LM2767 Switched Capacitor Voltage Converter General Description Features The LM2767 CMOS charge-pump voltage converter operates as a voltage doubler for an input voltage in the range of +1.8V to +5.5V. Two low cost capacitors and a diode are used in this circuit to provide at least 15 mA of output current. The LM2767 operates at 11 kHz switching frequency to avoid audio voice-band interference. With an operating current of only 40 µA (operating efficiency greater than 90% with most loads), the LM2767 provides ideal performance for battery powered systems. The device is manufactured in a SOT23-5 package. n n n n Doubles Input Supply Voltage SOT23-5 Package 20Ω Typical Output Impedance 96% Typical Conversion Efficiency at 15mA Applications n n n n n n Cellular Phones Pagers PDAs, Organizers Operational Amplifier Power Suppliers Interface Power Suppliers Handheld Instruments Basic Application Circuit Voltage Doubler DS101274-1 Ordering Information Order Number Package Number Package Marking Supplied as LM2767M5 MA05B S17B (Note 1) Tape and Reel (1000 units/reel) LM2767M5X MA05B S17B (Note 1) Tape and Reel (3000 units/reel) Note 1: The small physical size of the SOT-23 package does not allow for the full part number marking. Devices will be marked with the designation shown in the column Package Marking. © 2000 National Semiconductor Corporation DS101274 www.national.com LM2767 Switched Capacitor Voltage Converter February 2000 LM2767 Connection Diagram 5-Lead SOT (M5) DS101274-22 Actual Size DS101274-13 Top View With Package Marking Pin Description Pin Name 1 VOUT Positive voltage output. 2 GND Power supply ground input. 3 CAP− Connect this pin to the negative terminal of the charge-pump capacitor. 4 V+ 5 CAP+ www.national.com Function Power supply positive voltage input. Connect this pin to the positive terminal of the charge-pump capacitor. 2 Operating Ratings If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Supply Voltage (V+ to GND, or V+ to VOUT) 5.8V VOUT Continuous Output Current 30 mA Output Short-Circuit Duration to GND (Note 3) 1 sec. Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = 25˚C)(Note 4) TJMax(Note 4) θJA (Note 4) 210˚C/W Junction Temperature Range −40˚C to 100˚C Ambient Temperature Range −40˚C to 85˚C Storage Temperature Range −65˚C to 150˚C Lead Temp. (Soldering, 10 sec.) 240˚C ESD Rating (Note 5) Human Body Model Machine Model 400 mW 2kV 200V 150˚C Electrical Characteristics Limits in standard typeface are for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full operating temperature range. Unless otherwise specified: V+ = 5V, C1 = C2 = 10 µF. (Note 6) Symbol Parameter Condition Min V+ Supply Voltage IQ Supply Current No Load IL Output Current Output Resistance (Note 7) 1.8V ≤ V+ ≤ 5.5V IL = 15 mA 15 ROUT fOSC Oscillator Frequency (Note 8) fSW Switching Frequency (Note 8) PEFF Power Efficiency RL (5.0k) between GND and OUT IL = 15 mA to GND VOEFF Voltage Conversion Efficiency Typ 1.8 No Load Max Units 5.5 V 40 90 µA 20 40 Ω 8 22 50 kHz 4 11 25 kHz mA 98 % 96 99.96 % Note 2: Absolute maximum ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Electrical specifications do not apply when operating the device beyond its rated operating conditions. Note 3: VOUT may be shorted to GND for one second without damage. For temperatures above 85˚C, VOUT must not be shorted to GND or device may be damaged. Note 4: The maximum allowable power dissipation is calculated by using PDMax = (TJMax − TA)/θJA, where TJMax is the maximum junction temperature, TA is the ambient temperature, and θJA is the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance of the specified package. Note 5: The human body model is a 100pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5kΩ resistor into each pin. The machine model is a 200pF capacitor discharged directly into each pin. Note 6: In the test circuit, capacitors C1 and C2 are 10 µF, 0.3Ω maximum ESR capacitors. Capacitors with higher ESR will increase output resistance, reduce output voltage and efficiency. Note 7: Specified output resistance includes internal switch resistance and capacitor ESR. See the details in the application information for positive voltage doubler. Note 8: The output switches operate at one half of the oscillator frequency, fOSC = 2fSW. 3 www.national.com LM2767 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 2) LM2767 Test Circuit DS101274-3 FIGURE 1. LM2767 Test Circuit Typical Performance Characteristics (Circuit of Figure 1, VIN = 5V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified) Supply Current vs Supply Voltage Output Resistance vs Capacitance DS101274-4 Output Resistance vs Supply Voltage DS101274-5 Output Resistance vs Temperature DS101274-6 www.national.com DS101274-7 4 (Circuit of Figure 1, VIN = 5V, TA = 25˚C unless otherwise specified) (Continued) Output Voltage vs Load Current Efficiency vs Load Current DS101274-9 DS101274-8 Switching Frequency vs Supply Voltage Switching Frequency vs Temperature DS101274-10 DS101274-11 Output Ripple vs Load Current DS101274-23 5 www.national.com LM2767 Typical Performance Characteristics LM2767 equal to the output current, therefore, its ESR only counts once in the output resistance. A good approximation of Rout is: Circuit Description The LM2767 contains four large CMOS switches which are switched in a sequence to double the input supply voltage. Energy transfer and storage are provided by external capacitors. Figure 2 illustrates the voltage conversion scheme. When S2 and S4 are closed, C1 charges to the supply voltage V+. During this time interval, switches S1 and S3 are open. In