ETC 21891

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E86MON™ Software
User’s Manual
Order #21891B
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E86MON™ Software User’s Manual, Release 2.0
© 1998 by Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Advanced
Micro Devices, Inc.
Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subdivision (b)(3)(ii) of the Rights
in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at 252.227-7013. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc., 5204 E. Ben White Blvd.,
Austin, TX 78741.
AMD, the AMD logo, and combinations thereof, and Am186, Am188, CodeKit, Comm86, E86, and E86MON are trademarks
of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
FusionE86 is a service mark of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
Microsoft and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corp.
Other product or brand names are used solely for identification and may be the trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective companies.
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IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS, WE’RE HERE TO HELP YOU.
The AMD customer service network includes U.S. offices, international offices, and a customer
training center. Expert technical assistance is available from the AMD worldwide staff of field
application engineers and factory support staff to answer E86™ and Comm86™ family hardware and
software development questions.
Frequently accessed numbers are listed below. Additional contact information is listed on the back
of this manual. AMD’s WWW site lists the latest phone numbers.
Technical Support
Answers to technical questions are available online, through e-mail, and by telephone.
Go to AMD’s home page at www.amd.com and follow the Service link for the latest AMD technical
support phone numbers, software, and Frequently Asked Questions.
For technical support questions on all E86 and Comm86 products, send e-mail to
[email protected] (in the US and Canada) or [email protected] (in Europe and the UK).
You can also call the AMD Corporate Applications Hotline at:
(800) 222-9323
44-(0) 1276-803-299
Toll-free for U.S. and Canada
U.K. and Europe hotline
WWW Support
For specific information on E86 and Comm86 products, access the AMD home page at www.amd.com
and follow the Embedded Processors link. These pages provide information on upcoming product
releases, overviews of existing products, information on product support and tools, and a list of technical
documentation. Support tools include online benchmarking tools and CodeKit™ software—tested
source code example applications. Many of the technical documents are available online in PDF form.
Questions, requests, and input concerning AMD’s WWW pages can be sent via e-mail to
[email protected]
Documentation and Literature Support
Data books, user’s manuals, data sheets, application notes, and product CDs are free with a simple
phone call. Internationally, contact your local AMD sales office for product literature.
To order literature, call:
(800) 222-9323
(512) 602-5651
(512) 602-7639
Toll-free for U.S. and Canada
Direct dial worldwide
Fax
Third-Party Support
AMD FusionE86SM partners provide an array of products designed to meet critical time-to-market needs.
Products and solutions available include emulators, hardware and software debuggers, board-level products,
and software development tools, among others. The WWW site and the E86 Family Products
Development Tools CD, order #21058, describe these solutions. In addition, mature development
tools and applications for the x86 platform are widely available in the general marketplace.
2.0
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Contents
About the E86MON™ Software
E86MON Software Features .................................................................................x
E86MON Software Documentation ...................................................................x
About This Manual ......................................................................................... xi
Suggested Reference Material ...................................................................... xii
Documentation Conventions ...................................................................... xiii
Chapter 1
2.0
Using the E86MON Software
Getting Started................................................................................................... 1-2
E86MON Software............................................................................................ 1-3
Architecture ....................................................................................................... 1-4
For More Information........................................................................................ 1-8
Chapter 2
Downloading Files
Downloading .HEX Files .................................................................................. 2-2
Downloading .EXE Files................................................................................... 2-4
Upgrading the E86MON Software.................................................................... 2-5
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Chapter 3
E86MON Software Commands
E86MON Software Syntax ................................................................................ 3-2
E86MON Software Commands......................................................................... 3-4
: – Begin Download....................................................................................... 3-4
; – Comment .................................................................................................. 3-5
<Break> – Break Key.................................................................................... 3-6
B – Set Breakpoint ........................................................................................ 3-7
C – Compare Memory................................................................................... 3-8
D – Dump Memory ..................................................................................... 3-9
E – Enter Memory ....................................................................................... 3-10
F – Fill Memory .......................................................................................... 3-11
G – Go to Address ....................................................................................... 3-12
I – Information About System..................................................................... 3-14
I – Input ....................................................................................................... 3-15
J – Autobaud Again..................................................................................... 3-16
L/LL – Load / Load Library ........................................................................ 3-17
M – Move Memory ..................................................................................... 3-18
N – Name Arguments.................................................................................. 3-19
O – Output Word ......................................................................................... 3-20
P – Boot Parameters .................................................................................... 3-21
R – Display/Alter Register ......................................................................... 3-23
S – Search for List ....................................................................................... 3-24
T – Trace ..................................................................................................... 3-25
W – Write to Flash ...................................................................................... 3-26
X – Exterminate Flash................................................................................. 3-27
Z – Upgrade Monitor / Restore Flash / Lock Monitor in RAM .................. 3-28
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H – Hex Math or Help ................................................................................ 3-13
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Appendix A
Notes on Terminal Emulators
Appendix B
Utilities Included With the E86MON Software
The MAKEHEX Utility ................................................................................B-1
The EDITMON Utility..................................................................................B-2
Appendix C
Error Messages
2.0
Error Messages ..................................................................................................C-1
Appendix D
DOS Emulation Support
Appendix E
Porting E86MON Software to Other Environments
Index
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List of Figures
E86MON Software Welcome Screen..................................................................................... 1-2
Flash Memory Format ............................................................................................................ 1-5
RAM Memory Format ........................................................................................................... 1-7
List of Tables
Notational Conventions ......................................................................................................... xiii
E86MON Software Vector Description ................................................................................. 1-6
2.0
E86MON Software Syntax .................................................................................................... 3-2
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About the E86MON™ Software
The E86MON software is a utility provided with the Am186 and Am188
family of boards that enables you to download and run your application code.
Currently, this family of boards includes the Net186, SD186ED, SD186EM,
SD186ER, SD186ES, SD188EM, SD188ER, and SD188ES demonstration boards,
as well as the Am186CC/CH/CU Microcontrollers Customer Development
Platform (CDP).
The E86MON software supports rudimentary debugging. Programs can be loaded
and run from RAM, or the E86MON software can program the on-board Flash
memory with the application code and execute the application from Flash memory.
2.0
The E86MON software is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of the Am186
and Am188 devices. For a more powerful development environment, AMD
strongly recommends that developers search our E86 Family Products
Development Tools CD, order #21058 for compilers, linker/locators, real-time
operating systems, complete DOS emulation, source-level debuggers, and other
powerful tools provided by our Fusion Partners.
The E86MON software running on an Am186 or Am188 family board enables you
to perform quick prototyping and benchmarking of simple algorithms, before
investing in x86 development tools. The limited DOS emulator allows you to
download and run small .EXE files, which can be developed and tested using
standard compilers on a PC running DOS. Full source code for the E86MON
software is provided as a teaching and demonstration aid.
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E86MON Software Features
The E86MON software provides features enabling you to perform the following
functions:
• Download programs to RAM or Flash memory
• Dump memory
• Enter memory
• Search memory
• Display registers
• Modify CPU registers
• Set breakpoints
• Trace programs
E86MON Software Documentation
This user’s manual provides information on using the E86MON software with the
Am186 and Am188 family of boards. These boards already have the E86MON
software installed in on-board Flash memory.
If using a version of the E86MON software earlier than Version 3.3.x, AMD
strongly recommends upgrading to the most recent version of the E86MON
software by using the files supplied on the 3.5-inch disk included in the board kit.
For information about upgrading the E86MON software, see “Upgrading the
E86MON Software” on page 2-5. The most recent version of the E86MON
software is also available via the AMD web site.
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• Peripheral input/output
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About This Manual
Chapter 1, “Using the E86MON Software” provides detailed startup information
and a description of the E86MON software architecture.
Chapter 2, “Downloading Files” provides instructions for downloading .HEX and
.EXE files from a PC.
Chapter 3, “E86MON Software Commands” contains a description of the
E86MON software syntax followed by detailed descriptions of the E86MON
software commands in an alphabetical listing.
Appendix A, “Notes on Terminal Emulators” briefly describes how to use the
E86MON software with various terminal emulators including DOS PROCOMM
PLUS and the HyperTerm program provided with Windows95.
2.0
Appendix B, “Utilities Included With the E86MON Software” lists and describes
the utilities included with the E86MON software.
Appendix C, “Error Messages” provides an alphabetical listing and detailed
description of the error messages generated by the E86MON software.
