ETC 22004B

Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
User’s Manual
Order #22004B
© 2001 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
The contents of this document are provided in connection with Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ("AMD") products. AMD makes no representations
or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this publication and reserves the right to make changes to specifications and product descriptions at any time without notice. No license, whether express, implied, arising by estoppel or otherwise, to any intellectual property rights is granted by this publication. Except as set forth in AMD’s Standard Terms and Conditions of Sale, AMD assumes no
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widely available in the general marketplace.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
XXIII
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Purpose of this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Overview of this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Related Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv
AMD Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiv
Additional Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
Documentation Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
CHAPTER 1
ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
1-1
1.1 Élan™SC520 Microcontroller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.1.1 Distinctive Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.3 Architectural Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.3.1 Industry-Standard x86 Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.3.2 AMDebug™ Technology for Advanced Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
1.3.3 Industry-Standard PCI Bus Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.4 High-Performance SDRAM Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.5 ROM/Flash Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.6 Flexible Address-Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.7 General-Purpose (GP) Bus Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.3.8 Clock Generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.3.9 Integrated Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.3.10 JTAG Boundary Scan Test Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
1.3.11 System Testing and Debugging Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.4 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.4.1 Smart Residential Gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.4.2 Thin Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1.4.3 Digital Set Top Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
1.4.4 Telephone Line Concentrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
CHAPTER 2
PIN INFORMATION
2-1
2.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.2 Logic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.3 Signal Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM INITIALIZATION
3-1
3.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.1 Native Embedded Initialization Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.2 BIOS Initialization Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.1.3 Memory-Mapped Configuration Region (MMCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
3.1.4 Reset Event . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
3.1.5 Reset Vector and Reset Segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5
3.2 Configuring the SDRAM Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
3.3 Identifying the CPU Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3.4 Setting the CPU Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3.5 Configuring External GP Bus Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
3.6 Configuring the Pin Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
3.7 Configuring the Programmable Address Region (PAR) Registers . . . . . . . 3-8
3.7.1 Specifying Pages and Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9
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3.7.2
Address Region Attributes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.7.2.1 Write-Protect Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.7.2.2 Cacheability Control Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.7.2.3 Code Execution Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.7.2.4 Performance Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
3.7.3 PAR Register Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3.7.4 External GP Bus Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
3.7.4.1 Single Device (an A/D Converter) Using
One Chip Select. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.7.4.2 Single Device That Performs Its Own Decode . . . . . . . 3-14
3.7.4.3 Multiple Devices On One Chip Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
3.7.5 PCI Bus Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.7.5.1 VGA Controller on the PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.7.5.2 Network Adapter for Remote Program Loading . . . . . . 3-16
3.7.6 External ROM Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
3.7.6.1 Boot ROM Device Mapping for BIOS Shadowing . . . . 3-17
3.7.6.2 Two Banks of Flash for an Execute-In-Place (XIP)
Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17
3.7.7 SDRAM Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
3.7.7.1 Setting Up DMA Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
3.7.7.2 Write-Protected Code Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
3.8 Configuring the Interrupt Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.8.1 Edge-Sensitive or Level-Triggered Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.8.2 Interrupt Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.8.3 Interrupt Polarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.9 Configuring the Programmable I/O Pins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.10 Configuring the PCI Host Bridge and Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.11 Disabling Internal Peripherals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
CHAPTER 4
vi
SYSTEM ADDRESS MAPPING
4-1
4.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.2 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
4.3 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
4.3.1 Programming External Memory, Buses, and Chip Selects . . . . . . 4-4
4.3.2 Programmable Address Region (PAR) Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.3.3 Memory Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4.3.3.1 SDRAM Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4.3.3.2 ROM/Flash Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
4.3.3.3 GP Bus Memory Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.3.3.4 PCI Bus Memory Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.3.3.5 Memory-Mapped Configuration Region (MMCR)
Registers Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
4.3.4 I/O Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
4.3.4.1 Configuration Base Address (CBAR) Register . . . . . . 4-11
4.3.4.2 PCI Configuration Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
4.3.4.3 PCI I/O Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
4.3.4.4 PC/AT-Compatible I/O Peripherals Region. . . . . . . . . . 4-13
4.3.4.5 GP Bus I/O Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
4.3.5 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
4.3.5.1 Configuring ROM/Flash Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
4.3.5.2 Configuring SDRAM Address Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
4.3.5.3 Configuring GP Bus Peripheral Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16
4.3.5.4 Configuring the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
for Windows® Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
4.3.5.5 Configuring PCI Bus Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
4.3.6 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
4.3.7 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18
4.4 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 5
CLOCK GENERATION AND CONTROL
5-1
5.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.3.1 Clock Pin Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.3.2 Selecting a Crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
5.3.2.1 Running the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
at 33.333 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.3.3 Bypassing Internal Oscillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
5.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
5.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.5.1 Internal Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.5.1.1 CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.5.1.2 PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.5.1.3 SDRAM Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.5.1.4 ROM/Flash Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.5.1.5 GP Bus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
5.5.1.6 GP-DMA Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1.7 Programmable Interval Timer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1.8 General-Purpose Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1.9 Software Timer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1.10 Watchdog Timer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1.11 Real-Time Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1.12 UART Serial Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.1.13 Synchronous Serial Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
5.5.2 Using the CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
5.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
CHAPTER 6
RESET GENERATION
6-1
6.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
6.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
6.5.1 System Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
6.5.2 System Reset with SDRAM Retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
6.5.3 Soft CPU Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.5.4 GP Bus Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.5.5 PCI Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.5.6 RTC Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
6.5.7 Determining Reset Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
6.5.8 CPU A20 Gate Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
6.5.9 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
6.5.10 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
6.5.11 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
6.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
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CHAPTER 7
Am5X86® CPU
7-1
7.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.3 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.4.1 Floating Point Unit (FPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
7.4.2 Cache Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
7.4.3 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
7.4.4 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.4.5 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.5 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.5.1 Hard CPU Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.5.2 Soft CPU Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
CHAPTER 8
SYSTEM ARBITRATION
8-1
8.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.3 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
8.4.1 Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
8.4.1.1 Nonconcurrent Arbitration Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
8.4.1.2 Concurrent Arbitration Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
8.4.2 CPU Bus Arbiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
8.4.2.1 CPU Arbitration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
8.4.2.2 CPU Cache Snooping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
8.4.2.3 Accessing the PCI Host Bridge Target. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
8.4.2.4 GP Bus DMA Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
8.4.2.5 Arbitration During Clock Speed Changes . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
8.4.3 PCI Bus Arbiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
8.4.3.1 PCI Bus Arbitration Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
8.4.3.2 Bus Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
8.4.3.3 Rearbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
8.4.4 Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
8.4.4.1 CPU Bus Arbitration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
8.4.4.2 CPU Bus Cache Write-Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
8.4.4.3 CPU-to-PCI Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14
8.4.4.4 PCI Bus Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
8.4.4.5 PCI Bus Arbitration Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
8.4.4.6 Nonconcurrent Mode Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
8.4.5 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
8.4.6 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19
8.4.7 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
8.4.7.1 Simple Rotating Priority Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
8.4.7.2 High-Priority Queue Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
8.4.7.3 Low-Priority Queue Latency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
8.4.7.4 CPU Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
8.4.7.5 Nonconcurrent Arbitration Mode Latency . . . . . . . . . . 8-21
8.4.7.6 Concurrent Arbitration Mode Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22
8.4.7.7 Concurrent Arbitration Mode Bus Parking Latency . . . 8-22
8.5 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-22
CHAPTER 9
PCI BUS HOST BRIDGE
9-1
9.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
9.3.1 PCI Clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
9.3.1.1 Running the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
at 33.333 MHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
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9.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
9.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
9.5.1 Unsupported PCI Bus Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
9.5.1.1 Unsupported PCI Bus Configuration Registers . . . . . . . 9-9
9.5.2 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
9.5.2.1 Generating PCI Bus Configuration Cycles . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
9.5.3 Élan™SC520 Microcontroller’s Host Bridge as PCI Bus Master . 9-11
9.5.3.1 Write Posting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
9.5.3.2 Read Cycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
9.5.3.3 Delayed Transaction Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
9.5.3.4 Host Bridge Master Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
9.5.4 Élan™SC520 Microcontroller’s Host Bridge as PCI Bus Target . . 9-18
9.5.4.1 PCI Host Bridge Target Address Space. . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
9.5.4.2 PCI Bus Command Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
9.5.4.3 DEVSEL Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
9.5.4.4 Delayed Transaction Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
9.5.4.5 Address FIFO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
9.5.4.6 PCI Host Bridge FIFOs and Prefetching . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
9.5.4.7 Burst Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21
9.5.4.8 Maintaining Data Coherency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21
9.5.4.9 PCI Host Bridge Target Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22
9.5.5 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-27
9.5.6 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28
9.5.6.1 Master Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28
9.5.6.2 Target Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28
9.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-29
CHAPTER 10 SDRAM CONTROLLER
10-1
10.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.3.1 SDRAM Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
10.3.2 SDRAM Clocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
10.3.3 SDRAM Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
10.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
10.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
10.5.1 SDRAM Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
10.5.2 SDRAM Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12
10.5.2.1 Supported SDRAM Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13
10.5.2.2 Page Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
10.5.3 Error Correction Code (ECC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
10.5.4 Buffering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17
10.5.5 SDRAM Control Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
10.5.5.1 Refresh Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
10.5.5.2 Drive-Strength Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
10.5.5.3 Write Buffer Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19
10.5.5.4 Operation Mode Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
10.5.6 SDRAM Timing Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
10.5.6.1 CAS Latency (CL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-20
10.5.6.2 RAS Precharge (TRP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21
10.5.6.3 RAS-to-CAS Delay (TRCD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21
10.5.6.4 RAS-to-RAS or Auto-Refresh-to-RAS (TRC) . . . . . . . 10-21
10.5.6.5 Minimum RAS (TRAS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
10.5.7 Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
10.5.7.1 SDRAM Burst Read Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22
10.5.7.2 SDRAM Write Cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-23
10.5.7.3 ECC SDRAM Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24
10.5.7.4 SDRAM Auto Refresh Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26
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10.5.7.5 SDRAM Mode Register Access Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27
10.5.8 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27
10.5.9 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28
10.5.9.1 ECC Errors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28
10.5.9.2 Buffer Disabling During SDRAM Configuration . . . . . 10-28
10.5.9.3 Write Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28
10.5.10 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28
10.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-29
10.6.1 Programmable Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-29
10.6.2 SDRAM Device Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30
10.6.2.1 Operation Mode Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-30
10.6.2.2 NOP Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31
10.6.2.3 Precharge Command. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31
10.6.2.4 Auto Refresh Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31
10.6.2.5 Mode Register Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31
10.6.3 Boot Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32
10.6.4 SDRAM Sizing Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-32
10.6.4.1 Determining the Number of Columns
for an External Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-33
10.6.4.2 Determining the Number of Internal Banks . . . . . . . . 10-34
10.6.4.3 Determining the True External Bank Ending Address 10-35
CHAPTER 11 WRITE BUFFER AND READ BUFFER
11-1
11.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
11.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
11.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
11.5.1 Write Buffer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
11.5.1.1 Write Buffer Disabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
11.5.1.2 Write Buffer Enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
11.5.1.3 Write Buffer Watermark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
11.5.2 Read Buffer and the Read-Ahead Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
11.5.2.1 Read-Ahead Feature Disabled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
11.5.2.2 Read-Ahead Feature Enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-10
11.5.3 DMA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11
11.5.4 PCI Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
11.5.4.1 Write Cycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
11.5.4.2 Read Cycles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12
11.5.5 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
11.5.6 SDRAM Bandwidth Improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13
11.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15
CHAPTER 12 ROM/FLASH CONTROLLER
12-1
12.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
12.3.1 Voltage Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.5.1 ROM Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.5.1.1 Supported Device Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
12.5.2 ROM Control and Timing Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
12.5.2.1 ROM Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
12.5.2.2 ROM Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
12.5.2.3 Operating Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-7
12.5.2.4 Access Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
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12.5.3 Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
12.5.3.1 Single CPU Read Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
12.5.3.2 Page-Mode Read Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
12.5.3.3 Cache-Line Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
12.5.3.4 Writing to Flash Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
12.5.4 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
12.5.4.1 Address Decoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
12.5.4.2 Programming Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
12.5.5 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-13
12.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
CHAPTER 13 GENERAL-PURPOSE BUS CONTROLLER
13-1
13.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-1
13.3.1 GP Bus Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.3.2 Voltage Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
13.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
13.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-6
13.5.1 Programmable Bus Interface Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
13.5.1.1 Timing Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-7
13.5.1.2 Using GPRDY with Programmable Timing. . . . . . . . . . 13-8
13.5.1.3 Using GP Bus Echo Mode with Programmable Timing 13-8
13.5.2 I/O-Mapped and Memory-Mapped Device Support . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.5.3 Chip Select Qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.5.4 Data Sizing and Unaligned Accesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
13.5.5 Sharing the Address and Data Bus
with the ROM/Flash Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
13.5.6 GP Bus Echo Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
13.5.7 DMA Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
13.5.8 Usage Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
13.5.8.1 Compatibility with Common ISA Devices . . . . . . . . . . 13-11
13.5.8.2 Interfacing with a Super I/O Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
13.5.8.3 Interfacing with an AMD Enhanced
Serial Communications Controller (8 MHz) . . . . . . . . 13-14
13.5.9 Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
13.5.9.1 8-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
13.5.9.2 16-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . 13-17
13.5.9.3 16-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . 13-17
13.5.9.4 32-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . 13-18
13.5.9.5 32-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . 13-18
13.5.9.6 8-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . 13-19
13.5.9.7 GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16 Timing. . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19
13.5.9.8 Wait States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20
13.5.10 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
13.5.11 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
13.5.11.1 8/16-Bit GP Bus Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
13.5.11.2 Slow GP Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
13.5.11.3 Noncacheable GP Bus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
13.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-22
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CHAPTER 14 GP BUS DMA CONTROLLER
14-1
14.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1
14.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
14.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
14.4.1 Memory-Mapped Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
14.4.2 Direct-Mapped Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
14.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-8
14.5.1 GP-DMA Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-8
14.5.1.1 GP-DMA Initiators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9
14.5.1.2 GP-DMA Channel Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10
14.5.2 Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10
14.5.2.1 Normal GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10
14.5.2.2 Enhanced GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
14.5.3 Addressing GP-DMA Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
14.5.3.1 Addressing In Normal GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
14.5.3.2 Addressing In Enhanced GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . 14-12
14.5.4 GP-DMA Transfer Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
14.5.4.1 Single Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
14.5.4.2 Demand Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
14.5.4.3 Block Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13
14.5.4.4 Transfer Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13
14.5.4.5 Automatic Initialization Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-14
14.5.4.6 Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15
14.5.4.7 Buffer Chaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-15
14.5.5 Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16
14.5.5.1 GP Bus I/O to SDRAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16
14.5.5.2 GP-DMA Read with Cache Hit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-17
14.5.6 GP Bus Echo Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-17
14.5.7 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18
14.5.8 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18
14.5.9 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18
14.5.10 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18
14.5.10.1 Nonpreemptive Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18
14.5.10.2 Preemptive Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19
14.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19
14.6.1 Example Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19
14.6.1.1 Configuring an 8-Bit Channel
in Normal GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-19
14.6.1.2 Configuring a 16-Bit Channel
in Normal GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20
14.6.1.3 Configuring an 8-Bit Channel
in Enhanced GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-20
14.6.1.4 Configuring a 16-Bit Channel
in Enhanced GP-DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-21
CHAPTER 15 PROGRAMMABLE INTERRUPT CONTROLLER
15-1
15.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-1
15.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
15.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-2
15.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
15.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
15.5.1 Interrupt Flow Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-7
15.5.2 Interrupt Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
15.5.2.1 Hardware-Generated Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-8
15.5.3 Interrupt Source Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
15.5.3.1 Polarity Inversion of Interrupt Requests . . . . . . . . . . . 15-10
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15.5.3.2 PC/AT Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12
15.5.3.3 Floating Point Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12
15.5.3.4 Disabling the Slave Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13
15.5.4 Edge-Triggered or Level-Sensitive Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13
15.5.5 Interrupt Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-13
15.5.6 Non-Maskable Interrupts and Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
15.5.6.1 Sharing NMIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-14
15.5.7 Priority Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16
15.5.8 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16
15.5.8.1 Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-16
15.5.8.2 PC/AT Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18
15.5.9 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18
15.5.9.1 Interrupt Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18
15.5.9.2 Disabling the Slave Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
15.5.9.3 Detecting Invalid Interrupt Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
15.5.9.4 Floating Point Unit Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-19
15.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-20
CHAPTER 16 PROGRAMMABLE INTERVAL TIMER
16-1
16.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
16.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
16.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
16.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
16.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
16.5.1 PIT Channel 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
16.5.2 PIT Channel 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-3
16.5.3 PIT Channel 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
16.5.4 Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
16.5.4.1 Mode 0: Interrupt on Terminal Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-4
16.5.4.2 Mode 1: Hardware-Retriggerable One-Shot . . . . . . . . 16-4
16.5.4.3 Mode 2: Rate Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
16.5.4.4 Mode 3: Square Wave Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
16.5.4.5 Mode 4: Software-Triggered Strobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
16.5.4.6 Mode 5: Hardware-Triggered Strobe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-5
16.5.5 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
16.5.5.1 Internal Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
16.5.5.2 External Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
16.5.6 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
16.5.7 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
16.5.7.1 Using the PIT Clock Source in PC/AT-Compatible
Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
16.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-7
CHAPTER 17 GENERAL-PURPOSE TIMERS
17-1
17.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
17.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
17.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
17.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
17.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
17.5.1 GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-3
17.5.2 GP Timer 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5.3 Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5.3.1 Interrupt on Terminal Count Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5.3.2 Hardware Retrigger Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5.3.3 Alternate Compare Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5.3.4 Square Wave Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5.3.5 Continuous Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
17.5.3.6 Prescaler Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-4
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17.5.4 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.5.5 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.5.5.1 Internal Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
17.5.5.2 External Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.5.6 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.5.7 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.5.7.1 Combining GP Timer Count Elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.5.7.2 Reading the Cascaded 32-Bit Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
17.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-8
CHAPTER 18 SOFTWARE TIMER
18-1
18.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
18.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
18.3 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
18.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
18.4.1 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
18.5 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-3
CHAPTER 19 WATCHDOG TIMER
19-1
19.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
19.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-1
19.3 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
19.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
19.4.1 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
19.4.1.1 Keyed Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-3
19.4.1.2 Interrupt Request Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
19.4.1.3 System Reset Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
19.4.1.4 Time-Out Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
19.4.2 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5
19.4.3 AMDebug™ Technology Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5
19.4.4 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-5
19.5 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-6
CHAPTER 20 REAL-TIME CLOCK
20-1
20.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1
20.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-1
20.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3
20.3.1 Backup Battery Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3
20.3.1.1 System with an External Backup Battery . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3
20.3.1.2 System without an External Backup Battery . . . . . . . . 20-4
20.3.2 Selecting and Interfacing a 32.768-kHz Crystal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-5
20.3.3 Using an External RTC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-5
20.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-6
20.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-7
20.5.1 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-7
20.5.1.1 Configuring the Hour Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-7
20.5.1.2 Programming the Date and Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-8
20.5.1.3 Generating Periodic Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-8
20.5.1.4 Using the Alarm Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-9
20.5.1.5 Handling Year 2000 Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-9
20.5.2 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-9
20.5.3 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-9
20.5.4 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-10
20.5.4.1 Initializing the RTC Divider Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-10
20.5.4.2 Accessing the CMOS Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-10
20.5.4.3 Legacy NMI Enable Bit Moved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-10
20.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-10
20.6.1 RTC Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-11
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CHAPTER 21 UART SERIAL PORTS
21-1
21.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
21.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-1
21.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2
21.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
21.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-5
21.5.1 Data Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-6
21.5.1.1 16450-Compatible UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-6
21.5.1.2 16550-Compatible UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
21.5.2 Data Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
21.5.2.1 16450-Compatible UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
21.5.2.2 16550-Compatible UART Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-7
21.5.3 Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-8
21.5.3.1 Parity Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-8
21.5.3.2 Framing Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-8
21.5.3.3 Break Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-8
21.5.3.4 Error Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-8
21.5.4 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
21.5.4.1 Baud Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
21.5.4.2 Hardware Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
21.5.4.3 Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
21.5.5 DMA Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-10
21.5.5.1 Transmit DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-10
21.5.5.2 Receive DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-10
21.5.6 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-10
21.5.7 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-10
21.5.7.1 Serial Port Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-12
21.5.7.2 DMA Interrupts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-12
21.5.7.3 Interrupt Disable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-13
21.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-13
CHAPTER 22 SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL INTERFACE
22-1
22.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1
22.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1
22.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-1
22.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
22.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
22.5.1 Usage Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
22.5.1.1 Four-Pin Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
22.5.1.2 Three-Pin Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-3
22.5.2 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
22.5.2.1 Bit Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
22.5.2.2 Clock Idle State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
22.5.2.3 Clock Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
22.5.3 Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-5
22.5.3.1 4-Bit Read Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-6
22.5.3.2 Burst, 16-Bit, and 32-Bit Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7
22.5.4 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7
22.5.5 Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7
22.5.6 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-8
22.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-8
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CHAPTER 23 PROGRAMMABLE INPUT/OUTPUT
23-1
23.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
23.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-1
23.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2
23.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-4
23.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-4
23.5.1 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5
23.5.1.1 PIO Pins and Simple Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5
23.5.1.2 PIO Pins and Simple Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5
23.5.2 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5
23.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-6
CHAPTER 24 SYSTEM TEST AND DEBUGGING
24-1
24.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
24.2 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-1
24.2.1 Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
24.3 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
24.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-3
24.4.1 System Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-3
24.4.1.1 Pin Functions in System Test Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-3
24.4.1.2 Using the System Test Mode Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-4
24.4.1.3 SDRAM Write Cycle in System Test Mode . . . . . . . . . 24-4
24.4.1.4 SDRAM Read Cycle in System Test Mode . . . . . . . . . 24-5
24.4.1.5 Tracing Transactions on the ROM Interface . . . . . . . . . 24-5
24.4.1.6 Tracing Transactions on the GP Bus Interface . . . . . . . 24-6
24.4.2 Write Buffer Test Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-7
24.4.2.1 Using the Write Buffer Test Mode Interface . . . . . . . . . 24-7
24.4.2.2 SDRAM Write Cycle in Write Buffer Test Mode . . . . . . 24-8
24.4.2.3 SDRAM Read Cycle in Write Buffer Test Mode . . . . . . 24-8
24.4.3 Other Debugging Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-10
24.4.3.1 Nonconcurrent Arbitration Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-10
24.4.3.2 Echoing Integrated Peripheral Accesses
on the GP Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-10
24.4.3.3 Summary of Additional System Debugging Features . 24-10
24.4.4 Software Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-11
24.4.5 Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-11
24.5 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-12
CHAPTER 25 BOUNDARY SCAN TEST INTERFACE
25-1
25.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
25.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
25.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2
25.3.1 JTAG Pin Strapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2
25.4 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2
25.5 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2
25.5.1 Instruction Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3
25.5.1.1 Implemented Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3
25.5.2 Configuration Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-5
25.5.2.1 Instruction Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-5
25.5.2.2 Bypass Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-5
25.5.2.3 Main Data Scan Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-5
25.5.2.4 Serial Debug Port Data Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-14
25.5.2.5 Device Identification Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-14
25.5.3 Test Access Port (TAP) Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-15
25.5.3.1 TAP Controller States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-15
25.5.4 Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19
25.5.5 Clocking Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20
25.6 Initialization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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CHAPTER 26 AMDebug™ TECHNOLOGY
26-1
26.1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-1
26.2 Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2
26.3 System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2
26.3.1 Connecting the AMDebug™ Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-3
26.3.2 Mechanical Specifications for the Target Connector . . . . . . . . . . 26-5
26.3.3 Locating the Connector on the Target System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-5
26.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-6
26.4.1 On-Chip Trace Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-7
26.4.2 Software Performance Profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-7
INDEX
Index-1
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Table of Contents
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Figure 1-3
Figure 1-4
Figure 1-5
Figure 2-1
Figure 2-2
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Figure 3-3
Figure 4-1
Figure 4-2
Figure 4-3
Figure 5-1
Figure 5-2
Figure 5-3
Figure 5-4
Figure 5-5
Figure 6-1
Figure 6-2
Figure 6-3
Figure 7-1
Figure 8-1
Figure 8-2
Figure 8-3
Figure 8-4
Figure 8-5
Figure 8-6
Figure 8-7
Figure 8-8
Figure 8-9
Figure 8-10
Figure 8-11
Figure 8-12
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 9-3
Figure 9-4
Figure 9-5
Figure 9-6
Figure 9-7
Figure 9-8
Figure 9-9
Figure 9-10
Figure 9-11
Figure 9-12
Figure 9-13
Figure 9-14
Figure 9-15
Figure 9-16
Figure 10-1
Figure 10-2
Figure 10-3
Figure 10-4
xviii
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Smart Residential Gateway
Reference Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Thin Client Reference Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Digital Set Top Box Reference Design . . . . . . 1-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Telephone Line Concentrator
Reference Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Logic Diagram by Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Logic Diagram by Default Pin Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Initial Near Jump Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Programmable Address Region (PAR) Register Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Programmable Address Region (PAR) Register Worksheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Programmable Address Region (PAR) Register Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
System Memory Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
System I/O Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-11
Clock Source Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
System Clock Distribution Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Bypassing the 32.768-kHz Oscillator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Bypassing the 33-MHz Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Clock Routing for the CLKTEST Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Reset Controller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
PRGRESET Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Power-On Reset Sequence of Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-9
Am5x86® CPU Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
System Arbitration Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Skipped Master Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
CPU Bus Rotating Priority Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
External PCI Master Arbitration Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Host Bridge Master Arbitration Queue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
CPU Bus Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
CPU Bus Cache Write-Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-13
CPU-to-PCI Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-14
PCI Bus Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-15
PCI Bus Concurrent Mode Arbitration Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-16
Nonconcurrent Mode Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-18
Simple Rotating Priority Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-20
PCI Interface Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Connection to an External PCI Bus Target. . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Connection to an External PCI Bus Master . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller SERR and PERR Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
PCI Bus Clocking Example 1: Lightly Loaded System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
PCI Bus Clocking Example 2: Heavily Loaded System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
CPU Read Cycle to the PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
CPU Read Cycle to the PCI Bus with External Target Retry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-14
CPU Posted Write Cycle to the PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Am5x86 CPU Non-Posted Write Cycle to the PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
CPU Write Cycles to Internal PCI Bus Configuration Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-17
CPU Read Cycles from Internal PCI Bus Configuration Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
External PCI Bus Master Posted Write to SDRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23
External PCI Master SDRAM Read (Delayed Transaction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-24
PCI Host Bridge Target Disconnect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
SDRAM Controller Block Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Detailed Block Diagram of SDRAM Controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
SDRAM Bank Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Example Configuration of a 168-Pin SDRAM DIMM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Table of Contents
Figure 10-5
Figure 10-6
Figure 10-7
Figure 10-8
Figure 10-9
Figure 10-10
Figure 10-11
Figure 10-12
Figure 10-13
Figure 11-1
Figure 11-2
Figure 11-3
Figure 11-4
Figure 11-5
Figure 11-6
Figure 12-1
Figure 12-2
Figure 12-3
Figure 12-4
Figure 12-5
Figure 12-6
Figure 12-7
Figure 12-8
Figure 12-9
Figure 12-10
Figure 12-11
Figure 13-1
Figure 13-2
Figure 13-3
Figure 13-4
Figure 13-5
Figure 13-6
Figure 13-7
Figure 13-8
Figure 13-9
Figure 13-10
Figure 13-11
Figure 13-12
Figure 13-13
Figure 13-14
Figure 13-15
Figure 13-16
Figure 14-1
Figure 14-2
Figure 14-3
Figure 14-4
Figure 14-5
Figure 14-6
Figure 14-7
Figure 15-1
Figure 15-2
Figure 15-3
Figure 15-4
Figure 16-1
Figure 17-1
Figure 18-1
SDRAM Clock Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Alternate SDRAM Clock Generation with External Clock Driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
SDRAM Burst Read Cycle (Read-Ahead Feature Disabled) (Page Miss/Page Hit). . 10-22
SDRAM Write Cycle (Write Buffer and ECC Disabled) (Page Miss/page Hit) . . . . . . 10-23
SDRAM CPU Burst Write (Write Buffer and ECC Disabled) (Page Miss/Page Hit) . . 10-24
SDRAM Burst Read Cycle with ECC Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-25
SDRAM Read-Modify-Write Cycle (for Data Write) with ECC Enabled (Page Hit). . . 10-26
SDRAM Auto Refresh Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27
SDRAM Mode Register Access. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27
Write Buffer and Read Buffer Block Diagram (SDRAM Subsystem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Write Buffer and Read Buffer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Write Buffer Merging Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Write Buffer Collapsing Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-8
Write Buffer Read-Merging Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9
Bus Thrashing with Write Buffer Disabled and Enabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
ROM Controller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
Voltage Isolation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Words from a 16-Bit ROM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
Non-Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Words from a 16-Bit ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-8
Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Doublewords (Aligned) from a 32-Bit ROM. . . . . . 12-8
Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Doublewords (Unaligned) from an 8-Bit ROM. . . . 12-8
Multiple Accesses: Data Amounts Smaller than One Doubleword (2 Bytes)
from an 8-Bit ROM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Page Access for Fetching Four Doublewords from a 32-Bit ROM
(Burst Sequence: 2-1-1-1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-10
Page Access for Fetching Two Doublewords from a 16-Bit ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Cache-Line Fill (Fetching Four Doublewords from a 32-Bit ROM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-11
Word Write Cycle to Flash Memory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-12
GP Bus Controller System Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Example: Using an External Data Buffer to Address Excess Loading . . . . . . . . . . . 13-4
Example: Using a Voltage Translator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
GP Bus Timing Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Interfacing with a Super I/O Controller . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Timing Diagram of a Super I/O Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Interfacing with an Am85C30 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-15
Timing Diagram of an Am85C30 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
8-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-16
16-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17
16-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-17
32-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-18
32-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-18
8-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19
16-Bit Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20
GPRDY Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-21
GP-DMA Controller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Master and Slave Core Cascading Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3
GP-DMA Read Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-13
GP-DMA Write Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-14
GP-DMA Verify Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-14
GP-DMA Read in Demand Transfer Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16
GP-DMA Read Transfer with Cache Hit (Write-Back Cache) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-17
Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-3
Interrupt Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-9
Interrupt Source Routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-11
NMI Routing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-15
Programmable Interval Timer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-2
General-Purpose Timers Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
Software Timer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-1
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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Table of Contents
Figure 19-1
Figure 20-1
Figure 20-2
Figure 20-3
Figure 20-4
Figure 21-1
Figure 21-2
Figure 21-3
Figure 22-1
Figure 22-2
Figure 22-3
Figure 22-4
Figure 22-5
Figure 22-6
Figure 22-7
Figure 22-8
Figure 22-9
Figure 23-1
Figure 24-1
Figure 24-2
Figure 24-3
Figure 24-4
Figure 25-1
Figure 25-2
Figure 25-3
Figure 25-4
Figure 25-5
Figure 25-6
Figure 26-1
Figure 26-2
Figure 26-3
Figure 26-4
Figure 26-5
xx
Watchdog Timer Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Real-Time Clock Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-2
RTC Voltage Monitor Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-3
Circuit with Backup Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-4
Circuit without Backup Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-5
UART Block Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2
UART Frame Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-5
UART Frame Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-5
SSI Block Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
SSI Four-Pin Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4
SSI Simultaneous Transmit and Receive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4
SSI Three-Pin Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-4
SSI Typical Half-Duplex Communication, Non-Inverted Phase and Clock Modes. . . 22-4
SSI Clock Phase and Clock Idle State: Effects on Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-6
SSI 4-Bit Read Cycle: Full-Duplex, Non-Inverted Phase, Non-Inverted Clock . . . . . 22-6
SSI Back-to-Back Transactions for Full-duplex,
Microwire-Compatible Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-7
SSI Timing: TC_INT and BSY_STA Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-8
PIO Signal Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-2
System Test Mode Timing During a SDRAM Write Cycle (Page Hit) . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-5
System Test Mode Timing During an SDRAM Read Cycle (Page Miss) . . . . . . . . . . 24-5
Write Buffer Test Mode Timing During an SDRAM Write Cycle (Page Hit) . . . . . . . . 24-8
Write Buffer Test Mode Timing During a SDRAM Read Cycle (Page Miss) . . . . . . . 24-9
Logical Structure of Boundary Scan Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-1
Serial Debug Port Data Register Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-14
Device Identification Register Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-14
Test Access Port Controller State Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-15
Test Logic Operation: Data Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-19
Test Logic Operation: Instruction Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-20
AMDebug™ Technology Software Architecture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-2
12-Pin Connector Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-4
20-Pin Serial Connector Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-4
Mechanical Specifications for AMDebug™ Technology Target Connector . . . . . . . . 26-5
Locating the Target Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLES
Table 0-1
Table 2-1
Table 2-2
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-4
Table 3-5
Table 3-6
Table 3-7
Table 3-8
Table 3-9
Table 3-10
Table 3-11
Table 3-12
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Table 4-3
Table 4-4
Table 4-5
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
Table 5-3
Table 5-4
Table 6-1
Table 6-2
Table 6-3
Table 6-4
Table 7-1
Table 7-2
Table 7-3
Table 8-1
Table 9-1
Table 9-2
Table 9-3
Table 10-1
Table 10-2
Table 10-3
Table 10-4
Table 10-5
Table 10-6
Table 10-7
Table 10-8
Table 10-9
Table 10-10
Table 10-11
Table 10-12
Table 11-1
Table 11-2
Table 12-1
Table 12-2
Table 12-3
Table 12-4
Table 12-5
Table 12-6
Documentation Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv
Signal Descriptions Table Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Signal Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
CPUID Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Example PAR Programming: Single Device Using One Chip Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Example PAR Programming: Single Device That Performs Its Own Decode . . . . . . 3-14
Example PAR Programming: Multiple Devices on One Chip Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Example PAR Programming: VGA Controller on the PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Example PAR Programming: COM3 with VGA Present on the PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
Example PAR Programming: Network Adapter for Remote Program Loading . . . . . 3-16
Example PAR Programming: Boot ROM Device Mapping for BIOS Shadowing . . . . 3-17
Example PAR Programming: First Bank of Flash for XIP Operating System. . . . . . . 3-17
Example PAR Programming: Second Bank of Flash for XIP Operating System . . . . 3-18
Example PAR Programming: Setting Up DMA Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18
Example PAR Programming: Write-Protected Code Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Address Decoding Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Address Decoding Registers—Direct-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Bus Master Address Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Memory and I/O Space Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
PC/AT Peripherals I/O Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Clock Start-up and Lock Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
Clock Signals Shared with Other Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Timing Error as It Translates to Clock Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Clock Control Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Reset Generation Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Reset Generation Registers—Direct-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Reset Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
States of Cores after System Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Am5x86® CPU Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Am5x86® CPU Registers—Direct-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
Cache Configuration Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
System Arbitration Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
PCI Host Bridge Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
PCI Host Bridge Registers—Direct-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
PCI Host Bridge Registers—PCI Indexed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
SDRAM Clock Loading Estimates Based on Device Width. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6
Estimated Capacitance (4-Bit SDRAM Devices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Estimated Capacitance (8-Bit SDRAM Devices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Estimated Capacitance (16-Bit SDRAM Devices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Estimated Capacitance (32-Bit SDRAM Devices) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
SDRAM Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
Address Mapping to MAx Signals for SDRAM Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12
SDRAM Devices Supported with Column Boundary Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13
Column Address Configuration Settings for SDRAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15
SDRAM Page Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16
SDRAM Refresh Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-18
Load Mode Register Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-31
SDRAM Signals Shared with Other Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
SDRAM Buffer Control Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
ROM/Flash Data Bus Connection Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
ROM Signals Shared with Other Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
ROM Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
Example: ROM Access Timing and Wait States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
Accesses and ROM Width. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-9
CFGx Pinstrap Configuration Options for BOOTCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-14
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Table of Contents
Table 13-1
Table 13-2
Table 13-3
Table 13-4
Table 13-5
Table 13-6
Table 13-7
Table 13-8
Table 14-1
Table 14-2
Table 14-3
Table 14-4
Table 14-5
Table 14-6
Table 14-7
Table 14-8
Table 15-1
Table 15-2
Table 15-3
Table 15-4
Table 16-1
Table 16-2
Table 16-3
Table 16-4
Table 16-5
Table 17-1
Table 17-2
Table 17-3
Table 17-4
Table 18-1
Table 19-1
Table 19-2
Table 20-1
Table 20-2
Table 20-3
Table 20-4
Table 21-1
Table 21-2
Table 21-3
Table 21-4
Table 21-5
Table 21-6
Table 21-7
Table 22-1
Table 23-1
Table 23-2
Table 23-3
Table 24-1
Table 24-2
Table 24-3
Table 24-4
Table 25-1
Table 25-2
Table 25-3
Table 26-1
xxii
GP Bus Signals Shared with Other Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
GP Bus Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-5
GP Bus Echo Mode Minimum Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-9
Cross-Reference Table of ISA Signals and GP Bus Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-12
Example Super I/O Controller Interface Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Example AMD Enhanced Serial Communications Controller Interface Timing . . . . 13-15
Differentiating Upper/Lower Byte Access of 16-Bit Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-19
Dynamic Bus Sizing Override of Programmed Data Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-20
GP-DMA Signals Shared with Other Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
GP-DMA Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4
GP-DMA Controller Registers—Direct-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-7
Supported GP-DMA Initiator/Target Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-9
GP-DMA Channel Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-10
8-Bit GP-DMA Channel Address Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
16-Bit GP-DMA Channel Address Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-12
GP-DMA Cycle Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-16
Programmable Interrupt Controller Signals Shared with Other Interfaces. . . . . . . . . 15-2
Programmable Interrupt Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-4
Programmable Interrupt Controller Registers—Direct-Mapped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-6
PC/AT Interrupt Channel Mapping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-12
Programmable Interval Timer Signals Shared with Other Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-1
Programmable Interval Timer Configuration Registers—Memory-Mapped. . . . . . . . 16-2
Programmable Interval Timer Configuration Registers—Direct-Mapped . . . . . . . . . 16-3
PIT Internal Clock Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
PIT External Clock Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16-6
General-Purpose Timer Signals Shared with Other Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-1
General-Purpose Timer Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-2
GP Timers Internal Clock Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-5
GP Timers External Clock Sources (Using a 33.333 MHz Crystal). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-6
Software Timer Configuration Registers—Memory-Mapped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18-2
Watchdog Timer Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-2
Watchdog Timer Time-Out Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19-4
Real-Time Clock Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-6
Real-Time Clock Registers—Direct-Mapped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-6
Real-Time Clock Registers—RTC Indexed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-6
Using RATE_SEL to Specify a Periodic Interrupt Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20-8
UART Signals Shared with Other Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-2
Connection of DTE to DTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
UART Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-3
UART Registers—Direct-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-4
Baud Rates, Divisors, and Clock Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-9
UART Interrupt Programming Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-11
Serial Port Interrupt and Interrupt Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-12
Synchronous Serial Interface Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22-2
PIO Signals Shared with Other Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-3
PIO Registers—Memory-Mapped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-4
PIO Configuration Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23-5
System Test and Debugging Signals Shared with Other Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
System Test and Debugging Registers—Memory-Mapped. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-2
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0 Pin Definition During Write Buffer Write Cycles . . . . . . . . . 24-8
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0 Pin Definition During SDRAM Read Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . 24-9
Chip Test and Debugging Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-2
Test Access Port Instruction Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-3
Main Data Scan Path. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-5
AMDebug™ Technology Connector Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
Élan™SC520 MICROCONTROLLER
The Élan™SC520 microcontroller is a full-featured microcontroller developed for the
general embedded market. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller combines a 32-bit, low-voltage
Am5x86® CPU with a complete set of integrated peripherals suitable for both real-time and
PC/AT-compatible embedded applications.
PURPOSE OF THIS MANUAL
This manual describes the technical features and programming interface of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
Intended Audience
The Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual, order #22004, is intended for computer
software and hardware engineers and system architects who are designing or are
considering designing systems based on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Overview of this Manual
The manual is organized into the following chapters:
■ Chapter 1 includes an architectural overview of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, along
with applications diagrams.
■ Chapter 2 describes the signals and pins of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. Logic
diagrams showing defaults and pins with shared signals are also found in this chapter.
Detailed pin state information is available in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data
Sheet.
■ Chapter 3 provides an overview of system initialization and shows example
configurations.
■ Chapter 4 describes the system address mapping on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ Chapter 5 provides information on clock generation and control.
■ Chapter 6 describes the reset sources and states of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ Chapter 7 includes an overview of the integrated Am5x86 CPU. For additional
information about the CPU, consult the references provided in this chapter.
■ Chapter 8 describes the system arbiter on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, which
includes a CPU bus arbiter and a PCI bus arbiter.
■ Chapter 9 describes the PCI bus host bridge implemented on the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
■ Chapter 10 describes the synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) controller.
■ Chapter 11 describes the SDRAM write buffer and read buffer with read-ahead
feature.
■ Chapter 12 describes the ROM/Flash controller.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
xxiii
Introduction
■ Chapter 13 describes the programmable general-purpose (GP) bus interface included
on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ Chapter 14 describes the GP bus DMA controller.
■ Chapter 15 describes the programmable interrupt controller (PIC), which includes
three interrupt controllers.
■ Chapter 16 describes the programmable interval timer (PIT), which includes three
timers.
■ Chapter 17 describes the three general-purpose (GP) timers included on the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ Chapter 18 describes the software timer that eases the task of keeping system time.
■ Chapter 19 describes the watchdog timer used to guard against runaway software.
■ Chapter 20 describes the real-time clock (RTC) and RTC voltage monitor included
on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ Chapter 21 describes the two UART serial ports.
■ Chapter 22 describes the synchronous serial interface (SSI).
■ Chapter 23 describes the 32 programmable input/output (PIO) pins on the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ Chapter 24 is a summary of the system test features found on the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
■ Chapter 25 describes the Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) (IEEE Std. 1149.1-1990)
boundary scan test interface features of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ Chapter 26 provides an overview of AMDebug™ technology and the board
specifications necessary to utilize this capability, which is supported by third-party
FusionE86 vendors.
RELATED DOCUMENTS
The following documents contain additional information that will be useful in designing an
embedded application based on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
AMD Documentation
In addition to this manual, the documentation set for the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes
the following documents:
■ Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Register Set Manual, order #22005, fully describes all the
configuration registers required to program the microcontroller.
■ Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, includes complete pin lists, pin
state tables, timing and thermal characteristics, and package dimensions for the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Other information of interest:
■ The Am486® Microprocessor Software User’s Manual, order #18497, includes the
complete instruction set for the integrated Am5x86 CPU.
■ Am5x86® Microprocessor Family Data Sheet, order #19751
■ Am486® DX/DX2 Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual, order #17965
xxiv
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Introduction
■ E86 Family Products and Development Tools CD, order #21058, provides a single-
source multimedia tool for customer evaluation of AMD products, as well as FusionE86
partner tools and technologies that support the E86 family. Technical documentation is
included on the CD in PDF format.
To order literature, contact the nearest AMD sales office or call the literature center at one
of the numbers listed on the back cover of this manual. In addition, these documents are
available in PDF form on the AMD web site. To access the web site, go to www.amd.com
and follow the Embedded Processor link for information about the E86 family.
Additional Information
The following non-AMD documents and sources provide additional information that may
be of interest to ÉlanSC520 microcontroller users:
■ PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, December 18, 1998, PCI Special Interest
Group, 800-433-5177 (US), 503-693-6360 (International), www.pcisig.com.
■ IEEE Std 1149.1-1990 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture,
(order #SH16626-NYF), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc., 800-6784333, www.ieee.org.
■ PCI System Architecture, Mindshare, Inc., Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995, ISBN
0-201-40993-3.
■ ISA System Architecture, Mindshare, Inc., Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995, ISBN
0-201-40996-8.
■ 80486 System Architecture, Mindshare, Inc., Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995, ISBN
0-201-40994-1.
■ The Indispensable PC Hardware Book, Hans-Peter Messmer, Wokingham, England:
Addison-Wesley, 1995, ISBN 0-201-87697-3.
DOCUMENTATION CONVENTIONS
Table 0-1 lists the documentation conventions used throughout this manual.
Table 0-1
Documentation Notation
Notation
Meaning
Reset Default Values
Default
Value after a system reset
0
Low
1
Active or High
x
No value is guaranteed
?
Determined by sources external to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller
Read/Write Attributes
R
The bit field is read-only. A write to the register at this bit field
has no effect. The contents may or may not be changed by
hardware.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
xxv
Introduction
Table 0-1
Documentation Notation (Continued)
Notation
Meaning
W
The bit field is write-only. Reading this register at this bit field
does not return a meaningful value and has no side effects.
R/W
The bit field is read/write. Reading the register at this bit field
always returns the last value written. Reads have no side effects.
R/W!
The bit field is read/write with conditions. The “!” indicates that
there are side effects to using this bit. For example, reading a
bit or register might not always return the last value written. Note
that both reads and writes can have side effects. If you see a “!”,
be sure to read the bit description and programming notes.
RSV
The bit field is reserved for internal test/debug or future
expansion. This bit field should be written to 0 for normal system
operation. This bit field always returns 0 when read.
RSV!
The bit field is reserved for compatibility purposes. For example,
the bit field might be ignored during writes to maintain software
compatibility. If you see a “!”, be sure to read the bit description
and programming notes.
Reference Notation
MMCR offset 00h
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller Memory-Mapped Configuration
Region (MMCR) offset register 00h
PCI index 00h
PCI indexed register 00h
Port 00h
Direct-mapped I/O register 00h
RTC index 00h
RTC and configuration RAM indexed register 00h
Pin Naming
{}
Pin function during hardware reset
[]
Alternative pin function selected by software configuration
ROMCS1
An overbar indicates that the signal assumes the logic Low state
when asserted.
GPRESET
The absence of an overbar indicates that the signal assumes
the logic High state when asserted.
ads, hold
A signal name in all lowercase indicates an internal signal.
ROMCS2–ROMCS1
Two ROM chip select signals
ROMCSx
Any of the two ROM chip select signals
Numbers
xxvi
b
Binary number
d
Decimal number
Decimal is the default radix
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Introduction
Table 0-1
Documentation Notation (Continued)
Notation
Meaning
h
Hexadecimal number
x in register address
Any of several legal values; e.g., using 0xF8h for the UART
Transmit Holding register is either 02F8h or 03F8h, depending
on the UART
[X–Y]
The bit field that consists of bits X through Y.
Example: The SB_ADDR[23–16] bit field.
33 MHz
Refers to the system clock frequency being used. This can be
either 33.000 MHz or 33.333 MHz. See the Élan™SC520
Microcontroller User’s Manual for more information about clock
generation.
General
field
Bit field in a register (one or more consecutive and related bits)
can
It is possible to perform an action if properly configured
will
A certain action is going to occur
Set the ENB bit.
Write the ENB bit to 1.
Note: The bit referred to is either in the register being described,
or the register is referred to explicitly in the surrounding text.
Clear the ENB bit.
Change the ENB bit to 0. Usually a bit is cleared by writing a 0
to it; however, some bits are cleared by writing a 1.
Reset the ENB bit.
Context-sensitive. Can refer either to resetting the bit to its
default value or to clearing the bit.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
xxvii
Introduction
xxviii
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
1
1.1
ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
Élan™SC520 MICROCONTROLLER
The Élan™SC520 microcontroller is a full-featured microcontroller developed for the
general embedded market. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller combines a 32-bit, low-voltage
Am5x86 CPU with a complete set of integrated peripherals suitable for both real-time and
PC/AT-compatible embedded applications.
An integrated PCI host bridge, SDRAM controller, enhanced PC/AT-compatible peripherals,
and advanced debugging features provide the system designer with a wide range of onchip resources, allowing support for legacy devices as well as new devices available in the
current PC marketplace.
Designed for medium- to high-performance applications in the telecommunications, data
communications, and information appliance markets, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is
particularly well suited for applications requiring high throughput combined with low latency.
1.1.1
Distinctive Characteristics
■ Industry-standard Am5x86® CPU with floating point unit (FPU) and 16-Kbyte write-back
cache
– 100-MHz and 133-MHz operating frequencies
– Low-voltage operation (core VCC = 2.5 V)
– 5-V tolerant I/O (3.3-V output levels)
■ E86™ family of x86 embedded processors
– Part of a software-compatible family of microprocessors and microcontrollers well
supported by a wide variety of development tools
■ Integrated PCI host bridge controller leverages standard peripherals and software
– 33 MHz, 32-bit PCI bus Revision 2.2-compliant
– High-throughput 132-Mbyte/s peak transfer
– Supports up to five external PCI masters
– Integrated write-posting and read-buffering for high-throughput applications
■ Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) controller
– Supports 16-, 64-, 128-, and 256-Mbit SDRAM.
– Supports 4 banks for a total of 256 Mbytes.
– Error Correction Code provides system reliability.
– Buffers improve read and write performance.
■ AMDebugÉ technology offers a low-cost solution for the advanced debugging
capabilities required by embedded designers.
– Allows instruction tracing during execution from the Am5x86 CPU’s internal cache
– Uses an enhanced JTAG port for low-cost debugging
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
1-1
Architectural Overview
– Parallel debug port for high-speed data exchange during in-circuit emulation
■ General-purpose (GP) bus with programmable timing for 8- and 16-bit devices provides
good performance at very low cost.
■ ROM/Flash controller for 8-, 16-, and 32-bit devices
■ Enhanced PC/AT-compatible peripherals provide improved performance.
– Enhanced programmable interrupt controller (PIC) prioritizes 22 interrupt levels (up
to 15 external sources) with flexible routing.
– Enhanced DMA controller includes double buffer chaining, extended address and
transfer counts, and flexible channel routing.
– Two 16550-compatible UARTs operate at baud rates up to 1.15 Mbit/s with optional
DMA interface.
■ Standard PC/AT-compatible peripherals
– Programmable interval timer (PIT)
– Real-time clock (RTC) with battery backup capability and 114 bytes of RAM
■ Additional integrated peripherals
– Three general-purpose 16-bit timers provide flexible cascading for 32-bit operation.
– Watchdog timer guards against runaway software.
– Software timer
– Synchronous serial interface (SSI) offers full-duplex or half-duplex operation.
– Flexible address decoding for programmable memory and I/O mapping and system
addressing configuration
■ 32 programmable input/output (PIO) pins
■ Native support for pSOS, QNX, RTXC, VxWorks, and Windows® CE operating systems
■ Industry-standard BIOS support
1.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 1-1 on page 1-3 illustrates the integrated Am5x86 CPU, bus structure, and on-chip
peripherals of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. Three primary interfaces are provided:
■ A high-performance, 66-MHz 32-bit synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) interface of up to 256
Mbytes is used for Am5x86 CPU code execution, as well as buffer storage of external
PCI bus masters and GP bus DMA initiators. A high-performance ROM/Flash interface
can also be connected to the SDRAM interface.
■ An industry-standard, 32-bit PCI bus is provided for high bandwidth I/O peripherals such
as local area network controllers, synchronous communications controllers, and disk
storage controllers.
■ A simple 8/16-bit, 33-MHz general-purpose bus (GP bus) provides a glueless connection
to lower bandwidth peripherals, and NVRAM, SRAM, ROM, or custom ASICs; supports
dynamic bus sizing and compatibility with many common ISA devices.
These three buses listed above are provided in all operating modes of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
1-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Architectural Overview
In addition to these three primary interfaces, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller also contains
internal oscillator circuitry and phase locked loop (PLL) circuitry, requiring only two simple
crystals for virtually all system clock generation.
Diagrams showing how the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be used in various system
designs are included in “Applications” on page 1-8.
Figure 1-1
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Block Diagram
Address
Decode
Unit
Control/Status
GP Bus
Controller
GP Bus
Clock
Generation
External GP Bus
Programmable
Interrupt Controller
Programmable
Interval Timer
CPU Bus Interface
CPU Bus
Arbiter
Read/Write Buffers
ROM/Flash
Controller
GP-DMA
Controller
GP-DMA
Request and
Grant
CPU
Request
CPU Bus Interface
CPU Control/Status Bus
Data
AMDebug™
Technology and
JTAG
SDRAM
Controller
CPU Data Bus
Address
Am5x86Ç CPU
Bus Interface Unit
CPU Address Bus
Watchdog Timer
FIFOs and FIFO
Control
Real-Time Clock
CMOS RAM
PCI
Master
PCI Bus
Arbiter
PCI
Target
General-Purpose
Timers
Software
Timer
16550 UART
16550 UART
PCI Bus
PCI Requests and Grants
Synchronous Serial
Interface
I/O
Programmable
Controls
PC/AT Compatibility
Logic
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
1-3
Architectural Overview
1.3
ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller was designed to provide:
■ A balanced mix of high performance and low-cost interface mechanisms
■ A high-performance, industry-standard 32-bit PCI bus
■ Glueless interfacing to many 8- and 16-bit I/O peripherals and an 8- and 16-bit bus with
programmable timing
■ A cost-effective system architecture that meets a wide range of performance criteria
while retaining the lower cost of a 32-bit system
■ A high degree of leverage from present day hardware and software technologies
1.3.1
Industry-Standard x86 Architecture (Chapter 7)
The Am5x86 CPU in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller utilizes the industry-standard x86
microprocessor instruction set that enables compatibility across a variety of performance
levels from the 16-bit Am186™ processors to the high-end AMD Athlon™ processor. Software
written for the x86 architecture family is compatible with the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Other benefits of the Am5x86 CPU include:
■ Improved time-to-market and easy software migration
■ Existing availability of multiple operating systems that directly support the x86
architecture. Whether the application requires a real-time operating system (RTOS) or
one of the popular Microsoft® operating systems, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
provides consistent compatibility with many off-the-shelf operating systems.
■ Multiple sources of field-proven development tools
■ Integrated floating point unit (FPU) (compliant with ANSI/IEEE 754 standard)
■ 16-KByte unified cache configurable for either write-back or write-through cache mode
The Am5x86 CPU is described in Chapter 7.
1.3.2
AMDebug™ Technology for Advanced Debugging (Chapter 26)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides support for low-cost, full-featured, in-circuit
emulation capability. This in-circuit emulation support was developed at AMD specifically
to enable users to test and debug their software earlier in the design cycle. Utilizing this
capability, the software can be more extensively exercised, and at full execution speeds. It
also allows tracing during execution from the Am5x86 CPU’s internal cache.
AMDebug support provides the product design team with two different communication paths
on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, each of which is supported by powerful debug tools from
third-party vendors in AMD’s FusionE86 program.
■ Serial AMDebug technology uses a serial connection based on an enhanced JTAG
protocol and an inexpensive 12-pin connector that can be placed on each board design.
This low-cost solution satisfies the requirement of a large number of software developers.
■ Parallel AMDebug technology uses a parallel debug port to exchange commands and
data between the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller and the host. The higher pin count requires
that the extra signal pins be provided on a special bond-out package of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller, which is only made available to tool developers, such as in-circuit
emulator manufacturers. The parallel AMDebug port greatly simplifies the task of
supporting high speed data exchange.
1-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Architectural Overview
1.3.3
Industry-Standard PCI Bus Interface (Chapter 9)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides a 33-MHz, 32-bit PCI bus Revision 2.2-compliant
host bridge interface, including integrated write-posting and read-buffering capabilities
suitable for high-throughput applications. The PCI host bridge leverages standard
peripherals and software. It also provides:
■ High throughput (132 Mbytes/s peak transfer rate)
■ Deep buffering and support for burst transactions from PCI bus masters to SDRAM
■ Flexible arbitration mechanism
■ Support for up to five external PCI masters
1.3.4
High-Performance SDRAM Controller (Chapter 10)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides an integrated SDRAM controller that supports
popular industry-standard synchronous DRAMs (SDRAM).
■ The SDRAM controller interfaces with SDRAM chips as well as with most standard
DIMMs to enable use of standard off-the-shelf memory components.
■ The SDRAM controller supports programmable timing options and provides the required
external clock.
■ Up to four 32-bit banks of SDRAM are supported with a maximum capacity of 256 Mbytes.
■ An important reliability-enhancing Error Correction Code (ECC) feature is built into the
SDRAM controller. The resultant increase in the memory content reliability enables the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to be effectively utilized in applications that require more
reliable operation, such as communications environments.
■ The SDRAM controller contains a write buffer and read ahead buffer subsystem that
improves both write and read performance.
■ SDRAM refresh options allow the SDRAM contents to be maintained during reset.
1.3.5
ROM/Flash Controller (Chapter 12)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides an integrated ROM controller for glueless
interfacing to ROM and Flash devices. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports two types
of interfaces to such devices—a simple interface via the GP bus for 8- and 16-bit devices,
and an interface to the SDRAM memory data bus for higher performance 8-, 16-, and 32bit devices.
The ROM/Flash controller:
■ Reduces system cost by gluelessly interfacing static memory with up to three ROM/
Flash chip selects
■ Supports execute-in-place (XIP) operating systems for applications that require
executing out of ROM or Flash memory instead of DRAM
■ Supports high-performance page-mode devices
1.3.6
Flexible Address-Mapping (Chapter 4)
In addition to the memory management unit (MMU) within the Am5x86 CPU core, the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides 16 Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers
that enable flexible placement of memory (SDRAM, ROM, Flash, SRAM, etc.) and
peripherals into the two address spaces of the Am5x86 CPU (memory address space and
I/O address space). The PAR hardware allows designers to flexibly configure both address
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
1-5
Architectural Overview
spaces and place memory and/or external peripherals, as required by the application. The
internal memory-mapped configuration registers space can also be remapped to
accommodate system requirements. PAR registers also allow control of important
attributes, such as cacheability, write protection, and code execution protection for memory
resources.
1.3.7
General-Purpose (GP) Bus Interface (Chapter 13)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes a simple general-purpose (GP) bus that provides
programmable bus timing and allows the connection of 8/16-bit peripheral devices and
memory to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. The GP bus operates at 33 MHz, which offers
good performance at a very low interface cost.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides up to eight chip selects for external GP bus devices
such as off-the-shelf I/O peripherals, custom ASICs, and SRAM or NVRAM. The GP bus
interface supports programmable timing and dynamic bus width and cycle stretching to
accommodate a wide variety of standard peripherals, such as UARTs, 10-Mbit LAN
controller chips and serial communications controllers. Up to four external DMA channels
provide fly-by DMA transfers between peripheral devices on the GP bus and system
SDRAM.
Internally, the GP bus is used to provide a full complement of integrated peripherals, such
as a DMA controller, programmable interrupt controller, timers, and UARTs, as described
in “Integrated Peripherals” on page 1-7. These internal peripherals are designed to operate
at the full clock rate of the GP bus. The internal peripherals can also be configured to
operate in PC/AT-compatible configuration, but are generally not restricted to this
configuration.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides a way to view accesses to the internal peripherals
on the external GP bus for debugging purposes.
1.3.8
Clock Generation (Chapter 5)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller offers user-configurable CPU core clock speed operation
at 100 or 133 MHz for different power/performance points depending on the application.
Not all ÉlanSC520 microcontroller devices support all CPU clock rates. The maximum
supported clock rate for a device is indicated by the part number printed on the package.
The clocking circuitry can be programmed to run the device at higher than the rated speeds.
However, if an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is programmed to run at a higher clock speed
than that for which it is rated, then erroneous operation can result, and physical damage
to the device may occur.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes on-chip oscillators and PLLs, as well as most of
the required PLL loop filter components. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller requires two
standard crystals, one for 32.768 kHz and one for 33 MHz. All the clocks required inside
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller are generated from these crystals. The ÉlanSC520
microcontroller also supplies the clocks for the SDRAM and PCI bus; however, external
clock buffering may be required in some systems.
Note: The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports either a 33.000-MHz or 33.333-MHz
crystal. In this document, the generic term “33 MHz” refers to the system clock derived from
whichever 33-MHz crystal frequency is being used in the system.
1-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Architectural Overview
1.3.9
Integrated Peripherals
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is a highly integrated single-chip CPU with a complete set
of integrated peripherals that are a superset of common PC/AT peripherals, plus a set of
memory-mapped peripherals that enhance its usability in various applications.
■ A programmable interrupt controller (PIC) (see Chapter 15) that provides the capability
to prioritize 22 interrupt levels, up to 15 of these being external sources. The PIC can
be programmed to operate in PC/AT-compatible mode, but also contains extended
features, including support for more sources and flexible routing that allows any interrupt
request to be steered to any PIC input. Interrupt requests can be programmed to
generate either non-maskable interrupt (NMI) or maskable interrupt requests.
■ An integrated DMA controller (see Chapter 14) is included for transferring data between
SDRAM and GP bus peripherals. The GP-DMA controller operates in single-cycle (flyby) mode for more efficient transfers. The GP-DMA controller can be programmed for
PC/AT compatibility, but also contains enhanced features:
– A double buffer-chaining mode provides a more efficient software interface.
– Extended address and transfer counts
– Flexible routing of DMA channels
■ Three general-purpose 16-bit timers (see Chapter 17) that provide flexible cascading
for extension to 32-bit operation. These timers provide the ability to configure down to
the resolution of four clock periods where the clock period is the 33-MHz clock. Timer
input and output pins provide the ability to interface with off-chip hardware.
■ A standard PC/AT-compatible programmable interval timer (PIT) (see Chapter 16) that
consists of three 16-bit timers.
■ A software timer (see Chapter 18) that eases the task of keeping system time. It provides
1-ms resolution and can also be used for performance monitoring.
■ A watchdog timer (see Chapter 19) to guard against runaway software.
■ A real-time clock (RTC) with battery backup capability (see Chapter 20). The RTC also
provides 114 bytes of battery-backed RAM for storage of configuration parameters.
■ Two integrated 16550-compatible UARTs (see Chapter 21) that provide full handshaking
capability with eight pins each. Enhancements enable the UARTs to operate at baud
rates up to 1.152 Mbits/s. The UARTs can be configured to use the integrated GP bus
DMA controller to transfer data between the serial ports and SDRAM.
■ A synchronous serial interface (SSI) that is compatible with SCP, SPI, and Microwire
slave devices (see Chapter 22). The SSI interface can be configured for either full-duplex
or half-duplex operation using a 4-wire or 3-wire interface.
■ 32 programmable I/O pins are provided (see Chapter 23). These pins are multiplexed
with other peripherals and interface functions.
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller also provides PC/AT-compatible functions for control of
the a20 gate and the soft CPU reset (Ports 0060h, 0064h, 0092h).
1.3.10
JTAG Boundary Scan Test Interface (Chapter 25)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides a full JTAG test port that is compliant with IEEE
Std 1149.1-1990 for use during board testing.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
1-7
Architectural Overview
1.3.11
System Testing and Debugging Features (Chapter 24)
To facilitate debugging, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides observability of many
portions of its internal operation, including:
■ A three-pin interface that can be used in either system test mode or write buffer test
mode, to aid in determining internal bus initiators of SDRAM cycles, and determining
when SDRAM data is valid on the interface. An additional mode provides observability
of integrated peripheral accesses.
■ A nonconcurrent arbitration mode to reduce debug complexity when PCI bus masters
and GP bus DMA initiators are also accessing SDRAM.
■ CPU cache control and dynamic core clock speed control under program control.
■ Ability to disable write posting and read prefetching in the SDRAM controller to simplify
tracing of SDRAM cycles.
■ Notification of memory write protection and non-executable memory region violations.
1.4
APPLICATIONS
The figures on the following pages show the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller as it might be used
in several reference design applications in the data communications, information
appliances, and telecommunication markets.
1.4.1
Smart Residential Gateway
Figure 1-2 on page 1-10 shows an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-based Smart Resident
Gateway (SRG), which is a router for a home network between the wide area network
(WAN) (the internet) and a local area network (LAN) (an intranet of computers and
information appliances in the home). The SRG provides firewall protection of the LAN from
unauthorized access through the internet. A common internet access medium is shared
by all users on the LAN.
A variety of connections are possible for both the WAN and the LAN. For example, the WAN
connection can be a V.90 modem, cable modem, ISDN, ADSL, or Ethernet.
The LAN connection can be:
■ HomePNA—Home Phoneline Networking Alliance, an alliance with a widely endorsed
home networking specification
■ Bluetooth—a computing and telecommunications industry specification that describes
how computing devices can easily interconnect with each other and with home and
business phones and computers using a short-range wireless connection)
■ Home RF—a standard competing with Bluetooth for the interconnection of computing
devices in a LAN using radio frequency
■ Ethernet—local area network technology
■ Power line—a LAN using the AC power distribution network in a home or business to
interconnect devices. Digital information is transmitted on a high-frequency carrier signal
on top of the AC power.
1.4.2
Thin Client
Figure 1-3 on page 1-11 shows an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-based “thin client,” which is
the modern replacement for the traditional terminal in a remote computing paradigm.
Application programs run remotely on a server, and data is warehoused on centrally
managed disks at the “server farm.” An efficient communications protocol transmits
1-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Architectural Overview
keyboard and mouse commands upstream and transmits video BIOS calls downstream.
The thin client renders and displays the graphics for the user.
The thin client is typically connected to an Ethernet LAN, although a remote location can
connect to a server via a WAN connection such as a modem. A minimum speed of 24 kbaud
is required for the communication protocol, unless the application is graphics-intensive, in
which case a faster connection is required.
1.4.3
Digital Set Top Box
Figure 1-4 on page 1-12 shows an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-based digital set top box
(DSTB), which is a consumer client device that uses a television set as the display. Common
applications for the DSTB are internet access, e-mail, and streaming audio and video
content.
The minimal system includes a connection to the WAN via a modem, ADSL, or cable
modem; an output to a TV; and an InfraRed (IR) link to a remote control or wireless keyboard.
Expanded systems include DVD drives and MPEG2 decoders to deliver digital video
content. A hard drive may be employed to store video data for future replay. Keyboard,
mouse, printer, or a video camera are options that can be included.
1.4.4
Telephone Line Concentrator
Figure 1-5 on page 1-13 shows an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-based telephone line
concentrator located in the neighborhood that converts multiple analog subscriber loops
into a high-speed digitally multiplexed line for connection to the central office switching
network.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
1-9
Architectural Overview
Control
AD31–AD0
RJ-45
or
WAN Interface
ADSL, Cable Modem
or V.90
RJ-11
RJ-45
or
LAN Interface
Am79C978
PCnet™-Home
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Smart Residential Gateway
Reference Design
RJ-11
Figure 1-2
33-MHz Crystal
Control
1-10
GP Bus
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
GPD15–GPD0
Control
32-kHz Crystal
MD31–MD0
GPA25–GPA0
SDRAM Bus
SDRAM
MA12–MA0
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Flash or ROM
PCI Bus
Architectural Overview
Serial
Parallel
PS/2 Mouse
Super I/O
PS/2 Keyboard
Control
AD31–AD0
LAN Interface
Am79C973/Am79C975
PCnet™-Fast III
RJ-45
Controller
VGA/LCD
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Thin Client Reference Design
CRT/LCD
Control
PCI Bus
MA12–MA0
GPA25–GPA0
Flash
Memory
GP Bus
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Control
32-kHz Crystal
Control
33-MHz Crystal
MD31–MD0
GPD15–GPD0
SDRAM Bus
SDRAM
Figure 1-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
1-11
Architectural Overview
IR
Parallel
PS/2 Mouse
Super I/O
PS/2 Keyboard
Control
Control
AD31–AD0
WAN Interface
ADSL, Cable Modem
or V.90
RJ-11
VGA
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Digital Set Top Box Reference Design
NTSC/PAL
Figure 1-4
PCI Bus
1-12
GP Bus
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
GPA25–GPA0
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GPD15–GPD0
GPA1–GPA0
Control
EIDE
DVD or HDD
32-kHz Crystal
Control
33-MHz Crystal
Control
SDRAM Bus
SDRAM
MD31–MD0
Flash
Memory
GPD15–GPD0
MA12–MA0
32-kHz Crystal
33-MHz Crystal
MA12–MA0
SDRAM Bus
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
GP Bus
MD31–MD0
GPA25–GPA0
Control
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Flash
Memory
Control
SSI
T1/E1
Interface
HDLC
T1 or E1
Quad ISLAC
Am79Q2241
Quad ISLAC
Am79Q2241
ISLIC
Am79R241
ISLIC
Am79R241
ISLIC
Am79R241
ISLIC
Am79R241
(6x to 10X)
ISLIC
Am79R241
ISLIC
Am79R241
ISLIC
Am79R241
Analog
Phone
Lines
Figure 1-5
SDRAM
ISLIC
Am79R241
Architectural Overview
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller-Based Telephone Line Concentrator
Reference Design
PCM Highway
GPD15–GPD0
Control
1-13
Architectural Overview
1-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
2
2.1
PIN INFORMATION
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller contains 258 signal pins plus power and ground signals.
A minimal number of signals are shared with others.
The signals are organized alphabetically within the following functional groups:
■ Synchronous DRAM controller (page 2-5)
■ ROM/Flash controller (page 2-6)
■ PCI bus (page 2-6)
■ General-purpose (GP) bus (page 2-7)
■ Serial ports (page 2-9)
■ Timers (page 2-10)
■ Clocks and reset (page 2-10)
■ Chip selects (page 2-11)
■ Programmable I/O (PIO) (page 2-11)
■ JTAG boundary scan test interface (page 2-12)
■ AMDebug interface (page 2-12)
■ System test (page 2-12)
■ Configuration (page 2-13)
■ Power (page 2-14)
2.2
LOGIC SYMBOLS
Figure 2-1 shows a logical symbol of the device, with pins grouped by function or interface.
Figure 2-2 shows a logical symbol with pins grouped by default function. Figure 2-2 also
shows pin multiplexing on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2-1
Pin Information
Figure 2-1
Logic Diagram by Interface1
GPA25–GPA0
PCI Bus
GP Bus
GPD15–GPD0
AD31–AD0
GPRESET
CBE3–CBE0
GPIORD
PAR
GPIOWR
SERR
GPMEMRD
PERR
GPMEMWR
FRAME
GPALE
TRDY
GPBHE
IRDY
GPRDY
STOP
GPAEN
DEVSEL
CLKPCIOUT
CLKPCIIN
RST
INTA–INTD
REQ4–REQ0
GNT4–GNT0
GPTC
GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0
GPDACK3–GPDACK0
GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0
GPDBUFOE
GPIOCS16
GPMEMCS16
SDRAM
MA12–MA0
BA1–BA0
MD31–MD0
SCS3–SCS0
CLKMEMOUT
CLKMEMIN
SRASA–SRASB
SCASA–SCASB
SWEA–SWEB
GPCS7–GPCS0
GPA25–GPA0*
MD31–MD0*
BOOTCS
ROMCS2–ROMCS1
ROMRD
FLASHWR
ROMBUFOE
SDQM3–SDQM0
MECC6–MECC0
ROM/Flash
GPD15–GPD0*
TMRIN1–TMRIN0
Timers
TMROUT1–TMROUT0
Serial Ports:
UART 1
UART 2
SSI
SOUT2–SOUT1
SIN2–SIN1
RTS2–RTS1
CTS2–CTS1
PITGATE2
PITOUT2
JTAG_TRST
JTAG_TCK
DSR2–DSR1
JTAG_TDI
DTR2–DTR1
JTAG_TDO
DCD2–DCD1
JTAG_TMS
RIN2–RIN1
SSI_CLK
SSI_DO
SSI_DI
Programmable
Input/Output
PIO31–PIO0
Clocks and Reset
32KXTAL2–32KXTAL1
CMDACK
AMDebug
BR/TC
STOP/TX
TRIG/TRACE
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0
System Test
CF_DRAM
DATASTRB
33MXTAL2–33MXTAL1
CF_ROM_GPCS
LF_PLL1
DEBUG_ENTER
CLKTIMER
CLKTEST
PWRGOOD
PRGRESET
BBATSEN
INST_TRCE
AMDEBUG_DIS
CFG3–CFG0
RSTLD7–RSTLD0
Notes:
1. Pins noted with asterisks are duplicated in this diagram to clarify which signals are used for each interface.
2-2
JTAG
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Configuration
Pin Information
Figure 2-2
Logic Diagram by Default Pin Function1
PCI Bus
AD31–AD0
CBE3–CBE0
PAR
SERR
PERR
FRAME
TRDY
IRDY
STOP
DEVSEL
CLKPCIOUT
CLKPCIIN
RST
INTA–INTD
REQ4–REQ0
GNT4–GNT0
GPA25 {DEBUG_ENTER}
GPA24 {INST_TRCE}
GP Bus
GPA23 {AMDEBUG_DIS}
GPA22–GPA15 {RSTLD7–RSTLD0}
GPA13–GPA0
GPD15–GPD0
GPRESET
GPIORD
GPIOWR
GPMEMRD
GPMEMWR
PIO0 [GPALE]
PIO1 [GPBHE]
PIO2 [GPRDY]
PIO3 [GPAEN]
PIO4 [GPTC]
PIO5–PIO8 [GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0]
PIO9–PIO12 [GPDACK3–GPDACK0]
MA12–MA0
SDRAM
BA1–BA0
MD31–MD0
SCS3–SCS0
CLKMEMOUT
PIO13–PIO23 [GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0]
PIO24 [GPDBUFOE]
PIO25 [GPIOCS16]
PIO26 [GPMEMCS16]
PIO27 [GPCS0]
CLKMEMIN
SRASA–SRASB
GPA25–GPA0*
SCASA–SCASB
GPD15–GPD0*
SWEA–SWEB
ROM/Flash
MD31–MD0*
SDQM3–SDQM0
BOOTCS
MECC6–MECC0
ROMCS2–ROMCS1 [GPCS2–GPCS1]
ROMRD
Serial Ports:
UART 1
UART 2
SSI
SOUT2–SOUT1
SIN2–SIN1
FLASHWR
ROMBUFOE
RTS2–RTS1
CTS1
DSR1
DTR2–DTR1
DCD1
TMRIN1–TMRIN0 [GPCS4–GPCS5]
Timers
TMROUT1–TMROUT0 [GPCS6–GPCS7]
PITGATE2 [GPCS3]
PITOUT2 {CFG3}
RIN1
PIO28 [CTS2]
PIO29 [DSR2]
JTAG_TRST
JTAG_TCK
PIO30 [DCD2]
JTAG_TDI
PIO31 [RIN2]
JTAG_TDO
SSI_CLK
JTAG
JTAG_TMS
SSI_DO
SSI_DI
CMDACK
AMDebug
BR/TC
Clocks and Reset
32KXTAL2–32KXTAL1
STOP/TX
32MXTAL2–32MXTAL1
TRIG/TRACE
LF_PLL1
CLKTIMER [CLKTEST]
PWRGOOD
PRGRESET
BBATSEN
CF_DRAM [WBMSTR2] {CFG2}
System Test
DATASTRB [WBMSTR1] {CFG1}
CF_ROM_GPCS [WBMSTR0] {CFG0}
Notes:
1. Pin names in bold indicate the default pin function. Brackets, [ ], indicate alternate, multiplexed functions. Braces, { }, indicate
pinstrap pins. Pins noted with asterisks are duplicated in this diagram to clarify which signals are used for each interface.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2-3
Pin Information
2.3
SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS
Table 2-1 describes the terms used in the signal description table. In general, the brackets,
[ ], indicate alternate, multiplexed functions, and braces, { }, indicate reset configuration
pins (pinstraps). The line over a pin name indicates an active Low signal. The word pin
refers to the physical wire; the word signal refers to the electrical signal that flows through it.
Table 2-2, “Signal Descriptions” on page 5 contains a description of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller signals. The descriptions in Table 2-2 are organized by functional group.
Table 2-2 describes the signals that are available for each interface and which signals are
shared with others. Signal sharing is also shown in Figure 2-2.
Detailed information on pin state, including maximum load values, power-on reset default
function, reset state, power-on reset default operation, hold state, and voltage, is available
in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003. Connection and package
diagrams, as well as pin number assignments, are also included in that document.
Table 2-1
Signal Descriptions Table Definitions
Term
Definition
General Terms
[]
Indicates the pin alternate function; a pin defaults to the signal named without the
brackets.
{}
Indicates the reset configuration pin (pinstrap).
pin
Refers to the physical wire.
signal
SIGNAL
Refers to the electrical signal that flows across a pin.
A line over a signal name indicates that the signal is active Low; a signal name
without a line is active High.
Signal Types
Analog
B
Bidirectional
H
High
I
Input
LS
Programmable to hold last state of pin
O
Totem pole output
O/TS
OD
OD-O
Totem pole output/three-state output
Open-drain output
Open-drain output or totem pole output
Osc
Oscillator
PD
Internal pulldown resistor (~100–150 kW)
Power
Power pins
PU
Internal pullup resistor (~100–150 kW)
STI
Schmitt trigger input
STI-OD
TS
2-4
Analog voltage
Schmitt trigger input or open-drain output
Three-state output
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal Descriptions
Signal
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
Description
Synchronous DRAM Controller
BA1–BA0
—
O
Bank Address is the SDRAM bank address bus.
CLKMEMIN
—
I
SDRAM Clock Input is the SDRAM clock return signal used to
minimize skew between the internal SDRAM clock and the
CLKMEMOUT signal provided to the SDRAM devices. This signal
compensates for buffer and load delays introduced by the board design.
CLKMEMOUT
—
O
SDRAM Clock Output is the 66-MHz clock that provides clock
signalling for the synchronous DRAM devices. This clock may require
an external Low skew buffer for system implementations that result in
heavy loading on the SDRAM clock signal.
MA12–MA0
—
O
SDRAM Address is the SDRAM multiplexed address bus.
MD31–MD0
—
B
SDRAM Data Bus inputs data during SDRAM read cycles and outputs
data during SDRAM write cycles.
MECC6–MECC0
—
B
Memory Error Correction Code contains the ECC checksum
(syndrome) bits used to validate and correct data errors.
SCASA–SCASB
—
O
Column Address Strobes are used in combination with the SRASA–
SRASB and SWEA–SWEB to encode the SDRAM command type.
SCASA and SCASB are the same signal provided on two different pins
to reduce the total load connected to CAS.
Suggested system connection:
SCASA for SDRAM banks 0 and 1
SCASB for SDRAM banks 2 and 3
SCS3–SCS0
—
O
SDRAM Chip Selects are the SDRAM chip-select outputs. These
signals are asserted to select a bank of SDRAM devices. The chipselect signals enable the SDRAM devices to decode the commands
asserted via SRASA–SRASB, SCASA–SCASB, and SWEA–SWEB.
SDQM3–SDQM0
—
O
Data Input/Output Masks make SDRAM data output high-impedance
and blocks data input on SDRAM while active. Each of the four
SDQM3–SDQM0 signals is associated with one byte of four
throughout the array. Each SDQMx signal provides an input mask
signal for write accesses and an output enable signal for read
accesses.
SRASA–SRASB
—
O
Row Address Strobes are used in combination with the SCASA–
SCASB and SWEA–SWEB to encode the SDRAM command type.
SRASA and SRASB are the same signal provided on two different pins
to reduce the total load connected to RAS.
Suggested system connection:
SRASA for SDRAM banks 0 and 1
SRASB for SDRAM banks 2 and 3
SWEA–SWEB
—
O
SDRAM Memory Write Enables are used in combination with the
SRASA–SRASB and SCASA–SCASB to encode the SDRAM
command type.
SWEA and SWEB are the same signal provided on two different pins
to reduce the total load connected to WE.
Suggested system connection:
SWEA for SDRAM banks 0 and 1
SWEB for SDRAM banks 2 and 3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2-5
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
Description
ROM/Flash Controller
BOOTCS
—
O
ROM/Flash Boot Chip Select is an active Low output that provides
the chip select for the startup ROM and/or the ROM/Flash array (BIOS,
HAL, O/S, etc.). The BOOTCS signal asserts for accesses made to the
64-Kbyte segment that contains the Am5x86 CPU boot vector:
addresses 3FF0000h–3FFFFFFh. In addition to this linear decode
region, BOOTCS asserts in response to accesses to userprogrammable address regions.
FLASHWR
—
O
Flash Write indicates that the current cycle is a write of the selected
Flash device. When this signal is asserted, the selected Flash device
can latch data from the data bus.
GPA25–GPA0
—
O
General-Purpose Address Bus provides the address to the system’s
ROM/Flash devices. It is also the address bus for the GP bus devices.
Twenty-six address lines provide a maximum addressable space of 64
Mbytes for each ROM chip select.
GPD15–GPD0
—
B
General-Purpose Data Bus inputs data during memory and I/O read
cycles and outputs data during memory and I/O write cycles.
A reset configuration pin (CFG2) allows the GP bus to be used for the
boot chip-select ROM interface. Configuration registers are used to
select whether ROMCS2 and ROMCS1 use the GP bus data bus or
the MD data bus. The GP data bus supports 16-bit or 8-bit ROM
interfaces. Two data buses are selectable to facilitate the use of ROM
in a mixed voltage system.
MD31–MD0
—
B
Memory Data Bus inputs data during SDRAM read cycles and
outputs data during SDRAM write cycles. Configuration registers are
used to select whether ROMCS2 and ROMCS1 use the GP bus data
bus or the MD data bus. A reset configuration pin (CFG2) allows the
GP data bus to be used for BOOTCS. The memory data bus supports
an 8-, 16-, or 32-bit ROM interface.
ROMBUFOE
—
O
ROM Buffer Output Enable is an optional signal used to enable a
buffer to the ROM/Flash devices if they need to be isolated from the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, other GP bus devices, or SDRAM system
for voltage or loading considerations. This signal asserts for all
accesses through the ROM controller. The buffer direction is controlled
by the ROMRD or FLASHWR signal.
ROM/Flash Chip Selects are signals that can be programmed to be
asserted for accesses to user-programmable address regions.
ROMCS2
[GPCS2]
O
ROMCS1
[GPCS1]
O
ROMRD
—
O
ROM/Flash Read indicates that the current cycle is a read of the
selected ROM/Flash device. When this signal is asserted, the selected
ROM device can drive data onto the data bus.
Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Bus
AD31–AD0
—
B
PCI Address Data Bus is the PCI time-multiplexed address/data bus.
CBE3–CBE0
—
B
Command or Byte-Enable Bus functions 1) as a time-multiplexed
bus command that defines the type of transaction on the AD bus,
or 2) as byte enables:
CBE0 for AD7–AD0
CBE1 for AD15–AD8
CBE2 for AD23–AD16
CBE3 for AD31–AD24
CLKPCIIN
—
I
PCI Bus Clock Input is the 33-MHz PCI bus clock. This pin can be
connected to the CLKPCIOUT pin for systems where the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller is the source of the PCI bus clock.
2-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
CLKPCIOUT
—
O
PCI Bus Clock Output is a 33-MHz clock output for the PCI bus
devices. This signal is derived from the 33MXTAL2–33MXTAL1
interface.
DEVSEL
—
B
Device Select is asserted by the target when it has decoded its
address as the target of the current transaction.
FRAME
—
B
Frame is driven by the transaction initiator to indicate the start and
duration of the transaction.
GNT4–GNT0
—
O
Bus Grants are asserted by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to grant
access to the bus.
INTA–INTD
—
I
Interrupt Requests are asserted to request an interrupt. These four
interrupts are the same type of interrupt as the GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0
signals, and they go to the same interrupt controller. They are named
INTx to match the common PCI interrupt naming convention.
Configuration registers allow inversion of these interrupt requests to
recognize active low interrupt requests. These interrupt requests can
be routed to generate NMI.
IRDY
—
B
Initiator Ready is asserted by the current bus master to indicate that
data is ready on the bus (write) or that the master is ready to accept
data (read).
PAR
—
B
PCI Parity is driven by the initiator or target to indicate parity on the
AD31–AD0 and CBE3–CBE0 buses.
PERR
—
B
Parity Error is asserted to indicate a PCI bus data parity error in the
previous clock cycle.
REQ4–REQ0
—
I
Bus Requests are asserted by the master to request access to the
bus.
RST
—
O
Reset is asserted to reset the PCI devices.
SERR
—
I
System Error is used for reporting address parity errors or any other
system error where the result is catastrophic.
