LM2686 Regulated Switched Capacitor Voltage Converter General Description Features The LM2686 CMOS charge-pump voltage converter operates as an input voltage doubler and a +5V regulator for an input voltage in the range of +2.85V to +6.5V. Three low cost capacitors are used in this circuit to provide up to 50mA of output current at +5.0V ( ± 5%). The LM2686 operates at a 130 kHz switching frequency to reduce output resistance and voltage ripple. With an operating current of only 450µA (operating efficiency greater than 80% with most loads) and 6.0µA typical shutdown current, the LM2686 is ideal for use in battery powered systems. The device is in a small 14-pin TSSOP package. n n n n n n +5V regulated output Doubles input supply voltage TSSOP 14 package 80% typical conversion efficiency at 25mA Input voltage range of 2.85V to 6.5V Independent shutdown control pins Applications n n n n n Cellular phones Pagers PDAs Handheld Instrumentation 3.3V to 5V Voltage Conversion Applications Typical Application and Connection Diagram DS101141-2 14-Pin TSSOP DS101141-1 Ordering Information Order Number Package Type NSC Package Drawing Supplied As LM2686MTC TSSOP-14 MTC14 94 Units, Rail LM2686MTCX TSSOP-14 MTC14 2.5k Units, Tape and Reel © 1999 National Semiconductor Corporation DS101141 www.national.com LM2686 Regulated Switched Capacitor Voltage Converter November 1999 LM2686 Pin Description Pin No. Name 1 VIN* 2 GND** Power supply ground. 3 GND** Power supply ground. 4 GND** Power supply ground. 5 CE 6 Function Power supply input voltage. Chip enable input. This pin is high for normal operation and low for shutdown and VPSW load disconnect. SD Shutdown input. This pin is low for normal operation and high for shutdown and VPSW load disconnect. 7 VIN* Power supply input voltage. 8 NC No connection. 9 NC No connection. 10 V05 Regulated +5V output. 11 VPSW V05 output connected through a series switch, PSW. 12 VDBL Output of doubled input voltage. 13 C1+ The positive terminal of doubling charge-pump capacitor, C1. 14 C1− The negative terminal of doubling charge-pump capacitor, C1. * All VIN pins, pin 1 and pin 7 must be tied together for proper operation. ** All ground pins, pin 2, pin 3 and pin 4 must be tied together for proper operation. www.national.com 2 TJMAX (Note 3) θJA (Note 3) Supply Voltage (VIN to GND) SD, CE 6.8V (GND − 0.3V) to (VIn + 0.3V) V05 Continuous Output Current Indefinite Continuous Power Dissipation (TA = 25˚C) (Note 3) 600mW Operating Ambient Temp. Range −40˚C to 85˚C Operating Junction Temperature Range −40˚C to 125˚C Storage Temp. Range −65˚C to 150˚C Lead Temp. (Soldering, 10 sec.) 80mA V05 Short-Circuit Duration to GND (Note 2) 150˚C 140˚C/W 300˚C ESD Rating (Note 4) 2kV Electrical Characteristics Limits with standard typeface apply for TJ = 25˚C, and limits in boldface type apply over the full temperature range. Unless otherwise specified VIN = 3.6V, C1 = C3 = 2.2µF. C2 = 4.7µF. (Note 5) Symbol Parameter Conditions V+ Supply Voltage IQ Supply Current ISD Shutdown Supply Current VSD Shutdown Pin Input Voltage for CE, SD Logic Input Low @ 6.5V Output Current at V05 2.85V < VIN < 6.5V IL (+5V) No Load VIN = 6.5V Logic Input High @ 6.5V FSW Switch Frequency PEFF Average Power Efficiency at V05 2.85V < VIN < 6.5V IL = 25mA to GND Output Regulation 1mA < IL < 50mA, VIN = 6.5V (Note 6) 1mA < IL < 50mA, VIN = 6.5V (Note 6) V05 GLINE GLOAD RSW Line Regulation Min Typ 2.85 Max Units 6.5 V 450 950 µA 6 30 µA 2.4 V 0.8 50 mA 180 kHz 85 130 4.848 5.05 5.252 V 4.797 5.05 5.303 V % 82 2.85V < VIN < 3.6V 0.25 3.6V < VIN < 6.5V 0.05 Load Regulation 1mA < IL < 50mA, VIN = 6.5V 0.3 Series Switch Resistance from V05 to VPSW VIN > 2.85V 5.0 %/V % 1.0 Ω Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is intended to be functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. For guaranteed specifications and