Appendix D, “DOS Emulation Support” provides a description of the DOS
emulation environment supported by the E86MON software.
Appendix E, “Porting E86MON Software to Other Environments” describes how
to port the E86MON software to customer hardware.
A standard index is also included.
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Suggested Reference Material
The following AMD documentation may be of interest to the E86MON software
user.
• Am186 and Am188 Family Instruction Set Manual, order #21267
• Am186CC Communications Controller Data Sheet, order #21915
• Am186CH HDLC Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22024
• Am186CU USB Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22025
• Am186CC/CH/CU Microcontrollers Register Set Manual, order #21916
• Am186CC/CH/CU Microcontrollers User’s Manual, order #21914
• Am186ED Microcontrollers Data Sheet, order #21336
• Am186ED Microcontrollers User’s Manual, order #21335
• Am186EM and Am188EM Microcontrollers Data Sheet, order #19168
• Am186ER and Am188ER Microcontrollers Data Sheet, order #20732
• Am186ER and Am188ER Microcontrollers User’s Manual, order #21684
• Am186ES/ESLV and Am188ES/ESLV Microcontrollers Data Sheet, order
#20002
• Am186ES and Am188ES Microcontrollers User’s Manual, order #21096
• E86 Family Products Development Tools CD, order #21058
For current application notes and technical bulletins, see our World Wide Web page
at www.amd.com.
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• Am186EM/EMLV and Am188EM/EMLV Microcontrollers User’s Manual,
order #19713
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Documentation Conventions
The E86MON Software User’s Manual uses the notational conventions shown
in Table 0-1 (unless otherwise noted).
Table 0-1. Notational Conventions
Usage
Boldface
Indicates that characters must be entered
exactly as shown, except that the alphabetic case is
only significant when indicated.
Italic
Indicates a descriptive term to be replaced with a
user-specified term.
Typewriter face
Indicates computer text input or output in an example
or listing.
.EXE
Indicates a DOS executable file.
.HEX
Indicates an Intel extended hex file.
<>
Encloses a required parameter. To include the
information described within the angle brackets, type
only the parameters, not the angle brackets
themselves.
[]
Encloses an optional parameter. To include the
information described within the brackets, type only
the parameter, not the brackets themselves.
|
Separates alternate choices in a list. Only one of the
choices can be entered.
2.0
Symbol
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Chapter 1
Using the E86MON Software
This chapter provides information on using the E86MON software, as well as a
description of the E86MON software architecture.
Note that the information in this manual is based on using an Am186CC/CH/CU
Microcontroller Customer Development Platform with Version 3.3.2 of the
E86MON software. Your screens may vary slightly from the ones shown in this
manual.
The information in this chapter applies to boards operating at factory default
settings and assumes that you have completed the board installation procedures
listed in the “Quick Start” chapter of the applicable board user’s manual.
2.0
If you have not completed the procedures in the board user’s manual, you should
perform the procedures described in “Getting Started” on page 1-2 in this manual.
If you have completed the “Quick Start” procedures, turn to page 1-3.
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Getting Started
NOTE: Versions of the E86MON software prior to 3.0 require you to press the
Break key, rather than type an a as described in step 2.
1. Invoke the terminal emulation program at 19200 baud, no parity, 8 data bits,
and 1 stop bit; enable the software flow control (Xon/Xoff), if supported. For
more information about terminal emulators, see Appendix A, “Notes on
Terminal Emulators”.
2. Reset the board by depressing and releasing the RESET switch on the board.
If the board has LEDs or a TIP attached with LEDs, the LEDs will light up as
they did on power-up.
If you type a character other than an a, or type no character at all, the E86MON
software still displays the welcome message and prompt, but may be using an
incorrect baud rate. Depressing and releasing the RESET switch gives you
another opportunity to type an a.
Before continuing in this chapter, you should make sure you see the E86MON
welcome screen shown in Figure 1-1 on your PC monitor.
Welcome to AMD’s E86MON!
cc86mon:
(? <Enter> for help)
Figure 1-1. E86MON Software Welcome Screen
When the E86MON software displays the welcome screen and prompt, it also
changes the LED pattern. Previous versions of the E86MON software simply stop
updating the LED display; Versions 3.11 and above change the display to one of
eight alternating patterns the E86MON software uses when it is waiting for
keyboard input.
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During the first three seconds, type an a in the terminal window to ensure that
the E86MON software uses the correct baud rate. When the E86MON software
receives an a, it adjusts its baud rate (if necessary) and displays the welcome
message and prompt.
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To display the version number and available commands, type ? and press Enter.
To load the monitor extensions, use the LL command.
If the version number shown at the top of the help screen is less than 3.3.x, AMD
strongly recommends you upgrade to the most recent version of the E86MON
software by using the files supplied on the 3.5-inch disk included in the board kit.
For detailed information on upgrading your E86MON software, see “Upgrading
the E86MON Software” on page 2-5.
The most recent version of the E86MON software is also available via the AMD
web site.
E86MON Software
After the Am186 or Am188 family board is powered on or reset, the E86MON
software enters a three-second delay loop waiting for you to type an a. If an a is
not detected on an asynchronous serial port within the three-second delay, the
E86MON software does one of three things, as described below:
2.0
• If you have installed a startup program in the Flash memory, and the startup
vector at F7FF:0000 has been filled in with a far jump, the E86MON software
uses the startup vector to jump to your program.
• Otherwise, if you have used the W command to store a DOS .EXE program in
the Flash memory and used the P AutoRun command to mark it for running at
startup, then the E86MON software executes that DOS program.
• If the startup vector at F7FF:0000 has not been filled in and the P AutoRun
command has not been used, then after the three-second delay loop, the
E86MON software displays the welcome screen and prompt, but must assume
the baud rate. On SD186ED, SD186ES, and SD188ES demonstration boards,
and on the Am186CC/CH/CU Microcontrollers Customer Development
Platform, the E86MON software must also assume to which serial port the
terminal is connected. If the baud rate or serial port does not match that of the
terminal, you see nothing, or you see garbled characters. The monitor also loads
any extensions stored in Flash memory.
You can change the default baud rate and serial port by using the P command.
See Chapter 3, “E86MON Software Commands” for a description of the
E86MON commands.
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The automatic baud rate detection feature is useful in the following circumstances:
• When a user program is installed, but you want to invoke the monitor instead
• When the programmed baud rate does not match the terminal baud rate
• When the serial port does not match the serial port the terminal is plugged into
• When the programmed CPU speed does not match the actual CPU speed (the
bit clock is divided down from the CPU clock)
• When you do not want to wait three seconds for the monitor to boot
The automatic baud rate detection is designed to detect baud rates from 2400 to
115200, but its success depends on the CPU type and speed. At the default CPU
frequency of 40 MHz, Am186CC/CH/CU Microcontroller CDP, SD186, and
Net186 boards can reliably detect baud rates up to 115200; SD188 demonstration
boards can reliably detect baud rates up to 57600.
You can use the P command to set the default baud rate. This is especially useful
when the baud rate is so high relative to the CPU type and frequency that the
automatic baud rate detection is unreliable.
Architecture
The E86MON software remains resident in the upper sectors of the Flash memory.
The user application resides in the sectors below the E86MON software. The
E86MON software provides debug and download functionality while creating a
virtual reset vector 32K below 1 Mbyte. (Note that some flash devices require the
reset vector to be lower in memory due to their sector size. For example, the
Am29F040 has a fixed sector size of 64K, so the reset vector must be located 64K
below 1 Mbyte.)
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Note that when the autobaud feature of the monitor is used, monitor extensions
must be loaded manually with the LL command.
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The processor begins fetching instructions after reset at FFFF0h, or 16 bytes below
the top of memory (see Figure 1-2). A user application can be positioned to start
from the virtual reset (e.g., located so that the program’s boot code resides in the
16 bytes immediately below the monitor, at F7FF0h).
Monitor Reset Vector
FFFFFh
FFFF0h
Permanent Variable Storage
Monitor Program
User Application Start Vector
F8000h
F7FF0h
User Application/Monitor Upgrade
F0000h
2.0
Monitor Extensions
Top of Protect-Flash range*
E0000h
User Application
Bottom of Flash memory
*See the protectflash variable definition on page 3-22.
Figure 1-2. Flash Memory Format
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The vector table occupies RAM from 0h to 3FFh. The E86MON software uses the
vectors shown in Table 1-1. All other interrupt vectors may be utilized by the user
application.
