LM397 Single General Purpose Voltage Comparator General Description Features The LM397 is a single voltage comparator with an input common mode that includes ground. The LM397 is designed to operate from a single 5V to 30V power supply or a split power supply. Its low supply current is virtually independent of the magnitude of the supply voltage. The LM397 features an open collector output stage. This allows the connection of an external resistor at the output. The output can directly interface with TTL, CMOS and other logic levels, by tying the resistor to different voltage levels (level translator). The LM397 is available in space saving SOT23-5 package and pin compatible to TI’s TL331, single differential comparator. (TA = 25˚C. Typical values unless otherwise specified). n SOT23-5 package n Industrial operating range −40˚C to +85˚C n Single or dual power supplies n Wide supply voltage range 5V to 30V n Low supply current 300µA n Low input bias current 7nA ± 1nA n Low input offset current ± 2mV n Low input offset voltage n Response time 440ns (50mV overdrive) n Input common mode voltage 0 to VS - 1.5V Applications n n n n Connection Diagram A/D converters Pulse, square wave generators Peak detector Industrial applications Typical Circuit SOT23-5 20022108 Top View 20022109 FIGURE 1. Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis Ordering Information Package Part Number Package Marking Transport Media NSC Drawing 5-Pin SOT-23 LM397MF C397 1k Units Tape and Reel MF05A LM397MFX © 2001 National Semiconductor Corporation DS200221 3k Units Tape and Reel www.national.com LM397 Single General Purpose Voltage Comparator June 2001 LM397 Absolute Maximum Ratings Junction Temperature (Note 4) (Note 1) +150˚C Soldering Information If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Infrared or Convection (20 sec.) 235˚C Wave Soldering (10 sec.) 260˚C ESD Tolerance Human Body Model Machine Model 2KV (Note 2) Operating Ratings (Note 1) 200V (Note 3) VIN Differential Supply Voltage, VS 30V Supply Voltages 30V or ± 15V Voltage at Input Pins −0.3V to 30V 5V to 30V Junction Temperature Range (Note 4) −40˚C to +85˚C Package Thermal Resistance (Note 4) SOT23-5 168˚C/W Storage Temperature Range −65˚C to +150˚C Electrical Characteristics Unless otherwise specified, all limits guaranteed for at TJ = 25˚C, VS = 5V. Bold- face limits apply at temperature extremes. Symbol Parameter Conditions Min (Note 6) Typ (Note 5) Max (Note 6) Units VOS Input Offset Voltage VS = 5V to 30V, VO = 1.4V, VCM = 0V 2 7 10 mV IOS Input Offset Current VO = 1.4V, VCM = 0V 1.6 50 250 nA IB Input Bias Current VO = 1.4V, VCM = 0V 10 250 400 nA IS Supply Current RL = Open, VS = 5V 0.25 0.7 RL = Open, VS = 30V 0.30 2 mA IO Output Sink Current VIN+ = 1V,VIN− = 0V, VO = 1.5V ILEAKAGE Output Leakage Current VIN+ = 1V,VIN− = 0V, VO = 5V 0.1 nA VIN+ = 1V,VIN− = 0V, VO = 30V 1 µA 180 VOL Output Voltage Low IO = −4mA, VIN+ = 0V,VIN− = 1V VCM Common-Mode Input Voltage Range VS = 5V to 30V (Note 7) www.national.com 2 6 13 mA 400 700 VS - 1.5V 0 VS - 2V 0 mV V LM397 Electrical Characteristics Unless otherwise specified, all limits guaranteed for at TJ = 25˚C, VS = 5V. Boldface limits apply at temperature extremes. (Continued) Symbol Parameter Conditions Min (Note 6) Typ (Note 5) Max (Note 6) Units AV Voltage Gain VS = 15V, VO = 1.4V to 11.4V, RL > = 15kΩ connected to VS 120 tPHL Propagation Delay (High to Low) Input Overdrive = 5mV RL = 5.1kΩ connected to 5V, CL = 15pF 900 Input Overdrive = 50mV RL = 5.1kΩ connected to 5V, CL = 15pF 250 Input Overdrive = 5mV RL = 5.1kΩ connected to 5V, CL = 15pF 940 µs Input Overdrive = 50mV RL = 5.1kΩ connected to 5V, CL = 15pF 440 ns tPLH Propagation Delay (Low to High) V/mV ns Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is intended to be functional, but specific performance is not guaranteed. For guaranteed specifications and the test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics. Note 2: Human body model, 1.5kΩ in series with 100pF. Note 3: Machine model, 0Ω in series with 200pF. Note 4: The maximum power dissipation is a function of TJ(MAX), θJA , and TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any ambient temperature is PD = (TJ(MAX) - TA)/ θJA . All numbers apply for packages soldered directly onto a PC board. Note 5: Typical values represent the most likely parametric norm. Note 6: All limits are guaranteed by testing or statistical analysis. Note 7: The input common-mode voltage of either input should not be permitted to go below the negative rail by more than 0.3V. The upper end of the