test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics. Note 2: V05 may be shorted to GND without damage. For temperature above 85˚C, V05 must not be shorted to GND or device may be damaged. Note 3: The maximum allowable power dissipation is calculated by using PDMAX = (TJMAX — TA)/θJA, where TJMAX is the maximum junction temperature, TAis the ambient temperature and θJA is the junction-to-ambient thermal resistance of the specified package. Note 4: The human body model is a 100pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5kΩ resistor into each pin. Note 5: In the typical operating circuit, capacitors C1 and C3 are 2.2µF, 0.3Ω maximum ESR capacitors. Capacitors with higher ESR will increase output resistance, reduce output voltage and efficiency. Note 6: The 50mA maximum current assumes no current is drawn from VDBL pin. See Voltage Doubler section in the Detailed Device Description. 3 www.national.com LM2686 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 1) If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. LM2686 Typical Performance Characteristics Supply Current vs Input Voltage Unless otherwise specified, TA = 25˚C, VIN = 3.6V. Supply Current vs Temperature DS101141-6 Efficiency vs Load Current (VIN = 3.0V) DS101141-7 DS101141-8 Output Resistance (VDBL) vs. Temperature (VIN = 3.6V) Switch Frequency vs. Temperature (VIN = 3.6V) Line Transient Response (with 5mA Load) DS101141-14 DS101141-12 V05 Load Transient Response DS101141-13 VPSW Response to CE (with 5mA Load) A: INPUT VOLTAGE: VIN = 3.2V to 6.0V, 5V/div B: OUTPUT VOLTAGE: VPSW: 100mV/div V05 Response to SD (with 5mA Load) DS101141-15 A: LOAD CURRENT: ILOAD = 5mA to 39.6mA, 10mA/div B: OUTPUT VOLTAGE: V05: 10mV/div www.national.com DS101141-17 A: CE INPUT: 5V/div B: OUTPUT VOLTAGE: VPSW: 5V/div 4 DS101141-18 A: SD INPUT: 5V/div B: OUTPUT VOLTAGE: 5V/div LM2686 Typical Performance Characteristics Unless otherwise specified, TA = 25˚C, VIN = 3.6V. (Continued) Output Voltage (V05) vs. Load Current (VIN = 3.6V) Output Resistance (VDBL) vs. Input Voltage V05 Voltage vs. Input Voltage DS101141-19 DS101141-11 DS101141-9 5 www.national.com LM2686 Detailed Device Description DS101141-3 FIGURE 1. Functional Block Diagram +5 LDO Regulator VDBL is the input to an LDO regulator that regulates it to a +5 output voltage at V05. VPSW is tied to V05 through a series switch PSW. The LDO output capacitor (4.7µF Tantalum) may be connected to either V05 or VPSW. The LM2686 CMOS charge pump voltage converter operates as an input voltage doubler, +5V regulator for an input voltage in the range of +2.85V to +6.5V. It delivers maximum load currents of 50mA for the regulated +5V, with an operating current of only 450µA. It also has a typical shutdown current of 6µA. All these performance qualities make the LM2686 an ideal device for battery powered systems. The LM2686 has two main functional blocks: a voltage doubler and a low dropout (LDO) regulator. Figure 1 shows the LM2686 functional block diagram. Shutdown and Load Disconnect In addition to the nominal charge pump and regulator functions, the LM2686 features shutdown and load disconnect circuitry. CE (chip enable) and SD (shutdown positive) perform the same task with opposite input polarities. When CE is low or SD is high, all circuit blocks are disabled and V05 falls to ground potential. This is the same result as when the die temperature exceeds 150˚C, and the device’s internal thermal shutdown is triggered. The LM2686 incorporates a low impedance switch tied to the V05 output, because some special applications require load disconnect and this is achievable via the switch. Switch PSW connects V05 to VPSW. In normal operation, this switch is closed, allowing 5V loads to be tied to either V05 or VPSW. Forcing CE low or SD high opens the PSW. Voltage Doubler The voltage doubler ties directly to VIN