12 Watt LV Dual Series DC/DC Converters Features ! Universal 3.5 to 16 Volt Input Range ! Up to 12 Watts of PCB Mounted Power ! Efficiencies to 80% ! Fully Isolated, Filtered Design ! Low Noise Outputs, < 50 mV P-P ! Very Low I/O Capacitance, 375 pF Typical ! Water Washable Shielded Copper Case ! 5 Year Warranty Selection Chart Description Model The universal input of the LV dual series spans 3.5 to 16 volts. This makes these converters ideal for 4.8 to 12 volt battery and the more traditional 5 volt logic powered systems. Coupled with this is the very low output noise of typically less than 50 mV peak to peak. The noise is also fully specified for RMS value and if even these impressive noise figures aren’t enough, our applications section shows a simple add on circuit that can reduce the output noise to less than 20 mV P-P. Input Range VDC Min Max Output VDC Output mA 5D5.1000LV 3.5 16 ±5 ±1000 5D12.500LV 3.5 16 ±12 ±500 5D15.400LV 3.5 16 ±15 ±400 What all this means to you is a tighter, more compact overall system that has the capability of being universally powered. Full application information is provided to make integrating this supply in your system a snap. Full isolation is provided to help cut ground loops in logic powered systems that could create havoc with sensitive, high precision analog circuitry. Remote output voltage trim and ON/OFF functions are also included. Other input and output voltage combinations may be factory ordered, contact CALEX applications engineering at 1-800-542-3355 for more information. No extra components or heatsinking are required for most applications saving you design time and valuable PCB space. 12 Watt LV Dual Series Block Diagram A 2401 Stanwell Drive • Concord, California 94520 • Ph: 925/687-4411 or 800/542-3355 • Fax: 925/687-3333 • www.calex.com • Email: sales@calex.com 1 eco#020903-3 12 Watt LV Dual Series DC/DC Converters Input Parameters* Model 5D5.1000LV 5D12.500LV 14 2300 3.5 16 23 2650 5D15.400LV Units Input Current No Load 75% Load MIN MAX TYP TYP Switching Frequency TYP 60 kHz Maximum Input Overvoltage, 100ms Maximum MAX 20 VDC Turn-on Time, 1% Output Error TYP 10 ms (2) AMPS Voltage Range (1) Recommended Fuse VDC 28 2680 mA Output Parameters* Model Output Voltage Output Voltage Accuracy Output Balance Plus to Minus Output, Full Load Rated Load Range (3) Load Regulation (4) Vin = 12 VDC Cross Regulation (5) Line Regulation Vin = Min-Max VDC Short Term Stability (6) Long Term Stability Transient Response (7) Vin = 12 VDC Dynamic Response (8) Noise, Peak - Peak (9) RMS Noise, 0.01 - 1 MHz bw Temperature Coefficient MIN TYP MAX TYP MAX MIN MAX TYP MAX TYP TYP MAX TYP 5D5.1000LV 5D12.500LV 5D15.400LV Units ±5 4.95 5.00 5.05 ±12 11.880 12.000 12.120 < 0.1 1.0 0 ±500 0.1 0.5 1.5 0.1 0.2 < 0.05 ±15 14.850 15.000 15.150 VDC 0 ±1000 0.1 0.7 2.5 TYP VDC % 0 ±400 0.1 0.5 1.5 mA % % % %/24Hrs < 0.1 %/kHrs TYP 200 50 50 µs TYP TYP TYP TYP MAX 100 120 35 120 50 15 50 150 150 50 15 mV peak mV P-P mV RMS Short Circuit Protection to Common for all Outputs ppm/°C Short Term Current Limit NOTES * (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) All parameters measured at Tc=25°C, nominal input voltage and full rated load unless otherwise noted. Refer to the CALEX Application Notes for the definition of terms, measurement circuits and other information. Reduced output power available below 9 volts input. See applications section for more information. To determine the correct fuse size, see CALEX Application Notes. No minimum load required for operation . Reduced output power is available below 9 volts input. See applications section. Load regulation is defined for loading/unloading both outputs simultaneously. Load range is 25 to 100%. Cross regulation is defined for loading/unloading one output while the other output is kept at full load. Load range is 25 to 100%. Short term stability is specified after a 30 minute warmup at full load, constant line and recording the drift over a 24 hour period. The transient response is specified as the time required to settle from a 50 to 75 % step load change (rise time of step = 2 µSec) to a 1% error band. (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) A Dynamic response is the peak overshoot voltage during the transient response time as defined in note 7 above. Noise is measured per CALEX Application Notes. Measurement bandwidth is 0-20 MHz for peak-peak measurements, 10 kHz to 1 MHz for RMS measurements. Output noise is measured with a 0.01µF ceramic in parallel with a 1µF/35V Tantalum capacitor located 1" away from the converter to simulate your PCB’s standard decoupling. See the applications section for more information on applying the ON/OFF pin. The Case is tied to the CMN output pin. The functional temperature range is intended to give an additional data point for use in evaluating this power supply. At the low functional temperature the power supply will function with no side effects, however, sustained operation at the high functional temperature will reduce expected operational life. The data sheet specifications are not guaranteed over the functional temperature range. The case thermal impedance is specified as the case temperature rise over ambient per package watt dissipated. Specifications subject to change without notice. 