common-mode voltage range is VS - 1.5V at 25˚C. 3 www.national.com LM397 Typical Performance Characteristics TA = 25˚C. Unless otherwise specified. Supply Current vs. Supply Voltage Input Bias Current vs. Supply Current 20022103 20022101 Output Saturation Voltage vs. Output Sink Current Input Offset Voltage vs. Supply Voltage 20022104 20022102 Response Time for Various Input Overdrives – tPHL Response Time for Various Input Overdrives – tPLH 20022105 www.national.com 20022106 4 For an inverting configured comparator, hysteresis can be added with a three resistor network and positive feedback. When input voltage (VIN) at the inverting node is less than non-inverting node (VT), the output is high. The equivalent circuit for the three resistor network is R1 in parallel with R3 and in series with R2. The lower threshold voltage VT1 is calculated by: VT1 = ((VS R2) / (((R1 R3) / (R1 + R3)) + R2)) Basic Comparators A comparator is quite often used to convert an analog signal to a digital signal. The comparator compares an input voltage (VIN) at the non-inverting pin to the reference voltage (VREF) at the inverting pin. If VIN is less than VREF the output (VO) is low (VOL). However, if VIN is greater than VREF, the output voltage (VO) is high (VOH). Refer to Figure 2. When VIN is greater than VT, the output voltage is low. The equivalent circuit for the three resistor network is R2 in parallel with R3 and in series with R1. The upper threshold voltage VT2 is calculated by: VT2 = VS ((R2 R3) / (R2 + R3)) / (R1 + ((R2 R3) / (R2 + R3))) The hysteresis is defined as ∆VIN = VT1 – VT2 20022110 20022112 20022111 FIGURE 2. Basic Comparator Hysteresis The basic comparator configuration may oscillate or produce a noisy output if the applied differential input is near the comparator’s input offset voltage. This tends to occur when the voltage on the input is equal or very close to the other input voltage. Adding hysteresis can prevent this problem. Hysteresis creates two switching thresholds (one for the rising input voltage and the other for the falling input voltage). Hysteresis is the voltage difference between the two switching thresholds. When both inputs are nearly equal, hysteresis causes one input to effectively move quickly pass the other. Thus, effectively moving the input out of region that oscillation may occur. 20022113 FIGURE 3. Inverting Configured Comparator – LM397 5 www.national.com LM397 Application Notes LM397 Application Notes (Continued) Input Stage The LM397 has a bipolar input stage. The input common mode voltage range is from 0 to (VS – 1.5V). Output Stage The LM397 has an open collector grounded-emitter NPN output transistor for the output stage. This requires an external pull-up resistor connected between the positive supply voltage and the output. The external pull-up resistor should be high enough resistance so to avoid excessive power dissipation. In addition, the pull-up resistor should be low enough resistance to enable the comparator to switch with the load circuitry connected. Because it is an open collector output stage, several comparator outputs can be connected together to create an OR’ing function output. With an open collector, the output can be used as a simple SPST switch to ground.The amount of current which the output can sink is approximately 10mA. When the maximum current limit is reached, the output transistor will saturate and the output will rise rapidly (Figure 4). www.national.com 20022107 FIGURE 4. Output Saturation Voltage vs. Output Sink Current 6 LM397 SOT23-5 Tape and Reel Specification Tape Format Tape Section # Cavities Cavity Status Cover Tape Status Leader (Start End) 0 (min) Empty Sealed 75 (min) Empty Sealed 3000 Filled Sealed 1000 Filled Sealed Carrier Trailer (Hub End) 125 (min) Empty Sealed 0 (min) Empty Sealed TAPE DIMENSIONS 20022115 8mm 0.130 (3.3) 0.124 (3.15) 0.130 (3.3) 0.126 (3.2) 0.138 ± 0.002 (3.5 ± 0.05) 0.055 ± 0.004 (1.4 ± 0.11) 0.157 (4) 0.315 ± 0.012 (8 ± 0.3) Tape Size DIM A DIM Ao DIM B DIM Bo DIM F DIM Ko DIM P1 DIM W 7 www.national.com LM397 SOT23-5 Tape and Reel Specification (Continued) REEL DIMENSIONS 20022116 8mm 7.00 330.00 0.059 1.50 0.512 13.00 0.795 20.20 2.165 55.00 0.331 + 0.059/−0.000 8.40 + 1.50/−0.00 0.567 14.40 W1 + 0.078/−0.039 W1 + 2.00/−1.00 Tape Size A B C D N W1 W2 W3 www.national.com 8 LM397 Single General Purpose Voltage Comparator Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 5-Pin SOT23 NS Package Number MF05A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. 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