STOP
—
B
Stop is asserted by the target to request that the current bus
transaction be stopped.
TRDY
—
B
Target Ready is asserted by the currently addressed target to indicate
its ability to complete the current data phase of a transaction.
O
General-Purpose Address Bus outputs the physical memory or I/O
port address. Twenty-six address lines provide a maximum
addressable space of 64 Mbytes. This bus also provides the address
to the system’s ROM/Flash devices.
Signal
Description
General-Purpose (GP) Bus
GPA14–GPA0
—
GPA15
{RSTLD0}
O{I}
GPA16
{RSTLD1}
O{I}
GPA17
{RSTLD2}
O{I}
GPA18
{RSTLD3}
O{I}
GPA19
{RSTLD4}
O{I}
GPA20
{RSTLD5}
O{I}
GPA21
{RSTLD6}
O{I}
GPA22
{RSTLD7}
O{I}
GPA23
{AMDEBUG_DIS}
O{I}
GPA24
{INST_TRCE}
O{I}
GPA25
{DEBUG_ENTER}
O{I}
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2-7
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
Description
[GPAEN]
PIO3
O
GP Bus Address Enable indicates that the current address on the
GPA25–GPA0 address bus is a memory address, and that the current
cycle is a DMA cycle. All I/O devices should use this signal in decoding
their I/O addresses and should not respond when this signal is
asserted. When GPAEN is asserted, the GPDACKx signals are used
to select the appropriate I/O device for the DMA transfer. GPAEN also
asserts when a DMA cycle is occurring internally.
[GPALE]
PIO0
O
GP Bus Address Latch Enable is driven at the beginning of a GP bus
cycle with valid address. This signal can be used by external devices
to latch the GP address for the current cycle.
[GPBHE]
PIO1
O
GP Bus Byte High Enable is driven active when data is to be
transferred on the upper 8 bits of the GP data bus.
B
General-Purpose Data Bus inputs data during memory and I/O read
cycles, and outputs data during memory and I/O write cycles.
GP Bus DMA Acknowledge can each be mapped to one of the seven
available DMA channels. They are asserted active Low to
acknowledge the corresponding DMA requests.
GPD15–GPD0
—
[GPDACK0]
PIO12
O
[GPDACK1]
PIO11
O
[GPDACK2]
PIO10
O
[GPDACK3]
PIO9
O
[GPDBUFOE]
PIO24
O
GP Bus Data Bus Buffer Output Enable is used to control the output
enable on an external transceiver that may be on the GP data bus.
Using this transceiver is optional in the system design and is
necessary only to alleviate loading or voltage issues. This pin is
asserted for all external GP bus accesses. It is not asserted during
accesses to the internal peripherals even if GP bus echo mode is
enabled.
Note that if the ROM is configured to use the GP data bus, then its
bytes are not controlled by this buffer enable; they are controlled by the
ROMBUFOE signal.
[GPDRQ0]
PIO8
I
[GPDRQ1]
PIO7
I
[GPDRQ2]
PIO6
I
GP Bus DMA Request can each be mapped to one of the seven
available DMA channels. They are asserted active High to request
DMA service.
[GPDRQ3]
PIO5
I
[GPIOCS16]
PIO25
STI
GP Bus I/O Chip-Select 16 is driven active early in the cycle by the
targeted I/O device on the GP bus to request a 16-bit I/O transfer.
GPIORD
—
O
GP Bus I/O Read indicates that the current cycle is a read of the
currently addressed I/O device on the GP bus. When this signal is
asserted, the selected I/O device can drive data onto the data bus.
GPIOWR
—
O
GP Bus I/O Write indicates that the current cycle is a write of the
currently addressed I/O device on the GP bus. When this signal is
asserted, the selected I/O device can latch data from the data bus.
2-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
Description
[GPIRQ0]
PIO23
I
GP Bus Interrupt Request can each be mapped to one of the
available interrupt channels or NMI. They are asserted when a
peripheral requires interrupt service.
Configuration registers allow inversion of these interrupt requests to
recognize active low interrupt requests. These interrupt requests can
be routed to generate NMI.
[GPIRQ1]
PIO22
I
[GPIRQ2]
PIO21
I
[GPIRQ3]
PIO20
I
[GPIRQ4]
PIO19
I
[GPIRQ5]
PIO18
I
[GPIRQ6]
PIO17
I
[GPIRQ7]
PIO16
I
[GPIRQ8]
PIO15
I
[GPIRQ9]
PIO14
I
[GPIRQ10]
PIO13
I
[GPMEMCS16]
PIO26
STI
GP Bus Memory Chip-Select 16 is driven active early in the cycle by
the targeted memory device on the GP bus to request a 16-bit
memory transfer.
[GPMEMRD]
—
O
GP Bus Memory Read indicates that the current GP bus cycle is a
read of the selected memory device. When this signal is asserted, the
selected memory device can drive data onto the data bus.
[GPMEMWR]
—
O
GP Bus Memory Write indicates that the current GP bus cycle is a
write of the selected memory device. When this signal is asserted, the
selected memory device can latch data from the data bus.
STI
GP Bus Ready can be driven by open-drain devices. When pulled Low
during a GP bus access, wait states are inserted in the current cycle.
This pin has an internal weak pullup that should be supplemented by
a stronger external pullup for faster rise time.
O
GP Bus Reset, when asserted, re-initializes to reset state all devices
connected to the GP bus.
O
GP Bus Terminal Count is driven from the internal DMA controller to
indicate that the transfer count for the currently active DMA channel
has reached zero, and that the current DMA cycle is the last transfer.
—
I
I
Clear To Send is driven back to the serial port to indicate that the
external data carrier equipment (DCE) is ready to accept data.
—
I
Data Carrier Detect is driven back to the serial port from a piece of
DCE when it has detected a carrier signal from a communications
target.
[GPRDY]
PIO2
GPRESET
[GPTC]
—
PIO4
Serial Ports
CTS1
CTS2
PIO28
DCD1
[DCD2]
PIO30
DSR1
I
—
I
DTR2–DTR1
—
O
Data Terminal Ready indicates to the external DCE that the internal
serial port controller is ready to communicate.
RIN1
—
I
Ring Indicate is used by an external modem to inform the serial port
that a ring signal was detected.
RTS2–RTS1
—
O
Request To Send indicates to the external DCE that the internal serial
port controller is ready to send data.
SIN2–SIN1
—
I
Serial Data In is used to receive the serial data from the external serial
device or DCE into the internal serial port controller.
SOUT2–SOUT1
—
O
Serial Data Out is used to transmit the serial data from the internal
serial port controller to the external serial device or DCE.
[DSR2]
[RIN2]
PIO29
I
PIO31
I
Data Set Ready is used to indicate that the external DCE is ready to
establish a communication link with the internal serial port controller.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2-9
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
SSI_CLK
—
O
SSI Clock is driven by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller SSI port during
active SSI transmit or receive transactions. The idle state of the clock
and the assertion/sample edge are configurable.
SSI_DI
—
STI
SSI Data Input receives incoming data from a peripheral device SSI
port. Data is shifted in on the opposite SSI_CLK signal edge in which
SSI_DO drives data. SSI_DO and SSI_DI can be tied together to
interface to a three-pin SSI peripheral.
SSI_DO
—
OD
SSI Data Output drives data to a peripheral device SSI port. Data is
driven on the opposite SSI_CLK signal edge in which SSI_DI latches
data. The DO signal is normally at high-impedance when no transmit
transaction is active on the SSI port.
Signal
Description
Timers
PITGATE2
[GPCS3]
I
PITOUT2
{CFG3}
TMRIN0
[GPCS5]
I
TMRIN1
[GPCS4]
I
TMROUT0
[GPCS7]
O
TMROUT1
[GPCS6]
O
O{I}
Programmable Interval Timer 2 Gate provides control for the PIT
Channel 2.
Programmable Interval Timer 2 Output is output from the PIT
Channel 2. This signal is typically used as the PC speaker signal.
Timer Inputs 0 and 1 can be programmed to be the control or clock
for the general-purpose (GP) timers 0 and 1.
Timer Outputs 0 and 1 are outputs from two of the GP timers. These
outputs can be used as pulse-width modulation signals.
Clocks and Reset
32KXTAL2–
32KXTAL1
—
osc
32.768-kHz Crystal Interface is used for connecting an external
crystal or oscillator to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. This clock
source is used to clock the real-time clock (RTC). In addition, internal
PLLs generate clocks for the timers and UARTs based on this clock
source. When an external oscillator is used, 32KXTAL1 should be
grounded and the clock source driven on 32KXTAL2.
33MXTAL2–
33MXTAL1
—
osc
33-MHz Crystal Interface is the main system clock for the chip. This
clock source is used to derive the SDRAM, CPU, and PCI clocks.
When an external oscillator is used, 33MXTAL1 should be
unconnected and the clock source driven on 33MXTAL2.
[CLKTEST]
CLKTIMER
O
Test Clock Output is a shared pin that allows many of the internal
clocks to be driven externally. CLKTEST can drive the internal clocks
of the UARTs, PLL1, PLL2, the programmable interval timer (PIT), or
the real-time clock (RTC) for testing or for driving an external device.
CLKTIMER
[CLKTEST]
I
Timer Clock Input is a shared clock pin that can be used to input a
frequency to the programmable interval timer (PIT).
LF_PLL1
—
I
Loop Filter Interface is used for connecting external loop filter
components. Component values and circuit descriptions are contained
in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003.
PRGRESET
—
STI
Programmable Reset can be programmed to reset the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller, but allow SDRAM refresh to continue during the reset.
This allows the system to be reset without losing the information stored
in SDRAM. On power-up, PRGRESET is disabled and must be
programmed to be operational. When disabled, this pin has no effect
on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
PWRGOOD
—
STI
Power Good is a reset signal that indicates to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller that the VCC levels are within the normal operation
range. It is used to reset the entire chip and must be held Low for one
second after all VCC signals (except VCC_RTC) on the chip are High.
This signal must be returned Low before the VCC signals degrade to
put the RTC into the correct state for operation in RTC-only mode.
2-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
Description
Chip Selects
[GPCS0]
PIO27
O
[GPCS1]
ROMCS1
O
[GPCS2]
ROMCS2
O
[GPCS3]
PITGATE2
O
[GPCS4]
TMRIN1
O
[GPCS5]
TMRIN0
O
[GPCS6]
TMROUT1
O
[GPCS7]
TMROUT0
O
General-Purpose Chip Select signals are for the GP bus. They can
be used for either memory or I/O accesses. These chip selects are
asserted for Am5x86 CPU accesses to the corresponding regions set
up in the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers.
Programmable I/O (PIO)
PIO0
[GPALE]
B
PIO1
[GPBHE]
B
PIO2
[GPRDY]
B
PIO3
[GPAEN]
B
PIO4
[GPTC]
B
PIO5
[GPDRQ3]
B
PIO6
[GPDRQ2]
B
PIO7
[GPDRQ1]
B
PIO8
[GPDRQ0]
B
PIO9
[GPDACK3]
B
PIO10
[GPDACK2]
B
PIO11
[GPDACK1]
B
PIO12
[GPDACK0]
B
PIO13
[GPIRQ10]
B
PIO14
[GPIRQ9]
B
PIO15
[GPIRQ8]
B
PIO16
[GPIRQ7]
B
PIO17
[GPIRQ6]
B
PIO18
[GPIRQ5]
B
PIO19
[GPIRQ4]
B
PIO20
[GPIRQ3]
B
PIO21
[GPIRQ2]
B
PIO22
[GPIRQ1]
B
PIO23
[GPIRQ0]
B
PIO24
[GPDBUFOE]
B
PIO25
[GPIOCS16]
B
PIO26
[GPMEMCS16]
B
PIO27
[GPCS0]
B
PIO28
[CTS2]
B
PIO29
[DSR2]
B
PIO30
[DCD2]
B
PIO31
[RIN2]
B
Programmable Input/Output signals can be programmed as inputs
or outputs. When they are outputs, they can be driven High or Low by
programming bits in registers.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2-11
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Signal
Type
Description
JTAG Boundary Scan Test Interface
JTAG_TCK
—
I
Test Clock is the input clock for test access port.
JTAG_TDI
—
I
Test Data Input is the serial input stream for input data. This pin has
a weak internal pullup resistor. It is sampled on the rising edge of
JTAG_TCK. If not driven, this input is sampled High internally.
JTAG_TDO
—
O/TS
Test Data Output is the serial output stream for result data. It is in the
high-impedance state except when scanning is in progress.
JTAG_TMS
—
I
Test Mode Select is an input for controlling the test access port. This
pin has a weak internal pullup resistor. If it is not driven, it is sampled
High internally.
JTAG_TRST
—
I
JTAG Reset is the test access port (TAP) reset. This pin has a weak
internal pulldown resistor. If not driven, this input is sampled Low
internally and causes the TAP controller logic to remain in the reset
state.
BR/TC
—
I
Break Request/Trace Capture requests entry to AMDebug
technology mode. The AMDebug technology serial/parallel interface
can reconfigure this pin to turn instruction trace capture on or off.
CMDACK
—
O
Command Acknowledge indicates command completion status. It is
asserted High when the in-circuit emulator logic is ready to receive
new commands from the host. It is driven Low when the in-circuit
emulator core is executing a command from the host and remains Low
until the command is completed.
STOP/TX
—
O
Stop/Transmit is asserted High on entry to AMDebug mode. During
normal mode, this is set High when there is data to be transmitted to
the host (during operating system/application communication).
TRIG/TRACE
—
O
Trigger/Trace triggers event to logic analyzer (optional, from Am5x86
CPU debug registers).The AMDebug technology serial/parallel
interface can reconfigure this pin to indicate the trace on or off status.
AMDebug Interface
System Test
CF_DRAM
[WBMSTR2]
{CFG2}
O{I}
Code Fetch SDRAM, during SDRAM reads, provides code fetch
status. When Low, this indicates that the current SDRAM read is a
CPU code fetch demanded by the CPU, or a read prefetch initiated due
to a demand code fetch by the CPU. When High during reads, this
indicates that the SDRAM read is not a code fetch, and it could have
been initiated by the CPU, PCI master, or the GP bus GP-DMA
controller, either demand or prefetch. During SDRAM write cycles this
pin provides an indication of the source of the data, either GP-DMA
controller/PCI bus master or CPU. When High, this indicates that
either a GP bus DMA initiator or an external PCI bus master
contributed to the current SDRAM write cycle (the CPU may also have
contributed). A Low indicates that the CPU is the only master that
contributed to this write cycle.
CF_ROM_GPCS
[WBMSTR0]
{CFG0}
O{I}
Code Fetch ROM/GPCS provides an indication that the CPU is
performing a code fetch from ROM (on either the GP bus or SDRAM
data bus), or from any GPCSx pin. When Low during a read cycle (as
indicated by either GPMEMRD or ROMRD), the CPU is performing a
code fetch from ROM or a GP bus chip select. At all other times
(including writes), this signal is High.
DATASTRB
[WBMSTR1]
{CFG1}
O{I}
Data Strobe is a debug signal that is asserted to allow the external
system to latch SDRAM data. This can be used to trace data on the
SDRAM interface with an in-circuit emulator probe or logic analyzer.
2-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Signal
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
Description
[WBMSTR0]
CF_ROM_GPCS
{CFG0}
O{I}
Write Buffer Master indicates which block(s) wrote to a rank in the
write buffer (during SDRAM write cycles) and which block is reading
from SDRAM (during SDRAM read cycles).
WBMSTR0, when a logical 1, indicates that the internal GP bus DMA
controller has contributed to the write buffer rank (write cycles) or is
reading from SDRAM (read cycles).
[WBMSTR1]
DATASTRB
{CFG1}
O{I}
WBMSTR1, when a logical 1, indicates that the PCI master has
contributed to the write buffer rank (write cycles) or is reading from
SDRAM (read cycles).
[WBMSTR2]
CF_DRAM
{CFG2}
O{I}
WBMSTR2, when a logical 1, it indicates that the CPU has contributed
to the write buffer rank (write cycles) or is reading from SDRAM (read
cycles).
Configuration
{AMDEBUG_DIS}
GPA23
I
AMDebug Disable is an active High configuration signal latched at the
assertion of Power Good (PWRGOOD). This pin has a built-in
pulldown resistor.
At Power Good assertion:
Low = Normal operation, mode can be enabled by software.
High = AMDebug mode is disabled and cannot be enabled by software.
{CFG0}
CF_ROM_GPCS
[WBMSTR0]
I
Configuration Inputs 3–0 are latched into the chip when PWRGOOD
is asserted. These signals are all shared with other features. These
signals have built-in pulldown resistors.
CFG0: Choose 8-, 16-, or 32-bit ROM/Flash interface for BOOTCS.
{CFG1}
DATASTRB
[WBMSTR1]
I
CFG1: Choose 8-, 16-, or 32-bit ROM/Flash interface for BOOTCS.
CFG1
CFG0
BOOTCS Data Width
0
0
8-bit
0
1
16-bit
1
x (don’t care)
32-bit
{CFG2}
CF_DRAM
[WBMSTR2]
I
CFG2: When Low when PWRGOOD is asserted, the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller uses the GP data bus for BOOTCS. When seen as
High during PWRGOOD assertion, the BOOTCS access is across the
SDRAM data bus. Default is Low (by a built-in pulldown resistor).
{CFG3}
PITOUT2
I
CFG3 (Internal AMD test mode enable): For normal ÉlanSC520
microcontroller operation, do not pull High during reset.
{DEBUG_ENTER}
GPA25
I
Enter AMDebug Mode is an active High configuration signal latched
at the assertion of Power Good (PWRGOOD). This pin enables the
AMDebug mode, which causes the processor to fetch and execute one
instruction from the BOOTCS device, and then enter AMDebug mode
where the CPU waits for debug commands to be delivered by the JTAG
port. This pin has a built-in pulldown resistor.
At PWRGOOD assertion:
High = AMDebug mode enabled
Low = Normal operation
{INST_TRCE}
GPA24
I
Instruction Trace is an active High configuration signal latched at the
assertion of Power Good (PWRGOOD). Enables trace record
generation from Power Good assertion. This pin has a built-in
pulldown resistor.
At PWRGOOD assertion:
High = Trace controller enabled to output trace records
Low = Normal operation
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2-13
Pin Information
Table 2-2
Signal
Signal Descriptions (Continued)
Multiplexed
Signal
Type
{RSTLD0}
GPA15
I
{RSTLD1}
GPA16
I
{RSTLD2}
GPA17
I
{RSTLD3}
GPA18
I
{RSTLD4}
GPA19
I
{RSTLD5}
GPA20
I
{RSTLD6}
GPA21
I
{RSTLD7}
GPA22
I
Description
Reset Latched Inputs are shared signals that are latched into a
register when PWRGOOD is asserted. They are used to input static
information to software (i.e., board revision). These signals have builtin pulldown resistors.
Power
BBATSEN
—
Analog
Backup Battery Sense is a pin on which real-time clock (RTC) backup
battery voltage is sampled each time PWRGOOD is asserted. If this
pin samples below 2.0 V, the Valid RAM and Time (VRT) bit in RTC
index 0Dh is cleared until read. After the read, the VRT bit is set until
BBATSEN is sensed via a subsequent PWRGOOD assertion.
BBATSEN also provides a power-on-reset signal for the RTC when an
RTC backup battery is applied for the first time.
VCC_ANLG
—
Power
Analog Power Supply for the analog circuits (PLLs).
VCC_CORE
—
Power
Power Supply for the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller core logic.
VCC_I/O
—
Power
Power Supply to the I/O pad ring.
VCC_RTC
—
Power
Power Supply for the real-time clock and 32-kHz oscillator.
GND
—
Power
Digital Ground for the remaining ÉlanSC520 microcontroller core logic.
GND_ANLG
—
Power
Analog Ground for the analog circuits.
2-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
3
3.1
SYSTEM INITIALIZATION
OVERVIEW
This chapter provides information and guidelines for initializing the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. Several source code examples of information described in this chapter are
available on the AMD web site. This CodeKit software is tested source code for example
applications. To obtain this software, as well as other product information and tools, access
the AMD home page at www.amd.com and follow the Embedded Processors link.
From a software perspective, the types of systems that can be developed with the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller fall into two broad categories, native embedded systems and
systems that use a BIOS1.
Of course, these are not the only types of systems that can be built with the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. It is quite possible to develop hybrid systems that have a BIOS but do not
run a “desktop” operating system like Windows®, DOS, Unix, or Linux. While there are
many possible ways to initialize the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, any initialization sequence
can be derived from the following two techniques.
■ System initialization with a BIOS
■ System initialization for a native embedded system without a BIOS
For systems with a BIOS, most, or all, of the system initialization is done by the BIOS while
the system is running in real mode. After initialization, the BIOS loads an operating system
or application from nonvolatile media, which is generally a disk drive, but could be Flash
memory or other media. The operating system or application begins operating in real mode
and then may make its own transition into protected mode. Windows 95 and Windows NT®
are examples of such operating systems. Real-time operating systems can also operate in
this manner.
BIOS initialization can be complex. Some BIOS products may make a temporary transition
into protected mode to perform certain operations and then revert back to real mode, before
passing execution to an operating system or application. Such behavior is dependent on
how the BIOS is written and the features provided and are beyond the scope of this
discussion.
For embedded systems, the initialization sequence is usually much simpler and generally
occurs primarily in protected mode. In this scenario, the processor comes up from a reset
and transitions into protected mode as soon as possible. The only real-mode code in the
system is the code required to jump from the reset vector and the execute code that causes
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to transition into protected mode.
3.1.1
Native Embedded Initialization Sequence
Many systems designed with the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller are native embedded systems
that do not have a BIOS. The software architecture for such systems can take many forms.
1. A BIOS is a PC software component. It is a set of real-mode code that is responsible for
initializing the system and providing a standard set of I/O and system services used by an
operating system and application level software. These services are provided via a standard
interface.
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System Initialization
Some use a commercial real-time operating system (RTOS), a custom RTOS, or a simple
‘main loop’ or non-preemptive executive. In general, the executive or RTOS generally
interfaces to the hardware using a hardware dependent layer called a board support
package (BSP)1.
In general, the system initialization flow for a native embedded system follows this
sequence:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
< Reset event >
Near Jump to reset handler from the reset vector
Switch to simple protected mode
Determine the cause of the reset
Initialize the DRAM controller and DRAM. Size the DRAM
Setup a Stack and begin execution from “C” code
if (NOT Execute-In-Place) then
Copy the Operating System to DRAM
Jump to the operating system’s entry point
Set up the Global Descriptor Table (GDT), Local Descriptor Table (LDT),
Interrupt Descriptor Table (IDT), fault handlers, page tables, and a
Task State Segment (TSS) for the operating system, application or
executive.
Set the processor speed
Configure the GP bus timings
Configure the pin multiplexing
Configure the GP bus chip selects
Configure the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers
Configure the interrupt mappings
Configure the programmable I/O (PIO) pins
Configure the PCI bus controller and arbitration mode
Initialize a periodic timer interrupt (if necessary)
Now, the BSP can initialize devices external to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller and otherwise continue to start the operating system,
I/O drivers and application.
In the above example, the switch to simple protected mode (line 3) sets the processor CS
register and the CS descriptor cache. This disables the redirection of the reset region to
the reset segment (see “Reset Vector and Reset Segment” on page 3-5 for more
information).
In line 3 above, the term simple protected mode means that the protected mode environment
(GDT, LDT, IDT, and TSS) is the simplest kind possible. For example, both the LDT and
IDT can be empty and the TSS and GDT can contain minimal information. Or, alternatively,
the IDT can be empty. This means that exceptions cannot be handled, but this should not
be a problem for the short period that the initialization code runs. More importantly, the TSS
and GDT for simple protected mode can be contained in read-only memory (usually Flash)
and do not have to be created at runtime. Once the DRAM is operational, then more
extensive GDT, LDT, and IDT tables and one or more appropriate TSS can be setup in
DRAM.
1. There is no standard term for this component. Other terms for BSP are OEM Adaptation
Layer (OAL), Hardware Adaptation Layer (HAL), or Porting Layer. A BSP is like a BIOS, but is
almost always unique to a specific executive or RTOS. This is especially true for comercially
available RTOS products. A BSP for one vendor’s RTOS generally does not work with products
from another vendor. Also, where a BIOS is most often a 16-bit real-mode entity, a BSP is
usually a 32-bit protected mode entity. Lastly, operating systems and applications always
communicate with a BIOS using software interrupts (or other run-time mechanisms), but a BSP
is often linked directly to an executive or application to form a single executable and is called
directly using the CALL instruction.
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Some embedded systems execute from read-only memory (usually Flash) and only use
DRAM for data storage. This style of system architecture is supported by most RTOS
products. This is reflected in line 7. Systems that execute out of Flash memory do not need
to copy the operating system and/or application to DRAM.
Another interesting point is that once the DRAM controller is initialized, then the initialization
code can setup a stack and finish the reset of its work in a high-level language (usually C).
3.1.2
BIOS Initialization Sequence
In contrast to a native embedded system, the flow of system initialization with a BIOS
generally follows this sequence:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
< Reset event >
Near Jump to reset handler from the reset vector
Map the Memory-Mapped Configuration Region (MMCR) to an address below
0010FFEFh (real-mode address limit)
Determine the cause of the reset
Initialize the DRAM controller and DRAM. Size the DRAM, record in CMOS
Copy the BIOS into DRAM (shadowing)
Execute a Far Jump within the BIOS code to start execution out of the
shadowed BIOS copy instead of the copy in ROM
Set up basic interrupt handlers for processor faults
Detect the CPU ID and display on the console
Set the processor speed
Configure the GP bus timings
Configure the pin multiplexing
Configure the GP bus chip selects
Configure the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers
Configure the interrupt mappings
Configure the programmable I/O (PIO) pins
Configure the PCI bus controller and arbitration
Now, the BIOS can continue with standard PC-style system initialization
There are some important contrasts between the steps for a system with a PC BIOS and
those for a native embedded system.
■ Steps 1 through 6 are done in real mode while executing from the reset segment before
executing the first Far Jump (JMP) instruction. This is in contrast to the initialization for
a native embedded system, which transitions to simple protected mode before these
steps.
■ The Memory-Mapped Configuration Region (MMCR) needs to be mapped to a region
below 00100000h so it is accessible by real-mode software. 32-bit protected-mode native
embedded systems do not need to move the MMCR.
■ The remainder of the system initialization is done in real mode from the BIOS image
running from DRAM. This is in contrast to an embedded system, which does all of its
initialization from 32-bit protected mode (running either from DRAM or Flash).
3.1.3
Memory-Mapped Configuration Region (MMCR)
The Memory-Mapped Configuration Region (MMCR) is a 4-Kbyte area located at physical
address FFFEF000h and contains various configuration and control registers for the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. Configuring and controlling many of the device’s features
requires accessing the MMCR registers. System initialization code for a native embedded
system can access this region directly because most (or all) initialization takes place from
32-bit protected mode.
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In contrast, real-mode code cannot access physical memory above 0010FFEFh (the realmode addressing limit), and thus cannot access the default location of the MMCR. This
problem is easily resolved by programming the Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register
(Port FFFCh) to place the MMCR at an address somewhere below the real-mode
addressing limit. This allows real-mode initialization code to directly access the MMCR.
This is done in step 3 of the BIOS initialization sequence.
Note: Programming the Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register can place the MMCR
at an address other than its default. However, the MMCR region is always accessible at its
default location of FFFEF000h, regardless of how the CBAR register is programmed.
3.1.4
Reset Event
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller has three primary classes of resets.
■ System reset (often called a hard reset or power-on reset)
■ System reset with SDRAM retention (called programmable reset)
■ Soft reset (often called warm start)
For more information on resetting the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, see Chapter 6, “Reset
Generation”, and “Initialization” on page 7-5.
Often, systems have a hardware reset button or other external devices that can cause a
reset. For the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, all of these cause a system reset. However, there
are many ways to implement external reset logic. After a reset (of any kind), boot software
can determine what caused the reset by examining various status bits.
A common and effective method of handling a reset is to determine the cause of the reset
and record the event in the CMOS memory, or in some other non-volatile memory such as
an EEPROM, non-volatile DRAM, or Flash. Debugging or diagnostic software could then
examine and report the causes of the last few resets. This can be very helpful when trying
to determine the cause of system problems. Note that the system could record other
information as well; the time and date of the reset event is a good example.
When a system reset occurs (regardless of the source) internal registers and logic blocks
are set to their power-on reset state. Therefore, if a system reset occurs, the boot software
must initialize the system from scratch.
There is one exception to this, called programmable reset. This function is enabled via the
PRG_RST_ENB bit in the Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register (MMCR offset D72h).
If this bit is set, assertion of the PRGRESET pin, SYS_RST bit, watchdog timer system
reset event, or AMDebug technology system reset event while PWRGOOD is asserted will
result in a system reset in which the SDRAM configuration (SDRAM type, number of banks,
refresh rate, etc.) is maintained so that the contents of SDRAM are preserved. SDRAM
controller parameters retained include the SDRAM type, number of banks, refresh rate,
and signal drive strength. This feature allows the system to be reset while guaranteeing
that the contents of SDRAM are not disturbed. This can be very valuable for system
debugging or for systems that require minimal startup time. This reset condition can be
detected by software. Note that, once programmable reset has been enabled, all system
resets other than PRWGOOD deassertion are converted to this type.
When a soft reset occurs, the system may be able to restart if the operating system saved
enough state information. For example, an old 80286-style operating system (e.g., OS/2)
causes a processor reset in order to return to real mode and call 16-bit BIOS routines.
Note: It is important to understand that, for most systems, a soft reset does not need to
be handled much differently than a system reset. For example, a system that does not need
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to explicitly perform a soft restart will simply cause a system reset when a soft reset is
detected.
Note that the watchdog timer can generate an interrupt (maskable or non-maskable) or a
system reset, or both. Handling watchdog timer time-outs can be complex. For more
information on how the WDT operates, see Chapter 19, “Watchdog Timer”.
3.1.5
Reset Vector and Reset Segment
Immediately after a hard or soft reset, the Am5x86 CPU core begins execution in real mode
at the address F000:FFF0. This real-mode address is called the reset vector. While the
reset vector is a real-mode address, it is a redirection of the physical address FFFFFFF0h,
which is located at the top physical address of the memory device selected by BOOTCS.
This device is called the boot ROM device.
After a hard or soft reset, the 64-Kbyte physical address space from FFFF0000 to
FFFFFFFFh (resident in the boot ROM device) is redirected into real-mode address space
from F000:0000 to F000:FFFF. This real-mode region is called the reset segment. The
region in the boot ROM device is called the reset region. The code that resides in this area
is called the reset handler.
This redirection is not performed by the addressing unit, but is an artifact of the values
programmed into the CS descriptor cache by the CPU at reset time. After any reset, the
CPU core sets the base value of CS Descriptor Cache register to FFFF0000h with a limit
of 0000FFFFh (64 Kbytes). The processor CS:EIP register pair is set to F000:0000FFF0.
The redirection works because, in real mode, linear addresses for code fetches are
generated by taking the offset in EIP and adding it to the contents of the base register in
the CS descriptor cache. Since the paging unit is disabled at reset, these linear addresses
map directly to physical addresses.
This simple mechanism causes both the redirection of the reset code region to the reset
segment and the first instruction fetch to occur from the reset vector.
Note that none of the other segment registers (and internal descriptor registers) have this
behavior. This behavior is only applicable to the CS Segment register and its internal
descriptor cache. For more information on the configuration of the processor registers at
reset, see the Am486® DX/DX2 Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual, 1994 (order
#17965).
What this means is that the artificial reset segment redirection is only active until the CPU
executes a Far Jump (JMP) instruction. This is because a Far Jump instruction causes the
CS Segment register to be reloaded. When a segment register is loaded in real mode, the
processor sets the value of the corresponding descriptor cache base register to 16 times
the new value of the segment register. Since the processor is running in real mode, the
internal CS Descriptor registers are set to their normal real-mode values.
Since the reset vector is at F000:FFF0, there are only 16 bytes before the end of the
segment. That is only enough for a few instructions. So, regardless of how much (or how
little) the reset code does, the instruction at the reset vector must be a Near Jump into the
reset region.
For example, as shown in Figure 3-1, if the reset handler is large, then the initial Near Jump
could be to F000:0000.
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System Initialization
Figure 3-1
Initial Near Jump Example
F000:FFFF
F000:FFF0
Reset Vector
F000:C000
Near
Jump
Reset
Handler
F000:0000
The reset vector Near Jump is not required to jump to F000:0000. It can jump anywhere
into the reset segment. For example, if the reset handler code is only 16 Kbytes in size, it
could jump to F000:C000, leaving more room on the boot ROM device for other code. This
allows the reset handler to be placed right up against the reset vector, thus using the space
in the boot ROM device more efficiently.
Note: For debugging using AMDebug technology, not only should this first Jump instruction
be a Near Jump, it should be a Jump Near Indirect instruction, which is opcode FF/4. Incircuit emulation and debug software that uses the internal trace cache searches for this
opcode to aid in determining when the reset event occurred.
As much or as little of the system initialization code can take place in the reset handler
while the system is executing from the reset segment (i.e., before the first Far Jump
instruction). For example, a native embedded system using a 32-bit only RTOS will merely
setup the protected mode data structures, switch to protected mode, and jump directly into
system boot code (the boot ROM device is the device selected by BOOTCS).
In contrast, a system with a PC-style BIOS would initialize the SDRAM controller, shadow
the BIOS to SDRAM, and then jump to the BIOS.
3.2
CONFIGURING THE SDRAM CONTROLLER
After a system reset, the SDRAM controller configuration registers are reset to their default
states. All the SDRAM controller banks and SDRAM refresh are disabled by default. For
details on how to enable the SDRAM controller and the SDRAM configuration, see
“Initialization” on page 10-29.
Note that the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be reset in a manner that preserves the
operation of the SDRAM controller. This condition can be detected and handled properly
by the SDRAM initialization code.
If the Error Correction Code (ECC) logic for SDRAM is enabled, ECC operation requires
that SDRAM and its associated ECC memory be initialized. This is accomplished by the
boot code, which must write to every location in SDRAM. This process initializes the ECC
SDRAM to reflect the proper error-checking codes. If this procedure is not performed, false
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errors will occur when writing data smaller than a 32-bit doubleword. For a more detailed
discussion of ECC, see “Error Correction Code (ECC)” on page 10-16.
3.3
IDENTIFYING THE CPU CORE
Information about the integrated Am5x86 CPU core is available by reading the processor
DX register after a system reset and by using the CPUID instruction at any time. The CPUID
instruction is available on later model 32-bit processors from all leading x86 vendors and
allows programs to determine information about the CPU, including the manufacturer, cache
type, and availability of a floating point unit (FPU). By using the CPUID instruction, software
can determine the type of CPU running the system. For example, software could detect
that it is running on an Am5x86 CPU and perform the appropriate action.
The ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller Revision ID (REVID) register (MMCR offset 00h) can be
used to identify the revision of the device itself.
A user-modifiable bit in the CPU’s Flags register called the ID bit indicates support of the
CPUID instruction. The ID bit is reset to 0 at CPU hard or soft reset for compatibility with
existing processor designs.
The results reported by the CPUID instruction reflect the state of the processor at the last
CPU hard or soft reset. If the CPU cache write mode or core clock speed is changed, and
if the CPU encounters a soft reset following the change, then a subsequent CPUID
instruction will report the altered condition of the processor (i.e., the state at the time the
soft reset occurred). After a hard CPU reset, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller always reports
the cache mode as write-back and the clock speed as 100 MHz.
The CPUID instruction returns encodings shown in Table 3-1.
Table 3-1
3.4
CPUID Codes
CPU
Clock Speed
Write-Back Mode
Write-Through Mode
Am5x86 CPU
100 MHz
0494h
0484h
Am5x86 CPU
133 MHz
04F4h
04E4h
SETTING THE CPU SPEED
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is available at multiple clock speeds. By default, the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller core comes up from a system reset running at 100 MHz. See
Chapter 7, “Am5x86® CPU”, for more information.
Note: Not all ÉlanSC520 microcontroller devices support all Am5x86 CPU clock rates. The
maximum supported clock rate for a device is indicated by the part number printed on the
package. The clocking circuitry can be programmed to run the device at higher than rated
speeds. However, if an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is programmed to run at a higher clock
speed than that for which it is rated, then erroneous operation will result, and physical
damage to the device may occur.
3.5
CONFIGURING EXTERNAL GP BUS DEVICES
Programming the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to support external peripherals on the GP
bus requires three steps.
1. Program the GP bus timing mechanism to control the bus timings for the device. This is
done first so that the initial access to the device (after the chip selects and PARs are
programmed) will function properly. The GP bus timings and bus cycles are discussed
in “Bus Cycles” on page 13-16.
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System Initialization
2. If needed, program the PIO pin logic to map the GP bus chip select signal and other
control signals to a physical pin.
3. Program a PAR register to map the external peripheral into physical address space and
to configure a chip select for the device.
For peripherals connected externally to the GP bus, the Programmable Address Region
registers control where they are mapped into the I/O or memory address space.
Programming and using these registers is discussed in Section 3.7.
3.6
CONFIGURING THE PIN MULTIPLEXING
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller has several pins that are multiplexed to two functions. There
are no pins that have three functions. Most of the pins that are multiplexed are programmable
input/output pins (PIOs).
To program a pin that is multiplexed with a PIO, its corresponding function bit must be set
in the PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function Select (PIOPFS31_16) register (MMCR offset C22h) or
the PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select (PIOPFS15_0) register (MMCR offset C20h).
Other pins with multiple programmable functions are all noted in Figure 2-2 on page 2-3.
3.7
CONFIGURING THE PROGRAMMABLE ADDRESS REGION (PAR)
REGISTERS
The PAR registers provide a common programming interface to configure physical memory
and I/O regions in an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system. PAR registers are programmed
by atomically writing 32-bit values. See “Programmable Address Region (PAR) Registers”
on page 4-5 for more information on using the PAR registers. “Software Considerations”
on page 4-18 provides other important details.
The PAR registers are used to define four characteristics.
■ Target device
■ Attributes for the address region
■ Size of the address region
■ Start address for the region
It is important to note that the PAR registers are used to define physical address regions.
PAR registers are not used to define effective address regions or linear address regions.
For example, an effective address (often called a logical or virtual address) gets translated
into a linear address by the Am5x86 CPU’s segmentation unit. If the paging unit is enabled,
then linear addresses get translated into physical addresses and placed on the CPU’s bus.
If the paging unit is not enabled, then the mapping from linear address to physical address
is direct (one-to-one).
Depending on how your system is set up, driver software, system software and other
software that must be aware of physical addresses should be written to take the Am5x86
CPU addressing modes into account. This can be an extremely complex topic and is beyond
the scope of this chapter.
The general format of the PAR registers is shown in Figure 3-2 on page 3-10. Provided as
a programming aid, Figure 3-3 on page 3-11 is a blank worksheet for calculating PAR
register values.
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3.7.1
Specifying Pages and Regions
For memory-mapped address regions, the Region Size/Start Address (SZ_ST_ADR) bit
field in the PAR registers specifies the number of 64-Kbyte or 4-Kbyte pages for the region.
Regions using a 64-Kbyte page size can have up to 2048 pages, for a maximum size of
128 Mbytes. Regions using a 4-Kbyte page size can have up to 128 pages, for a maximum
size of 512 Kbytes.
■ To specify the number of pages for a region, the value (page count minus 1) is
programmed into the SZ_ST_ADR field of the PAR register.
– For example, to specify a 16-Kbyte region using a 4-Kbyte page size, the value 03h
(0000011b) would be programmed into bits 24–18 of a PAR register, i.e., one less
than the required number of pages.
– To specify a page count of one, all the bits in the SZ_ST_ADR field for a PAR register
should be cleared to 0.
– To specify the maximum number of pages, either 2048 or 128, all the bits in the
SZ_ST_ADR field should be set to 1.
■ To specify the 4-Kbyte page size, the Page Size (PG_SZ) bit should be cleared to 0. For
a 64-Kbyte page size, it should be set to 1.
The same holds true for GP bus I/O-mapped regions. The region size field specifies the
number of bytes in the addressable region. For example, to specify a region size of 8 bytes,
the value 07h (0111b) should be programmed into the SZ_ST_ADR field of the PAR register.
Note: For GP bus I/O-mapped regions, the PAR registers’ PG_SZ bit is ignored. In general,
it should be cleared to 0 for GP bus I/O regions.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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System Initialization
Figure 3-2
Programmable Address Region (PAR) Register Format
Programmable Address Region Register
31–29
28–26
25
24–0
Target of the
PAR Window
(TARGET)
Attribute
(ATTR)
Page Size
(PG_SZ)
Region Size/Start Address
(SZ_ST_ADR)
31
30
29
Target Device
25
Memory Page Size
0
0
0
Window disabled
0
4-Kbyte memory page size on 4-Kbyte
boundary, ignored for I/O cycles.
0
0
1
GP bus I/O
1
0
1
0
GP bus memory
64-Kbyte memory page size on 64-Kbyte
boundary, ignored for I/O cycles.
0
1
1
PCI bus (applies to
memory cycles to
PAR 0–PAR 1 only)
1
0
0
BOOTCS (ROM)
1
0
1
ROMCS1
1
1
0
ROMCS2
1
1
1
SDRAM
Memory
Cycle
When
[25]=0
Memory
Cycle
When
[25]=1
I/O
Cycles
Only
24–18
17–0
Region Size
[6–0]
Start Address
A[29–12]
24–14
13–0
Region Size
[10–0]
Start Address
A[29–16]
24–16
15–0
Region Size
[8–0]
Start Address
A[15–0]
Size defines up to 128
pages of 4-Kbyte size each,
on 4-Kbyte boundary, for a
512-Kbyte maximum window
size.
Size defines up to 2K pages
of 64-Kbyte size each on 64Kbyte boundary, for a 128Mbyte maximum window
size.
Size defines up to 512 bytes
with byte resolution in 64Kbyte I/O space.
If Target is GP bus
If Target is ROM or SDRAM
28
27
26
GP Bus Chip Select
0
0
0
GPCS0
0
0
1
GPCS1
0
1
0
GPCS2
0
1
1
GPCS3
1
0
0
GPCS4
1
0
1
GPCS5
1
1
0
GPCS6
1
1
1
GPCS7
3-10
28
27
26
ROM/SDRAM Attribute
0 = Write-enabled region
1 = Write-protected region
0 = Cacheable region
1 = Noncacheable region
0 = Code execution permitted
1 = Code execution denied
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Initialization
Figure 3-3
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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System Initialization
3.7.2
Address Region Attributes
The address region attributes (as specified in the ATTR bit field of a PAR register) can be
used with ROM or SDRAM regions to control how the regions can be accessed. This section
includes some examples of how the attributes can be used with SDRAM and ROM regions.
3.7.2.1
Write-Protect Attribute
When this feature is enabled for an address region in SDRAM or ROM, an interrupt is
generated when a write is performed to the region. This interrupt can be used to find
problems with errant software or to help debug Flash programming code.
3.7.2.2
Cacheability Control Attribute
The Cacheability Control Attribute bit in the PAR registers provides a simple mechanism
for controlling the caching of memory regions. This mechanism is much easier to use than
the Am5x86 CPU’s paging unit.
For SDRAM regions, turning off caching can be useful for regions that contain buffers used
for DMA or for PCI bus mastering devices.
This feature is also useful for Flash regions. For some operations, it is necessary to turn
off caching for a Flash region. An example is when a Flash device needs to be erased or
programmed. Any time a Flash device’s internal registers need to be read or written, caching
should be disabled for the device. For example, the Flash sector erasing code needs to poll
the device to see when erases and other operations are complete. If caching is not turned
off, then the software will merely continue to read the value from the processor’s cache and
not the correct value from the device. This is also true during the Flash programming write/
verify cycle. For more information, see page 12-12.
3.7.2.3
Code Execution Attribute
Execution control works in a similar manner to the Write-Protect Attribute bit. The difference
is that when this bit is set, any code fetches by the CPU to the defined region will cause an
invalid opcode fetch fault to be generated. This is accomplished by returning an invalid
opcode to the CPU, instead of the data resident in the device at the requested address.
This is very useful for debugging problems. Large areas of the address space can be
execute-protected. For example, the Flash for a file system could be protected from code
execution. Data reads and writes for the Flash file system would happen normally. But, if
a code erroneously jumped into this data area, an invalid opcode fetch fault would be
generated immediately.
3.7.2.4
Performance Considerations
It is possible to control the same attributes that the PAR registers provide using the native
mechanisms in the Am5x86 CPU core. For example, 4-Kbyte pages can be write-protected
using the paging unit and paging tables. Noncached regions can also be created using this
mechanism. Execution protection can also be performed using a segmented code model
and descriptor attributes.
Using the native x86 mechanisms will work, but using the address region attributes in a
PAR register is easier and provides higher performance. If the CPU’s paging unit is enabled,
the entire system takes a small performance hit because all linear address must be
translated to physical address. Also, defining nonexecutable regions is very difficult to do
and requires 48-bit code pointers (huge pointers) and a fully segmented 32-bit code model.
This is a high price to pay to obtain execute-only regions. These performance penalties are
not incurred when using the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s address region attribute
mechanism.
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3.7.3
PAR Register Priority
The PAR register mechanism is a very flexible and useful one. It is designed to allow the
system programmer to easily program the address decoding and set attributes for
addressable regions. One feature of the PAR register system that may not be obvious from
the examples included in this chapter is that the PAR registers have a priority mechanism.
The highest priority PAR register is PAR 0 and the lowest priority register is PAR 15. This
feature is not relevant unless two (or more) PAR regions overlap. If they do overlap, then
the higher priority PAR register takes precedence.
The PAR registers are used to modify and add to the default system addressing (see
Table 4-4 on page 4-4). Note that the system can function quite well with all of the PAR
registers disabled. For example, a system could start-up, use a PAR register to copy the
contents of Flash to SDRAM1, jump to the code in SDRAM, and then disable the PAR
register used for the copy. With all the PAR registers disabled, the normal address resolution
priorities in the system govern addressing of physical devices.
3.7.4
External GP Bus Devices
Devices on the GP bus can be addressed in two ways. Each is controlled by programming
the PAR registers.
■ By chip select, mapping the device into memory or I/O space
■ Devices can do their own memory or I/O address decoding.
Programming a PAR register with the GP bus as the target is required to cause memory or
I/O cycles to be forwarded to the external GP bus. This is true for devices that use chip
selects and devices that decode their own address (generate their own chip selects).
Programming a PAR register is necessary because, by default, memory and I/O cycles
generated by the Am5x86 CPU that are not decoded by an internal GP bus peripheral or
memory resources (like SDRAM, ROM, and the MMCR registers) go to the PCI bus.
For a device on the external GP bus, programming a PAR register configures the following
characteristics:
■ Target device field—For either a GP bus memory-mapped cycle or an I/O cycle
■ Attribute field—For the particular GP bus chip select to which the device is attached
■ Memory page size field— Most peripherals use a 4-Kbyte granularity. Peripherals that
have very large memory address spaces, such as SDRAM or ROM, might need to use
a 64-Kbyte granularity.
■ Region size and start address
For a device that requires a chip select from the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, the chip select
must be mapped to a physical pin using the PIO registers. For devices that do their own
address decoding, the PAR register must still be programmed, and the chip select should
be chosen; however, the chip select from the PAR register does not need to be mapped to
a physical pin.
Note: All of the internal peripherals on the GP bus are decoded at fixed locations. The
locations for these peripherals cannot be changed by programming a PAR register. For
example, the internal real-time clock cannot be moved to a different location. No PAR
registers are required to access any of the internal peripheral devices on the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
1. This is one way to shadow a BIOS to DRAM.
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3.7.4.1
Single Device (an A/D Converter) Using One Chip Select
In this example, an A/D converter has four 16-bit registers that need to be mapped into
I/O space on GPCS5 at I/O address 0500h. As shown in Table 3-2, the value to program
into a PAR register in this case is 34070500h.
Table 3-2
Example PAR Programming: Single Device Using One Chip Select
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
001b
GP bus I/O space
Attribute Field
101b
GPCS5
Page Size
0b
Clear to 0 (this bit not applicable to I/O space)
Region Size
7h
Specifies an 8-byte region size
Start Address
3.7.4.2
0500h
Physical address 0500h
Single Device That Performs Its Own Decode
In this example, an external memory-mapped 16-color 480 x 320 pixel LCD controller
performs its own address decoding. It needs a 128-Kbyte window mapped at 000C0000h.
A chip select must be used (specified in the ATTR bit field of the PAR register), but it does
not need to be mapped to an external pin. GPCS7 is used here. As shown in Table 3-3, the
value to program into a PAR register in this case is 5E00400Ch.
Table 3-3
Example PAR Programming: Single Device That Performs Its Own Decode
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
010b
GP bus memory space
Attribute Field
111b
GPCS7
Page Size
1b
64-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
1h
Specifies two 64-Kbyte pages for a 128-Kbyte region size
Start Address
3.7.4.3
000Ch
Physical address 000C0000h
Multiple Devices On One Chip Select
A single PAR register can be programmed for a larger range than is needed by a single
peripheral. For example, consider a bank of 16 memory-mapped A/D converters, each of
which has four 16-bit registers. An external PAL is programmed to do the address decoding
for each individual A/D converter. The converters will be memory-mapped to a range of
00020000–0002003Fh. The PAL generates the chip selects for each of the four converters
by watching for the appropriate memory read and write cycles and is qualified from GPCS2
from the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. As shown in Table 3-4, the value to program into a
PAR register in this case is 48000020h.
Table 3-4
3-14
Example PAR Programming: Multiple Devices on One Chip Select
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
010b
GP bus memory space
Attribute Field
010b
GPCS2
Page Size
0b
4-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
0h
One 4-Kbyte page
Start Address
20h
Physical address 00020000h
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3.7.5
PCI Bus Devices
Normally, devices on the PCI bus are mapped into memory space that is above the
configured amount of DRAM and just under 4 Gbytes (FFFEFFFFh). The ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s address decode logic forwards all access to these memory locations to
the PCI bus.
Normally, memory cycles below the top address used by SDRAM are forwarded only to the
SDRAM controller, or to the GP bus if a PAR register is appropriately programmed. However,
for Windows and DOS compatibility, some PCI peripherals need to be mapped into SDRAM
space. These regions usually fall below the real-mode address limit (physical address
0010FFEFh). Devices that can require this include PCI-based VGA video cards and PCIbased network adapters. To allow this, the first two PAR registers support the PCI bus as
a target. Note PCI as a target can only be specified in PAR 0 and PAR 1.
For such devices, a PAR register must be programmed that allows addresses lower than
the highest SDRAM address to be forwarded to the PCI bus. This is in addition to the normal
PCI bus device configuration. The VGA controller example in Section 3.7.5.1 illustrates this.
Typically, all I/O space accesses above the 1-Kbyte boundary are forwarded to the PCI bus,
and all I/O space accesses below the 1-Kbyte boundary are forwarded to the GP bus.
■ With some minor exceptions for the CBAR and PCI configuration registers, the I/O space
above the 1-Kbyte boundary can be redirected from the PCI to the GP bus using PAR
registers.
■ The IO_HOLE_DEST bit in the Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register (MMCR
offset 80h) can be programmed to allow all I/O space addresses below the 1-Kbyte
boundary that are not assigned to internal peripherals to be forwarded to the PCI bus.
■ Note that PAR registers can still be mapped in the lower 1-Kbyte I/O space to override
the IO_HOLE_DEST bit. This way, I/O devices in the lower 1-Kbyte space can reside
internally to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, on the external GP-Bus, and on the PCI bus.
3.7.5.1
VGA Controller on the PCI Bus
A VGA video controller’s 128 Kbytes of memory is normally mapped from 000A0000–
000BFFFFh (physical addresses). So, to support a PCI-based video controller, PAR 0 or
PAR 1 would need to be programmed to 7200400Ah. This configures PAR 0 or PAR 1 with
the characteristics shown in Table 3-5. The attribute fields are ignored for the PCI bus target.
PCI regions are always writable, executable, and noncached.
Table 3-5
Example PAR Programming: VGA Controller on the PCI Bus
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
011b
PCI bus
Attribute Field
000b
Not applicable
Page Size
1b
64-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
1h
Specifies two 64-Kbyte pages for a 128-Kbyte region size
Start Address
Ah
Physical address 000A0000h
A PCI VGA video adapter also requires PCI I/O from addresses 03B0–03BBh and 03C0–
03CFh. A PAR register is not required to map these I/O locations to PCI space, but instead
the IO_HOLES_DEST bit must be set in the Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL)
register (MMCR offset 80h). This has the effect of mapping all external I/O accesses to PCI
space rather than to the GP bus. If there are no external GP bus I/O devices, then no further
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PAR programming is required to support this configuration. Note that the internal I/O devices
will still be correctly accessed when the IO_HOLES_DEST bit is set.
However, if any external GP bus device requires I/O addresses, then a PAR register will be
required to allow access to this device. As an example, assume an external 16550 UART
is used to implement a COM3 port.
The standard I/O locations for COM3 are 03E8–03EFh. As shown in Table 3-6, a PAR
register will be required with a setting of 340703E8hto enable external GP bus accesses
to this I/O range. In this example, GPCS5 is used as a chip enable for the external device.
If another GPCSx is required, then appropriate changes should be made to the PAR register
setting.
Table 3-6
Example PAR Programming: COM3 with VGA Present on the PCI Bus
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
001b
GP bus I/O space
Attribute Field
101b
GPCS5
Page Size
0b
Clear to 0 (this bit not applicable to I/O space)
Region Size
7h
Specifies an 8-byte region size
Start Address
3.7.5.2
03E8h
Physical address 03E8h
Network Adapter for Remote Program Loading
A memory-mapped network adapter will usually reside in PCI space that is far above the
real-mode address limit. However, to perform Remote Program Loading (RPL), often called
network boot, over a network, the 16-bit BIOS needs to use the network adapter. To avoid
writing 32-bit protected-mode BIOS code, PAR 0 or PAR 1 can be used to place a memorymapped network adapter above the real-mode address limit. For this example, it is assumed
that the network adapter has 16 Kbytes of address space that needs to be placed at
000B0000h. This area is noncacheable because it is PCI address space. As shown in
Table 3-7, the value to configure PAR 0 or PAR 1 for this configuration is 600C00B0h.
Table 3-7
Example PAR Programming: Network Adapter for Remote Program Loading
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
011b
PCI bus
Attribute Field
000b
Not applicable
Page Size
0b
4-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
03h
Specifies four 4-Kbyte pages for a 16-Kbyte region size
Start Address
B0h
Physical address 000B0000h
Note that most network adapters will also require a small amount of PCI I/O space. The
location of this I/O space can usually be changed through a PCI configuration register on
the adapter and can be assigned by an operating system through plug and play functionality.
Usually, this address can be set to any value and is typically above the 1-Kbyte I/O boundary
affected by the IO_HOLES_DEST bit. Since I/O accesses above 400h are always sent to
PCI space (unless overridden by a PAR register to go to the GP bus), no special programming
is needed to allow I/O accesses for a typical PCI network adapter.
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3.7.6
External ROM Devices
The PAR registers can also be used to define the addressing for ROM devices selected by
BOOTCS, ROMCS1, and ROMCS2. ROM devices include true ROMs, EEPROM, Flash
devices, and other similar devices.
It is important to note that the top 64 Kbytes of the ROM device selected by BOOTCS (the
boot device chip select) is always mapped to the physical addresses from FFFF0000–
FFFFFFFFh. This area is called the reset region. The reset region is cached, executable,
and not write-protected. This 64-Kbyte mapping is fixed and always active, even if the boot
ROM device is mapped to another address using a PAR register. ROM devices attached
to BOOTCS, ROMCS1, or ROMCS2 can be mapped anywhere in physical address space
below 40000000h (1 Gbyte).
3.7.6.1
Boot ROM Device Mapping for BIOS Shadowing
A 512-Kbyte Flash device is a common boot ROM device for systems with a BIOS. One
way to shadow the BIOS is to map it below 00100000h so that it can be accessed by realmode code. This is easily done with a single PAR register. For shadowing purposes, a good
place to park the boot ROM device is at 00001000h, which is just above the interrupt vector
table. The value 89FC0001h configures the PAR register as shown in Table 3-8.
Table 3-8
Example PAR Programming: Boot ROM Device Mapping for BIOS Shadowing
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
100b
BOOTCS
Attribute Field
010b
Write enable, noncacheable, code execution permitted
Page Size
3.7.6.2
0b
4-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
7Fh
Specifies 128 4-Kbyte pages for a 512-Kbyte region size
Start Address
1h
Physical address 00001000h
Two Banks of Flash for an Execute-In-Place (XIP) Operating System
A system has eight 8-Mbit byte-wide Flash devices. Four are on ROMCS1 and four on
ROMCS2. These devices will be mapped into eight Mbytes of contiguous 32-bit address
space from 00400000–00BFFFFFh. This requires two PAR registers because two ROM
chip selects need to be used. This example uses PAR 4 and PAR 5. Note that in addition
to programming the PAR registers, the ROM chip selects need to be mapped to physical
pins.
The value A20FC040h for PAR 4 would setup ROMCS1 for the first bank of Flash. This
configures the PAR register with the characteristics shown in Table 3-9. The value
C20FC080h for PAR 5 would setup ROMCS2 for the first bank of Flash. This configures
the PAR register with the characteristics shown in Table 3-10.
Table 3-9
Example PAR Programming: First Bank of Flash for XIP Operating System
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
101b
ROMCS1
Attribute Field
000b
Write enable, cacheable, code execution allowed
Page Size
1b
64-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
3Fh
Specifies sixty-four 64-Kbyte pages for a 4-Mbyte region size
Start Address
40h
Physical address 00400000h
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System Initialization
Table 3-10
Example PAR Programming: Second Bank of Flash for XIP Operating System
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
110b
ROMCS2
Attribute Field
000b
Write enable, cacheable, code execution allowed
Page Size
3.7.7
1b
64-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
3Fh
Specifies sixty-four 64-Kbyte pages for a 4-Mbyte region size
Start Address
80h
Physical address 00800000h
SDRAM Regions
The PAR registers can also be used to define regions of SDRAM and control the read/write,
cacheability, and execution attributes.
3.7.7.1
Setting Up DMA Buffers
Often PCI and GP bus devices use GP-DMA or PCI bus mastering to read and write data
directly from buffers in SDRAM. It is often useful to mark such buffers as noncached. This
can be done using the CPU’s paging unit, but doing so is complex and may conflict with
how an operating system uses the page tables.
In any case, disabling caching for a region is quite simple. Setting the Cacheability Control
Attribute (bit 27) in a PAR register defines a buffer region. For example, a 512-Kbyte region
can be defined to store transmit and receive buffers for a fast Ethernet PCI controller. Since
this is a data-only area, the Code Execution Attribute (bit 28) is set.
Assuming that the region is located at physical address 00020000h, a PAR register would
be programmed with the value F9FC0020h. This configures the PAR register with the
characteristics shown in Table 3-11.
Table 3-11
Example PAR Programming: Setting Up DMA Buffers
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
111b
SDRAM
Attribute Field
110b
Write enable, noncacheable, code execution denied
Page Size
0b
4-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
7Fh
Specifies 128 4-Kbyte pages for a 512-Kbyte region size
Start Address
20h
Physical address 00200000h
Of course, this is not absolutely necessary. The cache controller in the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller always maintains the coherency between the cache and SDRAM. For buffer
regions used by GP-DMA channels or PCI bus masters, disabling caching with a PAR
register is more efficient and provides better bus performance than allowing the CPU to
cache the buffer. This avoids the bus activity (and latency) involved with keeping the cache
and the SDRAM coherent.
3.7.7.2
Write-Protected Code Segments
In many embedded systems, all (or most) of the applications and operating system code
is contiguous in memory. In such cases, a single PAR register can be used to write-protect
most (or all) of the code in a system. If errant code attempted to write to the protected
region, then an interrupt would be generated. Note that the CPU completes the write cycle,
but the SDRAM or ROM controller (as appropriate) prevents the write from occurring at the
device.
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Several actions could be taken, from merely preventing the write from taking place, to killing
the offending thread, or even restarting the system. Also, the event could be recorded and/
or reported to a debugging or diagnostic interface or console port. During debugging, a
breakpoint could be set at the front of the write-protect interrupt service routine.
Assuming the system code resides in the first 768 Kbytes of SDRAM at address 0, the
value E602C000h configures a PAR register with the values shown in Table 3-12.
Table 3-12
3.8
Example PAR Programming: Write-Protected Code Segments
Bit Field
Value
Meaning
Target Device
111b
SDRAM
Attribute Field
001b
Write disable, cacheable, code execution permitted
Page Size
1b
64-Kbyte granularity
Region Size
Bh
Specifies twelve 64-Kbyte pages for a 768-Kbyte region size
Start Address
0h
Physical address 00000000h
CONFIGURING THE INTERRUPT MAPPING
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller has very flexible interrupt routing and control capability.
Each of the hardware interrupt sources can be mapped to any of the different interrupt
priority levels in the programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
In contrast to a basic PC, which has fixed interrupt mappings and operation, the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller has a very flexible interrupt management architecture. For full details on
this system, see Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”. The information in
“Interrupt Sources” on page 15-8 is of particular importance.
The following sections discuss options to be considered for the software that configures
interrupts.
3.8.1
Edge-Sensitive or Level-Triggered Interrupts
Edge- and level-triggering can be programmed for each PIC or on an interrupt-by-interrupt
basis.
For example, all of the interrupts on the Slave 2 interrupt controller could be programmed
for edge-triggered operation.
■ Setting the S2_GINT_MODE bit in the Interrupt Control (PICICR) register (MMCR offset
D00h) allows the LTIM bit in the Slave 2 PIC Initialization Control Word 1 (S2PICICW1)
register (Port 0024h) to control how interrupts are triggered for that controller.
■ If the S2_GINT_MODE bit is cleared, then the edge- or level-triggered nature is controlled
for each interrupt input to the PIC individually using the Slave 2 PIC Interrupt Mode
(SL2PICMODE) register (MMCR offset D04h).
3.8.2
Interrupt Mapping
Using the Interrupt Mapping registers, each interrupt source can be mapped to one of the
interrupt channels in the PIC block, the NMI interrupt, or can be disabled as an interrupt
input. The flexibility of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller allows any interrupt source in the
system to trigger either a regular interrupt or an NMI.
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3.8.3
Interrupt Polarity
Each of the interrupt controllers can recognize either a Low-to-High edge-triggered or an
active High level-sensitive interrupt request. To support external devices that generate
active Low interrupt requests (either edge or level), a programmable inversion of each of
the external interrupt requests is available.
Many devices generate a Low-going interrupt signal using an open-collector output. These
devices are easily supported on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller by setting the appropriate
bit in the Interrupt Pin Polarity (INTPINPOL) register (MMCR offset D10h). For example, if
such a device were connected to GPIRQ8, then setting GPINT8_POL in the Interrupt Pin
Polarity (INTPINPOL) register would program the interrupt for a Low-going interrupt input.
It is important to ensure that the polarity values for all internal interrupt sources are
programmed correctly at reset time.
3.9
CONFIGURING THE PROGRAMMABLE I/O PINS
An important part of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller initialization is configuration of the
programmable I/O (PIO) pins. These are general-purpose I/O pins that can be programmed
as inputs or outputs. When configured as an input, the state of the input can be read using
the PIOx_DATA bit in the PIOx Data register.
The PIO pins can also be configured as outputs by setting their corresponding direction
bits in the PIOx Direction registers.
3.10
CONFIGURING THE PCI HOST BRIDGE AND ARBITRATION
The PCI Host Bridge must be configured and initialized before PCI operation such as
enumeration and device configuration take place. There are two parts to the PCI host bridge
configuration: ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-specific configuration and normal PCI bus
configuration.
1. Configure the PCI host bridge.
a. Program the desired ÉlanSC520 microcontroller arbitration mode, including
concurrency mode and PCI bus master arbitration priorities, etc. See “Initialization”
on page 8-22, for more detailed information on arbitration.
b. Program the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers, if required. If there are
one or two VGA video controllers, PAR 0 and PAR 1 may need to be programmed to
place the VGA graphics memory in SDRAM space at PC-compatible locations. PAR
0 and PAR 1 could also be used for other PCI peripherals (such as a network card)
that require mapping below physical address 00100000h. See Chapter 4, “System
Address Mapping”, for details on programming PCI bus memory space.
c. Program the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-specific PCI host bridge configuration (write
posting, retry time-out counter, interrupts, etc.). Note that write-posting must be
disabled while operating in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. See Chapter 8, “System
Arbitration”, for further details on nonconcurrent mode arbitration.
d. Program the standard PCI bus configuration registers. See “Configuration Information”
on page 9-9 for more information.
2. Configure the external PCI bus devices.
In general, PCI host bridge configuration bits should not be changed except during a PCI
bus initialization after a system or programmable reset.
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3.11
DISABLING INTERNAL PERIPHERALS
Most applications will use the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s internal UART devices and its
internal real-time clock (RTC). However, some applications might need to use external
devices mapped to these same I/O locations. To use external devices, the corresponding
internal device must be disabled. This is necessary because these internal peripherals are
at fixed I/O locations and cannot be re-mapped. If any internal devices are disabled,
accesses to the I/O addresses for these peripherals are forwarded to the external GP bus.
Disabling these peripherals turns off their address decoding, so that externally connected
peripherals can be used in their place. If the addresses cannot be externally decoded
without a chip select, a PAR register must be mapped to allow a chip select to be asserted
for these addresses.
Using external devices in place of the internal ones might be necessary for several reasons.
A common reason would be to use a multifunction external chip that has parallel ports,
serial ports, floppy disk controller, an RTC, and other devices.
■ The internal RTC can be disabled by setting the RTC_DIS bit in the Address Decode
Control (ADDDECCTL) register (MMCR offset 80h).
■ UART 1 and UART 2 can be disabled by setting the UART1_DIS and UART2_DIS bits
in the Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register.
Note that, if the internal peripherals are disabled, the external peripheral’s interrupt signals
will need to be connected to external interrupt lines, which then need to be routed to the
appropriate interrupt channel. For example, if an external UART is used to replace UART
2 (as COM2), then its interrupt could be connected to GPIRQ8, which would then need to
be routed to interrupt priority P3.
Also, in this scenario, the pin used for GPIRQ8 would need to be configured as a generalpurpose IRQ (the interface function for the pin, not its default PIO function) by setting the
PIO15_FNC bit in the PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select (PIOPFS15_0) register (MMCR
offset C20h).
Note: When the internal peripherals are disabled, they are still fully functional. Disabling
the peripherals disables the address decoding only for that device. For example, if the RTC
is programmed to generate interrupts and then subsequently disabled, it will continue to
generate interrupts but will no longer be accessible. Before disabling an internal peripheral,
be sure to turn off its interrupts.
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CHAPTER
4
4.1
SYSTEM ADDRESS MAPPING
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes flexible memory and I/O address decoding with
features for both real-time operating systems (RTOS) and systems requiring PC/AT
functionality for Windows compatibility. Address decoding is distributed between the
memory controllers, GP bus controller, and PCI host bridge controller. The ÉlanSC520
microcontroller provides the following memory and I/O address mapping options.
■ The default SDRAM map is linear space starting at 00000000h through the top of
SDRAM (defined by the total size of the SDRAM array, up to a maximum of 256 Mbytes).
■ The default boot ROM/Flash chip select (BOOTCS pin) is mapped in a 64-Kbyte linear
region at the top of CPU memory space from FFFF0000–FFFFFFFFh, and this entire
ROM space can be redirected through configuration registers (address translation is not
supported).
■ All configuration registers that do not reside in PC/AT I/O space or PCI configuration
space are memory-mapped and are located in a 4-Kbyte region in memory address
space from FFFEF000–FFFEFFFFh.
– This 4-Kbyte region is called the memory-mapped configuration region (MMCR).
– The MMCR can optionally be relocated on any 4-Kbyte boundary in the lower 1-Gbyte
region via an I/O mapped register called the Configuration Base Address (CBAR)
register (Port FFFCh).
– The default MMCR region in high memory (below the boot space) is visible even if it
is aliased via the Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register.
■ The default PCI bus map is contiguous space starting directly above the top of SDRAM
through 4 Gbytes, minus the 68 Kbytes for the boot ROM/Flash region and the MMCR.
■ 16 general-purpose Programmable Address Region (PAR) windows allow address
mapping for a variety of applications, including operating systems requiring x86 real
mode support. Each window allows any memory region in the lower 1-Gbyte region to
be directed to the following resources:
– Any of three ROM chip-selects with the ability to apply cacheability, write-protection,
and nonexecutable region attributes
– Any of eight GP bus chip-selects for external memory or I/O peripherals on the GP bus
– Two PAR registers allow cycles to be forwarded to the PCI bus for applications that
require PCI space to be overlaid on top of SDRAM. All accesses above the top of
SDRAM to the top of 32-bit memory space are automatically forwarded to PCI bus
(with the exception of the ROM boot space and memory-mapped configuration space).
– Accesses in normal SDRAM space (lower 256 Mbytes) can also be redirected to ROM,
the GP bus, or the PCI bus.
– PAR windows can be created in the SDRAM region to allow noncacheable, writeprotected, and/or nonexecutable buffers.
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System Address Mapping
■ Integrated PC/AT compatible peripherals are direct-mapped in normal PC I/O space
(i.e., the programmable interrupt controller, programmable interval timer, GP bus DMA
controller, RTC, and UARTs). All remaining integrated peripherals are memory-mapped
(the watchdog timer, software timer, GP timers, and SSI).
■ As a PCI target, the PCI bus host bridge decodes normal SDRAM address space,
allowing external PCI bus master access of the entire SDRAM space. PCI bus I/O
accesses from PCI masters are not decoded by the PCI host bridge.
4.2
REGISTERS
Address decoding is controlled by the configuration registers listed in Table 4-1 and
Table 4-2.
Table 4-1
Address Decoding Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Address Decode Control
ADDDECCTL
80h
RTC disable, UART 1 and UART 2 disables, write
protect violation interrupt enable, I/O hole
access destination
Write-Protect Violation Status
WPVSTA
82h
Write-protect violation interrupt status, master,
window number
Programmable Address Region 0
PAR0
88h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 1
PAR1
8Ch
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 2
PAR2
90h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 3
PAR3
94h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 4
PAR4
98h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 5
PAR5
9Ch
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 6
PAR6
A0h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 7
PAR7
A4h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 8
PAR8
A8h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 9
PAR9
ACh
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 10
PAR10
B0h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 11
PAR11
B4h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 12
PAR12
B8h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 13
PAR13
BCh
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 14
PAR14
C0h
General-purpose resource decoding
Programmable Address Region 15
PAR15
C4h
General-purpose resource decoding
Function
I
Table 4-2
Address Decoding Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O
Address
Configuration Base Address
CBAR
FFFCh
4-2
Function
Base address for the alias of the MMCR
registers
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Address Mapping
4.3
OPERATION
There are three types of system bus masters supported on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller:
the Am5x86 CPU, the PCI bus, and the GP bus DMA controller.
As shown in Table 4-3, each of the three bus masters can access specific types of address
space.
■ The Am5x86 CPU and the PCI bus each implement separate memory and I/O address
space.
■ The PCI bus further specifies a separate space for device configuration registers.
■ The GP bus DMA controller supports fly-by transfers between GP bus devices and
SDRAM; therefore, as a bus master, it supports memory space only.
Table 4-3
Bus Master Address Spaces
Bus Master and
Address Space
CPU
Memory
SDRAM
ROM
GP
Bus
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
I/O
PCI
Bus
✔
Memory
Integrated
PC/AT
Peripherals
Integrated
Non-PC/AT
Peripherals
MemoryMapped
Registers
✔
✔
CBAR
Register
✔
✔
✔
✔
I/O
Configuration
GPDMA
PCI
Bus
Memory
1
✔
Notes:
1. Accessed indirectly by the CPU via the PCI configuration registers in I/O space.
The Am5x86 CPU and PCI bus definition support separate memory and I/O address spaces
(I/O space is limited to 64 Kbytes on the CPU). The PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision
2.2, further defines a separate space for configuration registers.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller divides these address spaces as follows:
■ Memory space
– ROM/Flash space for data and code storage using up to three chip selects (accessible
only by the CPU)
– SDRAM space for data and code storage
– GP bus memory space (accessible only by the CPU)
– PCI bus memory space (accessible only by the CPU and PCI bus masters)
– Internal memory-mapped configuration region (MMCR) registers (accessible only by
the CPU)
■ I/O space
– Integrated PC/AT-compatible peripherals (accessible only by the CPU)
– Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register (Port FFFCh) to set the MMCR’s base
address (accessible only by the CPU)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
4-3
System Address Mapping
– GP bus I/O space (accessible only by the CPU)
– PCI bus I/O space (accessible by the CPU and PCI masters)
– PCI bus configuration space (accessible only by the CPU)
Table 4-4 summarizes the organization of memory and I/O address regions in the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Table 4-4
Memory and I/O Space Summary
Device
Memory Space
SDRAM
•
•
ROM/Flash
•
•
PCI Bus Normal Space
•
•
I/O Space
Linear space starting at 00000000h to top N/A
of SDRAM (maximum 256 Mbytes)
PAR registers define noncacheable,
write-protected, nonexecutable regions
BOOTCS mapped to CPU boot space
from FFFF0000–FFFFFFFFh
(64 Kbytes)
PAR registers define noncacheable,
write-protected, nonexecutable regions
N/A
Default above SDRAM to top of memory
address space (4 Gbytes), minus boot
space (64 Kbytes) and MMCR (4 Kbytes)
Two PAR registers can define any region
that overlays SDRAM space
Any space not claimed by CBAR, PC/AT
peripherals, GP bus (via PAR registers),
or PCI configuration registers (0CF8–
0CFFh)
PCI Bus Configuration
Space
N/A
0CF8–0CFFh
GP Bus
Defined via PAR registers in lower 1 Gbyte
Defined via PAR registers in lower 64
Kbytes, except for integrated peripherals’
I/O space
Integrated PC/AT
Peripherals
N/A
0000h-03FFh
MMCR Registers
•
N/A
•
Defaults to 4-Kbyte region starting at
FFFEF000h
CBAR can alias this to any 4-Kbyte
boundary in lower 1 Gbyte
Configuration Base
N/A
Address (CBAR) Register
4.3.1
FFFC–FFFFh
Programming External Memory, Buses, and Chip Selects
Programming the external memory, buses, and chip selects on the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller is accomplished in three steps:
1. Configure the address space and any required attributes for the specified region.
2. Configure the timing, when applicable, and any required attributes of the interface.
3. For chip selects, enable the function on the desired pin by programming the pin
multiplexing in the PIO registers.
This chapter describes how to complete step 1. Programming the required timing and
attributes of the external interface (i.e., SDRAM, ROM, GP bus, or PCI bus) is accomplished
by writing to registers that control these interfaces. Finally, for chip selects, see Chapter 23,
4-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Address Mapping
“Programmable Input/Output”, which describes enabling the actual programmable I/O (PIO)
pins that can be shared with other functions.
4.3.2
Programmable Address Region (PAR) Registers
Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers provide a common programming interface
to configure memory space and I/O space regions in an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system.
As referenced in Table 4-4, the PAR registers are primarily used to define the address
regions of ROM and GP bus, as well as to set attributes for ROM and SDRAM regions.
The first two PAR registers (PAR 0 and PAR 1) also allow the user to redirect CPU accesses
that normally fall into SDRAM space to the PCI bus, for special cases that require this
functionality. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides a total of 16 PAR registers to provide
the user with flexibility in organizing memory space and I/O space in the system. They are
organized in a priority scheme starting with the lowest register (PAR 0). Thus, if overlapping
regions are programmed, the lowest number PAR register takes priority. The PAR registers
are 32 bits each and reside in the MMCR space.
Since the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports PC/AT-compatible peripherals, the regions
required for these peripherals are fixed in I/O space and are not relocatable via PAR
registers. This includes the GP bus DMA controller, the programmable interval timer (PIT),
the programmable interrupt controller (PIC), the two 16550-compatible UARTs, the realtime clock (RTC), and the PC/AT port logic.
Figure 4-1 illustrates the layout of the 32-bit PAR register. Note that the registers are
organized in four sections, as follows:
■ The Target (TARGET) bit field defines the destination of the cycle (i.e., ROM, GP bus,
etc.).
■ The Attribute (ATTR) bit field allows memory regions to be programmed with special
conditions such as write-protection and noncacheability for ROM or SDRAM access or
selects a specific chip select for GP bus accesses.
■ The Page Size (PG_SZ) bit defines the size of each memory page within the regions.
■ The Region Size/Start Address (SZ_ST_ADR) bit field is used to define both the
beginning of the region and the total size of the region (in conjunction with the Page Size
bit).
The PAR register is used to define only the actual address space for the targets; it does
not control the parameters for timing and bus width required for ROM and GP bus devices.
Those controls must be programmed independently in the ROM controller and GP bus
controller configuration registers.
Note: If a PAR window is configured for PCI, AND the CBAR register is programmed to
overlap with this PAR window, AND the PAR window is placed below the top of DRAM, the
MMCR is not given priority over the PCI access. This configuration could result in system
errors due to concurrence of both PCI and internal MMCR accesses.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
4-5
System Address Mapping
Figure 4-1
Programmable Address Region (PAR) Register Format
Programmable Address Region Register
31–29
28–26
25
24–0
Target of the
PAR Window
(TARGET)
Attribute
(ATTR)
Page Size
(PG_SZ)
Region Size/Start Address
(SZ_ST_ADR)
31
30
29
Target Device
25
Memory Page Size
0
0
0
Window disabled
0
4-Kbyte memory page size on 4-Kbyte
boundary, ignored for I/O cycles.
0
0
1
GP bus I/O
1
0
1
0
GP bus memory
64-Kbyte memory page size on 64-Kbyte
boundary, ignored for I/O cycles.
0
1
1
PCI bus (applies to
memory cycles to
PAR 0–PAR 1 only)
1
0
0
BOOTCS (ROM)
1
0
1
ROMCS1
1
1
0
ROMCS2
1
1
1
SDRAM
Memory
Cycle
When
[25]=0
Memory
Cycle
When
[25]=1
I/O
Cycles
Only
24–18
17–0
Region Size
[6–0]
Start Address
A[29–12]
24–14
13–0
Region Size
[10–0]
Start Address
A[29–16]
24–16
15–0
Region Size
[8–0]
Start Address
A[15–0]
Size defines up to 128
pages of 4-Kbyte size each,
on 4-Kbyte boundary, for a
512-Kbyte maximum window
size.
Size defines up to 2K pages
of 64-Kbyte size each on 64Kbyte boundary, for a 128Mbyte maximum window
size.
Size defines up to 512 bytes
with byte resolution in 64Kbyte I/O space.
If Target is GP bus
If Target is ROM or SDRAM
4-6
28
27
26
GP Bus Chip Select
0
0
0
GPCS0
0
0
1
GPCS1
0
1
0
GPCS2
0
1
1
GPCS3
1
0
0
GPCS4
1
0
1
GPCS5
1
1
0
GPCS6
1
1
1
GPCS7
28
27
26
ROM/SDRAM Attribute
0 = Write-enabled region
1 = Write-protected region
0 = Cacheable region
1 = Noncacheable region
0 = Code execution permitted
1 = Code execution denied
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Address Mapping
4.3.3
Memory Space
Memory space in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes SDRAM, ROM, PCI bus, GP
bus, and the MMCR registers. A system memory map is shown in Figure 4-2.
■ The CPU has access to the entire memory space.
■ PCI bus masters and the GP bus DMA controller have access to SDRAM space only.
Characteristics of these memory spaces are defined in subsequent sections.
Figure 4-2
System Memory Map
4 Gbytes
BOOT ROM Space
MMCR Space
FFFFFFFFh
FFFF0000h
FFFEFFFFh
FFFEF000h
Dedicated
PCI Bus
Space
1 Gbyte
3FFFFFFFh
Default PCI Bus
Space
Can also be
retargeted to
ROM or GP bus
256 Mbytes Default is SDRAM up
to amount of SDRAM
installed. Default is PCI
from top of configured
amount of SDRAM to
256 Mbytes
0
0FFFFFFFh
00000000h
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Notes:
The boot ROM device
connected to BOOTCS
defaults to a 64-Kbyte region
at the top of memory.
This space defaults to PCI
bus memory space, but
portions can be redirected
to ROM or GP bus via PAR
registers. Regions with
noncacheable, writeprotected, and/or executeprotected ROM attributes
can be also be specified
with the PAR registers. Any
unused regions in this
space default to PCI.
This area is not decoded by
the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s host
bridge as a target.
This space defaults to
SDRAM, but portions can be
redirected to ROM, GP bus,
or PCI bus memory via PAR
registers; or redirected to
MMCR space, via the CBAR
register. ROM or SDRAM
regions with noncacheable,
write-protected, and/or
execute privilege attributes
can be also be specified with
the PAR registers.
Accesses from PCI bus
masters are allowed to
installed SDRAM only.
4-7
System Address Mapping
4.3.3.1
SDRAM Space
SDRAM space in an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system defaults to a linear region starting
at the lowest 32-bit memory address (00000000h) and ending at the top of SDRAM, which
is defined by the amount of SDRAM populated in the system and programmed in the
SDRAM controller’s configuration registers.
The maximum amount of SDRAM supported in an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system is
256 Mbytes, in various configurations between one and four physical banks. Once the
SDRAM configuration registers are programmed and the individual banks are enabled,
SDRAM is immediately accessible.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller allows special attributes to be applied to any region within
SDRAM space. These attributes are not required for normal operation, however some
applications can benefit from their use. Programming PAR registers for SDRAM access is
required only if special attributes must be applied to specific SDRAM regions, as described
below. There are three attributes that can be applied to any SDRAM region:
■ Noncacheable regions
■ Write-protected regions
■ Code execution control
In a typical system configuration, an external PCI bus master has full access to the entire
SDRAM region. The address decoding logic in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host
bridge automatically claims cycles to this address space on the PCI bus generated by
external PCI bus masters and causes them to be directed to SDRAM. PCI bus master
cycles that are forwarded to the memory controller always result in an SDRAM cycle, even
if a PAR register has been programmed to redirect the address to the GP bus or ROM.
Also, if a PCI bus master generates a memory write cycle that is forwarded to the memory
controller and a PAR has been programmed to write-protect the region, an SDRAM write
cycle will occur with the SDQM signals inactive, the data will be discarded, and the data
written into the PCI bridge FIFOs will be purged. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be
programmed to generate an interrupt in this case to notify the CPU of such write protection
violations, and that a PCI bus master caused the violations. Any data written to the write
buffer prior to enabling write-protection will be successfully written to SDRAM.
4.3.3.2
ROM/Flash Space
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports three separate address regions for ROM/Flash,
which are selected by the PAR registers. The BOOTCS ROM chip select must be used for
the boot device and defaults to a 64-Kbyte linear region at the top of the 4-Gbyte CPU
space. During the boot process, the ROM code can configure PAR registers to enable the
entire BOOTCS ROM space and redirect it to the desired region. The default 64-Kbyte
region is always enabled, however. The PAR register accepts separate TARGET values for
each of the three ROM chip select regions (BOOTCS, ROMCS1, and ROMCS2). ROM
space is accessible by the CPU only, regardless of PAR register programming.