Table 1-1. E86MON Software Vector Description
Vector
Purpose
01h
Single-step interrupt
03h
Breakpoint interrupt
08h
Reserved for future use by E86MON
11h
Serial port 1 interrupt
12h
Timer 1 interrupt
14h
Serial port 0 interrupt
20h
DOS terminate interrupt
21h
DOS service interrupt
Reserved for future use by E86MON
2.0
22h-2Fh
E86MON reserves RAM from 400h to 40Fh for internal use, and the top 4096
bytes of RAM for data and stack. See the corresponding board user’s manual to
determine this location. The RAM user area (410h to the bottom of the stack) is
used to store the downloaded program. The format of the RAM memory is
illustrated in Figure 1-3.
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Top of RAM
Monitor Stack and Data
Top of RAM–0FFFh
Application RAM
Used by the E86MON Software
0410h
0400h
2.0
Interrupt Table
and Reserved
0000h
Figure 1-3. RAM Memory Format
The Flash memory is accessed using the Upper Chip Select (UCS) signal, and the
RAM is accessed using the Lower Chip Select (LCS) signal. Both the UCS and
LCS signals are programmed by the monitor to operate with zero wait states by
default. The P WaitStates command can be used to set LCS DRAM wait states on
boards populated with an Am186CC/CH/CU or Am186ED microcontroller device.
The format of the RAM memory is illustrated in Figure 1-3.
The Peripheral Control Block (PCB) is left in the default I/O space (FF00h). You
should add the peripheral register offset to FF00h to access the peripherals.
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For More Information...
If you need more information about:
• Board hardware
See the Functional Description chapter in the corresponding board user’s
manual.
• Problems with the board or the E86MON software
See Appendix C, “Error Messages”.
2.0
• The Am186 or Am188 family of microcontrollers
See the appropriate Am186 and Am188 microcontroller user’s manual or data
sheet.
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Chapter 2
Downloading Files
This chapter explains how to load files from a host PC to the evaluation board, and
how to upgrade your software.
• If you want to download .HEX files, see page 2-2.
• If you want to download .EXE files, see page 2-4.
• If you want to upgrade your E86MON software, see page 2-5.
2.0
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Downloading .HEX Files
There are four example .HEX files you can download. The files are located in the
\OUT subdirectory on the floppy disk that was provided in the board kit.
AMDDHRY.HEX
SECONDS.HEX
TESTMON.HEX
LEDS.HEX
A RAM-based DHRYSTONE benchmark
A RAM-based seconds counter
A RAM-based minimal DOS emulator test
A Flash-memory-based demonstration
A file being downloaded to RAM for execution should be located between 410h
and the start of the monitor data at the end of the RAM (see Figure 1-3 on page
1-7). A file being downloaded to Flash memory for execution should be located
between the start of the Flash memory and E0000h (see Figure 1-2 on page 1-5).
The I command shows the size and location of the free RAM, as well as information
about the size and location of the Flash memory.
It is not permissible for the file to have some sections download to RAM and other
sections download to Flash memory because the E86MON software relocates itself
to RAM (destroying any loaded RAM program) to burn the Flash when it is
downloading to Flash memory. The E86MON software reports a range error on
the download of such a file.
If downloading into Flash memory, you should first make sure the target download
area is empty by using the X command to erase the Flash sectors. Unless you are
storing multiple programs into Flash, the easiest way to do this is to use XA to
erase all the application sectors. Note that if sectors are protected with the
protectflash variable, the XA command does not erase them (see page 3-22).
However, they can be erased with the X number command, where number is the
sector number.
If your application requires DOS int21 support, make sure the monitor extensions
are loaded before downloading the application (see the LL command).
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The source code for all these files is under the \SAMPLES subdirectory. The
E86MON software supports the downloading of Intel extended .HEX files into
RAM or Flash memory. The .HEX file should contain type 2 extended address
records, which specify the load address in the 1 Mbyte address range. The last
record in the file should be a type 1 EOF record.
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There is no specific command to download .HEX files. Simply start transferring
with the terminal program in ASCII or raw ASCII mode. The E86MON software
echoes the first record as it receives it. When the E86MON software parses the
record and determines that it is a .HEX file record, the E86MON software switches
into a file transfer mode. The type 1 EOF record at the end of the file switches the
E86MON software back to command mode.
While downloading, the E86MON software displays one dot per eight lines of the
.HEX file being transferred.
If an error is encountered during the download, an error message is printed, and
the E86MON software stays in download mode until it receives an Escape character
(1Bh). After receiving an Escape character, the E86MON software prints a more
detailed error message, then returns to command mode. For more information on
the E86MON error messages, see Appendix C, “Error Messages”.
2.0
If you are downloading to Flash, and the .HEX file contains a type 3 start address
record, and the application code vector at F7FF0 has not been programmed, the
E86MON software automatically programs a far jump to the start address into this
vector. On subsequent reset sequences, if you do not type an a in the first three
seconds (forcing entry to the E86MON software), the E86MON software notices
there is a valid far jump at F7FF0, and vectors there to automatically start up the
application program.
The MAKEHEX utility with Version 3.3.x of the monitor has changed from
previous versions. Hex files built with the older (3.2.x) MAKEHEX utility do not
download with the Version 3.3.x monitor. Additionally, the 3.3.x MAKEHEX files
do not execute on a 3.2.x monitor. See Appendix C, “Error Messages”.
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Downloading .EXE Files
The E86MON software can download and run DOS executable files, enabling you
to use affordable, readily available, and familiar PC-based compilers and
assemblers to develop initial test and benchmarking code. The E86MON software
provides a minimal subset of DOS interrupt 21h functionality, which is fully
described in Appendix D, “DOS Emulation Support”.
Most compilers are capable of generating .EXE files that work within this DOS
environment, as long as you do not use library functions requiring file-based I/O.
Unlike some prior versions of the E86MON software, Versions 3 and later do not
support direct downloading of .EXE files. Instead, the E86MON software supports
AMD extensions to the Intel extended .HEX file format, and includes a conversion
program that converts .EXE files into this extended .HEX file format.
2.0
To convert the .EXE file into a .HEX file, use the MAKEHEX utility in the \OUT
subdirectory supplied on the floppy disk included in the board kit. For example,
to convert SAMPLE.EXE into SAMPLE.HEX, simply type MAKEHEX
SAMPLE (assuming MAKEHEX.EXE is in the path).
When you have converted the .EXE file, it can be downloaded to the E86MON
software as described in “Downloading .HEX Files” on page 2-2. After
downloading the file, you can set parameters for the program (if it expects a
command line) with the N command, and then start execution with the G command.
Alternatively, you can use the W command before downloading the file, to program
it into Flash. Because Flash is nonvolatile, the program can then be run multiple
times (even after power has been cycled) with the L command.
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Upgrading the E86MON Software
Files used to upgrade the E86MON software are provided in the \OUT subdirectory
on the floppy disk included in the board kit. The latest version of the E86MON
software is also available on the web.
The files listed below are in the \OUT subdirectory on the floppy disk for all boards
but the SD186ER:
EMON332U.HEX
EMON332R.HEX
EMON332B.HEX
EXTEM332.HEX
Main upgrade file
RAM-based version of the E86MON software
Bootable (suitable for programming with a PROM
programmer) version of the E86MON software
Extensions to provide support for a DOS emulator
(Int21), command-line editor (additional LED
patterns), and help
NOTE: The 332 portion of the filename represents Version 3.3.2. The version
included on your floppy disk may vary.
2.0
For the SD186ER board, the files are:
EMNR332U.HEX
EMNR332R.HEX
EMNR332B.HEX
EXTEM332.HEX
Main upgrade file
RAM-based version of the E86MON software
Bootable (suitable for programming with a PROM
programmer) version of the E86MON software
Extensions to provide support for a DOS emulator
(Int21), command-line editor (additional LED
patterns), and help
To upgrade versions 3 or later of E86MON (prior versions must be upgraded
twice—first to Version 3, then to Version 3.3.x):
1. Use the XA command to erase the application Flash sectors.
2. Download EMON332U.HEX, the upgrade file, to the board. It is not necessary
to type any command to do this; the new E86MON software automatically
recognizes a file download when it detects the colon that starts the file.
3. Use the G command to go to the new E86MON software, which is running
from user Flash memory space.
