2 8 N/C 7 EN ACT4072SH SW 3 6 COMP G 4 5 FB SOP-8 PIN DESCRIPTIONS PIN NUMBER PIN NAME 1 BS Bootstrap. This pin acts as the positive rail for the high-side switch’s gate driver. Connect a 10nF between this pin and SW. 2 IN Input Supply. Bypass this pin to G with a low ESR capacitor. See Input Capacitor in Application Information section. 3 SW 4 G Ground. 5 FB Feedback Input. The voltage at this pin is regulated to 1.222V. Connect to the resistor divider between the output and ground to set output voltage. 6 COMP Compensation Pin. See Compensation Techniques in Application Information section. PIN DESCRIPTION Switch Output. Connect this pin to the switching end of the inductor. 7 EN Enable Input. Drive higher than 1.3V or leave unconnected to enable the IC. Drive lower than 0.7V to disable the IC. When disabled, the IC is in 6µA low current shutdown mode and the output is discharged through the Low-Side Power Switch. This pin has a small internal pull up current to a high level voltage when pin is not connected. 8 N/C Not Connected. Innovative PowerTM -2- www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGSc PARAMETER VALUE UNIT IN to G -0.3 to +34 V EN to G -0.3 to VIN + 0.3 V SW to G -1 to VIN + 1 V BS to SW -0.3 to +8 V FB, COMP to G -0.3 to +6 V Internally limited A Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance (θJA) 105 °C/W Maximum Power Dissipation 0.76 W Operating Junction Temperature -40 to 150 °C Storage Temperature -55 to 150 °C 300 °C -40 to 85 °C Continuous SW Current Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 sec) Ambient Operating Temperature c: Do not exceed these limits to prevent damage to the device. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for long periods may affect device reliability. ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (VIN = 12V, TA= 25°C, unless otherwise specified.) PARAMETER SYMBOL Input Voltage VIN Feedback Voltage VFB TEST CONDITIONS MIN TYP 4.5 VIN = 12V 1.198 1.222 MAX UNIT 30 V 1.246 V High-Side Switch On Resistance RONH 0.13 Ω Low-Side Switch On Resistance RONL 10 Ω SW Leakage Current Limit COMP to Current Limit Transconductance VEN = 0 ILIM 2.4 GCOMP Error Amplifier Transconductance GEA Error Amplifier DC Gain AVEA Switching Frequency 0 ∆ICOMP = ±10µA fSW Short Circuit Switching Frequency 340 10 µA 3.3 A 2 A/V 550 µA/V 4000 V/V 420 500 kHz VFB = 0 60 kHz Maximum Duty Cycle DMAX VFB = 1.1V, PWM mode 88 % Minimum Duty Cycle DMIN VFB = 1.4V, PFM mode 0 % Enable Threshold Voltage Hysteresis = 0.1V Enable Pull Up Current 1 1.3 2 Supply Current in Shutdown VEN = 0 IC Supply Current in Operation Thermal Shutdown Temperature Innovative PowerTM 0.7 V µA 6 20 µA VEN = 3V, not switching 0.8 2 mA Hysteresis = 10°C 160 -3- °C www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM IN EN COMP 1.222V FB 2µA ENABLE REGULATOR & REFERENCE BS CURRENT SENSE AMPLIFIER + - ERROR AMPLIFIER + FOLDBACK CONTROL + - + PWM 0.13O Ω HIGH-SIDE POWER SWITCH COMP SW OSCILLATOR & RAMP LOGIC 10O Ω LOW-SIDE POWER SWITCH THERMAL SHUTDOWN G FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION As seen in the Functional Block Diagram, the ACT4072 is a current mode pulse width modulation (PWM) converter. The converter operates as follows: A switching cycle starts when the rising edge of the Oscillator clock output causes the High-Side Power Switch to turn on and the Low-Side Power Switch to turn off. With the SW side of the inductor now connected to IN, the inductor current ramps up to store energy in its magnetic field. The inductor current level is measured by the Current Sense Amplifier and added to the Oscillator ramp signal. If the resulting summation is higher than the COMP voltage, the output