ROM space is normally cacheable and writes to these regions are allowed (this is useful
for Flash devices). However, PAR registers can also be used to enable specific attributes,
such as defining noncacheability and write-protected regions.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports multiple data widths in the ROM array, as well as
programmable timing. These characteristics are configured independently of the address
space in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. See Chapter 12, “ROM/Flash Controller”, for a
description of these features and instructions for configuring the ROM chip select timing
and data widths.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Address Mapping
4.3.3.3
GP Bus Memory Space
GP bus memory space is enabled only through PAR registers and is accessible only by the
CPU. There are eight chip selects that can be selected by the PAR registers. Note that the
PAR registers do not allow any attributes to be defined in GP bus memory space regions,
and GP bus memory space is always noncacheable.
The PAR registers are used to select GP bus space and the specific chip select, but separate
configuration registers within the GP bus controller block must be programmed to control
the width of the data bus and the timing of the bus. There is no restriction on the mapping
of memory address space to GP bus chip selects. For example, if a noncontiguous memory
region is required for a specific chip select, then multiple PAR registers can be programmed
with the same chip select as the target, but with different address ranges.
Positive address decoding is also supported on the GP bus for devices that perform their
own address decoding and therefore do not require a chip select to be generated by the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. This is accomplished simply by not choosing the corresponding
chip select in the pin multiplexing registers when the PAR register is set up (see step 3 in
“Programming External Memory, Buses, and Chip Selects” on page 4-4). The address and
control signals are still generated on the GP bus.
PCI bus masters are not permitted to access the GP bus in an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
system. If a PCI bus master generates an address in normal SDRAM space that is claimed
by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, but the region has been redirected to the GP bus via a
PAR register, the cycle will still be sent to SDRAM and will be write-protected, regardless
of the cycle type, and the resultant data will be discarded.
4.3.3.4
PCI Bus Memory Space
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s address decoding logic automatically defaults all memory
space above configured SDRAM to the PCI bus, with the exception of the 4-Kbyte memorymapped configuration space and the 64-Kbyte boot space. All CPU memory space
accesses in this address region are redirected to the PCI bus, and the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller does not claim accesses in this address region that are generated by PCI
bus masters. The GP bus DMA controller cannot access this region.
The CPU can allocate space within the lower 1 Gbyte for GP bus or ROM, overlaying and
effectively eliminating parts of this PCI bus region. For example, a ROM device could be
mapped in memory between the top of SDRAM and 1 Gbyte, a region that would normally
default to PCI bus. In this case, only this particular region would be redirected to ROM, but
the remaining region within the 4-Gbyte space would continue to be directed to the PCI bus.
Some system applications may require a region below the top of SDRAM to be redirected
to the PCI bus. An example of this is a PCI bus video card mapped to the 000A0000h000BFFFFh region in a PC/AT application. In this case, a PAR register must be used to
redirect the address from the CPU to the PCI bus instead of the SDRAM. Note that only
PAR 0 or PAR 1 can be used to select PCI as a target.
Note: If a PAR window is configured for PCI, AND the CBAR register is programmed to
overlap with this PAR window, AND the PAR window is placed below the top of DRAM, the
MMCR is not given priority over the PCI access. This configuration could result in system
errors due to concurrence of both PCI and internal MMCR accesses.
4.3.3.5
Memory-Mapped Configuration Region (MMCR) Registers Space
All integrated peripherals and configuration registers in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller that
are not defined as PCI bus configuration space, PC/AT peripheral configuration registers,
or the Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register are memory-mapped in the ÉlanSC520
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
4-9
System Address Mapping
microcontroller. These registers are accessed in a 4-Kbyte region near the top of CPU
address space at location FFFEF000h after reset, but can be additionally aliased to any
4-Kbyte boundary within the first 1-Gbyte of memory space (between 00000000h and
3FFFFFFFh) by performing an I/O write to the Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register.
MMCR register space has a higher priority than the Programmable Address Region (PAR)
registers.
See Section 4.3.4.1 for details on programming the CBAR register.
Reading unimplemented registers in this 4-Kbyte region returns indeterminate data values.
Writing to unimplemented registers in this region has no effect.
Note: If a PAR window is configured for PCI, AND the CBAR register is programmed to
overlap with this PAR window, AND the PAR window is placed below the top of DRAM, the
MMCR is not given priority over the PCI access. This configuration could result in system
errors due to concurrence of both PCI and internal MMCR accesses.
4.3.3.5.1
Integrated Memory-Mapped Peripherals
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s non-PC/AT integrated peripherals are located within the
MMCR region, instead of being I/O mapped as are the integrated PC/AT peripherals. The
peripherals located in the memory-mapped configuration region include:
■ Am5x86 CPU extension registers
■ SDRAM controller and SDRAM buffering
■ ROM controller
■ PCI host bridge
■ System arbitration
■ Memory and I/O space control
■ GP bus controller
■ PIO, pin multiplexing and clock control
■ Software timer
■ General-purpose timers 0, 1 and 2
■ Watchdog timer
■ Synchronous serial interface (SSI)
■ Feature enhancements to PC/AT-compatible peripherals
– Programmable interval timer (PIT) extension registers in the programmable input/
output (PIO) and programmable interrupt controller (PIC) blocks
– UART extensions
– Programmable interrupt controller (PIC) extensions
– Reset control
– GP-DMA controller extensions
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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4.3.4
I/O Space
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s I/O space is partitioned into five regions:
■ Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register
■ PCI bus configuration space
■ External PCI bus I/O devices
■ Integrated PC/AT-compatible peripherals
■ External GP bus I/O devices
Figure 4-3 shows the system I/O address space map for the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Each of the regions is described in the following sections.
Figure 4-3
System I/O Map
64 Kbytes
CBAR
FFFFh
FFFCh
Default PCI Bus
Space
Can also be
retargeted to GP bus
PCI Configuration
Registers
0CFFh
0CF8h
Default PCI Bus
Space
Can also be
retargeted to GP bus
1 Kbyte
0
4.3.4.1
PC/AT Peripherals
(See Table 4-5)
The “holes” default to
external GP bus, but
can be redirected to
PCI bus. See
Section 4.3.4.4
03FFh
0000h
Configuration Base Address (CBAR) Register
The Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register (Port FFFCh) is a 32-bit register that is
used to relocate the integrated memory-mapped peripherals and MMCR registers, thus
allowing a more flexible system memory map. The CBAR is fixed in I/O space at FFFCh
and is “keyed” to prevent accidental programming.
The CBAR allows an alias of the memory-mapped configuration registers (MMCR) to be
aliased anywhere in the first 1 Gbyte of address space on a 4-Kbyte boundary. The MMCR
is always available in the memory space directly below the boot ROM space at FFFEF000h,
but the CBAR can be programmed to optionally allow a copy of this region anywhere in the
lower 1-Gbyte space (on a 4-Kbyte boundary).
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
4-11
System Address Mapping
4.3.4.2
PCI Configuration Space
PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, defines an indirect-mapped configuration space
that occupies only eight bytes in I/O space from 0CF8–0CFFh, and this mechanism is
supported in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. The PCI bus configuration scheme uses two
32-bit I/O locations:
■ PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register (Port 0CF8h) is the address register
where the actual address of the device’s register and the bus number is located.
■ PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA) register (Port 0CFCh) is the data register where
the data of the specific register is written to or read from.
This PCI configuration space is accessible only by the CPU in the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller, and the I/O cycle is claimed by the PCI bus configuration register block.
As a target, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not accept any PCI bus configuration
space accesses from other PCI bus masters.
Host-bridge-specific PCI configuration registers are described in the Élan™SC520
Microcontroller Register Set Manual, order #22005. See also the PCI Local Bus Specification,
Revision 2.2, for details on PCI bus device configuration register programming.
4.3.4.3
PCI I/O Space
The CPU’s I/O cycles can be directed to the PCI bus for normal direct-mapped access of
devices, with the following restrictions:
■ I/O addresses claimed by the integrated PC/AT peripherals and the CBAR cannot be
forwarded to the PCI bus under any conditions. See the I/O map in Figure 4-3 on
page 4-11 and Table 4-5 on page 4-14 for details of the I/O addresses that are claimed
by the integrated peripherals.
■ By default, the “holes” in this portion of the I/O address space (0000–03FFh) are
forwarded to the external GP bus. The Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register
(MMCR offset 80h) can be configured to forward accesses to these holes to the PCI
bus. A PAR register is not required for this.
■ I/O addresses implemented by PCI bus configuration space (0CFC–0CFFh) are only
forwarded to the PCI bus as an I/O cycle when the ENABLE bit in the PCI Configuration
Address (PCICFGADR) register is cleared to 0. Otherwise, they are forwarded as a PCI
configuration cycle. Ports 0CF8–0CFBh are forwarded to the PCI bus as I/O transactions
only for non-doubleword accesses to this region; otherwise, they are claimed by the host
bridge as a PCI configuration cycle.
All other CPU I/O cycles are, by default, forwarded to the PCI bus as normal PCI I/O
transactions. PAR registers can be enabled to direct portions of this region to the GP bus.
As a target, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not accept any I/O space accesses from
PCI bus masters.
4-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Address Mapping
4.3.4.4
PC/AT-Compatible I/O Peripherals Region
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes several integrated peripheral cores that are
PC/AT compatible, including the DMA controller, programmable interrupt controller (PIC),
programmable interval timer (PIT), UARTs, real-time clock, and various control/status
registers. These I/O addresses are automatically decoded by the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s address decoding logic and require no special setup or PAR registers.
Table 4-5 summarizes the I/O map for these integrated peripherals.
There are holes in this region, which are I/O transactions in the lower 1-Kbyte region that
not claimed by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s internal peripherals. These addresses can
be decoded externally, or, if a chip select is required, a PAR register can be programmed
for these addresses.
■ By default, all of the accesses to holes in this portion of the I/O address space (0000h
to 03FFh) are forwarded to the external GP bus.
■ To forward all accesses to the PCI bus, the IO_HOLE_DEST bit in the Address Decode
Control (ADDDECCTL) register (MMCR offset 80h) can be set.
■ If necessary, PARx registers can be used to override sending accesses to the PCI bus
on an individual peripheral basis. In this way, accesses for individual peripherals can be
directed back to the external GP bus.
For example, some PCI cards (notably VGA cards) use legacy I/O locations. The
IO_HOLE_DEST bit allows the holes to be directed to either the PCI or to the GP bus. For
a system requiring legacy GP bus peripherals along with legacy PCI peripherals (for
instance, a PCI VGA card and a GP bus keyboard controller), the IO_HOLE_DEST bit
would be set to 1 to direct all accesses to the PCI bus. The legacy GP bus keyboard controller
would then be configured via PAR registers to override this setting. See “VGA Controller
on the PCI Bus” on page 3-15 for another discussion of this topic.
Note: If a PARx register is configured to address GP bus I/O space within a hole, accesses
in the defined region are forwarded to the GP bus regardless of the IO_HOLE_DEST bit
value. It is the programmer’s responsibility to ensure that external peripherals are not
mapped over any of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s internal peripherals. Normal operation
is not guaranteed in this case. See “Disabling Internal Peripherals” on page 3-21 for more
information about this topic.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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System Address Mapping
Table 4-5
PC/AT Peripherals I/O Map
Peripheral Core
I/O Address Range
Slave GP-DMA Controller
0000–000Fh
Master Interrupt Controller
0020–0021h
Slave 2 Interrupt Controller
• This controller is not defined in standard PC/AT architecture, but has been included
in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to provide additional interrupt request sources
0024–0025h
Programmable Interval Timer (PIT)
0040–0043h
Keyboard Control A20M and Fast Reset (SCP)
• Accesses to these locations are always directed to the external GP bus, but are
also snooped internally for PC/AT functions.
0060h, 0064h
System Control Port B/NMI Status
• Reads and writes to this location are directed to this register only and are not seen
on the external GP bus
0061h
Real-Time Clock (RTC) Index/Data
0070h, 0071h
General-Purpose Scratch Registers
• These are unused locations from the original DMA Page Register file and are
maintained for PC/AT compatibility. Writes to these locations update the
corresponding register and are also seen on the external GP bus. Reads to the
locations return the data from the corresponding register, but do not initiate a cycle
on the external GP bus.
0080h
0084–0086h
0088h
008C–008Eh
General-Purpose Scratch Register
• This is an unused location from the original DMA Page Register file and is
maintained for PC/AT compatibility. Reads and writes to this location are directed
to this register only and are not seen on the external GP bus.
008Fh
GP-DMA Page Registers
• Reads and writes to these locations are directed to these registers only and are not
seen on the external GP bus.
0081–0083h
0087h
0089h-008Bh
System Control Port A
0092h
Slave 1 Interrupt Controller
00A0–00A1h
Master GP Bus DMA Controller
00C0–00DEh
(even addresses only)
Floating Point Error Interrupt Clear
00F0h
UART 2
02F8–02FFh
UART 1
03F8–03FFh
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller also allows the internal UARTs and the real-time clock
(RTC) to be disabled, for applications when an external device is preferred. This is controlled
by configuration register bits in the Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register
(MMCR offset 80h). When these peripherals are disabled, the I/O cycle is forwarded
externally to the GP bus. This allows connection of external devices such as a standard
Super I/O chip.
Integrated PC/AT peripherals are not accessible by PCI bus masters.
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4.3.4.5
GP Bus I/O Region
The PAR registers must be used to address external I/O devices on the GP bus. GP bus
addressing is implemented with byte granularity, to accommodate devices with very few
registers and very fragmented I/O maps that are typically found in PC/AT-compatible
systems.
When programming PAR registers for GP bus I/O space, it is best to configure the space
on doubleword boundaries. Note that when specifying unaligned byte regions for I/O access,
the software that accesses the regions must directly address the correct byte or bytes. For
example, if a PAR is programmed with an I/O region, and the start address is xxx1h (i.e.,
byte #1), when the CPU performs a word or doubleword access starting at xxx0h (i.e., byte
#0), the entire doubleword access is redirected to the PCI bus (byte #1 will not be accessed
on the GP bus as programmed). In this case, the byte requested must be directly accessed
by the CPU at I/O address xxx1h.
This region is not accessible by PCI bus masters.
4.3.5
Configuration Information
4.3.5.1
Configuring ROM/Flash Space
There are three ROM address regions that can be defined in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller,
but only the BOOTCS region is absolutely required for system boot up from reset. The
optional two regions, ROMCS1 and ROMCS2 are configured via PAR registers. BOOTCS
configuration is described in Chapter 3, “System Initialization”. See “Programmable
Address Region (PAR) Registers” on page 4-5 for details on PAR register programming.
4.3.5.2
Configuring SDRAM Address Space
SDRAM space is determined at boot time when the SDRAM controller’s configuration
registers are programmed and individual banks are enabled. A typical design can perform
an SDRAM sizing routine to determine the amount of memory installed in the system and
write the appropriate values to the configuration registers. For example, in a system that
contains 16 megabytes of SDRAM, initialization software defines the SDRAM address
region from 00000000–00FFFFFFh, and all accesses to this region are forwarded to the
SDRAM controller unless a PAR register has been programmed to overlay the region with
MMCR, ROM, PCI bus, or GP bus space.
4.3.5.2.1
Noncacheable, Write-Protected, or Nonexecutable SDRAM Regions
In the default condition, the entire SDRAM region is cacheable and executable by the CPU,
and read/writable by the CPU, PCI bus master, and GP bus DMA controller cycles. There
may be some system configurations in which specific portions of SDRAM require restricted
access which can be accomplished by enabling specific attributes. A few common examples
follow:
■ An SDRAM region that contains only code can be marked as write-protected with an
attribute in the PAR register. This prevents the CPU and any bus master from illegally
writing over the code in SDRAM due to faulty programming. In addition, an interrupt can
be generated to the CPU when a violation occurs to assist in debug of the illegal write
condition.
■ An SDRAM region that contains only data can be marked as nonexecutable with an
attribute in the PAR register. If a software task attempts to branch to that location and
resume execution due to a software bug, the CPU will read an illegal opcode, forcing an
exception. The exception handler will then facilitate debugging the program that caused
the illegal condition.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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System Address Mapping
4.3.5.3
Configuring GP Bus Peripheral Space
Configuring space for GP bus peripherals is accomplished via PAR register programming.
This section describes a few system configuration examples beyond the normal
programming of chip select regions.
4.3.5.3.1
Configuring a Chip Select for Noncontiguous Memory or I/O Space
Some peripheral subsystems may require a single chip select that must be asserted in
noncontiguous address locations. For example, an I/O device can contain multiple
integrated functions that are each addressed at separate, noncontiguous I/O addresses
(such as a custom ASIC). In this case multiple PAR registers can be used to define each
individual address region, but all can be mapped to the same chip select by programming
the TARGET field to GP bus and the ATTR field to the same chip select. This is most useful
when working with a highly fragmented I/O map such as defined in PC/AT systems, where
there is little unused I/O address space.
This can also be accomplished by programming a single PAR register to cover the entire
range of addresses, which results in some wasted address space.
4.3.5.3.2
Positive Decoding Example
Some peripherals connected to the GP bus may perform their own address decoding from
the GP bus addresses and do not require a chip select. In this case, the same steps are
followed for programming the configuration registers, but the pin multiplexing registers do
not need to be programmed to allow the actual chip select to be driven on a pin, thus allowing
the pin to be used for other functions.
If multiple positive decoding regions are required in an application, the PAR registers for
each reason can be programmed to map to the same unused chip select, to conserve pin
functions.
4.3.5.3.3
Configuring the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller to Use an External Super I/O Chip
It may be desirable to connect a commercially available Super I/O chip on the GP bus in
an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system (for example, systems requiring a keyboard or IDE
drive can implement this device).
In this case, since the Super I/O implements two UARTs programmed at the same address
as the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s integrated UARTs, the internal UARTs can be disabled
to support the COM1 and COM2 ports in the Super I/O chip, if desired. In this case, when
the CPU performs I/O accesses to the UART address regions, the cycles will be forwarded
out to the external GP bus. Also, the Super I/O is a positive decoding device, i.e., it does
not require a chip select because it performs the address decoding from the GP bus
addresses.
The I/O map for the Super I/O device is fragmented and may require the use of multiple
PAR registers for noncontiguous addressing, as described in Section 4.3.5.3.1. If the
fragmented I/O space unused by the Super I/O chip is not required elsewhere in the system,
then a single PAR register can be used to map the entire range of peripherals. In this case,
the UART address spaces would be the highest used I/O space internally in the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller, so the Super I/O peripherals would not be in conflict, allowing a single PAR
register to define the entire range of Super I/O peripherals from 01F0–07BEh.
See “Interfacing with a Super I/O Controller” on page 13-13, for an example of connecting
the Super I/O chip to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s GP bus.
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System Address Mapping
4.3.5.4
Configuring the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller for Windows® Compatibility
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be configured to operate as a Windows compatible
microcontroller. This section describes some of the steps that may be required to configure
the memory and I/O addressing; however, this will vary depending on the requirements of
the system.
4.3.5.4.1
Memory Regions Above DOS 640-Kbyte Application Space
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be programmed to accommodate the legacy PC/ATcompatible region above the DOS 640-Kbyte application space at 000A0000h area ending
at 000FFFFFh (1 Mbyte). This space defaults to SDRAM once the SDRAM banks are
enabled, but the PAR registers can be programmed to support the various requirements of
systems requiring Windows compatibility. The list below outlines some of the steps to
consider when building a memory map in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system for such
compatibility.
■ Two 64-Kbyte video regions from 000A0000–000AFFFFh and 000B0000–000BFFFFh
default to SDRAM, but can be enabled as PCI bus space for PC/AT compatible video
cards on the PCI bus, via one of the PAR registers. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s
PCI bus host bridge (as a target) will automatically ignore accesses in this space when
either PAR 0 or PAR 1 are programmed to overlay SDRAM regions with the PCI bus.
■ The remaining area from 000C0000–000FFFFFh is normally sub-divided in a PC/AT
system into several different address regions for BIOS, and accesses to these regions
can be redirected to either ROM, the GP bus, or the PCI bus by programming PAR
registers. Most systems will not require the use of all BIOS regions defined, since many
are for expansion ROMs intended for various plug-in cards (such as network interface
cards). The following regions are normally defined:
– One BIOS region with 64-Kbyte granularity from 000F0000–000FFFFFh
– Four extended system BIOS regions, each with 16-Kbyte granularity from 000E00000–
000EFFFFFh
– 8 Expansion ROM regions, each with 16-Kbyte granularity, from 000C0000–
000DFFFFFh
4.3.5.4.2
Integrated Peripheral Mapping
Because the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller already provides standard PC/AT-compatible
peripherals that use direct I/O address mapping, there are no I/O address conflicts with
these devices. See Table 4-5 on page 4-14 for a summary of this I/O map.
The Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register (Port FFFCh) can be used to alias the
internal memory-mapped registers and peripherals to a convenient location. For example,
they could be mapped between 640 Kbytes and 1 Mbyte for real mode operation. The
memory-mapped configuration region is always available in the upper CPU space
(4 Gbytes), but the aliased location is only accessible when the CBAR is programmed and
the ENABLE bit has been set.
4.3.5.4.3
DMA Channel and Interrupt Request Steering
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides a method to route interrupt request sources and
DMA request pins to the appropriate channels on the programmable interrupt controller
(PIC) and the GP-DMA controller, respectively.
See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for further information on interrupt
request routing.
See Chapter 14, “GP Bus DMA Controller”, for further information on DMA request routing.
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System Address Mapping
4.3.5.5
Configuring PCI Bus Devices
PCI bus device configuration is accomplished in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller with the
standard PCI Configuration Mechanism #1, as defined in the PCI Local Bus Specification,
Revision 2.1. This configuration requires an indirect mapped I/O scheme in which the
address of the device is written to the PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register
(Port 0CF8h), and the data is accessed via the PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA)
register (Port 0CFCh). See“Configuration Information” on page 9-9 for more information.
See also the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2.
4.3.6
Interrupts
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be programmed to generate an interrupt request when
a write protection violation occurs, providing software with a debugging mechanism to
determine which task illegally attempted to write to the memory region marked with this
attribute. In this case, an interrupt request is generated to the programmable interrupt
controller (PIC) block, where the request is routed to the appropriate type of interrupt
(maskable or non-maskable) and level, based on the programming of the configuration
registers. The PAR window that contains the address region where the write protect violation
occurred is latched into a register, as well as which bus owner caused the violation (CPU,
GP-DMA controller, or PCI bus master).
See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for details of PIC programming.
4.3.7
Software Considerations
Since the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides some flexibility in defining the system
memory and I/O map, there are a number of software considerations that must be analyzed.
The list below describes some of the issues that must be considered when programming
the configuration registers to define the memory and I/O space in an ÉlanSC520
microcontroller system.
■ The Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register must be accessed as a 32-bit I/O
register to guarantee that all bits are written at the same time. The MATCH field of the
CBAR must be written with the correct pattern to enable or disable the MMCR alias.
■ MMCR register space has higher priority than the Programmable Address Region (PAR)
registers.
■ The PAR registers are organized such that the lowest register (PAR 0) is the highest
priority and the last PAR register (PAR15) is lowest priority. Therefore, if two PAR registers
are overlaid due to programming, the lowest numbered PAR takes priority.
■ PAR registers should not be programmed to conflict with any of the fixed I/O regions,
such as the Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register or the PCI bus configuration
space.The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s address decoding does not permit PAR
registers to overlay the integrated PC/AT peripherals.
■ In general, the PAR register start address and region size should not be programmed
to conflict with each other. It is possible to program the PAR registers such that the region
size is greater than the start address allows. For example, if the region size is defined
as 64 Kbytes, but the start address is programmed to be the top of the 1-Gbyte region
(maximum address allowed by PAR registers) minus 4 Kbytes, then the address space
available will be the 4-Kbyte region starting at the start address.
– Subsequent access past the 1-Gbyte boundary will still be to the PCI bus
– The remaining 60-Kbyte region will not qualify as a PAR hit.
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System Address Mapping
■ When programming the PAR registers for an SDRAM region, the PAR register start
address and region size should not conflict with the programmed value that defines the
top of SDRAM in the system. For example, if a PAR is setup for SDRAM and the region
size is defined as 8 Kbytes, but the start address is programmed to be the top of the
SDRAM minus 4 Kbytes, then addresses above the top of SDRAM will not result in a hit
for this PAR.
■ If the TARGET field of any PAR register is defined as SDRAM, but no SDRAM has been
enabled via the SDRAM controller configuration registers, the memory space defaults
to the PCI bus.
■ Systems that configure another memory space resource to be overlaid on top of SDRAM
space do not have access to the SDRAM that was overlaid, since address translation
is not supported in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. For example, if a PCI bus video card
is used in the 000A0000–000AFFFFh region (as in typical PC/AT operation), the system
will lose the 64 Kbytes of SDRAM in that region as long as the PAR register is enabled.
■ Any region that is overlaid on default SDRAM space through a PAR register or CBAR
takes priority over the SDRAM region in the decoding block. In effect, a portion of SDRAM
becomes inaccessible when this is done. If a PCI bus master generates an address to
this overlaid address region, the cycles will be forwarded to SDRAM and will be writeprotected.
■ Code execution from memory on the GP bus or the PCI bus is discouraged (after boot
code has executed), since accesses to these spaces are not cacheable and may result
in unacceptable latencies under some conditions. Code execution is more efficient when
executing from SDRAM or from ROM devices that use BOOTCS, ROMCS1, or ROMCS2,
because accesses to these resources are cacheable.
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller guarantees coherency with SDRAM buffers that are
shared between the CPU and other bus masters, but it may be beneficial to mark these
regions as noncacheable to avoid the overhead with cache write-backs upon every
access by the bus master. This can be accomplished by programming a PAR register
and setting the noncacheable attribute. Cache snooping will continue; however, the
performance impact is negligible, since there will be no write-back cycles.
■ Care must be taken when programming configuration registers that affect address
decoding during normal system operation when either PCI bus master or GP bus DMA
activity is occurring.
– When writing to PAR registers, verify that the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host
bridge target FIFOs have been flushed and disable PCI bus master access of SDRAM
to prevent unexpected forwarding of accesses from other masters. An example of a
potential problem is modifying a PAR register to redirect normal SDRAM region
accesses to the PCI bus, while a PCI bus master has already been granted the PCI
bus. In this case, when the CPU completes the write to the PAR register, the posted
PCI bus master access is forwarded to the SDRAM controller because the bus was
already granted to the PCI bus master. This problem can be alleviated by disabling
PCI bus master access to SDRAM (the default mode after reset) via the System Arbiter
Master Enable (SYSARBMENB) register (MMCR offset 72h), and performing a read
from an external PCI agent to flush the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s target FIFOs,
before writing to configuration registers that affect address decoding.
– The CPU cache should always be flushed after the cacheability attribute is changed
from cacheable to noncacheable for any memory region (by programming the PAR
register), or when the cache write policy is changed from write-back to write-through.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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System Address Mapping
■ Programming the PAR register maximum region size and a page size of 64 Kbytes allows
a space up to 128 Mbytes to be defined; however, the GP bus/ROM address pins support
a maximum of 64 Mbytes per chip select. If a 128-Mbyte space is programmed for a GP
bus or ROM chip select, the upper 64 Mbytes will be aliased with the lower 64-Mbyte
region.
■ When programming PAR registers for GP bus I/O space, it is best to configure the space
on doubleword boundaries. Note that when specifying unaligned byte regions for I/O
access, the software that accesses the regions must directly address the correct byte
or bytes. For example, if a PAR is programmed with an I/O region, and the start address
is xxx1h (i.e., byte 1), when the CPU performs a word or doubleword access starting at
xxx0h (i.e., byte 0), the entire doubleword access is redirected to the PCI bus (byte 1
will not be accessed on the GP bus as programmed). In this case the byte requested
must be directly accessed by the CPU at I/O address xxx1h.
■ A write-protection violation occurs when the CPU, any PCI bus master, or the GP-DMA
controller attempts to write to any memory region that has been marked as writeprotected by a PAR register attribute. When this occurs, the cycle is always forwarded
to SDRAM as a write cycle with the SDQM signals inactive, and the original data is
discarded. Any data that was written to the write buffer prior to enabling write-protection
is successfully written to SDRAM.
■ Software must include proper interrupt service routines and exception handlers when
enabling write-protection violation interrupts and nonexecutable region attributes in the
Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register (MMCR offset 80h). Note that in the
case of the write protection violation, the PAR register number that contains the address
region of the violation is latched in the WPV_WINDOW bit field in the Write-Protect
Violation Status (WPVSTA) register (MMCR offset 82h) and retained until it is cleared
by software. The PARx window number is latched when a write-protect violation occurs.
Subsequent write-protect violations are not captured until software clears the interrupt
by writing a 1 to the WPV_STAT bit in the same register.
■ If two or more PAR registers are overlapping (programmed to have some address range
in common), the write-protection exception is generated only if the higher priority PAR
has the attribute enabled. If the lower priority PAR has the write-protect attribute enabled
but the higher priority PAR has it disabled, then writes into the common address range
shared by the two PAR registers will not generate an exception. This discussion applies
to the cacheability control and code execution attributes, as well.
■ Access of ÉlanSC520 microcontroller internal configuration registers:
– All integrated PC/AT peripherals mapped to I/O space must be accessed only as 8
bits unless otherwise specified.
– All memory-mapped integrated peripherals and configuration registers for PC/AT
peripherals must be accessed as specified in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Register Set Manual, order #22005.
– PCI configuration registers should be accessed as 32 bits unless otherwise specified
in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Register Set Manual, order #22005.
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System Address Mapping
4.4
INITIALIZATION
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s address decoding is cleared to the default state by a
system reset.
■ The BOOTCS decoding is enabled for the 64-Kbyte region from FFFF0000–FFFFFFFFh
■ SDRAM address space is disabled.
■ All PAR registers are disabled and cleared to zeros, which means there are no external
GP bus address spaces enabled. Note that I/O holes below 1 Kbyte will be directed to
the external GP bus. However, no chip selects are enabled, and positive decodes would
be required.
■ Integrated PC/AT peripheral I/O space is enabled as defined in Table 4-5 on page 4-14.
■ The Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register is addressed in I/O space at FFFCh.
Memory-mapped configuration register space is enabled at FFFEF000–FFFEFFFFh
(below CPU boot space address).
■ The PCI bus is disabled, and the configuration registers are defaulted to the values
specified in PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2. PCI configuration space is
enabled in I/O space at ports 0CF8h and 0CFCh (PCICFGADR and PCICFGDATA).
See “Programmable Address Region (PAR) Registers” on page 4-5 for information on
configuring these registers. See “Configuration Information” on page 4-15 for additional
detail on configuring the various address spaces included on the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
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System Address Mapping
4-22
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
5
5.1
CLOCK GENERATION AND CONTROL
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is designed to generate all of the internal and system clocks
it requires. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes on-chip oscillators and PLLs, as well
as most of the required PLL loop filter components.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller requires two standard crystals, one for 32.768 kHz and
one for 33 MHz. All the clocks required inside the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller are generated
from these crystals. Output clock pins are provided for selected clocks, providing up to 24
mA of sink or source current.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller also supplies the clocks for SDRAM and the PCI host
bridge; however external clock buffering may be required in some systems.
The clocking generation and control features include:
■ RTC low-current oscillator using standard off-the-shelf 32.768-kHz crystal
■ 33-MHz oscillator using standard off-the-shelf 33-MHz crystal (33.000 or 33.333 MHz)
■ 33-MHz clock provides clocks for the integrated Am5x86 CPU and external PCI bus
■ Integrated 66-MHz PLL provides clocks for external SDRAM
■ Integrated PLLs for generating 1.1892-MHz PIT clock and 18.432-MHz UART clock
■ Integrated on-chip PLL loop filters for the 66-MHz and 36.864-MHz PLLs, eliminating
the need for external capacitors
■ 33.333-MHz/30.000-MHz PCI Clock Output Pin, CLKPCIOUT
■ 66-MHz SDRAM Clock Output Pin, CLKMEMOUT
■ 33-MHz and 32.768-kHz oscillators bypass option
Note: The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports either a 33.000-MHz or 33.333-MHz
crystal. In this document, the term “33 MHz” refers to the system clock derived from
whichever 33-MHz crystal frequency is being used in the system.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
5-1
Clock Generation and Control
5.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 5-1 shows a block diagram of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s internal clocks.
Table 5-1 shows PLL lock times and oscillator start-up times. See the Élan™SC520
Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for timing diagrams and additional clocking
specifications.
Figure 5-1
Clock Source Block Diagram
32.768-kHz RTC
32.768-kHz
Crystal
32.768-kHz
Oscillator
32.768-kHz SDRAM Refresh
36.864 MHz
DIV 31
1.47456 MHz
1.1892-MHz PIT
PLL2
PLL1
LF_PLL1
DIV 2
18.432-MHz UART
33-MHz
Crystal
33-MHz
Oscillator
33 MHz
CPU
33 MHz
PCI
33 MHz
GP Bus
33 MHz
GP DMA
33 MHz
ROM
33 MHz
SSI
33 MHz
Timers1
66 MHz
SDRAM
PLL3
Notes:
1. Includes the programmable interval timer (PIT), general-purpose timers, watchdog timer, and the software timer.
Table 5-1
Clock Start-up and Lock Times
Clock Source
Max
32.768-kHz Oscillator
5-2
1s
33-MHz Oscillator
10 ms
PLL1 (1.47456 MHz)
10 ms
PLL2 (36.864 MHz)
100 ms
PLL3 (66 MHz)
50 ms
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Clock Generation and Control
5.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Figure 5-2 shows a system block diagram of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s external
clocks. As shown in Figure 5-2, external clock drivers may be necessary when the system
presents a large capacitive load.
Table 5-2 lists the shared clock signals of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Figure 5-2
System Clock Distribution Block Diagram
VCC_ANLG
32KXTAL1
32.768-kHz
Crystal
66 MHz
C2
C1
32KXTAL2
R1
33MXTAL1
33-MHz
Crystal
Optional
Clock
Driver
LF_PLL1
33MXTAL2
.
.
.
SDRAM
66 MHz
CLKMEMOUT
CLKMEMIN
CLKPCIIN
33 MHz
CLKPCIOUT
CLKTIMER/
[CLKTEST]
Programmable
33 MHz
Optional
Clock
Driver
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
Note: Dotted line ovals,
Table 5-2
, signify frequency groups.
PCI
Device
PCI
Device
Clock Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
Default Function
Alternate Function Control
CLKTIMER
CLKTEST
CLK_PIN_DIR bit in Clock Select (CLKSEL) register
(MMCR offset C26h)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
5-3
Clock Generation and Control
5.3.1
Clock Pin Loading
Clock pins are designed to either source or sink 24 mA. The maximum amount of capacitive
load that can be placed on a clock pin is determined by the required rise/fall times.
Use the following equation to determine the maximum capacitive loading.
C = I/(dV/dt)
where:
I = Current
dV = Voltage change
dt = Time change
As an example, suppose that the system requires a rise/fall time of 1 ns, with a voltage
swing of 2.5 V. Then, the maximum capacitive load is:
Cmax = 24 mA/(2.5 V/1 ns) = 9.6 pF
Derating curves for the device are provided in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet,
order #22003.
5.3.2
Selecting a Crystal
The accuracy of the real-time clock (RTC) depends on several factors relating to crystal
selection and board design. A clock timing budget determines the clock accuracy. The
designer should determine the timing budget before selecting a crystal.
There are four major contributors to a clock timing budget.
■ Frequency Tolerance—This is the crystal calibration frequency. It states how far off the
actual crystal frequency is from the nominal frequency. For a typical 32.768-kHz crystal
(watch crystal), the frequency tolerance is ± 20 parts per million (ppm). Frequency
tolerance is specified at room temperature.
■ Frequency Stability—This parameter is a measure of how much the crystal resonant
frequency is influenced by operating temperature. For watch crystals, typical numbers
are around –30 ppm over the temperature range.
■ Aging—This parameter is how much the crystal resonant frequency changes with time.
Typical aging numbers are ± 3 ppm per year.
■ Load Capacitance—The crystal is calibrated with a specific load capacitance. If the
system load capacitance does not equal the crystal load capacitance, a timing error is
introduced. The timing error is calculated by the following equation.
Error = {[1 + C1/(CLxtal+Co)]1/2 – [1 +C1/(CLsystem+Co)]1/2}/ [1 + C1/(CLxtal+Co)]1/2
where:
C1 is the crystal motional capacitance
Co is the crystal static capacitance
CLxtal is the crystal load capacitance
CLsystem is the system load capacitance
For the error in ppm, multiply Error by 106.
Once the complete timing error has been calculated by adding all of the errors together,
compare it to the initial timing budget. Table 5-3 provides a convenient translation of ppm
to seconds per month.
5-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Clock Generation and Control
Table 5-3
Timing Error as It Translates to Clock Accuracy
Timing Error
(Parts per Million)
Seconds/Month
± 10
± 25.9
± 20
± 51.8
± 30
± 77.8
± 40
± 103.7
± 50
± 129.6
Detailed crystal specifications and further information on crystal selection can be found in
the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003.
5.3.2.1
Running the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller at 33.333 MHz
The clock that is supplied to the PCI bus (CLKPCIOUT) is exactly the same as the frequency
of the crystal. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller simply buffers the 33-MHz crystal input and
provides it to the CLKPCIOUT pin. Since crystals have inaccuracies, it is possible that these
inaccuracies cause the period of CLKPCIOUT to become marginally less than 30 ns.
It is up to the system designer to choose the accuracy of the crystal used with the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. The 33.000-MHz frequency provides a better guard band than the 33.333MHz crystal. In practice, most PCI devices can tolerate both frequencies, but it is important
to be aware of the impact of choosing the crystal on this potential violation of the PCI bus
specification. The PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2 requires that the minimum
clock period be 30 ns.
5.3.3
Bypassing Internal Oscillators
The 32.768-kHz and the 33-MHz ÉlanSC520 microcontroller oscillators can be bypassed
by connecting an external clock to the crystal pins. See Figure 5-3 and Figure 5-4 for
suggested circuitry.
Figure 5-3 shows two resistors in series with their common node connected to 32KXTAL2.
The value of the resistor connected to ground (R2) is 100 kW. The value of R1 depends on
the voltage level of the external oscillator, according to the following formula:
V(32KXTAL2) = 2.5 V = R2 / (R2 + R1) * V(External Oscillator)
Figure 5-3
Bypassing the 32.768-kHz Oscillator
External
32.768-kHz
Oscillator
R1
2.5-V ±10% typical
32KXTAL2
R2
100 kW
32KXTAL1
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
5-5
Clock Generation and Control
Figure 5-4
Bypassing the 33-MHz Oscillator
External
33-MHz
Oscillator
2.5-V ±10% typical
33MXTAL2
No Connect 33MXTAL1
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
5.4
REGISTERS
A summary listing of the memory-mapped configuration registers used to control the clocks
on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is shown in Table 5-4.
Table 5-4
Clock Control Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Am5x86 CPU Control
CPUCTL
02h
CPU clock speed control
Software Timer Configuration SWTMRCFG
C64h
Crystal frequency (33.000 MHz or 33.333 MHz)
for software timer
Clock Select
CLKSEL
C26h
CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] pin enable, clock output
select options (18.432 MHz or 1.8432 MHz
UART, PLL1, PLL2, PIT, and RTC), CLKTIMER
or CLKTEST select
GP Timer 0 Mode/Control
GPTMR0CTL
C72h
GP Timer 0: internal clock source prescaler,
external clock source
GP Timer 1 Mode/Control
GPTMR1CTL
C7Ah
GP Timer 1: internal clock source prescaler,
external clock source
UART 1 General Control
UART 2 General Control
UART1CTL
UART2CTL
CC0h, CC4h UARTx clock source: 1.8432 MHz or 18.432
MHz
SSI Control
SSICTL
CD0h
SSI clock speed
GP-DMA Control
GPDMACTL
D80h
GP-DMA clock frequency: 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or 16
MHz
5-6
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Clock Generation and Control
5.5
OPERATION
The clocks on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller are generated from two local oscillators.
The 32.768-kHz oscillator is used to drive PLL1 (1.47456-MHz PLL), which in turn drives
PLL2 (36.864-MHz PLL). The 36.864-MHz clock is divided by 2 to produce the 18.432-MHz
UART clock. It is divided by 31 to produce the 1.1892-MHz PIT clock.
The 33-MHz oscillator produces the 33-MHz PCI and CPU clocks. The 33-MHz oscillator
is also used to drive PLL3 (66-MHz PLL) to produce the SDRAM clock.
5.5.1
Internal Clocks
5.5.1.1
CPU
The Am5x86 CPU bus frequency in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is always 33 MHz;
however, the Am5x86 CPU core frequency is programmable to be 100 MHz or 133 MHz.
The clock speed of the Am5x86 CPU core defaults to 100 MHz, but can be changed
dynamically via the Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register (MMCR offset 02h). Clocking
considerations for the Am5x86 CPU are described in “Clocking Considerations” on
page 7-4.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports either a 33.000-MHz or 33.333-MHz crystal as
the 33-MHz clock source.
5.5.1.2
PCI Bus
The PCI bus system clock on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller runs at 33 MHz. The PCI bus
system clock (CLK) is described in “PCI Clocking” on page 9-5, as is usage of the two PCI
bus clock pins, CLKPCIIN and CLKPCIOUT.
The CLKPCIOUT pin is a 33-MHz clock output for the PCI bus devices. This signal is derived
from the 33MXTAL2–33MXTAL1 interface.
Note that the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports either a 33.000-MHz or 33.333-MHz
crystal. “Running the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller at 33.333 MHz” on page 5-5 details
some important considerations in choosing a crystal for a PCI system.
5.5.1.3
SDRAM Controller
The SDRAM clock runs at 66 MHz, twice the frequency of the 33-MHz oscillator. The refresh
rate of the SDRAM controller is derived from the 32.768-kHz clock. The flexible refresh rate
supports a wide variety of devices.
Clocking considerations for the SDRAM controller, including the CLKMEMIN and
CLKMEMOUT pins, are described in “SDRAM Clocking” on page 10-6.
5.5.1.4
ROM/Flash Interface
The ROM/Flash controller is clocked from the internal Am5x86 CPU bus and operates at
33 MHz.
5.5.1.5
GP Bus
The GP-bus interfaces internally to the Am5x86 CPU and operates at 33 MHz.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
5-7
Clock Generation and Control
5.5.1.6
GP-DMA Controller
The GP-DMA controller can be programmed to operate at 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or 16 MHz. This
option is specified in the GP-DMA Control (GPDMACTL) register (MMCR offset D80h).
Note that these frequencies are derived from the 33-MHz clock. The exact frequency is an
even fraction of the crystal (33.000-MHz or 33.333-MHz) being used in the system.
5.5.1.7
Programmable Interval Timer
The programmable interval timer (PIT) clock source can be either the derived 1.1892-MHz
PIT clock or the CLKTIMER pin.
Note: Since the PIT clock does not run at the industry-standard 1.19318 MHz, modifications
in software must be made to allow for this difference. See “Using the PIT Clock Source in
PC/AT-Compatible Systems” on page 16-6 for more information.
5.5.1.8
General-Purpose Timers
The clock source for the three general-purpose timers is the 33-MHz clock. For Timer 0
and Timer 1, the clock source can also be an external pin or a derived prescale clock. This
option is specified in the GP Timer 0 Mode/Control (GPTMR0CTL) register (MMCR offset
C72h) and the GP Timer 1 Mode/Control (GPTMR1CTL) register (MMCR offset C7Ah).
Clocking considerations for the general-purpose timers are described in “Clocking
Considerations” on page 17-5.
5.5.1.9
Software Timer
The software timer uses the 33-MHz clock. Proper configuration of the software timer
requires the programmer to specify in the Software Timer Configuration (SWTMRCFG)
register (MMCR offset C64h) whether a 33.000-MHz or 33.333-MHz crystal is being used
in the system.
5.5.1.10
Watchdog Timer
The watchdog timer uses the 33-MHz clock. It supports up to a 30-second time-out period.
The EXP_SEL field in the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register (MMCR offset
CB0h) indicates the exponent value used to calculate the time-out duration.
5.5.1.11
Real-Time Clock
The 32KXTAL2–32KXTAL1 pins are used to connect the external 32.768-kHz crystal or
oscillator to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. This clock source is then used to clock the
internal real-time clock (RTC) included on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
5.5.1.12
UART Serial Ports
The UARTs each support an internal baud-rate clock of either 18.432 MHz or 1.8432 MHz.
This frequency is programmed in the CLK_SRC bit in the UART 1 General Control
(UART1CTL) register (MMCR offset CC0h) or the UART 2 General Control (UART2CTL)
register (MMCR offset CC4h).
5.5.1.13
Synchronous Serial Interface
The synchronous serial interface (SSI) clock is derived from the 33-MHz clock. The
CLK_SEL bit in the SSI Control (SSICTL) register (MMCR offset CD0h) is used to configure
the frequency of the SSI clock (the SSI_CLK pin). The actual bit rate will vary, depending
on whether the system is using a 33.000-MHz or a 33.333-MHz crystal.
5-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Clock Generation and Control
5.5.2
Using the CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] Pin
The CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] pin can be programmed as an input (CLKTIMER) or as an
output (CLKTEST) in the Clock Select (CLKSEL) register (MMCR offset C26h).
■ When programmed as an input (default), this pin can be used to provide the clock for
the programmable interval timer (PIT) core. See “Using the PIT Clock Source in PC/ATCompatible Systems” on page 16-6 for more information. While the pin is being enabled
as an input, it is synchronized to the CPU clock to prevent spurious pulses from occurring
in the PIT core.
■ When programmed as an output, this pin, as CLKTEST, can drive one of several of the
internal clocks outside the microcontroller for testing or drive an external device.
Figure 5-5 shows the available clocks that can be directed to the CLKTEST pin by
programming the Clock Select (CLKSEL) register (MMCR offset C26h).
Note: Caution should be exercised when programming the CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] pin as
an output, since there is no logic to avoid spurious pulses while enabling or changing clock
frequencies. The target device should be held in reset, the CLK_TST_SEL bit field
programmed to the correct frequency, the CLK_PIN_DIR bit set to 1 (output), and the
CLK_PIN_ENB bit set to 1 (enabled). Then, the target device can be released from reset.
Figure 5-5
Clock Routing for the CLKTEST Pin
UART (1.8432 MHz)
UART (18.432 MHz)
PLL1 (1.47456 MHz)
CLKTEST
PLL2 (36.864 MHz)
6:1 Mux
PIT (1.1892 MHz)
RTC (32.768 kHz)
CLK_TST_SEL bits from the Clock Select Register
5.6
INITIALIZATION
The Am5x86 CPU core is reset during a system reset, and the CPU core clock frequency
defaults to 100 MHz. A soft reset does not affect the CPU core clock frequency.
The CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] pin is disabled on reset and must be enabled via the Clock
Select (CLKSEL) register (MMCR offset C26h) before it will function.
See Figure 5-1 on page 5-2 and Table 5-1 on page 5-2 for start-up information. See also
Figure 6-3 on page 6-9 and the reset timing diagrams in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Data Sheet, order #22003.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
5-9
Clock Generation and Control
5-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
6
6.1
RESET GENERATION
OVERVIEW
Reset features of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller include:
■ ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system reset generation via PWRGOOD pin, software
writes, watchdog timer, and AMDebug system reset
■ ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system reset with SDRAM interface contents maintained
(called programmable reset)
■ Hard CPU reset generation via system reset
■ Soft CPU reset generation via software writes and detection of the CPU special cycle
type “shutdown”
■ GP bus reset generation via system reset and software writes
■ PCI bus reset generation via system reset and software writes. See Chapter 9, “PCI Bus
Host Bridge”
■ Reset sources can be determined by software
■ Latches system-configuration data presented on the shared CFG3–CFG0 pins and static
system board information presented on the shared RSTLD7–RSTLD0 pins at the
assertion of the PWRGOOD pin. See Chapter 12, “ROM/Flash Controller”, for
information in the CFGx pins.
■ System Control Processor (SCP) A20 gate and reset CPU command emulation
■ Control bit to enable AMDebug mode after the CPU has been reset
6.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 6-1 shows a block diagram of the reset controller.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
6-1
Reset Generation
Figure 6-1
Reset Controller Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Reset Controller
GPRESET
PWRGOOD
PRGRESET
Reset Configuration
Register
DEBUG_ENTER
INST_TRCE
AMDEBUG_DIS
port92_rst
Port A
GP Bus
SCP
Registers
a20_ctl
a20_gate
port64_rst
Reset
Source
Pinstrap
Status
and
System
Information
AMDebug
Logic
AMDebug on reset
Watchdog
Timer
rst_main
wdt_rst
ROM
Controller
PCI
Controller
RST
To all internal
cores
AMDebug hard reset
AMDebug system reset
RSTLD7–RSTLD0
rom
config
Detect
AMDebug™
CFG3–CFG0
cpu reset
cpu sreset
a20m
CPU
shutdown
6.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
The POWERGOOD signal from the system board is connected to the PWRGOOD pin on
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to produce CPU reset and system reset events. During the
period required for stabilization of the power supplies and the internal oscillators, which is
typically not less than 1 second, the POWERGOOD signal is kept deasserted. The startup time of the internal PLLs is typically 10 ms from the assertion of the PWRGOOD pin.
The power-on reset waveform diagram is shown in Figure 6-3 on page 6-9.
All system resets, aside from PWRGOOD pin, are on the order of 10 ms, while soft resets
take 16 CPU clocks.
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for timing tables and
additional timing diagrams.
6-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Reset Generation
6.4
REGISTERS
The reset generation on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is controlled by the memorymapped registers listed in Table 6-1 and the direct-mapped registers listed in Table 6-2.
Table 6-1
Reset Generation Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Host Bridge Control
HBCTL
60h
PCI reset (RST)
Watchdog Timer Control
WDTMRCTL
CB0h
Watchdog timer enable, WDT reset enable,
interrupt flag, duration of the WDT time-out
interval
System Board Information
SYSINFO
D70h
System configuration data latched on RSTLD7–
RSTLD0 pins at assertion of PWRGOOD
Reset Configuration
RESCFG
D72h
Control bits for system reset, GP bus reset
(GPRESET), programmable SDRAM retention
reset (PRGRESET pin enable), and AMDebug
mode enable
Reset Status
RESSTA
D74h
Reset source status: SCP reset, AMDebug hard
reset detect, AMDebug system reset, watchdog
timer time-out, CPU shutdown (soft reset),
PRGRESET pin, and PWRGOOD pin
Table 6-2
Function
Reset Generation Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
SCP Data Port
SCPDATA
60h
System Control Processor (SCP) data write, a20
gate command emulation
SCP Command Port
SCPCMD
64h
SCP command write, a20 gate command
emulation, CPU reset command emulation
System Control Port A
SYSCTLA
92h
Soft CPU reset generation, alternate a20 control
6.5
OPERATION
There are several different types of reset supported on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller:
■ System reset
■ System reset with SDRAM retention, called programmable reset
■ Soft CPU reset
■ GP bus reset
■ PCI reset
■ RTC reset
System reset is the primary reference reset on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. It is
described in “System Reset” on page 6-4.
Table 6-3 shows the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller reset sources and the functions affected.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
6-3
Reset Generation
Table 6-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Reset Sources
CPU
(Hard/Soft)
GPRESET
Pin
RST Pin
(PCI)
Internal
Registers
PWRGOOD pin
Hard
✔
✔
✔
PRGRESET pin
Hard
✔
✔
✔
1,2
SYS_RST bit, RESCFG register
Hard
✔
✔
✔
2
Watchdog timer reset event
Hard
✔
✔
✔
2
AMDebug system reset
Hard
✔
✔
✔
2
CPU_RST bit, SYSCTLA register (Port 0092h)
Soft
SCP soft reset, SCPCMD register (Port 0064h)
Soft
CPU shutdown (typically caused by a triple fault)
Soft
Source
Notes
3
✔
GP_RST bit, RESCFG register
✔
PCI_RST bit, HBCTL register
Notes:
1. The PRG_RST_ENB bit must be set to enable the reset function on this pin.
2. If the PRG_RST_ENB bit is set, the SDRAM controller configuration is maintained to support system reset in which
SDRAM contents are also maintained.
3. Any write of a 1 to the CPU_RST bit will cause a soft reset, regardless if the bit was previously a 1 or 0.
6.5.1
System Reset
System reset on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be initiated by any of the following
reset events:
■ PWRGOOD pin assertion
■ Software writes to the SYS_RST bit in the Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register
(MMCR offset D72h)
■ AMDebug system reset event
■ Watchdog timer time-out event that is enabled to generate a system reset
On system reset, the following sequence of events occurs.
1. A system reset event is asserted.
2. Internal CPU, ÉlanSC520 microcontroller internal registers, system GP bus, and PCI
bus resets are asserted.
3. The system reset event is deasserted. If PWRGOOD was the source of the reset,
configuration and system board data are latched on the CFG3–CFG0 and RSTLD7–
RSTLD0 pins, respectively.
4. An RTC reset is generated if the RTC voltage monitor has detected a low RTC battery
condition and the system reset source was PWRGOOD.
5. Internal PLL start-up time is allowed to pass.
6. Internal CPU, system GP bus, and PCI bus resets are deasserted.
The duration of the system reset is on the order of 10 ms, the start-up time of the internal
PLLs. The GPRESET and RST pins are asserted for the 10-ms interval.
6-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Reset Generation
In response to the hard CPU reset, all internal Am5x86 CPU registers return to their reset
state, and the contents of the CPU cache are discarded. For further information on hard
CPU reset, see the Am486® DX/DX2 Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual, 1994
(order #17965).
Note: The CFG3–CFG0 and RSTLD7–RSTLD0 pins are latched only as a result of the
assertion of the PWRGOOD signal, and not as a result of the SYS_RST bit, AMDebug
system reset event, or watchdog timer event.
If the ICE_ON_RST bit in the Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register is set to a 1, the
AMDebug utility enters into AMDebug mode after system reset.
The states of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller cores after system reset are shown in
Table 6-4. See the “Initialization” section at the end of each chapter for more detailed
information.
Table 6-4
States of Cores after System Reset
Core
State
Comment
Am5x86 CPU
Enabled
CPU clock frequency is set to 100 MHz. Internal
registers and internal cache are reset. The FPU
must be initialized with an FNINIT instruction.
System arbiter
Enabled
Default is nonconcurrent arbitration mode. All bus
masters are disabled except the CPU as PCI and
internal Am5x86 CPU bus master.
PCI host bridge master controller
Enabled
PCI host bridge target controller
Disabled
SDRAM controller
Disabled
Write buffer and read buffer
Disabled
ROM controller
Enabled
BOOTCS (only) is enabled at system reset
GP bus controller
Enabled
External GP bus is disabled until PAR registers are
initialized.
GP-DMA controller
Enabled
All channels are masked off.
Programmable interrupt controller
(PIC)
Enabled
Interrupts are masked at the CPU. NMIs are
disabled.
Software timer
Enabled
General-purpose (GP) timers
Disabled
All GP timer registers are reset to 0. Each timer must
be programmed before it can be used.
Programmable interval timer (PIT)
Disabled
Each PIT channel must be programmed before it
can be used.
Watchdog timer (WDT)
Disabled
Real-time clock (RTC)
Enabled
UARTs
Disabled
Synchronous serial interface (SSI)
Disabled
Inactive until an SSI command is written.
Programmable input/output (PIO)
pins
Enabled
All PIO pins default to inputs and to their PIO
function.
JTAG test access port (TAP)
Enabled
JTAG_TRST should be asserted active Low to
ensure normal operation.
AMDebug mode
Enabled
No banks are enabled.
If the ICE_ON_RST bit in the Reset Configuration
(RESCFG) register is set.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
6-5
Reset Generation
System reset is a subset of the power-on reset sequence described in “Initialization” on
page 6-9.The only real difference between the two is that, for power-on reset, power is
being applied to the part in addition to the reset, and the stabilization of power supplies to
deassertion of the reset is specified. The two terms are otherwise synonymous in this
document.
6.5.2
System Reset with SDRAM Retention
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is capable of performing a system reset in which the
contents of the SDRAM system are maintained.
This function, called programmable reset, is enabled via the PRG_RST_ENB bit in the
Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register (MMCR offset D72h). If this bit is set, assertion of
the PRGRESET pin, SYS_RST bit, watchdog timer system reset event, or AMDebug system
reset event while PWRGOOD is asserted will result in a system reset in which the SDRAM
configuration (SDRAM type, number of banks, refresh rate, etc.) is maintained so that the
contents of SDRAM are preserved.
Although the CFG3–CFG0 and RSTLD7–RSTLD0 pins are not latched, all other aspects
of this type of reset are the same as a system reset.
The system reset request is arbitrated with the internal SDRAM controller to ensure that
all SDRAM banks are idle prior to assertion of the reset. In addition, this arbitration allows
the SDRAM controller to complete the current SDRAM cycle. Figure 6-2 shows the
sequence of events following a PRGRESET assertion with the PRG_RST_ENB bit enabled.
Note: If a system reset request is not acknowledged by the SDRAM controller when the
PRG_RST_ENB configuration bit is set, a normal system reset occurs. In this event, the
PRG_RST_ENB bit is cleared. Clearing of the PRG_RST_ENB bit indicates that the
contents of the SDRAM were not maintained.
Figure 6-2
PRGRESET Timing
PRGRESET
1
cpu reset
GPRESET
RST
Notes:
1. Reset assertion from PRGRESET assertion is approximately 32 CPU clocks. All SDRAM banks are idle.
2. The PRG_RST_ENB bit in the Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register must be enabled.
3. The signal “cpu reset” is an internal signal, shown here for reference only. It is not available as an external pin.
6-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Reset Generation
6.5.3
Soft CPU Reset
A soft CPU reset is differentiated from a hard CPU reset in that soft CPU reset does not
affect the CPU’s cache state. See “Initialization” on page 7-5 for more information about
the differences between hard and soft CPU reset.
A soft CPU reset does not reset the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s internal register bits, with
the exception of the NMI_ENB bit in the Interrupt Control (PICICR) register (MMCR offset
D00h). A soft CPU reset does not assert the GPRESET or RST pins. For a soft CPU reset,
the CPU’s internal sreset signal is asserted for 16 clock cycles.
There are four ways a soft CPU reset is generated on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller:
■ A software write to the CPU_RST bit of System Control Port A (SYSCTLA) register (Port
0092h)—Writing a 1 to this bit generates a soft reset event. Following this reset, the
CPU_RST bit remains set until software clears it. This feature can be used by software
as an indication that the System Control Port A (SYSCTLA) register was used to generate
the reset. Writing a 1 to the CPU_RST bit always generates a soft reset, even if the bit
was not cleared after a previous reset.
■ SCP Reset CPU command—A soft reset event is asserted when the CPU issues the
standard command write of FEh to the SCP Command Port (SCPCMD) register (Port
0064h).
■ Triple bus fault—A soft reset event is asserted in response to a CPU shutdown cycle
due to a triple bus fault.
■ Entering AMDebug mode—A soft reset event is also asserted in response to a soft reset
command from the AMDebug utility. If the ICE_ON_RST bit in the Reset Configuration
(RESCFG) register (MMCR offset D72h) is set to a 1, the AMDebug utility enters into
AMDebug mode after a soft CPU reset.
6.5.4
GP Bus Reset
GP bus reset can be generated via a system reset or a software write. Writing a 1 to the
GP_RST bit in the Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register (MMCR offset D72h) asserts
the GPRESET pin. Clearing this bit to 0 deasserts the GPRESET pin.
6.5.5
PCI Reset
The PCI reset signal, RST, is generated via a system reset or software writes. Writing a 1
to the PCI_RST bit in the Host Bridge Control (HBCTL) register (MMCR offset 60h) asserts
the PCI RST pin. Clearing this bit to 0 deasserts the PCI RST pin.
6.5.6
RTC Reset
RTC reset occurs anytime the BBATSEN input is sampled below 2.0 V during a power-on
reset or during a system reset where the reset source was PWRGOOD. RTC Status D
(RTCSTAD) register (RTC index 0Dh) includes a status bit that indicates the validity of the
contents of the RAM, time registers, and the calendar. The RTC_VRT bit is set based on
the assertion of the internal RTC reset.
Note that this RTC reset may or may not occur when a system reset occurs, depending on
the reset source and the state of BBATSEN. BBATSEN also provides a reset signal for the
RTC when an RTC backup battery is applied for the first time.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
6-7
Reset Generation
6.5.7
Determining Reset Sources
Status bits are available in the Reset Status (RESSTA) register (MMCR offset D74h) for
software to determine the source of reset. These bits are set when the associated event is
detected and cleared by writing a 1. They include:
■ ICE_HRST_DET—Hard CPU reset from AMDebug logic
■ ICE_SRST_DET—AMDebug system reset
■ WDT_RST_DET—Watchdog timer time-out system reset
■ SD_RST_DET—Soft CPU reset resulting from a detection of the CPU shutdown cycle
due to triple fault
■ PRGRST_DET—System reset from PRGRESET pin that resets the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller, allows SDRAM refresh, and maintains SDRAM configuration
■ PWRGOOD_DET—System reset from PWRGOOD pin
6.5.8
CPU A20 Gate Support
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not support an a20 gate input pin. In a typical PC/AT
system, this input was driven by the external System Control Processor (SCP) in response
to a command request that is issued by the main CPU. In the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller,
this a20 gate command sequence is detected by internal logic, and the appropriate action
is taken.The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides an additional a20 gate source in the
System Control Port A (SYSCTLA) register (Port 0092h). These two a20 gate sources are
logically ORed such that both sources must be deasserted to cause the CPU’s a20 output
to be gated Low.
The SCP a20 gate command is detected when the CPU issues the standard command
write of D1h to the SCP Command Port (SCPCMD) register (Port 0064h), followed by a
data write to the SCP Data Port (SCPDATA) register (Port 0060h). Bit 1 of the write to the
SCP Data Port (SCPDATA) register drives the a20 control logic. A value of 1 allows the
CPU’s a20 signal to propagate to the core logic, while a value of 0 allows the CPU’s a20
signal to be driven Low, as long as no other a20 gate control sources are forcing the CPU’s
a20 signal to propagate.
In addition to the SCP a20 gate command emulation, the A20G_CTL bit in the System
Control Port A (SYSCTLA) register (Port 0092h) can also be used for alternate a20 signal
control. Setting the A20G_CTL bit allows the CPU’s a20 signal to be propagated to the
system logic. Clearing this bit (default state) allows the a20 signal to be driven Low as long
as no other a20 gate control sources are forcing the a20 signal to propagate.
6.5.9
Clocking Considerations
As a result of an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system reset event, the internal PLLs are restarted. The PLL start-up time from the deassertion of the system reset source is 10 ms.
6.5.10
Software Considerations
The CPU cache, SDRAM controller write buffer, and PCI transaction queues are discarded
as a result of a system reset.
6-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Reset Generation
6.5.11
Latency
PRGRESET events must be arbitrated in the SDRAM controller to ensure that the SDRAM
devices are in a state in which data is not lost when the PRGRESET event is propagated.
This arbitration causes the PRGRESET event to be delayed by no more than 32 CPU clock
periods prior to assertion of the internal and external reset signals.
6.6
INITIALIZATION
At power-on reset for the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, the following sequence of events
occurs.
1. The PWRGOOD pin is deasserted.
2. The power planes come up.
3. Internal CPU, ÉlanSC520 microcontroller internal registers, system GP bus, and PCI
bus resets are asserted.
4. PWRGOOD is asserted. Configuration and system board data are latched on the CFG3–
CFG0 and RSTLD7–RSTLD0 pins, respectively.
5. RTC reset event is generated if the RTC voltage monitor has detected a low RTC battery
condition.
6. Internal PLLs are enabled and clocks become stable (internal PLL startup time is allowed
to pass).
7. Internal CPU, system GP bus, and PCI bus resets are deasserted.
Figure 6-3 shows this sequence. For power-on reset, the PWRGOOD pin must be held
deasserted for the duration of time it takes for the stabilization of the system board power
supply output voltages and the start-up time of the internal 32-kHz and 33-MHz oscillators.
This time is typically on the order of 1 second.
Figure 6-3
Power-On Reset Sequence of Events
ALL VCCs
1
PWRGOOD
PRGRESET
3
cpu reset
GPRESET
RST
CFG3–CFG0
RSTLD7–RSTLD0
Valid
Valid
2
Internal Clocks
Notes:
1. PWRGOOD valid from all VCC valid (except VCC_RTC) is typically 1 second.
2. PLL start-up time from PWRGOOD valid is less than 10 ms.
3. CPU reset and external resets deasserted from PWRGOOD are 10 ms.
4. Internal signals are shown for reference only; they are not available on external pins.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
6-9
Reset Generation
6-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
7
7.1
Am5X86® CPU
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller has an integrated Am5x86 CPU core. The features of the
Am5x86 CPU include:
■ Operation at 100 MHz or 133 MHz, with a 33-MHz bus interface
■ 16-Kbyte unified cache configurable for either write-back or write-through cache mode
■ Integrated floating point unit (ANSI/IEEE 754 compliant)
■ On-chip debug support. See Chapter 26, “AMDebug™ Technology”, for more
information.
7.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 7-1 shows a block diagram of the Am5x86 CPU.
7.3
REGISTERS
The Am5x86 CPU is controlled by the registers listed in Table 7-1 and Table 7-2.
Table 7-1
Am5x86® CPU Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller
Revision ID
REVID
00h
Product identification, major and minor stepping
level
Am5x86 CPU Control
CPUCTL
02h
CPU cache mode (write-through or write-back),
CPU clock speed control
Floating Point Error Interrupt
Mapping
FERRMAP
D46h
Floating point error interrupt mapping
Reset Status
RESSTA
D74h
Reset source status: CPU shutdown (soft reset)
Table 7-2
Function
Am5x86® CPU Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
SCP Data Port
SCPDATA
60h
System Control Processor (SCP) data write, a20
gate command emulation
SCP Command Port
SCPCMD
64h
SCP command write, a20 gate command
emulation, CPU reset command emulation
System Control Port A
SYSCTLA
92h
CPU soft reset generation, alternate a20 control
Floating Point Error Interrupt
Clear
FPUERRCLR
F0h
Clear FPU error interrupt
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
7-1
7-2
Central and
Protection
Test Unit
Control
ROM
FPU
Register
File
Micro-instruction
Limit and
Attribute
PLA
Base/
Index Segmentation
Unit
Bus
Descriptor
Registers
32
Floating
Point
Unit
ALU
Register File
Barrel Shifter
Decoded
Instruction
Path
32
32-Byte
Prefetcher
128
16-Kbyte
Cache
Cache Unit
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
STOP/TX
BR/TC
CMDACK
TRIG/TRACE
AMDebug™
Logic
24
32
32
32
JTAG_TRST
JTAG_TCK
JTAG_TDI
JTAG_TDO
JTAG_TMS
Boundary
Scan
Control
2 x 16 Bytes
Code
Stream Code Queue
32
20
Physical
Address
2
pcd, pwt
Instruction
Decode
Displacement Bus
Translation
Look-Aside
Buffer
Paging Unit
Linear Address Bus
100/133
Core
Clock
Cache
Control
Bus Control
Data Bus
Transceivers
Buffers
Address
Drivers
Bus
Interface
Core
Clock
Generator
ken, flush,
eads, inv
Control
Signals
d31-d0
a31-a2
be3-be0
Clock
Generation
Unit
Figure 7-1
32-Bit Data Bus
32-Bit Data Bus
64-Bit Interunit Transfer Bus
Am5x86® CPU
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Am5x86® CPU
Am5x86® CPU Block Diagram
Am5x86® CPU Bus
Am5x86® CPU
7.4
OPERATION
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is a highly integrated system in silicon, and the Am5x86
CPU is central to this integration. The Am5x86 CPU is a high-performance CPU that is fully
software-compatible with the Am486 microprocessor family. Most of the details of the
communication between the Am5x86 CPU core and the peripherals are transparent to the
user and are not documented here.
A full description of the operation of the Am5x86 CPU is well beyond the scope of this
chapter. The following AMD publications are a good starting point for learning about the
Am5x86 CPU as it has evolved over time. The oldest publication is listed first. The later
publications enhance the original functional descriptions.
■ Am486® DX/DX2 Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual, 1994 (order #17965)
■ Enhanced Am486® Microprocessor Family Data Sheet, 1995, (order #19225)
■ Am5x86® Microprocessor Family Data Sheet, 1996 (order #19751)
The Am5x86 CPU core in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is derived from the Enhanced
Am486 family (as described in order #19225). The Am5x86 CPU enhances system
performance by raising the maximum CPU operating frequency to 133 MHz, while
maintaining complete compatibility with the standard Am486 CPU architecture. The
following differences may be relevant to the user:
■ There is no provision for an L2 cache. The signals that would be needed are not brought
out of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ System management mode (SMM) is not supported on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ From an Am5x86 CPU-core perspective only, the cache defaults to the write-back cache
mode and reports this state in response to the CPUID instruction. The cache mode can
be reconfigured to write-through mode via the Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register
(MMCR offset 02h).
Programs sometimes require the ability to determine the hardware on which they are
running. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be identified via the CPUID instruction and
the ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller Revision ID (REVID) register (MMCR offset 00h). This is
discussed in “Identifying the CPU Core” on page 3-7.
7.4.1
Floating Point Unit (FPU)
The Am5x86 CPU provides an integrated floating point unit (FPU) that operates in parallel
with the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). The FPU is useful in applications that involve more
intensive computational complexity. The major features of the integrated FPU are:
■ Compliant with ANSI/IEEE 754 standard
■ Provides arithmetic instructions to handle various numeric data types and formats
■ Provides built-in transcendental functions for functions like sine, cosine, tangent,
logarithms, etc.
■ Software-compatible with the 80387 (and previous) math co-processors
The FPU must be initialized with an FNINIT instruction after any system reset.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
7-3
Am5x86® CPU
7.4.2
Cache Memory Management
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller contains a 16-Kbyte unified code and data cache. Cache
operation defaults to write-back cache mode. However, this mode can be disabled by setting
the Cache Write Mode (CACHE_WR_MODE) bit in the Am5x86 CPU Control register
(MMCR offset 02h). Note that the cache should be flushed when switching this bit from
write-back to write-through cache mode.
The cache that is internal to the CPU is historically referred to as the level 1 (L1) cache.
Cache that is located external to the CPU is called level 2 (L2). The ÉlanSC520
microcontroller does not have the control mechanism or the pins to support an L2 cache.
The L1 cache can be configured through the standard cache configuration bits in the CPU’s
machine status (CR0) register. The Cache Disable (CD) and Not Write-Through (NW) bits
are decoded as shown in Table 7-3.
Table 7-3
Cache Configuration Options
CD
NW
Operating Mode
1
1
Cache line fills, cache write-throughs, and cache invalidations are disabled. To
completely disable the cache, set both CD and NW to 1 and flush the cache by
executing a WBINVD or INVD instruction.
1
0
Cache line fills are disabled. Cache write-throughs and cache invalidations are
enabled. This configuration allows software to disable the cache for a short time,
then re-enable it without flushing the original contents.
0
1
Invalid setting. A general-protection exception with an error code of 0 is generated.
0
0
Cache line fills, cache write-throughs, and cache invalidations are enabled. This
is the normal operating configuration.
If paging is enabled in the CPU, then cacheability as well as cache write policy can be
controlled on a per-page basis via control bits in the page tables. Note that the
CACHE_WR_MODE bit in the Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register must be set to
write-back cache mode for write-back behavior to occur.
Caching is controlled by the memory management subsystem on a per-access basis. For
example, GP bus and PCI bus accesses are not cached. The programmer has control over
which regions of memory (SDRAM and ROM) are cacheable and which are not. This is
described in detail in Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”.
7.4.3
Clocking Considerations
The Am5x86 CPU bus frequency in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is always 33 MHz.
However, the Am5x86 CPU core frequency is programmable to be 100 MHz or 133 MHz.
The clock speed of the Am5x86 CPU core defaults to 100 MHz, but can be changed
dynamically via the Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register (MMCR offset 02h). Systems
that maintain relatively high cache hit rates benefit more from the higher core speeds,
because they are not dependent on external bus activity for accessing ROM or SDRAM.
The clock speed change is transparent to the system, with the exception that there is
approximately 1-ms delay to allow the Am5x86 CPU’s clock PLLs to stabilize. Following the
clock speed configuration, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s clock control logic automatically
forces the Am5x86 CPU’s cache to be flushed, and waits for the completion of the flush
before changing the PLLs’ frequency select (caching is also disabled for any subsequent
memory read cycles during the flush operation). Since the CPU PLLs require approximately
1 ms to stabilize following the speed change, all Am5x86 CPU cache snooping is suspended.
However, since the cache was previously flushed, there are no coherency issues, PCI bus
7-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Am5x86® CPU
master cycles, or GP-DMA controller operations during this period. Interrupts generated to
the Am5x86 CPU will be honored only after the Am5x86 CPU is operating again.
Once the CPU PLLs have stabilized and the new core frequency has been established,
caching is once again enabled in the same mode as it was prior to the clock speed change.
There are no special requirements by external system hardware or software to support
clock speed switching.
Note: Not all ÉlanSC520 microcontroller devices support all CPU clock rates. The
maximum supported clock rate for a device is indicated by the part number printed on the
package. The clocking circuitry can be programmed to run the device at higher than rated
speeds. However, if an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is programmed to run at a higher clock
speed than that for which it is rated, then erroneous operation will result and physical
damage to the device may occur.
7.4.4
Interrupts
The Am5x86 CPU receives a maskable interrupt from the programmable interrupt controller
(PIC). The Am5x86 CPU also supports a non-maskable interrupt (NMI) input that can be
disabled. See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for details of both maskable
and non-maskable interrupt sources and routing.
7.4.5
Latency
The clock speed change is transparent to the system with the exception that there is
approximately a 1-ms delay to allow the Am5x86 CPU’s clock PLLs to stabilize. Interrupts
generated to the Am5x86 CPU will be honored only after the Am5x86 CPU is operating
again.
7.5
INITIALIZATION
The Am5x86 CPU included on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports two different types
of CPU reset: hard CPU reset and soft CPU reset. Chapter 6, “Reset Generation” provides
details of the various sources of hard and soft reset to the Am5x86 CPU. For additional
information on Am5x86 CPU initialization, see Chapter 3, “System Initialization” and the
references provided in “Operation” on page 7-3.
7.5.1
Hard CPU Reset
The Am5x86 CPU is reset during a hard CPU reset, and the Am5x86 CPU core clock
frequency defaults to 100 MHz. Hard CPU reset is used to initialize the Am5x86 CPU due
to deassertion of the PWRGOOD signal, as well as other reset sources (see Table 6-3 on
page 6-4). Hard CPU reset resets Am5x86 CPU registers and the internal cache.
Hard CPU reset forces the microprocessor to terminate all execution and local bus activity.
All entries into the cache are invalidated, the cache is disabled, and the FPU is reset. The
Am5x86 CPU begins executing from the boot vector at FFFFFFF0h after system reset is
deasserted. The core clock frequency is 100 MHz.
7.5.2
Soft CPU Reset
Soft CPU reset does not affect the CPU’s write buffers, cache, or cache mode (write-back
or write-through). The Am5x86 CPU core clock frequency remains the same, and cache
snooping continues unaffected during soft reset.
Soft reset provides a method to switch from protected to real operating mode. After a soft
CPU reset, the Am5x86 CPU begins initialization at location FFFFFFF0h. The processor
state is the same as it is after a hard reset, except that the internal cache, the CD and NW
bits in the Am5x86 CPU’s machine status (CR0) register, and the Am5x86 CPU’s write
buffers retain the values they had prior to the soft reset.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
7-5
Am5x86® CPU
A soft reset event clears the NMI_ENB bit in the Interrupt Control (PICICR) register, disabling
NMIs. This allows software to initialize the stack pointer before setting the NMI_ENB bit
again after a soft reset.
7-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
8
8.1
SYSTEM ARBITRATION
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes two arbiters. A CPU bus arbiter arbitrates between
the Am5x86 CPU, the PCI host bridge, and the GP-DMA controller on the internal CPU
bus. A PCI bus arbiter arbitrates between the Am5x86 CPU and up to five external PCI
masters on the external PCI bus. The system arbiter complies with PCI Local Bus
Specification, Revision 2.2, and complies with PCI bus transaction ordering rules.
Features of the arbitration subsystem include:
■ Supports up to five external PCI bus masters
■ Supports concurrent and nonconcurrent operating modes:
– Concurrent arbitration mode allows PCI bus arbitration to occur independently of CPU
bus arbitration, supporting peer-to-peer operation on PCI bus simultaneously with
CPU access of memory and GP bus.
– Nonconcurrent arbitration mode forces all masters to automatically acquire ownership
of both PCI and CPU buses, regardless of destination of the cycles.
■ PCI bus arbiter supports two queues with rotating priority for bus mastership:
– High-priority queue supports two bus masters maximum, any masters can be
programmed to the high-priority queue.
– Low-priority queue contains all masters not assigned to the high-priority queue.
■ CPU priority is programmable to automatically achieve bus ownership following every
one, two, or three PCI-bus-master tenures.
■ Option for PCI bus parking on CPU or on last master in concurrent arbitration mode
■ PCI bus master request/grant pairs can be individually masked in a separate control
register.
■ CPU bus arbiter provides an automatic Am5x86 CPU bypass that allows continued PCI
bus and GP-DMA access of SDRAM during Am5x86 CPU clock changes and PLL
stabilization periods.
8.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 8-1 shows a block diagram of the system arbiter.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
8-1
System Arbitration
Figure 8-1
System Arbitration Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
GP Bus
CPU
ROM
System Arbiter
CPU Bus Arbiter
SDRAM Controller
CPU Bus
GP-DMA
PCI Bus Arbiter
gnt
PCI Host Bridge
GNT4–GNT0
REQ4–REQ0
req
PCI Bus
8.3
REGISTERS
The arbitration subsystem is controlled by the memory-mapped registers listed in Table 8-1.
Table 8-1
System Arbitration Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
System Arbiter Control
SYSARBCTL
70h
PCI bus parking select, concurrent arbitration
mode enable, PCI bus grant time-out interrupt
enable
PCI Bus Arbiter Status
PCIARBSTA
71h
PCI bus arbiter grant time-out identification and
status
System Arbiter Master
Enable
SYSARBMENB
72h
Enables for PCI bus REQ4–REQ0 signals
Arbiter Priority Control
ARBPRICTL
74h
PCI bus arbiter rotating priority queue control
8-2
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Arbitration
Table 8-1
System Arbitration Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
PCI Host Bridge Interrupt
Mapping
PCIHOSTMAP
D14h
8.4
Function
System arbiter and PCI host bridge interrupt
mapping to any of 22 available interrupt
channels or NMI, PCI NMI enable control
OPERATION
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s arbitration subsystem consists of two separate bus
arbitration units for the CPU bus and the PCI bus.
■ The CPU bus arbiter arbitrates between the Am5x86 CPU, the PCI host bridge, and the
GP-DMA controller on the internal CPU bus.
■ The PCI bus arbiter arbitrates between the Am5x86 CPU and up to five external PCI
masters on the external PCI bus.
8.4.1
Operating Modes
The system arbiter can operate in two modes for maximum flexibility:
■ Nonconcurrent arbitration mode
■ Concurrent arbitration mode
The two bus arbiters operate completely independently when the system is configured for
concurrent arbitration mode, but they are interlocked when the system is configured for
nonconcurrent arbitration mode.
Maximum performance is typically achieved in concurrent arbitration mode, because this
allows simultaneous PCI bus and CPU bus operation. However, some systems may benefit
from nonconcurrent arbitration mode, especially if the system experiences data coherency
problems due to older, non-compliant bus bridges.
The arbitration mode is specified with the CNCR_MODE_ENB bit in the System Arbiter
Control (SYSARBCTL) register (MMCR offset 70h). System arbitration defaults to
nonconcurrent arbitration mode after reset.
8.4.1.1
Nonconcurrent Arbitration Mode
Nonconcurrent arbitration mode forces all masters to automatically acquire ownership of
both PCI and CPU buses, regardless of destination of the cycles. In this mode, no
concurrency between the CPU bus and the PCI bus is allowed. External PCI masters are
only granted the PCI bus when the host bridge has been granted the CPU bus, even for
peer-to-peer transfers.
When an external PCI bus master requests the PCI bus, the following occurs:
1. The PCI bus arbiter samples an external PCI request asserted and asserts the host
bridge request to the CPU bus arbiter. The PCI bus arbiter is parked on the CPU by
default and should not be programmed to park on the last master in this mode.
2. The CPU bus arbiter samples the host bridge request asserted and grants the CPU bus
to the host bridge at the completion of the next Am5x86 CPU cycle. The CPU bus is
owned by the Am5x86 CPU by default, so a request to the CPU must be asserted to
gain ownership of this bus.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
8-3
System Arbitration
3. The PCI bus arbiter sees that the host bridge has been granted the CPU bus and grants
the PCI bus to the external PCI master requesting the PCI bus. Note that now the external
PCI master owns both the PCI bus and the CPU bus.
In nonconcurrent arbitration mode, the PCI bus and CPU bus essentially become one bus
where only one master is allowed on the bus at any time. Note that write-posting from the
CPU to the PCI bus should be disabled while the arbiter is configured for nonconcurrent
arbitration mode.
Note that there is an exception to the normal rules of non-concurrency in this mode, as
listed in the following steps:
1. The CPU acquires both buses and performs a memory or I/O read/write of an external
PCI target. The target issues a retry to the CPU. The PCI bus is idle due to the retry, but
the CPU still remains active (in a wait state) on the CPU bus.
2. An external PCI bus master now asserts a request to perform a memory write to SDRAM.
In normal nonconcurrent arbitration mode, this request would not be granted, because
the PCI bus arbiter would be waiting to acquire ownership of the CPU bus (but the CPU
is in a wait state waiting to retry the PCI target read). PCI bus transaction ordering
specifies that a PCI agent cannot base the acceptance of a memory write as a target
on the completion of a read as a master. Therefore the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s
host bridge must force the CPU off the bus and allow the external master write to
complete.
3. After asserting boff to the CPU, the arbiter grants the PCI bus to the external master,
and the master completes its write. When the PCI bus master completes the write, the
boff signal is deasserted and the CPU is back on the CPU bus. The original CPU-toPCI transaction is now retried by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s host bridge master
controller.
8.4.1.2
Concurrent Arbitration Mode
Concurrent arbitration mode allows PCI bus arbitration to occur independently of CPU bus
arbitration, supporting peer-to-peer operation on PCI bus simultaneous with CPU access
of memory and the GP bus. In this mode, the CPU bus arbiter and PCI bus arbiter operate
independently. Default bus ownership for each of the two arbiters is the same as
nonconcurrent arbitration mode. External PCI masters are granted the PCI bus without the
host bridge being granted the CPU bus. This allows concurrent CPU bus and PCI bus
operation.
A few examples of concurrency are:
■ The Am5x86 CPU accessing SDRAM concurrently with an external PCI bus master
writing data to the host bridge’s target FIFOs
■ The Am5x86 CPU or GP-DMA controller accessing SDRAM concurrently with an
external PCI bus master accessing an external PCI bus target (peer-to-peer transfer)
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s host bridge target controller accessing SDRAM
concurrently with the master controller writing posted data to an external PCI target
8-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Arbitration
8.4.2
CPU Bus Arbiter
The CPU bus arbiter controls access to the internal CPU bus. This internal bus allows for:
■ Am5x86 CPU access of SDRAM, GP bus, PCI, or ROM
■ GP-DMA access of SDRAM
■ PCI host bridge access of SDRAM for external PCI master cycles
No concurrent operation is allowed on the CPU bus (e.g., Am5x86 CPU accessing the GP
bus while the PCI host bridge is accessing SDRAM). At any time, only one master is granted
access to the CPU bus.