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4. Type an a to establish communication with the new monitor. You are now
running the E86MON software from the copy of the E86MON software in the
application area of the Flash memory. This can be verified with the I command.
5. Type a Z and press <Enter> to initiate the upgrade. The software asks if this is
really what you want to do. Answer Y to perform the upgrade, but do not do
this if your power is not stable. If the upgrade is aborted before it finishes, you
may need to send the board back to AMD to have the Flash reprogrammed.
6. The E86MON software is now upgraded and automatically runs out of the new
boot copy of the software. Type an a within three seconds to establish
communication with the boot copy of the E86MON software.
2.0
7. You can now use the XA command to remove the application copy of the
E86MON software, and then download any desired .HEX file to the application
area of the Flash memory.
2-6
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Chapter 3
E86MON Software Commands
This chapter provides a description of the E86MON software syntax followed by
detailed descriptions of the E86MON software commands in an alphabetical
listing. The prompt displayed in the examples assumes a board populated with an
Am186™CC/CH/CU microcontroller. The prompt you see may vary slightly.
Note that although uppercase letters are used for all of the commands, you can use
either lower case or upper case.
2.0
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E86MON Software Syntax
Table 3-1 shows the command parameters most commonly used by the E86MON
software.
Parameter
Definition
Byte
1 or 2 hexadecimal digits
Word
1–4 hexadecimal digits
Decimal
1–9 hexadecimal digits
Address
Can be entered in typical x86 segment:offset format (e.g.,
F800:0) to refer to the base of the monitor, or a linear address
can be entered in 5 hexadecimal digits (e.g., F8000). If the linear
address is used, the E86MON software interprets the first 4 digits
as the segment, and the last digit as the offset.
Most commands that do not alter memory also support short
addresses. A short address is an address that specifies only the
offset (1–4 hexadecimal digits). The current value of the DS
register is implicitly used for the segment. Commands that alter
memory require you to specify the full address.
Addresses can contain simple math, for example, DS:BX*2+10.
Math operators supported include *, +, and –. If multiplication
is used, it must be the first operator.
3-2
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
Table 3-1. E86MON Software Syntax
frtbook Page 3 Monday, August 13, 2001 4:07 PM
Table 3-1. E86MON Software Syntax (Continued)
Parameter
Definition
Range
An address range can be specified in two ways: as <address>
<space> <address>, specifying the address of the start of the
range and the address immediately after the end of the range, or
as <address> L <length>, which explicitly specifies the address
of the start of the range and the length of the range.
The commands listed below are interpreted the same way and
dump 1024 bytes beginning at 16K:
D 400:0 400:400
D0:4000 400:400
D 04000 L 400
d040000l400
2.0
As the last command shows, spaces only matter where the
E86MON software would have trouble distinguishing the end of
one number from the beginning of the next one, and all
commands can be entered in upper or lower case.
List
A list is a collection of bytes. Each byte can be specified with 1
or 2 hexadecimal digits, with the bytes separated by spaces, and
ASCII data can be specified in single or double quotes. The
following command places an ASCII string, complete with
carriage return and two line feeds, at 16K:
E 04000 “This is a quoted string” 0D A,0A
Note that other than the mandatory 5 digits for a linear address,
numbers do not require leading zeroes. Also note that commas
are optional. They can be used instead of, or with, spaces.
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E86MON Software Commands
: – Begin Download
Begin download (:) is not actually a command. The colon character (:) is the first
character transmitted as part of an Intel extended .HEX file.
2.0
For more information about downloading files, see Chapter 2, “Downloading
Files”.
3-4
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; – Comment
Comment does not perform any action. It can be used for commenting scripts used
with the E86MON software.
2.0
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<Break> – Break Key
2.0
When the E86MON software receives an RS232 break (usually invoked by
pressing Alt-B or Ctrl-Break on the terminal emulator), it will break into the
debugger. This is useful in some cases when an application appears “hung” because
you can find out where it is executing. However, note that <Break> can also be
used to debug the E86MON software itself, so you should be careful how many
times you press <Break> without pressing G to continue program execution. Too
many breaks cause a stack overflow within the E86MON software.
3-6
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B – Set Breakpoint
Syntax
B
<address>
Description
The Set Breakpoint (B) command sets a breakpoint at address by overwriting the
opcode with the breakpoint instruction (INT 3).
cc86mon: B 0410:0000
After you enter the Go (G) command and the breakpoint instruction is reached,
the message, Stopped at breakpoint, and the current register values are displayed:
cc86mon: g 410:0000
Stopped at breakpoint
AX=0000 BX=0000 CX=0000 DX=0000 SP=0400 BP=0000 SI=0000 DI=0000
DS=0041 ES=0041 SS=7F51 CS=0410 IP=0000
NV UP EI PL ZR NA PE NC
cc86mon:
2.0
The opcode is restored when the processor encounters the INT 3 and re-enters the
E86MON software. At this point, you can set another breakpoint, trace execution
using the Trace (T) command, or resume execution using the Go (G) command.
NOTE: The B command is not supported in Flash memory space.
Note that only one breakpoint is active at a time — setting one removes any
previous breakpoint.
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C – Compare Memory
Syntax
C <range> <address>
Description
The Compare Memory (C) command compares the contents of memory located
in an address range to the contents of memory beginning at an address. Only bytes
which are different are shown.
410:0 410:4 410:4
01 00 0410:0004
01 00 0410:0006
97 94 0410:0007
2.0
cc86mon: c
0410:0000
0410:0002
0410:0003
cc86mon:
3-8
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D – Dump Memory
Syntax
D [range|address]
Description
The Dump Memory (D) command displays the Am186CC/CH/CU
microcontroller customer development platform’s memory contents at address:
cc86mon: d 0 l1f
0041:0000
61 62 63 22 64 65 66 88 ff 7f e5 2c f7 ff d7 9c
0041:0010
dd bb c5 3b f7 fb d7 7b dd bb c5 3b f7 fb d7
cc86mon:
abc"def....,....
...;...{...;...
If a range is specified, that range is displayed. If only an address is specified, the
dump begins at that address and continues for 128 bytes. If no address is specified,
the D command dumps 128 bytes beginning where the most recent dump command
finished.
2.0
cc86mon: d
0041:0010
0041:0020
0041:0030
0041:0040
0041:0050
0041:0060
0041:0070
0041:0080
0041:0090
cc86mon:
ff
2f
f7
af
ff
dd
33
6d
7f
bf
d7
bf
f7
bb
20
6d
e5
2f
f6
2f
f6
c5
55
61
2c
1e
d7
9f
d7
3b
73
6e
f7
f7
ff
f7
ff
f7
65
64
ff
ed
bf
ff
bf
fb
20
20
c7
f6
7b
f7
7b
d7
74
74
8d
24
b7
a4
bf
7b
68
6f
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
ff
bf
ff
2f
f7
dd
65
20
7f
bf
f7
bf
f7
bb
20
73
7b
e7 2c 44 00 c7 bc
2f 9f f7 ed f7 e4
f6 d7 ff bf 7b bf
2f 9f f7 ed f7 a4
f6 d7 ff bf 7b bf
c5 3b f7 fb c7 7b
27 4e 27 20 63 6f
65 74 20 63 6f
{
...,.......,D...
/./....$../.....
......{.......{.
../....././.....
......{.......{.
...;...{...;...{
3 Use the ’N’ co
mmand to set co
3-9
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E – Enter Memory
Syntax
E
<address> [list]
Description
The Enter Memory (E) command alters a memory location or locations beginning
at address.
cc86mon: d 41:0 L20
0041:0000
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
0041:0010
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
cc86mon: e 41:0 "Four score and seven years ago" 0d
cc86mon: d 41:0 L20
0041:0000
46 6f 75 72 20 73 63 6f 72 65 20 61 6e 64
0041:0010
65 76 65 6e 20 79 65 61 72 73 20 61 67 6f
cc86mon:
00 00
00 00
................
................
20 73
0d 00
Four score and s
even years ago..
If a list is not provided, you are prompted with the current value at that location:
You can enter a new value for that location, hit return to accept the current value,
or type a period (.) to exit back to the main menu. Subsequent memory locations
are displayed for possible alteration until you exit by typing a period (.) or by
pressing the Escape key:
cc86mon: e
0041:0000
0041:0004
0041:0005
cc86mon:
cc86mon: d
0041:0000
0041:0010
cc86mon:
3-10
41:0
53 "Six "
20 3f
73 .