the next time interval, S2 and S4 are open; at the same time, S1 and S3 are closed, the sum of the input voltage V+ and the voltage across C1 gives the 2V+ output voltage when there is no load. The output voltage drop when a load is added is determined by the parasitic resistance (Rds(on) of the MOSFET switches and the ESR of the capacitors) and the charge transfer loss between capacitors. Details will be discussed in the following application information section. where RSW is the sum of the ON resistances of the internal MOSFET switches shown in Figure 2. RSW is typically 4.5Ω for the LM2767. The peak-to-peak output voltage ripple is determined by the oscillator frequency as well as the capacitance and ESR of the output capacitor C2: High capacitance, low ESR capacitors can reduce both the output resistance and the voltage ripple. The Schottky diode D1 is only needed to protect the device from turning-on its own parasitic diode and potentially latching-up. During start-up, D1 will also quickly charge up the output capacitor to VIN minus the diode drop thereby decreasing the start-up time. Therefore, the Schottky diode D1 should have enough current carrying capability to charge the output capacitor at start-up, as well as a low forward voltage to prevent the internal parasitic diode from turning-on. A Schottky diode like 1N5817 can be used for most applications. If the input voltage ramp is less than 10V/ms, a smaller Schottky diode like MBR0520LT1 can be used to reduce the circuit size. DS101274-14 FIGURE 2. Voltage Doubling Principle Capacitor Selection As discussed in the Positive Voltage Doubler section, the output resistance and ripple voltage are dependent on the capacitance and ESR values of the external capacitors. The output voltage drop is the load current times the output resistance, and the power efficiency is Application Information Positive Voltage Doubler The main application of the LM2767 is to double the input voltage. The range of the input supply voltage is 1.8V to 5.5V. The output characteristics of this circuit can be approximated by an ideal voltage source in series with a resistance. The voltage source equals 2V+. The output resistance Rout is a function of the ON resistance of the internal MOSFET switches, the oscillator frequency, and the capacitance and ESR of C1 and C2. Since the switching current charging and discharging C1 is approximately twice the output current, the effect of the ESR of the pumping capacitor C1 will be multiplied by four in the output resistance. The output capacitor C2 is charging and discharging at a current approximately Where IQ(V+) is the quiescent power loss of the IC device, and IL2Rout is the conversion loss associated with the switch on-resistance, the two external capacitors and their ESRs. The selection of capacitors is based on the allowable voltage droop (which equals Iout Rout), and the desired output voltage ripple. Low ESR capacitors (Table 1) are recommended to maximize efficiency, reduce the output voltage drop and voltage ripple. TABLE 1. Low ESR Capacitor Manufacturers Phone Website Nichicon Corp. Manufacturer (847)-843-7500 www.nichicon.com AVX Corp. (843)-448-9411 www.avxcorp.com Sprague (207)-324-4140 www.vishay.com Sanyo (619)-661-6835 www.sanyovideo.com Murata (800)-831-9172 www.murata.com Taiyo Yuden (800)-348-2496 www.t-yuden.com Ceramic chip capacitors Tokin (408)-432-8020 www.tokin.com Ceramic chip capacitors www.national.com 6 Capacitor Type PL & PF series, through-hole aluminum electrolytic TPS series, surface-mount tantalum 593D, 594D, 595D series, surface-mount tantalum OS-CON series, through-hole aluminum electrolytic Ceramic chip capacitors LM2767 Other Applications Paralleling Devices Any number of LM2767s can be paralleled to reduce the output resistance. Since there is no closed loop feedback, as found in regulated circuits, stable operation is assured. Each device must have its own pumping capacitor C1, while only one output capacitor Cout is needed as shown in Figure 3. The composite output resistance is: DS101274-19 FIGURE 3. Lowering Output Resistance by Paralleling Devices Cascading Devices Rout = 1.5Rout_1 + Rout_2 Note that increasing the number of cascading stages is pracitically limited since it significantly reduces the efficiency, increases the output resistance and output voltage ripple. Cascading the LM2767s is an easy way to produce a greater voltage (A two-stage cascade circuit is shown in Figure 4). The effective output resistance is equal to the weighted sum of each individual device: DS101274-20 FIGURE 4. Increasing Output Voltage by Cascading Devices Regulating VOUT Note that the following conditions must be satisfied simultaneously for worst case design: It is possible to regulate the output of the LM2767 by use of a low dropout regulator (such as LP2980-5.0). The whole converter is depicted in Figure 5. A different output voltage is possible by use of LP2980-3.3, LP2980-3.0, or LP2980-adj. 2Vin_min > Vout_min +Vdrop_max (LP2980) + Iout_max x Rout_max (LM2767) 2Vin_max < Vout_max +Vdrop_min (LP2980) + Iout_min x Rout_min (LM2767) 7 www.national.com LM2767 Other Applications (Continued) DS101274-21 FIGURE 5. Generate a Regulated +5V from +3V Input Voltage www.national.com 8 LM2767 Switched Capacitor Voltage Converter Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 5-Lead Small Outline Package (M5) NS Package Number MA05B For Order Numbers, refer to the table in the ″Ordering Information″ section of this document. LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. 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