8.4.2.1
CPU Arbitration Protocol
The CPU bus arbiter implements a rotating priority algorithm that guarantees each bus
master a place in the arbitration rotation. A master becomes lowest priority in the queue
when it receives a bus grant. A master is skipped in the rotation if its request is not asserted,
but a lower priority master request is asserted. In this case, the skipped master becomes
lowest priority as if it had been serviced (see Figure 8-2).
Figure 8-2
Skipped Master Example
M0 is finishing its transaction; therefore its REQ and
GNT are being deasserted
M0
M2
M1
REQ=0
REQ=1
M1 not requesting the bus at the end of the M0
transaction; thus it is skipped, and M2 gets GNT
asserted instead
Rotating Priority Queue
Notes:
Priority: M0, M2, M0, M1, M2, M0, M1, M2, ...
In the example shown in Figure 8-2, assume that M0 has just finished a transaction. In this
case, the next master in the rotating priority queue would be M1. M1, however, is not
requesting the bus, and M2 (a lower priority master at this time) is requesting the bus. In
this case, M1 is skipped and the bus is granted to M2. M1 is the lowest priority master in
the rotation after being skipped, as if it had been granted the bus. After M2 finishes its
transaction, M0 becomes the highest priority master.
The rotating queue for the CPU bus can be seen in Figure 8-3. The Am5x86 CPU is the
default owner when no master is requesting the CPU bus and following reset. The host
bridge becomes a bus requestor when it has posted write data from a PCI bus master, or
it needs to perform a SDRAM read for a PCI bus master.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
8-5
System Arbitration
Figure 8-3
CPU Bus Rotating Priority Queue
CPU
Host
Bridge
Target
GP Bus
DMA
8.4.2.2
CPU Cache Snooping
The Am5x86 CPU includes a write-back cache that updates only the internal cache on
memory writes from the CPU (if configured for write-back mode). When only the internal
cache memory is updated for a memory write, the external SDRAM contains invalid data.
Thus, snooping is required to maintain coherency when other bus masters are accessing
SDRAM. Any time another master (GP-DMA or PCI host bridge) is accessing a SDRAM
location that contains stale data (valid data is in Am5x86 CPU cache), the valid cache data
must be written back to SDRAM before the other master is allowed access to the SDRAM.
Therefore, all non-Am5x86 CPU accesses to SDRAM (both reads and writes) are snooped
by the Am5x86 CPU.
The Am5x86 CPU cache can be optionally configured to operate in write-through cache
mode by setting the CACHE_WR_MODE bit in the Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register
(MMCR offset 02h). In this mode, both the internal cache and external memory are updated
on memory writes. Because the external memory is updated, there are no cache data
concurrency issues due to Am5x86 CPU memory writes. Other master write cycles are still
snooped, however, to keep the Am5x86 CPU’s cache coherent with external memory. In
this case, the external memory is updated, and the cache contains invalid data. The snoop
invalidates this internal cache location to maintain coherency. There is no overhead involved
with snooping when the cache is configured for write-through cache mode. The snoop
happens during the cycle (no preemption, write-back, or additional wait-states are inserted).
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not support dynamic cache-write policy changes.
8.4.2.3
Accessing the PCI Host Bridge Target
The PCI host bridge allows external PCI bus masters to read and write the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s SDRAM. Two 64 doubleword FIFOs (one read, one write) in the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s host bridge are used to increase PCI bus performance. Once
granted the bus by the CPU bus arbiter, the PCI host bridge target controller is allowed to
prefetch up to 64 DWORDs (for a memory-read-multiple command), or write (memory-write
or memory-write-and-invalidate commands) up to 64 doublewords before the bus is granted
to another master. During this time, no other master is granted the CPU bus. The Am5x86
CPU, however, is granted the bus during this time to write back a cache location if necessary.
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8.4.2.4
GP Bus DMA Arbitration
The GP-DMA controller allows internal and external GP bus peripherals to have DMA
access to SDRAM. There is no preemption mechanism for GP-DMA. Therefore, once a
DMA transaction begins, no other master is granted the CPU bus until the DMA controller
deasserts its bus request, which varies according to whether the channel is programmed
for a single cycle transfer or a block mode transfer. See Chapter 14, “GP Bus DMA
Controller”, for information on the various DMA modes and transactions. However, the
Am5x86 CPU is granted the bus during this time to write back a cache location, if necessary.
8.4.2.5
Arbitration During Clock Speed Changes
The Am5x86 CPU’s internal core clock speed can be changed dynamically during operation,
for systems that require thermal management. While the clock is changing, there is a period
where the Am5x86 CPU cannot generate any bus cycles; therefore, cache snooping cannot
be performed.
To allow bus masters continued access of SDRAM during the long PLL recovery times, the
CPU bus arbiter masks the Am5x86 CPU bus requests and allows only the PCI host bridge
and GP-DMA controller access to the CPU bus. If no master is requesting the CPU bus,
the CPU bus arbiter is the default owner (no master is granted the bus).
Note that during normal operation when the Am5x86 CPU core clock is not changing, the
Am5x86 CPU is the default owner of the CPU bus.
8.4.3
PCI Bus Arbiter
The PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, defines a central resource known as the
arbiter. This resource controls PCI master access to the PCI bus. The arbitration approach
is access-based, which means a PCI master is only granted the bus when it needs
(requests) the bus (except in the case of bus parking, discussed in “Bus Parking” on
page 8-10).
A simple request/grant handshake is used where each PCI master has a unique request
(REQ) and grant (GNT) signal. PCI bus arbitration is hidden, which means arbitration for
the next cycle occurs during the current cycle, so that no cycles are wasted due to arbitration
(except when the bus is in the idle state and no other requests/grants are active).
The PCI bus is parked on a PCI master when the bus is idle to prevent floating signals on
the bus. This is done by asserting a PCI master’s GNT signal, even though the PCI master
is not requesting the bus. In turn, the PCI master turns on its output drivers, which prevents
the bus from floating.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes the PCI bus arbiter central resource. The
integrated PCI bus arbiter arbitrates between the PCI host bridge (Am5x86 CPU as PCI
master) and up to five external masters. The req/gnt signal pair for the PCI host bridge on
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is internally connected to the PCI bus arbiter. Five external
REQ/GNT pin pairs (REQ4–REQ0, GNT4–GNT0) are provided to connect external PCI
masters to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI bus arbiter. In the following descriptions
in this chapter, the term PCI bus arbiter refers to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s integrated
PCI bus arbiter.
Because the Am5x86 CPU does not burst memory-write cycles (except cache write-backs,
which do not apply here because PCI bus memory is noncacheable in the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller), the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller will not burst more than two consecutive
doublewords during a CPU write to the PCI bus. Therefore, the PCI bus master latency
timer is not provided in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
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8.4.3.1
PCI Bus Arbitration Protocol
The PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, states that the central arbiter must implement
a fairness algorithm, which means that each potential bus master must be granted access
to the bus independently of other requests. The PCI bus arbiter satisfies this requirement
by implementing a rotating priority arbitration scheme that guarantees each bus master a
place in the arbitration rotation (see Figure 8-3 on page 8-6 for information on rotating
priority arbitration).
Rotating priority mode alone may not provide adequate arbitration in a system where it is
known that some PCI bus masters require more bandwidth than others. Therefore, the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI bus arbiter has two rotating priority queues to
accommodate this requirement: a high-priority queue and a low-priority queue.
The masters in the high-priority queue are granted more bandwidth than masters in the
low-priority queue. The high-priority queue can contain up to two PCI masters, and the lowpriority queue contains all masters that are not in the high-priority queue. The
HI_PRI_0_SEL and HI_PRI_1_SEL bit fields in the Arbiter Priority Control (ARBPRICTL)
register (MMCR offset 74h) are used to specify the position of each PCI master in the highpriority queue.
Both queues have rotating priority, and one low-priority master is granted the bus for every
rotation of the high-priority queue. After the low-priority master is granted the bus, the lowpriority queue rotates to the next low-priority master (see Figure 8-4).
Any one or two (or none) of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI bus masters can be placed
in the high-priority queue. Note that programming the same bus master for both slots in the
high-priority queue does provide additional performance for that master. The net result of
programming the same master in both slots of the high-priority queue is that the master is
given tenure during both slots. If no masters are in the high-priority queue, then there is
one rotating priority queue where each master has equal priority.
The high and low-priority queues are for external PCI bus masters, and the Am5x86 CPU
PCI master adds an additional level of arbitration. The PCI bus arbiter can be configured
with the CPU_PRI bit field in the Arbiter Priority Control (ARBPRICTL) register to grant the
bus to the Am5x86 CPU after every one, two, or three external PCI transactions (where the
external PCI master to be granted the bus is determined from the high and low-priority
queues). This implements another rotating priority queue (see Figure 8-5).
See the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, for detailed requirements of PCI bus
arbitration.
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Figure 8-4
External PCI Master Arbitration Queues
LP0
HP1
LPn
LP1
LPx
HP0
LP2
LP3
High-Priority Queue
Low-Priority Queue
Notes:
HP0, HP1: High-priority masters
LP0, LP1, LP2, LP3, ..., LPn: Low-priority masters
LPx: Current low-priority master selected
Priority: HP0, HP1, LP0, HP0, HP1, LP1, HP0, HP1, LP2, HP0, HP1, LP3, ..., HP0, HP1, LPn
Figure 8-5
Host Bridge Master Arbitration Queue
CPU
Ext
PCI
Ext
PCI
Ext
PCI
Notes:
The PCI bus arbiter is configurable to grant the bus to the host bridge after every 1, 2, or 3 external
PCI transactions.
Priority configured for 1: CPU, Ext PCI, CPU, Ext PCI, ...
Priority configured for 2: CPU, Ext PCI, Ext PCI, CPU, Ext PCI, Ext PCI, ...
Priority configured for 3: CPU, Ext PCI, Ext PCI, Ext PCI, CPU, Ext PCI, Ext PCI, Ext PCI, ...
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8.4.3.2
Bus Parking
The PCI bus arbiter parks the bus on a PCI bus master when the bus is idle (no master is
requesting the bus). This is required on the PCI bus to guarantee that the bus is properly
terminated at all times. The PCI bus arbiter arbitrates for the next transaction as soon as
the current PCI master that is granted the bus begins its transaction.
Bus parking is configured with the BUS_PARK_SEL bit in the System Arbiter Control
(SYSARBCTL) register (MMCR offset 70h). Note that the BUS_PARK_SEL bit must not be
changed except during PCI bus arbiter initialization after a system of programmable reset.
8.4.3.2.1
Nonconcurrent Arbitration Mode Bus Parking
The bus should always be parked on the CPU in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. This is
necessary to guarantee adequate CPU performance. Otherwise, the CPU would be
required to acquire ownership of both the CPU bus and the PCI bus for each external access
(including code fetches).
8.4.3.2.2
Concurrent Arbitration Mode Bus Parking
In concurrent arbitration mode, the PCI bus arbiter can be configured to park on the last
master that was granted the bus or configured to always park on the Am5x86 CPU. If no
other PCI masters are requesting the bus, the GNT to the current PCI master remains
asserted until the current PCI master transaction completes.
A bus master that is parked can start a transaction without asserting its REQ pin (PCI bus
protocol allows a master to start a cycle when its GNT is asserted and the bus is idle), but
it must assert REQ if it requires multiple transactions.
When no PCI bus requests or grants are active, the arbiter retains priority established from
the last tenure. For example, if the bus is idle and no requests or grants are active and all
masters simultaneously request the bus, the arbiter services the master that is next in
rotation.
8.4.3.3
Rearbitration
A PCI bus master that is granted the bus and has not started a transaction within 16 clocks
after the bus becomes idle can be assumed to be “broken.” In this case, the PCI bus arbiter
automatically re-arbitrates and grants the bus to the next PCI master.
An interrupt can be generated when a PCI bus master that has acquired bus ownership
has not started a transaction within 16 clocks, and the REQ/GNT number of the “broken”
PCI master is reported in the PCI Bus Arbiter Status (PCIARBSTA) register (MMCR offset
71h). This allows software to disable the broken master and modify the bus parking such
that the PCI bus is parked on the CPU.
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8.4.4
Bus Cycles
This section includes example timing diagrams showing various types of arbitration that
may occur in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. Note that these are example cases only, and
not all cases are shown. The diagrams are functionally representative in nature, and should
not be used to infer detailed timing information. Note also that the synchronization between
the CPU and PCI clock domains is not shown in detail.
8.4.4.1
CPU Bus Arbitration
Figure 8-6 shows CPU bus arbitration between two CPU bus masters (for clarity, this
diagram shows only two bus masters). For additional CPU bus masters, there would be
more arbitration signal groups and more than one CPU bus transaction could take place
before an individual CPU bus master would be granted the bus.
Figure 8-6
CPU Bus Arbitration
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
clk
cpu_breq
cpu_hold
cpu_hlda
cpu_ads
cpu_rdy
mst_req
mst_gnt
mst_ads
mst_rdy
Notes:
In Figure 8-6, the CPU bus master signals are labeled mst_xxx and the Am5x86 CPU signals are labeled cpu_xxx.
Snooping is not shown in this figure.
The clk signal denotes the 33-MHz clock source and represents both the CPU clock and the PCI clock. This diagram
does not represent the full synchronization of signals between these clock domains.
The following sequence annotates the CPU bus arbitration cycle shown in Figure 8-6.
■ Clock #1: The Am5x86 CPU requests the bus by asserting cpu_breq. Note at this time
that the bus is granted to some other master because cpu_hlda is asserted.
■ Clock #2: The CPU bus arbiter samples the Am5x86 CPU’s request asserted and begins
arbitration. The CPU bus arbiter determines that the bus is free and that the Am5x86
CPU is the next master to receive the bus, so it deasserts cpu_hold to the Am5x86 CPU.
If the bus was not free or the Am5x86 CPU was not the next master to receive the bus,
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cpu_hold to the Am5x86 CPU would remain asserted. In this example, another CPU bus
master also requests the bus by asserting mst_req.
■ Clock #3: The Am5x86 CPU samples cpu_hold deasserted and deasserts cpu_hlda to
take ownership of the bus. The Am5x86 CPU begins a cycle by asserting cpu_ads.
■ Clock #4: The CPU bus arbiter samples cpu_ads asserted and rearbitrates. The CPU
bus arbiter determines that the bus will be granted to another master (CPU bus master)
when the current cycle is done, so it asserts cpu_hold to the Am5x86 CPU. The Am5x86
CPU will maintain ownership of the bus until it asserts cpu_hlda.
■ Clock #8: The Am5x86 CPU samples cpu_rdy asserted, which ends the current cycle.
The Am5x86 CPU has also sampled cpu_hold asserted and surrenders the bus by
asserting cpu_hlda. The Am5x86 CPU has another cycle pending, so it asserts cpu_breq
to request access to the CPU bus.
■ Clock #9: The CPU bus arbiter samples cpu_hlda asserted from the Am5x86 CPU and
grants the bus to the CPU bus master (the next master in the queue) by asserting mst_gnt
to the CPU bus master.
■ Clock #10: The CPU bus master samples mst_gnt asserted and begins a cycle by
asserting mst_ads.
■ Clock #11: The CPU bus arbiter samples mst_ads asserted and rearbitrates. The CPU
bus arbiter determines that the bus will be granted to the Am5x86 CPU when the current
cycle is done, so it deasserts mst_gnt to the CPU bus master. The CPU bus master will
maintain ownership of the bus until it deasserts mst_req.
■ Clock #15: The CPU bus master samples mst_rdy asserted, which ends the current
cycle. The CPU bus master also samples mst_gnt deasserted and surrenders the bus
by deasserting mst_req.
■ Clock #16: The CPU bus arbiter samples mst_req deasserted from the CPU bus master,
and grants the bus to the Am5x86 CPU by deasserting cpu_hold.
8.4.4.2
CPU Bus Cache Write-Back
Figure 8-7 shows an Am5x86 CPU cache write-back cycle. The cache must be written back
when another CPU bus master accesses a memory location that has been modified in the
internal Am5x86 CPU cache only (the external memory contains invalid data).
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Figure 8-7
CPU Bus Cache Write-Back
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
clk
cpu_hold
cpu_hlda
eads
hitm
cpu_ads
cpu_rdy
mst_req
mst_gnt
mst_ads
mst_rdy
Notes:
In Figure 8-7, the CPU bus master signals are labeled mst_xxxx and the Am5x86 CPU signals are labeled cpu_xxxx.
The additional internal CPU bus interface signals shown in Figure 8-7 for write-back cycles are
• eads: External Address Strobe—Asserted by the CPU bus master to initiate a snoop by the Am5x86 CPU.
• hitm: Hit Modified Line—CPU must write back cache line to maintain coherency.
The clk signal denotes the 33-MHz clock source and represents both the CPU clock and the PCI clock. This diagram
does not represent the full synchronization of signals between these clock domains.
The following sequence annotates the CPU bus cache write-back cycle shown in Figure 8-7.
■ Clock #1: The CPU bus master owns the bus (CPU bus master mst_gnt is asserted,
Am5x86 CPU cpu_hold/cpu_hlda are asserted).
■ Clock #2: The CPU bus master initiates an inquire cycle by asserting eads to the Am5x86
CPU.
■ Clock #4: The Am5x86 CPU asserts hitm to signal that the snoop resulted in a hit to a
modified line. The Am5x86 CPU must perform a write-back cycle to maintain coherency.
■ Clock #5: The CPU bus master samples hitm asserted and relinquishes the bus on the
next clock. The CPU bus arbiter deasserts cpu_hold to the Am5x86 CPU to allow the
Am5x86 CPU to perform the write-back cycle.
■ Clock #6: The Am5x86 CPU samples cpu_hold deasserted and deasserts cpu_hlda to
take ownership of the bus. The cpu_ads signal is asserted to begin the write-back cycle.
■ Clock #7: The CPU bus arbiter samples cpu_ads asserted and asserts cpu_hold to the
Am5x86 CPU so that no additional cycles are generated after the write-back cycle.
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■ Clock #11: The Am5x86 CPU samples cpu_rdy, which ends the write-back cycle. The
Am5x86 CPU has also sampled cpu_hold asserted and surrenders the bus by asserting
cpu_hlda.
Note: This write-back cycle is for illustration purposes only; the actual write-back cycle
would consist of multiple data phases.
■ Clock #12: The Am5x86 CPU deasserts hitm one clock after cpu_rdy ends the write-
back cycle.
■ Clock #13: The CPU bus master samples hitm deasserted and starts the bus cycle.
8.4.4.3
CPU-to-PCI Cycle
Figure 8-8 shows an Am5x86 CPU-to-PCI bus cycle. The Am5x86 CPU cycle is either a
read cycle or a write cycle with write posting disabled.
Figure 8-8
CPU-to-PCI Cycle
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
clk
breq
cpu_hold
cpu_hlda
cpu_ads
cpu_rdy
req
gnt
FRAME
DEVSEL
IRDY
TRDY
Notes:
The clk signal denotes the 33-MHz clock source and represents both the CPU clock and the PCI clock. This diagram
does not represent the full synchronization of signals between these clock domains.
The following sequence annotates the Am5x86 CPU-to-PCI cycle shown in Figure 8-8.
■ Clock #2: The Am5x86 CPU asserts breq to request the CPU bus. The CPU bus arbiter
will grant the bus to the CPU when the current bus owner’s cycle is completed. The
pending Am5x86 CPU cycle is to PCI.
■ Clock #3: The CPU bus arbiter deasserts cpu_hold to the Am5x86 CPU to grant the bus
to the Am5x86 CPU. The deassertion of cpu_hold would be delayed if the CPU bus was
not idle or if another higher priority master was requesting the CPU bus.
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■ Clock #4: The cpu_hlda signal is deasserted by the Am5x86 CPU to take ownership of
the CPU bus, and cpu_ads is asserted to begin a cycle to PCI.
■ Clock #5: The CPU bus arbiter samples cpu_ads asserted and rearbitrates. In this
example, a higher priority master is requesting the bus, so cpu_hold is asserted to the
Am5x86 CPU. The Am5x86 CPU maintains ownership of the CPU bus until it completes
its cycle and asserts cpu_hlda.
■ Clock #9: The host bridge asserts its req to the PCI bus arbiter in response to the
Am5x86 CPU bus cycle to PCI.
■ Clock #10: The PCI bus arbiter asserts gnt to the host bridge. The assertion of gnt would
be delayed if the bus was not idle or if another higher priority master was requesting the
PCI bus.
■ Clock #11: The host bridge samples gnt asserted and begins the PCI transaction.
■ Clock #17: The PCI transaction is complete and the host bridge returns cpu_rdy to the
Am5x86 CPU ending the Am5x86 CPU-to-PCI cycle.
■ Clock #18: The Am5x86 CPU samples cpu_rdy asserted ending the current cycle and
asserts cpu_hlda to allow the next CPU bus master access to the CPU bus.
8.4.4.4
PCI Bus Arbitration
Figure 8-9 shows how the PCI bus arbiter arbitrates between two masters. Although there
are only two PCI masters in this example, the mechanism is the same when there are more
PCI masters. The differences are that there would be more REQ/GNT signal pairs and
more than one PCI bus transaction could take place before an individual PCI master is
granted the bus.
Figure 8-9
PCI Bus Arbitration
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
CLKPCIIN
REQ0
GNT0
REQ1
GNT1
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
The following sequence annotates the PCI bus arbitration cycle shown in Figure 8-9.
■ Clock #2: Master 0 and master 1 simultaneously request access to the bus.
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■ Clock #3: The PCI bus arbiter samples REQ asserted and begins arbitration. Master 0
has higher priority at this time than master 1 so the PCI bus arbiter grants the PCI bus
to master 0.
■ Clock #4: Master 0 samples the bus idle and its GNT0 signal asserted and begins a
transaction by asserting FRAME. Master 0 now becomes the lowest priority master in
the rotating priority queue.
■ Clock #5: The PCI bus arbiter detects a transaction has started and rearbitrates for the
next master. Master 1 is the now the highest priority master in the rotating priority queue,
so the PCI bus arbiter deasserts the GNT0 for master 0 and asserts the GNT1 for
master 1.
■ Clock #8: Master 1 samples the bus idle and its GNT1 asserted and begins a transaction
by asserting FRAME. Master 1 now becomes the lowest priority master in the rotating
priority queue.
■ Clock #9: No other masters are requesting the bus, so the PCI bus arbiter keeps
asserting the GNT1 for master 1. This allows master 1 to continue the transaction, even
after its master latency timer has expired. If another master were requesting the bus,
the PCI bus arbiter would rearbitrate, deassert the GNT1 for master 1, and assert the
GNT for the next master to be granted the bus.
8.4.4.5
PCI Bus Arbitration Parking
Figure 8-10 shows an example of bus parking in concurrent arbitration mode when no
master is requesting access to the PCI bus.
In this example, the PCI bus arbiter is configured to park on the Am5x86 CPU. If the PCI
bus arbiter is configured to park on the last master that acquired the bus, then the PCI bus
arbiter would continue to assert the GNT to the master that had just completed a transaction.
Figure 8-10
PCI Bus Concurrent Mode Arbitration Parking
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
CLKPCIIN
REQ0
GNT0
req
gnt
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
Notes:
In Figure 8-10, req/gnt are for the Am5x86 CPU.
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12
13
14
15
System Arbitration
The following sequence annotates the PCI bus concurrent mode arbitration parking cycle
shown in Figure 8-10.
■ Clock #2: Master 0 requests access to the bus.
■ Clock #3: The PCI bus arbiter samples REQ asserted and begins arbitration. Master 0
is the only master requesting the bus, so the PCI bus arbiter grants the bus to master 0
by asserting GNT0.
■ Clock #4: Master 0 samples the bus idle and its GNT0 asserted, and begins a transaction
by asserting FRAME. Master 0 now becomes the lowest priority master in the rotating
priority queue.
■ Clock #5: The PCI bus arbiter detects a transaction has started and begins to rearbitrate
for the next master. Because no other masters are requesting the bus, the PCI bus arbiter
keeps asserting the GNT0 for master 0. This allows master 0 to continue a transaction
even after its master latency timer has expired. If another master were requesting the
bus, the PCI bus arbiter would rearbitrate, deassert the GNT0 for master 0, and assert
the GNT for the next master to be granted the bus.
■ Clock #7: Master 0 samples the end of the transaction. The PCI bus arbiter samples
FRAME deasserted, signaling that this is the last data phase of the transaction. Because
no other masters are requesting the bus, the PCI bus arbiter will now park the bus on
the configured master (Am5x86 CPU). The PCI bus arbiter deasserts GNT0 to master
0 and asserts gnt to the Am5x86 CPU. Note that req is not asserted. If the PCI bus
arbiter was configured to park on the last master that acquired the bus, it would keep
GNT0 asserted and park on master 0.
■ Clock #8: The Am5x86 CPU samples the bus idle and its gnt asserted. Note the Am5x86
CPU does not have to start a transaction, but it does need to drive the shared PCI bus
signals to stable values. If the Am5x86 CPU wants to start a transaction, it does not have
to assert req and wait for gnt. It can assert FRAME and begin a transaction on any clock
it samples gnt asserted. The master on which the PCI bus is parked has no arbitration
latency.
■ Clock #10: Master 0 requests the bus by asserting REQ0.
■ Clock #11: The PCI bus arbiter samples REQ asserted and begins arbitration. Master
0 is the only master requesting the bus, so the PCI bus arbiter determines that master
0 will be the next master to be granted the bus. The PCI bus arbiter then deasserts gnt
to the Am5x86 CPU.
■ Clock #12: The PCI bus arbiter asserts GNT0. Note the PCI bus arbiter cannot
simultaneously deassert one master’s GNT and assert another master’s GNT when the
bus is idle. Doing so could cause contention on the shared PCI bus signals.
■ Clock #13: Master 0 samples the bus idle and its GNT0 signal asserted and begins a
transaction by asserting FRAME. Master 0 now becomes the lowest priority master in
the rotating priority queue. Note that there is a two-clock arbitration latency for masters
that are not parked on the bus when the bus is idle. This is because, when the bus is
idle, one GNT cannot be asserted on the same clock when another GNT is deasserted.
Therefore, GNT to the master the bus is parked on will be deasserted in one clock, and
the GNT to the next master granted the bus will be asserted one clock later, resulting in
a two-clock arbitration latency.
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8.4.4.6
Nonconcurrent Mode Arbitration
Figure 8-11 shows external PCI master arbitration in nonconcurrent mode. In
nonconcurrent arbitration mode, both the CPU bus and the PCI bus are granted to the PCI
master, regardless of the destination of the PCI transaction.
Figure 8-11
Nonconcurrent Mode Arbitration
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
CLKPCIIN
REQ0
GNT0
hb_req
hb_gnt
FRAME
DEVSEL
IRDY
TRDY
Notes:
The diagram includes the following internal signals:
• hb_req: PCI host bridge requesting the Am5 x86 CPU bus.
• hb_gnt: PCI host bridge has been granted Am5x86 CPU bus.
The following sequence annotates the nonconcurrent mode arbitration cycle shown in
Figure 8-11.
■ Clock #1: An external PCI master requests the PCI bus.
■ Clock #2: The PCI bus arbiter samples an external PCI request asserted and asserts
the host bridge request to the CPU bus arbiter. The external PCI master GNT0 cannot
be asserted until the host bridge is granted the CPU bus. If the system arbiter were
operating in concurrent arbitration mode, the external PCI master GNT0 could be
asserted in clock #2 because the PCI bus and the CPU bus would be operating
independently.
■ Clock #5: The CPU bus arbiter has determined the host bridge will be granted the CPU
bus and asserts hb_gnt to the host bridge. The assertion of hb_gnt could be delayed if
a higher priority master was requesting the CPU bus.
■ Clock #6: The PCI bus arbiter detects the host bridge has been granted the CPU bus
and asserts GNT0 to the external PCI master.
■ Clock #7: The CPU bus arbiter rearbitrates and determines another CPU bus master
will be granted the bus and deasserts hb_gnt to the host bridge. The host bridge will
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maintain ownership of the CPU bus until it deasserts hb_req. The external PCI master
samples GNT0 asserted and asserts FRAME to begin the PCI transaction.
■ Clock #8: GNT0 is deasserted because either the external master is parked on the CPU
or another master has requested the bus.
■ Clock #11: The host bridge samples the end of the PCI transaction and has sampled
hb_gnt deasserted, so it deasserts hb_req to allow the next CPU bus master access to
the CPU bus.
8.4.5
Interrupts
The system arbiter has one interrupt signal routed to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI
host bridge. This interrupt source shares the interrupt controller input used by any PCI host
bridge interrupts that are enabled in the Host Bridge Master Interrupt Control
(HBMSTIRQCTL) register (MMCR offset 66h) register and the Host Bridge Target Interrupt
Control (HBTGTIRQCTL) (MMCR offset 62h) register.
The following condition can be programmed to generate an interrupt from the system arbiter.
■ When the PCI bus arbiter has asserted a GNT in response to a request (the bus is not
parked) and a PCI transaction was not started within 16 clocks after the bus became
idle, per the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2.
The GNT_TO_INT_ENB bit in the System Arbiter Control (SYSARBCTL) register (MMCR
offset 70h) is used to enable interrupts that are generated when the PCI bus arbiter detects
a grant time-out. Before the GNT_TO_INT_ENB bit is set, the PCI Host Bridge Interrupt
Mapping (PCIHOSTMAP) register (MMCR offset D14h) must be configured to route the
interrupt to the appropriate interrupt request level and priority.
The REQ/GNT number of the PCI master that did not start a transaction is reported in the
GNT_TO_STA bit of the PCI Bus Arbiter Status (PCIARBSTA) register (MMCR offset 71h).
Note that the GNT_TO_STA bit is set on PCI bus arbiter grant time-outs regardless of the
GNT_TO_INT_ENB bit value.
8.4.6
Software Considerations
The system arbiter can operate in concurrent or nonconcurrent arbitration mode (see
“Operating Modes” on page 8-3). Write posting from the CPU to the PCI bus should be
disabled while configured in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. When changing between
nonconcurrent and concurrent arbitration mode, all system arbiter requests should be
disabled, as follows:
■ GP-DMA channels should be disabled to prevent the DMA controller from requesting
the CPU bus.
■ External PCI bus master requests should be inhibited.
■ The Am5x86 CPU should not attempt to access the PCI bus.
A PCI bus master that does not start a transaction within 16 clocks after the bus is idle can
be considered broken. The PCI bus arbiter checks for this condition and provides status
on which PCI bus master GNT was asserted when this condition was detected. Software
can read this status and disable the broken master’s REQ to the PCI bus arbiter through
the System Arbiter Master Enable (SYSARBMENB) register (MMCR offset 72h). This
prevents the broken master from wasting PCI bandwidth.
Note that the PCI bus arbiter does not automatically disable the broken master’s REQ signal.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
8-19
System Arbitration
8.4.7
Latency
Because the PCI bus is shared by many masters, each master incurs a latency accessing
the bus due to other masters. This latency is determined by each master in the system and
the arbitration algorithm. The latency contributed by each master is controlled through its
associated master latency timer, which limits the amount of time a master is allowed for
each transaction. When this timer expires, the current master must end its transaction and
allow another master access to the bus.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller PCI bus arbiter has two rotating priority queues and an
Am5x86 CPU relative priority. The Am5x86 CPU does not burst on PCI, and therefore does
not have a master latency timer. The longest transaction for the Am5x86 CPU is 16 PCI
clocks.
The latency contributed by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller PCI bus arbiter can be controlled
in the Arbiter Priority Control (ARBPRICTL) register (MMCR offset 74h) through the use of
the high-priority queue and the relative Am5x86 CPU priority configuration.
8.4.7.1
Simple Rotating Priority Latency
In a simple one-level rotating priority queue, the maximum latency for each master would
be the sum of all the other master latency timers in the system.
In Figure 8-12, the maximum latency for master M0 would be the sum of the longest possible
transactions for masters M1, M2, M3, ..., Mn. The longest transaction for each master is
limited by its associated master latency timer, so the maximum latency for M0 would be:
master latency timer for M1 + master latency timer for M2 + master latency timer for M3 +
... + master latency timer for Mn
This latency would be seen by M0 when it had just completed a transaction, all other masters
were requesting access to the bus, and each master required the bus for the entire duration
of its associated master latency timer.
Figure 8-12
Simple Rotating Priority Queue
M0
Mn
M1
M2
M3
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Arbitration
8.4.7.2
High-Priority Queue Latency
The maximum latency for a master in the high-priority queue is the sum of:
■ Master latency timer of other master in high-priority queue—This time can be decreased
by decreasing the master latency timer of the other master in the high-priority queue, or
this time can be eliminated by programming only one master in the high-priority queue.
■ Longest master latency timer of all masters in the low-priority queue—This can be
decreased by decreasing the master latency timer of all masters in the low-priority queue.
■ 3 * (Am5x86 CPU maximum transaction time)
8.4.7.3
Low-Priority Queue Latency
The maximum latency for a master in the low-priority queue (note that after a low-priority
master has completed a transaction, every PCI master will be granted the bus before the
low-priority master will be granted the bus again) is the sum of:
■ Number of external masters * (Am5x86 CPU maximum transaction time)—The Am5x86
CPU maximum transaction time is multiplied by the number of external masters, because
the Am5x86 CPU is granted the bus after every external PCI transaction if the Am5x86
CPU relative priority is configured for one external PCI master cycle. This can be
decreased by decreasing the Am5x86 CPU relative priority (configure the relative priority
to allow more external PCI cycles for every Am5x86 CPU PCI cycle).
■ Number of masters in the low-priority queue * (master latency timers of all masters in
the high-priority queue)—The master latency timers of all masters in the high-priority
queue is multiplied by the number of masters in the low-priority queue, because the highpriority masters are granted the bus after each low-priority master grant. This time can
be decreased by decreasing the number of masters in the high-priority queue or by
decreasing the master latency timers of the masters in the high-priority queue.
■ Master latency timers of all masters in the low-priority queue—This time can be
decreased by decreasing the master latency timers of the masters in the low-priority
queue.
8.4.7.4
CPU Latency
The maximum latency for the Am5x86 CPU is:
■ 3 * (longest master latency timer of all external masters)—The master latency timer is
multiplied by 3 because the worst case is when the Am5x86 CPU relative priority is
configured for three external PCI master cycles for every Am5x86 CPU PCI cycle. This
time can be decreased by decreasing the master latency timers of external masters or
by increasing the Am5x86 CPU relative priority.
8.4.7.5
Nonconcurrent Arbitration Mode Latency
Operating in nonconcurrent arbitration mode adds to the PCI bus latency. In nonconcurrent
arbitration mode, all PCI masters must be granted the CPU bus in addition to the PCI bus
before a transaction can proceed. The time associated with being granted the CPU bus
adds to each PCI master’s latency.
The maximum latency is:
(time for the longest Am5x86 CPU transfer) + (time for the longest GP-DMA transfer)
The longest Am5x86 CPU transfer is one cache line, and the longest GP-DMA transfer is
programmable. This additional latency is added to the latency of each external PCI master
as calculated in the high-priority and low-priority queues. This latency is incurred for all PCI
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
8-21
System Arbitration
transactions, not only transactions where the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is the PCI target.
Note that this includes PCI bus transactions where both the master and the target are
external PCI bus agents.
8.4.7.6
Concurrent Arbitration Mode Latency
The CPU bus adds to the PCI bus latency even when operating in concurrent arbitration
mode. Buffering in the host bridge, however, decreases the amount of latency on the PCI
bus due to the CPU bus. PCI transactions where the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is not the
target do not have any added latency due to the CPU bus.
PCI write transactions where the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is the target are posted in the
host bridge. The data is not immediately written to SDRAM, but have some latency due to
CPU bus arbitration. The external PCI master transaction, however, will be completed, and
so the external PCI master will not see this additional latency.
PCI read transactions where the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is the target can be delayed
transactions. In this case, the external PCI master requesting the data sees the latency
added by the CPU bus arbitration.
Other PCI transactions are allowed on the PCI bus while the host bridge is arbitrating for
the CPU bus, and so only the external PCI master requesting the data incurs the CPU bus
latency, not the whole PCI bus. Note that CPU bus latency is added only to external PCI
master read transactions where the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is the target.
8.4.7.7
Concurrent Arbitration Mode Bus Parking Latency
There is some latency associated with bus parking. The master that is parked on the bus
is able to begin a transaction immediately (without having to assert REQ), because its GNT
is already asserted. All other masters have to arbitrate for the bus by asserting REQ and
waiting for GNT. This arbitration takes two PCI clocks (see “PCI Bus Arbitration Parking”
on page 8-16). This applies to concurrent mode arbitration only.
8.5
INITIALIZATION
The system arbiter logic and configuration is reset in response to system reset.
After reset, the system arbiter operates in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. The priority
queue is defaulted such that REQ0 is the highest priority and REQ4 is the lowest priority,
because no masters are configured in the high-priority queue at this time. All masters are
disabled at reset, with the exception of the CPU as a PCI and CPU bus master.
After reset, the following initialization steps are required:
1. Enable concurrent operating mode, if desired, by setting the CNCR_MODE_ENB bit in
the System Arbiter Control (SYSARBCTL) register (MMCR offset 70h). System
arbitration defaults to nonconcurrent arbitration mode after reset. Note that changing
the CNCR_MODE_ENB bit should only be done when all bus master requests are
disabled.
2. Configure PCI bus parking with the BUS_PARK_SEL bit in the System Arbiter Control
(SYSARBCTL) register. Note that the BUS_PARK_SEL bit should only be changed when
the PCI bus is currently parked on the CPU. By default, the PCI bus arbiter parks on the
Am5x86 CPU, but the arbiter can be programmed to park on the last active PCI bus
master if operating in concurrent arbitration mode.
3. Configure PCI bus arbiter priority in the Arbiter Priority Control (ARBPRICTL) register
(MMCR offset 74h) if any external PCI masters are to be configured in the high-priority
queue. By default, all external masters are configured to be in the low-priority queue.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Arbitration
4. Enable external PCI requests to the PCI bus arbiter in the System Arbiter Master Enable
(SYSARBMENB) register (MMCR offset 72h). By default, all external PCI bus master
requests are disabled.
5. Enable/Clear the PCI bus GNT time-out interrupt with the GNT_TO_INT_ENB bit in the
System Arbiter Control (SYSARBCTL) register, if desired. By default, this interrupt
source is disabled, but the GNT_TO_ID status bit is set in the PCI Bus Arbiter Status
(PCIARBSTA) register (MMCR offset 71h) if a PCI bus GNT time-out is detected.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
8-23
System Arbitration
8-24
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
9
9.1
PCI BUS HOST BRIDGE
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes an integrated PCI bus host bridge, which allows
the microcontroller to interface with any PCI bus Revision 2.2-compliant master or target
device.
The PCI host bridge includes the following features:
■ 33 MHz, 32-bit PCI bus Revision 2.2-compliant
■ Peak transfer rate of 132 Mbytes/s
■ Support for delayed transactions improves PCI bus utilization
■ Support for long bursts without disconnect when the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is a
target (64 doublewords for both reads and writes)
■ Capable of zero wait state burst transfers as a target
■ Support for advanced PCI bus commands as a target: memory-read-line, memory-read-
multiple
■ Flexible PCI bus interrupt steering logic
■ Supports fast back-to-back transactions as a PCI bus target
According to the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2, the initiator, or master, is the
device that initiates the PCI transfer. The slave, or target, is the device being addressed by
the master for the data transfer.
9.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller PCI host bridge interface is shown in Figure 9-1.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-1
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Figure 9-1
PCI Interface Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
SDRAM
Controller
CPU Bus
CPU
PCI Host Bridge Controller
Read
Write
FIFO
FIFO
Write
FIFO
PCI Master Controller
PCI Target Controller
INTA–INTD
SERR
PERR
DEVSEL
STOP
TRDY
CBE3–CBE0
AD31–AD0
PAR
FRAME
IRDY
RST
CLKPCIOUT
Interrupt
Steering
CLKPCIIN
GNT4–GNT0
REQ4–REQ0
PCI
Arbiter
PCI Bus
9.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Figure 9-2 shows how the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be connected to an external PCI
bus target device.
Figure 9-3 on page 9-4 shows how the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be connected to an
external PCI bus master device.
In each configuration, the PCI bus clock is driven from the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller on
the CLKPCIOUT pin and may require external buffering due to system loading (see “PCI
Clocking” on page 9-5). RST, the PCI bus reset signal, is driven from the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
The optional PCI bus target device interrupts can be connected to the PCI bus interrupt
pins on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller (INTA, INTB, INTC, INTD) or any of the GPIRQ10–
9-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
GPIRQ0 pins on the GP bus. See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for
further information on connecting interrupt requests to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Figure 9-4 on page 9-5 shows how the PERR and SERR signals are connected to the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. PERR is driven by the PCI bus device (including the host
bridge) that is receiving data (sampling the AD31–AD0 bus during data phases). SERR is
driven by external PCI bus devices that detect a system error. External pullups must be
provided for PERR and SERR.
The PCI bus input and output pins of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller are PCI bus revision
2.2 compliant. See the PCI bus specification for information on physical loading and routing.
The following PCI signals require pullups: FRAME, IRDY, TRDY, STOP, DEVSEL, PERR,
and SERR. These pullups must be provided externally to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
(the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller PCI bus pins do not have any termination).
The system PCI bus reset (RST) signal is sourced from the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller and
is asynchronous to the PCI bus clock. See “Initialization” on page 9-29 for more information
on reset.
Figure 9-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Connection to an External PCI Bus Target
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
PCI Bus Host Bridge
(PCI bus master)
AD31–AD0
AD31–AD0
CBE3–CBE0
CBE3–CBE0
PAR
PCI Target
Device
PAR
FRAME
FRAME
IRDY
IRDY
TRDY
TRDY
STOP
STOP
DEVSEL
DEVSEL
PERR
PERR
SERR
SERR
RST
RST
INT1
INTA–INTD
IDSEL
Clock Buffering
(optional)
CLKPCIOUT
CLK
CLKPCIIN
Notes:
1. INT implies any of the following pins: INTA–INTD or GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-3
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Figure 9-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Connection to an External PCI Bus Master
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller AD31–AD0
PCI Bus Host Bridge
(PCI bus target)
AD31–AD0
CBE3–CBE0
CBE3–CBE0
PAR
PAR
FRAME
FRAME
IRDY
IRDY
TRDY
TRDY
STOP
STOP
DEVSEL
DEVSEL
PERR
PERR
SERR
SERR
RST
RST
INT1
INTA–INTD
REQx
REQ
GNTx
GNT
Clock Buffering
(optional)
CLKPCIOUT
CLK
CLKPCIIN
Notes:
1. INT implies any of the following pins: INTA–INTD or GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0
9-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Master
Device
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Figure 9-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller SERR and PERR Connection
PERR
PERR
SERR
SERR
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
PERR
PCI Device 0
PCI Device 1
SERR
PERR
PCI Device 2
SERR
PERR
PCI Device 3
SERR
PERR
PCI Device 4
SERR
9.3.1
PCI Clocking
The system PCI bus clock (CLK) is sourced from the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. There
are two PCI bus clock pins on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller: CLKPCIIN and CLKPCIOUT.
The CLKPCIOUT output pin drives a 33-MHz clock that is used as the system PCI bus
clock. However, the PCI host bridge logic is clocked from the CLKPCIIN input pin. The two
pins are provided for the PCI bus clock to minimize clock skew between the PCI host bridge
and external PCI bus devices.
The CLKPCIIN input pin guarantees that the PCI host bridge is driven with the same clock
as the external PCI bus devices. Otherwise, external buffering and loading of the
CLKPCIOUT pin could delay the clock, so that the skew between the PCI host bridge and
external PCI bus devices would not meet the PCI bus specification.
External buffering of CLKPCIOUT may or may not be required, depending on the system
loading (see Figure 9-5 and Figure 9-6). The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not
dynamically slow down or stop the output CLKPCIOUT clock; therefore the PCI bus
CLKRUN pin is not supported.
The CLKPCIIN pin is specifically intended for addressing the clock skew problem. It is not
intended to enable running the PCI host bridge with a clock that is asynchronous to the
CLKPCIOUT pin. Driving the CLKPCIIN pin from an external source that is of a different
frequency is also not supported.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-5
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Figure 9-5
PCI Bus Clocking Example 1: Lightly Loaded System
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
PCI Device 0
CLKPCIOUT
CLK
CLKPCIIN
Notes:
In this lightly loaded system, no clock buffering is required.
Figure 9-6
PCI Bus Clocking Example 2: Heavily Loaded System
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
PCI Device 0
CLKPCIOUT
CLK
CLKPCIIN
PCI Device 1
CLK
PCI Device 2
CLK
PCI Device 3
CLK
PCI Device 4
CLK
Notes:
In this heavily loaded system, clock buffering is required.
9.3.1.1
Running the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller at 33.333 MHz
The clock that is supplied to the PCI bus (CLKPCIOUT) is exactly the same as the frequency
of the crystal. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller simply buffers the 33-MHz crystal input and
provides it to the CLKPCIOUT pin. Because crystals have inaccuracies, it is possible that
these inaccuracies cause the period of CLKPCIOUT to become marginally less than 30 ns.
9-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
It is up to the system designer to choose the accuracy of the crystal used with the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. The 33.000-MHz frequency provides a better guard band than the 33.333MHz crystal. In practice, most PCI devices tolerate both frequencies, but it is important to
be aware of the impact of choosing the crystal on this potential violation of the PCI bus
specifications. The PCI bus specification requires that the minimum clock period be 30 ns.
9.4
REGISTERS
The PCI host bridge configuration registers specific to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller are
memory-mapped in ÉlanSC520 microcontroller configuration space. These registers are
listed in Table 9-1. Table 9-2 lists the direct-mapped registers used to configure the PCI
bus host bridge. The standard PCI configuration space header registers supported on the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller are shown in Table 9-3 as PCI indexed registers.
Table 9-1
PCI Host Bridge Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Host Bridge Control
HBCTL
60h
PCI reset, target FIFO purge enable, automatic
delayed transaction enable, and master write
posting enable
Host Bridge Target Interrupt
Control
HBTGTIRQCTL
62h
Target interrupt or NMI select and interrupt
enables: delayed transaction time-out, address
parity, and data parity
Host Bridge Target Interrupt
Status
HBTGTIRQSTA
64h
Target interrupt status: delayed transaction timeout, address parity, data parity; target interrupt
identification
Host Bridge Master Interrupt
Control
HBMSTIRQCTL
66h
Master interrupt or NMI select and interrupt
enables: retry time-out, target abort, master
abort, system error, received parity error,
detected parity error
Host Bridge Master Interrupt
Status
HBMSTIRQSTA
68h
Master interrupt status: retry time-out, target
abort, master abort, system error, received
parity error, detected parity error; master
command interrupt identification
Host Bridge Master Interrupt
Address
MSTINTADD
6Ch
Master address interrupt identification
Interrupt Pin Polarity
INTPINPOL
D10h
Polarity of external interrupt sources (INTA –
INTD and GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0)
PCI Host Bridge Interrupt
Mapping
PCIHOSTMAP
D14h
System arbiter and PCI Host Bridge interrupt
mapping to any of 22 available interrupt
channels or NMI, PCI NMI enable control
PCI Interrupt A Mapping
PCIINTAMAP
D30h
PCI INTA mapping
PCI Interrupt B Mapping
PCIINTBMAP
D31h
PCI INTB mapping
PCI Interrupt C Mapping
PCIINTCMAP
D32h
PCI INTC mapping
PCI Interrupt D Mapping
PCIINTDMAP
D33h
PCI INTD mapping
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-7
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Table 9-2
PCI Host Bridge Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
PCI Configuration Address
PCICFGADR
0CF8h
PCI configuration space enable, bus number,
device number, function number, register
number
PCI Configuration Data
PCICFGDATA
0CFCh
PCI configuration data
Table 9-3
PCI Host Bridge Registers—PCI Indexed
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
Device/Vendor ID
PCIDEVID
CF8h/CFCh
Index 00h
Device identification, vendor identification
Status/Command
PCISTACMD
CF8h/CFCh
Index 04h
Parity error detected, signalled system error,
received master abort, received target abort,
signalled target abort, DEVSEL timing, data
parity reported, fast back-to-back capable,
SERR enable, parity error response, master
enable, memory access enable, I/O space
enable
Class Code/Revision ID
PCICCREVID
CF8h/CFCh
Index 08h
Base class code, sub-class code, program
interface type, revision identification
Header Type
PCIHEADTYPE
CF8h/CFCh
Index 0Eh
PCI configuration space header format
Master Retry Time-Out
PCIMRETRYTO
CF8h/CFCh
Index 41h
PCI master retry time-out value
9.5
OPERATION
The PCI host bridge on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller has the following functionality:
■ Master controller—Allows the Am5x86 CPU to be a master on the PCI bus. The Am5x86
CPU can generate configuration transactions to configure the PCI host bridge, as well
as all external devices on the PCI bus. The Am5x86 CPU can also generate memory
and I/O read and write transactions on the PCI bus.
■ Target controller—Allows external PCI bus masters to access the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s SDRAM.
9.5.1
Unsupported PCI Bus Functions
The following list summarizes some of the PCI bus functionality that is not supported in the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host bridge. These functions are listed as optional in the
PCI bus specification.
■ 66 MHz is not supported.
■ 64-bit data is not supported.
■ 64-bit addressing (dual address cycles) is not supported due to the maximum 32-bit
address space of the Am5x86 CPU.
■ Cacheable PCI bus memory (SBDONE, SBO) is not supported.
■ The optional CLKRUN pin is not supported.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
■ The LOCK pin is an optional pin not required in most systems, because other
mechanisms are typically employed for coherency.
■ Address/data stepping is not supported as a master due to the performance implications.
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not support a downstream “Southbridge” device,
because most peripherals normally included in a Southbridge are integrated into the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
■ The optional message-signalled interrupt feature described in the PCI Local Bus
Specification, Revision 2.2, is not supported in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
9.5.1.1
Unsupported PCI Bus Configuration Registers
Some standard PCI bus configuration registers are not implemented, because the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is a host-to-PCI bridge and does not support some optional PCI
functionality.
■ Base Address registers are not implemented, because the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
is the host PCI device. Target address space configuration is done through ÉlanSC520
microcontroller-specific configuration (see “PCI Host Bridge Target Address Space” on
page 9-18).
■ Latency timer and MAX_LAT, MIN_GNT are not implemented, because the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s PCI host bridge does not support multiple data phase transactions as
a master.
■ Cache line size is not implemented, because the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller PCI host
bridge does not support cacheable PCI memory.
9.5.2
Configuration Information
The PCI host bridge can generate configuration cycles on the PCI bus.
The Configuration Mechanism #1, as defined in the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision
2.1, is used. The PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register resides at I/O address
0CF8h, and the PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA) register resides at I/O address
0CFCh. The Am5x86 CPU accesses these two I/O ports to generate PCI configuration
cycles.
The PCI host bridge pre-drives the AD31–AD0 pins for five clocks before asserting FRAME
when performing configuration cycles. This allows IDSEL to settle before the transaction
starts (IDSEL signals may have a slow rise time).
External PCI bus devices require an IDSEL pin to allow configuration from the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s PCI bus host bridge. The method implemented for IDSEL generation is
system-specific; however, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller implements the commonly used
practice in which the AD31–AD11 pins are asserted for IDSEL generation during the
configuration cycles (the host bridge uses AD11). In this scheme, the AD12 is IDSEL for
device number 1, AD13 is IDSEL for device number 2, etc. The AD pins are asserted during
configuration cycles according to the decode of the PCI bus device; thus, this scheme is
limited to 20 devices on the PCI bus.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI bus host bridge is hardwired to device number 0
(AD11), and the host bridge PCI bus configuration registers are accessed through the PCI
Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register (Port 0CF8h) and PCI Configuration Data
(PCICFGDATA) register (Port 0CFCh), like any external PCI device. An external PCI bus
configuration cycle is not generated when the Am5x86 CPU configures the internal PCI
host bridge registers.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-9
PCI Bus Host Bridge
The host bridge PCI bus configuration space contains only PCI bus device configuration
header registers, as defined in the PCI bus specification. ÉlanSC520 microcontrollerspecific host bridge configuration registers are memory-mapped in ÉlanSC520
microcontroller configuration space. See Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”, for further
details on memory-mapped configuration space.
9.5.2.1
Generating PCI Bus Configuration Cycles
A two-step process is required to generate a PCI bus configuration cycle.
1. First, the Am5x86 CPU must perform a 32-bit I/O write to the PCI Configuration Address
(PCICFGADR) register (Port 0CF8h) with the following information: bus number, device
number, function, and register number (doubleword) to be accessed (see Figure 9-7).
2. Then, the Am5x86 CPU can perform an I/O cycle (read or write) to the PCI Configuration
Data (PCICFGDATA) register (Port 0CFCh) to access the desired configuration register.
Figure 9-7
PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) Register
0CFAh
0CFBh
31
16 15
24 23
30
ENReserved
ABLE
0CF8h
0CF9h
BUS_NUM[7–0]
11 10
DEVICE_
NUM[4–0]
21 0
8 7
FUNCTION_
NUM[2–0]
REGISTER_ 0 0
NUM[4–0]
Bit
Name
Function
31
ENABLE
This bit must be set to 1 to enable configuration
space mapping.
30–24
Reserved
23–16
BUS_NUM[7–0]
Bus number
15–11
DEVICE_NUM[4–0]
Device number
10–8
FUNCTION_NUM[2–0]
Function number
7–2
REGISTER_NUM[4–0]
Register number
1–0
Reserved
These bits must always be written to 00.
For example, to access the Status/Command (PCISTACMD) register (PCI index 04h)
(doubleword 1) of the PCI host bridge, the following cycles are generated by the Am5x86
CPU:
1. 32-bit I/O write to Port 0CF8h: 80000004h
– ENABLE = 1 to enable configuration space mapping
– BUS_NUM = 0 (PCI host bridge is on bus number 0)
– DEVICE_NUM = 0 (PCI host bridge is hardwired to device number 0)
– FUNCTION_NUM = 0 (PCI host bridge has only one function)
– REGISTER_NUM = 1
– Bits 1–0 must be written 00
2. 8/16/24/32-bit I/O read/write to/from Port 0CFCh to access configuration register bytes
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
The Master Enable (BUS_MAS) bit in the Status/Command (PCISTACMD) register (PCI
index 04h) is always forced active. Thus, the PCI host bridge can always generate memory,
I/O, and configuration transactions on the PCI bus to configure external PCI devices.
To enable the host bridge as a PCI bus target device, the Memory Access Enable
(MEM_ENB) bit in the Status/Command (PCISTACMD) register must be set. When this bit
is set, the host bridge responds to external PCI bus master cycles that access the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM.
No configuration bits need to be set to access the PCI host bridge’s configuration registers
from the Am5x86 CPU.
Note that any write access to the PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA) register (Port
0CFCh) in which the ENABLE bit of the PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register
(Port 0CF8h) is not set is forwarded to the PCI bus as an I/O transaction.
Any non-doubleword access to Port 0CF8h is also forwarded to the PCI bus as an I/O
transaction.
9.5.3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller’s Host Bridge as PCI Bus Master
The PCI host bridge allows the Am5x86 CPU to be a master on the PCI bus. The Am5x86
CPU can generate configuration transactions to configure the host bridge, as well as all
external devices on the PCI bus (internal PCI host bridge configuration cycles are not seen
on the external PCI bus). The Am5x86 CPU can also generate memory and I/O read and
write transactions on the PCI bus.
As a PCI bus master, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not generate the following cycles:
■ Dual address cycles for 64-bit addressing
■ Memory-write-and-invalidate cycles (cacheable memory on the PCI bus is not
supported)
■ Memory-read-multiple or memory-read-line cycles (the Am5x86 CPU does not generate
long read burst transactions that may benefit from these commands)
■ Fast back-to-back cycles
■ Lock cycles (the LOCK pin is not supported)
■ Multiple data phase cycles
■ Special cycles and interrupt acknowledge cycles (these Am5x86 CPU cycles are not
echoed on the PCI bus)
9.5.3.1
Write Posting
To increase Am5x86 CPU bandwidth utilization, memory writes to the PCI bus can be posted
by setting the M_WPOST_ENB bit in the Host Bridge Control (HBCTL) register (MMCR
offset 60h). This allows the Am5x86 CPU cycle to complete without incurring the PCI bus
transaction latency. The rdy signal is returned immediately to the Am5x86 CPU, and the
cycle completes sometime later on the PCI bus. The PCI host bridge posts only one Am5x86
CPU write cycle to the PCI bus. Am5x86 CPU-to-PCI bus-cycle ordering is maintained,
which means additional Am5x86 CPU cycles (both read and write) to the PCI bus incur wait
states until a posted write cycle completes on the PCI bus.
I/O and configuration write cycles are not posted. However, write cycles to memory-mapped
I/O regions are not detected by the PCI host bridge, so write posting must be disabled to
prevent the posting of memory-mapped I/O cycles. If write posting is disabled, the PCI host
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-11
PCI Bus Host Bridge
bridge waits until the write cycle has completed on the PCI bus before returning ready to
the Am5x86 CPU.
Write posting should not be enabled while operating in nonconcurrent arbitration mode.
See Chapter 8, “System Arbitration”, for further details on nonconcurrent mode arbitration.
9.5.3.2
Read Cycles
The PCI host bridge does not read ahead PCI bus memory for Am5x86 CPU read cycles.
Each Am5x86 CPU read cycle generates a single data phase read cycle on the PCI bus,
with only the data requested by the Am5x86 CPU being read. The PCI host bridge does
not burst Am5x86 CPU-to-PCI-bus read cycles, because the Am5x86 CPU typically
performs burst reads only during cache-line fills, and PCI bus memory is noncacheable.
There are a few cases when the Am5x86 CPU may burst two doublewords (i.e., misaligned
transfer). In this case, the PCI host bridge breaks the transfer up into single cycles on the
PCI bus.
9.5.3.3
Delayed Transaction Support
The PCI host bridge as a PCI master supports delayed transactions. A transaction that was
retried repeats until completed on the PCI bus. The PCI host bridge does not make any
distinction between a transaction that was retried and a transaction that was disconnected.
Both types of transactions are repeated until they complete on the PCI bus.
A programmable retry time-out counter prevents a deadlock condition due to a broken target
on the PCI bus. The Master Retry Time-Out (M_RETRY_TO) field in the Master Retry TimeOut (PCIMRETRYTO) register (PCI index 41h) controls this feature. When the time-out
counter expires (a cycle was retried unsuccessfully n times on the PCI bus), the cycle is
discarded and an interrupt can be generated. For a read cycle, the data returned is all ones.
The Host Bridge Master Interrupt Address (MSTINTADD) register (MMCR offset 6Ch)
contains the address of the transaction that was retried unsuccessfully. Note that the master
retry count configuration must not be changed except during PCI bus initialization after a
system or programmable reset.
Transaction ordering is maintained during delayed transactions. A transaction that is retried
by an external PCI bus target must complete before any subsequent Am5x86 CPU-to-PCI
bus transactions are generated.
9.5.3.4
Host Bridge Master Bus Cycles
This section describes in detail the cycles generated by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
acting as PCI host bridge master and includes both the PCI bus and the internal Am5x86
CPU bus. Note that these are example cases only, and not all cases are shown. The
diagrams are functionally representative in nature, and should not be used to infer detailed
timing information. Note also that the synchronization between the CPU and PCI clock
domains is not shown in detail.
9.5.3.4.1
CPU Read Cycle to the PCI Bus
Figure 9-8 shows an Am5x86 CPU read cycle to the PCI bus. Figure 9-8 could also
represent a memory, I/O or external PCI bus device configuration cycles. The first group of
signals includes the internal Am5x86 CPU signals, the second group includes additional
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller internal signals, and the third group includes the PCI bus
signals. Note that the PCI bus request and grant signals are shown for convenience, but
these are not seen externally when the Am5x86 CPU is the initiator of PCI bus transactions.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Figure 9-8
CPU Read Cycle to the PCI Bus
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
clk
ads
cycle_info
rdy
blast
CPU Data
data in
pcihit
ADx
CBEx
address
read cmd
data in
byte enables
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
DEVSEL
req
gnt
Notes:
The diagram includes the following internal signals:
• pcihit: Address decode signal that the current Am5x86 CPU cycle is a PCI cycle.
The clk signal denotes the 33-MHz clock source and represents both the CPU clock and the PCI clock. This diagram
does not represent the full synchronization of signals between these clock domains.
The following sequence annotates the Am5x86 CPU read cycle to the PCI bus shown in
Figure 9-8.
■ Clock #1: The Am5x86 CPU starts a read cycle to the PCI bus.
■ Clock #2: Note that blast is asserted by the Am5x86 CPU signaling a non-burst transfer.
If this were a burst read cycle, the Am5x86 CPU would deassert blast, but because the
PCI host bridge returns rdy to the Am5x86 CPU instead of brdy, the Am5x86 CPU would
break up the burst into single cycles. A posted write cycle pending in the master posted
write buffer would delay the completion of the Am5x86 CPU read cycle.
■ Clock #6: The PCI host bridge master controller has synchronized the Am5x86 CPU
bus request and asserts req to gain access to the PCI bus. Because the Am5x86 CPU
is the initiator of the cycle, the bus request signal is not seen externally.
■ Clock #7: The PCI host bridge gnt signal is sampled asserted, and the PCI bus is idle,
so FRAME is asserted to begin the PCI bus transaction. In this example, there is no
arbitration delay (the arbiter is parked on the host bridge). If another external PCI bus
master was granted the bus, or the bus was not idle, FRAME assertion would be delayed
until the host bridge’s gnt was asserted and the bus was idle.
■ Clock #9: The external PCI bus target asserts TRDY, indicating that the requested data
is available. In this example, the PCI bus target did not add any wait states to the
transaction. A PCI bus Revision 2.2-compliant target can add up to 16 wait states that
would delay the PCI bus transaction and subsequent Am5x86 CPU cycle completion.
An external PCI bus target can also issue a retry that would delay the PCI bus transaction
and subsequent Am5x86 CPU cycle completion (see Section 9.5.3.4.2).
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-13
PCI Bus Host Bridge
■ Clock #10: The PCI host bridge samples TRDY asserted and latches the data from the
PCI bus.
■ Clock #13: The Am5x86 CPU bus synchronizes the end of the PCI bus cycle and asserts
rdy to the Am5x86 CPU with the requested read data.
9.5.3.4.2
CPU Read Cycle to the PCI Bus with External Target Retry
Figure 9-9 shows an Am5x86 CPU read cycle to the PCI bus that was retried by the external
PCI bus target. An external PCI bus target can issue a retry if it is currently busy or if the
transaction will be completed as a delayed transaction.
Figure 9-9
clk
CPU Read Cycle to the PCI Bus with External Target Retry
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
ads
cycle_info
rdy
blast
CPU Data
data in
pcihit
ADx
CBEx
FRAME
address
address
read cmd
byte enables
data in
read cmd byte enables
IRDY
TRDY
DEVSEL
STOP
req
gnt
Notes:
The clk signal denotes the 33-MHz clock source and represents both the CPU clock and the PCI clock. This diagram
does not represent the full synchronization of signals between these clock domains.
The following sequence annotates the Am5x86 CPU read cycle to the PCI bus with external
target retry shown in Figure 9-9. This example is the same as a regular read (see
Section 9.5.3.4.1) until Clock #9.
■ Clock #9: The target asserts STOP with TRDY deasserted, signaling a retry. The target
may add up to 16 waitstates before asserting STOP, which would delay the PCI
transaction and Am5x86 CPU cycle completion.
■ Clock #10: The PCI host bridge master controller deasserts IRDY and ends the current
transaction. The data requested by the Am5x86 CPU was not read because of the
delayed transaction, so rdy is not returned to the Am5x86 CPU. The host bridge will retry
the current transaction until data is read from the target.
■ Clock #11: The PCI host bridge asserts req to re-gain access to the PCI bus. Because
the Am5x86 CPU is the initiator of the cycle, the bus request signal is not seen externally.
■ Clock #12: The PCI host bridge gnt signal is sampled asserted, and the PCI bus is idle,
so FRAME is asserted to retry the PCI transaction. In this example, there is no arbitration
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
delay (the arbiter is parked on the host bridge). If another external PCI bus master was
granted the bus or the bus was not idle, FRAME assertion would be delayed until the
host bridge’s gnt was asserted and the bus was idle.
■ Clock #14: The PCI bus target asserts TRDY indicating the data is available.
■ Clock #15: The PCI host bridge samples TRDY asserted and latches the data from the
PCI bus.
■ Clock #18: The Am5x86 CPU bus synchronizes the end of the PCI bus cycle and asserts
rdy to the Am5x86 CPU with the requested read data.
9.5.3.4.3
CPU Posted Write Cycle to the PCI Bus
Figure 9-10 shows an Am5x86 CPU write cycle to the PCI bus that is posted by the PCI
host bridge. This can only be a memory-write cycle to the PCI bus; I/O and configuration
writes are not posted.
Figure 9-10
CPU Posted Write Cycle to the PCI Bus
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
clk
ads
cycle_info
rdy
blast
CPU Data
data out
pcihit
ADx
CBEx
address
data out
write cmd
byte enables
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
DEVSEL
req
gnt
Notes:
The clk signal denotes the 33-MHz clock source and represents both the CPU clock and the PCI clock. This diagram
does not represent the full synchronization of signals between these clock domains.
The following sequence annotates the Am5x86 CPU posted write cycle to the PCI bus
shown in Figure 9-10.
■ Clock #1: The Am5x86 CPU starts a write cycle to the PCI bus.
■ Clock #2: The PCI host bridge also asserts rdy to the Am5x86 CPU, which ends the
Am5x86 CPU write cycle. The PCI bus transaction has been posted in the host bridge
and will complete sometime later. If another write cycle is already pending in the posted
write buffer, rdy will be delayed to the Am5x86 CPU until the preceding posted write has
completed.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-15
PCI Bus Host Bridge
■ Clock #6: The PCI host bridge master controller has synchronized the Am5x86 CPU
bus request and asserts req to gain access to the PCI bus.
■ Clock #7: The PCI host bridge gnt signal is sampled asserted, and the PCI bus is idle,
so FRAME is asserted to begin the PCI transaction. In this example, there is no arbitration
delay (the arbiter is parked on the host bridge). If another external PCI master was
granted the bus or the bus was not idle, FRAME assertion would be delayed until the
host bridge’s gnt was asserted and the bus was idle. Because the Am5x86 CPU is the
initiator of the cycle, the bus request signal is not seen externally.
■ Clock #9: The external PCI target asserts TRDY indicating it can accept the write data.
In this example, the PCI target did not add any wait states to the transaction. A PCI bus
Revision 2.2 compliant target can add up to 16 wait states that would delay the
transaction completion. A PCI bus target can also retry the PCI transaction. In this case,
the host bridge continues to generate the same transaction until the target returns TRDY
to complete the transaction. See Section 9.5.3.4.2 for information on retried transactions.
■ Clock #10: The PCI host bridge samples TRDY asserted, which ends the PCI bus
transaction.
9.5.3.4.4
CPU Non-Posted Write Cycle to the PCI Bus
Figure 9-11 shows an Am5x86 CPU memory write cycle to the PCI bus with write posting
disabled. Figure 9-11 could represent any I/O or configuration write cycle.
Figure 9-11
Am5x86 CPU Non-Posted Write Cycle to the PCI Bus
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
clk
ads
cycle_info
rdy
blast
CPU Data
data out
pcihit
ADx
CBEx
address
data out
write cmd
byte enables
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
DEVSEL
req
gnt
Notes:
The clk signal denotes the 33-MHz clock source and represents both the CPU clock and the PCI clock. This diagram
does not represent the full synchronization of signals between these clock domains.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
The following sequence annotates the Am5x86 CPU non-posted write cycle to the PCI bus
shown in Figure 9-11.
■ Clock #1: The Am5x86 CPU starts a write cycle to the PCI bus.
■ Clock #6: The PCI host bridge master controller has synchronized the Am5x86 CPU
bus request and asserts req to gain access to the PCI bus. Because the Am5x86 CPU
is the initiator of the cycle, the bus request signal is not seen externally.
■ Clock #7: The PCI host bridge gnt signal is sampled asserted, and the PCI bus is idle,
so FRAME is asserted to begin the PCI bus transaction. In this example, there is no
arbitration delay (the arbiter is parked on the host bridge). If another external PCI bus
master was granted the bus, or the bus was not idle FRAME assertion would be delayed
until the host bridge’s gnt was asserted and the bus was idle. Because the Am5x86 CPU
is the initiator of the cycle, the bus request signal is not seen externally.
■ Clock #9: The PCI target asserts TRDY, indicating it can accept the write data. In this
example, the PCI bus target did not add any wait states to the transaction. A PCI bus
Revision 2.2 compliant target can add up to 16 wait states that would delay the
transaction completion. A PCI bus target can also retry the transaction. In this case, the
host bridge continues to generate the same transaction until the target returns TRDY to
complete the transaction. The rdy signal is not returned to the Am5x86 CPU until the
PCI bus transaction completes. See Section 9.5.3.4.2 for information on retried
transactions.
■ Clock #10: The PCI host bridge samples TRDY asserted, which ends the transaction.
■ Clock #12: The Am5x86 CPU bus synchronizes the end of the PCI bus cycle and asserts
rdy to the Am5x86 CPU, which ends the write cycle.
9.5.3.4.5
PCI Bus Configuration Read/Write
Am5x86 CPU write cycles to the PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register (Port
0CF8h) or the PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA) register (Port 0CFCh) for internal
PCI host bridge configuration complete with zero Am5x86 CPU cycle wait states (see
Figure 9-12).
Figure 9-12
CPU Write Cycles to Internal PCI Bus Configuration Registers
1
2
3
4
clk_cpu
ads
cycle_info
rdy
Data
cfg write data
Am5x86 CPU read cycles from the PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register or
PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA) register for internal PCI host bridge configuration
registers also complete with zero wait states (see Figure 9-13). See the read and write
timing diagrams in Figure 9-8 through Figure 9-11 for Am5x86 CPU read and writes cycles
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-17
PCI Bus Host Bridge
to the PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA) register that access external PCI bus device
configuration registers.
Figure 9-13
CPU Read Cycles from Internal PCI Bus Configuration Registers
1
2
3
4
clk_cpu
ads
cycle_info
rdy
Data
9.5.4
read data
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller’s Host Bridge as PCI Bus Target
As a target, the integrated PCI host bridge only accepts memory cycles from external PCI
bus masters to allow accesses to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM.
To enable the host bridge as a PCI bus target device, the Memory Access Enable
(MEM_ENB) bit in the Status/Command (PCISTACMD) register must be set. When this bit
is set, the PCI host bridge ignores all I/O and configuration cycles on the PCI bus and
responds to memory cycles within the address space, as defined in Section 9.5.4.1.
9.5.4.1
PCI Host Bridge Target Address Space
Under normal conditions, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host bridge responds to PCI
bus master memory cycles in the entire SDRAM address space to allow full access of
SDRAM from external PCI bus masters. This space is defined as a linear region, starting
at the lowest address (00000000h) and ending at the top of SDRAM, depending on the
amount populated in the system (a maximum of 256 Mbytes). The SDRAM controller’s
configuration registers are programmed with the amount of SDRAM in the system during
the initial boot process.
Some systems may require specific CPU address space that is normally defined as an
SDRAM region to be redirected to the PCI bus. An example application is a PCI-bus-based
VGA video card for PC/AT compatibility. In ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, this redirection is
programmed via the first two Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers (PAR 0 and
PAR 1). When this feature is used in a system, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host
bridge target shadows PAR 0 and PAR 1 and ignores accesses by external PCI bus masters
in the programmed address space if they are programmed for PCI bus in the TARGET field.
See Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”, for further details of PCI host bridge target
address space.
Because the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is configured as a PCI host bridge, the PCI bus
Base Address registers normally found in the PCI bus configuration space are not
implemented.
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PCI Bus Host Bridge
9.5.4.2
PCI Bus Command Support
As a PCI bus target, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host bridge treats the memorywrite-and-invalidate command the same as a memory-write cycle. When either of these
commands is issued by a PCI bus master, the PCI host bridge and system arbitration blocks
force the Am5x86 CPU’s integrated cache to snoop the addresses prior to writing the data
to SDRAM. If the cache detects a modified cache line at the same address, it writes back
and invalidates the line. If the CPU is operating in write-through cache mode, the line is
simply invalidated and the data is written to SDRAM.
The PCI host bridge does not respond to configuration cycles or special cycles issued by
external PCI bus masters. Interrupt acknowledge cycles and special cycles are not
forwarded to the PCI bus.
9.5.4.3
DEVSEL Timing
When an external PCI bus master accesses the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM, the
PCI host bridge always asserts DEVSEL with medium timing (two clocks after FRAME is
asserted). The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not serve as a subtractive decode agent
on the PCI bus.
9.5.4.4
Delayed Transaction Support
External PCI bus master reads of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM can be
configured to be delayed transactions This maximizes PCI bus efficiency by freeing up the
bus while the initial SDRAM read request is issued to the SDRAM controller.
When the Automatic Delayed Transaction Enable (T_DLYTR_ENB) field is set in the Host
Bridge Control (HBCTL) register (MMCR offset 60h), the PCI host bridge immediately
issues a retry to the external PCI bus master read cycle and begins requesting the data
from the SDRAM controller. The external PCI bus master read cycle is retried until any of
the requested data has been read into the target read FIFO. Only the first doubleword
requested needs to be read into the target read FIFO before the PCI host bridge completes
the delayed transaction instead of retrying it again. After the PCI host bridge responds to
the delayed transaction, it continues to prefetch data and provides all the data requested
(up to 64 doublewords maximum) by the external PCI bus master without disconnecting.
When a delayed transaction read cycle is pending (waiting for the originating external PCI
bus master to retry the transaction), all other read transactions are terminated with a retry.
The PCI host bridge supports one outstanding delayed transaction, so these retried
transactions are not latched. Write transactions, however, are allowed to complete and are
placed in the PCI host bridge target write FIFO. A delayed transaction discard timer is
provided so that a broken master does not deadlock the system. If, after 215 PCI clocks, a
master has not retried a delayed transaction, the transaction is discarded and an interrupt
can be optionally generated. The delayed transaction discard timer is fixed at 215 PCI clocks.
When external PCI bus master reads of ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM are not
configured as automatic delayed transactions, the PCI host bridge tries to return the
requested data to the PCI bus master without issuing a retry. Wait states are inserted into
the transaction until the data is read from SDRAM. If the initial data cannot be returned in
32 clocks, the PCI host bridge terminates the transaction with a retry and latches the read
transaction as a delayed transaction to comply with the PCI Local Bus Specification,
Revision 2.2. Note that if any data is pending in the Am5x86 CPU-to-PCI posted-write latch,
it must be flushed before read data can be returned to an external PCI master by the PCI
host bridge target controller. In this case, the PCI host bridge immediately retries the
external PCI master read transaction and latches the request as a delayed transaction.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-19
PCI Bus Host Bridge
The PCI host bridge retries any external PCI bus master write cycle when the write FIFO
is full. The PCI host bridge retries all external PCI bus master cycles (write and read) if the
address FIFO is full (see the Section 9.5.4.5).The PCI host bridge always disconnects after
64 consecutive doublewords are transferred to prevent any one PCI bus master from
monopolizing the bus and to guarantee sufficient CPU bus bandwidth.
9.5.4.5
Address FIFO
The PCI host bridge’s target controller includes an address FIFO that keeps track of address
and command requests made to the target controller. The address FIFO allows one
outstanding delayed read transaction and up to four posted writes, depending on the
ordering of the transactions.
■ If the address FIFO is empty (no latched transactions in the target controller) and a read
transaction is received prior to any posted writes, the read is latched and a delayed
transaction retry is issued. After this, up to four posted writes can be latched following
the read (for a total of five latched transactions in the FIFO).
■ If the address FIFO contains any posted write transaction (before a read transaction is
received), only a total of four transactions can be latched into the address FIFO. That
is, if the first posted transaction is a write, up to four transactions can be latched into the
address FIFO (three writes and one read, or four writes).
■ If four posted writes reside in the address FIFO, no delayed read transactions can be
latched. In this case, all read requests are retried (not latched into the address FIFO)
until one of the posted writes has completed internally.
■ In all cases, only a maximum of one delayed read transaction can be latched into the
address FIFO. If two read transactions are received, the target controller only latches
the first one. The second (and subsequent) reads are not latched into the target
controller, even if the address FIFO is not full.
■ Note that, even if the address FIFO is not full, but the data FIFO is already full, further
posted writes are not accepted.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host bridge complies to the PCI Local Bus
Specification, Revision 2.2, rules for transaction ordering to prevent deadlock conditions.
9.5.4.6
PCI Host Bridge FIFOs and Prefetching
The PCI host bridge target controller has a 64-doubleword write FIFO and posts writes from
external PCI bus masters to SDRAM. The PCI host bridge does not insert wait states into
an external PCI bus master write cycle by deasserting TRDY. If the write FIFO becomes
full during an external PCI bus master write transaction, the PCI host bridge issues a
disconnect to end the cycle. A maximum of four transfers can be posted (each transfer can
burst multiple data phases, but the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s target FIFOs store a
maximum number of 64 doublewords for all the posted writes).
The SDRAM controller’s write buffer can byte-merge, combine, and collapse data if enabled,
yielding additional performance of SDRAM writes from PCI bus masters. See Chapter 11,
“Write Buffer and Read Buffer”, for further details. However, the PCI host bridge does not
byte-merge, combine, or collapse data in the target write FIFO.
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PCI Bus Host Bridge
The PCI host bridge as a target prefetches data from SDRAM in response to an external
PCI bus master read transaction. The read buffer in the SDRAM controller should be
enabled for optimal performance, especially during memory-read-multiple commands by
external PCI bus masters.
■ For memory-read and memory-read-line commands, the PCI host bridge prefetches
data up to the next cache line (a cache line is four doublewords).
■ Memory-read-multiple commands fill the target FIFO (64 doublewords).
Once the PCI host bridge has been granted access to the CPU bus, it will hold the bus until
it has prefetched up to the next cache-line boundary for memory-read and memory-readline commands, and 64 doublewords for memory-read-multiple commands. The PCI host
bridge may insert wait states before asserting TRDY for the first data phase. The PCI host
bridge can then burst one cache line with zero wait states. After each cache line, the PCI
host bridge can insert wait states by deasserting TRDY if the target read FIFO becomes
empty.
Note that, if the target read FIFO becomes empty after a cache-line boundary for memoryread and memory-read-line commands or after 64 doublewords for a memory-read-multiple
command, the PCI host bridge issues a disconnect to end the transaction.
9.5.4.7
Burst Ordering
To provide optimal CPU performance during SDRAM accesses, the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s SDRAM controller is designed to support Am5x86 CPU cache-line burst
ordering, but the PCI bus specifies linear burst ordering. Therefore, all PCI host bridge
accesses to SDRAM are cache-line-aligned (start on a four-doubleword boundary). If the
external PCI bus master read cycle was not cache-line-aligned, the PCI host bridge starts
requesting the SDRAM read from the address that the master issued and generates singlephase data cycles until it becomes cache-line-aligned.
For example, if the external PCI bus master started a write with address 10008h and wrote
ten doublewords, the PCI host bridge would generate single, non-burst write cycles to
address 10008h and 1000Ch. After these two write cycles, the transaction would be cacheline-aligned, so the PCI host bridge would complete the transaction with burst cycles.
9.5.4.8
Maintaining Data Coherency
All external PCI bus master accesses to SDRAM are snooped by the Am5x86 CPU’s cache,
which writes back and invalidates a cache line as appropriate. If the CPU detects a hit to
a modified line in its cache, the arbitration unit forces the PCI host bridge to relinquish the
Am5x86 CPU bus to allow the cache line to be written back to SDRAM. If the cache is
configured in write-through cache mode, the line is simply invalidated and the PCI host
bridge is not forced off the bus for a write-back cycle.
In many systems that employ posting buffers, a potential data coherency problem exists
because of the delay between an external master write transaction and when SDRAM is
actually updated due to the write posting FIFO. The PCI bus complicates this potential
problem when PCI-to-PCI bridges are implemented in the system.
In ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, for example, if an external master writes a block of data into
SDRAM and then generates an interrupt request to the Am5x86 CPU to process the data,
it is important to prevent the Am5x86 CPU from attempting to read SDRAM before the
posted data has actually been written to SDRAM by the PCI host bridge’s posting-write
FIFO. The PCI bus specification recommends that the CPU perform a read to the
interrupting PCI bus device, to force all system posted write buffers to flush (including PCI
bus bridges).
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-21
PCI Bus Host Bridge
If the PCI host bridge target read FIFOs contain data from a previous memory-read
command that was obtained as part of a delayed transaction while a write to the same
memory address region occurs, the read FIFOs can optionally be purged to maintain
coherency by setting the T_PURGE_RD_ENB bit in the Host Bridge Control (HBCTL)
register (MMCR offset 60h). The T_PURGE_RD_ENB bit must not be changed except
during PCI bus initialization after a system or programmable reset.
■ Memory-read and memory-read-line commands generate a purge when the write
address is within the same cache line as the prefetched data. Note that the addresses
do not necessarily overlap in this case. For example, a memory-read command to 5008h
will prefetch 5008h and 500Ch. A memory-write command to 5000h will then cause a
purge because it is in the same cache line, even though the addresses do not overlap.
■ Memory-read-multiple commands generate a purge if the write is in the same 64-
doubleword region as the prefetched data. In this case, exact addresses are compared.
Note that a write to the same 64-doubleword region causes a purge even if the prefetch
is not complete. If, for example, the host bridge is prefetching the 32nd doubleword on
the Am5x86 CPU bus, and a write comes into the 53rd doubleword (or any number
greater than 32 and less than 64, in this case), this write will cause a purge.
9.5.4.9
PCI Host Bridge Target Bus Cycles
This section describes in detail the cycles generated by an external PCI bus master for
which the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller PCI host bridge responds, and includes both the PCI
bus and the internal Am5x86 CPU bus. The PCI host bridge forwards cycles that are
destined to SDRAM from the PCI bus to the Am5x86 CPU bus.
The examples shown apply primarily to concurrent arbitration mode; there are a few
differences when operating in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. See Chapter 8, “System
Arbitration”, for further details on the arbitration modes.
Note that these are example cases only, and not all cases are shown. The diagrams are
functionally representative in nature, and should not be used to infer detailed timing
information. Note also that the synchronization between the CPU and PCI clock domains
is not shown in detail.
9.5.4.9.1
External PCI Bus Master Posted Write to SDRAM
Figure 9-14 shows an external PCI bus master writing seven doublewords to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s SDRAM. The first group of signals are the PCI bus signals, and the second
group are internal signals.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Figure 9-14
External PCI Bus Master Posted Write to SDRAM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
CLKPCIIN
ADx
CBEx
address
data1
data2
data3
data4
data5
write cmd
be1
be2
be3
be4
be5
data6
be6
data7
be7
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
DEVSEL
hb_req
hb_gnt
Notes:
The diagram includes the following internal signals:
• hb_req: PCI host bridge requesting the Am5x86 CPU bus to access the SDRAM controller.