41:0 41:20
53 69 78 20 3f 73 63 6f
65 76 65 6e 20 79 65 61
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
72 65 20 61 6e 64 20 73
72 73 20 61 67 6f 0d 00
Six ?score and s
even years ago..
2.0
cc86mon: e 41:0
0041:0000 46 "S"
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F – Fill Memory
Syntax
F <range> <list>
Description
The Fill Memory (F) command fills the contents of memory located in an address
range with the list of hex bytes or quoted characters.
cc86mon: f 41:0 L80 "*-Empty.Memory-*"
cc86mon: d 41:0 41:80
0041:0000
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
0041:0010
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
0041:0020
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
0041:0030
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
0041:0040
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
0041:0050
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
0041:0060
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
0041:0070
2a 2d 45 6d 70 74 79 2e 4d
cc86mon:
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
6d
6d
6d
6d
6d
6d
6d
6d
6f
6f
6f
6f
6f
6f
6f
6f
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
72
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
2a
2a
2a
2a
2a
2a
2a
2a
*-Empty.Memory-*
*-Empty.Memory-*
*-Empty.Memory-*
*-Empty.Memory-*
*-Empty.Memory-*
*-Empty.Memory-*
*-Empty.Memory-*
*-Empty.Memory-*
2.0
The list is replicated as many times as it takes to fill the range. The size of the list
does not need to fit evenly in the range; the last copy of the list is truncated to fit.
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G – Go to Address
Syntax
G [[=]address]
Description
The Go to Address (G) command transfers execution control to a user program,
which runs until it encounters a breakpoint or trace interrupt, you press the Break
key, or the program exits via a DOS call.
2.0
If an address is given on the command line, that address is loaded into the CS:IP
register pair before transferring control. If a .HEX file containing a start address
record is downloaded, CS:IP is set from that record, so you do not need to explicitly
specify the address on the command line.
3-12
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H – Hex Math or Help
Syntax
H [word word]
Description
The Hex Math (H word word) command performs five hexadecimal math
operations on the two hex words given:
cc86mon: h 3f7 03a
3F7+3A=431, 3F7-3A=3BD, 3F7*3A=E5F6
3F7/3A=11, 3F7%3A=1D
cc86mon:
The Help (H) command (without two hex words) displays the help menu:
2.0
E86 Boot Monitor -- Version 3.32 1998/07/22
Copyright (C) 1994-1998 AMD, Austin, Texas, USA
Commands:
B addr
Set breakpoint
M range address
Move memory
C range addr Compare memory
N [arglist]
Name .exe arguments
D [range]
Dump memory
O[W] word byte|word
Output[word]
E addr [list] Enter memory
P [varname decimal]
Boot Parameters
F range list Fill memory
R [reg name or ’?’]
Display/alter regs
G [[=]addr]
Go to address
S range list
Search for string
H [word word] Hex Math or help
T [=address] [word]
Trace ’n’ steps
I
Info about system W [mnemonic name]
Write .EXE to flash
I[W] word
Input[word]
X sectnum|A
Exterminate flash
J
Autobaud again
Z
Upgrade monitor
L[G][decimal] Load RAM from ROM :
Begins download
LL
Load Library
;
Comment
byte == 1-2 hex digits
word == 1-4 hex digits
addr == word:word or 5 hex digits for absolute address
range == addr addr OR addr L length
list == list of hex bytes or quoted characters
decimal == 1-9 decimal digits
cc86mon:
NOTE: Before you can use the H command, the monitor extensions must be loaded
(see the LL command on page 3-17).
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I – Information About System
Syntax
I
Description
The Information About System (I) command displays information specific to the
evaluation board running the E86MON software:
cc86mon: i
Module Code Segment/Length
EXTEMON
E000
21C0
E86MON
37FF
773C
Data Segment/Length
37C0
03F0
3F75
08B0
Flash device:
App sectors:
29F800T -- 512K bytes organized as 256K X 16
0 at 8000, 1 at 9000, 2 at A000, 3 at B000,
4 at C000, 5 at D000, 6 at E000, 7 at F000
Boot sectors:
8 at F800, 9 at FA00, 10 at FC00
Memory block at 0041:0000, size 377E, owner 0041
cc86mon:
3-14
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
Free data paragraphs: 377e
Current system time: 1442.051
frtbook Page 15 Monday, August 13, 2001 4:07 PM
I – Input
Syntax
I [W] <word>
Description
The Input (I) command followed by a word inputs from a byte-wide port and
displays the results. IW followed by a word inputs from a word-wide port and
displays the results. This command also allows read word access to the processor’s
Peripheral Control Block, which is mapped to the upper portion of I/O space.
cc86mon: j
Change your terminal to desired baudrate, then press ’a’.
cc86mon:
2.0
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J – Autobaud Again
Syntax
J
Description
The Autobaud Again (J) command causes the automatic baud rate detection to
be invoked. When you have entered this command, you can change the terminal’s
baud rate. On the Am186CC/CH/CU, Am186ED, Am186ES, and Am188ES
microcontrollers, you can also connect to the alternate serial port. When the
terminal program is set up properly, type an a to re-establish connection with the
monitor. Note that automatic baud rate detection may not be reliable at baud rates
that are high relative to the CPU frequency and bus width. At a CPU frequency of
40 MHz, Am186CC/CH/CU, Net186, and SD186 boards can reliably detect baud
rates up to 115200. SD188 demonstration boards can reliably detect baud rates up
to 57600.
2.0
ed86mon: J
Change your terminal to desired baudrate, then press ’a’.
ed86mon:
3-16
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L/LL – Load / Load Library
Syntax
L [G] [decimal]
LL
Description
The Load (L) command loads a previously stored .EXE file from Flash memory
to RAM. If no parameters are given, a list of currently stored programs is displayed.
If a decimal number is given, the corresponding program is copied from Flash
memory to RAM. Programs are stored to Flash memory using the W command,
and can be made bootable with the P AutoRun command. The LG command is
equivalent to the L command immediately followed by a G command (e.g., to load
and run the program).
cc86mon: L
1
8000:0000
cc86mon:L G 1
seconds
2.0
The Load Library (LL) command loads the extensions (EXTEM332.HEX) into
memory. Loading extensions provides support for a DOS emulator (Int21), and
command-line editor (additional LED patterns).
If the extensions are not loaded in flash, they can be downloaded using the
EXTEM332.HEX file supplied on the E86MON software disk. See Chapter 2,
“Downloading Files” for more information.
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M – Move Memory
Syntax
M
<range>
<address>
Description
The Move Memory (M) command moves the contents of memory located in an
address range to memory beginning at address.
74 68 69
00 00 00
73 21 00 00 00 00 00 00
00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
Move this!......
................
74 68 69
74 68 69
73 21 00 00 00 00 00 00
73 21 00 00 00 00 00 00
Move this!......
Move this!......
2.0
cc86mon: d 41:0 L20
0041:0000
4d 6f 76 65 20
0041:0010
00 00 00 00 00
cc86mon: m 41:0 41:a 41:10
cc86mon: d 41:0 L20
0041:0000
4d 6f 76 65 20
0041:0010
4d 6f 76 65 20
cc86mon:
3-18
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N – Name Arguments
Syntax
N
<ascii>
Description
The Name Arguments (N) command allows command-line arguments to be
passed to loaded programs. The syntax is slightly different than DOS debug in that
the actual program name should not be entered, only the arguments. AMD
recommends that test programs do not rely on command-line arguments as it may
be easy to forget the N command.
2.0
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O – Output Word
Syntax
O <word> <byte>
O [W] <word> <byte>|<word>
Description
The Output Word (O) command outputs the second parameter (byte or word) to
the port given in the first parameter. Use OW for word-wide outputs, O for bytewide outputs.
2.0
cc86mon: OW ff80 abcd
cc86mon:
3-20
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P – Boot Parameters
Syntax
P
[VariableName DecimalValue]
Description
The Boot Parameters (P) command sets or displays information about the boot
parameters of the system. The monitor stores these values in the Flash memory
device between the end of the monitor and absolute address FFF00. Variables can
be altered around five hundred times before this area becomes full.