2401 Stanwell Drive • Concord, California 94520 • Ph: 925/687-4411 or 800/542-3355 • Fax: 925/687-3333 • www.calex.com • Email: sales@calex.com 2 eco#020903-3 12 Watt LV Dual Series DC/DC Converters General Specifications* All Models ON/OFF Function OFF Logic Level or Tie Pin to -Input (10) Open Circuit Voltage Input Resistance Converter Idle Current ON/OFF Pin Low Isolation (11) Isolation Voltage Input to Output 10µA Leakage Input to Output Capacitance Output Trim Function Units MAX < 0.4 VDC TYP TYP 1.4 2 VDC kohms TYP 6 mA MIN 700 VDC TYP 375 pF MIN MIN ±10 10 % kohms MIN MAX MIN Case Functional Range (12) MAX MIN Storage Range MAX Thermal Impedance (13) TYP -40 85 -50 100 -55 105 9.5 Trim Range Input Resistance Environmental Case Operating Range No Derating BOTTOM VIEW Mechanical tolerances unless otherwise noted: X.XX dimensions: ±0.020 inches X.XXX dimensions: ±0.005 inches °C Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 °C °C °C/Watt General Unit Weight Chassis Mounting Kit SIDE VIEW TYP 2.3 oz MS8 Function ON/OFF -INPUT +INPUT +OUTPUT CMN -OUTPUT TRIM A 2401 Stanwell Drive • Concord, California 94520 • Ph: 925/687-4411 or 800/542-3355 • Fax: 925/687-3333 • www.calex.com • Email: sales@calex.com 3 eco#020903-3 12 Watt LV Dual Series DC/DC Converters When using the LV Dual be sure that the impedance at the input to the converter is less than 0.05 ohms from DC to about 100 kHz, this is usually not a problem in battery powered systems when the converter is connected directly to the battery. If the converter is located more than about 1 inch from the input source an added capacitor may be required directly at the input pins for proper operation. Applications Information You truly get what you pay for in a CALEX converter, a complete system oriented and specified DC/DC converter no surprises, no external noise circuits needed, no heatsinking problems, just “plug and play”. The LV Dual series like all CALEX converters carries the full 5 year CALEX no hassle warranty. We can offer a five year warranty where others can’t because with CALEX it’s rarely needed. The maximum permissible source impedance is a function of output power and line voltage. The impedance can be higher when operating at less than full power. The minimum impedance is required when operating with a 9 volt input at full load. The impedance reduces as the input voltage is raised or lowered or the power is reduced. In general you should keep the peak to peak voltage measured across the input pins less than 0.15 volts peak to peak (not including the high frequency spikes) for maximum converter performance and life. General Information The universal 3.5 to 16 volt input of the LV Dual series allows you to specify your system for operation from any 5 volt logic supply or a 4.8 to 12 volt nominal battery input. The series is also mindful of battery operation for industrial, medical, control and remote data collection applications. The remote ON/OFF pin places the converter in a very low power mode that draws typically less than 6 mA from the input source. There is no lower limit on the allowed source impedance, it can be any physically realizable value, even approaching 0. If the source impedance is too large in your system you should choose an external input capacitor as detailed below. Noise has also achieved new lows in this single design, while the industry standard is to specify output noise as 1 to 5% peak to peak typical with no mention of measurement bandwidth. The LV converters achieve noise levels of less than 50 mV peak to peak and are fully specified and tested to a wide bandwidth of 0-20 MHz. Picking An External Input Capacitor If an input capacitor is needed at the input to the converter it must be sized correctly for proper converter operation. The curve “RMS Input Current Vs Line Input” shows the RMS ripple current that the input capacitor must withstand with varying loading conditions and input voltages. Five sided shielding is standard along with specified operation over the full industrial temperature range of -40 to +85° C case temperature. Several system tradeoffs must be made for each particular system application to correctly size the input capacitor. The probable result of undersizing the capacitor is increased self heating, shortening it’s life. Oversizing the capacitor can have a negative effect on your products cost and size, although this kind of overdesign does not result in shorter life of any components. Applying The Input Figure 1 shows the recommended input connections for the LV Single DC/DC converter. A fuse is recommended to protect the input circuit and should not be omitted. The fuse serves to prevent unlimited current from flowing in the case of a catastrophic system failure. There is no one optimum value for the input capacitor. The size and capacity depend on the following factors: * Figure 1. 