• hb_gnt: PCI host bridge has been granted Am5x86 CPU bus and can access the SDRAM controller.
See Chapter 8, “System Arbitration”, for information on Am5x86 CPU bus arbitration.
The following sequence annotates the external PCI bus master posted write to SDRAM
shown in Figure 9-14.
■ Clock #1: An external PCI master initiates a write transaction to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s SDRAM.
■ Clock #3: The PCI host bridge always asserts DEVSEL with medium timing. In this
example, the write FIFO is not full, so TRDY is also asserted to accept the write data. If
either the write FIFO or the address FIFO had been full, then the PCI host bridge would
immediately issue a retry to the external master by asserting STOP instead of TRDY.
■ Clocks #4–#10: The write FIFO is not full, so TRDY remains asserted to accept the
write data. The PCI host bridge does not insert wait states into the PCI transaction by
deasserting TRDY. If the FIFO becomes full during the transaction but the external PCI
master indicates it is willing to burst more data (by keeping FRAME asserted), the host
bridge issues a disconnect by deasserting TRDY and asserting STOP (see
Section 9.5.4.9.3). The external master can insert wait states into the PCI transaction
by deasserting IRDY. The host bridge is posting the write data (it will be written to SDRAM
sometime later).
■ Clock #7: The PCI host bridge has synchronized the first PCI data phase (Clock #4)
and requests access to the SDRAM controller.
■ Clock #9: The SDRAM controller is granted to the PCI host bridge and the PCI bus data
can be written to SDRAM. The hb_gnt signal may be delayed if the Am5x86 CPU or GPDMA is accessing SDRAM.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-23
PCI Bus Host Bridge
9.5.4.9.2
External PCI Master SDRAM Read (Delayed Transaction)
Figure 9-15 shows an external PCI bus master read transaction to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s SDRAM.
Figure 9-15
External PCI Master SDRAM Read (Delayed Transaction)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
CLKPCIIN
ADx
CBEx
address
cmd
data1 data2 data3
address
be1
cmd
be1
be2 be3
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
DEVSEL
STOP
hb_req
hb_gnt
The following sequence annotates the external PCI master SDRAM read shown in
Figure 9-15.
■ Clock #1: An external PCI bus master initiates a read transaction to ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s SDRAM.
■ Clock #3: The PCI host bridge target controller accepts the transaction by asserting
DEVSEL. TRDY is not asserted, because there is no data in the target read FIFO (this
is a new transaction).
■ Clock #4: The PCI host bridge target controller asserts STOP, signaling a retry to the
external PCI bus master. Because no data was transferred, the external PCI bus master
is required to retry the transaction. (This figure assumes that the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller is configured for automatic delayed transactions.) The host bridge latches
the transaction information and will prefetch the requested read data. This is now a
delayed transaction, and the PCI bus master is required to relinquish bus ownership and
re-arbitrate to retry the cycle. If there is already a previous delayed transaction pending,
the current transaction will not be latched. Note that, in this example, STOP is asserted
for two clock periods, because a target is required to keep this signal asserted until
FRAME is deasserted.
■ Clock #7: The PCI host bridge has synchronized the delayed transaction request and
requests access to the SDRAM controller to prefetch the data requested by the external
PCI master.
■ Clock #8: The CPU bus is granted to the PCI host bridge, and the PCI bus data can be
read from SDRAM. The hb_gnt signal may be delayed if the Am5x86 CPU or GP-DMA
controller is accessing SDRAM. The host bridge prefetches up to the next cache line in
response to a memory-read or memory-read-line command and up to 64 doublewords
in response to a memory-read-multiple command.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
■ Clock #12: The external PCI bus master retries the delayed transaction. While a delayed
transaction is pending, all other read transactions are retried by the host bridge (these
are not latched as delayed transactions). Write transactions, however, are allowed to
complete and are put into the write FIFO. If the external PCI master retries the delayed
transaction before the host bridge has read the first doubleword of data into the target
read FIFO, the host bridge issues another retry to the external PCI bus master (and
keeps issuing retries until the first doubleword of data has been read into the target read
FIFO).
■ Clock #14: By now, the PCI host bridge has read in the first doubleword of data into the
target read FIFO and recognizes this transaction as the pending delayed transaction.
The host bridge asserts DEVSEL to claim the transaction.
■ Clock #16: The PCI host bridge asserts TRDY for the first data phase of the transaction.
After the first data phase, the host bridge can burst up to the next cache-line boundary
without adding anymore wait states. After each cache line, the PCI host bridge may
insert wait states if the target read FIFO becomes empty.
■ Clocks #17–#19: The external PCI master reads the data from the PCI host bridge.
(Although the figure shows it this way, note that SDRAM having the data by Clock #17
is quite optimistic.) The external PCI bus master can insert wait states into the transaction
by deasserting IRDY. Clock #19 is the last data requested by the external PCI bus master
(FRAME deasserted, IRDY asserted).
9.5.4.9.3
PCI Host Bridge Target Disconnect
Figure 9-16 shows the PCI host bridge target controller issuing a disconnect to an external
PCI bus master. This example shows a disconnect during an external PCI bus master write
cycle, but the mechanism is the same for external PCI bus master read cycles. The only
difference is that Clock #2 is a turnaround cycle on AD31–AD0 bus. The PCI host bridge
issues a disconnect if:
■ During an external PCI bus master write cycle, the write FIFO becomes full or 64
consecutive doublewords have been written by the bus master.
■ During an external PCI bus master read cycle, the target read FIFO becomes empty—
Note that for memory-read and memory-read-line commands, the PCI host bridge can
burst up to the next cache-line boundary without disconnecting; for memory-readmultiple commands, the PCI host bridge can burst 64 doublewords without
disconnecting. If the external PCI bus master wishes to burst beyond these limits, then
the PCI host bridge may issue a disconnect.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-25
PCI Bus Host Bridge
Figure 9-16
PCI Host Bridge Target Disconnect
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
CLKPCIIN
ADx
CBEx
address
data1
write cmd
be1
data2
be2
data3
be3
FRAME
IRDY
TRDY
DEVSEL
STOP
hb_req
hb_gnt
The following sequence annotates the PCI host bridge target disconnect shown in
Figure 9-16.
■ Clock #1: An external PCI bus master initiates a write transaction to ÉlanSC520
microcontroller SDRAM.
■ Clock #3: The PCI host bridge always asserts DEVSEL with medium timing and asserts
TRDY, signaling it is ready to accept data (provide data for external PCI bus master
reads).
■ Clocks #3–#4: Both TRDY and IRDY are sampled asserted, signaling a valid data phase.
External master write data will be accepted by the PCI host bridge (or the external master
will read data for external PCI bus master read cycles).
■ Clock #5: The PCI host bridge write FIFO is full (or the target read FIFO is empty for
external PCI bus master read cycles), so TRDY is deasserted and STOP is asserted,
signaling a disconnect. Because TDRY is deasserted, Clock #5 is the last valid data
phase. Note that FRAME is still asserted, signaling that the external PCI bus master is
requesting to burst more data.
■ Clock #6: The external PCI bus master deasserts FRAME in response to STOP being
sampled asserted. Because TRDY is deasserted, this is not a valid data phase and no
data will be transferred.
■ Clock #7: The external PCI bus master deasserts IRDY and the PCI host bridge
deasserts STOP and DEVSEL, ending the PCI bus transaction. The host bridge has
synchronized the first PCI bus data phase (Clock #3) and requests access to the SDRAM
controller.
■ Clock #9: The CPU bus is granted to the PCI host bridge, and the PCI bus data can be
written to SDRAM. The hb_gnt signal may be delayed if the Am5x86 CPU or GP-DMA
controller is accessing SDRAM.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
9.5.5
Interrupts
The PCI host bridge has one maskable interrupt request signal and one NMI signal routed
to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s interrupt controller. These interrupt signals are shared
by the arbiter, and PCI master and target controllers of the host bridge. Each interrupt
source (both master and target sources) can be individually programmed to generate a
maskable interrupt instead of a non-maskable interrupt request.
The following conditions can be programmed to generate an interrupt by the PCI host bridge
master controller:
■ Detected parity error during a read cycle
■ Received parity during a write cycle or during the address phase of a read cycle
■ Retry time-out counter expired
■ Cycle was terminated with master abort
■ Cycle was terminated with target abort
■ System error (SERR) pin asserted by PCI bus device
When an interrupt is generated, the address of the cycle during which the interrupt condition
was detected is stored in the Host Bridge Master Interrupt Address (MSTINTADD) register
(MMCR offset 6Ch), and the command is stored in the Host Bridge Master Interrupt Status
(HBMSTIRQSTA) register (MMCR offset 68h). If multiple interrupt conditions are pending,
the registers store the information for the first interrupt condition only. If multiple interrupts
are pending, there is no indication to which interrupts the Master Interrupt Command
Identification (M_CMD_IRQ_ID) and Master Interrupt Address Identification
(M_AD_IRQ_ID) fields correspond. Status bits in the Status/Command (PCISTACMD)
register (PCI index 04h) are also set when error conditions are detected. These bits are
set whenever the error condition is detected, regardless of the interrupt enable bits.
The following conditions can be programmed to generate an interrupt by the host bridge
target controller:
■ Detected parity error during a data phase of a write cycle
■ Detected parity error during an address phase
■ Delayed transaction time-out—215 clocks have expired without an external PCI master
retrying a delayed transaction
When an interrupt is generated, the REQ/GNT number of the PCI bus master that caused
the error is stored in the Host Bridge Target Interrupt Status (HBTGTIRQSTA) register
(MMCR offset 64h). If multiple interrupt conditions are pending, the Target Interrupt
Identification (T_IRQ_ID) field stores only the information for the first interrupt condition. If
multiple interrupts are pending, there is no indication to which interrupt the T_IRQ_ID field
corresponds. The appropriate status bits in the Status/Command (PCISTACMD) register
(PCI index 04h) are also set when error conditions are detected. These bits are set whenever
the error condition is detected, regardless of the interrupt enable bits.
See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for further details on the
programming and routing of interrupt requests. See Chapter 8, “System Arbitration”, for
further details on arbitration.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-27
PCI Bus Host Bridge
9.5.6
Latency
PCI bus latency issues are described separately for the CPU and external PCI bus masters.
■ Master latency refers to the case when the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s Am5x86 CPU
is the master on the PCI bus.
■ Target latency refers to the case when the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is a PCI bus target
accessed by external PCI bus masters.
9.5.6.1
Master Latency
The posted write buffer allows Am5x86 CPU memory-write cycles to complete without
incurring the PCI bus transaction latency. Any other cycle between the CPU and the PCI
bus (memory read, I/O write, I/O read) must complete on the PCI bus before ready is
returned to the Am5x86 CPU. Note that write posting must be disabled while the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller is operating in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. See Chapter 8, “System
Arbitration”, for details on nonconcurrent mode arbitration.
The target being accessed may retry the Am5x86 CPU cycle (target busy) multiple times,
which would delay the Am5x86 CPU. This performance penalty can be limited by
configuration of the Am5x86 CPU using the Master Retry Time-Out (M_RETRY_TO) field
in the Master Retry Time-Out (PCIMRETRYTO) register (PCI index 41h), which limits the
number of times the PCI host bridge retries a transaction before returning the rdy signal to
the Am5x86 CPU. Note that the master retry count configuration must not be changed
except during PCI bus initialization after a system or programmable reset.
The Am5x86 CPU typically performs non-burst read transactions to the PCI bus, because
PCI bus memory is noncacheable (write transactions to PCI are always non-burst). There
are a few cases when the CPU bursts up to two doublewords on a read transaction. For
simplicity, in these cases, the PCI host bridge breaks up any Am5x86 CPU burst read cycles
into single doubleword read transactions on the PCI bus, which also slows down the Am5x86
CPU read performance to the PCI bus. Because the PCI host bridge master controller
performs single data phase transactions only, the master latency timer is not implemented.
9.5.6.2
Target Latency
Write posting and delayed transactions in the PCI host bridge target controller allow external
PCI bus master cycles to complete without incurring SDRAM access latency. Without write
posting and delayed transactions, the PCI host bridge target controller would insert wait
states, while arbitrating for use of the SDRAM controller.
Delayed transaction support allows this time spent arbitrating for the CPU bus and the
SDRAM controller transaction to be reallocated to another bus master, rather than forcing
the first bus master to remain in a long wait state period. Instead, the first bus master’s
request is latched and placed in the delayed transaction queue for processing by the PCI
host bridge, and the bus master is forced off of the PCI bus with a retry, at which point the
PCI bus arbiter may grant the bus to another PCI bus master. The second PCI bus master
could perform a peer-to-peer transfer or memory write to SDRAM while the PCI host bridge
continues to process the first bus master’s request.
Delayed transactions avoid the wasted bus bandwidth that may occur if the PCI host bridge’s
response to the transaction exceeded the specified 32 PCI bus clocks (16 for non-host
bridge devices), at which point the PCI bus master would be retried anyway (thus wasting
16–32 PCI bus clocks).
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
PCI Bus Host Bridge
The concurrent nature of ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s system architecture is such that a
SDRAM read request from an external PCI master may be delayed. The reasons for this
delay are:
■ The Am5x86 CPU may be currently accessing ROM, GP bus, or SDRAM.
■ The SDRAM controller may be currently servicing a SDRAM refresh.
■ A DMA transaction may be in progress between a GP-DMA initiator and SDRAM. Such
transactions are variable in length and subject to the programmed DMA transfer mode.
For example, in block or demand mode, the DMA transfer cannot be preempted.
Note: Large GP Bus DMA transfers in demand or block mode, or very slow GP bus cycles
(initiated via programmable GP bus timing, or by deasserting the GPRDY signal) can cause
the PCI host bridge target controller to violate the 10 µs memory write maximum completion
time limit set in the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2. In PCI bus 2.2-compliant
designs, software must limit the length of GP bus cycles and GP bus DMA demand- or
block-mode transfers.
Delayed transactions can increase Am5x86 CPU and GP-DMA latency to SDRAM because
of prefetching in response to memory-read-multiple commands. For example, when a
prefetch of 64 doublewords occurs during a PCI bus master memory-read-multiple cycle
of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM, neither the Am5x86 CPU or the GP-DMA
controller has access to the CPU bus. After the initial prefetch of 64 doublewords, the PCI
host bridge relinquishes ownership of the CPU bus.
9.6
INITIALIZATION
The PCI bus RST signal, when asserted, resets the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI host
bridge, as well as any external PCI bus devices.
The RST signal is asserted in response to a system reset (see “System Reset” on page 6-4)
or by setting the PCI_RST bit in the Host Bridge Control (HBCTL) register (MMCR offset
60h). These reset sources assert and deassert the RST signal asynchronously to the PCI
bus clock.
When the RST signal is asserted, the PCI host bridge master controller and target controller
state machines go to their idle states, and the host bridge FIFOs are purged. The PCI host
bridge register bits are reset to their default states due to system reset, but the PCI_RST
bit does not reset the PCI host bridge configuration registers or the host bridge status bits
(see the register descriptions in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Register Set Manual,
order #22005).
After reset, the PCI host bridge target controller is disabled, but the host bridge responds
to configuration transactions from the Am5x86 CPU. Note that the PCI host bridge master
controller is always enabled.
After reset the following steps should be taken to configure the PCI host bridge. Configure
the PCI host bridge first; then, configure the external PCI bus devices.
1. Configure the PCI host bridge.
a. Program the desired ÉlanSC520 microcontroller arbitration mode, including
concurrency mode and PCI bus master arbitration priorities, etc. See “Initialization”
on page 8-22, for more detailed information on arbitration.
b. Program the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers, if required. See
Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”, for details on programming PCI bus memory
space.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
9-29
PCI Bus Host Bridge
c. Program the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-specific PCI host bridge configuration (write
posting, retry time-out counter, interrupts, etc.). Note that write-posting must be
disabled while operating in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. See Chapter 8, “System
Arbitration”, for further details on nonconcurrent mode arbitration.
d. Program the standard PCI bus configuration registers. See “Configuration Information”
on page 9-9 for more information.
2. Configure the external PCI bus devices.
In general, PCI host bridge configuration bits should not be changed except during a PCI
bus initialization after a system or programmable reset.
A PCI bus 2.2-compliant target is not required to meet the normal initial latency time limit
if it is accessed during the 225 clock periods (about one second) following RST signal
deassertion. During this time, an addressed target is permitted to do any of the following:
■ Initiate a retry.
■ Claim the access and hold in wait states until ready to respond.
■ Ignore the access.
A device that ignores the access is essentially not recognized if the initialization software
tries to configure it too soon after RST is deasserted, resulting in an incomplete system
configuration. To support such devices, the initialization software might need to include a
delay to ensure that 225 clock periods pass before PCI devices are configured.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
10
10.1
SDRAM CONTROLLER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes an integrated SDRAM controller.
Features include:
■ SDRAM (synchronous DRAM) support
■ 3.3-V DC 66-MHz SDRAM or faster (16 Mbit through 256 Mbit)
■ Achieves 3-1-1-1 read bursts on SDRAM (page hit for all device speed grades with
CAS latency (CL) = 2)
■ Support for up to four banks, each bank independently programmed for size and
symmetry (symmetric and asymmetric SDRAMs)
■ Up to 256 Mbytes of SDRAM
■ Optional SDRAM refresh during reset
■ SDRAM auto refresh
■ Error Correction Code (ECC) support (single-bit correct/multi-bit detect)
■ SDRAM write buffering that supports write-merging, write-collapsing, and read-merging
■ Read buffer with read-ahead feature for SDRAM read prefetching
■ Read-around-write support that gives read priority over posted writes when the write
buffer is enabled
10.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
The SDRAM controller and its interface to the system SDRAM, along with the write buffer
and the read buffer, are shown in Figure 10-1. (The write buffer and read buffer are described
in Chapter 11.) Figure 10-2 shows a more detailed block diagram of the SDRAM controller
subsystem.
10.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
The SDRAM controller of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports SDRAM devices only.
Figure 10-3 illustrates the connection of the SDRAM signals from the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller to the SDRAM banks.
Although the data bus width is only 32-bits in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, 64-bit (168pin DIMMs) memory modules can be used. Each 168-pin DIMM can be used as a pair of
banks. By appropriately connecting the SCS3–SCS0 signals to the SDRAM DIMM module,
168-pin modules can be used in an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller system.
Figure 10-4 shows an example configuration of a 168-pin SDRAM DIMM used as two banks.
For the DIMM in this example, 8-bit devices are used. A DIMM configured for ECC is not
shown.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-1
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-1
SDRAM Controller Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
MA12–MA0
BA1–BA0
SCS3–SCS0
Address Decode
CPU Interface
SCASB–SCASA
Read Buffer
SRASB–SRASA
SDRAM
SDQM3–SDQM0
Controller
SWEB–SWEA
CLKMEMOUT
Write Buffer
CLKMEMIN
MECC6–MECC0
33 MHz
Clock Generator
32 kHz
66 MHz
MD31–MD0
32 kHz
33 MHz
10-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
32KXTAL2–32KXTAL1
33MXTAL2–33MXTAL1
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-2
Detailed Block Diagram of SDRAM Controller
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
MA12–MA0
BA1–BA0
MA Gen.
x5_addr[27–2]
SCS3–SCS0
Page/Bnk
SCASB–SCASA
32 kHz
x5_control
33 MHz
SRASB–SRASA
Control
SWEB–SWEA
CLKMEMOUT
66-MHz PLL
x5_be[3–0]
SDQM3–SDQM0
be3–be0
Write Buffer
data[31–0]
MD31–MD0
x5_data[31–0]
Read Buffer
x5_data[31–0]
ECC
Check
MECC6–MECC0
ECC
Gen.
CLKMEMIN
Interrupts
Notes:
SDRAM controller trace and test logic is not shown.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-3
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-3
SDRAM Bank Configuration
MD31–MD0
MECC6–MECC0
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
Bank 3
SCS3
SRASB
SDQM3–
SDQM0
D[38:32]
D[31:24]
D[23:16]
D[15:8]
DQM[3]*
DQM[3]
DQM[2]
DQM[1]
D[38:32]
D[31:24]
D[23:16]
D[15:8]
D[7:0]
RAS
DQM[0] CAS
SCS2
Bank 2
SWEB
DQM[3]*
DQM[3]
DQM[2]
D[7:0]
RAS
DQM[0] CAS
DQM[1]
SCASB
SCS1
Bank 1
SRASA
D[38:32]
D[31:24]
D[23:16]
D[15:8]
D[7:0]
DQM[3]*
DQM[3]
DQM[2]
DQM[1]
RAS
DQM[0] CAS
D[38:32]
D[31:24]
D[23:16]
D[15:8]
D[7:0]
SCS0
Bank 0
SWEA
DQM[3]*
DQM[3]
DQM[2]
DQM[1]
RAS
DQM[0] CAS
SCASA
Notes:
* ECC is optional. Since the entire doubleword is always written to the SDRAM during a read-modify-write operation
(see “Error Correction Code (ECC)” on page 10-16), any one of the four SDQM signals can be connected to the
DQM of the device that stores the 7-bit check word.
10-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-4
Example Configuration of a 168-Pin SDRAM DIMM
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
MD31–MD0
DQ63–DQ32
DQ31–DQ0
Bank 1
X8
Bank 0
X8
X8
SDQM3
SDQM2
SDQM1
X8
X8
X8
X8
SDQM0
SCASA
SCASB
SRASA
SRASB
SWEB
SWEA
SCS1
10.3.1
X8
SCS0
SDRAM Pins
The SDRAM interface pins are dedicated to supporting SDRAM devices only.
Four chip select signals, SCS3–SCS0, are provided for independent bank selection.
The SRASA–SRASB, SCASA–SCASB, and SWEA–SWEB signals are device command
signals that are encoded by the SDRAM controller to send a command to the SDRAM
devices. Each device in the array must sample these signals.
■ Since this may result in heavy loading, two SRAS and two SCAS signals are provided
to allow splitting load capacitance on these pins among the banks.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-5
SDRAM Controller
– For example, banks 0 and 1 can share the SRASA and SCASA signal.
– Likewise, banks 2 and 3 can share the SRASB and the SCASB signal.
■ Two SWE signals are also provided to alleviate single pin loading.
– For example, banks 0 and 1 can share the SWEA signal, and banks 2 and 3 can share
the SWEB signal.
The four SDQM lines, SDQM3–SDQM0, provide byte masking.
■ Each of the four SDQM3–SDQM0 signals is associated with one byte of four throughout
the array. Each SDQMx signal provides an input mask signal for write accesses and an
output enable signal for read accesses.
See Figure 10-3 on page 10-4, which illustrates the connection of SDRAM signals from the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to the external SDRAM banks. Since the SDRAM controller
shares the MD31–MD0 data bus with the ROM/Flash controller, the SDRAM controller
guarantees the SDQM3–SDQM0 signals are forced inactive to make sure the SDRAM
devices do not contend with the ROM or Flash devices that may share the data bus.
10.3.2
SDRAM Clocking
The SDRAM device’s clock is sourced from the SDRAM controller interface of the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. As shown in Figure 10-1 on page 10-2, there are two clock
pins dedicated for the SDRAM interface.
■ CLKMEMOUT is a 66-MHz clock.
■ CLKMEMIN must be a direct feedback version of CLKMEMOUT.
The SDRAM controller’s data buffers use CLKMEMIN to latch read data coming from the
SDRAM devices. CLKMEMIN is used to compensate for delays associated with board
loading and external buffering (to allow for read data flight time from the SDRAM device).
The allowable delay between CLKMEMOUT and CLKMEMIN is –0.5 to +6.0 ns.
The following describes a typical scenario for SDRAM systems used with the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. These are general guidelines to demonstrate system considerations and
are not intended for use as system implementations.
The CLKMEMOUT pin has a 24-mA driver and is capable of driving a 50-pF load directly,
without requiring an external clock driver/buffer and still remain under the maximum
allowable delay of 6 ns. A CLKMEMOUT load above 50 pF may result in delays greater
than 6 ns that could jeopardize data integrity. The 50-pF load includes all loads presented
to the CLKMEMOUT pin such as board routing (between CLKMEMOUT and CLKMEMIN),
DIMM connector load, and SDRAM device load.
Table 10-1 shows estimated bank loads as they pertain to SDRAM device data widths. As
shown in Table 10-1, a bank composed of 4-bit devices presents a greater load to the
CLKMEMOUT pin than a bank composed of 8-bit devices. This table does not include board
or connector loads.
Table 10-1
SDRAM Clock Loading Estimates Based on Device Width
Device Width
10-6
4-Bit
8-Bit
16-Bit
32-Bit
Device count (per bank)
8
4
2
1
Total SDRAM clock loading (pF)
32
16
8
4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-5 shows a lightly loaded system. Typically, this delay can be implemented as fast
buffers, capacitors, series resistors, etc. or as a short.
Figure 10-5
SDRAM Clock Generation
CLKMEMOUT
SDRAM
Delay
Controller
CLKMEMIN
SDRAM Bank
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
Figure 10-6 shows an example of a two-bank SDRAM system that uses an external clock
driver. The clock driver is used to buffer CLKMEMOUT to support the load of multiple banks
of SDRAM. A buffered version of CLKMEMOUT is returned on CLKMEMIN to compensate
for the clock skew presented by the clock driver.
Figure 10-6
Alternate SDRAM Clock Generation with External Clock Driver
Drivers
CLKMEMOUT
SDRAM
Controller
SDRAM Bank
SDRAM Bank
CLKMEMIN
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
The delays that the system designer must take into consideration are identified by this
equation:
TAC + TSKEW + TCK_LD + TD_LD <= TCK
where:
TAC : Access time of SDRAM device (not impacted by board design)
TSKEW: The delay between CLKMEMOUT to CLKMEMIN
TCK_LD: Additional clock delay due to loading
TD_LD: Data delay due to loading
TCK : SDRAM memory clock
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for timing tables and
additional timing diagrams.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-7
SDRAM Controller
10.3.3
SDRAM Loading
Table 10-2 through Table 10-5 show estimated capacitances for the SDRAM devices that
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can support. (See Table 10-8 on page 10-13 for a listing of
the SDRAM devices supported by ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.) The tables are broken up
for SDRAM device data width for clarity. The purpose of these tables is to identify SDRAM
loading as it applies to various bank configurations. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
provides some flexibility in signal drive strength to allow the user to optimize performance,
depending on the SDRAM array configuration.
In the estimated capacitance tables, the input capacitance of SRASx, SCASx, SWEx, MAx,
BAx, SDQMx, and SCSx for a single device was assumed to be 5 pF. 4 pF was used for
the CLK signal. The MDx signals are assumed to be 6 pF. These tables do not account for
board trace capacitance. It is assumed in these tables that both pins provided for a control
signal, e.g., SRASA–SRASB, SCASA–SCASB, and SWEA–SWEB are split across banks
evenly.
As can be seen in the tables, a 4-bank configuration of 16-bit devices has a loading of less
than 50 pF for any signal, but for a 4-bank configuration of 4-bit devices, the capacitance
of the interface increases. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides programmable drive
strength buffers on all address, data, and control signals to support varying SDRAM device
loads. See “SDRAM Control Configuration” on page 10-18 for more details.
Table 10-2
Estimated Capacitance (4-Bit SDRAM Devices)
Number
of 32-Bit
Banks
SWEx
SDQMx MAx/BAx MDx
CLK
SRASx SCASx SCSx
Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
1
32
40
40
40
40
10
40
6
2
64
40
40
40
40
20
80
12
3
96
80
80
40
80
30
120
18
4
128
80
80
40
80
40
160
24
Notes:
Capacitive loads shown in the table above are derived from an estimated SDRAM pin capacitance
value of 5 pF for SRASx, SCASx, SWEx, MAx, BAx, SDQMx, and SCSx; 4 pF for the CLK signal;
and 6 pF for the MDx signals, per device.
Table 10-3
Estimated Capacitance (8-Bit SDRAM Devices)
Number
of 32-Bit
Banks
SWEx
SDQMx MAx/BAx MDx
CLK
SRASx SCASx SCSx
Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
1
16
20
20
20
20
5
20
6
2
32
20
20
20
20
10
40
12
3
48
40
40
20
40
15
60
18
4
64
40
40
20
40
20
80
24
Notes:
Capacitive loads shown in the table above are derived from an estimated SDRAM pin capacitance
value of 5 pF for SRASx, SCASx, SWEx, MAx, BAx, SDQMx, and SCSx; 4 pF for the CLK signal;
and 6 pF for the MDx signals, per device.
10-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
Table 10-4
Estimated Capacitance (16-Bit SDRAM Devices)
Number
of 32-Bit
Banks
SWEx
SDQMx MAx/BAx MDx
CLK
SRASx SCASx SCSx
Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
1
8
10
10
10
10
5
10
6
2
16
10
10
10
10
10
20
12
3
24
20
20
10
20
15
30
18
4
32
20
20
10
20
20
40
24
Notes:
Capacitive loads shown in the table above are derived from an estimated SDRAM pin capacitance
value of 5 pF for SRASx, SCASx, SWEx, MAx, BAx, SDQMx, and SCSx; 4 pF for the CLK signal;
and 6 pF for the MDx signals, per device.
Table 10-5
Estimated Capacitance (32-Bit SDRAM Devices)
Number
of 32-Bit
Banks
SWEx
SDQMx MAx/BAx MDx
CLK
SRASx SCASx SCSx
Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading Loading
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
(pF)
1
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
2
8
5
5
5
5
10
10
12
3
12
10
10
5
10
15
15
18
4
16
10
10
5
10
20
20
24
Notes:
Capacitive loads shown in the table above are derived from an estimated SDRAM pin capacitance
value of 5 pF for SRASx, SCASx, SWEx, MAx, BAx, SDQMx, and SCSx; 4 pF for the CLK signal;
and 6 pF for the MDx signals, per device.
As can be seen clearly from the capacitance tables, as more SDRAM devices are connected
to the SDRAM controller interface signals on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, loading on all
these signals increases. Note that the numbers reflect only the actual device capacitance,
and not circuit board trace or buffer capacitance.
The SDRAM controller’s data bus (MD31–MD0) is shared with the ROM/Flash controller.
It is advisable to consider loading issues on the MD31–MD0 bus when both SDRAM and
ROM/Flash devices are installed. Heavy loading by SDRAM and ROM/Flash devices may
slow down the SDRAM timings and cause data corruption.
When ECC devices are not installed, it is advisable to add individual 10-Kohm pulldown
resistors on the MECC6–MECC0 bus to prevent the bus from floating during read access.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-9
SDRAM Controller
10.4
REGISTERS
A summary listing of the registers used to control the SDRAM configuration are shown in
Table 10-6.
Table 10-6
SDRAM Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
SDRAM Control
DRCCTL
10h
Operation mode select, refresh enable, refresh
rate select, SDRAM write buffer test mode
enable
SDRAM Timing Control
DRCTMCTL
12h
RAS-to-CAS delay, RAS precharge, CAS
latency
SDRAM Bank Configuration
DRCCFG
14h
Bank count select, address column width
requirements for each bank
SDRAM Bank 0–3 Ending
Address
DRCBENDADR
18h
Independent bank ending configurations and
enables for banks 0, 1, 2 and 3
ECC Control
ECCCTL
20h
ECC enable, interrupt enable for single-bit and
multi-bit error detection
ECC Status
ECCSTA
21h
Single-bit and multi-bit error status
ECC Check Bit Position
ECCCKBPOS
22h
ECC data bit position in check bit or data bit fields
ECC Check Code Test
ECCCKTEST
23h
ECC check code override for test and error
handler development
ECC Single-Bit Error Address ECCSBADD
24h
Address where single-bit ECC error occurred
ECC Multi-Bit Error Address
ECCMBADD
28h
Address where multi-bit ECC error occurred
Drive Strength Control
DSCTL
C28h
I/O pad drive strength for SCS3–SCS0,
SRASA–SRASB, SCASA–SCASB, SWEA–
SWEB, SDQM3–SDQM0, MA12–MA0, BA1–
BA0, MD31–MD0, MECC6–MECC0
ECC Interrupt Mapping
ECCMAP
D18h
ECC interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI, ECC NMI enable
control
Reset Configuration
RESCFG
D72h
Programmable SDRAM retention reset
(PRGRESET pin enable)
Reset Status
RESSTA
D74h
Reset source status: PRGRESET pin
10-10
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
10.5
OPERATION
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports up to four 32-bit banks of SDRAM, with a
maximum capacity of 256 Mbytes. This integrated SDRAM controller interfaces gluelessly
to most commodity synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) devices. Mixed symmetries are
supported across all four banks.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports a column boundary method to accept a wide
variety of SDRAM devices. The column boundary method requires only the device’s column
address width to define the device’s page size and symmetry.
The symmetry of a device refers to its organization as defined by the number of columns
and the number of rows.
■ A device is termed symmetric if the number of columns and rows is equal (i.e., a square
organization).
■ A device is termed asymmetric if the number of rows exceeds the number of columns
(i.e., a rectangular organization). No devices exist where the number of columns exceeds
the number of rows.
The column boundary method allows the user to configure the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
to work with 16-Mbit, 64-Mbit, 128-Mbit, and 256-Mbit SDRAM densities (both 2-bank and
4-bank internal architectures) requiring 8-bit through 11-bit column address bits.
Error Correction Code (ECC) is also supported for SDRAM devices to ensure data integrity
for these high-speed devices.
10.5.1
SDRAM Support
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller sources a 66-MHz clock (CLKMEMOUT) to drive the
SDRAM devices. An external clock driver can be used to buffer this clock output for heavily
loaded systems. A return clock input (CLKMEMIN) is provided to control clock skew. See
“SDRAM Clocking” on page 10-6 for detailed information on SDRAM clocking. Although
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller sources a 66-MHz clock, faster SDRAM devices are
supported (83-MHz, 100-MHz, 125-MHz, etc.).
The SDRAM controller supports 16-Mbit, 64-Mbit, 128-Mbit, and 256-Mbit SDRAM
densities with either 2-bank or 4-bank internal architectures.
■ A CAS latency (CL) option of either 2T or 3T is supported, where T refers to a 15-ns
clock period when a 33.333-MHz crystal is used.
■ SDRAM devices must be configured for a fixed interleaved burst length of four for reads
and single writes.
See “SDRAM Control Configuration” on page 10-18 for detailed information on SDRAM
configuration timing options.
The SDRAM controller services read and write requests on behalf of:
■ Am5x86 CPU
■ PCI masters
■ GP-DMA controller
With the exception of ECC read-modify-write cycles (due to SDRAM writes of less than a
doubleword when ECC is enabled), all read requests to SDRAM occur as a read burst of
four cycles at the interface, regardless of the amount of data requested by a master.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-11
SDRAM Controller
During read-modify-write cycles, the SDRAM burst read portion of the transaction is
terminated early by the write cycle. This is independent of the enable state of the readahead feature of the read buffer, which is provided to increase read performance by
prefetching data from SDRAM. See “Buffering” on page 10-17 for more information on the
read buffer and associated read-ahead feature.
Write requests to SDRAM always occur as single data transfers, regardless of the amount
of data written by a master. When the write buffer is enabled, all write transactions to SDRAM
are initiated by the write buffer. The write buffer features write merging, write collapsing and
read merging. See “Buffering” on page 10-17 for more information on the write buffer.
10.5.2
SDRAM Addressing
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller asserts one of the four chip select signals, SCS3–SCS0,
during access to one of the four memory banks. Table 10-7 shows the SDRAM memory
address as a function of the system address for SDRAM devices.
The mapping of the system address into memory row and column addresses is influenced
by the column address configuration provided for each bank.
■ On page misses, a row address followed by a column address is generated during an
SDRAM access.
■ On page hits, only a column address is generated during an SDRAM access.
Table 10-7 shows the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller address mapping.
.
Table 10-7
Address Mapping to MAx Signals for SDRAM Devices
SDRAM (16 Mbit–256 Mbit)
SDRAM Configuration
Column Address
Width
8
2-bank
4-bank
9
2-bank
4-bank
10
2-bank
4-bank
11
2-bank
4-bank
Bank
Selection
MAx Pin Mapping
BA1
BA0
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Row
24
10
23
22
13
12
11
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
Column
24
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Row
22
10
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
Column
22
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Row
25
11
Column
25
11
Row
23
11
25
Column
23
11
Row
26
12
Column
26
12
Row
24
12
Column
24
12
Row
27
13
Column
27
13
Row
25
13
Column
25
13
PC
24
23
13
12
11
PC
13
12
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
PC
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
24
13
12
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
25
24
PC
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
25
24
13
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
PC
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
13
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
PC
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
12
PC
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
26
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
12
PC
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
24
26
26
27
23
25
Notes: PC refers to SDRAM precharge signaling. BA1–BA0 are the SDRAM Bank Address signals.
10-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
10.5.2.1
Supported SDRAM Devices
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports the SDRAM organizations listed in Table 10-8.
(Note that SDRAM devices requiring less than 11 row address bits are not supported, and
are not included in the table.)
This table includes all possible device organizations supported by the column boundary
method, including those that may not be available at this time. As shown, the column
boundary method allows the user to configure the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller to work with
16-Mbit, 64-Mbit, 128-Mbit, and 256-Mbit SDRAM densities (both 2-bank and 4-bank
internal architectures), requiring 8-bit through 11-bit column address bits. Note that 14-bit
(2 internal bank) devices can be supported by connecting the BA1 pin to the most significant
address pin of the devices.
Note that illegal device symmetries have been omitted from Table 10-8. Illegal symmetries
are those where the column width exceeds the row width dimension.
Table 10-8
SDRAM Devices Supported with Column Boundary Specification
Column
Width
Density
8-bit
16 Mbit
Banks
Bank
(32-Bit)
4M x 4
2M x 4 x 2-banks
8
13:8
14-bit
16 Mbytes
2M x 8
1M x 8 x 2-banks
4
12:8
13-bit
8 Mbytes
1M x 16
512K x 16 x 2-banks
2
11:8
12-bit
4 Mbytes
4M x 4
1M x 4 x 4-banks
8
12:8
14-bit
16 Mbytes
2M x 8
512K x 8 x 4-banks
4
11:8
13-bit
8 Mbytes
8M x 8
4M x 8 x 2-banks
4
14:8
15-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 16
2M x 16 x 2-banks
2
13:8
14-bit
16 Mbytes
2M x 32
1M x 32 x 2-banks
1
12:8
13-bit
8 Mbytes
8M x 8
2M x 8 x 4-banks
4
13:8
15-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 16
1M x 16 x 4-banks
2
12:8
14-bit
16 Mbytes
2M x 32
512K x 32 x 4-banks
1
11:8
13-bit
8 Mbytes
8M x 16
4M x 16 x 2-banks
2
14:8
15-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 32
2M x 32 x 2-banks
1
13:8
14-bit
16 Mbytes
8M x 16
2M x 16 x 4-banks
2
13:8
15-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 32
1M x 32 x 4-banks
1
12:8
14-bit
16 Mbytes
2
8M x 32
4M x 32 x 2-banks
1
14:8
15-bit
32 Mbytes
4
8M x 32
2M x 32 x 4-banks
1
13:8
15-bit
32 Mbytes
2
2
2
4
256 Mbit
MA/BA
Width
Device Architecture
4
128 Mbit
Dimension
Row: Col
Organization
4
64 Mbit
Device
Count
per Bank
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-13
SDRAM Controller
Table 10-8
SDRAM Devices Supported with Column Boundary Specification (Continued)
Column
Width
Density
9-bit
16 Mbit
64 Mbit
Banks
2M x 4 x 2-banks
8
12:9
13-bit
16 Mbytes
2M x 8
1M x 8 x 2-banks
4
11:9
12-bit
8 Mbytes
4
4M x 4
1M x 4 x 4-banks
8
11:9
13-bit
16 Mbytes
2
16M x 4
8M x 4 x 2-banks
8
14:9
15-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 8
4M x 8 x 2-banks
4
13:9
14-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 16
2M x 16 x 2-banks
2
12:9
13-bit
16 Mbytes
2M x 32
1M x 32 x 2-banks
1
11:9
12-bit
8 Mbytes
16M x 4
4M x 4 x 4-banks
8
13:9
15-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 8
2M x 8 x 4-banks
4
12:9
14-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 16
1M x 16 x 4-banks
2
11:9
13-bit
16 Mbytes
16M x 8
8M x 8 x 2-banks
4
14:9
15-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 16
4M x 16 x 2-banks
2
13:9
14-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 32
2M x 32 x 2-banks
1
12:9
13-bit
16 Mbytes
16M x 8
4M x 8 x 4-banks
4
13:9
15-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 16
2M x 16 x 4-banks
2
12:9
14-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 32
1M x 32 x 4-banks
1
11:9
13-bit
16 Mbytes
16M x 16
8M x 16 x 2-banks
2
14:9
15-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 32
4M x 32 x 2-banks
1
13:9
14-bit
32 Mbytes
16M x 16
4M x 16 x 4-banks
2
13:9
15-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 32
2M x 32 x 4-banks
1
12:9
14-bit
32 Mbytes
2
2
16 Mbit
2
4M x 4
2M x 4 x 2-banks
8
11:10
12-bit
16 Mbytes
64 Mbit
2
16M x 4
8M x 4 x 2-banks
8
13:10
14-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 8
4M x 8 x 2-banks
4
12:10
13-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 16
2M x 16 x 2-banks
2
11:10
12-bit
16 Mbytes
16M x 4
4M x 4 x 4-banks
8
12:10
14-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 8
2M x 8 x 4-banks
4
11:10
13-bit
32 Mbytes
32M x 4
16M x 4 x 2-banks
8
14:10
15-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 8
8M x 8 x 2-banks
4
13:10
14-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 16
4M x 16 x 2-banks
2
12:10
13-bit
32 Mbytes
4M x 32
2M x 32 x 2-banks
1
11:10
12-bit
16 Mbytes
32M x 4
8M x 4 x 4-banks
8
13:10
15-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 8
4M x 8 x 4-banks
4
12:10
14-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 16
2M x 16 x 4-banks
2
11:10
13-bit
32 Mbytes
32M x 8
16M x 8 x 2-banks
4
14:10
15-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 16
8M x 16 x 2-banks
2
13:10
14-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 32
4M x 32 x 2-banks
1
12:10
13-bit
32 Mbytes
32M x 8
8M x 8 x 4-banks
4
13:10
15-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 16
4M x 16 x 4-banks
2
12:10
14-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 32
2M x 32 x 4-banks
1
11:10
13-bit
32 Mbytes
4
128 Mbit
2
4
256 Mbit
2
4
10-14
Bank
(32-Bit)
4M x 4
2
4
10-bit
MA/BA
Width
Device Architecture
4
256 Mbit
Dimension
Row: Col
Organization
4
128 Mbit
Device
Count
per Bank
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
Table 10-8
SDRAM Devices Supported with Column Boundary Specification (Continued)
Column
Width
Density
11-bit
Banks
64 Mbit
128 Mbit
Dimension
Row: Col
MA/BA
Width
Bank
(32-Bit)
Organization
Device Architecture
16M x 4
8M x 4 x 2-banks
8
12:11
13-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 8
4M x 8 x 2-banks
4
11:11
12-bit
32 Mbytes
4
16M x 4
4M x 4 x 4-banks
8
11:11
13-bit
64 Mbytes
2
32M x 4
16M x 4 x 2-banks
8
13:11
14-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 8
8M x 8 x 2-banks
4
12:11
13-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 16
4M x 16 x 2-banks
2
11:11
12-bit
32 Mbytes
32M x 4
8M x 4 x 4-banks
8
12:11
14-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 8
4M x 8 x 4-banks
4
11:11
13-bit
64 Mbytes
64M x 4
32M x 4 x 2-banks
8
14:11
15-bit
256 Mbytes
32M x 8
16M x 8 x 2-banks
4
13:11
14-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 16
8M x 16 x 2-banks
2
12:11
13-bit
64 Mbytes
8M x 32
4M x 32 x 2-banks
1
11:11
12-bit
32 Mbytes
64M x 4
16M x 4 x 4-banks
8
13:11
15-bit
256 Mbytes
32M x 8
8M x 8 x 4-banks
4
12:11
14-bit
128 Mbytes
16M x 16
4M x 16 x 4-banks
2
11:11
13-bit
64 Mbytes
2
4
256 Mbit
Device
Count
per Bank
2
4
Notes:
Not all device organizations specified in this table are available at the time of this printing.
The SDRAM Bank Configuration (DRCCFG) register (MMCR offset 14h) has one bit
(BNKx_BNK_CNT) to specify the internal number of banks and another bit field to specify
the column address width (BNKx_COLWDTH) of the device. Table 10-9 shows suggested
settings for these bit fields, given a device’s column address width and internal bank count.
Table 10-9
Column Address Configuration Settings for SDRAM
Column Width
8-bit
9-bit
10-bit
11-bit
Banks
Internal Bank Count
(BNKx_BNK_CNT)
Bank Column Address
(BNKx_COLWDTH)
2
0b
00b
4
1b
00b
2
0b
01b
4
1b
01b
2
0b
10b
4
1b
10b
2
0b
11b
4
1b
11b
For example, if Bank 2 is composed of SDRAM devices organized as 2M x 8 x 4 banks (8
Mbyte x 8) with 4096 rows and 512 columns (9-bit), by using Table 10-9, the appropriate
bank configuration for this 4-bank device is 1b for the BNK2_BNK_CNT field and 01b for
the BNK2_COLWDTH field of the SDRAM Bank Configuration (DRCCFG) register.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-15
SDRAM Controller
10.5.2.2
Page Size
The page size of an SDRAM device is based on the column address width of the device.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller address mapping takes advantage of the full page specified
by the devices column address width. Table 10-10 lists the page size available based on
the column address width specified. The page size in an SDRAM device applies for each
internal bank.
Table 10-10 SDRAM Page Sizes
10.5.3
Column Width
Page Size for 32-Bit Banks
8-bit
1 Kbyte
9-bit
2 Kbytes
10-bit
4 Kbytes
11-bit
8 Kbytes
Error Correction Code (ECC)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports Error Correction Code (ECC) to check the integrity
of transactions with the system SDRAM. ECC is implemented by a modified Hamming
code. It corrects a single-bit error and detects all two-bit (called multi-bit) errors. The memory
array must have check bits to implement ECC.
ECC operation requires that system memory be initialized. In this procedure, the boot code
writes to every memory location, automatically generating valid ECC that is stored in the
SDRAM check bits. If this procedure is not performed, errors will occur in the generation
of the check bits when writing data smaller than a 32-bit doubleword or when reading uninitialized data.
The ECC circuit uses a modified Hamming code to generate a 7-bit check word from the
32-bit data word. This check word is stored along with the data word during the memory
write cycle. During the memory read cycle, the 39-bit words from memory are processed
by the ECC circuit to determine if errors have occurred in storing or retrieving data.
If there is a single-bit error in the 32-bit data word or check-bits, the ECC circuit flags an
error, latches the error-generating address along with the bit position where the error was
detected, and passes along the corrected data word to the requesting master. It does not
write the corrected data back out to the SDRAM. It generates a maskable interrupt signal
when a single-bit error is detected. This maskable interrupt signal is generated even if there
is a single-bit error in the 7-bit check word.
Multi-bit errors are flagged but not corrected. These errors may occur in any two bits of the
39-bit word from memory (two errors in the 32-bit data word, two errors in the 7-bit check
word, or one error in each word). A separate non-maskable interrupt is generated by the
ECC logic for multi-bit errors.
These two interrupts are routed to the interrupt steering logic in the programmable interrupt
controller. See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for more details and
further options.
If there is any write that is less than the full four bytes, there is a loss of performance due
to ECC. The seven check-bits for any given ECC data field are generated over the entire
field. In other words, all four bytes of data are taken into account in generating the seven
check-bits associated with that data. If any changes were to occur to any of the data bytes,
the check-bits would no longer be correct.
10-16
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
To avoid this, whenever a single byte is to be written to the SDRAM (or for that matter, any
number of bytes that is less than the full doubleword), ECC first reads the whole data word,
checks for any single- or multi-bit errors, and, if any are present, generates the
corresponding interrupt and corrects the data (for a single-bit error), modifies the necessary
bytes, and then generates the check-bits across the modified four bytes. Finally, the entire
ECC word is stored back into memory. This process is called a read-modify-write operation.
If a full doubleword is written, then there is no need for a read-modify-write cycle. Also, a
partial doubleword write to a write-protected region does not generate a read-modify-write
cycle.
Since seven check-bits are required for each bank of SDRAM if ECC is enabled, ECC
cannot be supported if 168-pin (72-bit) SDRAM DIMMS are used. If a single 168-pin (72bit) DIMM is used for supporting two banks, then ECC cannot be enabled due to lack of
extra check bits in the DIMM. In this case, extra SDRAM devices must be used to store the
check-bits.
To assist in the development of software to handle ECC single-bit and multi-bit errors, the
ECC Check Code Test (ECCCKTEST) register (MMCR offset 23h) is provided. This register
can be used to override the automatically-generated ECC check code with a user-provided
check code for the following SDRAM write access.
10.5.4
Buffering
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes two buffering techniques to optimize the memory
system performance. These include the write buffer and read buffer.
When enabled, the write buffer effectively decouples master write activity from incurring
the SDRAM latency penalty. This, in effect, also leaves SDRAM free to satisfy a higher
demand in read activity by all masters. In addition, the write buffer provides write merge
and write collapse functions to better utilize FIFO storage and reduce the number of
transactions to SDRAM. The read merge function is also provided to reduce data coherency
overhead by eliminating the need to flush the write buffer prior to a read access. During a
read request, should the write buffer contain more recent data than SDRAM, the data from
the write buffer is merged with data returned from SDRAM, eliminating the need to flush
the write buffer.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports a Read-Around-Write feature when the write
buffer is enabled. When the write buffer is enabled, the SDRAM controller’s arbiter favors
read activity, effectively giving read priority to SDRAM over write data that has been posted
in the write buffer. This feature is intended to increase master read performance.
The read buffer provides two cache lines (32 bytes total) of storage for read data returned
from SDRAM. Read requests that can be retrieved from the read buffer can be provided in
zero wait states to the requesting master. The SDRAM controller always fetches an entire
cache line of data from the SDRAM and stores it in the read buffer, independently of the
amount of data requested during the master access. For example, during a read request
from a non-bursting master (i.e., single doubleword request), the SDRAM controller fetches
the entire cache line of data from SDRAM and stores it in the read buffer.
The read buffer’s read-ahead function, when enabled, provides a mechanism to prefetch
the cache line of information from SDRAM that immediately follows the requested cache
line. This is in anticipation of future accesses to the prefetched line. The read-ahead feature
of the read buffer enhances read burst activity by the Am5x86 CPU and external PCI master
burst read requests. Read prefetches, when enabled, occur only for read burst transfer
requests of two or more doublewords. Single doubleword read requests do not cause a
read-ahead buffer prefetch of the next cache line; they only cause the cache line of the
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-17
SDRAM Controller
demanded access to be read into the read buffer. GP-DMA read accesses are always single
word accesses.
The read buffer is always enabled, however, the read-ahead feature and write buffer can
be independently enabled and are disabled after a system reset or programmable reset.
For more information on the SDRAM controller’s buffering, see Chapter 11, “Write Buffer
and Read Buffer”.
10.5.5
SDRAM Control Configuration
The SDRAM controller provides the following control functions:
■ Refresh rate
■ Refresh enable
■ SDRAM pin drive strength
■ Write buffer test mode
■ Operation mode select
10.5.5.1
Refresh Control
To refresh the SDRAM devices, the SDRAM controller issues the Auto Refresh command.
Since the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is intended to support a variety of vendors, the refresh
rate at which this command is issued is a configurable parameter. It is specified in the DRAM
Refresh Request Speed (RFSH_SPD) bit field in the SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register
(MMCR offset 10h) and offers either 7.8-ms, 15.6-ms, 31.2-ms or 62.5-ms periods.
Note: Since the minimum refresh rate is 62.5 ms, which is below the maximum time between
an Active command and a Precharge command (TRAS), the SDRAM controller does not
support a RAS time-out feature.
The refresh rate is calculated from this equation:
Refresh Rate = Interval / Row
where:
Interval is how often a particular row must be refreshed
Row is the number of rows within the device that must be refreshed
Table 10-11 shows the SDRAM refresh rates and their corresponding intervals. SDRAM
devices contain either two or four internal banks. During each refresh cycle, all internal
SDRAM banks are refreshed simultaneously. This implies that a 2-bank architecture
performs dual-row refresh and a 4-bank architecture performs a quad-row refresh, per
refresh cycle.
Table 10-11 SDRAM Refresh Rates
10-18
Refresh Rate
Number of
Rows
7.8 ms
15.6 ms
31.2 ms
62.5 ms
256
2 ms
4 ms
8 ms
16 ms
512
4 ms
8 ms
16 ms
32 ms
1024
8 ms
16 ms
32 ms
64 ms
2048
16 ms
32 ms
64 ms
128 ms
4096
32 ms
64 ms
128 ms
8192
64 ms
128 ms
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
For example, if an SDRAM device is organized as 2M x 8 x 4 banks (8Mb x 8) with 4096
rows and 512 columns and requires a 64-ms refresh interval, by using Table 10-11, the
refresh rate is 15.6 ms.
During an SDRAM refresh period, all enabled banks are issued an Auto Refresh command.
However, during a refresh cycle, SDRAM devices require a somewhat large amount of
current, which could become quite large when considering a simultaneous refresh of
multiple banks within the same clock period. To prevent this, the SDRAM controller staggers
the bank refresh by selecting one bank at a time. This results in only one bank being issued
an Auto Refresh command during any given clock, rather than all banks within the same
clock. This method results in a slightly larger amount of overhead associated with refresh
cycles, but prevents large current surges to the SDRAM banks on the system circuit board.
Figure 10-12 on page 10-27 shows an SDRAM staggered refresh cycle.
SDRAM refresh cycles must be enabled only when the SDRAM Operation Mode Select
specifier is in normal SDRAM mode. The Refresh Enable (RFSH_ENB) bit is located in the
SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register (MMCR offset 10h).
10.5.5.2
Drive-Strength Selection
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides selectable drive strength options on all address,
data and control signals to provide support for different SDRAM device loads presented by
different system designs.
Pins with selectable drive strength options include:
■ MA12–MA0 (memory address)
■ BA1–BA0 (bank address)
■ MD31–MD0 (memory data)
■ MECC6–MECC0 (ECC data)
■ SCS3–SCS0
■ SDQM3–SDQM0
■ SCASA–SCASB
■ SRASA–SRASB
■ SWEA–SWEB
With the exception of SCS3–SCS0, these pins are equipped to drive 12 mA, 18 mA or 24
mA of current. SCS3–SCS0 drive either 18 mA or 12 mA.
The SDRAM interface drive strength can be changed in the Drive Strength Control (DSCTL)
register (MMCR offset C28h), which is described in the Programmable I/O section of the
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Register Set Manual, order #22005.
10.5.5.3
Write Buffer Test Mode
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports a write buffer test mode, using the alternate
function of the CF_ROM_GPCS, DATASTRB, and CF_DRAM pins that provide master
contribution information. As WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0, these three pins indicate whether the
Am5x86 CPU, PCI bus master, GP-DMA, or a combination of these (because the write
buffer may collapse or merge write data) has contributed into the rank of the write buffer
currently in the process of being written to SDRAM. This option is specified with the
WB_TST_ENB bit in the SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register (MMCR offset 10h). See
Chapter 24, “System Test and Debugging”, for more information on the uses of these pins.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-19
SDRAM Controller
10.5.5.4
Operation Mode Select
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides an SDRAM Operation Mode Select
(OPMODE_SEL) bit field in the SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register (MMCR offset 10h).
These bits are used to select a particular mode of operation of the SDRAM controller.
■ The default mode of operation is normal SDRAM mode. This is the mode in which the
SDRAM controller must be configured for data access.
■ The NOP, All Banks Precharge, Load Mode Register, and Auto Refresh commands
specified by the OPMODE_SEL bit field are primarily used for SDRAM device
initialization.
When specifying NOP, All Banks Precharge, Load Mode Register, or Auto Refresh
commands, the command is not actually applied to the SDRAM devices until an Am5x86
CPU access to SDRAM occurs (either a read or write cycle).
The write buffer must be disabled prior to utilizing the NOP, All Banks Precharge, Load
Mode Register, or Auto Refresh OPMODE_SEL bit field if the Am5x86 CPU cycle executed
to generate these cycle types to the SDRAM devices is a write cycle.
The All Banks Precharge command should be issued prior to bank configuration changes.
This places the SDRAM devices in an idle state and clears the SDRAM controller’s page
table entries.
See “SDRAM Device Initialization” on page 10-30 for more information.
10.5.6
SDRAM Timing Configuration
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides independent timing configuration for SDRAM
devices. The following timing parameters are configurable:
■ CAS latency (CL)
■ RAS precharge (TRP)
■ RAS-to-CAS delay (TRCD)
■ RAS-to-RAS or auto-refresh-to-RAS (TRC)
Note that the write recovery time (TWR) parameter is fixed to 2T (where T refers to a 15-ns
clock period for a 33.333-MHz crystal).
10.5.6.1
CAS Latency (CL)
The CAS latency (CL) of an SDRAM device specifies the number of clocks between a read
command being issued until the first piece of read data is available. After this delay, read
data is returned on each subsequent clock.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports CAS latency options for either 2T or 3T (where
T refers to a 15-ns clock period for a 33.333-MHz crystal). This parameter is a configuration
option, since some SDRAM devices have slightly better access timing when configured for
CL = 3. The CAS_LAT bit in the SDRAM Timing Control (DRCTMCTL) register (MMCR
offset 12h) is used to specify this value.
The CL parameter is programmed into the device with the Load Mode Register command.
See “SDRAM Device Initialization” on page 10-30 for more information.
10-20
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
10.5.6.2
RAS Precharge (TRP)
The RAS Precharge (TRP) parameter of an SDRAM device refers to the minimum period
of time that must be met following a Precharge command until a subsequent command to
the same bank can be issued. After TRP is met, the SDRAM device is considered to be in
the idle state. TRP varies between device vendors and device speed grades. Even though
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides a 66-MHz SDRAM device clock, faster devices are
supported (83-MHz, 100-MHz, 125-MHz, etc.).
Since the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is intended to support a variety of vendors and speed
grades, TRP is a configurable parameter and offers either 2T, 3T, 4T or 6T timing (where T
refers to a 15-ns clock period for a 33.333-MHz crystal). It is specified in the
RAS_PCHG_DLY bit field of the SDRAM Timing Control (DRCTMCTL) register (MMCR
offset 12h).
10.5.6.3
RAS-to-CAS Delay (TRCD)
The RAS-to-CAS delay parameter of an SDRAM device refers to the minimum period of
time between the time an Active command is issued to the time a read or write command
may be issued. This is referred to the TRCD parameter.
Since the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is intended to support a variety of vendors and speed
grades, the TRCD parameter can be programmed for either 2T, 3T, or 4T timing (where T
refers to a 15-ns clock period for a 33.333-MHz crystal). Most current SDRAM devices
expect a minimum TRCD of 30 ns (or greater), which may be violated with a 2T setting under
heavy loading. This parameter is specified in the RAS_CAS_DLY bit field of the SDRAM
Timing Control (DRCTMCTL) register (MMCR offset 12h).
10.5.6.4
RAS-to-RAS or Auto-Refresh-to-RAS (TRC)
The RAS-to-RAS or auto-refresh-to-RAS parameter (TRC) of an SDRAM device refers to
the minimum period of time between an Active command and another Active command to
the same internal bank. It also pertains to the minimum amount of time between an Auto
Refresh command and an Active command.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not provide a configuration for the T RC parameter for
the timing between an Active command and a following Active command to the same
internal bank, since this is a function of the TRCD and TRP parameters. Two accesses to
different rows of the same internal bank result in an Active command being issued for each
access, but the Active command associated with the second access is always preceded
by a Precharge Bank command. Because of the preceding Precharge Bank command for
the second access, a combination of the TRCD and TRP parameters must provide adequate
timing such that the TRC parameter is not violated.
The minimum TRC for an Active command to an Active command is calculated as:
TRC = TRCD (configuration setting in number of clocks) + TRP (configuration setting in number
of clocks) + 2T (where T refers to a 15-ns clock period for a 33.333-MHz crystal).
When a TRCD of 2T is specified, 1T is added to the TRC equation to enforce a minimum
TRAS of 5T.
TRC also applies between an Auto Refresh command and an Active command. For this,
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller enforces a fixed 9T timing (where T refers to a 15-ns clock
period for a 33.333-MHz crystal) following the last Auto Refresh command of a staggered
refresh sequence.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-21
SDRAM Controller
10.5.6.5
Minimum RAS (TRAS)
The minimum RAS parameter of an SDRAM device refers to the minimum period of time
that a row must remain open. This is the period of time between an Active command and
a Precharge command to the same internal bank. This parameter is referred to as TRAS.
Since the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller performs single write cycles, the minimum TRAS
occurs during write cycles. TRAS is a function of TRCD. This parameter is calculated as:
TRAS = TRCD (configuration setting in number of clocks) + 2T (where T refers to a 15-ns
clock period for a 33.333-MHz crystal).
A minimum TRAS of 5T is enforced when a TRCD of 2T is specified.
10.5.7
Bus Cycles
10.5.7.1
SDRAM Burst Read Cycle
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller always bursts up to four doublewords on a read as shown
in Figure 10-7. The burst read to the SDRAM could occur due to any of the following reasons:
■ Am5x86 CPU read
■ Read buffer’s read-ahead prefetch
■ ÉlanSC520 microcontroller responding to PCI burst cycle as a target
■ GP-DMA
Figure 10-7
SDRAM Burst Read Cycle (Read-Ahead Feature Disabled) (Page Miss/Page Hit)
clk_cpu
ads
x5_abus
0
4
8
10
C
blast
x5_data_in
a
b
c
e
d
brdy
pghit
clk_mem
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
Command
MD31–MD0
Bnk
Row
Col
Col
Pre
Act
Rd
Rd
CAS latency = 2
a b c d
CAS latency = 2
e
Notes:
This timing diagram does not account for resynchronization of SDRAM signals with CLKMEMIN.
10-22
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
10.5.7.2
SDRAM Write Cycle
With the write buffer enabled, all writes to the SDRAM come from the write buffer. With the
write buffer disabled, the SDRAM write cycle could occur due to any of the following reasons:
■ Am5x86 CPU
■ ÉlanSC520 microcontroller responding to PCI burst cycle as target
■ GP-DMA
All the writes are configured for single write mode, with each write occurring independently.
Am5x86 CPU non-burst write transfers are shown in Figure 10-8. An Am5x86 CPU burst
write cycle is shown in Figure 10-9.
Figure 10-8
SDRAM Write Cycle (Write Buffer and ECC Disabled) (Page Miss/page Hit)
clk_cpu
ads
x5_abus
0
4
8
blast
x5_data_out
a
b
c
brdy
pghit
clk_mem
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
Bnk
Row
Col
Col
Col
Command
Pre
Act
Wr
Wr
Wr
a
b
c
MD31–MD0
Notes:
This timing diagram does not account for resynchronization of SDRAM signals with CLKMEMIN.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-23
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-9
SDRAM CPU Burst Write (Write Buffer and ECC Disabled) (Page Miss/Page Hit)
clk_cpu
ads
x5_abus
0
4
8
C
b
c
d
10
blast
x5_data_out
a
1a
brdy
pghit
clk_mem
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
Bnk
Row
Col
Col
Col
Col
Command
Pre
Act
Wr
Wr
Wr
Wr
a
b
c
d
MD31–MD0
Notes:
This timing diagram does not account for resynchronization of SDRAM signals with CLKMEMIN.
10.5.7.3
ECC SDRAM Cycles
When ECC is enabled, additional overhead is necessary to compensate for ECC logic
delays and read-modify-write cycles due to partial doubleword write cycles. The least
amount of overhead occurs during a full doubleword write to the SDRAM. In the case of a
read, however, the ECC has to generate the new check bits, check for any errors, and
generate an interrupt if an error occurs. A delay of one CPU clock cycle is added for SDRAM
read cycles with ECC enabled. With ECC enabled, read page hit burst timing of 4-1-1-1
(where CL = 2) is achieved, compared to a 3-1-1-1 (where CL = 2) burst with ECC disabled.
See Figure 10-10 showing the read cycles with ECC enabled.
10-24
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-10 SDRAM Burst Read Cycle with ECC Enabled
clk_cpu
ads
x5_abus
0
4
x5_data_in
a
b
8
c
C
d
brdy
pghit
clk_mem
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
Command
MD31–MD0
Col
Rd
CAS latency = 2
a
b
c
d
MECC6–
MECC0
Notes:
This timing diagram does not account for resynchronization of SDRAM signals with CLKMEMIN.
The ECC overhead is even higher in the case of a read-modify-write cycle, as shown in
Figure 10-11. As shown, a write cycle with a partial doubleword requires an SDRAM read
cycle followed by a write cycle. Note that the SDRAM read burst is terminated early by the
write cycle. See “Error Correction Code (ECC)” on page 10-16 for details of a read-modifywrite cycle.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
10-25
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-11 SDRAM Read-Modify-Write Cycle (for Data Write) with ECC Enabled (Page Hit)1
clk_cpu
ads
w/r
x5_abus
1011
be3–be0
00AB0000
x5_data_out
brdy
pghit
clk_mem
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
Col
Col
Command
Rd
Wr
CAS latency = 2
a
MD31–MD0
a2
a
MECC6–MECC0
Notes:
1. This timing diagram does not account for resynchronization of SDRAM signals with CLKMEMIN.
2. Contents modified with the active bytes in the write word (00AB0000).
10.5.7.4
SDRAM Auto Refresh Cycle
Auto refresh, as shown in Figure 10-12, is used during normal operation of the SDRAM
and is analogous to the CAS-before-RAS refresh in EDO DRAMs. This command is
nonpersistent, so it must be issued each time a refresh is required. The internal banks will
be precharged and idle for a minimum of the Precharge time (TRP) before the Auto Refresh
command is applied. When the refresh cycle has completed, all the banks of the SDRAM
will be in the precharged (idle) state. Note that this figure shows a staggered refresh cycle,
as described in “Refresh Control” on page 10-18.
The purpose of the programmable reset in the memory controller is to maintain the state
of the SDRAM during a reset. This allows SDRAM refreshes to occur during reset. See
Chapter 6, “Reset Generation”, for more information.
10-26
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
SDRAM Controller
Figure 10-12 SDRAM Auto Refresh Cycle
CLKMEMOUT
SCS0
SCS1
SCS2
SCS3
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
All Bnk.
Command
10.5.7.5
Pre.
Nop
Auto Ref.
Auto Ref.
Auto Ref.
Auto Ref.
SDRAM Mode Register Access Cycles
The mode register contained in the SDRAM devices is used to define the specific mode of
operation of the SDRAM. This definition includes the selection of the burst length, burst
type, CAS latency, operating mode, and write burst mode. An SDRAM Load Mode
Command is shown in Figure 10-13. See “SDRAM Device Initialization” on page 10-30 for
information on programming the mode register.
Figure 10-13 SDRAM Mode Register Access
CLKMEMOUT
MA12–MA0,
BA1–BA0
Code
Auto Ref.
Command
10.5.8
Load Mode
Row
Act
Interrupts
The SDRAM controller implements Error Correction Code logic to detect and correct singlebit errors and detect multi-bit errors.
Separate interrupts can be generated for both single-bit error and multi-bit error detection.
These two interrupts are routed from the SDRAM controller to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
■ These two interrupts can be individually enabled by using the MULT_INT_ENB and
SGL_INT_ENB bits in the ECC Control (ECCCTL) register (MMCR offset 20h).
■ The interrupt signals remain asserted to the PIC until a write is performed to the
MBIT_ERR and SBIT_ERR status bits in the ECC Status (ECCSTA) register (MMCR
offset 21h). This write is typically performed by the interrupt handler associated with the
interrupt.
Note: The multi-bit error interrupt, when enabled, always generates a non-maskable
interrupt (NMI).
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SDRAM Controller
10.5.9
Software Considerations
10.5.9.1
ECC Errors
The ECC logic in the SDRAM controller detects single-bit error and multi-bit errors in the
SDRAM data being accessed.
■ When a single-bit error is detected, a maskable interrupt is generated. See Chapter 15,
“Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for information on steering this interrupt.
■ When a multi-bit error is detected, a non-maskable interrupt (NMI) is generated.
The interrupt handler should read the ECC Status (ECCSTA) register (MMCR offset 21h)
logging the detection of a single-bit error (SBIT_ERR) or a multi-bit error (MBIT_ERR),
depending on which interrupt signal is generated. The physical address where the error
occurred is latched for both single-bit and multi-bit errors in the ECC Single-Bit Error Address
(ECCSBADD) register (MMCR offset 24h) and ECC Multi-Bit Error Address (ECCMBADD)
register (MMCR offset 28h), respectively. An encoded value of the data bit position where
the single-bit error occurred is also latched in the ECC_CHK_POS bit field of the ECC
Check Bit Position (ECCCKBPOS) register (MMCR offset 22h).
All latched information pertaining to an error is latched on the first occurrence and cleared
when the latch is re-enabled. Information for errors that occur after the first occurrence, but
before the latch is re-enabled, are lost.
10.5.9.2
Buffer Disabling During SDRAM Configuration
Prior to altering the SDRAM configuration, the write buffer and read-ahead feature of the
read buffer must be disabled. This is to prevent SDRAM configuration changes while a write
buffer or read-ahead prefetch to SDRAM is in progress. During bank configuration, it is
important to not enable an SDRAM bank with the Bank Ending Address specified as 0.
10.5.9.3
Write Protection
Regions of SDRAM can be write-protected through the use of a Programmable Attribute
Region (PAR) register. A write-protected region allows read cycle access, however, data is
not written to the devices during a write cycle access. When writing to a region that is writeprotected, an SDRAM write cycle still occurs; however, the SDQM3–SDQM0 data mask
signals are active throughout the cycle to prevent the data from being written to the devices.
If ECC is enabled and a noncomplete doubleword access is write-protected, the SDRAM
controller does not generate a read-modify-write cycle.
10.5.10
Latency
The SDRAM controller’s write buffer and read buffer are designed to enhance the memory
system’s bandwidth and performance. When enabled, the write buffer decouples master
write or burst write activity from incurring the SDRAM access latency penalty along with
the overhead associated with SDRAM refresh cycles. When enabled, the read-ahead
feature of the read buffer decouples master read activity from incurring the SDRAM latency
penalty on read buffer hits. For more information, see Chapter 11, “Write Buffer and Read
Buffer”.
SDRAM devices require periodic refresh cycles to maintain data integrity within the device.
This SDRAM activity must occur at fixed intervals as high priority requests. In the event
that a data access request and a refresh cycle request occur at the same time, the data
access request is stalled until the higher priority refresh cycle is complete. Devices that can
tolerate a slower refresh period result in a system with less refresh overhead, leaving
SDRAM free for data access requests. To support these devices, the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller provides an adjustable refresh rate of 7.8 ms, 15.6 ms, 31.2 ms or 62.5 ms.
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SDRAM Controller
When the write buffer is enabled, writes to SDRAM occur independently of any associated
master activity until the write buffer is empty. Since the SDRAM data bus may be shared
with the ROM/Flash controller, write-buffer writes may request concurrently with master
requests to ROM/Flash. Should these two independent activities concurrently request
access to the data bus, the ROM/Flash cycle takes precedence over the write-buffer write
in favor of satisfying the requesting master. However, a ROM/Flash cycle may be temporarily
delayed should a master request ROM/Flash access during a write-buffer write in progress.
Furthermore, a ROM/Flash access that occurs during a read-ahead prefetch results in the
ROM/Flash access being temporarily delayed until the read prefetch completes. See
Chapter 12, “ROM/Flash Controller”, for information on ROM/Flash sharing the SDRAM
data bus.
ECC results in additional latencies due to required read-modify-write cycles. The readmodify-write cycles are necessary when incomplete doublewords are written to the SDRAM
devices (i.e., any writes less than four bytes). Read-modify-write is required to update the
ECC code to include the information reflected in the partial doubleword to be written.
However, a partial doubleword write to a write-protected region does not generate a readmodify-write cycle.
Prior to a write, the following sequence occurs:
1. The complete doubleword and ECC code is read from SDRAM and checked for errors
(the respective interrupt is generated if an error is detected)
2. The new ECC code is generated to include the data just read and the new data to be
written.
3. The complete modified doubleword and modified ECC code is written back into the
SDRAM.
Should the write cycle be a complete doubleword, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not
require a read of the SDRAM first. This reduces the overhead associated with 32-bit writes
to SDRAM. However, since a read is not performed prior to a doubleword write, the contents
in SDRAM are not checked prior to the data being written.
10.6
INITIALIZATION
10.6.1
Programmable Reset
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM controller provides the capability to maintain the
contents of the SDRAM during a reset event. In effect, two types of reset are supported:
■ System reset—A complete reset where the entire SDRAM controller is reset and
contents of the SDRAM devices are lost.
■ Programmable reset—The SDRAM controller configuration is maintained and the
contents of the SDRAM devices are also maintained by maintaining refresh cycles
throughout the programmable reset duration.
Selection of the reset type is controlled by the PRG_RST_ENB bit in the Reset Configuration
(RESCFG) register (MMCR offset D72h). With this bit, the PRGRESET pin can be
programmed to reset the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller for a programmable reset. On powerup, the PRGRESET pin is disabled and must be programmed to be operational.
See “System Reset with SDRAM Retention” on page 6-6 for detailed information on the
sources of these resets.
The purpose of the programmable reset in the memory controller is to maintain the state
of the SDRAM during an ÉlanSC520 microcontroller reset. This requires SDRAM refreshes
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SDRAM Controller
to occur throughout the entire duration of the programmable reset. Upon the assertion of
the programmable reset, the SDRAM controller arbiter lets the current SDRAM access
complete before returning the controller state machines to their idle states. This prevents
data corruption in the SDRAM array should the programmable reset be asserted during an
access to SDRAM. All SDRAM controller configuration is maintained.
Note: The contents of the write buffer are discarded for both types of reset. Also, the enable
states of the write buffer and read buffer are not maintained after a programmable reset.
Therefore, if the write buffer and read buffer were enabled prior to the programmable reset,
software must re-enable them after the programmable reset.
10.6.2
SDRAM Device Initialization
Section 10.6.2– Section 10.6.4 provide details on enabling the core and SDRAM
configuration. However, prior to altering the SDRAM configuration, the write buffer and readahead feature of the read buffer must be disabled. This is to prevent SDRAM configuration
changes while a write buffer or read-ahead prefetch to SDRAM is in progress.
Refresh should be disabled anytime the SDRAM controller is not operating in normal
SDRAM mode. SDRAM refresh cycles should only be enabled when the OPMODE_SEL
bit field is configured for normal SDRAM mode. After the SDRAM devices are initialized
(with refresh cycles remaining disabled), they can be reliably accessed.
If the Error Correction Code (ECC) logic for SDRAM is enabled, the ECC operation requires
that SDRAM and its associated ECC memory be initialized. This is accomplished by the
boot code that must write to every location in SDRAM. This process initializes the ECC
SDRAM to reflect the proper Hamming code for its associated data. If this procedure is not
performed, false errors will occur when reading or when writing data smaller than a 32-bit
doubleword. See “Error Correction Code (ECC)” on page 10-16 for a more detailed
discussion of ECC.
10.6.2.1
Operation Mode Select
SDRAM devices must be powered up and initialized in a predefined manner prior to access.
The SDRAM controller’s SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register (MMCR offset 10h) provides
support for this procedure via the OPMODE_SEL field.
■ By default, the OPMODE_SEL bit field reflects a normal SDRAM mode of operation.
However, a normal SDRAM mode of operation refers to the mode the SDRAM controller
must be configured in after SDRAM device initialization is complete. Normal SDRAM
mode allows read and write accesses to occur as requested by a master. SDRAM refresh
cycles should be enabled only when the OPMODE_SEL field is configured for normal
SDRAM mode.
■ The other settings for the OPMODE_SEL field force all SDRAM accesses to a specific
SDRAM command type: NOP, Precharge, Load Command, or Refresh. Setting the
OPMODE_SEL bits to non-normal SDRAM mode results in all banks being selected
(i.e., SCS3–SCS0 are driven active), so that the command is applied to all SDRAM
devices in the system.
To generate the command specified in the OPMODE_SEL field, an Am5x86 CPU read or
write cycle must be generated to the SDRAM region. The specified command occurs at
the SDRAM interface rather than the actual read or write cycle requested by the Am5x86
CPU.
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10.6.2.2
NOP Command
Once power is applied and the clock is stable, most SDRAM devices require a 100-ms delay
prior to applying an executable command. Therefore, boot code must guarantee that
SDRAM is not accessed immediately after reset. During this period and continuing at least
through the end of this period, the NOP command should be applied. During initialization,
the NOP command is enabled, with a binary pattern of 001b being written to the Operation
Mode Select bits. An Am5x86 CPU read or write cycle must be generated to the SDRAM
region to cause the generation of the specified command.
10.6.2.3
Precharge Command
Once the 100-ms delay has been satisfied with at least one NOP command having been
applied, a Precharge command should be applied to all the internal banks within a device,
thereby placing the device in the idle state. The All Banks Precharge command can be
enabled during initialization, with a binary pattern of 010b being written to the Operation
Mode Select bits. In this mode, MA10 (precharge) is held high during the precharge to
enable the All Banks Precharge. Since all banks are selected, all banks will be enabled to
interpret this command.
10.6.2.4
Auto Refresh Command
Once in the idle state, two Auto Refresh cycles must be performed. The Auto Refresh
command can be enabled during initialization, with a binary pattern of 100b being written
to the Operation Mode Select bits. The boot code must perform at least two accesses to
SDRAM when in this mode.
10.6.2.5
Mode Register Programming
Once the Auto Refresh cycles are complete, the SDRAM is ready for mode register
programming. The Load Mode Register command can be enabled during initialization with
a binary pattern of 011b being written to the OPMODE_SEL field. Since all SDRAM banks
are selected (i.e., SCS3–SCS0 are driven active), all banks will be configured to the same
mode. The mode register is programmed to define the SDRAM devices burst length, burst
type, CAS latency, operating mode, and write burst mode.
Of these five parameters, only the CAS latency parameter is configured by the user via the
CAS_LAT bit in the SDRAM Timing Control (DRCTMCTL) register (MMCR offset 12h). The
programmable options for CAS latency are 2T or 3T, where T = 15-ns clock period for a
33.333-MHz crystal. The other parameters are fixed by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Table 10-12 shows the parameters and their associated settings. All bits reflecting these
configurations are driven on the MA12–MA0 signals during a Load Mode Register
command. Since SDRAM devices require only 12 bits for the command width, MA12 is
driven Low during this cycle.
Table 10-12 Load Mode Register Settings
Parameter
Setting
Description
Burst length
Four phases
Always read burst four
Burst type
Interleaved
Follow non-linear burst
CAS latency
Programmable
Select either 2T or 3T (see text)
Operating mode
Standard operation
Defined
Write burst mode
Single location
Single mode
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10.6.3
Boot Process
In a closed embedded system, the designer may be able to simply choose the correct values
to output to the configuration registers. Systems where the SDRAM parameters are not
known at boot time present more issues. Many SDRAM considerations, such as signal
loading, cannot be accurately determined by software. One way to deal with this issue is
to have a staged boot process, as follows:
1. First, all timing registers are programmed to assume a worst-case system by default
after reset.
2. Next, the SDRAM banks are tested for SDRAM existence, organization, and size. Banks
that contain SDRAM are enabled with the correct parameters.
3. A system memory test is then performed to ensure that there are no problems. The user
can be notified, and bad banks can be disabled, if any problems are encountered.
Since the user has control over SDRAM setup parameters, they must not be applied to the
SDRAM array until late in the boot process, so that the setup program can always be used
to recover the system if it becomes unbootable.
10.6.4
SDRAM Sizing Algorithm
The SDRAM sizing algorithm must alter the SDRAM configuration registers and write and
read specific boundary SDRAM locations to determine where the SDRAM bank boundary
exists. Data that is written and then returned on a read implies that valid SDRAM exists at
that location.
However, prior to accessing the SDRAM devices, the mode register for the device must be
programmed to configure the devices before they are functional. SDRAM device
initialization is discussed in more detail in Section 10.6.2. Note that SDRAM refresh cycles
should only be enabled when the OPMODE_SEL bit field is configured for normal SDRAM
mode. After the SDRAM devices are initialized (with refresh cycles remaining disabled),
they can be reliably accessed.
The SDRAM controller provides many configuration registers with control and timing
configuration functions. However, only a subset of these registers is required to be accessed
during the sizing procedure. In particular, the bits associated with specifying the column
address width, the internal bank count specifier, and the bank ending address are the most
critical for the sizing process.
■ The column address width is used to specify the column width of the device.
■ The internal bank count bit specifies if the device supports either two or four internal
banks.
■ The SDRAM Bank 0–3 Ending Address (DRCBENDADR) register (MMCR offset 18h)
is used to specify the physical address bank boundary.
The column boundary method is used to accept a wide variety of SDRAM devices and
symmetries. In configuring the symmetry of the device, this method requires only the column
address width to be specified. Device addressing and symmetries are discussed in “SDRAM
Addressing” on page 10-12.
It is important to point out that whenever the column address width, internal bank count, or
bank ending address configuration is going to be changed, the All Banks Precharge
command must be issued prior to the configuration update. The All Banks Precharge
command can be enabled with a binary pattern of 010b being written to the OPMODE_SEL
bit field. A cycle to SDRAM must be run for the command to take effect. The All Banks
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Precharge command closes all open pages in the SDRAM devices, thus placing them in
an idle state. This also forces the SDRAM controller’s page table entries to be invalidated.
The column address requirement of the device specifies its symmetry (i.e., its usable
number of columns, or page width, that the SDRAM controller can utilize), but does not
specify the amount of addressable SDRAM in the 32-bit bank. The bank ending address
is used to specify the physical address boundary of each bank. The bank ending address
is independent of device density or device data width. During SDRAM sizing, a bank should
never be enabled with a bank ending address of 0. The internal bank count specifier is used
to inform the SDRAM controller of the internal bank architecture of the device, since SDRAM
devices can contain either two or four internal banks.
■ To dynamically determine the amount of SDRAM memory in the entire system, the sizing
algorithm must first determine the amount of SDRAM installed per each external bank.
– To do this, the algorithm must enable one external bank at a time and start with the
largest possible configuration for that bank, which is 11 columns, 4 internal banks,
and 13 rows.
– If a smaller-sized SDRAM is installed in a given external bank, aliases will be created,
and the sizing algorithm uses the aliasing to determine the actual size of the external
SDRAM bank.
■ Note that while SDRAM sizing is being performed, the Am5x86 CPU cache, the SDRAM
ECC, the SDRAM write buffer, and the SDRAM read-ahead feature should all be
disabled.
For example, to setup external SDRAM Bank 3 to its largest possible SDRAM configuration
setting, a value of A000h should be written into the SDRAM Bank Configuration (DRCCFG)
register (MMCR offset 14h), and a value of FF000000h should be written into the SDRAM
Bank 0–3 Ending Address (DRCBENDADR) register (MMCR offset 18h).