2.0
cc86mon: p
baudrate
cpuspeed
led
refresh_hz
waitstates
autorun
monitorport
protectflash
cc86mon:
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
19200
40000000
1
64000
0
0
1
000e0000
Note that because you cannot execute from the Flash memory device while
modifying it, this command moves the monitor to RAM and then back, destroying
any user program already loaded.
E86MON supports the following permanent variables:
autorun
When this is non-zero, it selects which .EXE program to load from
the Flash memory and run at boot time. The W command is used to
store .EXE programs into Flash memory. The .EXE programs can be
listed using the L command.
baudrate
This defines the default baudrate used if an a is not detected during
the 3-second autobaud period at boot. (Note that the baud rate is not
correct unless cpuspeed is also correct.)
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
3-21
cpuspeed
This defines the speed of the CPU to the monitor. This is required for
correct default baud rate set up and correct DRAM refresh rate
selection (Am186CC/CH/CU and Am186ED devices only). It is also
used to set the internal timer tick correctly. The internal timer tick is
used by benchmark programs and also governs the speed of the LED
patterns.
hhkey
This should only be nonzero when the monitor is running on a
Hamilton-Hallmark “keychain” system. It sets up various GPIOs
correctly for this system.
led
When this is nonzero, the monitor uses the LEDs to show current
status. When this is zero, the monitor does not change the LEDs. Set
this to zero if the LED GPIOs are connected to other hardware and
you do not want the E86MON software disturbing that hardware.
refresh_hz
This value is useful only for Am186CC/CH/CU and Am186ED
devices. It defines the rate at which refresh cycles occur. The default
rate is 64 KHz, which provides 512 refresh cycles every 8 ms. Note
that the actual refresh rate is not correct unless the cpuspeed
permanent variable matches the actual CPU clock speed.
waitstates
This value is used only on Am186CC/CH/CU and Am186ED devices
to select wait states for the LCS DRAM.
protectflash Locations between this variable and the monitor upgrade sector
(Figure 1-2 on page 1-5) are not erased by the XA command. A
specific sector can still be erased with the X <sector number>
command.
3-22
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R – Display/Alter Register
Syntax
R [RegisterName]
R F [FlagName]
Description
The R command with no parameters displays the current state of all registers and
flags. R can also be used to set the value of any register or flag bit.
To examine a register, use R RegisterName. For example, R AX prints the current
value of the AX register and prompts you for a new value.
To change a register without examining it, use R RegisterName Word. For example,
R AX 5000 changes the value of AX to 5000h.
2.0
To examine the flags, use R F. This prints the current flag values and prompts you
for a two-letter code to change them. Flag names are the same as those used by
DOS debug. If you use an incorrect flag name, the E86MON software prompts
you with a list of valid flag names.
To change a flag without examining it, use R F FlagName. For example, R F DN
sets the direction flag so that the direction flag is “down”.
Note that in most situations, spaces are optional. The commands described in the
previous few paragraphs could be entered by you as RAX, RAX5000, RF, and
RFDN.
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S – Search for List
Syntax
S <range> <list>
Description
The Search for List (S) command searches a given range for a list of bytes. The
starting address of each occurrence of the list within the range is displayed. There
is no display if the list is not found within the range.
2.0
cc86mon: s f8000 l200 "AMD"
0/00f8002
cc86mon:
3-24
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T – Trace
Syntax
T [=address] [word]
Description
The Trace (T) command traces or steps through the execution of a program. Either
single or multiple instructions can be executed by using the optional word
parameter.
The starting CS and IP values can be set with the optional address parameter.
When the T command is entered, the Single-Step Flag (TF) of the Processor Status
Flags (FLAGS) register is set, the stack is restored, and execution is resumed for
one instruction. At this point a trace interrupt occurs, the registers are pushed back
onto the stack, and the E86MON software prompt is displayed.
2.0
After the completion of the T command, the address at the stopped location is
displayed on the screen. If the word parameter was entered, the trace command
displays each address traced.
cc86mon: t =410:0
0410:0002
AX=1234 BX=0000
DS=0041 ES=0041
cc86mon: t
AX=1234 BX=0000
DS=0041 ES=0041
cc86mon:
2
CX=0000
SS=7F51
DX=0000
CS=0410
SP=03FA
IP=0004
BP=0000 SI=0000 DI=0000
NV UP EI PL NZ NA PO CY
CX=0000
SS=7F51
DX=0000
CS=0410
SP=03FA
IP=0006
BP=0000 SI=0000 DI=0000
NV UP EI PL NZ NA PE NC
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W – Write to Flash
Syntax
W [mnemonic name]
Description
cc86mon: w seconds
Begin hex file transfer (using XON/XOFF) now...
Transferring hex file (Press Esc to abort)............................
Device programmed successfully
Note -- the flash operation used (overwrote) the RAM.
cc86mon: l
1
8000:0000
seconds
cc86mon:
3-26
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
The Write to Flash (W) command initiates a download of a relocatable .HEX file
(generated by running the host program MAKEHEX on a DOS executable) to the
Flash memory device. The mnemonic name can be given so that the program can
be identified later if multiple programs are stored in the Flash memory device.
Programs are stored starting at the lowest address of the Flash memory device. Use
the L command later to move a program into RAM for execution, or use the
P AutoRun command to cause the monitor to load and run a program at boot time.
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X – Exterminate Flash
Syntax
X <sector number> | A
Description
The Exterminate Flash (X) command erases one of the sectors in the application
area of the Flash memory, or, if A is given, erases all of them (unless the protectflash
variable is used; see page 3-22). The I command can be used to retrieve information
about the sectoring of the Flash memory device. Use 0 to refer to the first sector,
1 to the next one, etc.
cc86mon: xa
Erasing flash sector at 80000....
Erasing flash sector at 90000...
Erasing flash sector at A0000...
Erasing flash sector at B0000...
Erasing flash sector at C0000...
Erasing flash sector at D0000...
Erasing flash sector at E0000... Protected! (not erased by XA)
Erasing flash sector at F0000...
2.0
Note -- the flash operation used (overwrote) the RAM.
cc86mon:
Note that because you cannot execute from the Flash memory device while
modifying it, this command moves the E86MON software to RAM and then back,
destroying any user program already loaded into RAM.
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
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Z – Upgrade Monitor / Restore Flash / Lock Monitor in RAM
Syntax
Z
Description
The Upgrade Monitor (Z) command upgrades the boot monitor. It can be used
for three purposes:
1. To upgrade the monitor:
From a monitor that is running at the upgrade location (normally F0000h, but
depends on the Flash memory type), type Z to upgrade the boot monitor in the
same Flash memory device.
From a monitor that is running at the boot monitor location (F8000h), type Z
to replace a dead monitor in a different Flash memory device (on boards that
support a CS switch from one Flash memory device to another, such as the
Am186CC/CH/CU, Net186, and SD186ED boards).
3. To lock the monitor in RAM:
Type Z, then enter N at the prompt. The monitor copies itself to RAM and
remains executing from RAM. Extensions are not relocated to RAM.
See “Upgrading the E86MON Software” on page 2-5 for more information.
3-28
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
2. To restore Flash:
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Appendix A
Notes on Terminal Emulators
This appendix provides information on using the E86MON software with various
terminal emulators.
Most Windows programs send a break by using Ctrl-Break.
DOS PROCOMM PLUS sends a break by using Alt-B.
The HyperTerm program that comes with Windows 95 and Windows NT works
with the E86MON software, but other commercially available programs work
better.
HyperTerm has the following problems:
2.0
• Especially if the UART FIFO is enabled, priority is given to receive, making it
difficult to abort a long dump done in error. Shutting off the UART FIFO helps
this dramatically.
• The only way to abort a file transmission seems to be to Disconnect and
Reconnect. Unfortunately, when you do this, HyperTerm forgets it has the file
open, and you have to exit and restart HyperTerm to close the file.
• For transmitting .HEX files, the baud rate seems to be immaterial to HyperTerm.
Unless your computer is exceptionally fast, transfers at 115200 bps operate no
faster than at 19200.
• HyperTerm cannot send a raw ASCII file without either stripping or adding
linefeeds, but this limitation does not affect version 3.2.1 or later of E86MON.
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
A-1
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A-2
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Appendix B
Utilities Included With the
E86MON Software
This appendix provides a description of the MAKEHEX and EDITMON utilities
that are included with the E86MON software.
The MAKEHEX Utility
MAKEHEX is a DOS utility program included with the E86MON software both
in C source form and as an executable (.EXE) file.