1) Expected ambient temperature and your temperature derating guidelines. 2) Your ripple current derating guidelines. 3) The maximum anticipated load on the converter. 4) The input operating voltage, both nominal and excursions. 5) The statistical probability that your system will spend a significant time at any worst case extreme. A Factors 1 and 2 depend on your system design guidelines. These can range from 50 to 100% of the manufacturers listed maximum rating, although the usual derating factor applied is about 70%. 70% derating means if the manufacturer rated the capacitor at 1 A RMS you would not use it over 0.7 A RMS in your circuit. * ON/OFF MAY BE LEFT FLOATING IF NOT USED If the source impedance driving the LV Converter is more than about 0.05 ohms the optional capacitor C2 may be required (See text for more information). Optional transient protector diode D1 may be used if desired for added protection. The fuse serves as a catastrophic failure protector and should not be omitted. Factors 3 and 4 realistically determine the worst case ripple current rating required for the capacitor along with the RMS ripple current curve. Factor 5 is not easy to quantify. At CALEX we can make no 2401 Stanwell Drive • Concord, California 94520 • Ph: 925/687-4411 or 800/542-3355 • Fax: 925/687-3333 • www.calex.com • Email: sales@calex.com 4 eco#020903-3 12 Watt LV Dual Series DC/DC Converters assumptions about a customers system so we leave to you the decision of how you define how big is big enough. Suitable capacitors for use at the input of the converter are given at the end of this section. Nichicon Suggested Part: PR and PF series UPR1E222MRH 2200µF, 25V, 105°C Rated ESR=0.053 ohms Startup Current Demand Allowable Ripple at 85°C = 1.98 A Because the LV Dual appears as a constant power load to your source and operation starts at about 3 volts, you should be sure that your source can supply the required current at low voltages when starting. If this presents a problem the ON/OFF pin and a simple voltage detector (comparator) may be used to prevent startup until some higher steady state voltage. Panasonic HFG and HFQ Series Suggested Part: ECEA1EFE332L 3300µF, 25V, 105°C Rated ESR=0.045 ohms Allowable Ripple at 85 °C = 1.94 A Generally this is not a problem with battery powered circuits and only appears when the LV Dual is powered by marginally sized 5 or 12 volt linear supplies that can’t supply the required startup current. See the”Input Current Vs. Line Input” curve for the low voltage current requirements of the LV Dual. Remote ON/OFF Pin Operation The remote ON/OFF pin may be left floating if this function is not used. The best way to drive this pin is with an open collector/drain or relay contact. Do not drive this input from a logic gate directly. The ON/ OFF pin must be left floating to turn the converter on and insure proper operation. This input is noise sensitive so it should not be routed all over your PCB. Very Low Noise Input Circuit Figure 2 shows a very low noise input circuit that may be used with the converters. This circuit will reduce the input reflected ripple current to less than 20 mA RMS (Vin = 5 V, 10 kHz to 1 MHz bw). See the discussion above for the optimum selection of C2. When the ON/OFF pin is pulled low with respect to the Input, the converter is placed in a low power drain state. The ON/OFF pin turns the converter off while keeping the input bulk capacitors fully charged, this prevents the large inrush current spike that occurs when the +input pin is opened and closed. The ON/OFF pin should never be pulled more that 0.3 volts below the -Input or have a voltage of greater than +2 volts applied to it. Applying The Output L1 = 10 µH Figure 3 shows typical output connections for the LV Dual. In most applications no external output capacitance will be necessary. Only your normal 1 to 10 uF tantalum and 0.001 to 0.1 µF ceramic bypass capacitors sprinkled around your circuit as needed locally are required. Do not add extra output capacitance and cost to your circuit “Just Because”. C1 = 10 µF / 25V, TANTALUM C2 = SEE