10.6.4.1
Determining the Number of Columns for an External Bank
Determining the correct number of columns for a given external bank of SDRAM can be
accomplished by four writes and five reads of a given external bank.
Four unique data patterns must be selected.
An example is:
pattern1 = 0Bh
pattern2 = 0Ah
pattern3 = 09h
pattern4 = 08h
Four SDRAM memory addresses must be selected that all have the same internal bank
and SDRAM row address bits (processor address bits 31–13 constant) and the same low
order column address bits (processor address bits 9–0 constant), but with specially selected
column addresses for processor address bits 12–10.
■ The first address must have SDRAM column address bits 11, 9, and 8 (processor
address bits 12–10) on.
■ The second address must have SDRAM column address bit 11 (processor address bit
12) off and SDRAM column address bits 9–8 (processor address bits 11–10) on.
■ The third address must have SDRAM column address bits 11 and 9 (processor address
bits 12-11) off and SDRAM column address bit 8 (processor address bit 10) on.
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SDRAM Controller
■ The final address must have SDRAM column address bits 11, 9, and 8 (processor
address bits 12–10) off.
There are many addresses which meet this criteria, of which one example is:
address1 = 0E001E00h
address2 = 0E000E00h
address3 = 0E000600h
address4 = 0E000200h
Here is the sequence to determine the number of columns for a given external bank of
SDRAM:
1. First, pattern1 is written and read back from address1.
2. Pattern2 is written and read back from address2.
3. Pattern3 is written and read back from address3.
4. Pattern4 is written and read back from address4.
5. If any of the four reads fail to produce the same pattern that was written, then either
SDRAM does not exist for this external bank, or the SDRAM is nonfunctional, which, in
either case, no memory is enabled and sizing continues with the next external bank.
6. If all four reads are correct, then address1 is read once again, and the pattern that is
returned by this read determines the true number of columns.
Using the patterns given in the example, the value read is the number of real columns for
the external bank.
10.6.4.2
Determining the Number of Internal Banks
Determining the correct number of internal banks and the true ending address of an external
bank requires only five writes and seven reads of the external bank.
Five unique data patterns must be selected.
An example is:
pattern5 = 3Fh
pattern6 = 1Fh
pattern7 = 0Fh
pattern8 = 07h
pattern9 = AAh
Five SDRAM memory addresses must be selected which all have the same low-order
SDRAM row address bits, the same least significant internal bank select bit (BA0), and the
same SDRAM column address bits (processor address bits 31–28 and 23–0 constant), but
with specially selected row addresses for processor address bits 27–24. Processor address
bits 27–24 is where the SDRAM rows above ROW10 are mapped in this maximum SDRAM
configuration.
■ The first address must have processor address bits 27–24 all on.
■ The second address must have processor address bit 27 off and processor address bits
26–24 on.
■ The third address must have processor address bits 27–26 off and processor address
bits 25-24 on.
■ The fourth address must have processor address bits 27–25 off and processor address
bit 24 on.
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■ The final address must have processor address bits 27–24 all off.
There are many addresses which meet this criteria, of which one example is:
address5 = 0F000000h
address6 = 07000000h
address7 = 03000000h
address8 = 01000000h
address9 = 00000000h
Here is the sequence to determine the correct number of internal banks:
1. First, pattern5 is written and read back from address5.
2. Pattern6 is written and read back from address6.
3. Pattern7 is written and read back from address7.
4. Pattern8 is written and read back from address8.
5. Pattern9 is written and read back from address9.
6. If any of these five reads fail to produce the same pattern that was written, then either
SDRAM does not exist for this external bank, or the SDRAM is nonfunctional, which in
either case no memory is enabled and sizing continues with the next external bank.
7. If all five reads are correct, then the correct number of internal banks can be determined
by reading address7 once again.
8. If the pattern read from address7 is pattern9, then only two internal banks exist for this
external bank.
9. If the pattern read from address7 is pattern7 or pattern8, then four internal banks exist.
10.If the pattern read from address7 is anything other than pattern7, pattern8, or pattern9,
then there is no valid memory for this external bank.
The reason pattern7 is read back from a 2-internal-bank SDRAM is because the SDRAM
controller thinks it has two open pages, and the SDRAM has only one open page, so the
data is retrieved erroneously from the wrong page.
10.6.4.3
Determining the True External Bank Ending Address
The true ending address can now be determined by reading adress5 again. If any value
other than pattern5, pattern6, pattern7, or pattern8 is read, then there is no valid memory
for this external bank.
Here is the sequence to determine the true external bank ending address:
1. Using the values for these patterns as in the example, the value read represents the
ending address for the external bank, if the device has 11 columns.
2. So, this value must be shifted right by the value 11, minus the actual number of columns
determined to exist.
3. This value must then be incremented by 1 and ORed with 80h to be ready to be loaded
into the appropriate byte of the SDRAM Bank 0–3 Ending Address (DRCBENDADR)
register (MMCR offset 18h).
This process is continued until all four possible external banks have been checked.
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CHAPTER
11
11.1
WRITE BUFFER AND READ BUFFER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes two buffering techniques to optimize the SDRAM
system performance. These include a write buffer and a read buffer with a read-ahead
feature.
The write buffer provides a mechanism for all masters (Am5x86 CPU, PCI, or GP-DMA) to
post write data with zero wait states. When enabled, the write buffer effectively decouples
master write activity from incurring the SDRAM latency penalty. This, in effect, also allows
SDRAM to satisfy a higher demand in read activity by all masters. In addition, the write
buffer provides write-merging and write-collapsing functions to better utilize FIFO storage
and reduce the total number of transactions to SDRAM. Data read-merging is also
supported to efficiently maintain data coherency.
The read buffer provides two cache lines (32 bytes total) of storage for read data returned
from SDRAM. The read buffer and its associated read-ahead function, when enabled,
provide a mechanism to prefetch the cache line of information from SDRAM that
immediately follows the requested cache line. This feature is provided in anticipation of
future accesses to the prefetched line (spatial locality). The read buffer is always enabled;
however, the read-ahead feature and write buffer are disabled after a system reset.
Although both the write buffer and read-ahead feature of the read buffer are tightly
integrated, they can be independently enabled.
Features of the write buffer include:
■ 32-level doubleword FIFO with random access capability
■ Content addressable memory (CAM) provides snoop capability
■ Zero wait state writes to non-full buffer
■ Provides write-merging, write-collapsing, and read-merging functions
■ Benefits Am5x86 CPU, PCI, and GP-DMA SDRAM write transfers
Features of the read buffer include:
■ Read buffer provides storage for two Am5x86 CPU cache lines (32 bytes total)
■ Zero wait state reads on read buffer hits
■ Read-ahead feature that, when enabled, prefetches the next cache line of information
from SDRAM for master read requests of two or more doublewords
■ Demand doubleword start fetch
■ Benefits Am5x86 CPU, PCI, and GP-DMA SDRAM read transfers
The write buffer is expected to enhance individual write or burst write activity by all masters.
It supplies zero wait state writes for all masters. However, the write buffer’s write-merging
and write-collapsing features greatly enhance Am5x86 CPU, PCI, and GP-DMA 8-bit and
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Write Buffer and Read Buffer
16-bit contiguous transfers, allowing multiple individual transfers to be merged into a single
transaction to SDRAM.
The read-ahead feature of the read buffer enhances read burst activity by the Am5x86 CPU
and external PCI master burst read requests. SDRAM cache line fills by the Am5x86 CPU
are probably the most common read requests. These reads typically occur as cache-line
bursts of four doubleword (32-bit) requests. PCI master burst read requests also benefit
greatly.
Each feature can be independently configured. To maintain data coherency, the read buffer
is invalidated during master write cycles or write buffer write cycles that hit an existing line
in the read buffer. Data coherency during all configuration changes of the individual features
is performed in hardware. A manual flush feature of the write buffer is provided.
11.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
The write buffer and read buffer are integrated into the SDRAM controller’s subsystem as
shown in Figure 11-1. Each is capable of functioning independently. A more detailed view
of the internal write buffer and read buffer architecture is shown in Figure 11-2.
Figure 11-1
Write Buffer and Read Buffer Block Diagram (SDRAM Subsystem)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
MA12–MA0
BA1–BA0
Write Buffer/Read Buffer
SCS3–SCS0
Address Decode Unit
CPU Interface
SCASB–SCASA
Read Buffer
SRASB–SRASA
SDQM3–SDQM0
SDRAM Controller
Write Buffer
SWEB–SWEA
CLKMEMOUT
CLKMEMIN
MECC6–MECC0
MD31–MD0
11-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
Figure 11-2
Write Buffer and Read Buffer Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Write Buffer/Read Buffer
Read Buffer
Address Latch
Address Tag 0
rd_ad
[27–2]
Address Tag 1
Read Buffer Data Latch
doubleword 7
rab_data[31–0]
x5_rd_
data[31–0]
doubleword 6
dram_
doubleword 5
data[31–0]
doubleword 4
Read-Merge
doubleword 3
doubleword 2
doubleword 1
doubleword 0
Read Buffer
Controller
x5_control
dram_control
SDRAM
Write Buffer
Controller
31
Controller
1 0
wb_ad[27–2]
x5_ad[27–2]
Address Tag
wb_be_l[3–0]
x5_be[3–0]
Byte Valid Bits
Master Trace Bits
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0
Address/Debug Tag Storage (32 ranks)
Byte 3
x5_wr_data[31–0]
Byte 2
wb_data[31–0]
Byte 1
Byte 0
Data Store (32 ranks)
11.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Table 11-1 shows the multiplexing of signals that are used for SDRAM trace support and
test. See Chapter 24, “System Test and Debugging”, for more information on the uses of
these pins.
The CFG2–CFG0 pinstrap functions associated with these three pins are sampled only as
a result of PWRGOOD assertion and do not affect the other functions of these pins, so they
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
11-3
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
are not shown in this table. When enabled, the multiplexed signals shown in Table 11-1
either disable or alter any other function that uses the same pin.
Table 11-1
11.4
SDRAM Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
Default Signal
Alternate Function Control Bit
Register
CF_ROM_GPCS
WBMSTR0
DATASTRB
WBMSTR1
SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register
(MMCR offset 10h)
CF_DRAM
WBMSTR2
WB_TST_ENB
REGISTERS
The memory-mapped registers for SDRAM buffer control are shown in Table 11-2.
Table 11-2
SDRAM Buffer Control Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
SDRAM Control
DRCCTL
10h
SDRAM write buffer test mode enable
SDRAM Buffer Control
DBCTL
40h
Write buffer enable, read-ahead enable, write
buffer watermark, write buffer flush
11.5
Function
OPERATION
The write buffer and read buffer are two features implemented in the SDRAM controller to
increase SDRAM performance.
The write buffer provides a mechanism for all masters (Am5x86 CPU, PCI, or GP-DMA) to
post write data with zero wait states, thus decoupling the master from experiencing the
write latency penalty associated with the SDRAM. When the write buffer is enabled, all
write activity to SDRAM is initiated by the write buffer.
The read-ahead feature of the read buffer is designed to increase SDRAM read performance
by prefetching the cache line following the current access, thus possibly supplying data to
the requester with zero wait states. The read-ahead feature takes advantage of the fetchforward nature of the Am5x86 CPU prefetch engine (which relies on spatial locality of
program flow) and PCI read bursts. Read prefetching (when enabled) occurs only for master
read accesses that result in a burst of two or more doublewords. A prefetch never occurs
for a GP-DMA request since GP-DMA read requests are never burst. However, during a
GP-DMA read request, the remainder of the cache line is always fetched.
The write buffer provides a debug feature that, when enabled, provides contributing master
information on external pins (WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0) during a write buffer write cycle to
SDRAM. These pins reflect which master contributed to the write buffer level in the process
of being written back. The contributing masters reflected could be either: Am5x86 CPU,
PCI, or GP-DMA. Since the write buffer supports the write-merging and write-collapsing
functions, it is possible that multiple masters contributed to the same level that is in the
process of being written to SDRAM. See Chapter 24, “System Test and Debugging”, for
more information on write buffer debug support.
11-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
11.5.1
Write Buffer
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s SDRAM controller contains 32 4-byte write data buffers.
The write buffer provides benefits beyond that of a standard posting FIFO. A standard FIFO
blindly posts data without knowledge of data that already exists within the FIFO. The write
buffer is more efficient in that each write access is snooped.
The snoop function is used to determine if data associated with the current address already
exists in the FIFO. This feature allows write data to be merged or collapsed with data that
already exists in the write buffer. This results in a reduced number of overall writes to SDRAM
for contiguous partial doubleword writes and also more efficiently utilizes the FIFO storage.
The snoop capability also provides the read-merging function to more efficiently handle
data coherency overhead. It does this by not requiring a total write buffer flush before
servicing a read cycle (which would ordinarily be required by a standard FIFO that does
not provide snooping).
The write buffer provides the following benefits:
■ Zero wait state write data posting (to a non-full buffer), effectively decoupling master
write activity from SDRAM latency
■ Read-around-write support, enhanced by the read-merging function, effectively allowing
the SDRAM controller to give read priority over buffered writes to SDRAM
■ Write-merging and write-collapsing of write data
The read-around-write feature is provided when the write buffer is enabled. It allows read
requests to SDRAM to occur in front of, or around, write buffer requests. Write buffer
requests are due to write data that was posted during previous master write activity and is
migrating to SDRAM. Read-around-write is only functional when the write buffer is enabled.
11.5.1.1
Write Buffer Disabled
When the write buffer is disabled, all write and read traffic generated by any master is
directed around the write buffer directly to SDRAM. Write data is no longer posted, and
read cycles no longer require snooping for data coherency. If the write buffer contained
valid data when it was disabled, it is automatically flushed (by hardware) to SDRAM as a
top priority before SDRAM is free to service any subsequent requests. This guarantees
data coherency. Should any master try a read or write access to SDRAM at this time, the
cycle is stalled (via wait states) until the write buffer flush is complete.
The write buffer can be manually flushed by setting the WB_FLUSH bit in the SDRAM Buffer
Control (DBCTL) register (MMCR offset 40h). Write buffer flush complete status is available
after a manual flush by reading the WB_FLUSH bit.
11.5.1.2
Write Buffer Enabled
When the write buffer is enabled, all write data by all masters are written into the write
buffer. Data are written into SDRAM from the write buffer in FIFO fashion when the SDRAM
controller is free to service the request.
The snoop capability is used to enhance performance for both read and write cycles.
■ Through the use of the snoop feature on write cycles, the write buffer can determine if
data already exists, and, if so, it either write-merges or write-collapses the data. This
enhances write performance through a reduction in the total number of required write
cycles to SDRAM for contiguous writes and also makes better utilization of the physical
storage space of the buffer.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
11-5
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
■ For read cycles, the snoop feature is used to determine if data associated with the same
address of the read request already exists in the write buffer. If data is already present,
that data is read-merged with data being returned from SDRAM. This enhances SDRAM
system performance by not requiring the write buffer to be flushed prior to satisfying a
read cycle.
Write-merging, write-collapsing, and read-merging functions are described in
Section 11.5.1.2.1 and Section 11.5.1.2.2.
Although the write buffer and read buffer service all master SDRAM memory requests,
SDRAM reads that fill the Am5x86 CPU cache are more common than SDRAM writes. To
satisfy this demand and give priority read access to SDRAM, the write buffer works with
the SDRAM controller to alleviate write overhead. This is accomplished by posting write
data in zero wait states, effectively freeing the processor earlier to continue. Should a
following read cycle occur, the read-around-write feature of the SDRAM controller gives
priority to the read cycle to prevent the master from stalling. Without the snooping capability,
the entire contents of the write buffer would have to be flushed prior to any read cycle in
the event that more current data remains posted. Because of the snooping capability,
needless flushes are not performed. This results in less overhead to maintain data
coherency.
Should a read occur to an address contained in the write buffer, the write buffer merges its
data with the data returned from SDRAM. The read-merging function maintains data
coherency and eliminates the need to flush the write buffer.
11.5.1.2.1
Write-Merging and Write-Collapsing
When enabled, the write buffer supports write-merging and write-collapsing.
■ Write-merging, as illustrated in Figure 11-3 on page 11-7, occurs when a sequence of
individual writes are merged into a single doubleword that hits in the write buffer level,
or doubleword. However, write-merging implies that the same byte location is not written
more than once.
■ Write-collapsing, as illustrated in Figure 11-4 on page 11-8, is very similar to the write-
merging function, with the exception that the same byte location can be written more
than once. The write-collapsing function allows a sequence of individual writes to hit a
single level in the write buffer, even though previous data in that doubleword can be overwritten.
These functions optimize SDRAM performance by minimizing individual writes to SDRAM.
There are no dependencies between any doubleword in the write buffer and any of the
masters that are capable of posting data to the write buffer. This implies that multiple masters
may contribute to the merging or collapsing of any doubleword in the write buffer.
The terms write-merging and write-collapsing are intended to conform to the meaning as
introduced in the PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2.
11-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
Figure 11-3
Write Buffer Merging Example
1.
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB000, Data 88h
D[31:24]
D[23:16]
D[15:8]
D[7:0]
1.
2.
31 30
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB000, Data 88h
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB001, Data 92h
3
2
88
1
0
D[31:24]
D[23:16]
1.
2.
3.
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB000, Data 88h
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB001, Data 92h
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB002, Data 44h
D[15:8]
92
D[7:0]
88
1
31 30
3
2
0
D[31:24]
1.
2.
3.
4.
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB000, Data 88h
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB001, Data 92h
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB002, Data 44h
DMA Write, Byte, Adrs 0FBB003, Data 66h
D[23:16]
44
D[15:8]
92
D[7:0]
88
1
31 30
3
2
D[31:24]
66
D[23:16]
44
D[15:8]
92
D[7:0]
31 30
3
2
88
1
0
0
Notes:
This example illustrates how four separate write cycles can be “merged” and reduced to only one
doubleword SDRAM write transaction.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
11-7
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
Figure 11-4
Write Buffer Collapsing Example
1.
CPU Write, Low Word, Adrs 0A00X, Data 55AAh
D[31:24]
D[23:16]
55
D[15:8]
D[7:0]
1.
2.
CPU Write, Low Word, Adrs 0A00X, Data 55AAh
CPU Write, Doubleword, Adrs 0X, Data 12345678h
31 30
3
D[31:24]
12
D[23:16]
34
D[15:8]
1.
2.
3.
CPU Write, Low Word, Adrs 0A00X, Data 55AAh
CPU Write, Doubleword, Adrs 0X, Data 12345678h
CPU Write, Low Word, Adrs 0A00X, Data CDEFh
2
AA
1
0
56 55
D[7:0]
31 30
3
78 AA
2 1 0
D[31:24]
12
D[23:16]
34
D[15:8]
56 CD
D[7:0]
31 30
3
78 EF
2 1
0
Notes:
This example illustrates how existing data can be overwritten. Separate write cycles can be
“collapsed” and reduced to only one doubleword SDRAM write transaction.
11.5.1.2.2
Read-Merging
The write buffer supports read-merging.
■ Read-merging, as illustrated in Figure 11-5 on page 11-9, occurs when a read cycle hits
a “dirty” doubleword that currently exists in the write buffer, and the read data returned
from SDRAM is replaced, or merged, with existing bytes from the write buffer.
Read-merging does not negate the need for a SDRAM read cycle. Even during a read cycle
that hits a complete dirty doubleword in the write buffer, a read cycle to SDRAM will still
occur, but the entire doubleword from SDRAM will be replaced with the more recent
doubleword in the write buffer. Read-merging maintains data coherency and enhances
SDRAM performance by not requiring a flush of the write buffer contents to SDRAM before
every read cycle.
11-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
Figure 11-5
Write Buffer Read-Merging Example
Read Data
Read
Merge
Logic
EE00CDEF
EE001122
xxxxCDEF
Write Buffer (Data Segment)
Master
CC
12
D[23:16]
55
AA
34
D[15:8]
FF
00 00 CD 56
D[7:0]
FE
00
5678000
FBC0000
A000000
A[27:2]
BE[3:0]
EF 78
0000000
Address
11
CDEFA00
Write Data
D[31:24]
Write Buffer (Address Segment)
SDRAM
Notes:
This example illustrates a 32-bit master read of address A000000h, which causes a read hit in
the write buffer. This causes the lower data word from the write buffer to be merged with the upper
data word from SDRAM, to return the entire doubleword to the requesting master.
11.5.1.3
Write Buffer Watermark
The write buffer provides a watermark setting of either 8, 16, 24 or 28 doublewords. As data
is written into the write buffer, a new rank of storage is allocated, provided that write-merging
or collapsing is not taking place. When a write cycle resulting in a rank being allocated
takes place that exceeds the watermark setting, the write buffer requests service from the
SDRAM controller to initiate write transfers to SDRAM.
■ A higher watermark setting (i.e., 28 doublewords) allows the write buffer to acquire more
master write data prior to requesting SDRAM controller attention than a lower watermark
setting. If a large amount of incomplete doubleword writes (i.e., byte, word, or three byte
write transfers) is expected from either the Am5x86 CPU, PCI, or GP-DMA, a higher
watermark setting allows the write buffer to fill higher prior to requesting SDRAM service,
resulting in a greater chance of write data merging or collapsing.
■ A lower watermark setting can be used for applications that require more complete
doublewords, and where merging/collapsing of data is less likely. This causes the write
buffer to request SDRAM service at a lower threshold, thus reducing the chance of filling
the write buffer.
The write buffer watermark setting can be configured with the WB_WM bit in the SDRAM
Buffer Control (DBCTL) register (MMCR offset 40h). A waterrmark of 16 doublewords is
recommended. Note that the write buffer must be disabled before changing the write buffer
watermark.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
11-9
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
The SDRAM controller’s arbiter supports a write buffer park feature, such that after the write
buffer’s watermark is reached and requests SDRAM service, the SDRAM controller’s arbiter
continues to grant the write buffer SDRAM service, until either a master read cycle is
requested to SDRAM or a SDRAM refresh occurs. After the write buffer’s grant is removed,
the write buffer’s watermark will need to be exceeded prior to the write buffer requesting
SDRAM service again. This park feature allows the write buffer to utilize SDRAM access
until a higher priority master read or an SDRAM refresh cycle is requested.
11.5.2
Read Buffer and the Read-Ahead Feature
The SDRAM controller contains eight 4-byte read data buffers. Combined, these buffers
make up the read buffer and are designed to hold two cache lines of data returned from
SDRAM. The read buffer is designed to increase SDRAM read performance by storing
previously read data from SDRAM and supplying this data in zero wait states to a requesting
master.
The SDRAM controller always fetches an entire cache line of data from SDRAM and stores
it in the read buffer, independently of the amount of data requested during the master
access. For example, during a read request from a non-bursting master (i.e., single
doubleword request), the SDRAM controller fetches the entire cache line of data from
SDRAM and stores it in the read buffer. When the read-ahead feature of the read buffer is
enabled and the master read access is a burst of two or more doublewords, not only is the
requested cache line (i.e., the demanded line) of data retrieved from SDRAM, but also the
cache line following it.
A demand fetch implies that the SDRAM controller will be servicing the read request from
the master as it occurs. When the read-ahead feature is enabled, a read-ahead prefetch
only occurs for master demand burst requests of two or more doublewords. The read-ahead
feature takes advantage of the linear forward-fetch nature of the Am5x86 CPU and PCI
bursts. GP-DMA transfers are non-burst, and thus do not result in a prefetch. However, GPDMA transfers can utilize the remainder of the cache line, since all read accesses result in
a cache line access to SDRAM.
The read buffer provides storage for two cache lines of read data and cannot be disabled.
The read-ahead feature of the read buffer can be disabled.
11.5.2.1
Read-Ahead Feature Disabled
When the read-ahead feature is disabled, the prefetch feature of the SDRAM controller is
disabled. All master read requests that occur to SDRAM are demand fetches and always
result in an entire cache line of data being read from SDRAM. Even when the read-ahead
feature is disabled, both cache lines of storage of the read buffer are still utilized and contain
the last two demand cache line fetches.
11.5.2.2
Read-Ahead Feature Enabled
When the read-ahead feature is enabled, following cache line prefetches from SDRAM will
occur when the read access is a burst of two or more doublewords. The prefetched cache
line always follows the demanded cache line. Should an access result in a read buffer hit,
the read-ahead logic will request the cache line following the access that is currently being
supplied from the read buffer.
The read buffer is organized as two cache lines of data and an associated address tag. On
every read cycle these tags are compared to the read address being requested. If the
compare results in a hit, this data is supplied to the requesting master in zero wait states.
If, during this hit, the next cache line of data does not already exist in the read buffer, the
prefetch logic will request it from SDRAM. Should a request result in a read buffer miss,
the demanded read cycle request is satisfied by SDRAM, and the prefetch logic starts a
11-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
request to acquire the next cache line. The demanded read cycle implies that the first
doubleword request by the master will be serviced first, such that the master can continue
while the remainder of the cache line is prefetched.
If the read-ahead feature of the read buffer is enabled, a prefetch occurs only for master
read access that results in a burst of two or more doublewords. Single doubleword read
requests do not result in a read-ahead prefetch and only result in the cache line of the
demanded access being read into the read buffer. GP-DMA read accesses are always a
single doubleword.
To maintain coherency in the system, each cache line of the read buffer has associated
with it a valid bit that represents the validity of the cache line. Both cache-line valid bits are
cleared on the occurrence of master write access to SDRAM or a write buffer write access
to SDRAM that hits a cache line currently available in the read buffer.
11.5.3
DMA Considerations
The read buffer and its associated read-ahead feature provide optimum performance for
burst-capable masters (during read cycles) that maintain long bus tenure (with burst
transfers of two or more doublewords). Most masters with burst capability burst forward an
entire cache line. For these masters, the read-ahead feature provides optimum
performance, such that the anticipated data prefetch will result in a read buffer hit.
■ The read-ahead feature performs well during Am5x86 CPU burst reads (which usually
result in full cache-line burst when the cache is enabled). During cache-line fills, the
Am5x86 CPU can maintain bus tenure for more than one burst transfer, such that
successive bursts will be satisfied by read buffer prefetch hits.
■ Also, during PCI master read burst requests, the read-ahead feature of the read buffer
performs equally well for PCI master tenure to SDRAM that requests a cache line of data.
■ However, since the GP-DMA controller supports multiple channels and is capable of
operating in either single, demand or block transfer modes, it is possible that the read
buffer performance during GP-DMA transfers becomes dependent on the GP-DMA
channel configurations.
As mentioned earlier, the SDRAM controller always fetches an entire cache line from
SDRAM during a read request, even if the read-ahead feature is disabled. Since DMA
transfers are non-burst (i.e., single doubleword requests), even if the read-ahead feature
is enabled, only the rest of the cache line is fetched, rather than the rest of the cache line
and the following cache line, as would be seen during burst transfers of two or more
doublewords.
■ A DMA channel configured for incrementing order that starts at the beginning of a cache
line takes full advantage of read buffer hit, since all following incrementing access should
result in a read buffer hit up to the cache-line boundary, assuming demand or block
transfer mode.
■ DMA transfers that are configured for decrement mode will also see a read buffer benefit,
since the remainder of the cache line is fetched. For DMA transfers that are configured
for decrement mode, maximum read buffer performance is seen when the first access
is at the end of a cache-line boundary.
DMA transfer mode types can have a direct impact on read buffer performance. It would
be ideal for the same DMA channel to hit the read buffer as much as possible during its
tenure.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
11-11
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
In a system configured with multiple active DMA channels, read buffer misses will most
likely occur for each change of channel tenure. This is because each DMA channel accesses
different SDRAM regions that will most likely miss the read buffer, which still contains the
cache line of data fetched during the previous channel’s tenure. Therefore, it would be ideal
for as many transfers to occur as possible while a particular DMA channel has access to
SDRAM to utilize the rest of the cache line fetched during the DMA transfer’s first doubleword
request. This implies that, in a system with many active DMA channels configured for single
transfer mode, read buffer misses will occur that do not utilize the cache line of data fetched
during the previous channels tenure.
Demand and block DMA transfer modes will most likely take advantage of the rest of the
cache-line fetches, since devices that use these modes typically have longer bus tenure,
resulting in a higher utilization of the fetched data.
11.5.4
PCI Considerations
As a PCI target, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can respond to PCI master write and read
requests to SDRAM. To facilitate large burst transfers as a PCI target, a 64-level write data
FIFO and 64-level read data FIFO is available in the PCI target logic.
11.5.4.1
Write Cycles
For PCI master burst writes to SDRAM, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can sustain zero
wait states until the PCI target write FIFO is filled. As the FIFO is filling at the PCI interface,
data is being removed from the FIFO and written to SDRAM. When the SDRAM controller’s
write buffer is enabled, data can be quickly transferred from the PCI target write FIFO to
the SDRAM write buffer in zero wait states (to a non-full write buffer), allowing the PCI target
write FIFO to empty quickly. This prevents the PCI master from experiencing the SDRAM
latencies, thus freeing up the PCI bus earlier.
During PCI target write transfers to SDRAM, the Am5x86 CPU cache is snooped to maintain
coherency. If the CPU cache is configured in write-back cache mode and a snoop results
in a hit, the modified Am5x86 CPU cache line must be written back to memory prior to
allowing the PCI target write transfer to take place. When the write buffer is enabled, the
Am5x86 CPU cache-line write-back is posted to the write buffer, and the following PCI target
write transaction collapses on top of the previously written cache-line write-back, resulting
in a reduction in the overall number of transactions to memory.
11.5.4.2
Read Cycles
In most applications, a PCI master transfers data to SDRAM and then interrupts the
processor when the transfer is complete. The processor then usually accesses this data in
SDRAM. Since the write buffer supports read-merging, associated data that is still in the
write buffer from the PCI transfer may be immediately read by the processor, without the
overhead of first flushing the write buffer before allowing the read to occur. Also, since the
SDRAM controller allows read-around-write activity when the write buffer is enabled, the
processor reads are allowed to occur around writes that are posted in the write buffer, thus
offering a performance increase to processor read requests.
During PCI master read transfers from SDRAM, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI target
read FIFO is filled with data read from SDRAM. This data is then supplied to the requesting
PCI master directly from the target’s read FIFO. Since PCI bursts are linear and forward in
nature, the SDRAM controller’s read-ahead feature prefetches data (from SDRAM) forward
from the PCI master’s start address. As the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PCI target read
FIFO requests data from SDRAM, it is likely that these requests will result in read buffer
hits due to prefetching, thus providing data quickly to the PCI target read FIFO.
11-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
Large PCI burst requests will benefit more from the read-ahead function than short, frequent
independent PCI read transfers. Since the Am5x86 CPU is a major requestor of SDRAM
read accesses, short and frequent independent PCI transfers may result in read-ahead
thrashing. For example, data prefetched for Am5x86 CPU read requests may possibly not
be used by PCI read requests and data prefetched for the PCI request may possibly not
be used by the Am5x86 CPU.
11.5.5
Software Considerations
The write buffer and read buffer require minimal configuration overhead.
Data coherency is maintained in hardware during write buffer configuration changes. This
implies that when the write buffer is disabled, the contents are automatically flushed to
SDRAM as a high priority, prior to allowing any master activity to occur to SDRAM. Even
though a write buffer flush occurs automatically when it is disabled, a manual write buffer
flush control is provided for software control via the WB_FLUSH bit in the SDRAM Buffer
Control (DBCTL) register (MMCR offset 40h). If the read-ahead feature is disabled, the
prefetched data remains in the read buffer.
Both the write buffer and read-ahead feature of the read buffer are disabled after a system
reset or programmable reset. It is recommended that the write buffer be disabled prior to
SDRAM sizing, SDRAM test, or other software activity that must have guaranteed write
data delivery to the physical SDRAM array prior to reading. Failure to disable the write buffer
for these usages may result in false SDRAM sizing or test indications.
Typically during SDRAM sizing or test, SDRAM is written and then read back to determine
either if SDRAM exists at that location (during sizing) or if SDRAM is functional at that
location (during test). Since the write buffer provides a read-merging function to reduce the
overhead associated with maintaining data coherency, data is not forced from the write
buffer to SDRAM prior to the read-back of the data. (This overhead would normally be
required for non-snooping write buffers that do not support read-merging to maintain
coherency.) Should the read occur while the associated write data is still in the write buffer,
the correct data is read-merged with data from SDRAM, thus providing the correct read
data even though the write data was not yet written to SDRAM. If, in this scenario, SDRAM
was non-existent, it would appear as though it did exist, thus resulting in either an invalid
SDRAM size or false “pass” status during a SDRAM test algorithm. If the write data migrated
to SDRAM before the read-back, a correct indication would result.
The write buffer must be disabled only in these scenarios where software requires
guaranteed delivery of write data to SDRAM prior to testing. Under normal program
execution, the write buffer and read buffer “appear” as the SDRAM storage array.
11.5.6
SDRAM Bandwidth Improvements
When enabled, the performance benefit that the write buffer offers is its ability to effectively
decouple the master write activity from incurring the SDRAM latency penalty. This in effect
leaves the SDRAM free to satisfy a higher demand in read activity by all masters. To further
optimize this, when the write buffer is enabled, it allows master read requests to occur
around write data posted in the write buffer. In effect, read cycles are given priority to SDRAM
when the write buffer is enabled. However, there are conditions that give the write buffer
write priority to SDRAM over reads. These are:
■ Flush priority is given to the write buffer when the write buffer configuration changes to
disabled.
■ The user exercises the manual write buffer flush feature.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
11-13
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
Since the write buffer supports data read-merging, data coherency overhead is kept to a
minimum. The write buffer’s read-merging capability is possible due to the write buffer’s
ability to snoop its own contents during read and write cycles. In the special case of a read
to an address contained in the write buffer, the overhead associated with flushing the entire
contents of the write buffer to maintain data coherency is eliminated. In this case, as data
is returned from SDRAM during the read cycle, more current data in the write buffer is
merged into the data stream, replacing older data bytes being returned from SDRAM. This
greatly enhances the read-around-write behavior by eliminating the overhead associated
with flushing the write buffer to maintain coherency.
The maximum write buffer performance is seen during individual contiguous byte writes to
SDRAM. For example, suppose the GP-DMA was performing a 64-byte block transfer from
an 8-bit device to SDRAM. Without the write buffer, this would require 64 individual bytewide transfers to SDRAM. Because of the write buffer’s write data-merging capability, each
contiguous byte could be merged to form only 16 doubleword transfers to SDRAM. This
would reduce the total number of SDRAM writes cycles from 64 to 16 in this example.
The write buffer also improves memory system performance during heavy SDRAM write
data thrashing between multiple masters. Since the write buffer provides zero wait state
posting of write data, the SDRAM interface is freed up earlier to service another master’s
request. While the next master is arbitrating for SDRAM, the write buffer can concurrently
be writing back the data posted by previous masters. Therefore, during heavy SDRAM write
thrashing periods by multiple masters, the write buffer can help to hide the arbitration
overhead. This is shown in Figure 11-6.
Figure 11-6
Bus Thrashing with Write Buffer Disabled and Enabled
SDRAM access
CPU
Arb
Arb
SDRAM access
Arb
SDRAM access
Arb
PCI
Arb
GP Bus
Arb
SDRAM access
CPU
System with Write Buffer Disabled
SDRAM access
SDRAM access
Arb
CPU
Arb
SDRAM access
Arb
PCI
Arb
SDRAM access
Arb
GP Bus
Arb
CPU
System with Write Buffer Enabled
The maximum benefit of the read buffer’s read-ahead feature is provided during consecutive
prefetch hits. This will most likely occur during long master burst tenure or consecutive
bursts by the same master. For example, suppose a PCI master requests a 256-byte (64doubleword) read transfer from SDRAM. Since the read buffer prefetches a cache line
forward and PCI burst transfers are linear and forward in nature, consecutive requests can
be satisfied by data prefetched by the read-ahead feature.
11-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
11.6
INITIALIZATION
The write buffer and read buffer are reset during a system reset. As a result of this system
reset event, the write buffer and read-ahead feature of the read buffer are both disabled,
and all associated state machines are returned to their idle states.
During a programmable reset, the write buffer’s contents are reset and not maintained. The
contents of the read buffer are maintained during a programmable reset. The write buffer
and read-prefetch configuration are not preserved during a programmable reset. See
Chapter 6, “Reset Generation”, for more detailed information on this type of reset.
It is recommended that, prior to SDRAM sizing and test, the write buffer be disabled to
prevent false SDRAM sizing or test indications. It is also recommended that, during SDRAM
sizing or test, the read-ahead feature is disabled. Having the read-ahead feature enabled
will not result in false indications during sizing or test, but may result in a slight performance
degradation during the SDRAM sizing or test algorithm, because read accesses are not
consecutive in nature during sizing or test. After this period, the user is free to enable the
write buffer and read-ahead feature when desired.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
11-15
Write Buffer and Read Buffer
11-16
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
12
12.1
ROM/FLASH CONTROLLER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes an integrated ROM controller that provides a high
performance interface to ROMs, EPROMs, and Flash devices. Improved performance is
achieved by supporting a full 32-bit data path and advanced page-mode devices.
Note that in this document the term ROM is used interchangeably with Flash and EPROM
for simplicity. In addition, the term ROM is used to denote the entire bank of ROM devices
connected to a chip select, e.g., a 32-bit ROM can be implemented as four discrete 8-bit
ROM devices.
Features of the ROM controller include:
■ Support for a wide variety of industry standard ROMs, EPROMs, and Flash devices,
including advanced page-mode devices.
■ Three chip selects are provided. Each chip select supports up to 64 Mbytes.
– One chip select is dedicated to booting.
– The remaining two chip selects are optional and are multiplexed with GP bus chip
selects.
■ Programmable timing for both non-page-mode and page-mode devices is supported.
■ Programmable Address Region (PAR) register attributes provide code execution control,
cacheabilitity control, and write protection for Flash devices
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit ROM configurations.
■ The GP address bus is always used for the ROM address, but the ROM data bus can
be connected to either the GP bus data bus or the SDRAM data bus.
■ For the boot device (BOOTCS), a set of configuration pins latched into the chip when
PWRGOOD is asserted is used to determine the width of the ROM array and which of
the two buses (GP bus or SDRAM interface) is used for the ROM data bus.
– The remaining two optional chip selects are configured via configuration registers in
the ROM controller.
■ 8-bit and 16-bit ROM configurations are supported when ROMs are connected to either
the GP bus or the SDRAM data bus. 32-bit ROM configurations are supported only when
ROMs are connected to the SDRAM data bus, as shown in Table 12-1.
Table 12-1
ROM/Flash Data Bus Connection Options
Data Bus
8-Bit ROM
16-Bit ROM
32-Bit ROM
GP Bus data pins
Yes
Yes
No
SDRAM interface data pins
Yes
Yes
Yes
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
12-1
ROM/Flash Controller
12.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 12-1 shows a block diagram of the ROM controller.
Figure 12-1
ROM Controller Block Diagram
CFG2–CFG0
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Data Bus (GPD15–GPD0 or MD31–MD0)
GPA25–GPA0
Pinstrap data
for BOOTCS
Configuration Registers
BOOTCS ROMCS1 ROMCS2
GPA25–GPA4
Reset
GPA3–GPA0
ROM Controller
Configuration data
M
u
x
Configuration data
address[3–0]
rom_cycle
CPU
rdy, brdy
ROMRD
be3–be0, blast,
ads, w/r, x5_ad[3–2]
PAR
Registers
BOOTCS
ROMCS1
ROMCS2
12.3
Timing Control
ROM
FLASHWR
BOOTCS
ROMCS1*
ROMCS2*
ROMBUFOE
wr_protect
ken
Clock
Programmable
*May be multiplexed
with other pin
functions.
cpu_clk (33 MHz)
SYSTEM DESIGN
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for timing tables and
additional timing diagrams.
Configuration information for the boot device (BOOTCS), specifically the width of the ROM
and the location of the ROM, is provided by external pinstrapping. The CFG2 pinstrapping
defines the bus, either SDRAM or GP bus data bus, on which the ROM is located. The
CFG1–CFG0 pins define the data width of the ROM devices. CFG2–CFG0 are latched
when PWRGOOD is asserted. See “Initialization” on page 12-14 for more information.
12-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
ROM/Flash Controller
The ROMCS1 and ROMCS2 signals are provided to support two additional ROM chip
selects. These pins are shared with general-purpose chip selects, GPCS1 and GPCS2,
respectively, as shown in Table 12-2. When enabled, the multiplexed signals shown in
Table 12-2 either disable or alter any other function that uses the same pin.
Table 12-2
ROM Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
Default Signal
Alternate Function Control Bit
Register
ROMCS2
GPCS2
GPCS2_SEL
ROMCS1
GPCS1
GPCS1_SEL
Chip Select Pin Function Select
(CSPFS) register (MMCR offset C24h)
The ROM controller can accommodate various performance and system voltage isolation
requirements. Depending on the operation voltage required by the ROM and the voltage
required by other devices sharing the same bus, the ROM data pins can be connected
either to the GP bus or to the SDRAM interface (see Figure 12-2). Note that the ROM data
pins must connect to only one interface per chip select (i.e., the ROM data pins may not
straddle the two buses).
■ Devices can be placed on the SDRAM bus to gain the advantage of a 32-bit data path.
However, care must be taken by the system designer because of SDRAM loading and
timing issues. See “System Design” on page 10-1.
■ Alternately, the ROM devices can be implemented on the GP bus data pins. These
devices are limited to 8- or 16-bits. See Table 12-1 for data width connection options.
Note that the addresses for ROM devices are always provided via GP bus, independently
of whether the data pins of the ROM are connected to the GP bus or SDRAM bus.
12.3.1
Voltage Isolation
From the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s perspective, both the SDRAM bus and the GP bus
are 5-V-tolerant and drive 3.3 V. However, an isolation buffer is necessary when using the
same bus for 5-V ROM devices and 3.3-V SDRAM devices that are not 5-V-tolerant. For
example, if the 3.3-V SDRAM devices are not 5-V-tolerant and share the data bus with
5-V ROM devices, the 3.3-V SDRAM devices could be damaged during ROM read access
if an isolation buffer is not used.
The ROMBUFOE signal is provided to support an isolation buffer, and this signal can be
used for devices on the SDRAM bus or the GP bus. Some scenarios for such a situation
are shown in Figure 12-2. The ROMBUFOE signal asserts during all accesses to ROM
devices, whether the devices are located on the SDRAM bus or the GP bus.
Note that the SDRAM controller’s read and write buffers are not utilized during accesses
to ROM devices. This is true even if a ROM device is located on the SDRAM bus. When
the SDRAM buffering is enabled, the ROM devices connected to the SDRAM data bus
(MD31– MD0), must use ROMRD to control the ROM device’s data pins. In this case, the
system design should ensure that the external device does not drive data while ROMRD
is asserted.
When sharing the SDRAM data bus with ROM devices, the loading of the data bus requires
careful consideration. A buffer should be used on the data bus to prevent heavy loading by
the ROM devices. In a system that utilizes buffering of these devices, the ROMBUFOE
signal can be used to control the buffers. Similarly, data buffers can be used on the GP bus
to control loading issues, and the ROMBUFOE pin should still be used to control buffers in
front of these ROM devices.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
12-3
ROM/Flash Controller
If the system has ROM devices on both the SDRAM data bus and the GP bus and data
bus buffers are used (on either bus), ROMBUFOE should be qualified with the appropriate
ROM chip selects and ROMRD, as needed, to prevent bus conflicts. For example, when
SDRAM buffering is enabled, the SDRAM controller could be attempting to complete posted
writes to the SDRAM. During this time, if the Am5x86 CPU performs a read from a ROM
device that is on the GP bus (data bus), the buffer on the SDRAM bus (which isolates the
ROM devices from the SDRAM) activates, unless its buffer control pins were also qualified
with the ROMCSx pin.
Figure 12-2
Voltage Isolation Examples
SDRAM
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
3.3-V SDRAM
Bus
Buffer
5-V ROM
ROMBUFOE
GP Bus
SDRAM
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
Bus
5-V Peripheral
3.3-V SDRAM
3.3-V ROM
GP Bus
3.3-V Peripheral
3.3-V ROM
SDRAM
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
Bus
3.3-V SDRAM
3.3-V ROM
GP Bus
3.3-V ROM
Buffer
5-V Peripheral
GPDBUFOE
Notes:
Both the GP bus and the SDRAM bus can be operated at either 5 V or 3.3 V.
12-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
ROM/Flash Controller
12.4
REGISTERS
Table 12-3 shows the memory-mapped registers used to configure the ROM controller.
Table 12-3
ROM Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
BOOTCS Control
BOOTCSCTL
50h
BOOTCS device select (SDRAM bus or GP
bus), device data width, device operation mode,
subsequent access delay, first access delay
ROMCS1 Control
ROMCS1CTL
54h
ROMCS1 device select (SDRAM bus or GP
bus), device data width, device operation mode,
subsequent access delay, first access delay
ROMCS2 Control
ROMCS2CTL
56h
ROMCS2 device select (SDRAM bus or GP
bus), device data width, device operation mode,
subsequent access delay, first access delay
Chip Select Pin Function
Select
CSPFS
C24h
ROMCSx or GPCSx pin function select
12.5
Function
OPERATION
ROM/Flash devices in a system are typically used to store two different kinds of information:
system configuration data and program code. These applications impose different
constraints on how to use the ROM/Flash memory in the system.
While it may be sufficient to load system configuration information from ROM/Flash at a
low speed, this may be not acceptable for accessing ROM-resident code that has to be
executed. In this case, this code has to be copied either to SDRAM or executed directly
from ROM. (See Chapter 3, “System Initialization” for more information on shadowing.)
For copying code blocks, the ROM performance may not be critical, because it is only
accessed once per copy operation. For the more critical situation of executing code directly
from the ROM (e.g., an Execute-In-Place operating system), precautions have to be taken
to ensure an accelerated ROM access even for ROM devices incapable of bursting.
This chapter discusses different configurations and operating modes that are appropriate
for these varying situations.
12.5.1
ROM Support
Each of the three chip selects included on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports up to
64 Mbytes. Some example configurations for each chip select are:
■ Four 1-Mbit x 8 devices on the 32-bit SDRAM data bus for a total of 4 Mbytes
■ Two banks of ROM, with each bank containing four 8-Mbit x 8 devices, providing a total
of 64 Mbytes
■ Two banks of ROM, with each bank containing two 8-Mbit x 16 devices, providing a total
of 64 Mbytes
■ Four banks of ROM, with each bank containing two 8-Mbit x 8 devices, providing a total
of 64 Mbytes
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
12-5
ROM/Flash Controller
ROM devices are accessible by the Am5x86 CPU only. Normal operation of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller is not guaranteed if an external PCI master or GP-DMA cycle results in a
ROM access.
The addresses for ROM devices are always provided via the GP bus, independently of
whether the data pins of the ROM are connected to the GP bus or SDRAM bus.
The ROM controller never bus-sizes read accesses to the Am5x86 CPU. In other words,
bs16 and bs8 are never asserted for a ROM read access. Rather, the ROM controller
gathers as much data as the Am5x86 CPU is requesting for read accesses. To accomplish
this, the ROM controller monitors the internal byte enable signals, be3–be0, and the
cacheability status of the access. Based on the byte enables, the ROM controller returns
one to four bytes for non-burst Am5x86 CPU cycles and up to an entire cache line, 16 bytes,
for burst accesses.
The ROM controller does not support burst-write or multiple data operations during write
cycles. Writes to ROM devices typically have no performance issues. The ROM controller
returns rdy, rather than brdy, to the Am5x86 CPU during write operations. In addition, the
Am5x86 CPU signals bs8 and bs16 are asserted based on data size of the selected ROM
device.
12.5.1.1
Supported Device Types
The ROM controller supports two ROM device types:
■ Non-page-mode ROM—A ROM device that always has the same access delay,
regardless of how much data is requested from the ROM.
■ Advanced page-mode ROM—These devices improve performance by allowing fast
multiple access of data within the same memory page. The ROM controller has no upper
limit on the page size of the ROM device and works with any device that supports a page
size of four. However, after the fourth entry in the page, the ROM controller issues a new
initial access.The page is opened during the initial access, allowing faster data reads
from subsequent locations within the page simply by strobing the lower address bits.
Non-page-mode and advanced page-mode ROMs do not require a clock signal.
Figure 12-3 illustrates a read of four words from a 16-bit advanced page-mode ROM. Note
that the write buffer associated with the SDRAM controller has no relevance for the ROM
controller, because it applies only to SDRAM accesses.
Figure 12-3
Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Words from a 16-Bit ROM
GPA25–GPA0
MD31–MD0
- - - 0h
- - - 2h
Bytes 0-1
- - - 4h - - - 6h
Bytes 2-3 Bytes 4-5
Bytes 6-7
ROMRD
Notes:
Subsequent reads occur
within the same memory
page, by changing the lower
address bits only, resulting in
a fast access of eight bytes.
BOOTCS
Initial memory page opened here
12-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
ROM/Flash Controller
12.5.2
ROM Control and Timing Configuration
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides ROM device configuration per chip select for the
following:
■ ROM location (on GP data bus or SDRAM data bus)
■ ROM width (8, 16, or 32 bits)
■ Operating mode (page-mode or non-page-mode)
■ Access timing
12.5.2.1
ROM Location
The GP bus address is always used for the ROM address, but the ROM data bus can be
connected to either the GP bus data bus or the SDRAM data bus.
For the boot device (BOOTCS), the CFG2 pinstrap is used to determine which of the two
buses is used for the ROM data bus. For all other ROM devices (ROMCS1 and ROMCS2),
this configuration information must be programmed by the initialization software.
■ The DGP bit in the BOOTCS Control (BOOTCSCTL) register (MMCR offset 50h)
contains the value latched from the CFG2 pinstrap when the PWRGOOD pin is asserted.
■ The DGP bit in the ROMCS1 and ROMCS2 control registers is used to configure the
location of the ROM devices enabled by these two chip selects.
12.5.2.2
ROM Width
ROM device widths of 8 bits, 16 bits, and 32 bits are supported.
The CFG1–CFG0 pinstraps are used to determine the width of the boot device (BOOTCS).
For all other ROM devices (ROMCS1 and ROMCS2), this configuration information must
be programmed by the initialization software.
■ The WIDTH bit field in the BOOTCS Control (BOOTCSCTL) register contains the value
latched from the CFG1–CFG0 pinstraps when the PWRGOOD pin is asserted.
■ The WIDTH bit field in the ROMCS1 and ROMCS2 control registers is used to configure
the width of the ROM devices enabled by these two chip selects.
12.5.2.3
Operating Mode
The MODE bit in the control registers provided for each chip select signal is used to program
the operating mode of the associated device.
According to the different data delivery rates, the following operation modes are
distinguished:
■ Non-page mode—Characterized as having the same access time for all cycles.
Figure 12-4 shows a ROM that is capable of three wait state operation.
■ Page mode—Provides faster timing for subsequent data that falls within the page-size
of the ROM device. Figure 12-5 shows an advanced page-mode ROM that is capable
of one wait state for the first access and zero wait states for subsequent accesses.
If an unaligned access to a page-mode device is executed, i.e., when not all data are located
in the same ROM page, a new page has to be opened, which imposes an additional delay
(see Figure 12-6). Random access within a page is not supported.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
12-7
ROM/Flash Controller
Figure 12-4
Non-Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Words from a 16-Bit ROM
GPA25–GPA0
- - - 0h
GPD15–GPD0, or
MD15–MD0
- - - 2h
- - - 8h
- - - 4h
2
1
3
4
ROMRD
BOOTCS
Figure 12-5
Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Doublewords (Aligned) from a 32-Bit ROM
GPA25–GPA0
- - - 0h
MD31–MD0
- - - 4h
1
- - - 8h - - - ch
2
3
4
ROMRD
BOOTCS
Figure 12-6
Page-Mode ROM: Fetching Four Doublewords (Unaligned) from an 8-Bit ROM
GPA25–GPA0
2
GPD7–GPD0, or
MD7–MD0
3
2
3
4
5
4
5
ROMRD
BOOTCS
Page crossing
12.5.2.4
Access Timing
Access timing is controlled in the BOOTCS or ROMCSx Control registers.
– The delay for the first access, used for both non-page-mode and page-mode, and
subsequent accesses for non-page-mode is specified in the FIRST_DLY bit field.
– The delay for subsequent accesses, for page-mode only, is specified in the SUB_DLY
bit field.
Table 12-4 shows the access timing according to the programmed wait states. These values
can be obtained using the following formula:
AccessTime = (NumberWaitstates + 1) * Period –Setup)
where:
Period is the clock period (assume 30 ns for a 33.333-MHz crystal)
Setup is assumed to be 20 ns. (It takes the actual setup time and the delay for address
changes during subsequent ROM accesses into account.)
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
ROM/Flash Controller
Table 12-4
Example: ROM Access Timing and Wait States1
Wait States
Access Timing (ns)
0
10
1
40
2
70
4
130
Notes:
1. This example assumes that a 33.333-MHz
crystal is being used in the system.
12.5.3
Bus Cycles
The ROM controller always returns the amount of read data requested by the Am5x86 CPU,
i.e., brdy is returned for all read transfers from ROM. The actual number of ROM accesses
is determined by the cacheability status of the Am5x86 CPU transfer, the number of bytes
requested, and the width of the ROM. The minimum number of data to be transferred is
one byte. The maximum number of data to be delivered is 16 bytes (a cache-line fill).
Depending on the ROM width, this leads to different numbers of accesses to fetch the
requested data (see Table 12-5).
Table 12-5
12.5.3.1
Accesses and ROM Width
ROM Width
Minimum Number of
Accesses
Maximum Number of
Accesses (Cache-Line Fill)
8 bit
1
16
16 bit
1
8
32 bit
1
4
Single CPU Read Access
Figure 12-7 shows an example for the fetching of 16-bits of data, GPD15–GPD0, from an
8-bit non-page-mode ROM configured for one wait state. The transfer starts with a bus
cycle initiation (i.e., ads asserted). The ROM controller then performs two ROM accesses
and accumulates the amount of requested data prior to terminating the cycle. Note that
only one ROM cycle would be performed had the ROM device been implemented as 16or 32-bit.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
12-9
ROM/Flash Controller
Figure 12-7
Multiple Accesses: Data Amounts Smaller than One Doubleword (2 Bytes) from
an 8-Bit ROM
CPU clock
ads
GPA25–GPA0
ADR+0
GPD7–GPD0, or
MD7–MD0
ADR+1
0
1
brdy
blast
ROMRD
BOOTCS
Notes: An 8-bit ROM is attached to the 16-bit GP bus.
12.5.3.2
Page-Mode Read Access
The ROM controller also provides performance advantages for Am5x86 CPU burst
operation. Further improvement can be achieved when using page-mode ROMs. An
example is shown in Figure 12-8 for a 2-1-1-1 burst sequence, in which the first access
requires two cycles and all subsequent accesses are performed within one cycle.
Figure 12-8
Page Access for Fetching Four Doublewords from a 32-Bit ROM
(Burst Sequence: 2-1-1-1)
CPU clock
start cycle
ads
GPA25–GPA0
---C
---8
---4
---0
MD31–MD0
brdy
blast
BOOTCS
ROMRD
During burst transfers to ROM devices with a data width smaller than 32 bits, the ROM
controller executes multiple cycles to gather the requested data. During a 32-bit request to
a 16-bit device, the ROM controller executes two 16-bit cycles. During a 32-bit request to
an 8-bit device, the ROM controller executes four 8-bit cycles. A 32-bit request to a 16-bit
ROM device is shown in Figure 12-9.
12-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
ROM/Flash Controller
Figure 12-9
Page Access for Fetching Two Doublewords from a 16-Bit ROM
CPU clock
start cycle
ads
GPA25–GPA2
---8
---C
GPA1–GPA0
0
0
2
2
GPD15–GPD0, or
MD15–MD0
brdy
blast
BOOTCS
ROMRD
12.5.3.3
Cache-Line Fill
If a memory section is accessed that is cacheable, the ken signal is asserted to the Am5x86
CPU indicating a cache-line fill operation. This causes the Am5x86 CPU to read four
doublewords (16 bytes) and leads to multiple ROM accesses. A cache-line fill to a 32-bit
ROM is depicted in Figure 12-10.
Figure 12-10 Cache-Line Fill (Fetching Four Doublewords from a 32-Bit ROM)
CPU clock
ads
ken
GPA25–GPA0
---C
---8
---4
---0
MD31–MD0
brdy
blast
BOOTCS
ROMRD
12.5.3.4
Writing to Flash Devices
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports writable Flash devices. Since Flash devices are
not intended for random write accesses, no burst-write operations are supported, i.e., rdy
is returned to the Am5x86 CPU. Figure 12-11 shows a write cycle to a Flash ROM. In
addition, for write accesses, the ROM controller bus-sizes ROM accesses to indicate the
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
12-11
ROM/Flash Controller
width of the ROM device, e.g., if a 16-bit write is performed to an 8-bit ROM, two Am5x86
CPU write cycles are generated to complete the operation.
All write access to Flash devices must occur in units no smaller than the data width of the
device. For example, 8-bit writes to a 16-bit Flash device are not allowed. Care should be
taken to also avoid 24-bit writes to 16-bit Flash devices, because this generates two Flash
cycles, one with a complete 16-bit write and another with an 8-bit write to a 16-bit Flash
device.
Figure 12-11 Word Write Cycle to Flash Memory
CPU clock
ads
GPA25–GPA0
address
GPD15–GPD0, or
MD15–MD0
W
rdy
bs16
FLASHWR
BOOTCS
12.5.4
Software Considerations
12.5.4.1
Address Decoding
The ROM controller does not perform address decoding. Address decoding for chip select
generation is provided by the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers. In addition
to the regions defined in the PAR registers, a default region from FFFF0000–FFFFFFFFh
is defined at system reset to handle early code fetches from the boot ROM. See Chapter 3,
“System Initialization”, and Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”, for further details on
configuring the address regions for ROM chip selects and the shadowing of ROM.
12.5.4.2
Programming Flash Memory
Flash is available in 8-bit and 16-bit versions and is organized into sectors. Sectors can be
of fixed or variable size and range from 8–32 Kbytes. New, higher density Flash devices
have sector sizes of up to 256 Kbytes.
Several programmable operations can be performed on Flash devices, including sector
erase, sector protect, and programming of individual bytes.
■ The erased value of a byte is 0FFh.
■ Bits can be programmed from a 1 to a 0.
■ If any bit in a sector needs to be changed from a 0 to a 1, the entire sector must be
erased and reprogrammed.
Most Flash devices cannot be programmed while the Am5x86 CPU is fetching data from
it, requiring the programming code to reside in another device during programming. This
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
ROM/Flash Controller
is an easy restriction to overcome, because programming Flash is usually done during nonperformance critical periods, such as during user configuration. However, new “dual boot”
Flash allows fetching instructions from one portion of the device while programming or
erasing a sector in another portion.
Typically, Flash is programmed (or erased) by writing a program command sequence to an
address within the sector to be modified, followed by the erase command or the target
address and data.
An example program command sequence is:
1. Write the byte AAh to address 555h within the sector.
2. Write the byte 55h to address 2AAh within the sector.
3. Write the byte A0h to address 555h within the sector.
4. Write the actual data to the actual address. If the base of a 1-MByte boot device is at
0FFF00000h, then a programming sequence for the first sector would start at address
0FFF00555h.
The actual values and addresses used vary by device.
After issuing the command, the programming code must wait until the embedded algorithm
is complete before sending further programming requests to the Flash device. There are
several ways to determine this.
■ One way is to poll the status of a ready/busy hardware pin (which would be connected
to a PIO pin).
■ The second way is to continually read the address that was programmed, looking for
one of several indications that the event is complete.
A typical waiting period is 16 ms. Sector erase can take from 1 s to up to 10 s near the end
of the serviceable life of the device.
Both the program command sequence and the status read have implications for the use of
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller in Flash programming applications.
First, the area being programmed must set to be noncacheable. Writing the program
command sequence does not actually change the physical addresses involved, meaning
that caching this area would yield incorrect data the next time it is read. Also, the status
read phase relies on the value of externally supplied bits to change from one read to another.
Obviously, satisfying such a read from the cache would not work. Once the programming
is complete, it is legitimate and desirable to enable caching on this region.
Another obvious implication is that programming Flash device requires a write strobe to be
connected to the device. Devices are programmed in their natural word length, meaning
that byte write enables are not required. During writes, there are minimum times for the
write strobe pulse width. These follow naturally from the total chip enable cycle time, which
would be used to determine the number of wait states to use when accessing the device
for reads, requiring no special timing modifications. Flash requires a minimum reset pulse
width of 500 ns, which is well within the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s minimum time.
12.5.5
Latency
ROM latency refers to the amount of time in which a ROM access can impact system
performance. For example, during an Am5x86 CPU access to ROM, no other master in the
system will be granted access to the SDRAM resource. The latency time will be mainly
affected by the width and the access time of the ROM device.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
12-13
ROM/Flash Controller
The lowest latency times can be achieved if fast 32-bit ROMs are implemented for ExecuteIn-Place (XIP) operating systems or for data structures that are accessed frequently. This
ensures a rapid data transfer, which frees up the SDRAM resource for access by other
masters.
For example, if four doublewords are accessed from a 2-1-1-1 advanced page-mode ROM,
five clock cycles are required to load this data. However, loading the same amount of data
from an 8-bit, non-page-mode ROM results in 48 clock cycles, assuming two wait states
per ROM access. While the first approach promises reasonable performance, the latter
imposes a latency that is possibly unacceptable.
12.6
INITIALIZATION
The ROM controller is connected to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s system reset.
The system designer must define the boot ROM configuration devices connected to
BOOTCS using pinstrapping. The CFG2–CFG0 pins provided on the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller are latched at the assertion of PWRGOOD to define the location and data
width of the boot device, as shown in Table 12-6.
■ CFG2 defines whether the boot device is located on the SDRAM data bus or GP bus
data bus.
■ CFG1–CFG0 define the data width of the boot device.
■ BOOTCS is forced active at system reset. Boot code must then initialize a Programmable
Address Region (PAR) register to decode the required space for the boot ROM device.
See “External ROM Devices” on page 3-17 for examples.
Table 12-6
CFGx Pinstrap Configuration Options for BOOTCS
CFG2
CFG1
CFG0
BOOTCS Data Width
BOOTCS Location
0
0
0
8-bit
GP bus
0
0
1
16-bit
GP bus
1
0
0
8-bit
SDRAM bus
1
0
1
16-bit
SDRAM bus
1
1
x (don’t care)
32-bit
SDRAM bus
Non-boot devices that exist on ROMCS1 and ROMCS2 do not require pinstrapping and
are configured with the ROM configuration registers.
At system reset, the ROM controller is enabled for BOOTCS only. The following steps should
be taken to further configure BOOTCS and/or to enable other ROM devices.
1. Configure the ROM width, mode, access timing, and location in the BOOTCS Control
(BOOTCSCTL) register (MMCR offset 50h), the ROMCS1 Control (ROMCS1CTL)
register (MMCR offset 54h), and/or the ROMCS2 Control (ROMCS2CTL) register
(MMCR offset 56h).
2. Set up the address range and the cacheability control, write protection, and code
execution control attributes for the BOOTCS device or the ROMCSx device in the PAR
registers.
12-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
13
13.1
GENERAL-PURPOSE BUS
CONTROLLER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes an integrated general-purpose bus (GP bus)
controller. The GP bus is an internal and external bus that connects 8-bit or 16-bit peripheral
devices and memory to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller without glue logic.The GP bus
operates at 33 MHz, which provides good performance at very low interface cost.
Features of the general-purpose bus controller include:
■ Up to eight external chip selects (GPCS7–GPCS0)
■ Supports 8- and 16-bit I/O and memory cycles
■ Programmable bus interface timing
■ Dynamic bus sizing using GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16
■ Dynamic wait state support for external devices using GPRDY
■ Up to 64 Mbytes of memory address space per chip select
■ Supports 8- and 16-bit DMA initiators
13.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 13-1 shows the block diagram of the GP bus controller.
13.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Table 13-1 shows GP bus signals shared with other interfaces on the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. The pinstrap functions associated with the GPA25–GPA14 pins are
sampled only as a result of PWRGOOD assertion and do not affect the GP bus functions
of these pins, so they are not shown in this table. When enabled, the multiplexed signals
shown in Table 13-1 either disable or alter any other function that uses the same pin.
A ROM device’s data bus can be connected to either the GP bus data bus or the SDRAM
data bus. However, the addresses for ROM devices are always provided via the GP bus,
independently of whether the data pins of the ROM are connected to the GP bus or SDRAM
bus. In either case, the ROM access shares GPA25–GPA0 with the GP bus.
For additional system diagrams using the GP bus, see “Interfacing with a Super I/O
Controller” on page 13-13 and “Interfacing with an AMD Enhanced Serial Communications
Controller (8 MHz)” on page 13-14.
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for timing tables and
additional timing diagrams.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-1
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Figure 13-1
GP Bus Controller System Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
WDT
UART1
RTC
UART2
PIC
Reset
Internal GP Bus
Timers
PIO
ior, iow,
memr, memw,
SSI
GP-DMA
GPRESET
GPIRQ10–
GPIRQ0,
INTA–INTD
GPA25–GPA15**/
GPA14–GPA0
GPD15–GPD0
GP Bus Controller
MUX
bs16
GP Bus
Control
State Machine
be3–be0
gp_sel
r/w
bs8
GPDBUFOE*
Echo mode select
From CPU:
m/io
Configuration
Registers
GPIOCS16*
GPMEMCS16*
GPBHE*
GPRDY*
GPALE*
GPCS7–
GPCS0*
GPMEMRD
Programmable
Interface
Timing
Control
GPMEMWR
gior, giow,
gmemr, gmemw,
gaen
MUX
GPIORD
GPIOWR
GPAEN*
dior, diow,
dmemr, dmemw,
daen
Programmable
33 MHz
Divider
GP-DMA
State Machine
GPTC*
GPDRQ3–
GPDRQ0*
GPDACK3–
GPDACK0*
*Multiplexed pins
**Has pinstrap
function
13-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Table 13-1
GP Bus Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
Default
Signal
Interface or
Alternate
Function
Control Bit
Register
TMROUT0
GPCS7
GPCS7_SEL
TMROUT1
GPCS6
GPCS6_SEL
Chip Select Pin Function Select (CSPFS)
register (MMCR offset C24h)
TMRIN0
GPCS5
GPCS5_SEL
TMRIN1
GPCS4
GPCS4_SEL
PITGATE2
GPCS3
GPCS3_SEL
ROMCS2
GPCS2
GPCS2_SEL
ROMCS1
GPCS1
GPCS1_SEL
PIO27
GPCS0
PIO27_FNC
PIO26
GPMEMCS16
PIO26_FNC
PIO25
GPIOCS16
PIO25_FNC
PIO24
GPDBUFOE
PIO24_FNC
PIO23
GPIRQ0
PIO23_FNC
PIO22
GPIRQ1
PIO22_FNC
PIO21
GPIRQ2
PIO21_FNC
PIO20
GPIRQ3
PIO20_FNC
PIO19
GPIRQ4
PIO19_FNC
PIO18
GPIRQ5
PIO18_FNC
PIO17
GPIRQ6
PIO17_FNC
PIO16
GPIRQ7
PIO16_FNC
PIO15
GPIRQ8
PIO15_FNC
PIO14
GPIRQ9
PIO14_FNC
PIO13
GPIRQ10
PIO13_FNC
PIO12
GPDACK0
PIO12_FNC
PIO11
GPDACK1
PIO11_FNC
PIO10
GPDACK2
PIO10_FNC
PIO9
GPDACK3
PIO9_FNC
PIO8
GPDRQ0
PIO8_FNC
PIO7
GPDRQ1
PIO7_FNC
PIO6
GPDRQ2
PIO6_FNC
PIO5
GPDRQ3
PIO5_FNC
PIO4
GPTC
PIO4_FNC
PIO3
GPAEN
PIO3_FNC
PIO2
GPRDY
PIO2_FNC
PIO1
GPBHE
PIO1_FNC
PIO0
GPALE
PIO0_FNC
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS31_16) register (MMCR offset
C22h)
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS15_0) register (MMCR offset
C20h)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-3
General-Purpose Bus Controller
13.3.1
GP Bus Loading
As more external devices are connected to the GP bus, loading on GPA25–GPA0 and
GPD15–GPD0 will increase. Therefore, the rise time and fall time of GPA25–GPA0 and
GPD15–GPD0 will increase, and external buffers may be needed to reduce the loading.
The GP bus provides the GPDBUFOE pin for external buffer control to reduce the loading.
This signal is asserted for all accesses to external GP bus peripherals. It is not asserted
during accesses to the internal peripherals (regardless of the GP bus echo mode setting).
Figure 13-2 shows an example using an external data buffer. The GPDBUFOE pin can be
used to enable the data buffer, and the GPIORD or GPMEMRD can be qualified together
to select the direction of the data buffer. If all devices on the GP bus are only I/O-mapped
devices, the AND gate in Figure 13-2 is not required. The GPIORD pin can be used to
control the direction of the data transceiver. A similar simplification can be applied if all
devices are memory-mapped using the GPMEMRD pin.
Figure 13-2
Example: Using an External Data Buffer to Address Excess Loading
GPDBUFOE
EN
GPIORD
GPMEMRD
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
DIR
XCVR
GPD15–GPD0
Data Bus*
Notes:
If the GP address bus must be buffered, ensure that the buffer is always enabled.
* All GP bus peripherals connect their data to this bus.
The GPIOCS16, GPMEMCS16, and GPRDY pins are typically driven by open-drain outputs
from external devices and require a strong pullup resistor (typically 1 Kohm) external to the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. The GPIRQx pins also require pullup resistors (typically 1
Kohm).
13.3.2
Voltage Translation
The GP bus provides 5-V- tolerant inputs and 3-V outputs, but if the external devices contain
both 3-V and 5-V devices, the GPDBUFOE pin qualified with a GPCSx signal can be used
to control the voltage translator. Figure 13-3 shows one example of using a voltage
translator.
13-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Figure 13-3
Example: Using a Voltage Translator
GPCSx
EN
GPDBUFOE
Voltage
Translator
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
XCVR
GPIORD
DIR
GPMEMRD
5-V Data
GPD15–GPD0
3-V Data
Notes:
GPCSx is the chip select for the 5-V peripheral.
13.4
REGISTERS
Table 13-2 shows the memory-mapped registers used to configure the GP bus controller.
Table 13-2
GP Bus Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
GP Echo Mode
GPECHO
C00h
Echo mode enable
GP Chip Select Data Width
GPCSDW
C01h
Individual data width select for GPCS7–GPCS0
GP Chip Select Qualification
GPCSQUAL
C02h
Individual chip select qualification with GPIORD,
GPIOWR, GPMEMRD, or GPMEMWR
GP Chip Select Recovery
Time
GPCSRT
C08h
Global chip select recovery time for all GP bus
cycles. Affects all GP bus chip selects.
GP Chip Select Pulse Width
GPCSPW
C09h
Global width selection for all chip select signals,
measured from the offset
GP Chip Select Offset
GPCSOFF
C0Ah
Global offset time selection for all chip selects
from the beginning of the bus cycle
GP Read Pulse Width
GPRDW
C0Bh
Width of the GPIORD and GPMEMRD signals
from the offset
GP Read Offset
GPRDOFF
C0Ch
Offset from the beginning of the bus cycle for
GPIORD and GPMEMRD
GP Write Pulse Width
GPWRW
C0Dh
Width of the GPIOWR and GPMEMWR signals
from the offset
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-5
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Table 13-2
GP Bus Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
GP Write Offset
GPWROFF
C0Eh
Offset from the beginning of the bus cycle for
GPIOWR and GPMEMWR
GP ALE Pulse Width
GPALEW
C0Fh
Width of the GPALE signal from the offset
GP ALE Offset
GPALEOFF
C10h
Offset from the beginning of the bus cycle for
GPALE
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS15_0
C20h
PIO15–PIO0 or interface function select:
GPIRQ10–GPIRQ8, GPDACK3–GPDACK0,
GPDRQ3–GPDRQ3, GPTC, GPAEN, GPRDY,
GPBHE, GPALE
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS31_16
C22h
PIO31–PIO16 or interface function select: RIN2,
DCD2, DSR2, CTS2, GPCS0, GPMEMCS16,
GPIOCS16, GPDBUFOE, GPIRQ7–GPIRQ0
Chip Select Pin Function
Select
CSPFS
C24h
GPCS7–GPCS1 or alternate function select:
TMROUT1–TMROUT0, TMRIN1–TMRIN0,
PITGATE2, ROMCS2, ROMCS1
Reset Configuration
RESCFG
D72h
Control bit for GP bus reset (GPRESET)
13.5
Function
OPERATION
The GP bus provides a simple interface to the integrated on-chip peripherals, as well as
external peripherals. The GP bus operates at 33 MHz.
The GP bus controller provides one fixed timing set for the internal peripherals and one
programmable timing set for the external peripherals.
Internal to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, the GP bus is used to provide a full complement
of integrated peripherals such as a DMA controller, programmable interrupt controller PIC),
programmable interval timer (PIT), UARTs, and real-time clock (RTC). The internal
peripherals are designed to operate at the full clock rate of the GP bus. They can also be
configured to operate in PC/AT-compatible configuration, but are generally not restricted to
this configuration.
The GP bus interface can be programmed by software to control the interface timing
between the GP bus and the external devices. The GP bus interface supports programmable
timing, dynamic data width sizing, and cycle stretching to accommodate a wide variety of
standard peripherals.
Eight chip selects are provided for external GP bus devices. They can be used for either
memory or I/O accesses. These chip selects are asserted for Am5x86 CPU accesses to
the corresponding regions set up in the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers.
Four external DMA channels provide fly-by DMA transfers between peripheral devices on
the GP bus and system SDRAM.
GP bus accesses can be initiated only by the Am5x86 CPU or by the integrated GP bus
DMA controller. The devices on the GP bus are not cacheable from the Am5x86 CPU’s
viewpoint, to enable a simple user view of devices (memory and peripherals) that are located
on the GP bus.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
The GP bus also provides an echo mode that is useful for debugging. If GP bus echo mode
enabled, the internal GP bus cycle is echoed out on the external pins to enable visibility of
internal cycles. Accesses to internal peripherals that are “echoed” out utilize the
programmed timing set to ensure that there is no timing conflict with other external
peripherals. Note that enabling echo mode does not affect the operation of GP-DMA
accesses or GP bus external accesses.
13.5.1
Programmable Bus Interface Timing
The bus interface timing can be programmed for the following signals:
■ Chip selects GPCS7–GPCS0
■ Read strobes GPIORD and GPMEMRD
■ Write strobes GPIOWR and GPMEMWR
■ Address latch enable GPALE
For each of these signal types, the following parameters can be programmed:
■ Offset from beginning of the bus cycle
■ Pulse width from end of the offset
■ Chip select recovery time
Figure 13-4 shows the shows the relationships between the various adjustable GP bus
timing parameters. The actual time can be calculated with the following formula:
(REG_VAL + 1) * TCLK
where:
REG_VAL = register content value
TCLK = internal clock period
The minimum offset, pulse width and recovery time is 30 ns (for a 33.333-MHz crystal),
resulting in a minimum bus cycle time of 90 ns. Since the offset, pulse width, and recovery
parameters are each 8-bit values (maximum 255), the longest bus cycle in this case is 23
ms (2(8 bits) * 30 ns * 3 registers).
13.5.1.1
Timing Requirements
The programmed timing of the chip select determines the overall length of the GP bus cycle.
Therefore, the timing parameters for the chip select must be appropriately programmed.
This is required even if the external device does not require a connection to the GPCSx pin.
■ To ensure that the command strobes (read or write) assert for the programmed time,
the programmed Offset + Pulse Width + Recovery of the chip select must be programmed
to be longer than the programmed Offset + Pulse Width of the command strobes.
■ Similarly, to ensure that GPALE is asserted for the programmed time, the programmed
Offset + Pulse Width + Recovery of the chip select must be programmed to be longer
than the programmed Offset + Pulse Width of the GPALE.
Figure 13-4 on page 13-8 illustrates how the GP bus registers control this timing adjustment
for GP bus signals.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-7
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Figure 13-4
GP Bus Timing Format
GPA25–GPA0
Address Valid
GPCSx
GPCSOFF + 1
GPCSPW + 1
GPCSRT + 1
GPMEMRD or GPIORD
GPRDOFF + 1
GPRDW + 1
GPMEMWR or GPIOWR
GPWROFF + 1
GPWRW + 1
GPALE
GPALEOFF + 1
Beginning of a bus cycle
GPALEW + 1
Bus cycle duration
Notes:
1. Timing parameter values are in units of one internal clock period.
2. Timing parameters in the diagram can be adjusted via the corresponding GP bus registers.
3. GPCSOFF + GPCSPW + GPCSRT must be greater than or equal to GPRDOFF + GPRDW,
GPWROFF + GPWRW, or GPALEOFF + GPALEW.
4. The GPCSOFF, GPCSPW, and GPCSRT registers affect all GPCSx signals equally.
5. The abbreviations in the figure refer to these GP bus registers:
Mnemonic
Register
GPCSRT
GP Chip Select Recovery Time
GPCSPW
GP Chip Select Pulse Width
GPCSOFF
GP Chip Select Offset
GPRDW
GP Read Pulse Width
GPRDOFF
GP Read Offset
GPWRW
GP Write Pulse Width
GPWROFF
GP Write Offset
GPALEW
GP ALE Pulse Width
GPALEOFF
GP ALE Offset
13.5.1.2
Using GPRDY with Programmable Timing
If the GPRDY signal is used, the bus cycle can be extended as long as required by the
peripheral. GPRDY cannot be used to terminate any bus cycle earlier than programmed.
More detailed information is provided in “Wait States” on page 13-20.
13.5.1.3
Using GP Bus Echo Mode with Programmable Timing
While GP bus echo mode is enabled, the system designer needs to ensure that the GP
bus timing is not faster than that shown in Table 13-3. The minimum GP bus timing register
values during the GP bus echo mode are shown in Table 13-3.
13-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
:
Table 13-3
GP Bus Echo Mode Minimum Timing
GPCSOFF, GPRDOFF,
GPALEOFF (Offset)
Register Value1
GPCSPW, GPRDW,
GPALEW
(Pulse Width)
Register Value1
GPCSRT
(Recovery Time)
Register Value1
GP chip select
1
3
1
GP read
1
3
—
GP write
1
3
—
GPALE
0
0
—
Signal Type
Notes
1. The actual time value is the register value plus 1. Times are in units of one internal clock period.
13.5.2
I/O-Mapped and Memory-Mapped Device Support
The GP bus controller supports any combination of 8-bit and 16-bit I/O and memory-mapped
external devices.
■ If the external device is an I/O-mapped device, GPIORD and GPIOWR are used to strobe
the read and write accesses.
■ If the external device is a memory-mapped device, GPMEMRD and GPMEMWR are
used to strobe the read and write accesses.
To program I/O or memory-mapped address regions, see Chapter 4, “System Address
Mapping”, and the examples in “External GP Bus Devices” on page 3-13.
13.5.3
Chip Select Qualification
All GP bus chip selects can be qualified with the command strobes, GPIORD, GPIOWR,
GPMEMRD, or GPMEMWR, by programming the GP Chip Select Qualification
(GPCSQUAL) register (MMCR offset C02h) and the Programmable Address Region (PAR)
registers for memory or I/O device selection.
When chip select qualification is enabled, the internal chip selects are logically ANDed with
one (or both) of these command strobes. If a single command is chosen for qualification,
the corresponding chip select is not asserted for accesses of the other type. For example,
if GPMEMWR is used to exclusively qualify a chip select, that chip select is not asserted
for memory read accesses.
In a typical system environment, the command strobes are usually shorter than the chip
selects, and, in such cases, the external chip selects have timing that is identical to the
command strobes. Note that if the chip selects are internally qualified by commands, the
timing relationships between the command and chip select assertion/deassertion cannot
be guaranteed externally. For example, the chip select deassertion may lead the command
deassertion.
The qualification feature is useful for interfacing with buffer chips and transceivers without
requiring external gates or logic.
13.5.4
Data Sizing and Unaligned Accesses
The GP bus controller always operates in either 8-bit or 16-bit sizes. If the Am5x86 CPU
requests a 32-bit access from an 8-bit device or 16-bit device, the GP bus controller
responds to the Am5x86 CPU with bs8, indicating 8-bit data width, or bs16, indicating 16bit data width, depending on the programming of the GP Chip Select Data Width (GPCSDW)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-9
General-Purpose Bus Controller
register (MMCR offset C01h) and the state of the GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16 signals.
The Am5x86 CPU then generates multiple 8-bit or 16-bit bus cycles until all 32-bit data is
accessed; thus, the size is transparent to software. This is true for read accesses and write
accesses.
If the GP Chip Select Data Width (GPCSDW) register is programmed for 8-bit data width,
assertion of external GPIOCS16 (during an I/O access) or GPMEMCS16 (during a memory
access) overrides the data width specified in the GP Chip Select Data Width (GPCSDW)
register, as discussed on page 13-19.
Unaligned address accesses (addresses that are not on the 16-bit address boundary) are
supported through the Am5x86 CPU. The Am5x86 CPU breaks an unaligned address bus
cycle into multiple bus cycles with appropriate byte enable signals (be3–be0). The GP bus
controller simply takes one Am5x86 CPU bus cycle at a time and generates one external
bus cycle at a time.
13.5.5
Sharing the Address and Data Bus with the ROM/Flash Controller
A ROM device’s data bus can be connected to either the GP bus data bus or the SDRAM
data bus.
■ When a ROM device is connected to the GP data bus, the ROM access shares both
GPD15–GPD0 and GPA25–GPA0 with the GP bus.
■ When a ROM device is connected to the SDRAM data bus, the ROM access shares
only GPA25–GPA0 with the GP bus.
This does not cause bus contention, because only the Am5x86 CPU can initiate an access
to either ROM or to the GP bus. Since the Am5x86 CPU can perform an access to only one
controller at a time, no conflict is possible.
Note that the GP bus DMA controller can initiate an access on the GP bus. Since the GP
bus DMA controller must already own the Am5x86 CPU’s bus before it can initiate an access,
once again, there can be no conflict between bus cycles initiated by the GP bus DMA
controller and ROM cycles initiated by the Am5 x86 CPU.
Note that the ROM devices are cacheable, but GP bus devices are noncacheable. This is
because the ROM controller supports cacheability and has its own independent control
signals (chip selects, read strobe, and write strobe).
13.5.6
GP Bus Echo Mode
In normal operation, the integrated peripheral accesses are not visible on the external pins.
GP bus echo mode is provided to view accesses to the internal GP bus peripherals on the
external pins. This feature aids in debugging system software and boot code. This applies
to the integrated peripherals only (timers, GP-DMA controller, UARTs, SSI, RTC, etc.) and
not to the memory or PCI bus controllers.
Accesses to internal peripherals that are “echoed” out utilize the programmable timing set
to ensure that there is no timing conflict with other external peripherals. Typically, internal
peripheral bus accesses are faster than external peripherals. Therefore, when using GP
bus echo mode to debug the system, be aware that accesses to the integrated peripherals
may be occurring at slower speeds to ensure compatibility with external devices, thus
resulting in a slower system performance.
When GP bus echo mode is enabled, GPAEN is driven high during accesses from the
Am5x86 CPU to internal peripherals to prevent external devices from decoding (or
responding to) these internal peripheral accesses. In normal operation (GP bus echo mode
disabled), the GP bus controller never asserts GPAEN.