of the PWM Comparator goes high. When this happens or when Oscillator clock output goes low, the High-Side Power Switch turns off and the Low-Side Power Switch turns on. At this point, the SW side of the inductor swings to a diode voltage below ground, causing the inductor current to decrease and magnetic energy to be transferred to the output. This state continues until the cycle starts again. The High-Side Power Switch is driven by logic using the BS bootstrap pin as the positive rail. This pin is charged to VSW + 6V when the Low-Side Power Switch turns on. Innovative PowerTM -4- The COMP voltage is the integration of the error between the FB input and the internal 1.222V reference. If FB is lower than the reference voltage, COMP tends to go higher to increase current to the output. Current limit happens when COMP reaches its maximum clamp value of 2.55V. The Oscillator normally switches at 420kHz. However, if the FB voltage is less than 0.7V, then the switching frequency decreases until it reaches a minimum of 60kHz at VFB = 0.5V. Shutdown Control The ACT4072 has an enable input EN for turning the IC on or off. When EN is less than 0.7V, the IC is in 6µA low current shutdown mode and the output is discharged through the Low-Side Power Switch. When EN is higher than 1.3V, the IC is in normal operation mode. EN is internally pulled up with a 2µA current source and can be left unconnected for always-on operation. Thermal Shutdown The ACT4072 automatically turns off when its junction temperature exceeds 160°C. www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION Output Voltage Setting Input Capacitor Figure 1 shows the connections for setting the output voltage. Select the proper ratio of the two feedback resistors RFB1 and RFB2 based on the output voltage. Typically, use RFB2 ≈ 10kΩ and determine RFB1 from the output voltage: The input capacitor needs to be carefully selected to maintain sufficiently low ripple at the supply input of the converter. A low ESR capacitor is highly recommended. Since a large current flows in and out of this capacitor during switching, its ESR also affects efficiency. ⎛ V ⎞ R FB1 = R FB2 ⎜ OUT - 1 ⎟ ⎝ 1 .222 V ⎠ Figure 1: (1) The input capacitance needs to be higher than 10µF. The best choice is the ceramic type, however, low ESR tantalum or electrolytic types may also be used provided that the RMS ripple current rating is higher than 50% of the output current. The input capacitor should be placed close to the IN and G pins of the IC, with shortest possible traces. In the case of tantalum or electrolytic types, they can be further away if a small parallel 0.1µF ceramic capacitor is placed right next to the IC. Output Voltage Setting V OUT ACT4072 R FB1 FB R FB2 Output Capacitor The output capacitor also needs to have low ESR to keep low output voltage ripple. The output ripple voltage is: Inductor Selection The inductor maintains a continuous current to the output load. This inductor current has a ripple that is dependent on the inductance value: higher inductance reduces the peak-to-peak ripple current. The trade off for high inductance value is the increase in inductor core size and series resistance, and the reduction in current handling capability. In general, select an inductance value L based on ripple current requirement: L= VOUT × (VIN - VOUT ) VIN fSW IOUTMAXK RIPPLE RRIPPLE = LOUTMAXK RIPPLERESR + In the case of ceramic output capacitors, RESR is very small and does not contribute to the ripple. Therefore, a lower capacitance value can be used for ceramic type, typically choose a capacitance of about 22µF. where VIN is the input voltage, VOUT is the output voltage, fSW is the switching frequency, IOUTMAX