TEXT Figure 2. This circuit will reduce the input reflected ripple current to less than 20 mA RMS. See the discussion in the text for help on the optimum selection of C2. L1 should be sized to handle the maximum input current at your lowest operating voltage and maximum expected output power. A If you feel you must add external output capacitance, do not use the lowest ESR, biggest value capacitor that you can find! This can only lead to reduced system performance or oscillation. See our application note “Understanding Output Impedance For Optimum Decoupling” for more information. Suggested Capacitor Sources These capacitors may be used to lower your sources input impedance at the input of the converter. These capacitors will work for 100% load, worst case input voltage and ambient temperature extremes. They however, may be oversized for your exact usage, see “Picking An External Input Capacitor” above for more information. You may also use several smaller capacitors in parallel to achieve the same ripple current rating. This may save space in some systems. Output Power The available output power of the LV Dual is reduced when operating below 9 and 4.6 volts. See the “Low Voltage Power” curve for more information. In general, from 9 to 16 volts full power is available from the LV Dual. From 4.6 to 9 volts input the available output power is 75% of the full load value. Below 4.6 volts the output power is linearly derated from 75% at 4.6 volts to 40% at 3.5 volts. For example a LV Dual is capable of providing 4.8 watts of output power at 3.5 volts input. United Chemi-Con SXE, RXC, RZ and RZA series Suggested Part: SXE025VB820M12.5X20LL Table 1 summarizes the output current available versus input voltage. 820µF, 25V, 105°C Rated ESR=0.085 ohms Allowable Ripple at 85°C = 1.96 A 2401 Stanwell Drive • Concord, California 94520 • Ph: 925/687-4411 or 800/542-3355 • Fax: 925/687-3333 • www.calex.com • Email: sales@calex.com 5 eco#020903-3 12 Watt LV Dual Series DC/DC Converters Operation With Very Light Loads Dynamic response of the LV Dual will degrade when the unit is operated with less than 25% of full rated power. Output Trimming The trim pin may be used to adjust the outputs by up to ±10 % from the nominal factory setting. The trim may be used to adjust for system wiring voltage drops. Figure 5 shows the proper connections to use the trim pin. If output trimming is not desired the trim pin may be safely left floating. * Trimming the output up reduces the output current proportionally to keep the maximum power constant. Output current is not increased over the listed maximum when trimming the output voltage down. * TRIM MAY BE LEFT FLOATING IF NOT USED Figure 3. Full up trim may not be achievable at minimum input voltage and full rated load. The LV Dual may be directly connected to your load without any external components required for most applications. The outputs may also be used in single ended mode. Transient overvoltage diodes may be added for extra protection against output faults or if the input has the possibility of being shorted to the loads. Table 1 Model Input Voltage / Maximum Output Current 3.5 V 4.6 V 9V 5D5.1000LV 400 mA 750 mA 1000 mA 5D12.500LV 200 mA 375 mA 500 mA 5D15.400LV 160 mA 300 mA 400 mA Note: The maximum current is linearly derated between the break points. See the output power graph for more information. Figure 5. Output trimming may be accomplished by using a Dual fixed resistor or a trimpot as shown. When using fixed resistors the values may range from 0 to infinity ohms. See the text for more information on output power when trimming. The trimpot should be approximately . 20K ohms. Ultra Low Noise Output Circuit The circuit shown in figure 4 can be used to reduce the output noise to below 20 mV P-P over a 20 MHz bandwidth. Size inductor L1 appropriately for the maximum expected load current. All of the ground connections must be as short as possible back to the CMN pin. The filter should be placed as close to the LV Dual as possible, even if your load is at some distance from the converter. Non Standard Output Voltages The LV Duals will typically trim much lower than the -10% specified. This allows the 12 and 15 volt LV’s to be trimmed lower than specified for RF or other special applications. A The 5 volt LV’s can be typically trimmed over a range of 3.8 to 5.6 volts. The 12 volt LV’s can be typically trimmed over a range of 6.4 to 13.3 volts. The 15 volt LV’s can be typically trimmed over a range of 6.7 to 16.9 volts. The dual outputs may also be used in a single ended mode as shown in figure 3 to get 10, 24 or 30 volts of output at the full rated power levels (i.e. 1A, 0.5A or 0.4A). To use the single ended mode just connect your load to the + and - Output