2.0
The MAKEHEX utility takes a DOS .EXE, .COM, or .BIN file, and creates a .HEX
file suitable for downloading to the E86MON software. There are two ways to use
MAKEHEX:
MAKEHEX SAMPLE
This takes SAMPLE.COM, SAMPLE.BIN, or SAMPLE.EXE, and creates a
relocatable .HEX file named SAMPLE.HEX. The E86MON software loads this
file straight to RAM, relocates it, and prepares it for running. Alternatively, the W
command accepts this file and stores it to Flash for subsequent copying to RAM.
The second way to use MAKEHEX is:
MAKEHEX SAMPLE <segment>
If a segment is given, the file should not contain any relocation items. MAKEHEX
creates a .HEX file which is located at the given segment. This option is used to
build the E86MON software itself.
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NOTE: The MAKEHEX utility with Version 3.3.x of the monitor has changed
from previous versions. Hex files built with the older (3.2.x) MAKEHEX utility
do not download with the Version 3.3.x monitor. Additionally, the 3.3.x
MAKEHEX files do not execute on a 3.2.x monitor. See Appendix C, “Error
Messages”.
The EDITMON Utility
EDITMON is a DOS utility program included with the E86MON software both in
C source form and as an executable (.EXE) file.
EDITMON is useful for generating a file that is to be burned using a PROM
programmer (e.g., EMON332B.HEX). The makefile of the E86MON software for
the Hamilton-Hallmark Amber reference design uses EDITMON to set the CPU
frequency, and to set the HHKEY permanent variable.
For more information on the EDITMON utility, see Appendix E, “Porting
E86MON Software to Other Environments”.
B-2
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
The EDITMON utility allows editing of the E86MON software permanent
variables inside the .EXE file before the E86MON software is converted using
MAKEHEX.
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Appendix C
Error Messages
This appendix provides an alphabetical listing of error messages generated by the
E86MON software.
Error Messages
‘permvar’ is not a valid permanent variable
The permvar name entered in the P command is not a valid permanent variable
name. Check the spelling and try again. A list of valid permanent variables can be
displayed by typing the P command with no parameters.
2.0
Byte already programmed (erase first)
Use the X command to clear the Flash before programming.
Cannot erase the area you are running from!
You usually encounter this error if you have loaded a copy of the E86MON
software into the application area and are running from it. Press Reset or type
G FFFF0, and type an a within three seconds to execute from the monitor in the
boot location.
Cannot identify device
The E86MON software could not identify the type of Flash on the board.
Cannot modify flash while executing from it
This message should not be seen during normal operation.
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Error Messages (continued)
Cannot modify flash within second monitor invocation (G
FFFF0 to restart monitor)
Cannot update monitor — app boot vector must point to
new monitor
The application boot pointer does not point to the new monitor. Use the XA
command to clear the application boot vector, and download the new monitor again
to cause the application boot vector to be filled in properly.
Cannot update monitor — must update from app flash area
The new monitor is not executing from the correct location (F0000). Use
MAKEHEX to reload at the correct location.
Cannot update monitor — new hardware init code too large
Cannot update monitor — new monitor too large
The new monitor does not fit into the space provided.
Erase operation failed
Your Flash device may require replacement.
.EXE file does not fit in memory
This message is sometimes seen on the SD186ER demonstration boards. Try to
make your program smaller.
File error: Invalid segment or start record at file line
number x.
The MAKEHEX utility with Version 3.3.x of the monitor has changed from
previous versions. Hex files built with the older (3.2.x) MAKEHEX utility do not
download with the Version 3.3.x monitor. Additionally, the 3.3.x MAKEHEX files
do not execute on a 3.2.x monitor. Rebuild your hex file using the new MAKEHEX
utility.
C-2
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
The size of the new hardware initialization area (in EMSTART.ASM) is larger than
224 bytes.
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Error Messages (continued)
Flash not formatted correctly (use XA to erase)
There is not enough unused flash available to hold the relocatable program. Free
up flash by using the XA command.
Help not available — use LL command to load extension
with help
The sector containing the monitor extensions was erased (E0000), or the extensions
were not installed. Download the extensions into Flash.
Insufficient RAM for program’s requirements
A DOS program has requested more RAM memory than is available on the target
hardware.
Invalid checksum at file line number x
2.0
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
Invalid EOF record at file line number x
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
Invalid sector number
Use the I command to determine the number of sectors in the device. The XA
command only erases application sectors.
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Error Messages (continued)
Invalid Segment or start record at file line number x
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
Invalid start location record at file line number x
Memory region out of range: 1/00f0000 20 at file line
number x. Note — the flash operation used (overwrote)
the RAM.
The hex file tried to load Flash to a reserved Flash location.
No program loaded
The default CS:IP register pair, which is set up when the E86MON software is
entered, and whenever a program terminates, points to code that produces this
message when executed.
Non-hex character in record at file line number x
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
C-4
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
frtbook Page 5 Monday, August 13, 2001 4:07 PM
Error Messages (continued)
Note — the flash operation used (overwrote) the RAM
This is simply an informational message indicating that the contents of the RAM
may no longer be what you expect.
Flash programming code must be executed from RAM because code cannot be
fetched from FLASH while flash is being programmed. Because of this, E86MON
is copied to RAM prior to any flash write operation. This will overwrite any prior
RAM contents.
Program not found in flash
A program corresponding to the parameter given in the L command was not found.
Use the L command with no parameter to display a list of loaded programs.
Program operation failed
Your Flash device may require replacement.
2.0
Record does not start with colon at file line number x
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
Record Length Incorrect at file line number x
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
The current value of ’permvar’ does not match its boot
value.
You tested a permanent variable change, and then tried to update the boot area of
the Flash memory. Set all permanent variables the way you want them (from the
boot monitor) before running and updating the E86MON software from the
application area of the Flash memory.
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Error Messages (continued)
The default value of ’permvar’ cannot be updated.
You updated the boot monitor, ran it, changed a permanent variable, and are now
trying to update it again. Use the XA command and then download the new monitor
again before you update the boot monitor.
Unexpected Sentinel
This message indicates an error in processing Flash vector information.
Unknown record type at file line number x
This message indicates a problem with your .HEX file or that line noise was
encountered during the download. Some processor variants, especially on early
SD186EM and SD188EM systems, are susceptible to minute baud rate variations
between the board and the terminal. If you suspect this is the case, set your terminal
program for 2 stop bits.
An ASCII control character (e.g., escape) was received during the download.
You must be running from the boot monitor to update
permanent variables.
You are running the E86MON software from a RAM copy or from the application
area of the Flash memory. Press reset, or type G FFFF0, and type an a within three
seconds to run from the boot area of the Flash memory.
W command requires relocatable file
After entering the W command, you downloaded a .HEX file that was not created
from a .EXE file using the supplied MAKEHEX utility.
C-6
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
User aborted download at file line number x
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Appendix D
DOS Emulation Support
This appendix provides a description of the DOS emulation environment supported
by the E86MON software.
The E86MON software supplies a minimal DOS emulation environment for
running converted .EXE files. When an AMD-extended .HEX file is downloaded,
a Program Segment Prefix (PSP) is generated for the file. Most of the PSP’s fields
that are examined by programs are filled in, and the program is relocated into RAM.
One difference from normal DOS environments is that the default near heap is very
small, especially on SD186ER demonstration boards. Use the far heap if this is a
problem (e.g., _fmalloc).
2.0
The E86MON software also supports DOS emulation for ROM images. When a
ROM image makes its first int 21h call, the E86MON software enables interrupts
for the serial port and timer (which would not have been enabled if the E86MON
software jumped straight to the application vector at reset). Then, the E86MON
software is ready to provide services.