is the maximum output current, and KRIPPLE is the ripple factor. Typically, choose KRIPPLE = 20% to 30% corresponding to the peak-to-peak ripple current being 20% to 30% of the maximum output current. In the case of tantalum or electrolytic type, the ripple is dominated by RESR multiplied by the ripple current. In that case, the output capacitor is chosen to have sufficiently low due to ESR, typically choose a capacitor with less than 50mΩ ESR. With this inductor value (Table 1), the peak inductor current is IOUT × (1 + KRIPPLE / 2). Make sure that this peak inductor current is less that the 2.4A current limit. Finally, select the inductor core size so that it does not saturate at 2.4A. Rectifier Diode Use a Schottky diode as the rectifier to conduct current when the High-Side Power Switch is off. The Schottky diode must have current rating higher than the maximum output current and the reverse voltage rating higher than the maximum input voltage. Table 1: Typical Inductor Values 1.5V 1.8V 2.5V 3.3V 5V L 6.8µH 6.8µH 10µH 15µH 22µH Innovative PowerTM (3) where IOUTMAX is the maximum output current, KRIPPLE is the ripple factor, RESR is the ESR resistance of the output capacitor, fSW is the switching frequency, L is the inductor value, COUT is the output capacitance. (2) VOUT VIN 2 28 fSW LCOUT -5- www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 Stability compensation STEP 2. Set the zero fZ1 at 1/4 of the cross over frequency. If RCOMP is less than 15kΩ, the equation for CCOMP is: Figure 2: Stability Compensation C COMP = COMP ACT4072 CCOPM2c CCOMP = 1.3 x10 −5VOUTCOUT The feedback system of the IC is stabilized by the components at the COMP pin, as shown in Figure 2. The DC loop gain of the system is determined by the following equation: 1.222V AVEAGCOMP IOUT CCOMP2 = (5) IOUT 2πVOUTCOUT And finally, the third pole is due to RCOMP and CCOMP2 (if CCOMP2 is used): fP 3 = 1 (8) 2πRCOMP CCOMP2 Follow the following steps to compensate the IC: STEP 1. Set the cross over frequency at 1/10 of the switching frequency via RCOMP: RCOMP = 2πVOUT COUT fSW 10GEAGCOMP 1.222V = 2.3 x10 VOUT COUT 8 (Ω) RCOMP CCOMP CCOMP2c VOUT COUT 2.5V 22µF Ceramic 8.2kΩ 2.2nF 100pF 3.3V 22µF Ceramic 12kΩ 1.5nF 100pF 5V 22µF Ceramic 15kΩ 1.5nF 100pF 2.5V 47µF SP CAP 15kΩ 1.5nF 100pF 3.3V 47µF SP CAP 15kΩ 1.8nF 100pF 5V 47µF SP CAP 15kΩ 2.7nF 100pF 2.5V 470µF/6.3V/30mΩ 15kΩ 15nF 1nF 3.3V 470µF/6.3V/30mΩ 15kΩ 22nF 1nF 5V 470µF/6.3V/30mΩ 15kΩ 27nF 1nF c: CCOMP2 is needed for board parasitic and high ESR output capacitor. (9) Figure 3 shows an example ACT4072 application circuit generating a 5V/2A output. but limit RCOMP to 15kΩ maximum. Innovative PowerTM (13) Typical Compensation for Different Output voltages and Output Capacitors (7) 2πRCOMP CCOMP COUT RESROUT RCOMP Table 2: The first zero Z1 is due to RCOMP and CCOMP: fZ 1 = (12) Table 2 shows some calculated results based on the compensation method above. (6) 1 ⎞ ⎟⎟ (Ω) ⎠ A small value CCOMP2 such as 100pF may improve stability against PCB layout parasitic effects. The second pole P2 is the output pole: fP 2 = (11) And the proper value for CCOMP2 is: The dominant pole P1 is due to CCOMP: fP 1 (F) ⎛ 1.1x10 −6 R ESROUT ≥ Min ⎜⎜ ,0.012VOUT ⎝ COUT (4) GEA = 2 πAVEA CCOMP (10) STEP 3. If the output capacitor’s ESR is high enough to cause a zero at lower than 4 times the cross over frequency, an additional compensation capacitor CCOMP2 is required. The condition for using CCOMP2 is: c: CCOMP2 is needed only for high ESR output capacitors or PCB parasitics AVDC = (F) If RCOMP is limited to 15kΩ, then the actual cross over frequency is 3.4/(VOUTCOUT). Therefore: CCOMP RCOMP 1 . 