pins and leave the CMN pin floating. Trimming of the outputs may also be done while using the single ended mode. L1 = 10 µH C1 = 100 µF / 25V, ALUMINUM Grounding C2 = 10 µF / 25V, TANTALUM Figure 4. The input and output sections are fully floating from each other. They may be operated fully floating or with a common ground. If the input and output sections are connected either directly at the converter or at some remote location from the converter it is suggested that a 1 to 10 µF, 0.5 to 5 ohm ESR This circuit can reduce the output noise to below 15 mV P-P over a 20 MHz bandwidth. Size inductor L1 appropriately for the maximum expected load current. All of the ground connections must be as short as possible back to the CMN pin. 2401 Stanwell Drive • Concord, California 94520 • Ph: 925/687-4411 or 800/542-3355 • Fax: 925/687-3333 • www.calex.com • Email: sales@calex.com 6 eco#020903-3 12 Watt LV Dual Series DC/DC Converters capacitor bypass be used directly at the converters output pins. These capacitors prevent any common mode switching currents from showing up at the converters output as normal mode output noise. See “Applying the Output” for more information on selecting output capacitors. Temperature Derating The LV Dual series can operate up to 85°C case temperature without derating. Case temperature may be roughly calculated from ambient by knowing that the case temperature rise is approximately 9.5°C per package watt dissipated. Also see the CALEX application note “Dealing With Common Mode Noise” for more information on using common grounds. For example: If a 12 volt output converter is delivering 9 Watts with a 12 volt input, at what ambient could it expect to run with no moving air and no extra heatsinking? Efficiency of the converter is approximately 76% at 9 watts of output power, this leads to an input power of about 12 Watts. The case temperature rise would be 12 - 9 Watts or 3 Watts × 9.5 = 28.5°C. This number is subtracted from the maximum case temperature of 85°C to get: 56.5°C. Case Grounding The copper case serves not only as a heat sink but also as a EMI shield. The 0.017 inch thick case provides >15 dB of absorption loss to both electric and magnetic fields at 60 kHz, while at the same time providing 20 to 40 % better heat sinking over competitive thin steel, aluminum or plastic designs. This example calculation is for an LV Dual without any extra heat sinking or appreciable air flow. Both of these factors can greatly effect the maximum ambient temperature (see below). Exact efficiency depends on input line and load conditions, check the efficiency curves for exact information. The case shield is tied to the CMN output pin. This connection is shown on the block diagram. The case is floating from the input sections. The input is coupled to the outputs only by the low 375 pF of isolation capacitance. This low I/O capacitance insures that any AC common mode noise on the inputs is not coupled to your output circuits. This is a rough approximation to the maximum ambient temperature. Because of the difficulty of defining ambient temperature and the possibility that the loads dissipation may actually increase the local ambient temperature significantly, these calculations should be verified by actual measurement before committing to a production design. Compare this isolation to the more usual 1000 - 2000 pF found on competitive designs and you will see that CALEX provides the very best DC and AC isolation available. After all, you are buying an isolated DC/DC to cut ground loops. Don’t let the isolation capacitance add them back in. Remember, it is the system designers responsibility to be sure that the case temperature of the LV Dual does not exceed 85 °C for maximum reliability in operation. Typical Performance (Tc=25°C, Vin=Nom VDC, Rated Load). EFFICIENCY Vs. LOAD EFFICIENCY Vs. LINE INPUT VOLTAGE 85 EFFICIENCY(%) 80 75 LINE = 5VDC 70 65 60 50% FULL LOAD INPUT CURRENT (AMPS) LINE = 16VDC 80 75 70 100% FULL LOAD 65 60 55 55 50 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 5 4 3 100% LOAD 2 1 0 4 6 8 LOAD (%) 10 12 14 16 0 A 2 50% LOAD 4 LINE INPUT(VOLTS) 6 8 10 12 14 16 LINE INPUT (VOLTS) RMS INPUT CURRENT Vs LINE INPUT POWER DERATING 2.5 110 100 2.0 % AVAILABLE POWER 0 RMS INPUT CURRENT (AMPS) EFFICIENCY (%) INPUT CURRENT Vs. LINE INPUT VOLTAGE 6 85 100% LOAD 1.5 75% LOAD 1.0 40% LOAD 0.5 90 80 70 60 50 0.0 40 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 3 LINE INPUT (VDC) 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 LINE INPUT (VDC) 2401 Stanwell Drive • Concord, California 94520 • Ph: 925/687-4411 or 800/542-3355 • Fax: 925/687-3333 • www.calex.com • Email: sales@calex.com 7 eco#020903-3

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