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General-Purpose Bus Controller
Note that accesses initiated by the GP bus DMA controller are not affected by enabling the
GP bus echo mode, and therefore the GP bus DMA controller still asserts GPAEN as it
does during normal operation.During an internal GPDMA access in GP bus echo mode,
the external GP bus commands, GPIORD, GPMEMRD, GPIOWR, GPMEMWR, are not
asserted. However, GPAEN is still asserted.
While GP bus echo mode is enabled, there are additional restrictions to the programmable
timing parameters that must be taken into account. These are described in “Using GP Bus
Echo Mode with Programmable Timing” on page 13-8.
13.5.7
DMA Interface
There are four DMA channels for external GP bus peripherals. The GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0
signals go directly to the GP-DMA controller, and their levels are programmable in the GPDMA controller. All GP-DMA control signals and timing are generated by the GP-DMA
controller, and the programmable timing in the GP bus controller does not affect the GPDMA cycle timing. For more information, see Chapter 14, “GP Bus DMA Controller”.
13.5.8
Usage Scenarios
13.5.8.1
Compatibility with Common ISA Devices
The GP bus is compatible with most ISA devices, but the following ISA bus features are not
supported.
■ LA23–LA17 is supported through GPA23–GPA17, but note that because the Am5x86
CPU itself does not support address pipelining, address pipelining is not supported on
the GP bus.
■ GPA25–GPA24 is added to increase the GP bus address space up to 64 Mbytes, instead
of 16 Mbytes.
■ External master access is not supported, and the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is always
the master on the GP bus (external masters can be accommodated by the PCI bus).
■ GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16 do not cause the GP bus timings to change for the bus
cycles during which these signals are asserted.
■ IOCHRDY is supported via the GPRDY pin only as an input for the slave devices that
require wait states. GPRDY as an output is not supported, since there is no external
master support.
■ IOCHK is not supported, but a GPIRQx signal (mappable to a maskable or non-maskable
interrupt) can be used to report errors.
■ The REFRESH pin is not supported, because the SDRAM refresh is not echoed out to
the GP bus.
■ NOWS is not supported, due to the programmable interface timing on the GP bus.
■ BCLK and OSC are not supported, because a typical ISA interface is asynchronous.
External oscillators can be used, if needed.
■ The GP bus provides programmable bus interface timing that can be configured to
support most ISA bus devices. However, the GP bus does not support all legacy ISA
timing. See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for information
on the GP bus and GP-DMA timing supported by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Table 13-4 shows the cross-reference table of the ISA signals and the GP bus signals.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-11
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Table 13-4
Cross-Reference Table of ISA Signals and GP Bus Signals1
ISA Signal Name
GP Bus Signal Name
AEN
GPAEN
BALE
GPALE
BCLK
(Not Supported)
DACK
GPDACK
DRQ
GPDRQ
IOCHK
Supported through GPIRQ
IOCHRDY
GPRDY
IOCS16
GPIOCS16
IOR
GPIORD
IOW
GPIOWR
IRQ
GPIRQ
LA23–LA17
GPA23–GPA17
MASTER
(Not Supported)
MEMCS16
GPMEMCS16
MEMR
GPMEMRD
MEMW
GPMEMWR
OSC
(Not Supported)
REFRESH
(Not Supported)
RSTDRV
GPRESET
SA19–SA0
GPA19–GPA0
SBHE
GPBHE
SD15–SD0
GPD15–GPD0
TC
GPTC
(Not Supported)
GPA25–GPA24
Notes
1. This table does not imply that the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is fully
compliant with all ISA timing specifications. See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for information on the GP bus
and GP-DMA timing supported by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
13-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
13.5.8.2
Interfacing with a Super I/O Controller
Figure 13-5 shows an example system diagram of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
interfacing with a Super I/O controller. Figure 13-6 shows the interfacing timing example.
In this example, the programmable interface timing registers can be programmed as shown
in Table 13-5, using the equation from “Programmable Bus Interface Timing” on page 13-7:
Table 13-5
Example Super I/O Controller Interface Timing1
Pulse
Offset Offset
Chip
Width
GP Bus
Register Time Require- Register
Signal Type
Value
(ns) ment (ns)
Value
Pulse
Width
(ns)
Chip
Requirement (ns)
Recovery
Time
Recovery
Chip
Register
Timer
RequireValue
(ns)
ment (ns)
GP chip
selects
0
30
N/A
0
30
N/A
2
90
66
GP read
0
30
19
1
60
60
N/A
N/A
N/A
GP write
0
30
19
1
60
60
N/A
N/A
N/A
GPALE
0
30
N/A
0
30
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Notes
1. This example assumes that a 33.333-MHz crystal is being used in the system.
Note that the bus cycle can be stretched out by deasserting GPRDY; see “Wait States” on
page 13-20 for more information.
Figure 13-5
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Interfacing with a Super I/O Controller
GPA10–GPA0
GPD7–GPD0
SA10–SA0
SD7–SD0
GPIORD
GPIOWR
GPRDY
IORJ
IOWJ
IOCHRDY
GPAEN
AEN
DRQ3J–
DRQ1J
DACK3J–
DACK1J
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller GPDRQx
GPDACKx
GPTC
GPIRQx
GPRESET
Super I/O
TC
IRQ7–3
IRQ11–9
MR
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-13
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Figure 13-6
Timing Diagram of a Super I/O Interface
GPA10–GPA0
Address Valid
GPCSx1
30 ns
30 ns
90 ns+
GPIORD2
30 ns
60 ns+
30 ns
60 ns+
GPIOWR**
GPALE
(Not needed)
30 ns
30 ns
GPRDY
Trdy
GPD7–GPD0
Read Data
30 ns
GPD7–GPD0
Beginning of a bus cycle
Write Data
120 ns
Notes:
1. Although the chip selects are not used, the recovery time needs to be programmed.
2. GPIORD, GPIOWR, and the chip select recovery time are delayed when the GPRDY signal is deasserted.
3. This example assumes that a 33.333-MHz crystal is being used in the system.
13.5.8.3
Interfacing with an AMD Enhanced Serial Communications Controller (8 MHz)
This slow version is depicted to illustrate an example of how the programmable timing can
be used to function with various timing requirements. Figure 13-7 shows an example system
diagram of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller interfacing with an Am85C30 Enhanced Serial
Communications controller. Table 13-6 and Figure 13-8 show the interfacing timing
example. In this example, the programmable interface timing registers can be programmed
using the equation from “Programmable Bus Interface Timing” on page 13-7.
13-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Table 13-6
Example AMD Enhanced Serial Communications Controller Interface Timing1
Pulse
Offset Offset
Chip
Width
GP Bus
Register Time Require- Register
Signal Type
Value
(ns) ment (ns)
Value
Pulse
Width
(ns)
Chip
Requirement (ns)
Recovery
Time
Recovery
Chip
Register
Timer
RequireValue
(ns)
ment (ns)
GP chip
selects
2
90
0
4
150
150
0
30
3.5
GP read
2
90
70
4
150
150
N/A
N/A
N/A
GP write
2
90
70
4
150
150
N/A
N/A
N/A
GPALE
0
30
N/A
0
30
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Notes
1. This example assumes that a 33.333-MHz crystal is being used in the system.
Figure 13-7
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Interfacing with an Am85C30
GPA1
A/B
GPA0
D/C
GPD7–GPD0
D7–D0
GPIORD
RD
GPIOWR
WR
GPCSx
CE
Am85C30
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
GPIRQx
INT
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-15
General-Purpose Bus Controller
Figure 13-8
Timing Diagram of an Am85C30 Interface
GPA1–GPA0
Address Valid
GPCSx
90 ns
150 ns
90 ns
150 ns
30 ns
GPIORD
GPIOWR
90 ns
GPALE
(Not needed)
30 ns
30 ns
GPD7–GPD0
Read Data
GPD7–GPD0
Beginning of a bus cycle
Write Data
270 ns
Notes:
1. This example assumes that a 33.333-MHz crystal is being used in the system.
13.5.9
Bus Cycles
13.5.9.1
8-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device
During an 8-bit access to 8-bit I/O devices, GPD7–GPD0 is used to transfer data between
the CPU and external devices. For an 8-bit memory-mapped I/O device, GPMEMWR and
GPMEMRD are used instead of GPIOWR and GPIORD.
Figure 13-9 shows the timing diagram of an 8-bit device access of an 8-bit I/O device.
Figure 13-9
8-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device
GPA25–GPA0,
GPBHE
GPCSx
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPD7–GPD0
GPD7–GPD0
13-16
Read Data
Write Data
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
13.5.9.2
16-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device
A 16-bit data read/write access to 16-bit I/O devices are similar to the 8-bit I/O device
accesses. In 16-bit accesses, all 16 bits of GPD are used. For memory-mapped I/O
accesses, GPMEMRD and GPMEMWR are used instead of GPIORD and GPIOWR.
Figure 13-10 shows the timing diagram of 16-bit accesses of a 16-bit I/O device.
Figure 13-10 16-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device
GPA25–GPA0,
GPBHE
GPCSx
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPD15–GPD0
Read Data
GPD15–GPD0
13.5.9.3
Write Data
16-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device
A 16-bit data access of an 8-bit I/O device requires two consecutive 8-bit data accesses of
the I/O device, but the consecutive 8-bit data accesses are resolved by the Am5x86 CPU
transparent to software. For memory-mapped I/O accesses, GPMEMRD and GPMEMWR
are used instead of GPIORD and GPIOWR. When the Am5x86 CPU requests a 16-bit data
access, the GP bus controller responds to the Am5x86 CPU with the bs8 signal, indicating
that the data width of the device is only 8 bits. The Am5x86 CPU then generates two
consecutive 8-bit bus cycles, and the 16-bit data access becomes two separate 8-bit data
GP bus cycles. Figure 13-11 shows the timing diagram of a 16-bit access of an 8-bit I/O
device.
Figure 13-11 16-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device
GPA25–GPA0,
GPBHE
x..x0h
x..x1h
GPCSx
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPD7–GPD0
(for read)
GPD7–GPD0
(for write)
2nd
1st
1st
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2nd
13-17
General-Purpose Bus Controller
13.5.9.4
32-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device
A 32-bit data access of an 8-bit I/O device requires four consecutive 8-bit data accesses
of the 8-bit I/O device, but the consecutive 8-bit data accesses are resolved by the Am5x86
CPU transparent to software. For memory-mapped I/O accesses, GPMEMRD and
GPMEMWR are used instead of GPIORD and GPIOWR. When the Am5x86 CPU requests
a 32-bit data access, the GP bus controller responds to the Am5x86 CPU with the bs8
signal, indicating that data width of the device is only 8 bits. The Am5x86 CPU then
generates four consecutive 8-bit bus cycles, and the 32-bit data access becomes four
separate 8-bit data GP bus cycles. Figure 13-12 shows the timing diagram of a 32-bit access
of an 8-bit I/O device.
Figure 13-12 32-Bit Data Access of an 8-Bit I/O Device
GPA25–GPA0,
GPBHE
x..x0h
x..x1h
x..x2h
x..x3h
GPCSx
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPD7–GPD0
(for read)
GPD7–GPD0
(for write)
13.5.9.5
1st
1st
2nd
3rd
2nd
4th
3rd
4th
32-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device
A 32-bit data access of a 16-bit I/O device requires two consecutive 16-bit accesses of the
device, but the consecutive 16-bit data accesses are resolved by the Am5x86 CPU
transparent to software. For memory-mapped I/O accesses, GPMEMRD and GPMEMWR
are used instead of GPIORD and GPIOWR.
When the Am5x86 CPU requests a 32-bit data access, the GP bus controller responds to
the Am5x86 CPU with the bs16 signal, indicating that the data width of the device is only
16 bits. The Am5x86 CPU then generates two consecutive 16-bit bus cycles, and the 32bit data access becomes two separate 16-bit cycles on the GP bus.
Figure 13-13 shows the timing diagram of a 32-bit access of a 16-bit I/O device.
Figure 13-13 32-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device
GPA25–GPA0,
GPBHE
x..x0h
x..x2h
GPCSx
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPD15–GPD0
(for read)
GPD15–GPD0
(for write)
13-18
1st
1st
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
2nd
2nd
General-Purpose Bus Controller
13.5.9.6
8-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device
The GPA0 and GPBHE signals are required to determine which byte of a 16-bit peripheral
is accessed during byte read or write cycles. Table 13-7 describes how to determine which
byte is accessed.
Table 13-7
Differentiating Upper/Lower Byte Access of 16-Bit Devices
GPBHE
GPA0
Cycle Description
0
0
16-bit access of 16-bit device
0
1
Upper byte access of 16-bit device
1
0
Lower byte access of either 8-bit or 16-bit device
1
1
Upper byte access of 8-bit device
For memory-mapped I/O accesses, GPMEMRD and GPMEMWR are used instead of
GPIORD and GPIOWR.
Figure 13-14 shows the timing diagram of an 8-bit access of a 16-bit I/O device.
Figure 13-14 8-Bit Data Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device
GPA25–GPA0
x..x0h
Low Byte
x..x1h
High Byte
GPBHE
GPCSx
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPD15–GPD0
GPD15–GPD0
13.5.9.7
Read Data
Write Data
Read Data
Write Data
GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16 Timing
The GP bus controller provides two methods for defining the data bus width.
■ The GP Chip Select Data Width (GPCSDW) register (MMCR offset C01h) allows each
chip select to be individually programmed for 8-bit or 16-bit data bus width.
■ The GP bus controller also supports dynamic bus sizing through the GPIOCS16 and
GPMEMCS16 pins. These pins can be used to override the programming of the data
width for the current access, as described in Table 13-8.
– The GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16 pins can be asserted after the address or chip
select is valid and deasserted after the address or chip select invalid.
– If one of these pins is asserted by the external devices, the GP bus controller asserts
bs16 to the Am5x86 CPU.
– Assertion of these signals does not affect the programmable interface timing.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-19
General-Purpose Bus Controller
The latest assertion time for these two signals is the same as the timing for the GPRDY
deassertion time (see “GPRDY Recognition” on page 13-20).
Table 13-8
Dynamic Bus Sizing Override of Programmed Data Width
GP Chip Select Data Width
(GPCSDW) Register Setting
GPIOCS16
GPMEMCS16 Assertion Resultant Bus Size
8-bit
Deasserted
8-bit
8-bit
Asserted
16-bit
16-bit
Deasserted
16-bit
16-bit
Asserted
16-bit
Figure 13-15 shows the GPIOCS16 timing for a 16-bit access and an 8-bit access.
Figure 13-15 16-Bit Access of a 16-Bit I/O Device
GPA23–GPA0,
GPBHE
Addr
GPCSx
GPIOCS16
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPD15–GPD0
Read Data
GPD15–GPD0
13.5.9.8
Write Data
Wait States
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides two ways to insert wait states in a GP bus cycle.
■ The user can program the programmable interface timing registers to delay the timing
of GPIORD, GPMEMRD, GPIOWR, or GPMEMWR for the required number of wait state
cycles.
■ GPRDY can also be used to insert wait states dynamically on a cycle basis.
GPRDY can only be used to stretch GP bus cycles; it cannot be used to provide early
termination of the cycle. The control signals are always asserted for a minimum of the entire
period, as programmed in the timing control registers. Then, the additional delay can be
inserted by the deassertion of GPRDY.
Figure 13-16 shows the timing of GPRDY.
13.5.9.8.1
GPRDY Recognition
Assuming a 33.333-MHz crystal, the GPRDY pin must be deasserted a minimum of 45 ns
before the programmed deassertion of the command strobes and must have a minimum
deassertion (Low) width of 30 ns to insert a wait state into a GP bus cycle. Additional wait
states are inserted by extending the time in which the GPRDY pin is held deasserted. The
13-20
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Bus Controller
command strobes will be deasserted after the GPRDY signal is internally synchronized and
sampled asserted by the 33-MHz clock and after the programmed pulse width value for the
strobe has expired.
Figure 13-16 GPRDY Timing
GPA25–GPA0
Address
GPCSx
GPMEMRD, GPMEMWR,
GPIORD, or GPIOWR
GPRDY
Notes:
The programmable timing would cause the
cycle to end here, but the GPRDY
deassertion stretches the cycle further.
GPRDY assertion then allows the cycle to
continue.
Read Data
GPD15–GPD0
Write Data
GPD15–GPD0
13.5.10
Interrupts
External devices that assert interrupts use the GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0 signals for this purpose.
The GPIRQx interrupt signals bypass the GP bus controller and are routed to the
programmable interrupt controller (PIC). See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt
Controller”, for more information.
13.5.11
Latency
13.5.11.1
8/16-Bit GP Bus Width
Due to the smaller data width of the GP bus, 32-bit accesses from the Am5x86 CPU are
broken up into separate 8-bit or 16-bit GP bus cycles. During this time, no other Am5x86
CPU bus cycle can be generated, and neither the GP-DMA or an external PCI bus master
can access SDRAM.
13.5.11.2
Slow GP Bus Cycles
If the interface timing is programmed to have slow GP bus cycles or if GPRDY is used to
stretch cycles for long periods of time, the system performance can be affected because
the CPU bus is monopolized.
Note: Very long GP bus cycles can cause the PCI host bridge target controller to violate
the 10 µs memory write maximum completion time limit set in the PCI Local Bus
Specification, Revision 2.2. In PCI bus 2.2-compliant designs, software must limit the length
of GP bus cycles and GP-DMA demand- or block-mode transfers.
13.5.11.3
Noncacheable GP Bus
All GP bus accesses are noncacheable. Therefore, code execution out of this bus is not
recommended.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
13-21
General-Purpose Bus Controller
13.6
INITIALIZATION
The GP bus controller is reset by a system reset. The internal GP bus is enabled, as are
holes in the lower 1-Kbyte of I/O space; however, no chip selects are enabled. The external
GP bus is disabled until the Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers are initialized.
GP bus reset can be generated via a system reset or software write. Writing a 1 to the
GP_RST bit in the Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register (MMCR offset D72h) asserts
the GPRESET pin. Clearing this bit to 0 deasserts the GPRESET pin. The GPRESET pin
is only used for external GP bus peripherals. When this signal is asserted, all devices
connected to the GP bus should re-initialize to their reset state.
To enable the GP bus controller:
1. Configure the address decoding region for each chip select in the PAR registers.
2. Configure the external chip select pins in the Chip Select Pin Function Select (CSPFS)
register (MMCR offset C24h).
3. Configure the external GP bus timing in the programmable interface timing registers, as
described in this chapter.
4. Configure the data width of each chip select in the GP Chip Select Data Width
(GPCSDW) register (MMCR offset C01h).
5. Optionally, program the GP Chip Select Qualification (GPCSQUAL) register (MMCR
offset C02h) to qualify the chip select with the read or write strobes, if needed.
6. Optionally, program the GP Echo Mode (GPECHO) register (MMCR offset C00h) to
enable the GP bus echo mode, if needed.
13-22
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
14
14.1
GP BUS DMA CONTROLLER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes an integrated GP bus DMA (GP-DMA) controller.
The GP-DMA controller is designed to transfer data between external GP bus peripherals
and SDRAM. Transfers between the internal UART serial ports and SDRAM are also
supported. Throughout this document, the term GP-DMA refers to a DMA transaction on
the GP bus.
Features of the GP bus DMA controller include:
■ Fly-by transfers between GP bus peripherals and SDRAM
■ Support for up to seven DMA request channels (with a maximum of four external
requests)
■ Two internal UART serial ports can initiate GP-DMA transfers
■ GP-DMA controller can address all of the system SDRAM
■ In enhanced GP-DMA mode:
– Four channels are individually configurable for either 8 or 16 bits.
– Maximum transfer count is 16 M (16,777,216) transfers (using 24-bit count register).
– Channel widths default to PC/AT-compatible mode (three 16-bit, and four 8-bit).
– Buffer chaining capability
■ Variable clock modes: 4, 8, and 16 MHz
■ Transfers to and from SDRAM only. No transfers are possible to PCI, ROM, or peer GP
bus devices when using the GP-DMA controller.
Note: The GP bus DMA controller is capable of supporting most ISA DMA applications
and devices. However, not all of the legacy ISA timings are supported. See the Élan™SC520
Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for information on the GP bus and GP-DMA
timing supported by the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
14.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
The GP-DMA controller consists of two DMA cores: the slave core and the master core.
■ The slave core has four 8-bit channels by default: 0, 1, 2, and 3.
■ The master core has three 16-bit channels by default: 5, 6, and 7.
■ Channel 4 must be programmed to cascade mode and must be unmasked if any of the
8-bit channels 0–3 are to be used.
■ In enhanced GP-DMA mode, Channels 3, 5, 6, and 7 are programmable to support either
8-bit or 16-bit mode.
Figure 14-1 shows a block diagram of the GP-DMA controller. Figure 14-2 shows how the
master and slave cores are connected.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-1
GP Bus DMA Controller
Figure 14-1
GP-DMA Controller Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
GP-DMA Controller
GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0
txdrq[1–0]
rxdrq[1–0]
txdack[1–0]
rxdack[1–0]
GPA25–GPA0
GPD15–GPD0
Configuration
Registers
Channel
Mapping
Initiator
(I/O)
Control
GP Bus
I/O
dior
diow
dmemr
dmemw
GPTC*
GPAEN*
UARTs
GP Bus
GPDACK3–GPDACK0*
*Multiplexed pins
dack7–dack5
drq7–drq5
dma_is_16
Master Core
dramrd
Target
(SDRAM)
Control
Slave Core
dack3–dack0
dramwr
daddr[27–0]
breq
drq3–drq0
bgnt
addr[27–0]
14-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Bus
Interface
Unit
GP Bus DMA Controller
Figure 14-2
Master and Slave Core Cascading Diagram
ADDR[15–0] HRQ
HLDA
DATA[7–0]
CS
ADDR[15:0]
Master Core
GP data
dma0_cs
gpdrq7
gpdack7
breq
bgnt
DRQ
Channel 7
DACK
gpdrq6
gpdack6
gpdrq5
gpdack5
DRQ
Channel 6
DACK
DRQ
Channel 5
DACK
DRQ
Channel 4
DACK
Interconnect
Logic
daddr[27–0]
dior
diow
HRQ
DATA[7–0]
HLDA
CS
ADDR[15–0]
Slave Core
dma1_cs
gpdrq3
DRQ
Channel 3
DACK
gpdack3
gpdrq2
gpdack2
gpdrq1
gpdack1
dmemr
dma_is_16
GPTC
GPAEN
DRQ
Channel 2
DACK
DRQ
Channel 1
DACK
gpdrq0
gpdack0
14.3
dmemr
DRQ
Channel 0
DACK
SYSTEM DESIGN
Table 14-1 shows GP-DMA signals shared with other interfaces. When enabled, the
multiplexed signals shown in Table 14-1 either disable or alter any other function that uses
the same pin.
The GPDRQx and GPDACKx signals have programmable polarities. The default polarity
is compatible to the ISA convention.
Since the GP-DMA controller does not generate an interrupt at the end of the transfer,
system designers can externally connect GPTC to any GPIRQx to trigger an interrupt. Note
that qualifying GPTC with a specific GPDACKx signal provides a more specific interrupt.
For an application that requires a DMA transfer every fixed interval of time, a timer output
(TMROUT1 or TMROUT0) can be connected to the GPDRQx pin.
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for timing tables and
additional timing diagrams.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-3
GP Bus DMA Controller
Table 14-1
14.4
GP-DMA Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
PIO
(Default)
Signal
Interface
Function
Control Bit
Register
PIO12
GPDACK0
PIO12_FNC
PIO11
GPDACK1
PIO11_FNC
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS15_0) register (MMCR offset C20h)
PIO10
GPDACK2
PIO10_FNC
PIO9
GPDACK3
PIO9_FNC
PIO8
GPDRQ0
PIO8_FNC
PIO7
GPDRQ1
PIO7_FNC
PIO6
GPDRQ2
PIO6_FNC
PIO5
GPDRQ3
PIO5_FNC
PIO4
GPTC
PIO4_FNC
PIO3
GPAEN
PIO3_FNC
REGISTERS
The GP bus DMA (GP-DMA) controller is configured using memory-mapped registers and
direct-mapped registers.
14.4.1
Memory-Mapped Registers
A summary listing of the MMCR registers used to configure the GP-DMA controller is shown
in Table 14-2. These registers provide functionality beyond the PC/AT compatibility, such
as the extended page registers, the features in the enhanced GP-DMA mode, and the ability
to route external GPDRQx and GPDACKx signals to a specific channel of the GP-DMA
controller.
Table 14-2
GP-DMA Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS15_0
C20h
PIO or interface function select: GPDACK3–
GPDACK0, GPDRQ3–GPDRQ3, GPTC,
GPAEN
DMA Buffer Chaining
Interrupt Mapping
DMABCINTMAP
D40h
GP-DMA buffer chaining interrupt mapping
GP-DMA Control
GPDMACTL
D80h
GP-DMA enhanced mode enable, channel
size, clock mode
GP-DMA Memory-Mapped
I/O
GPDMAMMIO
D81h
I/O or memory-mapped I/O channel
configuration
GP-DMA Resource Channel
Map A
GPDMAEXTCHMAPA
D82h
Channel mapping for GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0
GP-DMA Resource Channel
Map B
GPDMAEXTCHMAPB D84h
Channel mapping for internal serial port
GP-DMA requests
GP-DMA Channel 0
Extended Page
GPDMAEXTPG0
Bits 27–24 of the memory address for
Channel 0
14-4
D86h
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
Table 14-2
GP-DMA Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
GP-DMA Channel 1
Extended Page
GPDMAEXTPG1
D87h
Bits 27–24 of the memory address for
Channel 1
GP-DMA Channel 2
Extended Page
GPDMAEXTPG2
D88h
Bits 27–24 of the memory address for
Channel 2
GP-DMA Channel 3
Extended Page
GPDMAEXTPG3
D89h
Bits 27–24 of the memory address for
Channel 3
GP-DMA Channel 5
Extended Page
GPDMAEXTPG5
D8Ah
Bits 27–24 of the memory address for
Channel 5
GP-DMA Channel 6
Extended Page
GPDMAEXTPG6
D8Bh
Bits 27–24 of the memory address for
Channel 6
GP-DMA Channel 7
Extended Page
GPDMAEXTPG7
D8Ch
Bits 27–24 of the memory address for
Channel 7
GP-DMA Channel 3
Extended Transfer Count
GPDMAEXTTC3
D90h
Bits 23–16 of Channel 3 transfer count value
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 5
Extended Transfer Count
GPDMAEXTTC5
D91h
Bits 23–16 of Channel 5 transfer count value
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 6
Extended Transfer Count
GPDMAEXTTC6
D92h
Bits 23–16 of Channel 6 transfer count value
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 7
Extended Transfer Count
GPDMAEXTTC7
D93h
Bits 23–16 of Channel 7 transfer count value
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
Buffer Chaining Control
GPDMABCCTL
D98h
Buffer chaining enables for channels 7, 6, 5,
and 3
Buffer Chaining Status
GPDMABCSTA
D99h
Buffer chaining status for channels 7, 6, 5, and
3
Buffer Chaining Interrupt
Enable
GPDMABSINTENB
D9Ah
Buffer chaining interrupt enables for channels
7, 6, 5, and 3
Buffer Chaining Valid
GPDMABCVAL
D9Bh
Valid buffer of the buffer chaining operation
GP-DMA Channel 3 Next
Address Low
GPDMANXTADDL3
DA0h
Address bits 0–15 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 3
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 3 Next
Address High
GPDMANXTADDH3
DA2h
Address bits 16–27 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 3
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 5 Next
Address Low
GPDMANXTADDL5
DA4h
Address bits 0–15 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 5
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 5 Next
Address High
GPDMANXTADDH5
DA6h
Address bits 16–27 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 5
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-5
GP Bus DMA Controller
Table 14-2
GP-DMA Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
GP-DMA Channel 6 Next
Address Low
GPDMANXTADDL6
DA8h
Address bits 0–15 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 6
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 6 Next
Address High
GPDMANXTADDH6
DAAh
Address bits 16–27 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 6
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 7 Next
Address Low
GPDMANXTADDL7
DACh
Address bits 0–15 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 7
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 7 Next
Address High
GPDMANXTADDH7
DAEh
Address bits 16–27 of the next data buffer in
memory used with Channel 7
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 3 Next
Transfer Count Low
GPDMANXTTCL3
DB0h
Bits 0–15 of the next transfer count for Channel
3 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 3 Next
Transfer Count High
GPDMANXTTCH3
DB2h
Bits 16–23 of the next transfer count for
Channel 3 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 5 Next
Transfer Count Low
GPDMANXTTCL5
DB4h
Bits 0–15 of the next transfer count for Channel
5 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 5 Next
Transfer Count High
GPDMANXTTCH5
DB6h
Bits 16–23 of the next transfer count for
Channel 5 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 6 Next
Transfer Count Low
GPDMANXTTCL6
DB8h
Bits 0–15 of the next transfer count for Channel
6 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 6 Next
Transfer Count High
GPDMANXTTCH6
DBAh
Bits 16–23 of the next transfer count for
Channel 6 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 7 Next
Transfer Count Low
GPDMANXTTCL7
DBCh
Bits 0–15 of the next transfer count for Channel
7 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
GP-DMA Channel 7 Next
Transfer Count High
GPDMANXTTCH7
DBEh
Bits 16–23 of the next transfer count for
Channel 7 when using buffer chaining
(enhanced GP-DMA mode)
14.4.2
Function
Direct-Mapped Registers
There are seven DMA channels in the GP-DMA controller. Table 14-3 shows the directmapped I/O registers that are available for each of the seven channels.
There are two DMA cores in the GP-DMA controller that are cascaded to provide the seven
DMA channels. The cores are referred to as master and slave. Table 14-3 includes the set
of the direct-mapped registers available in each of two cores. These registers program the
function of the master or slave core.
14-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
In addition to the registers used to control GP-DMA, there is a set of general-purpose
registers. These registers are decoded in the same chip select region with the page
registers.
Table 14-3
GP-DMA Controller Registers—Direct-Mapped
Mnemonic
I/O
Address
Channel 0 Memory Address
Channel 1 Memory Address
Channel 2 Memory Address
Channel 3 Memory Address
Channel 4 Memory Address
Channel 5 Memory Address
Channel 6 Memory Address
Channel 7 Memory Address
GPDMA0MAR
GPDMA1MAR
GPDMA2MAR
GPDMA3MAR
GPDMA4MAR
GPDMA5MAR
GPDMA6MAR
GPDMA7MAR
0000h
0002h
0004h
0006h
00C0h
00C4h
00C8h
00CCh
Memory address bits 15–0 during GP-DMA
transfers
Channel 0 Transfer Count
Channel 1 Transfer Count
Channel 2 Transfer Count
Channel 3 Transfer Count
Channel 4 Transfer Count
Channel 5 Transfer Count
Channel 6 Transfer Count
Channel 7 Transfer Count
GPDMA0TC
GPDMA1TC
GPDMA2TC
GPDMA3TC
GPDMA4TC
GPDMA5TC
GPDMA6TC
GPDMA7TC
0001h
0003h
0005h
0007h
00C2h
00C6h
00CAh
00CEh
Bits 15–0 of the transfer count for the GPDMA transactions
Channel 2 Page
Channel 3 Page
Channel 1 Page
Channel 0 Page
Channel 6 Page
Channel 7 Page
Channel 5 Page
GPDMA2PG
GPDMA3PG
GPDMA1PG
GPDMA0PG
GPDMA6PG
GPDMA7PG
GPDMA5PG
0081h
0082h
0083h
0087h
0089h
008Ah
008Bh
Memory address bits 23–16 or 23–17
during GP-DMA transfers
MSTDMASTA
SLDMASTA
00D0h
0008h
GP-DMA request status and terminal count
condition for each channel.
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Control MSTDMACTL
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Control SLDMACTL
00D0h
0008h
DMA controller enable, arbitration mode,
and timing control
Master Software DRQ(n) Request MSTDMASWREQ
Slave Software DRQ(n) Request SLDMASWREQ
00D2h
0009h
Software GP-DMA request initiated to a
specific channel
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mask
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Mask
MSTDMAMSK
SLDMAMSK
00D4h
000Ah
GP-DMA channel mask
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mode
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Mode
MSTLDMAMODE
SLDMAMODE
00D6h
000Bh
Transfer mode, transfer type, automatic
initialization, and address increment mode
for each channel
Master DMA Clear Byte Pointer
Slave DMA Clear Byte Pointer
MSTDMACBP
SLDMACBP
00D8h
000Ch
Pointer to which byte will be accessed in the
16-bit GP-DMA registers
Register
Function
Registers for Each Channel
Registers for Each DMA Core (Master and Slave)
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Status
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Status
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-7
GP Bus DMA Controller
Table 14-3
GP-DMA Controller Registers—Direct-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
I/O
Address
Master DMA Controller Reset
Slave DMA Controller Reset
MSTDMARST
SLDMARST
00DAh
000Dh
GP-DMA controller reset
Master DMA Controller Temporary MSTDMATMP
Slave DMA Controller Temporary SLDMATMP
00DAh
000Dh
Preserves PC/AT compatibility
Master DMA Mask Reset
Slave DMA Mask Reset
MSTDMAMSKRST
SLDMAMSKRST
00DCh
000Eh
Mask register reset to activate the
associated GP-DMA channels
Master DMA General Mask
Slave DMA General Mask
MSTDMAGENMSK
SLDMAGENMSK
00DEh
000Fh
GP-DMA channel masks
GPDMAGR0
GPDMAGR1
GPDMAGR2
GPDMAGR3
GPDMAGR4
GPDMAGR5
GPDMAGR6
GPDMAGR7
GPDMAGR8
0080h,
0084h–
0086h,
0088h,
008Ch–
008Fh
General-purpose R/W registers
Function
General-Purpose Registers
General Registers
14.5
OPERATION
The GP-DMA controller on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports the following features.
■ Only fly-by GP-DMA transfers are supported. A fly-by transfer is a transfer in which the
data is moved from an I/O device or a memory-mapped I/O device to SDRAM (GP-DMA
write), or from SDRAM to an I/O device or a memory-mapped I/O device (GP-DMA read)
in a single transaction.
■ Memory-to-memory (i.e., SDRAM-to-SDRAM) and I/O-to-I/O (peer-to-peer on the GP
bus) transfers are not supported.
■ Transfer modes supported: single, block, and demand
■ Transfer types supported: read, write, and verify
14.5.1
GP-DMA Transfers
Because the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller also supports the standard PC/AT system
architecture, the method for DMA transfer complies with the Industry Standard Architecture
(ISA) specifications. The default polarities of GPDRQx and GPDACKx are active High and
Low respectively, but they can be programmed differently.
The following general rules apply to GP-DMA transfers on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller:
■ The GP-DMA initiator is the I/O device that asserts GPDRQx. This is always an external
I/O device (or memory -mapped I/O device) residing on the GP bus, or the internal UART
serial ports, and can be either 8 bits or 16 bits. Note that the internal UARTs must be
programmed as 8-bit channels.
■ The GP-DMA target is always system memory (SDRAM). Table 14-4 on page 14-9
shows the possible GP-DMA initiators and targets.
14-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
■ Since the GP-DMA target is always SDRAM, the relevant address range must be
currently mapped to be system SDRAM. If that portion of the address space is not
mapped to SDRAM, erroneous operation will result. See Chapter 4, “System Address
Mapping”, for more details on how to set up the system address mapping.
■ ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not support peer-to-peer transfers between GP bus
peripheral devices, or SDRAM-to-SDRAM.
■ In PCI bus 2.2-compliant designs, software must limit the length of GP bus DMA demand-
or block-mode transfers. Very large transfers could cause the PCI host bridge target
controller to violate the 10 µs memory write maximum completion time limit set in the
PCI Local Bus Specification, Revision 2.2.
Table 14-4
Supported GP-DMA Initiator/Target Combinations
GP-DMA Initiator
Channel Size
GP-DMA Target
UARTs
8 bits
SDRAM
GP Bus
8 or 16 bits
SDRAM
The GP-DMA controller provides the GPAEN signal to prevent other devices residing on
the same external GP bus from decoding the address on the GPA bus. When the internal
Transfer Count register rolls from 0h to FFFFh (FFFFFFh in enhanced GP-DMA mode),
GP-DMA controller asserts GPTC to indicate the end of transfer.
14.5.1.1
GP-DMA Initiators
14.5.1.1.1
Internal UARTs
Each of the two UART serial ports on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can initiate DMA
transfers from its transmit channel or receive channel, or both. Since the serial ports are
8-bit devices, their DMA requests can be mapped to any of the default 8-bit channels
(channels 0–3).
■ For a read transfer, the UART asserts its request from the transmit channel (txdrq), waits
for the acknowledge (txdack), and latches the data from the low byte of the GPD15–
GPD0 bus when the I/O command is asserted (GPIOWR).
■ For a write transfer, the UART asserts its request from the receive channel (rxdrq), waits
for the acknowledge (rxdack), and places the data on the low byte of the GPD15–GPD0
bus when the I/O command is asserted (GPIORD).
For the channel connected to the internal serial port, the drq sense level must be
programmed as active High, the dack sense level must be programmed as active Low, the
write mode must be programmed for late write using the WRTSEL bit, the timing mode
must be configured for normal timing using the COMPTIM bit. This is the default
configuration. These bits are found in the Slave and Master DMA Channel x Control
(SLDMACTL and MSTDMACTL) registers. Note that internal requests from the UART serial
ports cannot be mapped to a 16-bit channel, because the UARTs support 8-bit data transfer
only.
14.5.1.1.2
External I/O Devices
An external I/O device can use any of the channels, depending on its size. Each I/O device
uses one dedicated GPDRQ/GPDACK signal pair.
■ During a read transfer, the external I/O device asserts its request (GPDRQx), waits for
the acknowledge (GPDACKx), and latches the data from the GPD bus when the I/O
command is asserted (GPIOWR).
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-9
GP Bus DMA Controller
■ For a write transfer, the external I/O device asserts its request, waits for the acknowledge,
and places the data on the GPD bus when the I/O command (GPIORD) is asserted.
14.5.1.1.3
External Memory-Mapped I/O Devices
An external device on the GP bus can be mapped into memory address space. See
Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”, for more details. Such devices are referred to as
memory-mapped I/O devices. GP-DMA transactions to a memory-mapped I/O device are
handled in the same fashion as those to an I/O device, except that the commands used
are GPMEMRD and GPMEMWR, instead of GPIORD and GPIOWR. The GP-DMA
Memory-Mapped I/O (GPDMAMMIO) register (MMCR offset D81h) is used for this purpose.
14.5.1.2
GP-DMA Channel Mapping
GP-DMA requests can originate from the following sources:
■ Transmit and receive channels from each of two internal UART serial ports (always
8-bit) for a total of four requests
■ GP bus using GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0 and GPDACK3–GPDACK0 (8-bit or 16-bit).
Table 14-5 shows the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller resource and the GP-DMA channels to
which the resource can be mapped.
All GP-DMA channel mapping in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is programmable using
the two GP-DMA Resource Channel Map x (GPDMAEXTCHMAPx) registers.
Table 14-5
GP-DMA Channel Mapping
GP-DMA Channel
14.5.2
Microcontroller Resource
0
1
2
3
UART 1 transmit request
✔
✔
✔
✔
UART 2 receive request
✔
✔
✔
✔
UART 1 transmit request
✔
✔
✔
✔
UART 2 receive request
✔
✔
✔
✔
External request GPDRQ0
✔
✔
✔
External request GPDRQ1
✔
✔
External request GPDRQ2
✔
External request GPDRQ3
✔
4
5
6
7
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
✔
Operating Modes
The operating mode for the GP-DMA controller is configured using the ENH_MODE_ENB
bit in the GP-DMA Control (GPDMACTL) register (MMCR offset D80h).
14.5.2.1
Normal GP-DMA Mode
Normal GP-DMA mode is the default operating mode of the GP-DMA controller. In this
mode:
■ Channels 0, 1, 2, and 3 are used for the internal UART serial ports and external 8-bit
devices.
■ Channel 5, 6, and 7 are used for any external 16-bit devices.
This mode is compatible with the PC/AT architecture.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
14.5.2.2
Enhanced GP-DMA Mode
Only channels 3, 5, 6, and 7 support enhanced GP-DMA mode. In enhanced GP-DMA
mode:
■ Each of these four channels can be configured to be either 8-bit or 16-bit channel. The
other channels (0, 1, and 2) can still be used as normal 8-bit channels in conjunction
with the enhanced GP-DMA mode channels.
■ The transfer count registers are increased to 24 bits in size, to allow counts up to 16 M
(16,777,216) fransfers.
■ The address adder is increased to 28 bits in size, eliminating the limitation of transferring
within the 64 Kbytes boundaries (128 Kbytes for 16-bit devices) in normal GP-DMA
mode.
This mode also offers the capability of chaining two noncontiguous memory buffers during
DMA transfers, as described in “Buffer Chaining” on page 14-15.
14.5.3
Addressing GP-DMA Channels
14.5.3.1
Addressing In Normal GP-DMA Mode
GP-DMA Channel 4 is used to cascade channels 0–3 from the slave core through the
master core to the CPU and is not available for data transfer. For proper operation, software
must ensure that this setting is always configured for cascading only via the TRNMOD field
in the Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mode (MSTDMAMODE) register (Port 00D6h).
14.5.3.1.1
8-Bit Transfers
Channels 0–3 support 8-bit data transfers between 8-bit I/O devices and system SDRAM.
8-bit GP-DMA can access any location within the system address space; however, the
address adder is only 16 bits wide, so 8-bit GP-DMA requests cannot cross 64-Kbyte
physical page boundaries. As shown in Table 14-6, during an 8-bit GP-DMA transfer:
■ The Slave DMA Channel x Memory Address (GPDMAxMAR) registers provide address
bits 15–0.
■ The Slave DMA Channel x Page (GPDMAxPG) registers provide address bits 23–16.
■ The GP-DMA Channel x Extended Page (GPDMAEXTPGx) registers provide bits
27–24 of the system memory address.
14.5.3.1.2
16-Bit Transfers
Channels 5–7 support 16-bit data transfers between 16-bit I/O devices and system SDRAM.
16-bit GP-DMA can access any even (word-aligned) location within the system address
space; however, the address adder is only 16 bits wide, so 16-bit GP-DMA requests cannot
cross 128-Kbyte physical page boundaries. During a 16-bit GP-DMA transfers:
■ A0 is forced to 0.
■ The Master DMA Channel x Memory Address (GPDMAxMAR) registers provide address
bits 16–1.
■ The Master DMA Channel x Page (GPDMAxPG) registers provide address bits 23–17.
■ The GP-DMA Channel x Extended Page (GPDMAEXTPGx) registers provide bits
27–24 of the system memory address.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-11
GP Bus DMA Controller
Table 14-6
8-Bit GP-DMA Channel Address Generation
Source
GP-DMA Channel x
Extended Page Registers
Slave DMA Channel x
Page Registers
Slave DMA Channel x
Memory Address Register
Address
A27–A24
A23–A16
A15–A0
Table 14-7
16-Bit GP-DMA Channel Address Generation
Source
GP-DMA Channel x
Extended Page Registers
Master DMA Channel x
Page Registers
Master DMA Channel x
Memory Address Register
Address
A27–A24
A23–A17
A16–A1, A0=0
14.5.3.2
Addressing In Enhanced GP-DMA Mode
In enhanced GP-DMA mode, channels 3, 5, 6 and 7 are programmable to support either
8-bit transfers or 16-bit transfers.
■ When the channel is configured to be 8-bit, the address is generated as shown in
Table 14-6.
■ When the channel is configured to be 16-bit, the address is generated as shown in
Table 14-7.
■ However, when the buffer chaining feature is used, the memory address of the next data
buffer is provided directly from the channel’s Next Address register. This feature is
described in “Buffer Chaining” on page 14-15.
The size of the address adder is increased to 28 bits wide to eliminate the limitation of
64-Kbyte physical page boundaries for 8-bit transfers and 128-Kbyte physical page
boundaries for 16-bit transfers. This feature is available for channels 3, 5, 6, and 7 only.
14.5.4
GP-DMA Transfer Modes
The GP-DMA controller performs read, write, and verify operations in each of the three
transfer modes: single, demand, or block. For all three modes, the GP-DMA initiator asserts
GPDRQx and must hold it active until the assertion of GPDACKx in order to be recognized.
14.5.4.1
Single Transfer Mode
In single transfer mode, the GP-DMA controller performs one transfer each time it is granted
the Am5x86 CPU bus. The GP-DMA initiator asserts GPDRQx and holds it active as long
as it has data to be transferred. The initiator must negate its DRQx relative to the I/O
commands to ensure correct operation.
14.5.4.2
Demand Transfer Mode
In demand transfer mode, the GP-DMA initiator asserts GPDRQx and holds it active as
long as it has data to be transferred. The GP-DMA controller continues to perform GP-DMA
transfers until Terminal Count (TC) is reached or the GPDRQx is deasserted by the GPDMA initiator. The initiator must negate its DRQx relative to the I/O commands to ensure
correct operation.
When using demand transfer mode, if the transfer is configured for automatic initialization
control mode, GPDRQx must be deasserted prior to the assertion of GPTC in the last DMA
cycle to prevent another transfer. Otherwise, the channel is automatically masked and
requires initialization before it will respond to subsequent requests.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
14.5.4.3
Block Transfer Mode
In block transfer mode, the GP-DMA initiator asserts GPDRQ and holds it active until
acknowledged by the assertion of GPDACKx. The GP-DMA controller performs GP-DMA
transfers until TC is reached, indicating the programmed number of transfers has been
completed.
14.5.4.4
Transfer Types
Three GP-DMA transfer types are supported: read, write, and verify.
■ A read transfer, shown in Figure 14-3, consists of a memory read cycle from the address
in the current address register (concatenation of the channel’s Memory Address register,
Page register, and Extended Page register), followed by an I/O write cycle to the
associated device.
■ A write transfer, shown in Figure 14-4, consists of an I/O read cycle followed by a memory
write cycle to the address in the current address register. Depending on the GP-DMA
channel selected, the data can be 8 bits or 16 bits in width.
■ A verify transfer, shown in Figure 14-5, is either a read transfer or a write transfer, but
without the generation of the I/O and memory control signals, such as GPIORD,
GPIOWR, GPMEMRD, and GPMEMWR. A verify transfer is normally used for checking
the GP-DMA core to determine whether the address generation and control logic are
operating correctly. Data are not transferred in a verify cycle. ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
does not drive the SDRAM address out on the MA address bus during a DMA verify cycle.
Figure 14-3
GP-DMA Read Transfer
GPDRQx
GPDACKx
daddr[27:0]
Address Valid
GPAEN
dmemr
GPIOWR, GPMEMWR
GPD15–GPD0
Data Valid
GPTC
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-13
GP Bus DMA Controller
Figure 14-4
GP-DMA Write Transfer
GPDRQx
GPDACKx
daddr[27:0]
Address Valid
GPAEN
dmemw
GPIORD, GPMEMRD
GPD15–GPD0
Data Valid
GPTC
Figure 14-5
GP-DMA Verify Transfer
GPDRQx
GPDACKx
daddr[27:0]
Address Valid
GPAEN
dmemr
GPIOWR, GPMEMWR
dmemw
GPIORD, GPMEMRD
GPD15–GPD0
GPTC
14.5.4.5
Automatic Initialization Control
When automatic initialization control mode is enabled via the AINIT bit in the Slave or Master
Channel x Mode register, the original values of the current address and current count
registers are automatically restored to the values in the base address and base count
registers of the given channel following the terminal count.
This feature is useful when data quantities of the same size are transferred to or from a
fixed buffer in SDRAM. This feature must be disabled when using buffer chaining mode;
otherwise, unexpected results may occur.
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GP Bus DMA Controller
14.5.4.6
Priority
The GP-DMA controller offers two priority schemes for servicing multiple requests. After
the recognition of any one channel for service, the other channels are prevented from
generating DMA cycles until the current transfer has completed (i.e., the current channel’s
DACKx has deasserted).
■ The fixed priority scheme is based upon the value of channel numbers (Channel 0 is
the highest priority, Channel 7 is the lowest priority). The higher priority channel prevents
the lower priority channel from servicing the request.
■ In the rotating priority scheme, the last channel serviced becomes the lowest priority,
with the other channels rotating accordingly. This scheme is also known as the round
robin scheme.
14.5.4.7
Buffer Chaining
In enhanced GP-DMA mode, channels 3, 5, 6, and 7 allow transfer to/from two or more
data buffers in SDRAM for a single transfer request (fragmented data buffers). This feature
is known as buffer chaining. The purpose of this feature is to facilitate GP-DMA transfers
to or from non-contiguous buffers in SDRAM.
An example usage of this feature is to transfer a packet of data from SDRAM to the external
device. The packet header and the packet data might be in two noncontiguous locations in
SDRAM. By using the buffer chaining feature, users can transfer both the packet header
and packet data in one DMA transfer. Similarly, the GP-DMA controller can be used to split
up a packet header from the packet data into two SDRAM buffers when receiving packets.
Buffer chaining mode is enabled by setting the appropriate CHx_BCHN_ENB bit in the
Buffer Chaining Control (GPDMABCCTL) register (MMCR offset D98h).
1. The Next Address registers and the Next Transfer Count registers should be programmed
prior to the start of the GP-DMA cycle.
2. When the transfer count is reached, the GP-DMA controller checks the CHx_CBUF_VAL
bits in the Buffer Chaining Valid (GPDMABCVAL) register (MMCR offset D9Bh).
3. If this bit is set, the contents of the Next Address and the Next Transfer Count registers
are loaded into the internal current address and current transfer count registers,
respectively.
4. The GP-DMA controller hardware then generates a maskable or non-maskable interrupt
and clears the CHx_CBUF_VAL bits.
5. This bit indicates to software that another buffer can be set up in the chain by writing to
the Next Address and Next Transfer Count registers with new values.
6. The DMA transfer then continues until the next terminal count.
7. If the CHx_CBUF_VAL bits were not set, GP-DMA controller generates the interrupt and
also asserts GPTC to indicate the end of the chain.
Typically, buffer chaining should be used in single transfer mode, but block mode or demand
mode operation is also supported.
When using block transfer mode, the GP-DMA controller holds the bus request active until
the end of the last buffer in the chain. It is worth noting that only two buffers can be chained
at a time when using block transfer mode. Because the GP-DMA controller does not release
the GP bus during the transfer, the Next Address and Next Transfer Count cannot be
reprogrammed to link in another buffer while a GP-DMA transfer is in progress.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-15
GP Bus DMA Controller
The automatic initialization control mode cannot be used in conjunction with buffer chaining
mode.
14.5.5
Bus Cycles
Table 14-8 shows the four GP-DMA cycle types and the command strobes generated in
each cycle. The GP bus command strobes GPMEMRD and GPMEMWR are asserted for
memory-mapped I/O devices on this bus. The internal memory commands are not shown
in this table.
Table 14-8
14.5.5.1
GP-DMA Cycle Types
GP-DMA Initiator GP-DMA Target
Data Transfer Direction
(GP-DMA Cycle Type)
GP Bus Command
Strobes Generated
I/O device
SDRAM
I/O to memory (GP-DMA write)
GPIORD
I/O device
SDRAM
Memory to I/O (GP-DMA read)
GPIOWR
Memory-mapped
I/O device
SDRAM
Memory-Mapped I/O to memory
(GP-DMA write)
GPMEMRD
Memory-mapped
I/O device
SDRAM
Memory to memory-mapped I/O
(GP-DMA read)
GPMEMWR
GP Bus I/O to SDRAM
Figure 14-6 shows a GP-DMA read cycle in demand transfer mode.
Figure 14-6
GP-DMA Read in Demand Transfer Mode
GPDRQx
GPDACKx
daddr[27:0]
Addr Valid
Addr Valid
Addr Valid
GPAEN
GPDBUFOE
dmemr
GPIOWR, GPMEMWR
GPD15–GPD0
Data Valid
Data Valid
Data Valid
GPTC
14-16
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
14.5.5.2
GP-DMA Read with Cache Hit
Figure 14-7 shows a read transfer with a cache hit (write-back cache).
Figure 14-7
GP-DMA Read Transfer with Cache Hit (Write-Back Cache)
GPDRQx
GPDACKx
daddr[27:0]
Address Valid
GPAEN
GPDBUFOE
eads
hitm
hold
hlda
dmemr
GPIOWR,
GPMEMWR
GPD15–GPD0
Data Valid
GPTC
14.5.6
GP Bus Echo Mode
When GP bus echo mode is enabled, GPAEN is driven high during accesses from the
Am5x86 CPU to internal peripherals to prevent external devices from decoding (or
responding to) these internal peripheral accesses. In normal operation (GP bus echo mode
disabled), the GP bus controller never asserts GPAEN.
However, accesses initiated by the GP bus DMA controller are not affected by enabling the
GP bus echo mode, and therefore the GP bus DMA controller still asserts GPAEN as it
does during normal operation. During an internal GPDMA access in GP bus echo mode,
the external GP bus commands, GPIORD, GPMEMRD, GPIOWR, GPMEMWR, are not
asserted. However, GPAEN is still asserted. For additional information about this mode,
see “GP Bus Echo Mode” on page 13-10.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-17
GP Bus DMA Controller
14.5.7
Clocking Considerations
The GP-DMA controller can be programmed to operate at 4 MHz, 8 MHz, or 16 MHz. This
option is specified in the GP-DMA Control (GPDMACTL) register (MMCR offset D80h).
Note that these frequencies are derived from the 33-MHz clock. The exact frequency is an
even fraction of the crystal (33.000-MHz or 33.333-MHz) being used in the system.
14.5.8
Interrupts
In normal GP-DMA mode, the GP-DMA controller does not generate interrupts, but it does
assert GPTC upon the completion of every transfer.
When buffer chaining mode is enabled, the GP-DMA controller generates a maskable or
non-maskable interrupt every time a buffer is completely transferred. This interrupt is
generated after the valid values of the Next Address and Next Transfer Count are loaded
into the internal current address and current transfer count registers, respectively. GPTC
is asserted only when there is no other buffer in the chain. When GPTC is asserted, the
interrupt is still generated.
14.5.9
Software Considerations
Channel 4 must always be set to be in cascade mode; otherwise, erroneous operation may
result. Only Channel 4 should be programmed for cascade mode. All other channels should
be programmed to be in one of the other three modes (single, demand or block).
The Memory Address and Transfer Count registers of each channel are byte-accessed.
Two consecutive byte reads or writes to the same I/O address are required when accessing
the 16-bit values of these registers. In enhanced GP-DMA mode, although the Next Address
registers and the Next Transfer Count registers are both split up into two 16-bit registers,
the Low and High words have been placed so that they can be accessed using 32-bit
instructions. Although the GP bus splits 32-bit accesses up into two 16-bit accesses (i.e.,
the setting of the low and high address will be nonatomic), this should not typically cause
any problems.
When using the buffer chaining feature in block transfer mode, the GP-DMA controller
continues to hold the bus request until the second buffer is finished. The interrupt generated
after the first buffer finishes in this case is useless to software, because the interrupt handling
routine is not able to get access to the Am5x86 CPU bus (because the GP-DMA controller
is programmed for block transfer mode).
Note that the GPDRQx signal must be deasserted before an active channel can be masked.
14.5.10
Latency
14.5.10.1
Nonpreemptive Latency
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller implements a write buffer and a read buffer (with readahead feature) to optimize SDRAM performance. These buffers can improve GP-DMA
latency during block transfer or demand transfer.
■ During a write transfer, the write buffer collects bytes (or words) from the GP bus and
writes back to SDRAM in a full doubleword. This mechanism effectively provides onewait-state write accesses to SDRAM, as seen from the GP-DMA controller.
■ During a read transfer, the read buffer reads the entire cache-line (16 bytes). This
effectively provides zero-wait-state read accesses from SDRAM by the GP-DMA
controller. However, since the read buffer fetches forward, GP-DMA channels that are
configured in address decrement mode experience more read buffer misses. The read
buffer does not prefetch for GP-DMA accesses because they are less than one
doubleword.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
The operations of these buffers are described in detail in Chapter 11, “Write Buffer and
Read Buffer”.
14.5.10.2
Preemptive Latency
The following events could delay a GP-DMA acknowledgment.
■ SDRAM refresh cycle (the acknowledgment is given; however, the transfer is delayed)
■ PCI requests
■ A higher priority GP-DMA request
■ A cache write-back, if the GP-DMA target is in a dirty cache-line (the acknowledgment
is given; however, the transfer is delayed)
■ Slow transfers to ROM/GP bus
Once a demand transfer or block transfer has started, if the GP-DMA controller is trying to
read from a SDRAM region that is in the cache, the transfer is paused while a cache snoop
occurs. If the cache holds data in the cache line that the GP-DMA controller is accessing,
a cache-line write-back cycle may also occur.
14.6
INITIALIZATION
The GP-DMA controller is reset by a system reset. In addition, the slave and the master
controllers each have a software reset source, from the Slave DMA Controller Reset
(SLDMARST) register (Port 000Dh and the Master DMA Controller Reset (MSTDMARST)
register (Port 00DAh), respectively.
The GP-DMA controller is enabled after system reset, but all channels are masked off. This
is also the state after the DMA Controller Reset registers are written to. All channels default
to normal GP-DMA mode. The operating frequency defaults to 4 MHz.
14.6.1
Example Configurations
14.6.1.1
Configuring an 8-Bit Channel in Normal GP-DMA Mode
In normal GP-DMA mode, there are four 8-bit channels: 0, 1, 2, and 3. Any internal request
from the serial ports or any external request can be mapped to one of these channels. The
following steps configure an 8-bit channel.
1. Enable the DMA slave core.
2. Program Channel 4 to use cascade mode via the TRNMOD field in the Master DMA
Channel 4–7 Mode (MSTDMAMODE) register (Port 00D6h) and unmask Channel 4.
3. Program operating frequency if not using the default 4 MHz.
4. Map the request to a specific channel.
5. Program the memory address, transfer count, page address, and extended page
address of the associated channel.
6. Program DMA mode, type, address increment mode, and priority mode.
7. Unmask the channel request in the Slave DMA General Mask (SLDMAGENMSK)
register (Port 000Fh). At this point, the GP-DMA controller is ready to accept the external
request.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-19
GP Bus DMA Controller
14.6.1.2
Configuring a 16-Bit Channel in Normal GP-DMA Mode
In normal GP-DMA mode, there are three 16-bit channels: 5, 6 and 7. Any external request
can be mapped to one of these channels. The internal requests from the UART serial ports
cannot be mapped to a 16-bit channel because they only support 8-bit data transfer. The
following steps configure a 16-bit channel for an external request.
1. Enable the DMA master core.
2. Program the operating frequency if not using the default 4 MHz.
3. Map the external request to a specific channel.
4. Program the memory address, transfer count, page address, and extended page
address of the associated channel.
5. Program DMA mode, type, address increment mode, and priority mode.
6. Unmask the channel request in the Master DMA General Mask (MSTDMAGENMSK)
register (Port 00DEh). At this point, the GP-DMA controller is ready to accept the external
request.
14.6.1.3
Configuring an 8-Bit Channel in Enhanced GP-DMA Mode
In enhanced GP-DMA mode, channels 5, 6, and 7 can be configured to be 8-bit channels.
Any internal request from the UART serial ports can be mapped to Channel 3 for the
enhanced GP-DMA mode features. The 8-bit external devices can be mapped to channels
3, 5, 6, and 7. The following steps configure an 8-bit channel for an external request.
1. Enable the DMA slave core if using Channel 3, otherwise enable the master core.
2. If using Channel 3, program Channel 4 to use cascade mode via the TRNMOD field in
the Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mode (MSTDMAMODE) register (Port 00D6h) and
unmask Channel 4. Also, if using channels 5, 6, or 7, set the corresponding
CHx_ALT_SIZE bit in the GP-DMA Control (GPDMACTL) register (MMCR offset D80h).
3. Program the operating frequency if not using the default 4 MHz.
4. Enable enhanced GP-DMA mode.
5. Map the external request to a specific channel.
6. Program the memory address, transfer count, page address, and extended page
address of the associated channel.
7. Program the extended transfer count for any transfer larger than 64 Kbytes (optional).
8. Program DMA mode, type, address increment mode, and priority mode.
9. Program the next address, next transfer count, and enable buffer chaining mode
(optional).
10.Unmask the channel request in the General Mask register. At this point, the GP-DMA
controller is ready to accept the external request.
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
GP Bus DMA Controller
14.6.1.4
Configuring a 16-Bit Channel in Enhanced GP-DMA Mode
In enhanced GP-DMA mode, Channel 3 can be configured to be a 16-bit channel. The
16-bit external devices can be mapped to channel 3, 5, 6, and 7. The following steps
configure a 16-bit channel for an external request.
1. Enable the DMA slave core if using Channel 3, otherwise enable the master core.
2. If using Channel 3, program Channel 4 to use cascade mode via the TRNMOD field in
the Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mode (MSTDMAMODE) register (Port 00D6h) and
unmask Channel 4. Also, set the CH3_ALT_SIZE bit in the GP-DMA Control
(GPDMACTL) register (MMCR offset D80h).
3. Program the operating frequency if not using the default 4 MHz.
4. Enable enhanced GP-DMA mode.
5. Map the external request to a specific channel.
6. Program the memory address, transfer count, page address, and extended page
address of the associated channel.
7. Program the extended transfer count for any transfer larger than 128 Kbytes (optional).
8. Program DMA mode, type, address increment mode, and priority mode.
9. Program the next address, next transfer count, and enable buffer chaining mode
(optional).
10.Unmask the channel request in the General Mask register. At this point, the GP-DMA
controller is ready to accept the external request.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
14-21
GP Bus DMA Controller
14-22
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
15
15.1
PROGRAMMABLE INTERRUPT
CONTROLLER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s programmable interrupt controller (PIC) consists of three
industry-standard controllers, integrated with a highly programmable interrupt router.
The programmable interrupt controller is configured so that two controllers are cascaded
as slaves to a master controller that arbitrates interrupt requests from various sources to
the Am5x86 CPU. Interrupt channel 2 (IR2) and channel 5 (IR5) of the Master controller
are hard-wired to the outputs of the Slave 1 and Slave 2 controller respectively. In this
configuration, up to 22 maskable interrupt channels of different priorities are available to
the programmer.
The programmable interrupt router handles routing of the various external and internal
interrupt sources to the 22 interrupt channels of the three controllers. The interrupt router
can also be programmed to handle routing of various NMI sources to generate a nonmaskable interrupt to the CPU.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s programmable interrupt controller is designed to support
PC/AT-compatible features. Startup software can configure the programmable interrupt
router to route the sources to be used as ISA interrupts to the appropriate interrupt channels
of the Slave 1 and Master controllers.
PCI interrupts are level-sensitive, shareable, and typically implemented as open-drain
inputs. To support this, the programmable interrupt controller optionally allows the selection
of edge-triggered or level-sensitive interrupt detection on a per-channel basis, as an
alternative to the standard global selection of edge-triggered or level-sensitive detection on
all channels. This enhancement provides maximum flexibility in configuring a system
environment where mixed interrupt types are used.
Features of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s programmable interrupt controller include:
■ 22 interrupt priority levels plus NMI
■ Programmable interrupt router capable of mapping interrupt sources (internal and
external) to different priorities or NMI
■ 15 general-purpose external interrupt requests (GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0 and INTA–INTD),
programmable to be edge- or level-sensitive
■ 19 internal interrupt requests programmable to be edge- or level-sensitive
■ Ability to assert any of the interrupt priority levels, including NMI, via software
■ Configurable to provide software compatibility with PC/AT interrupt controller
■ Programmable interrupt polarity inversion for external sources
■ Am5x86 CPU floating point error (ferr) interrupt clear, ignne function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-1
Programmable Interrupt Controller
15.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 15-1 is a block diagram of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s programmable interrupt
controller showing interrupt sources and routing.
The programmable interrupt controller consists of a system of three individual interrupt
controllers (Master, Slave 1 and Slave 2), each of which has eight interrupt channels. Two
of the interrupt channels on the Master controller are used to cascade the slave controllers.
This allows a total of 22 interrupt priority levels in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. The priority
levels are numbered from P1–P22 to indicate which priority levels are assigned to slave or
master controllers, with P1 being the highest and P22 the lowest priority.
15.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Table 15-1 shows PIC signals shared with other interfaces. When enabled, the multiplexed
signals shown in Table 15-1 either disable or alter any other function that uses the same pin.
The GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0 and INTA–INTD signals are asserted when a peripheral requires
interrupt service. The dedicated INTA–INTD pins are the same type of interrupt as the
GPPIRQx signals. They are named INTx to match the common PCI interrupt naming
convention.
Table 15-1
15-2
Programmable Interrupt Controller Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
PIO
(Default)
Function
Interface
Function
Control Bit
Register
PIO23
GPIRQ0
PIO23_FNC
PIO22
GPIRQ1
PIO22_FNC
PIO21
GPIRQ2
PIO21_FNC
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS31_16) register
(MMCR offset C22h)
PIO20
GPIRQ3
PIO20_FNC
PIO19
GPIRQ4
PIO19_FNC
PIO18
GPIRQ5
PIO18_FNC
PIO17
GPIRQ6
PIO17_FNC
PIO16
GPIRQ7
PIO16_FNC
PIO15
GPIRQ8
PIO15_FNC
PIO14
GPIRQ9
PIO14_FNC
PIO13
GPIRQ10
PIO13_FNC
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS15_0) register (MMCR offset C20h)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Figure 15-1
Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Programmable Interrupt
Controller
Programmable Inversion Logic
INTA
INTB
INTC
INTD
GPIRQ0
GPIRQ1
GPIRQ2
GPIRQ3
GPIRQ4
GPIRQ5
GPIRQ6
GPIRQ7
GPIRQ8
GPIRQ9
GPIRQ10
ICE
ice_irq
ADU
wpv_irq
Timers
UARTs
RTC
irq_p1
irq_p2
Slave 1
Controller
irq_p3
IR0 (P3)
irq_p4
0
irq_p5 IR1 (P4)
s1_irq 1
IR2
(P5)
INT
irq_p6
irq_p7 IR3 (P6)
irq_p8 IR4 (P7)
s2
irq_p9 IR5 (P8)
irq_p10 IR6 (P9)
IR7 (P10)
irq_p11
irq_p12
gp_tmr0_irq
gp_tmr1_irq
gp_tmr2_irq
pit_tmr0_irq
pit_tmr1_irq
pit_tmr2_irq
Interrupt
Slave 2
Controller
Router
Master
Controller
IR0 (P1)
IR1 (P2)
IR2
INT
IR3 (P11)
IR4 (P12)
IR5
IR6 (P21)
IR7 (P22)
irq_p13
irq_p14 IR0 (P13)
0
irq_p15 IR1 (P14)
s2_irq 1
IR2
(P15)
irq_p16
INT
irq_p17 IR3 (P16)
irq_p18 IR4 (P17)
s5
irq_p19 IR5 (P18)
IR6
(P19)
irq_p20
IR7 (P20)
uart1_irq
uart2_irq
rtc_irq
intr
CPU
Numeric
Error
Logic
ferr_irq
WDT
wdt_irq
SSI
ssi_irq
ferr
irq_p21
irq_p22
nmi_out
nmi
ecc_irq
SDRAM
ecc_nmi
PCI Host pci_irq
Bridge
pci_nmi
Arbiter
gpdma_bc_irq
GP-DMA
nmi_enb
nmi_trig
irq[22:1]_trig Configuration
Registers
22
s2
s5
Control
Logic
Control signals
Notes:
The priorities of the 22 channels are shown, with P1 being the highest and P22 the lowest priority.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-3
Programmable Interrupt Controller
15.4
REGISTERS
The programmable interrupt controller (PIC) is controlled by the registers listed in Table 15-2
and Table 15-3.
Table 15-2
Programmable Interrupt Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS15_0
C20h
PIO or interface function select: GPIRQ10–
GPIRQ8
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS31_16
C22h
PIO or interface function select: GPIRQ7–
GPIRQ0
Interrupt Control
PICICR
D00h
Global interrupt mode enables, global NMI
enable, NMI completion control
Master PIC Interrupt Mode
MPICMODE
D02h
Edge- or level-sensitive interrupt mode select
per channel
Slave 1 PIC Interrupt Mode
SL1PICMODE
D03h
Edge- or level-sensitive interrupt mode select
per channel
Slave 2 PIC Interrupt Mode
SL2PICMODE
D04h
Edge- or level-sensitive interrupt mode select
per channel
Software Interrupt 16–1
Control
SWINT16_1
D08h
Software interrupt generation control (priority
levels 1–16)
Software Interrupt 22–17/NMI SWINT22_17
Control
D0Ah
Software interrupt generation control (priority
level 17–22), software NMI generation to the
CPU
Interrupt Pin Polarity
INTPINPOL
D10h
Polarity of external interrupt sources (INTA–
INTD and GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0)
PCI Host Bridge Interrupt
Mapping
PCIHOSTMAP
D14h
System arbiter and PCI Host Bridge interrupt
mapping to any of 22 available interrupt
channels or NMI, PCI NMI enable control
ECC Interrupt Mapping
ECCMAP
D18h
ECC interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI, ECC NMI enable
control
GP Timer 0 Interrupt Mapping GPTMR0MAP
D1Ah
GP Timer 0 interrupt mapping to any of 22
available interrupt channels or NMI
GP Timer 1 Interrupt Mapping GPTMR1MAP
D1Bh
GP Timer 1 interrupt mapping to any of 22
available interrupt channels or NMI
GP Timer 2 Interrupt Mapping GPTMR2MAP
D1Ch
GP Timer 2 interrupt mapping to any of 22
available interrupt channels or NMI
PIT 0 Interrupt Mapping
PIT0MAP
D20h
PIT 0 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
PIT 1 Interrupt Mapping
PIT1MAP
D21h
PIT 1 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
PIT 2 Interrupt Mapping
PIT2MAP
D22h
PIT interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
15-4
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Table 15-2
Programmable Interrupt Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
UART 1 Interrupt Mapping
UART1MAP
D28h
UART 1 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
UART 2 Interrupt Mapping
UART2MAP
D29h
UART 2 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
PCI Interrupt A Mapping
PCIINTAMAP
D30h
PCI INTA mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
PCI Interrupt B Mapping
PCIINTBMAP
D31h
PCI INTB mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
PCI Interrupt C Mapping
PCIINTCMAP
D32h
PCI INTC mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
PCI Interrupt D Mapping
PCIINTDMAP
D33h
PCI INTD mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
DMA Buffer Chaining
Interrupt Mapping
DMABCINTMAP
D40h
DMA buffer chain interrupt mapping to any of 22
available interrupt channels or NMI
SSI Interrupt Mapping
SSIMAP
D41h
SSI interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
Watchdog Timer Interrupt
Mapping
WDTMAP
D42h
WDT interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
RTC Interrupt Mapping
RTCMAP
D43h
RTC interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
Write-Protect Violation
Interrupt Mapping
WPVMAP
D44h
Write-protect violation to PAR interrupt mapping
to any of 22 available interrupt channels or NMI
AMDebug Technology RX/TX ICEMAP
Interrupt Mapping
D45h
AMDebug technology JTAG port receive or
transmit interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
Floating Point Error Interrupt
Mapping
FERRMAP
D46h
Floating point error interrupt mapping to any of
22 available interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ0 Interrupt Mapping
GP0IMAP
D50h
GPIRQ0 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ1 Interrupt Mapping
GP1IMAP
D51h
GPIRQ1 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ2 Interrupt Mapping
GP2IMAP
D52h
GPIRQ2 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ3 Interrupt Mapping
GP3IMAP
D53h
GPIRQ3 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ4 Interrupt Mapping
GP4IMAP
D54h
GPIRQ4 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ5 Interrupt Mapping
GP5IMAP
D55h
GPIRQ5 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ6 Interrupt Mapping
GP6IMAP
D56h
GPIRQ6 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-5
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Table 15-2
Programmable Interrupt Controller Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
GPIRQ7 Interrupt Mapping
GP7IMAP
D57h
GPIRQ7 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ8 Interrupt Mapping
GP8IMAP
D58h
GPIRQ8 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ9 Interrupt Mapping
GP9IMAP
D59h
GPIRQ9 interrupt mapping to any of 22 available
interrupt channels or NMI
GPIRQ10 Interrupt Mapping
GP10IMAP
D5Ah
GPIRQ10 interrupt mapping to any of 22
available interrupt channels or NMI
Table 15-3
Function
Programmable Interrupt Controller Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
Master PIC Interrupt Request MPICIR
Slave 2 PIC Interrupt Request S2PICIR
Slave 1 PIC Interrupt Request S1PICIR
0020h
0024h
00A0h
Real-time status of interrupt request assertion
Master PIC In-Service
Slave 2 PIC In-Service
Slave 1 PIC In-Service
MPICISR
S2PICISR
S1PICISR
0020h
0024h
00A0h
Interrupt request service status
Master PIC Initialization
Control Word 1 (ICW1)
Slave 2 PIC Initialization
Control Word 1 (ICW1)
Slave 1 PIC Initialization
Control Word 1 (ICW1)
MPICICW1
S2PICICW1
S1PICICW1
0020h
0024h
00A0h
Interrupt mode, address interval, cascade or
single PIC configuration, ICW4 control
Master PIC Operation Control MPICOCW2
Word 2 (OCW2)
S2PICOCW2
Slave 2 PIC Operation
S1PICOCW2
Control Word 2 (OCW2)
Slave 1 PIC Operation
Control Word 2 (OCW2)
0020h
0024h
00A0h
Interrupt EOI, priority rotation control, EOI level
select, control to access OCW2 and OCW3
Master PIC Operation Control MPICOCW3
Word 3 (OCW3)
S2PICOCW3
Slave 2 PIC Operation
S1PICOCW3
Control Word 3 (OCW3)
Slave 1 PIC Operation
Control Word 3 (OCW3)
0020h
0024h
00A0h
Poll command, read register command, special
mask mode
Master PIC Initialization
Control Word 2 (ICW2)
Slave 2 PIC Initialization
Control Word 2 (ICW2)
Slave 1 PIC Initialization
Control Word 2 (ICW2)
0021h
0025h
00A1h
Base interrupt vector number
15-6
MPICICW2
S2PICICW2
S1PICICW2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Table 15-3
Programmable Interrupt Controller Registers—Direct-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
Master PIC Initialization
Control Word 3 (ICW3)
Slave 2 PIC Initialization
Control Word 3 (ICW3)
Slave 1 PIC Initialization
Control Word 3 (ICW3)
MPICICW3
S2PICICW3
S1PICICW3
0021h
0025h
00A1h
Slave cascading channel select (MPICICW3)
Master PIC Initialization
Control Word 4 (ICW4)
Slave 2 PIC Initialization
Control Word 4 (ICW4)
Slave 1 PIC Initialization
Control Word 4 (ICW4)
MPICICW4
S2PICICW4
S1PICICW4
0021h
0025h
00A1h
Nested mode, EOI mode
Master PIC Interrupt Mask
(OCW1)
Slave 2 PIC Interrupt Mask
(OCW1)
Slave 1 PIC Interrupt Mask
(OCW1)
MPICINTMSK
S2PICINTMSK
S1PICINTMSK
0021h
0025h
00A1h
Channel interrupt mask
Floating Point Error Interrupt
Clear
FPUERRCLR
F0h
Clear FPU error interrupt
15.5
OPERATION
15.5.1
Interrupt Flow Sequence
The following describes the typical interrupt flow sequence in a system that uses the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC.
1. When a device generates an interrupt request that translates to either a rising edge or
level High at the mapped interrupt channel, the corresponding Interrupt Request (xIR)
register bit is set.
2. The PIC performs a check on its internal Interrupt Mask (xINTMSK) register and InService (xISR) register. If this requesting interrupt is not masked off and if another
interrupt of the same or higher priority is not in progress, the Master controller requests
an interrupt from the CPU.
3. If the IF bit is set in the CPU’s Flags register (via the STI instruction), the CPU
acknowledges the interrupt. At this time, the PIC places the 8-bit interrupt vector of the
currently active highest-priority interrupt request on the data bus, and the corresponding
In-Service (xISR) register bit is set in the PIC. If the IF bit is disabled, the interrupt is
ignored.
Note that the interrupt request must remain active at least until the first CPU acknowledge
pulse occurs before it is considered as a valid interrupt request. If no interrupt request is
active when the acknowledgement occurs, then the affected master or slave PIC returns
the interrupt entry number associated with its IR7 input. However, in this circumstance no
In-Service (xISR) register bit is set. This is known as the spurious interrupt condition and
can be detected by the interrupt handler for priority level P22 (for the Master controller),
P10 (for the Slave 1 controller), and P20 (for the Slave 2 controller). The Interrupt Request
(xIR) register bit is always set for the duration of the interrupt request, regardless of whether
it is a spurious or a valid interrupt request.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-7
Programmable Interrupt Controller
4. The CPU reads the interrupt vector and services the interrupt corresponding to the vector
read during the acknowledgment.
5. Before further interrupts for the same priority level can be serviced, an EOI (end-ofinterrupt must be issued to the PIC to reset the In-Service (xISR) register bit of the
currently active interrupt. This can be done in one of two ways.
– In automatic EOI (AEOI) mode, the In-Service (xISR) register bit is reset at the end
of the acknowledgement cycle from the CPU. Note that AEOI mode does not support
polling, and it can only be used in a master configuration, not in a slave configuration.
– When AEOI is disabled, the interrupt handler must clear the In-Service (xISR) register
bit by issuing a EOI command at the end of the interrupt service routine.
For an interrupt request coming from either one of the slave controllers, the slave controller
generates an interrupt to the Master controller and asserts its corresponding Interrupt
Request (xIR) register bit at the Master controller. The Master controller first determines if
there is a higher priority interrupt that is currently being serviced. If there is not, it requests
an interrupt from the CPU, as described in step 2. Otherwise, the higher priority interrupt
service routine continues uninterrupted until another interrupt request is received from the
PIC.
There are two ways in which an interrupt request from a slave controller differs from the
interrupt sequence mentioned above. Steps 3–5 are similar in this case, but because the
Interrupt Request (xIR) register bit set by the slave output is the highest priority interrupt,
the Master controller now commands the slave controller to supply the interrupt vector to
the CPU.
The other difference is that two EOIs are required: one to the Master controller to reset its
highest priority In-Service (xISR) register bit (set by the interrupt request) and the other to
the slave to reset its highest priority In-Service (xISR) register bit. The order of these two
EOIs does not matter.
15.5.2
Interrupt Sources
The interrupt sources in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be divided into four distinct
categories:
■ Externally-generated hardware interrupts from interrupt input pins
■ Internally-generated hardware interrupts from peripherals
■ Internally-generated hardware interrupts from interrupt trigger bits
■ Software interrupts (generated with the INT instructions)
This section discusses all of these except software interrupts. Note that the first two
hardware interrupt sources listed above can be mapped to the Am5x86 CPU’s NMI interrupt
input. NMI is discussed in “Non-Maskable Interrupts and Routing” on page 15-14. Software
interrupts work in the standard x86 fashion and are not discussed in this manual.
15.5.2.1
Hardware-Generated Interrupts
In the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, there are 57 hardware interrupt sources:
■ 23 can come from control bits in the Software Interrupt 16–1 Control (SWINT16_1)
register (MMCR offset D08h) and the Software Interrupt 22–17/NMI Control
(SWINT22_17) register (MMCR offset D0Ah).
■ 15 can come from the 15 external interrupt pins (GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0 and INTA–INTD)
15-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
■ 19 are generated from internal peripheral sources, including:
– PCI host bridge/system arbiter (interrupt)
– PCI host bridge (NMI)
– SDRAM ECC single-bit error (interrupt)
– SDRAM ECC multi-bit error (NMI)
– Six timers (three GP timers and three PIT timers)
– Two UARTS
– GP-DMA buffer chaining
– SSI
– Watchdog timer
– RTC
– Write-protection violation in Programmable Address Region (PAR) register
– AMDebug interface JTAG port receive or transmit activity
– Floating point error
As shown in Figure 15-2 on page 15-9, of the19 internal peripheral sources:
■ 17 can be used for maskable interrupts. The two sources that cannot be configured as
a maskable interrupt are the SDRAM ECC multi-bit error NMI source and the PCI host
bridge’s separate NMI-only source.
■ 18 can be routed to the Am5x86 CPU’s NMI input. The only source that cannot be used
to generate an NMI is the SDRAM ECC single-bit error source.
The internal PCI host bridge and the SDRAM controller each generate a maskable interrupt
source and an NMI interrupt source. However, only the internal PCI host bridge interrupt
source can be mapped to generate either a maskable interrupt or an NMI. The SDRAM
controller’s maskable interrupt source cannot be mapped to generate an NMI.
Figure 15-2
Interrupt Sources
External
Sources
15
15
0
1
polarity[0..14]
src_enb[0..14]
(nmi_enb[0..14] for NMI)
Internal
Peripheral
Sources
17 for maskable interrupt
(18 for NMI)
17 (18 for NMI)
src_enb[15..31]
(nmi_enb[15..32] for NMI)
1 of 23
Trigger
Control
Bits
23
To a specific controller’s
interrupt channel (x22)
or NMI
irq[1..22]_trig
(nmi_trig)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-9
Programmable Interrupt Controller
15.5.3
Interrupt Source Routing
Figure 15-3 on page 15-11 shows the implementation of the interrupt router. None of the
interrupt enable signals are shared across the interrupt channels.
Each of the 32 hardware interrupt sources that come from peripherals (15 external and 17
internal) is fed into each of the 22 OR gates for the 22 interrupt channels. Each of the 22
OR gates also has an additional input from the one of the Software Interrupt x Control
(SWINTx) registers.
When set, the interrupt trigger control bits cause their associated interrupt signals to be
asserted at the PIC. These bits are under complete control of software. During normal
operation, hardware does not set or clear these bits. A reset does clear these bits.
All incoming interrupt requests are arbitrated by the interrupt controllers based on the priority
levels shown in Figure 15-1 on page 15-3, with the highest priority interrupt being serviced
first. There is a mask bit associated with each of the 22 interrupt channels, providing a
means for each interrupt channel to be masked individually.
Multiple interrupt requests can be shared on a common interrupt channel. This is discussed
further in “Interrupt Sharing” on page 15-13.
After reset, each of the interrupt sources must be mapped to the desired interrupt channel.
This is usually done by the initialization software. It can be done during normal operation
as well. The default power-on-reset state for these mapping bits is cleared; the programmer
has to specifically map the individual interrupt requests to the desired interrupt channels.
15.5.3.1
Polarity Inversion of Interrupt Requests
Since each of the three individual interrupt controllers can only recognize either a Low-toHigh edge-triggered or an active High level interrupt request, a programmable inversion is
available for each of the 15 external interrupt requests to support active Low interrupt
sources. For example, a PCI generated interrupt request that is active Low must be inverted
within the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller prior to reaching the PIC channel to which it is mapped
before the controller can recognize a valid interrupt request.
All internally-generated interrupt signals have the correct active High polarity and need no
inversion via software. These internally-generated signals include those for the GP-DMA
controller, PCI host bridge system arbiter, timers, UARTs, SSI, watchdog timer, SDRAM
controller, RTC, AMDebug technology interface, floating-point error, and address mapping,
as well as internally-generated NMI signals.