and doubles the input voltage in the range from +2.85V to +5.4V up to 5.7V to 10.8V at the VDBL pin. For VIN above 5.4V, the doubler shuts off and the input voltage is passed directly to VDBL via an internal power switch. The doubler contains four large CMOS switches which are switched in a sequence to double the input supply voltage. Figure 2 illustrates the voltage conversion scheme. When S2 and S4 are closed, C1 charges to the supply voltage VIN. During this time interval, switches S1 and S3 are open. In the next time interval, S2 and S4 are opened at the same time, S1 and S3 are closed, the sum of the input voltage VIN and the voltage across C1 gives the 2VIn and the voltage across C2 gives the 2VIN at VDBL output. VDBL supplies the LDO regulator. It is recommended not to load VDBL when V05 has a load of 50mA. For proper operation, the sum of VDBL and V05 loads must not be more than 50mA. Application Information Capacitor Selection The output resistance and ripple voltage are dependent on the capacitance and ESR values of the external capacitors. Voltage Doubler External Capacitors The selection of capacitors are based on the specifications of the dropout voltage (which equals IOUT ROUT), the output voltage ripple, and the converter efficiency. where RSW is the sum of the ON resistance of the internal MOSFET switches as shown in Figure 2. The peak-to-peak output voltage ripple is determined by the oscillator frequency, the capacitance and ESR of the capacitor C3. DS101141-4 FIGURE 2. Voltage Doubler Principle www.national.com 6 LM2686 Application Information (Continued) High capacitance (2.2µF to higher), low ESR capacitors can reduce the output resistance and the voltage ripple. where IQ(V+) is the quiescent power loss of the IC device, and I2LR is the conversion loss associated with the switch on-resistance, the two external capacitors and their ESRs. Low ESR capacitors (table to be referenced) are recommended to maximize efficiency, reduce the output voltage drop and voltage ripple. +5 LDO Regulator External Capacitors The voltage doubler output capacitor, C3, serves as the input capacitor of the 5 LDO regulator. The output capacitor C4, must meet the requirement for minimum amount of capacitance and appropriate ESR (Equivalent Serving Resistance) for proper operations. The ESR value must remain within the regions of stability as shown in Figure 3, Figure 4 and Figure 5 to ensure output’s stability. A minimum capacitance of 1µF is required at the output. This can be increased without limit, but a 4.7µF tantalum capacitor is recommended for loads ranging upto the maximum specification. In lighter loads of less or equal to 10mA, ceramic capacitor of at least 1µF and ESR in the milliohms can be used. This has to be connected to VPSW pin instead of the V05 pin. Any output capacitor used should have a good tolerance over temperature for capacitance and ESR values. The larger the capacitor, with ESR within the stable region, the better the stability and noise performance. DS101141-25 FIGURE 3. ESR Curve for COUT = 2.2µF DS101141-26 FIGURE 4. ESR Curve for COUT = 4.7µF DS101141-27 FIGURE 5. ESR Curve for COUT = 10µF 7 www.national.com LM2686 Regulated Switched Capacitor Voltage Converter Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted TSSOP-14 Package 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small-Outline Package For Ordering, Refer to Ordering Information Table NS Package Number MTC14 LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 1 80-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-530 85 85 English Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-532 78 32 Français Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-532 93 58 Italiano Tel: +49 (0) 1 80-534 16 80 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. 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