The following DOS interrupts are supported:
Int 20h
Int 21h, service 00h
Int 21h, service 01h
Int 21h, service 02h
Int 21h, service 03h
Int 21h, service 04h
Int 21h, service 06h
Int 21h, service 07h
Int 21h, service 08h
Int 21h, service 09h
Int 21h, service 0Ah
Int 21h, service 0Bh
Int 21h, service 0Ch
Int 21h, service 25h
Terminate program execution
Terminate program execution
Character input with echo
Character output
Aux input (reads LED code)
Aux output (writes LED code)
Direct console I/O
Raw input
Raw input
Display string terminated with '$'
Buffered console input
Check Keyboard Status
Flush and execute keyboard function
Set interrupt vector
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Int 21h, service 2Ah
Int 21h, service 2Ch
Int 21h, service 2Dh
Int 21h, service 30h
Int 21h, service 35h
Int 21h, service 3Fh
Int 21h, service 40h
Int 21h, service 44h
Int 21h, service 48h
Int 21h, service 49h
Int 21h, service 4Ah
Int 21h, service 4Ch
Get date (returns dummy date)
Get time
Set time
Get version (returns 2.10)
Get interrupt vector
File read (only supported on console)
File write (only supported on console)
Get device information (only supported on console)
Subfunction 0; Get device data
Allocate memory
Free memory
Resize memory
Terminate process with return code
In many cases, execution of the int 21h function is not critical to the operation of
the downloaded program, and you can simply use the G command to resume
program execution. However, if the execution of the unsupported int 21h function
is critical to operation of the downloaded program, you must either modify the
program to avoid execution of the unsupported function, or modify the E86MON
software to add support for this function.
D-2
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
If a downloaded program attempts to invoke an unsupported int 21h function,
execution of the program is halted, and the E86MON software displays its
command prompt. At this point, you can examine the registers in the downloaded
program to determine which unsupported int 21h function was invoked.
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Appendix E
Porting E86MON Software to
Other Environments
Although AMD only supports the use of the E86MON software on the AMD
Am186 and Am188 family of boards, and assumes no liability for improper
operation of the software, many customers find it advantageous to use the E86MON
software for initially bringing up the hardware on their own designs.
Historically, customers wishing to use the E86MON software have modified the
source code to adapt the software to their designs. However, versions 3.2.1 and
later of the E86MON software can be used to bring up and test most hardware
designs without modifying the source code, by using EDITMON.EXE to set the
E86MON software’s boot parameters.
2.0
If you are using Version 3.2.1 and later of the E86MON software, your \OUT
subdirectory contains the files EDITMON.EXE and EMON332.EXE. The
following command sequence modifies EMON332.EXE to change the CPU speed
to 20 MHz, and the baud rate to 9600:
EDITMON EMON332 CPUSPEED 20000000
EDITMON EMON332 BAUDRATE 9600
When you have done this, you can use MAKEHEX.EXE to convert
EMON332.EXE into EMON332.HEX. You want to use the segment parameter of
MAKEHEX to locate the E86MON software in the top 32K of the device image:
MAKEHEX
MAKEHEX
MAKEHEX
MAKEHEX
EMON332 7800
EMON332 3800
EMON332 1800
EMON332 800
–
–
–
–
For
For
For
For
512-KByte devices
256-KByte devices
128-KByte devices
64-KByte devices
Before downloading EMON332.HEX to the device programmer, you should
ensure that all memory in the programmer is erased to FFs. If this is not done, the
E86MON software may assume that there is an application program loaded and
may try to jump to it after booting.
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At boot, the E86MON software automatically determines the Flash memory type
and size (for most AMD Flash devices) and automatically determines the RAM
size. If the E86MON software is programmed into an EPROM or a non-AMD
Flash memory device, it does not perform operations that require programming
the Flash memory, but can still perform RAM operations.
The E86MON software sets UCS to cover the upper 512K of the address space,
and sets LCS to cover the size of the RAM in the lower address space.
If the Flash memory device is smaller than 512K, the device is aliased multiple
times throughout the upper 512K of the address space.
If source code modification of the E86MON software is required, see the file list
in the README.TXT file to help determine which files require modification. Also,
if you feel the modifications would be beneficial to others, please contact AMD
EPD to submit them for possible inclusion in subsequent E86MON software
versions. For information on how to contact AMD, see the numbers on the back
of your manual.
E-2
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
If your application requires use of MCS in the upper 512K of the address space,
you should first reprogram the size of UCS to match the actual Flash size, and then
program MCS to the desired address. Otherwise, there is no need to change the
programming of UCS.
frtbook Page 1 Monday, August 13, 2001 4:07 PM
Index
A
alter memory (a) command, 3-10
architecture, 1-4
arithmetic, hex math command, 3-13
autobaud again (j) command, 3-16
automatic baud rate detection, 1-4
autorun variable, 3-21
ax register, 3-23
B
2.0
baud rate
autobaud again (j) command, 3-16
automatic detection, 1-4
baudrate variable, 3-21
baudrate variable, 3-21
begin download (;) command, 3-4
boot parameters (p) command, 3-21
bp register, 3-23
break key, 3-6
breakpoint (b) command, 3-7
bx register, 3-23
C
change memory
enter, 3-10
fill, 3-11
move, 3-18
CodeKit software, iii
command parameters, 3-2
comment (;) statement, 3-5
compare memory (c) command, 3-8
conventions, documentation, xiii
cpuspeed variable, 3-22
cs register, 3-23
cx register, 3-23
D
data bits setting, 1-2
di register, 3-23
display memory, 3-9
display/alter register (r) command, 3-23
documentation
conventions, xiii
description of, x
reference material, xii
support, iii
DOS
automatically starting, 3-21
command line arguments, 3-19
downloading exe files, 2-4
interrupt emulation, D-1
load program, 3-17
name program in Flash memory, 3-26
download (;) command, 3-4
downloading
exe files, 2-4
hex files, 2-2
DRAM memory format figure, 1-7
ds register, 3-23
dump memory (d) command, 3-9
dx register, 3-23
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E
G
E86MON software
documentation, x
features, x
location in memory, 1-7
overview, ix
porting, E-1
upgrade, 2-5
edit memory
enter, 3-10
fill, 3-11
move, 3-18
editmon program
description, B-2
example, E-1
emulator, terminal, A-1
enter memory (e) command, 3-10
erase flash, 3-27
error messages, C-1
es register, 3-23
executable files, downloading, 2-4
execute program, 3-12
extended hex files, 2-2
exterminate flash (x) command, 3-27
getting started, 1-2
go (g) command, 3-7, 3-12
F
features, E86MON software, x
fill memory (f) command, 3-11
find string in memory, 3-24
flags register, 3-23
Flash memory
erase, 3-27
format, 1-5
information, 3-14
flow control setting, 1-2
Index-2
H
help (h) command, 3-13
hex files, downloading, 2-2
hex math (h) command, 3-13
hhkey variable, 3-22
info about system (i) command, 3-14
input (i) command, 3-15
Intel hex files, 2-2
interrupting execution, 3-6
interrupts
DOS emulation, D-1
vectors used by E86MON, 1-6
io
input, 3-15
organization, 1-7
output, 3-20
ip register, 3-23
L
LCS, 1-7
led variable, 3-22
literature support, iii
load (l) command, 3-17
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
I
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M
R
makehex program
description, B-1
using, 2-4
version, 2-3
math, hex math command, 3-13
memory
Flash organization, 1-5, 1-7
RAM organization, 1-6, 1-7
messages, C-1
mnemonic name, 3-26
monitor location, 3-14
monitor size, 3-14
move memory (m) command, 3-18
RAM location, 3-14
RAM size, 3-14
refresh_hz variable, 3-22
register (r) command, display/alter, 3-23
reset processing, 1-3
run program, 3-12
N
2.0
name arguments (n) command, 3-19
name program in Flash memory, 3-26
O
output word (o) command, 3-20
P
parameters
boot, 3-21
command, 3-2
parity setting, 1-2
peripheral control block (PCB), 1-7
port settings, 3-21
porting E86MON software, E-1
power-on processing, 1-3
program
autorun, 3-21
load, 3-17
protectflash variable, 3-22
S
sample download files, 2-2
search for list (s) command, 3-24
serial connection, 3-16
set break point, 3-7
si register, 3-23
single step, 3-25
sp register, 3-23
ss register, 3-23
startup program, 1-3
status
register, 3-23
system, 3-14
stop bit setting, 1-2
support, iii
syntax, 3-2
system information, 3-14
T
technical support, iii
terminal emulators, A-1
third-party support, iii
time, 3-14
trace (t) command, 3-7, 3-25
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U
UCS, 1-7
upgrade E86MON software, 2-5
upgrade monitor (z) command, 3-28
utilities
editmon, B-2
makehex, B-1
V
variables, boot, 3-21
version number, 1-3
waitstates variable, 3-22
welcome screen, 1-2
write to flash (w) command, 3-26
WWW support, iii
X
xon/xoff flow control, 1-2
Index-4
E86MON™ Software User’s Manual
2.0
W