8 × 10 − 5 R COMP -6- www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 Figure 3: ACT4072 5V/2A Output Applicationc VIN ENABLE C3 10nF BS Up to 30V IN IC1 ACT4072 EN G + C1 10µF/35V SW L1 22µH/3A 5V/2A VOUT R1 39.2k FB COMP C2 1.5nF C5 R2 100pF 12.1k R3 15k D1 C4 22µF/10V ceramic or 47µH/6.3 SP Cap c: D1 is a 40V, 3A Schottky diode with low forward voltage, an IR 30BQ040 or SK34 equivalent. C4 can be either a ceramic capacitor (Panasonic ECJ-3YB1C226M) or SP-CAP (Specialty Polymer) Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor such as Panasonic EEFCD0J470XR. The SP-Cap is based on aluminum electrolytic capacitor technology, but uses a solid polymer electrolyte and has very stable capacitance characteristics in both operating temperature and frequency compared to ceramic, polymer, and low ESR tantalum capacitors. Innovative PowerTM -7- www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (Circuit of Figure 3, unless otherwise specified.) Efficiency vs. Output Current Efficiency vs. Output Current VIN = 6V 90 80 Efficiency (%) Efficiency (%) 80 60 VIN = 25V 50 VIN = 12V 40 30 20 0 70 VIN = 30V 60 VIN = 12V 50 VIN = 8V 40 30 20 VOUT = 3.3V L = 15µH CIN = 10µF COUT = 22µF 10 ACT4072-002 90 70 100 ACT4072-001 100 VOUT = 5V L = 22µH CIN = 10µF COUT = 22µF 10 0 0.01 0.1 1 10 0.0 0.1 Output Current (A) Switching Frequency vs. Input Voltage Shutdown Supply Current (mA) Switching Frequency(kHz) 420 415 410 405 1.0 1.5 2.0 18 ACT4072-004 ACT4072-003 425 0.5 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 5 2.5 10 15 Surface Temperature vs. Output Current 30 1.27 VIN = 12V Feedback Voltage (V) VIN = 30V 60 ACT4072-006 Surface Temperature (°C) 25 Feedback Voltage vs. Temperature ACT4072-005 80 50 40 VOUT=5V VIN = 12V L=22µH CIN=10µF COUT=22µF 30 20 Input Voltage (V) Temperature (°C) 70 10 Shutdown Supply Current vs. Input Voltage 430 0.0 1 Output Current (A) 1.25 1.23 1.21 1.19 1.17 20 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 -40 Output Current (A) Innovative PowerTM -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temperature (°C) -8- www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS (Circuit of Figure 3, unless otherwise specified.) Load Transient Response Load Transient Response VOUT 200mV/div 2A IOUT 1A 1A IOUT 0A VIN = 12V VIN = 12V 100µs/div 100µs/div Innovative PowerTM ACT4072-008 ACT4072-007 VOUT 200mV/div -9- www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc. ACT4072 Active-Semi Rev2, 27-May-08 PACKAGE OUTLINE SOP-8 PACKAGE OUTLINE AND DIMENSIONS D C E1 E L SYMBOL ? θ DIMENSION IN INCHES MIN MAX MIN MAX A 1.350 1.750 0.053 0.069 A1 0.100 0.250 0.004 0.010 A2 1.350 1.550 0.053 0.061 B 0.330 0.510 0.013 0.020 C 0.190 0.250 0.007 0.010 D 4.700 5.100 0.185 0.201 E 3.800 4.000 0.150 0.157 E1 5.800 6.300 0.228 0.248 A A2 B A1 e DIMENSION IN MILLIMETERS e 1.270 TYP 0.050 TYP L 0.400 1.270 0.016 0.050 θ 0° 8° 0° 8° Active-Semi, Inc. reserves the right to modify the circuitry or specifications without notice. Users should evaluate each product to make sure that it is suitable for their applications. Active-Semi products are not intended or authorized for use as critical components in life-support devices or systems. Active-Semi, Inc. does not assume any liability arising out of the use of any product or circuit described in this datasheet, nor does it convey any patent license. Active-Semi and its logo are trademarks of Active-Semi, Inc. For more information on this and other products, contact [email protected] or visit http://www.active-semi.com. For other inquiries, please send to: 1270 Oakmead Parkway, Suite 310, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4044, USA Innovative PowerTM - 10 - www.active-semi.com Copyright © 2008 Active-Semi, Inc.