15-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Figure 15-3
Interrupt Source Routing
Channel 22 Router
Channel 3 Router
Channel 2 Router
Channel 1 Router
GPIRQ0
0
1
polarity0
src_enb0
GPIRQ10
polarity10
src_enb10
INTA
0
1
1
0
polarity11
src_enb11
INTD
1
0
irq_p22
polarity14
src_enb14
pit_tmr0_irq
src_enb15
pit_timr1_irq
src_enb16
pit_tmr2_irq
src_enb17
gp_tmr0_irq
src_enb18
gp_tmr1_irq
src_enb19
gp_tmr2_irq
src_enb20
uart1_irq
src_enb21
uart2_irq
src_enb22
ecc_irq
src_enb23
gpdma_bc_irq
src_enb24
wdt_irq
src_enb25
rtc_irq
src_enb26
pci_irq
src_enb27
ssi_irq
src_enb28
wpv_irq
src_enb29
ice_irq
src_enb30
ferr_irq
src_enb31
irq[1]_trig
irq_p1
irq_p3
irq_p2
Notes:
All the 32 hardware interrupt sources are common to all the 22 channel routers. The polarity control signal per
external interrupt source is also common to all the 22 channel routers. The decoder for the enable signals is not
shown; only the decoded representation of the signals is shown. Each channel router has its unique internallygenerated hardware interrupt trigger, and only irq[1]_trig is shown for channel router 1.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-11
Programmable Interrupt Controller
15.5.3.2
PC/AT Compatibility
For PC/AT-compatible systems, the microcontroller hardware does not automatically map
legacy ISA interrupt signals to their respective Slave 1 and Master controllers. The user’s
software must ensure that these interrupts are routed correctly to the appropriate PC/ATcompatible channels. Table 15-4 shows the interrupt channel assignment implemented in
a PC/AT-compatible system.
Table 15-4
PC/AT Interrupt Channel Mapping
PC/AT-Compatible System
ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller
IRQ
I/O Device
Priority
Interrupt Source to Map
IRQ0
System Timer 0
P1
Internal (PIT 0 interrupt)
Keyboard interface
P2
External via GPIRQx pin
Slave controller cascading
—
Cascaded from Slave 1 controller
IRQ3
UART 2
P11
Internal (UART 2 interrupt)
IRQ4
UART 1
P12
Internal (UART 1 interrupt)
IRQ51, 2
Parallel port 2
P13
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ6
Floppy disk controller
P21
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ7
Parallel port 1
P22
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ8
Real-time clock
P3
Internal (RTC interrupt)
IRQ9
Any 8- or 16-bit ISA device
P4
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ10
Any 8- or 16-bit ISA device
P5
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ11
Any 8- or 16-bit ISA device
P6
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ12
Mouse interface
P7
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ13
Numeric coprocessor
P8
Internal (floating point error interrupt)
IRQ14
Any 8- or 16-bit ISA device
P9
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ15
Any 8- or 16-bit ISA device
P10
External via GPIRQx pin
IRQ1
IRQ2
1, 2
Notes:
1. In the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC, interrupt channels 2 and 5 of the Master interrupt controller are hard-wired to the outputs of Slave 1 and Slave 2 interrupt controllers, respectively. The
cascading of the slave controllers is fixed in order to simplify the system interrupt programming
model.
2. When configured for PC/AT-compatible operation, the Slave 1 interrupt controller is cascaded and
the Slave 2 controller is bypassed. In this configuration, IRQ2 is not available, and interrupt priority
P13 acts as IRQ5. For configuration details see “PC/AT Compatibility” on page 15-12.
15.5.3.3
Floating Point Errors
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports DOS-compatible floating point error handling via
the standard Floating Point Error Interrupt Clear (FPUERRCLR) register (Port 00F0h), as
in legacy PC/AT systems. PC/AT systems control floating point error reporting externally
through the PC’s interrupt controller, rather than through the internal CPU interrupt. In this
case, an interrupt request is generated and typically routed to IRQ13 (although it is
programmable via the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC). This allows an interrupt handler
to write to the Floating Point Error Interrupt Clear (FPUERRCLR) register to clear the
interrupt request and force the CPU’s ignore numeric error (ignne) signal active, thus
enabling execution of floating-point instructions within the interrupt handler. Once the FPU
error condition is cleared by the handler, the floating point error (ferr) signal is deasserted,
15-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
and the internal ignne signal is subsequently deasserted. The interrupt request and ignne
signal are also cleared by a system reset.
15.5.3.4
Disabling the Slave Controllers
Each of the slave controllers can also be disabled via software, and interrupt requests can
be easily routed to the associated interrupt channels of the Master controller. For example,
if the Slave 1 controller is disabled, interrupt request irq_p3 that is hooked to the priority 3
input of the same controller is visible to the Master controller channel input IR2. Similarly,
if the Slave 2 controller is also disabled, interrupt request irq_p13 is visible to the Master
controller channel input IR5 (see Figure 15-1 on page 15-3). In other words, both of these
interrupt requests would bypass the slave controllers. In this manner, a very simple interrupt
configuration is realized via software, in which eight or fewer interrupt priorities can be
implemented using just the Master controller. As such, only one EOI needs to be generated
to minimize software overhead and improve latency of the interrupt cycle.
For more information about this topic, see “Software Considerations” on page 15-18.
15.5.4
Edge-Triggered or Level-Sensitive Interrupts
Each of the 22 interrupt priority levels can be configured as an edge-triggered or levelsensitive interrupt. This departs from the standard implementation of the individual interrupt
controller, whereby a global bit for each controller determines the interrupt type for all the
incoming interrupt requests.
In the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, each individual interrupt controller is enhanced to provide
this interrupt type recognition capability on a per channel basis. A bit is provided for each
of the 22 interrupt channels for interrupt type programmability. The selection between global
and per-channel interrupt mode is done via software. However, the original global bit is
retained for the individual controllers, such that all of the interrupts for each device can be
restored globally as either edge- or level-sensitive. This is useful for PC/AT compatibility,
especially for the Master and Slave 1 controllers.
Regardless of whether the controller is programmed for edge-sensitive or level-sensitive
mode, the interrupt request source must continue asserting the interrupt request until the
CPU acknowledges the interrupt. Because this acknowledgment is not viewable externally
to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, it is recommended that external interrupt sources provide
a mechanism through which the interrupt service routine can deassert the interrupt request
via software.
15.5.5
Interrupt Sharing
The controllers support sharing interrupt inputs from multiple interrupt sources. Interrupt
sharing is applicable to all internal and external interrupt sources. To put it simply, since
OR gates are used to map interrupt sources to interrupt channels, it is easy to map more
than one interrupt source to a single interrupt channel. This is shown in Figure 15-3.
Level-sensitive interrupt sharing is typically implemented by tying multiple interrupt outputs
using an open drain or open collector output to a single interrupt input pin. Of course, this
can be done externally to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller in the conventional manner.
However, interrupt sharing can also be easily configured internally to the microcontroller,
merely by mapping multiple interrupt sources to the same interrupt channel. The channel’s
OR gates inherently “share” the interrupt channel among multiple interrupts. In this scenario,
an interrupt-pending status bit must be implemented in each device. All internal peripherals
have interrupt status bits.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-13
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Since programmable inversion of the interrupt signal is available, the external device can
generate an interrupt to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller by either driving the interrupt
request line Low and allowing a pullup resistor to generate the rising edge or by actively
driving the line Low from its default High inactive state through a pullup resistor (as in PCI
interrupt generation).
Sharing edge-triggered interrupts in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is not recommended.
For more information about this topic, see “Software Considerations” on page 15-18.
15.5.6
Non-Maskable Interrupts and Routing
A unique feature of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC is its ability to route most of its
hardware interrupt sources via software to generate a non-maskable interrupt (NMI) to the
CPU.
■ With the exception of the internally-generated ECC interrupt from the SDRAM controller,
all the other interrupt sources can be routed to the Am5x86 CPU’s NMI input.
■ The PCI host bridge and SDRAM controller each generate a separate and distinct NMI
interrupt source to the PIC. The interrupt source can only generate an NMI and not a
maskable interrupt to the CPU.
There are 34 interrupt sources for NMI generation to the CPU:
■ 15 external interrupts
■ 18 internally-generated interrupts
■ 1 software NMI source
Figure 15-4 on page 15-15 shows the logical implementation of NMI generation in the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
15.5.6.1
Sharing NMIs
NMIs can be shared in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. NMI sources are routed logically to
an OR gate, as shown in Figure 15-4 on page 15-15.
Each individual interrupt source is gated by an enable signal to selectively allow it to be
shared with the other interrupt sources. Each of these enable signals is controlled via the
Interrupt Mapping (xMAP) registers and is enabled by programming its interrupt routing bits
to 11111b. An NMI Enable (NMI_ENB) bit in the Interrupt Control (PICICR) register (MMCR
offset D00h) provides the mechanism to prevent all NMIs from reaching the CPU. This bit
has been moved from the PC/AT-compatible location (see “Legacy NMI Enable Bit Moved”
on page 20-10 for more details). NMIs are disabled on system and soft reset and must be
enabled via setting the NMI_ENB bit before use.
It is recommended that sharing NMIs be done using level-sensitive NMIs only. All NMIs
should be treated similarly to the maskable interrupt sources. All NMIs once asserted should
remain asserted until cleared by software. The NMI_DONE bit located in the Interrupt
Control (PICICR) register facilitates NMI sharing. This bit is visible to all NMI handlers, and
the currently executing NMI handler should clear the NMI source prior to asserting the
NMI_DONE bit. NMI handler software should write a 1 to the self-clearing NMI_DONE bit
immediately before executing the IRET instruction to exit from the handler. Setting the
NMI_DONE bit deasserts the NMI signal to the CPU for a brief time before allowing any
other pending NMI requests to be serviced, in order to satisfy NMI timing requirements of
the CPU.
Sharing edge-triggered NMIs in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is not recommended.
15-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Figure 15-4
NMI Routing
GPIRQ0
0
1
polarity0
nmi_enb0
GPIRQ10
0
1
polarity10
nmi_enb10
INTA
1
0
polarity11
nmi_enb11
INTD
polarity14
nmi_enb14
pit_tmr0_irq
nmi_enb15
pit_tmr1_irq
nmi_enb16
pit_tmr2_irq
nmi_enb17
gp_tmr0_irq
nmi_enb18
gp_tmr1_irq
nmi_enb19
gp_tmr2_irq
nmi_enb20
uart1_irq
nmi_enb21
uart2_irq
nmi_enb22
ssi_irq
nmi_enb23
ecc_nmi
nmi_enb24
wdt_irq
nmi_enb25
rtc_irq
nmi_enb26
pci_nmi
nmi_enb27
pci_irq
nmi_enb28
gpdma_bc_irq
nmi_enb29
wpv_irq
nmi_enb30
ice_irq
nmi_enb31
ferr_irq
nmi_enb32
nmi_trig
1
0
nmi_out
NMI to CPU
nmi_enb
Notes:
The polarity control signal per external interrupt source is common to those used across the channel routers. The
gating NMI enable bits for each source are controlled via the interrupt mapping registers. The NMI conditioning logic
to implement NMI sharing is not shown in this figure
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-15
Programmable Interrupt Controller
15.5.7
Priority Types
Each individual interrupt controller prioritizes interrupt requests by their IR number, as
shown in Figure 15-1 on page 15-3. This places IR0 as the highest priority and IR7 the
lowest, which is the default ordering.
In a cascaded environment, the full 22 priority level is as shown in Figure 15-1, with P1
being the highest and P22 the lowest priority. As a result, if two or more interrupt requests
appear simultaneously, the higher priority interrupt is serviced first and the lower priority
interrupt is pending.
The interrupt controller supports nested interrupts. The depth level of nesting affects system
performance, and the programmer must implement this with care.
The interrupt controller also supports specific and automatic rotation types.
■ In specific rotation, the lowest priority can be programmed in the individual controller,
thus fixing all the other priorities.
– For example, in Figure 15-1, if P5 is programmed to be the lowest priority, then P6 of
Slave 1 controller would be the highest priority within this controller.
– In this case, the priority order starting with the highest priority level would follow as:
P1–P2 (Master), P6–P10 (Slave 1), P3–P5 (Slave 1), P11–P12 (Master), P13–P20
(Slave 2), P21–P22 (Master). This is assuming that the Master and Slave 2 controllers
are each programmed with IR7 as the lowest priority.
– In fact, the implementation shown in Figure 15-1 is of a fixed priority scheme (with
priority ordering of P1–P22) and is a variation of the specific rotation type.
■ In automatic rotation scheme, all priority levels within the controller are treated as equal.
– In this mode, an interrupt request after being serviced receives the lowest priority, so
that the same device requesting an interrupt is queued.
– In the worst scenario, the device would have to wait until each of the seven other
devices is serviced at most one time.
15.5.8
Configuration Information
15.5.8.1
Programming
The initialization sequence of the PIC consists of writing a sequence of two to four bytes
to each controller. The first initialization byte is written to the lower address of the controller,
(020h for the Master, 0A0h for Slave 1, and 024h for Slave 2), and all subsequent initialization
bytes are written to the upper address of the controller (021h for the Master, 0A1h for Slave
1, and 025h for Slave 2).
1. The first initialization byte, the Initialization Control Word 1 (xICW1) register, notifies the
controller that an initialization sequence is starting. This register also controls the type
of interrupt-triggering (edge- or level-sensitive), whether the controller is in a cascaded
environment or alone, and whether the fourth initialization byte, the Initialization Control
Word 4 (xICW4) register, is required or not.
2. The second byte, the Initialization Control Word 2 (xICW2) register, contains the vector
offset for the controller. For PC/AT-compatible interrupts, xICW2 should be 08h for the
Master controller and 70h for the Slave 1 controller (Slave 2 is not used in PC/ATcompatible systems).
3. The third byte, the Initialization Control Word 3 (xICW3) register is written only if xICW1
indicates that the controller is in a cascaded environment. For the Master controller, it
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Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
identifies which IR inputs are hooked up to slave controllers. For the slave controllers,
it identifies the IR pin on the master to which that particular slave is connected.
It is important to note that the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC can be configured as a
stand-alone master controller, one slave cascade (either Slave 1 or Slave 2), or cascading
with both slave controllers.
– To configure it as a stand-alone Master controller where 8 or fewer interrupt requests
are available to the user, bits 2 and 5 must be cleared to 0 in the Master PIC Initialization
Control Word 3 (MPICICW3) register (Port 0021h).
– To configure it as a Slave 1 only cascade, the S2 and S5 bits must be set and cleared
respectively in the Master PIC Initialization Control Word 3 (MPICICW3) register (Port
0021h).
– For Slave 2 cascade only configuration, the S2 and S5 bits must be cleared and set
respectively in the Master PIC Initialization Control Word 3 (MPICICW3) register (Port
0021h).
– To configure cascading using both the slave controllers, the S2 and S5 bits must be
set in the Master PIC Initialization Control Word 3 (MPICICW3) register (Port 0021h).
4. Finally, the Initialization Control Word 4 (xICW4) register (written only if indicated in the
Initialization Control Word 1 (xICW1) register) controls whether EOIs are generated
manually or automatically. It also contains some bits that must always be set in the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Note that some parameters in the PIC configuration registers are fixed based on the way
the controllers are arranged in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
For example, the Slave 1 PIC Initialization Control Word 3 (S1PICICW3) register (Port
00A1h) always contains 2d to indicate that Slave 1 is hooked up to IR2 on the Master
controller.
For those configuration parameters that are not fixed, software that initializes the controllers
must be very careful to accurately reflect the correct arrangements of the controllers, as
shown in Figure 15-1 on page 15-3.
For example, if neither Slave controller is being bypassed, the Master PIC Initialization
Control Word 3 (MPICICW3) register (Port 0021h) should contain 24h (or 00100100b) to
indicate that slave controllers are hooked up to its IR2 and IR5 signals.
After the interrupt controllers are initialized, any subsequent reads or writes to ports 021h,
0A1h, or 025h access the Interrupt Mask (xINTMSK) register of the Master, Slave 1, or
Slave 2 controllers. The Operation Control Word 2 (xOCW2) and Operation Control Word
3 (xOCW3) registers are accessed by writing to the appropriate ports, 020h, 0A0h, or 024h.
The controllers can be configured in various modes using these registers.
5. Initializing the Interrupt Mask (xINTMSK) register provides the masking of the interrupt
requests on a per channel basis.
6. Writing to the Operation Control Word 2 (xOCW2) register configures the various rotation
and EOI modes.
7. Finally, the Operation Control Word 3 (xOCW3) register configures the different mask
modes, controls reading of the In-Service (xISR) register or the Interrupt Request (xIR)
register, and whether the controller is to be used by software to perform polling.
The rest of the non-controller specific registers are programmed next. This includes
programming the routing of the various interrupt sources to the appropriate priority level or
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-17
Programmable Interrupt Controller
NMI (as indicated in Figure 15-1) polarity inversion of the interrupt sources if needed,
different interrupt mode per channel, global interrupt mode enables, or master NMI enable.
These registers are listed in Table 15-2 on page 15-4.
It is recommended that EOIs be issued for all the channels prior to using the Set InterruptEnable Flag (STI) instruction. This is to clear all spurious In-Service (xISR) register bits
that are potentially set during the initialization phase before enabling the CPU to accept
interrupt requests.
15.5.8.2
PC/AT Configuration
To configure the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC to be PC/AT-compatible, the same
configuration sequence detailed in “Programming” on page 15-16 is observed with the
following exceptions:
1. The SNGL bit must be cleared to 0 in the Master PIC Initialization Control Word 1
(MPICICW1) register (Port 0020h).
2. The S2 and S5 bits must be set to 1 and cleared to 0, respectively, in the Master PIC
Initialization Control Word 3 (MPICICW3) register (Port 0021h).
3. The M_GINT_MODE and S1_GINT_MODE bits must be set to 1 in the Interrupt Control
(PICICR) register (MMCR offset D00h).
4. The base interrupt vector numbers 08h and 70h must be written for the Master and Slave
1 PIC, respectively, to the Master PIC Initialization Control Word 2 (MPICICW2) register
(Port 0021h) and the Slave 1 PIC Initialization Control Word 2 (S1PICICW2) register
(Port 00A1h). This correctly programs the T7–T3 bit field in those registers, which
corresponds to bits 7–3 of the 8-bit base interrupt vector number. This also clears the
A10–A8 bit field (bits 2–0), which should be 0 for PC-AT-compatible interrupts.
5. The SFNM and AEOI bits must be cleared to 0 in the Master PIC Initialization Control
Word 4 (MPICICW4) register (Port 0021h), and the SFNM bit must be cleared to 0 in
the Slave 1 PIC Initialization Control Word 4 (S1PICICW4) register (Port 00A1h).
6. Any interrupt sources used in the system must be mapped to appropriate interrupt
priorities via the interrupt mapping registers. Table 15-4 on page 15-12 correlates the
PC/AT IRQs and I/O devices to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s interrupt priorities.
In this case, only the Slave 1 controller is cascaded to the Master controller via input IR2.
The Slave 2 controller is logically removed from the Master controller, and the highest priority
channel originally hooked to the former is now automatically routed to input IR5 of the latter,
thereby preserving the architecture of the PC/AT interrupt controller.
15.5.9
Software Considerations
15.5.9.1
Interrupt Sharing
Interrupt sharing increases system complexity and involves more software overhead.
Thorough understanding of performance implications to a system implementing interrupt
sharing is needed. For multiple interrupt requests sharing a line, the system designer needs
to be fully aware of the latency involved and the implications in interrupt sharing.
For example, in the worst case scenario, it may take an unacceptably long amount of time
before the CPU is able to service the first interrupt request hooked at the very beginning
of the interrupt chain (created during the interrupt hooking process). This problem is
compounded further if one or more interrupt requests before it are still pending. This can
be alleviated somewhat by prioritizing or re-ordering the more critical interrupt table entries
later in the chain during the interrupt hooking process.
15-18
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interrupt Controller
Although level-sensitive interrupt sharing generally works well, implementing edgesensitive interrupt sharing is not recommended.
15.5.9.2
Disabling the Slave Controllers
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC has the flexibility to allow removal of either or both
the slave controllers logically from the cascade chain via software (see S2 and S5 bits in
the Master PIC Initialization Control Word 3 (MPICICW3) register). Disabling one or more
of the slave controllers allows configuring a system with fewer than 9 or 16 interrupt
channels.
Although the slave controllers are hard-wired to the Master controller, bypassing the slave
controllers via software during configuration could typically result in a more efficient interrupt
system, whereby only the Master controller needs to be initialized and configured. With this
configuration, only one non-specific EOI needs to be generated, instead of two, at the end
of the interrupt service routine.
When either of the slave controllers is disabled, the highest priority interrupt hooked to the
slave controllers is routed automatically to channels 2 and 5 of the Master controller,
respectively. As such, the programmer needs to be aware that mapping interrupts to the
other seven lower priority channels of the slave controller inhibits propagation of these
interrupt requests to the Master controller. Figure 15-1 on page 15-3 shows this
implementation in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s PIC.
15.5.9.3
Detecting Invalid Interrupt Requests
If an interrupt request does not remain active long enough for the corresponding In-Service
(xISR) register bit to be set (a non-deterministic amount of time), the request is considered
a spurious interrupt pulse.
Spurious pulses on any of the interrupt requests cause the interrupt handler associated
with the IR7 input of the affected controller to be executed (priority level P22 for the Master
controller, P10 for the Slave 1 controller, or P20 for the Slave 2 controller). The Interrupt
Request (xIR) register bit is always set for the duration of the interrupt request, regardless
of whether it is a spurious or a valid interrupt request.
The interrupt handler associated with IR7 is required to check the In-Service (xISR) register
bit to determine if a valid interrupt request generated the interrupt. If the In-Service (xISR)
register bit is set, then a valid interrupt request is generated, and the normal routine is
executed. Otherwise, a spurious interrupt is identified and the interrupt routine exits.
In other words, spurious pulses on the interrupt requests that are shorter than a nondeterministic duration can be filtered out by software that checks the In-Service (xISR)
register bit. Longer spurious pulses can only be detected if all interrupt sources hooked
onto a given priority level provide their own status bits.
15.5.9.4
Floating Point Unit Error Handling
To implement DOS-compatible floating-point error handling, such as is used in legacy
PC/AT systems, the Numeric Error (NE) bit in the CPU’s Control 0 (CR0) register must be
cleared. If the NE bit is set, an exception 16 will be generated instead of an external interrupt
request via the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s programmable interrupt controller. See the
Am486® DX/DX2 Microprocessor Hardware Reference Manual, 1994 (order #17965), for
further details on the floating point unit.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
15-19
Programmable Interrupt Controller
15.6
INITIALIZATION
The programmable interrupt controller responds only to system reset.
The Slave 1, Slave 2, and Master interrupt controllers are not affected by system reset. The
interrupt controller direct-mapped registers, once configured, retain their values during a
system reset. However, all other configuration registers default to their power-on reset states
when a system reset occurs. The interrupt router is reset, such that the interrupt requests
are gated off. This effectively disables all interrupt requests from reaching the CPU.
At system reset, the PIC is disabled.
1. Configure the Master, Slave 1, and Slave 2 controllers as described in “Configuration
Information” on page 15-16. Mask all interrupts.
2. Place an interrupt service routine at the locations corresponding to the interrupt priority
levels to be supported.
3. Enable the desired priority levels by mapping the interrupts sources to the interrupt levels
in the interrupt router and unmasking the interrupt in the corresponding interrupt
controllers. Set the IF bit in the CPU’s Flags register using the STI instruction. (NMIs
are disabled on system and soft reset and must be enabled via NMI_ENB bit before use).
15-20
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
16
16.1
PROGRAMMABLE INTERVAL TIMER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes four separate timer modules: a PC/AT-compatible
programmable interval timer (PIT) with three timers, three general-purpose (GP) timers, a
software timer, and a watchdog timer. The programmable interval timer is described in this
chapter. The general-purpose timers are described in Chapter 17. The software timer is
described in Chapter 18. The watchdog timer is described in Chapter 19.
The programmable interval timer (PIT) on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes three
separate timers, designed to provide PC/AT compatibility.
Features of the PIT include:
■ Three 16-bit timers, or channels
■ Clock source from either 1.1892-MHz source or an external pin. The same clock is routed
to all three channels.
■ One interrupt output for each channel
■ One external output pin for PIT Channel 2
■ Several modes of operation, including:
– Interrupt on terminal count
– Hardware-retriggerable one-shot
– Rate and square wave generation
– Hardware- and software-retriggerable strobe
16.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 16-1 shows a block diagram of the programmable interval timer.
16.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Table 16-1 shows the PIT signals shared with other interfaces. The pinstrap function
associated with the PITOUT2 pin is sampled only as a result of PWRGOOD assertion and
does not affect the PIT function of this pin, so it is not shown in this table. When enabled,
the multiplexed signals shown in Table 16-1 either disable or alter any other function that
uses the same pin.
Note: The CFG3 pinstrap associated with PITOUT2 is used for an AMD internal test mode.
Do not pull this pin High during reset.
Table 16-1
Programmable Interval Timer Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
Default Signal
Alternate Function
Control
Register
CLKTIMER
CLKTEST
CLK_PIN_DIR
Clock Select (CLKSEL) register
(MMCR offset C26h)
PITGATE2
GPCS3
GPCS3_SEL
Chip Select Pin Function Select
(CSPFS) register (MMCR offset C24h)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
16-1
Programmable Interval Timer
Figure 16-1
Programmable Interval Timer Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Programmable Interval Timer
Always Enabled
1.1892
MHz
pit_tmr0_irq
Channel 0
CLKTIMER
pit_tmr1_irq
gate 0
PIC
pit_tmr2_irq
PITGATE2
Channel 1
gate 1
0061h[0]
Channel 2
Port
B
gate 2
0061h[1]
PITOUT2
0061h[5]
Notes:
Port B is addressed at 0061h in I/O space.
16.4
REGISTERS
The programmable interval timer (PIT) is configured using the registers listed in Table 16-2
and Table 16-3. The direct-mapped System Control Port B register is used to provide PC/
AT-compatible PIT functionality.
Table 16-2
Programmable Interval Timer Configuration Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Chip Select Pin Function
Select
CSPFS
C24h
GPCS3 or PITGATE2 function select
Clock Select
CLKSEL
C26h
CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] pin enable, clock output
select options (PIT), CLKTIMER select (input
clock for PIT)
PIT 0 Interrupt Mapping
PIT0MAP
D20h
PIT 0 interrupt mapping
PIT 1 Interrupt Mapping
PIT1MAP
D21h
PIT 1 interrupt mapping
PIT 2 Interrupt Mapping
PIT2MAP
D22h
PIT 2 interrupt mapping
16-2
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interval Timer
Table 16-3
Programmable Interval Timer Configuration Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
PIT Channel 0 Count
PIT0CNT
0040h
Current count value for Channel 0
PIT Channel 1 Count
PIT1CNT
0041h
Current count value for Channel 1
PIT Channel 2 Count
PIT2CNT
0042h
Current count value for Channel 2
PIT 0 Status
PIT0STA
0040h
Counter mode status, null count, output state,
latch command or read/write control setting, and
BCD setting for Channel 0
PIT 1 Status
PIT1STA
0041h
Counter mode status, null count, output state,
latch command or read/write control setting, and
BCD setting for Channel 1
PIT 2 Status
PIT2STA
0042h
Counter mode status, null count, output state,
latch command or read/write control setting, and
BCD setting for Channel 2
PIT Mode Control
PITMODECTL
0043h
PIT counter select or read-back command, read/
write control or counter latch command, counter
mode, BCD select
PIT Counter Latch Command PITCNTLAT
0043h
Control to latch current count of the selected
channel for read-back
PIT Read-Back Command
PITRDBACK
0043h
Control to latch status and current count of each
channel for read-back
System Control Port B
SYSCTLB
0061h
PITOUT2 signal enable, status, and Channel 2
gate input control
16.5
OPERATION
The programmable interval timer provides three different timers, or channels, and six modes
of operation. Not all channels support every mode.
16.5.1
PIT Channel 0
PIT Channel 0 is used for generating interrupt requests. PIT Channel 0 can be configured
to assert interrupt priority P1 (IRQ0) to allow it to operate in PC/AT-compatible mode. See
Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for more information on interrupt steering.
PIT Channel 0 can be configured to assert IRQ0 to allow it to operate in PC/AT-compatible
mode. The gate line is tied High such that PIT Channel 0 operates in four modes only,
modes 0, 2, 3, and 4. Mode 0 is typically used for interrupts, because it remains in the High
state until restarted.
16.5.2
PIT Channel 1
The PIT Channel 1 is used as a general-purpose timer. Its output is hardwired internally to
drive an input of the programmable interrupt controller. See Chapter 15, “Programmable
Interrupt Controller” for more information on interrupt steering.
The gate line is tied High such that PIT Channel 1 also operates in four modes only, modes
0, 2, 3, and 4. Mode 0 is typically used for interrupts, because it remains in the High state
until restarted.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
16-3
Programmable Interval Timer
16.5.3
PIT Channel 2
The gate line for PIT Channel 2 is controlled by the PIT_GATE2 bit in the System Control
Port B (SYSCTLB) register (Port 0061h) or the external input pin PITGATE2. PITGATE2 is
a multiplexed pin; if it is disabled, the gate line is controlled only by the PIT_GATE2 bit in
the System Control Port B (SYSCTLB) register.
The output of the PIT Channel 2 is hardwired internally on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
to drive an input of the programmable interrupt controller and can be read in the
PIT_OUT2_STA bit of the System Control Port B (SYSCTLB) register (Port 0061h). See
Chapter 15 for more information on interrupt steering. The output goes to the external output
pin PITOUT2 when the PIT_OUT2_ENB bit is set in the System Control Port B (SYSCTLB)
register.
PIT Channel 2 works in all six modes.
16.5.4
Operating Modes
The modes for the each PIT channel are specified in Counter Mode (CTR_MODE) bit field
in the PIT Mode Control (PITMODECTL) register (Port 0043h).
16.5.4.1
Mode 0: Interrupt on Terminal Count
In interrupt on terminal count mode,
1. When the initial count is loaded into the PIT Channel x Count (PITxCNT) register, the
output of the counter goes Low.
2. The count value decrements by one for each input clock pulse if the gate input is held
High.
3. If the gate input is held Low, count maintains its value until after a rising edge of clock
after the Gate goes High again.
4. The output of the counter is initially Low and will remain Low until the counter reaches
zero. The output then goes High until a new count or a new mode 0 control word is
loaded into the Counter.
16.5.4.2
Mode 1: Hardware-Retriggerable One-Shot
In hardware-retriggerable one-shot mode:
1. After an initial count is loaded into the PIT Channel 2 Count (PIT2CNT) register, a rising
edge on the gate signal causes the output of the counter to go Low.
2. The count value decrements with each successive clock pulse.
3. The gate trigger begins the one-shot pulse with the output going Low until the count
reaches zero.
4. Output then goes High and remains High until the clock pulse after the next trigger.
The duration of the one-shot pulse is:
Duration = Initial count * Period of the clock input
This mode is called hardware-retriggerable because, once an output pulse has started, if
a rising edge is experienced at the gate input, the counter is reloaded with the initial count
and the pulse continues until the new count expires. This mode is supported on PIT Channel
2 only.
16-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interval Timer
16.5.4.3
Mode 2: Rate Generator
When programmed in rate generator mode, the counters operate as divide by n counters,
where n is the initial count.
1. The output signal starts off High until the initial count is decremented to one.
2. The output then goes Low for one clock pulse and goes High again.
3. The counter is reloaded with the initial count, and the counting sequence is repeated.
There appears one clock pulse at the output for every n clock cycles.
By default, PC/AT-compatible systems program PIT Channel 0 for this mode.
16.5.4.4
Mode 3: Square Wave Mode
In square wave mode:
1. The output of the counter has a 50% duty cycle whenever the counter is loaded with an
even count. Initially the output is High.
2. The count decrements by two with each clock cycle when the gate is held High.
3. When the count reaches zero, the output toggles state, the initial count is reloaded, and
the sequence is repeated.
The period of the output signal is:
Period = Input clock period * Initial count loaded into the counter
If the initial count is an odd number, the output is High for (n+1)/2 cycles and is Low for
(n–1)/2 cycles.
By default, PC/AT-compatible systems program PIT channels 1 and 2 to use this mode to
drive DRAM refresh and the speaker, respectively.
16.5.4.5
Mode 4: Software-Triggered Strobe
In software-triggered mode:
1. The counter automatically begins to decrement one clock pulse after it is loaded with
the initial count through software. The output signal is initially High.
2. The count decrements at the rate set by the clock input signal.
3. At the moment the terminal count is reached, the counter generates a single strobe
pulse on the output for one clock pulse duration.
4. If the counter is loaded with a count of n, then a strobe pulse is produced at the output
after n+1 clock cycles.
16.5.4.6
Mode 5: Hardware-Triggered Strobe
In hardware-triggered mode:
1. Counting begins on a Low-to-High transition of the gate signal.
2. The output remains High until the count has expired.
3. The output goes Low for one clock cycle and goes High again.
4. After writing the control word and the initial count, the counter is loaded at the next clock
pulse after the trigger.
The strobe pulse occurs n+ 1 clock pulses after the Low to High transition (trigger) on the
Gate input. This count sequence is retriggerable.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
16-5
Programmable Interval Timer
In this mode, the counter output behaves just as in mode 4, except for the triggering
mechanism. This mode is supported on PIT Channel 2 only.
16.5.5
Clocking Considerations
The PIT clock source can be either the derived 1.1892-MHz PIT clock or an external pin.
This is configured in the CLK_PIN_DIR bit in the Clock Select (CLKSEL) register (MMCR
offset C26h).
The PIT clock on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller does not run at 1.19318 MHz, as in
PC/AT-compatible systems. See Section 16.5.7.1 for more information.
16.5.5.1
Internal Clock
Table 16-4
PIT Internal Clock Source
16.5.5.2
Internal Clock Source
Resolution Range
Duration
1.1892 MHz
841.61 ns–55.1 ms
16-bit duration
External Clock
A separate external clock input pin, CLKTIMER, is provided to the PIT. Table 16-5 specifies
the external clock source frequency range for the CLKTIMER input for the PIT.
Table 16-5
16.5.6
PIT External Clock Source
External Clock Source
Frequency Range
CLKTIMER
1.18125–1.20511 MHz
Interrupts
Each PIT channel provides its own interrupt to the programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
See Chapter 15, for more information on interrupt steering.
For the PIT, the interrupt request is always generated on terminal count, and it is basically
the output signal of the PIT channel. The pattern of the interrupt request signal depends
on the programmed operation mode in the channel. Modes 0 and 1 generate a Low-to-High
signal on terminal count, and they are usually used as interrupt sources.
16.5.7
Software Considerations
16.5.7.1
Using the PIT Clock Source in PC/AT-Compatible Systems
In PC/AT-compatible systems, system boot code usually programs the PIT Channel 0 Count
(PIT0CNT) register (Port 0040h) to a value of FFFFh. It relies on this periodic interrupt in
order to keep accurate time of day. Since the timer clock source is 1.1892 MHz in the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, the priority P1 interrupt (IRQ0) is generated every 55.11 ms.
Historically the PIT clock source has been 1.19318 MHz, and this translates into an interrupt
generation rate of 54.93 ms. This interrupt generation rate difference causes the timekeeping function of a PC/AT-compatible system to be inaccurate.
There are two possible ways to address this issue. One method involves modifying the PIT
Channel 0 Count (PIT0CNT) register via the system boot code. The second method involves
driving the PIT from an external clock source.
■ Modifying the PIT Channel 0 Count (PIT0CNT) register—If the system boot code
programs this register to a value of FF2Bh, the desired interrupt generation rate of
54.93 ms can be achieved.
16-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Interval Timer
■ Driving an external 1.19318-MHz clock on the CLKTIMER pin—A system designer can
choose to supply an external clock source frequency of 1.19318 MHz on the CLKTIMER
pin. This pin must be specifically configured for this functionality by the system boot code
during the system boot process, prior to configuring the PIT. The CLK_PIN_DIR bit in
the Clock Select (CLKSEL) register (MMCR offset C26h) is used for this purpose.
16.6
INITIALIZATION
At system reset, the state of the PIT itself is undefined. The mode, count value, and output
of all channels are undefined. Each PIT channel must be programmed before it can be
used. To prevent superfluous interrupts, each PIT channel must be configured prior to
enabling interrupts on the Am5x86 CPU.
1. Write a control word into the PIT Mode Control (PITMODECTL) register (Port 0043h).
2. Write an initial count into the PIT Channel x Count (PITxCNT) register of the PIT channel
being programmed. The control word determines the format of the initial count.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
16-7
Programmable Interval Timer
16-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
17
17.1
GENERAL-PURPOSE TIMERS
OVERVIEW
The general-purpose (GP) timers are intended for most generic timing or counting
applications, such as generating periodic interrupts and measuring or counting external
events.
Features of the general-purpose timers include:
■ Three 16-bit timers
■ Two-stage cascading of timers, to allow a maximum of two 32-bit timer/counter elements
■ Clock source from the system clock (33 MHz), an external pin, or a derived prescale
clock. The external pin and pre-scale clock are available for GP Timer 0 and GP Timer
1 only. The maximum clock is 33 MHz/4.
■ One external input pin for each timer for GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1, used for external
event capture, pulse count, and counter reset/reload
■ One external output pin for GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1
■ One interrupt output for each timer
■ Several modes of operation, including:
– Interrupt on terminal count
– Hardware retrigger mode
– Rate and square wave generation
– Continuous mode
17.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 17-1 shows a block diagram of the general-purpose timers.
17.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Table 17-1 shows the general-purpose timer signals shared with other interfaces. When
enabled, the multiplexed signals shown in Table 17-1 either disable or alter any other
function that uses the same pin.
Table 17-1
General-Purpose Timer Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
Default Signal
Alternate Function
Control Bit
Register
TMROUT0
GPCS7
TMROUT1
GPCS6
GPCS7_SEL Chip Select Pin Function Select (CSPFS)
GPCS6_SEL register (MMCR offset C24h)
TMRIN0
GPCS5
GPCS5_SEL
TMRIN1
GPCS4
GPCS4_SEL
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
17-1
General-Purpose Timers
Figure 17-1
General-Purpose Timers Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
General-Purpose Timers
TMRIN0
33 MHz
GP Timer 0
33 MHz
GP Timer 1
TMROUT0
TMRIN1
17.4
gpt_tmr0_irq
gpt_tmr1_irq
clk_pre
PIC
GP Timer 2
33 MHz
TMROUT1
gpt_tmr2_irq
REGISTERS
The general-purpose timers include the memory-mapped registers listed in Table 17-2.
Table 17-2
General-Purpose Timer Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Chip Select Pin Function
Select
CSPFS
C24h
TMROUTx, TMRINx, or GPCSx pin function
select
GP Timers Status
GPTMRSTA
C70h
Interrupt status and clear for all three GP timers
GP Timer 0 Mode/Control
GPTMR0CTL
C72h
GP Timer 0 enable, permit Enable bit write,
interrupt enable, maxcount register in use,
maximum count, retrigger, internal clock source
prescaler, external clock source, alternate
compare mode, continuous mode
GP Timer 0 Count
GPTMR0CNT
C74h
Current count value
GP Timer 0 Maxcount
Compare A
GPTMR0MAXC
MPA
C76h
Maxcount value A to compare with current count
GP Timer 0 Maxcount
Compare B
GPTMR0MAXC
MPB
C78h
Maxcount value B, used in the alternate mode
GP Timer 1 Mode/Control
GPTMR1CTL
C7Ah
GP Timer 1 enable, permit Enable bit write,
interrupt enable, maxcount register in use,
maximum count, retrigger, internal clock source
prescaler, external clock source, alternate
compare mode, continuous mode
GP Timer 1 Count
GPTMR1CNT
C7Ch
Current count value
17-2
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Timers
Table 17-2
General-Purpose Timer Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
MMCR
Offset
Address
Function
Register
Mnemonic
GP Timer 1 Maxcount
Compare A
GPTMR1MAXC
MPA
C7Eh
Maxcount value A to compare with current count
GP Timer 1 Maxcount
Compare B
GPTMR1MAXC
MPB
C80h
Maxcount value B, used in the alternate mode
GP Timer 2 Mode/Control
GPTMR2CTL
C82h
GP Timer 2 enable, permit Enable bit write,
interrupt enable, maxcount register in use,
maximum count, continuous mode
GP Timer 2 Count
GPTMR2CNT
C84h
Current count value
GP Timer 2 Maxcount
Compare A
GPTMR2MAXC
MPA
C8Eh
Maxcount value to compare with current count
GP Timer 0 Interrupt Mapping GPTMR0MAP
D1Ah
GP Timer 0 interrupt mapping to any of 22
available interrupt channels or NMI
GP Timer 1 Interrupt Mapping GPTMR1MAP
D1Bh
GP Timer 1 interrupt mapping
GP Timer 2 Interrupt Mapping GPTMR2MAP
D1Ch
GP Timer 2 interrupt mapping
17.5
OPERATION
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes three GP timers, each of which supports several
different operating modes.
17.5.1
GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1
GP Timers 0 and 1 can be used to count or time external events that drive the timer input
pins and to generate a variety of waveforms on the timer output pins.
The source clock for GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1 can be configured to be one-fourth of the
Am5x86 CPU clock frequency, or it can be driven from the timer external input (TMRIN0 or
TMRIN1) whose maximum clock frequency is one-fourth of the Am5x86 CPU clock speed.
When driven from the timer’s external input pin, the timer counts the “event” of an input
transition.
GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1 are 16-bit timers. Each of these two timers can be cascaded
as a 32-bit timer when GP Timer 2 is configured as a prescaler by setting the PSC_SEL
bit in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register. (See “Combining GP Timer
Count Elements” on page 17-6.) When they are in 32-bit mode, GP timers 0 and 1 cannot
be used as 16-bit timers.
The TMRIN0 and TMRIN1 pins can be configured to be one of many functions via the use
of the configuration bits in the respective timer registers. These functions include:
■ Clock input—Configured with the EXT_CLK bit in the GP Timer x Mode/Control
(GPTMRxCTL) register
■ Enable input—Configured with both the RTG bit and EXT_CLK bit cleared to 0 in the
GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register
■ Reset input (hardware retrigger mode)—Configured with the RTG bit set to 1 and the
EXT_CLK bit cleared to 0 in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register
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17-3
General-Purpose Timers
17.5.2
GP Timer 2
GP Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer that is not connected to any external pins. GP Timer 2 can be
used by software to generate interrupts, or it can be polled for real-time coding and timedelay applications. It can also be enabled as a prescaler for GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1.
The source clock for GP Timer 2 is always one-fourth of the Am5x86 CPU clock frequency.
17.5.3
Operating Modes
17.5.3.1
Interrupt on Terminal Count Mode
In this mode, an interrupt request is generated when the timer count value reaches a GP
Timer Maxcount Compare register value. This is configured with the INT_ENB bit in the
GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register.
If continuous mode is enabled, the interrupt request pulse is generated continuously at a
regular interval time, and the interval duration depends on the value in the GP Timer
Maxcount Compare register.
17.5.3.2
Hardware Retrigger Mode
In hardware retrigger mode, a 0-to-1 edge transition on the TMRIN1 or TMRIN0 input pin
resets the existing GP Timer x Count (GPTMRxCNT) register value, for their respective
timers, and then counting continues. This mode is enabled by setting the RTG bit to 1 and
clearing the EXT_CLK bit to 0 in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register.
17.5.3.3
Alternate Compare Mode
Using both the primary GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register
and the secondary GP Timer x Maxcount Compare B (GPTMRxMAXCMPB) register lets
the timer alternate between two maximum values. This mode is enabled with the ALT_CMP
bit in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register.
In alternate compare mode, the TMROUT0 or TMROUT1 pin is High while the counter is
counting and being compared to the GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A
(GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register. The timer output pin is Low while the counter is counting
and being compared to the GP Timer x Maxcount Compare B (GPTMRxMAXCMPB)
register.
17.5.3.4
Square Wave Mode
In this mode, the TMROUT0 or TMROUT1 pin creates a waveform by indicating which of
the two GP Timer Maxcount Compare registers is currently in control. The duty cycle and
frequency of the waveform depend on the values in the alternating GP Timer Maxcount
Compare register. This mode is enabled when both the ALT_CMP and the CONT_COMP
bits are set in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register.
17.5.3.5
Continuous Mode
In continuous mode, the GP Timer x Count (GPTMRxCNT) register is reset to 0 after it
reaches the value in the GP Timer x Maxcount Compare register value (A or B), and the
timer immediately begins counting again. Continuous mode is enabled by setting the
CONT_CMP bit in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register.
17.5.3.6
Prescaler Mode
The internal output of GP Timer 2 can be used as the input clock source for GP timers 0
and 1. When the PSC_SEL bit is set in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL)
register, timers 0 and 1 can be prescaled by GP Timer 2. This allows either or both GP
Timer 0 and GP Timer 1 to be cascaded as a 32-bit timer. The PSC_SEL bit is ignored
when external clocking is enabled (i.e., when the EXT_CLK bit is set).
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General-Purpose Timers
17.5.4
Configuration Information
The GP Timer x Count (GPTMRxCNT) registers contain the current value of a timer. These
registers can be read or written at any time, regardless of whether the corresponding timer
is running. The timer increments the value of the corresponding GP Timer x Count
(GPTMRxCNT) register each time a timer event occurs.
Each timer has a GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register that
defines the maximum value of the timer.
■ When the timer reaches the maximum value, it resets the GP Timer x Count
(GPTMRxCNT) register value to 0 during the same clock cycle.
■ The value in the GP Timer x Count (GPTMRxCNT) register never equals the GP Timer
x Maxcount Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register.
In addition, timers 0 and 1 have a secondary GP Timer x Maxcount Compare B
(GPTMRxMAXCMPB) register.
■ Using both the primary GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register
and the secondary GP Timer x Maxcount Compare B (GPTMRxMAXCMPB) register
lets the timer alternate between two maximum values. This is called alternate compare
mode. It is controlled by the ALT_CMP bit in the GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL)
register.
– If the timer is programmed to use both of its GP Timer Maxcount Compare registers,
and the ALT_CMP and CONT_CMP bits are set in the GP Timer x Mode/Control
(GPTMRxCTL) register, the timer output pin (TMROUT0 or TMROUT1) generates a
square waveform.
– The duty cycle and frequency of the waveform depend on the values in the alternating
GP Timer Maxcount Compare registers.
■ If the timer is programmed with the ALT_CMP bit to use only the primary GP Timer x
Maxcount Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register, the timer output pin (TMROUT0
or TMROUT1) switches Low for a single Am5x86 CPU clock cycle after the maximum
value is reached.
17.5.5
Clocking Considerations
The clock source for the three general-purpose timers is the 33-MHz system clock. For GP
Timer 0 and GP Timer 1, the clock source can also be an external pin or a derived prescale
clock. This option is specified in the GP Timer 0 Mode/Control (GPTMR0CTL) register
(MMCR offset C72h) and the GP Timer 1 Mode/Control (GPTMR1CTL) register (MMCR
offset C7Ah).
17.5.5.1
Internal Clock
The resolution range of the internal clock depends on which 33-MHz crystal is used in the
system, as shown in Table 17-3.
Table 17-3
GP Timers Internal Clock Sources
Internal Clock Source
Resolution Range
Duration
33.000 MHz
121.20 ns–7.94 ms
16-bit duration
33.000 MHz
121.20 ns–520.55 seconds 32-bit duration
33.333 MHz
120.00 ns–7.86 ms
33.333 MHz
120.00 ns–515.40 seconds 32-bit duration
16-bit duration
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17-5
General-Purpose Timers
17.5.5.2
External Clock
Separate external clock input pins, TMRIN0 and TMRIN1, are provided to each of the
following two timers: GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1, respectively. Table 17-4 specifies the
external clock source frequency range for the TMRIN0 and TMRIN1 inputs for the generalpurpose timers. The maximum frequency of the external clock is one-fourth the frequency
of the crystal used.
Table 17-4
17.5.6
GP Timers External Clock Sources (Using a 33.333 MHz Crystal)
External Clock Source
Frequency Range
TMRIN0
0–8.33325 MHz
TMRIN1
0–8.33325 MHz
Interrupts
Each GP timer provides its own interrupt on the programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for more information on interrupt
steering.
The GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) registers for the general-purpose timers are
used to enable the timer interrupt request generation. An interrupt request is generated
when a maximum count is reached.
In the case where both Maximum Count Compare A and B registers are used, an interrupt
request is generated when the GP Timer x Count (GPTMRxCNT) register is equal to either
the value of the GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register or the
value of the GP Timer x Maxcount Compare B (GPTMRxMAXCMPB) register.
The GP Timers Status (GPTMRSTA) register (MMCR offset C70h) contains the interrupt
status information for the three general-purpose timers. A timer’s corresponding interrupt
status bit is set when that timer’s interrupt request signal is asserted and remains set until
cleared.
17.5.7
Software Considerations
17.5.7.1
Combining GP Timer Count Elements
Both GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 1 can be configured to be clocked by GP Timer 2 at the
same time. This configuration provides a maximum of two 32-bit counters. GP Timer 2 is
a common element between the two resulting 32-bit counters. The possible combinations
of the timers include:
■ GP Timer 2, GP Timer 1, and GP Timer 0 separate, resulting in three independent 16-bit
counters
■ GP Timer 2 + GP Timer 0 (as one 32-bit), with GP Timer 1 separate (as one 16-bit)
■ GP Timer 2 + GP Timer 1 (as one 32-bit), with GP Timer 0 separate (as one 16-bit)
■ GP Timer 2 + GP Timer 0 (as one 32-bit), with GP Timer 2 + GP Timer 1 (as second
32-bit), where GP Timer 2 is a common timebase
17.5.7.2
Reading the Cascaded 32-Bit Timer
When cascading GP Timer 0 or GP Timer 1 with GP Timer 2 to form a single 32-bit timer,
caution must be exercised when reading the two counter outputs in order to properly handle
rollover conditions. This is slightly complicated by the fact that there is no way to atomically
read the contents of both counters. The goal is to develop an algorithm to return the 32-bit
value of the cascaded timer at the time that the 16-bit “least significant” timer is read.
17-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
General-Purpose Timers
To test for rollover, software must read both timers two times in succession, reading the
least significant timer value (i.e., GP Timer 2), followed by the most significant timer value.
A very important assumption must be made that software is able to perform these four 16bit reads in less one tick of the “most significant” timer. Software may have to disable
interrupts in order to meet this qualification.
For example, suppose that on the first read, the value L1 is read from the least significant
timer, and the value M1 is read from the most significant timer. Then, values of L2 and M2
are read from the least significant and most significant timers, respectively. There are three
possibilities.
17.5.7.2.1
Case 1
(M1 = M2 = 0) and (L1 > L2)
This condition indicates that the most significant timer rolled over between reading L1
and M1. In this case, the correct value to be interpreted from the most significant timer
value should be one less than the value programmed into the GP Timer x Maxcount
Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register (when the ALT_CMP bit is 0), or the maximum
of GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A (GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register and GP Timer x
Maxcount Compare B (GPTMRxMAXCMPB) register (when the ALT_CMP bit is 1).
17.5.7.2.2
Case 2
(M2 = M1 <> 0) and (L1 > L2)
This condition indicates that the least significant timer (but not the most significant timer)
rolled over between reading M1 and L1. In this case, the correct value to be interpreted
for the most significant timer is M1–1, which was the value of the most significant timer
at the time that L1 was read.
17.5.7.2.3
Case 3
■ In all other instances, if rollover occurred, then it occurred after L1 and M1 were read,
and L1 and M1 can be used for the correct values.
17.5.7.2.4
Example 1
For example, suppose GP Timer 0 is programmed in continuous mode, clocked by the
output of GP Timer 2, with the ALT_CMP bit cleared to 0 and a value of 2000h programmed
for the GP Timer 0 Maxcount Compare A (GPTMR0MAXCMPA) register.
GP Timer 2 is programmed in continuous mode, clocked by the internal 33-MHz clock with
the GP Timer 2 Maxcount Compare A (GPTMR2MAXCMPA) register set to 8000h.
The period of GP Timer 2 is:
8000h / 33 MHz * 4 = 4 ms
The cycle time of GP Timer 0 is:
2000h * 4 ms = 32.77 s
In the example, software reads the timers in the following order:
1. GP Timer 2 = 7997h
2. GP Timer 0 = 0h
3. GP Timer 2 = 14h
4. GP Timer 0 = 0h
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17-7
General-Purpose Timers
In this example, the second value read for GP Timer 2 (14h) is less than the first value
(7997h), and both values read for GP Timer 0 are 0. So this falls under case 1, and the
correct 32-bit value of the cascaded timer is:
32764 ms + (7997h * 121.2 ns) = 32767.8 ms = 32.7678 s
17.5.7.2.5
Example 2
Suppose GP Timer 0 and GP Timer 2 are programmed as in Example 1, but the values
returned from the timers are:
1. GP Timer 2 = 7997h
2. GP Timer 0 = 15h
3. GP Timer 2 = 5h
4. GP Timer 0 = 16h
In this example, the second value read for GP Timer 2 (5h) is less than the first value
(7997h). However, because the first value read for GP Timer 0 (15h) is less than the second
value (16h), case 3 applies and the correct 32-bit value of the cascaded timer is:
15h * 4ms + 7997 * 121.2 ns = 72.772 ms
17.6
INITIALIZATION
At system reset, all the general-purpose timer registers are reset to zero. Each timer must
be programmed before it can be used.
1. Write the maximum compare count value into the GP Timer x Maxcount Compare
(GPTMR0MAXCMPx) registers.
2. Enable the counting with the desired operation and mode in the GP Timer x Mode/Control
(GPTMRxCTL) register.
17-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
18
18.1
SOFTWARE TIMER
OVERVIEW
The software timer is intended to provide a millisecond timebase with microsecond
resolution. Ideal applications for this function include providing a system wide software
timebase, code profiling, and precise measurement of the time between events. Features
of the software timer include:
■ One 16-bit millisecond counter that increments with a period of one millisecond. This
yields a maximum duration of 65.5 seconds. Note that this timer is accurate to the
precision of the 33-MHz crystal used in the system.
■ A microsecond latch register that provides the number of microseconds since the last
time that the millisecond register was read.
■ The 16-bit millisecond counter is reset to zero when it is read.
■ The software timer can be configured to maintain an accurate time when either a 33.000-
MHz or 33.333-MHz crystal is used in the system.
18.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 18-1 shows a block diagram of the software timer.
Figure 18-1
Software Timer Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Software Timer
33 MHz
/33
UPCTR
1 MHz
Microsecond
Up Counter
Rollover
Signal
Millisecond
Counter
SWTMRMILLI
Latch
Enable
Microsecond
Latch
Register
SWTMRMICRO
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
18-1
Software Timer
18.3
REGISTERS
The software timer includes the registers listed in Table 18-1.
Table 18-1
Software Timer Configuration Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Software Timer Millisecond
Count
SWTMRMILLI
C60h
Current 10-bit count value (milliseconds)
Software Timer Microsecond
Count
SWTMRMICRO
C62h
Current latched 16-bit count value
(microseconds)
C64h
Crystal frequency (33.000 MHz or 33.333 MHz)
Software Timer Configuration SWTMRCFG
18.4
Function
OPERATION
The software timer provides a very efficient hardware timebase for use by software. It is
designed to replace the traditional method of system timebase generation.
Traditionally, system timebase generation is accomplished by programming a timer to
generate a periodic interrupt. The interrupt service routine for this interrupt then increments
a counter each time the interrupt occurs. This value is often kept in a global variable, which
can then be accessed by other code that needs to track time. Sometimes, a procedural
interface (a function) is used to access the value of this counter. The counter maintained
by the interrupt service routine is usually set to zero at system initialization time. Thus, it
maintains the time since system boot.
The problem with this method is that it consumes a hardware timer resource. It also requires
an interrupt service routine that executes very frequently. Often the requirement to have a
higher resolution time is difficult to attain because the overhead of executing even a small
interrupt service routine many times a second is too much. It is rarely practical to provide
better than a 1-ms timebase with this technique. Also, in a system that makes extensive
use of interrupts, the timer interrupt can sometimes be missed, causing the interrupt counter
to becomes less accurate over time.
The software timer included on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be used to resolve these
problems. The software timer provides a 16-bit millisecond counter (the Software Timer
Millisecond Count (SWTMRMILLI) register), a 10-bit microsecond-up counter (UPCTR),
and a latch register for the UPCTR (the Software Timer Microsecond Count
(SWTMRMICRO) register). Both counters reset to zero on system reset.
The microsecond-up counter increments at a rate of 1 MHz and rolls over on every 1000
counts (every 1 millisecond). When the microsecond-up counter rolls over, it signals the
millisecond counter to increment. When the millisecond counter is read, three things
happen:
1. The value in the Software Timer Millisecond Count (SWTMRMILLI) register (MMCR
offset C60h) is returned to software.
2. The value in the microsecond up counter is latched into the Software Timer Microsecond
Count (SWTMRMICRO) register (MMCR offset C62h).
3. The Software Timer Millisecond Count (SWTMRMILLI) register counter is reset to zero.
This operation allows software to keep track of time with no interrupt service routine.
18-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Software Timer
For example, here is some example code that can be used to maintain a system timebase:
typedef unsigned long int DWORD;
typedef unsigned short int WORD:
// an unsigned 32-bit value
// an unsigned 16-bit value
static volatile WORD* SWTMRMILLI = 0xA0000200;
static volatile WORD* SWTMRMICRO = 0xA0000202;
// volatile is essential
// volatile is essential
static DWORD ticks;
// the number of 1-ms ticks since system boot
// that have passed since system reset
static DWORD mics;
// A running microsecond value
DWORD sys_ticks()
{
ticks += *SWTMRMILLI;
mics = *SWTMRMICRO + (ticks * 1000);
return ticks;
}
DWORD sys_mics()
{
ticks += *SWTMRMILLI;
mics = *SWTMRMICRO + (ticks * 1000);
return mics;
}
This is all the code necessary to maintain both a 32-bit microsecond and a 32-bit millisecond
timebase for an operating system or other timing needs.
18.4.1
Configuration Information
The software timer counter elements (millisecond and microsecond counts) are read-only.
The software timer is always free-running, and it does not have any input or output (external
pin or interrupt). The software timer can be configured to maintain an accurate time for
either a 33.000-MHz or a 33.333-MHz crystal.
18.5
INITIALIZATION
At system reset, the software timer begins counting up from zero.
The software timer must be initialized for operation with either 33.000 MHz or 33.333 MHz,
depending on the crystal being used in the system. This is configured with the XTAL_FREQ
bit in Software Timer Configuration (SWTMRCFG) register (MMCR offset C64h).
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18-3
Software Timer
18-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
19
19.1
WATCHDOG TIMER
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes an integrated watchdog timer (WDT).
Features of the watchdog timer include:
■ Distinct keyed write sequences are required to open the Watchdog Timer Control
(WDTMRCTL) register for reconfiguration and to reset the current count.
■ Supports up to a 30-second time-out period with a 33-MHz CPU clock
■ Programmable to generate either a system reset or an interrupt request (maskable or
non-maskable) on the first time-out. If software has not cleared an indicator bit by the
second time-out, the watchdog timer always generates a system reset instead.
■ The watchdog timer interrupt request can be programmed as maskable or non-
maskable.
■ A status flag for software to detect the watchdog timer’s interrupt request
■ ÉlanSC520 microcontroller input pins that are typically sampled at the initial power-on
reset (i.e., with the PWRGOOD input) are not sampled for a system reset due to a
watchdog timer time-out.
■ The watchdog timer counters are automatically stopped in AMDebug technology mode.
19.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 19-1 shows a block diagram of the watchdog timer.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
19-1
Watchdog Timer
Figure 19-1
Watchdog Timer Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Watchdog Timer
Internal GP bus
ice_mode
System
Configuration
Configuration
Registers
Registers
Key
Detection
Logic
wdt_rst
cnt_reset
Clock
Reset
Time-Out
33-MHz Clock
Counter
wdt_irq
PIC
19.3
REGISTERS
The watchdog timer is controlled by the memory-mapped registers listed in Table 19-1.
Table 19-1
Watchdog Timer Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Watchdog Timer Control
WDTMRCTL
CB0h
Watchdog timer enable, WDT reset enable,
interrupt flag, duration of the WDT time-out
interval
Watchdog Timer Count Low
WDTMRCNTL
CB2h
Bits 15–0 of the WDT current count
19-2
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Watchdog Timer
Table 19-1
Watchdog Timer Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Watchdog Timer Count High
WDTMRCNTH
CB4h
Bits 30–16 of the WDT current count
Watchdog Timer Interrupt
Mapping
WDTMAP
D42h
WDT interrupt mapping
Reset Status
RESSTA
D74h
Reset source status: watchdog timer time-out
19.4
Function
OPERATION
The watchdog timer (WDT) can be used to regain control of the system when software fails
to respond as expected. The watchdog timer should be used in systems that require a
guaranteed recovery time from a software error.
When the watchdog timer is enabled, the counter is reset to zero automatically and starts
counting. The count increments once for every 33-MHz clock cycle. While enabled, the
software can reset the counter to zero at anytime by writing a clear keyed sequence as
described in “Keyed Sequences” on page 19-3. If the software is unable to reset the counter
before it reaches the time-out count, the watchdog timer generates an interrupt and/or a
system reset.
■ The watchdog timer can be configured to cause either an interrupt (maskable or non-
maskable) or a system reset upon time-out.
■ The watchdog timer can also be configured to generate both an interrupt and a system
reset. In this mode, the watchdog timer generates an interrupt, then starts itself over. If
it times out a second time, it generates a system reset.
A distinct keyed sequence is required to open up the Watchdog Timer Control
(WDTMRCTL) register (MMCR offset CB0h) before writes. This prevents errant code from
disabling or otherwise modifying the watchdog timer behavior. The same keyed sequence
is always used for unlocking the watchdog timer control registers.
19.4.1
Configuration Information
19.4.1.1
Keyed Sequences
All writes to the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register must be preceded by a
distinct keyed sequence.
■ A data pattern of 3333h, followed by a write of CCCCh, to the Watchdog Timer Control
(WDTMRCTL) register opens up the register for a single write.
The value of the key is not written to the register but is used by internal logic to open the
register for writing. Once the ENB bit is set in the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL)
register, a subsequent keyed sequence is required to allow any further writes to this register.
While enabled, the software can reset the counter to 0 at anytime by writing a keyed
sequence to clear the counter.
■ A data pattern of AAAAh, followed by a write of 5555h, to the Watchdog Timer Control
(WDTMRCTL) register resets the counter.
The key itself resets the counter; no further writes are necessary. It should be noted that
this clear-count key cannot be initiated while the write key is active. This would result in the
value of AAAAh being written to the register.
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19-3
Watchdog Timer
Each individual write of these keyed sequences is not required to be written back-to-back
as an atomic sequence. Any number of processor cycles, including memory and I/O reads
and writes, can be inserted between the key and the writing of data, as long as they do not
access the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register.
19.4.1.2
Interrupt Request Generation
To configure interrupt request generation on the watchdog timer, software must first clear
the ENB bit in the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register and then clear the
WRST_ENB bit. Once the watchdog timer times out, the interrupt request is generated.
The watchdog timer interrupt request can be programmed as maskable or non-maskable.
See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, for details on selecting a maskable
or non-maskable watchdog timer interrupt request.
If a second time-out event occurs and software has not cleared the IRQ_FLG bit asserted
by the first time-out, the watchdog timer causes a system reset instead of an interrupt
request, regardless of the setting of the WRST_ENB bit.
19.4.1.3
System Reset Generation
To configure the watchdog timer for system reset generation, software must first clear the
ENB bit and then set the WRST_ENB bit. Once the watchdog timer times out, the system
reset is generated.
19.4.1.4
Time-Out Duration
The Exponent Select (EXP_SEL) bit field in the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL)
register indicates the exponent value used to calculate the time-out duration in the following
formula:
Duration = 2Exponent / (33 MHz crystal frequency)
where:
frequency is based on a 33-MHz incoming clock, as shown in Table 19-2.
Note that the ENB bit must be cleared to 0 before the EXP_SEL field can be written.
Table 19-2
Watchdog Timer Time-Out Duration
EXP_SEL Field
Exponent
33.000 MHz
33.333 MHz
00h
invalid value
infinity
infinity
01h
14
496 ms
492 ms
02h
24
508 ms
503 ms
04h
25
1.02 s
1.01 s
08h
26
2.03 s
2.01 s
10h
27
4.07 s
4.03 s
20h
28
8.13 s
8.05 s
40h
29
16.27 s
16.11 s
80h
30
32.54 s
32.21 s
Notes:
Only the least significant bit set in the EXP_SEL field determines the time-out duration. For example,
setting the field to F0h results in an exponent of 27.
19-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Watchdog Timer
19.4.2
Interrupts
An interrupt is asserted upon time-out if the watchdog timer interrupt condition is configured
accordingly in the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register.
■ If the watchdog timer is configured for interrupts, the IRQ_FLG bit in the Watchdog Timer
Control (WDTMRCTL) register is set when the interrupt is generated.
■ The interrupt service routine should examine this flag to determine if the interrupt was
generated by the watchdog timer.
■ If the IRQ_FLG is set, the interrupt service routine should clear the flag by writing the
correct keyed sequence to the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register and
follow by writing a 1 to this bit.
■ If the IRQ_FLG bit is not cleared when a second watchdog timer time-out occurs, a WDT
system reset is generated, rather than a second interrupt event.
Note: The IRQ_FLG bit is not cleared on a read. The bit must be cleared by writing the
correct keyed sequence to the watchdog timer before writing a 1 to the corresponding bit
position.
19.4.3
AMDebug™ Technology Interface
The AMDebug technology interface allows emulator code to run without having to deal with
possible watchdog timer time-outs. It also allows emulators to be used more effectively with
applications that enable the watchdog timer. Entering AMDebug technology mode stops
the watchdog timer counter from counting.
19.4.4
Software Considerations
If a watchdog timer time-out occurs when the timer is programmed with the WRST_ENB
bit cleared, an interrupt is generated, the time-out counter is reset, and the IRQ_FLG bit in
the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register is set. If the IRQ_FLG bit is not cleared
by software before a second watchdog timer time-out, a system reset is generated,
regardless of the setting of the WRST_ENB bit. The IRQ_FLG bit can be cleared, but not
set, by software.
Generation of the internal interrupt signal on the first watchdog timer time-out can be useful
in systems where it may be possible to recover from spurious pulses, bad data, or incorrect
code. This is especially true for the case where potential data recovery is important. Such
systems should have the interrupt handler routine to ensure that it has not been corrupted
by errant code. The watchdog timer must function in all cases where the software has failed
to respond appropriately. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s watchdog timer has
incorporated several features to ensure that this is the case.
■ Once software enables the watchdog timer, the registers become read-only, except for
the ENB and IRQ_FLG bits. This allows boot or monitor code to disable the watchdog
timer until the system has been configured.
■ All writes to the watchdog timer must be preceded by writes of a keyed sequence.
Detection of the keyed sequence allows a single write to the Watchdog Timer Control
(WDTMRCTL) register.
■ The watchdog timer time-out counter can only be reset by setting the ENB bit or by
writing a special clear key sequence to the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL)
register address.
These features guarantee that the watchdog timer is not affected by errant code.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
19-5
Watchdog Timer
Although both the Watchdog Timer Count High and Low registers can be read from a single
32-bit CPU instruction, 32-bit accesses are split into two 16-bit accesses. If it is necessary
to read an accurate 32-bit value from the Watchdog Timer Counter, see Chapter 17,
“General-Purpose Timers”, for suggestions on dealing with this issue.
19.5
INITIALIZATION
At power-on reset, the watchdog timer is disabled. Software must enable it by setting the
ENB in the Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register. The watchdog timer time-out
count defaults to the maximum value. The WRST_ENB bit is set for generation of system
reset upon time-out. See “Configuration Information” on page 19-3.
Note that the processor does not resample external pins during a watchdog timer-generated
system reset. This means that the System Board Information (SYSINFO) register (MMCR
offset D70h), BOOTCS data bus width, and BOOTCS data bus select parameters do not
change when a watchdog timer system reset occurs. All other activities are identical to
those of a normal system reset.
19-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
20
20.1
REAL-TIME CLOCK
OVERVIEW
The real-time clock (RTC) included on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is compatible with
the MC146818A device used in PC/AT systems. The RTC consists of a time-of-day clock
with alarm and a 100-year calendar. The clock/calendar has a programmable periodic
interrupt and 114 bytes of static user RAM. The clock/calendar can be represented in either
binary or binary-coded decimal (BCD).
The RTC includes the following features:
■ PC/AT-compatible
■ Counts seconds, minutes, and hours of the day
■ Counts day of the week, date, month, and year
■ Binary or BCD representation of time, calendar, and alarm
■ 12- or 24-hour clock, with AM and PM indicator in 12-hour mode
■ Daylight saving time option
■ Automatic end-of-month recognition
■ Automatic leap year compensation
■ 14 bytes of clock and control registers
■ 114 bytes of general-purpose RAM
■ Three interrupt sources separately maskable with corresponding status bits
■ Time-of-day alarm is programmable to occur from once-per-second to once-per-day
■ Periodic interrupts can be programmed to occur at rates from 122 ms to 500 ms
■ Update-ended interrupt provides cycle status
■ Internal RTC reset signal can perform a reset on power-up
The RTC has its own power pin and reset separate from the rest of the other core supplies.
When the chip is powered off, the RTC can remain powered up and in full functional mode,
maintaining time, calendar, and user RAM data.
The RTC includes registers for time, calendar, and alarm data and four control/status
registers. The RTC Status D (RTCSTAD) register (RTC index 0Dh) has a status bit
(RTC_VRT) that indicates the validity of the contents of the RAM, time registers and the
calendar. The RTC_VRT bit is set based on the assertion of the internal RTC reset.
The RTC interrupt request is connected internally to the programmable interrupt controller
block.
20.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 20-1 shows a block diagram of the real-time clock.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
20-1
Real-Time Clock
Figure 20-2 on page 20-3 shows a block diagram of the RTC voltage monitor. The
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s RTC voltage monitor is designed to signal the RTC core when
the backup battery is not installed or is low. Additionally, the voltage monitor circuit signals
the RTC core when the rest of the system is being powered down.
As shown in Figure 20-2, the voltage monitor includes a bandgap voltage generator for
precision reference voltage and a high-gain amplifier for adjusting bandgap voltage to “lowbattery” trip voltage. In addition to the backup battery monitor function, the voltage monitor
also provides a power-down signal to the RTC. This signal is used to isolate the RTC core
from the rest of the integrated peripherals. A timing diagram for this sequence is shown in
the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003.
Figure 20-1
Real-Time Clock Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Real-Time Clock
Time Base (32.768 kHz)
/4
/32
RATE_SEL[3–0]
OSC_CTL[2–0]
1-Hz Clock
/2
Clock/
Calendar
Update
Control and Status
Registers A,B,C,D
(4 Bytes)
Clock, Alarm
Calendar RAM
(10 Bytes)
BCD/
Binary
Increment
Configuration RAM
(114 bytes)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
rtc_irq
PIC
VMRTCMonitor
RTC Voltage
/32
rst_rtc
Internal GP bus
interface
20-2
/32
Periodic Interrupt Selection
(1-of-15 Selection)
Divider
Control
pwrdn
/32
Real-Time Clock
Figure 20-2
RTC Voltage Monitor Block Diagram
Bandgap
VBG
Voltage
Generator
2.0 V
Amplifier
+
One
Shot
RTC Reset
–
BBATSEN
PWRGOOD
D
Q
Internal RTC Power-Down
FlipFlop
32 kHz
CK
20.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
20.3.1
Backup Battery Considerations
The behavior of the RTC when the primary power supply is turned off depends on whether
or not an external backup battery is included in the system design. The RTC can be
connected to the main power plane if a backup battery is not needed in the system.
20.3.1.1
System with an External Backup Battery
If an external RTC backup battery is connected to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s
VCC_RTC pin, the real-time clock (RTC) remains operational even if all the other power
supplies are turned off.
An implementation using a backup battery is shown in Figure 20-3. The primary power
source for VCC_RTC is the main power plane (VCC). D1 should be chosen so that the
forward voltage drop is small, less than 0.25 V. D1 also prevents the backup battery from
powering up the VCC power plane when the main supply is turned off.
The backup battery voltage must not exceed 3.3 V (affects the BBATSEN and VCC_RTC
pins); higher voltages may damage the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
The RC network composed of R1 and C2 provides a time delay for the internal circuit powerup sequence. C1 is for high-frequency filtering purposes.
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for detailed component
specifications.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
20-3
Real-Time Clock
Figure 20-3
Circuit with Backup Battery
D2
D1
C1
BATT
(3.3 V max)
VCC_RTC
10 W
R1
VCC_RTC
BBATSEN
C2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Software can read the RTC_VRT bit in the RTC Status D (RTCSTAD) register (RTC index
0Dh) at system boot time to determine whether or not the RTC time, date, and user RAM
are still valid since the last boot. This status bit is set based on the assertion of an internal
RTC-only reset signal. In systems with external backup batteries (as shown in Figure 20-3),
the RTC is reset when the main power supply is turned off and the backup battery is either
low or is not installed.
In these systems, the VCC_RTC pin is a dedicated power supply pin for the 32.768-kHz
oscillator and the RTC.
■ When the primary system power supply is turned on, the main power plane (VCC) drives
the VCC_RTC pin through an external diode.
■ When the primary power supply is turned off or nonfunctional, VCC_RTC is driven by
the backup battery through a second external diode.
■ The on-chip voltage monitor circuit monitors the voltage level of the backup battery
through the BBATSEN pin each time the PWRGOOD signal is asserted.
■ If the backup battery is sampled below 2.0 V, the RTC logic is reset. The read-only
RTC_VRT bit is cleared and latched in this state until the bit is read. After this bit is
initially read, it always reads back a value of 1 for all subsequent reads prior to an RTC
reset.
■ When the main system power supply is off and the backup battery is initially installed,
the external RC circuit consisting of R1 and C2 causes a slow rising edge on the
BBATSEN input, and the RTC is reset.
20.3.1.2
System without an External Backup Battery
For the system that is not using an external RTC backup battery, Figure 20-4 shows how
the circuit should be designed. It uses the same RC that is needed by the battery system,
but it is now connected to VCC_RTC.
VCC_ANLG is selected as the power plane for VCC_RTC because it is a well-filtered power
plane that is well below the VCC_RTC maximum of 3.3 V.
20-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Real-Time Clock
In this configuration, the RTC is reset after power-up, but is not reset by subsequent
PWRGOOD assertions.
■ The RTC is reset after a power-up—When power has been removed from the RTC, the
contents are no longer valid. In this case, the RTC is reset.
■ RTC is not reset—When a reset switch tied to PWRGOOD is pressed (VCC remains
High) and PWRGOOD reasserts with BBATSEN High, the RTC is not reset. In this case,
power did not go away, the RTC contents are still valid, and no RTC reset occurs.
Detailed component specifications for the resistor and capacitor shown in Figure 20-4 can
be found in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003.
Figure 20-4
Circuit without Backup Battery
VCC_ANLG
C1
R1
VCC_RTC
BBATSEN
C2
20.3.2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Selecting and Interfacing a 32.768-kHz Crystal
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for information and
detailed specifications for selecting a 32.768-kHz crystal.
20.3.3
Using an External RTC
When the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller comes out of reset, the internal RTC is enabled. If
the system application requires the use of an external RTC, the internal RTC should be
disabled during the boot process and initialization to prevent potential conflicts.
The Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register (MMCR offset 80h) includes a control
bit for selecting between the internal RTC and an external RTC. Setting the RTC_DIS bit
to 1 disables the internal RTC by disabling the internal I/O decode for addresses 0070h
and 0071h. When the RTC_DIS bit is set, accesses to these addresses generate external
bus cycles, allowing the use of an external RTC module.
Disabling the internal RTC does not automatically disable the interrupt connection to the
programmable interrupt controller (PIC). If PC/AT-compatibility is required, the designer
should connect the external RTC’s interrupt request to one of the ÉlanSC520
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
20-5
Real-Time Clock
microcontroller’s programmable interrupt inputs and program the interrupt steering logic to
route the request to interrupt priority P8.
Disabling the internal RTC does not disable or reset the core in any way.
See “Disabling Internal Peripherals” on page 3-21 for more information.
20.4
REGISTERS
The RTC is controlled by the configuration registers listed in Table 20-1, Table 20-2, and
Table 20-3.
Table 20-1
Real-Time Clock Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Address Decode Control
ADDDECCTL
80h
RTC disable
RTC Interrupt Mapping
RTCMAP
D43h
RTC interrupt mapping
Table 20-2
Function
Real-Time Clock Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
RTC/CMOS RAM Index
RTCIDX
0070h
RTC index to read or write
RTC/CMOS RAM Data Port
RTCDATA
0071h
Data to be read or written
Table 20-3
Real-Time Clock Registers—RTC Indexed
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
RTC Current Second
RTCCURSEC
70h/71h
Index 00h
Seconds
RTC Alarm Second
RTCALMSEC
70h/71h
Index 01h
Seconds alarm
RTC Current Minute
RTCCURMIN
70h/71h
Index 02h
Minutes
RTC Alarm Minute
RTCALMMIN
70h/71h
Index 03h
Minutes alarm
RTC Current Hour
RTCCURHR
70h/71h
Index 04h
Hours, 12- and 24-hour mode
RTC Alarm Hour
RTCALMHR
70h/71h
Index 05h
Hours alarm, 12- and 24-hour mode
RTC Current Day of the Week RTCCURDOW
70h/71h
Index 06h
Day of the week
RTC Current Day of the
Month
RTCCURDOM
70h/71h
Index 07h
Day of the month
RTC Current Month
RTCCURMON
70h/71h
Index 08h
Month
RTC Current Year
RTCCURYR
70h/71h
Index 09h
Year
20-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Real-Time Clock
Table 20-3
Real-Time Clock Registers—RTC Indexed (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
RTC Control A
RTCCTLA
70h/71h
Index 0Ah
Update status, divider chain control, and
periodic interrupt rate selection
RTC Control B
RTCCTLB
70h/71h
Index 0Bh
Update override (SET); periodic interrupt, alarm
interrupt, and update-ended interrupt enables;
date mode, 24/12 hour control, and daylight
saving enable
RTC Status C
RTCSTAC
70h/71h
Index 0Ch
Interrupt request, periodic interrupt, alarm
interrupt, and update-ended interrupt flags
RTC Status D
RTCSTAD
70h/71h
Index 0Dh
RTC power status (BBATSEN)
General-Purpose CMOS
RAM (114 bytes)
RTCCMOS
70h/71h
Index 0E–
7Fh
General-purpose CMOS RAM bytes
20.5
OPERATION
Programs can retrieve time and calendar information from the RTC by reading the
appropriate RTC index registers. Programs can also change the time, calendar, and alarm
information in the RTC by writing to these registers.
The RTC executes an update cycle once per second, assuming that the OSC_CTL bit field
in the RTC Control A (RTCCTLA) register (RTC index 0Ah) has been set to 010b and that
the SET bit in RTC Control B (RTCCTLB) register has been cleared. When the SET bit is
1, all updates are disabled, and the program can initialize the time and date registers.
With a 32.768-kHz time base, the update cycle takes 1984 ms. If a program reads these
RAM locations before the update is complete, the output is undefined. The Update-InProgress (UIP) status bit is set in the RTC Control A (RTCCTLA) register during this time.
There are three ways to handle nonavailability during an RTC update.
■ Use the update-ended interrupt—If enabled, this interrupt occurs after every update
cycle. This means that over 998 ms are available to read the time and date registers.
■ Use the Update-in-Progress bit (UIP) in RTC Control A (RTCCTLA) register—The UIP
bit changes once per second. The update cycle begins 244 ms after the UIP bit goes
high. This means that, if a 0 is read on the UIP bit, there are at least 244 ms before the
time or calendar data will be changed. If a 1 is read in the UIP bit, the time or calendar
data may not be valid. Note that the time allocated to read time or calendar data should
not exceed 244 ms.
■ Use a periodic interrupt to determine if an update cycle is occurring.
Note that, to ensure correct data, the time should not be set on the last day of the month
within two seconds of the rollover to the next day.
20.5.1
Configuration Information
20.5.1.1
Configuring the Hour Format
The 12/24 Hour Mode Select (HOUR_MODE_SEL) bit in the RTC Control B (RTCCTLB)
register (RTC index 0Bh) establishes whether the hour locations represent 1-to-12 or 0-to23. The HOUR_MODE_SEL bit can not be changed without re-initializing the RTC Current
Hour (RTCCURHR) register (RTC index 04h) and the RTC Alarm Hour (RTCALMHR)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
20-7
Real-Time Clock
register (RTC index 05h). When the 12-hour format is selected, the AM_PM bit and
ALM_AM_PM bit in these two respective registers represent PM when they are a 1.
20.5.1.2
Programming the Date and Time
A program can initialize the time, calendar, and alarm by writing to appropriate RAM location.
■ Before initializing the internal registers, set the SET bit in the RTC Control B (RTCCTLB)
register (RTC index 0Bh) to prevent time and calendar updates from occurring.
■ Initialize the ten locations in the selected format (binary or BCD).
■ Specify the format using the data mode (DATE_MODE) bit in the RTC Control B
(RTCCTLB) register. All time, calendar, and alarm registers must use the same data
mode, either binary or BCD.
■ Clear the SET bit to allow updates.
20.5.1.3
Generating Periodic Interrupts
Different periodic interrupt rates can be specified by programming the RATE_SEL bit field
in the RTC Control A (RTCCTLA) register, as shown in Table 20-4.
The periodic interrupt is enabled by the PER_INT_ENB bit field in the RTC Control B
(RTCCTLB) register. The PER_INT_FLG bit in the RTC Status C (RTCSTAC) register (RTC
index 0Ch) provides latched status for the RTC periodic interrupt event.
Note: The first interrupt may not occur at the programmed rate due to synchronization.
Table 20-4
Using RATE_SEL to Specify a Periodic Interrupt Rate
Periodic Interrupt Interval
None
20-8
Frequency
RATE_SEL3–0
None
0
0
0
0
3.90625 ms
256 Hz
0
0
0
1
7.8125 ms
128 Hz
0
0
1
0
122.070 ms
8 kHz
0
0
1
1
244.14 ms
4 kHz
0
1
0
0
488.28 ms
2 kHz
0
1
0
1
976.562 ms
1 kHz
0
1
1
0
1.953125 ms
512 Hz
0
1
1
1
3.90625 ms
256 Hz
1
0
0
0
7.8125 ms
128 Hz
1
0
0
1
15.625 ms
64 Hz
1
0
1
0
31.25 ms
32 Hz
1
0
1
1
62.5 ms
16 Hz
1
1
0
0
125 ms
8 Hz
1
1
0
1
250 ms
4 Hz
1
1
1
0
500 ms
2 Hz
1
1
1
1
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Real-Time Clock
20.5.1.4
Using the Alarm Function
The three alarm bytes can be used in two different ways.
■ If the Alarm Interrupt Enable (ALM_INT_ENB) bit is set in the RTC Control B (RTCCTLB)
register, the alarm interrupt occurs at the time specified in the alarm registers.
■ If a “don’t care” state (any hexadecimal byte from C0–FFh) is written to one or more of
the three alarm registers, the alarm interrupt occurs from once per second to once per
hour.
– Setting the hour, minute, and second alarm registers with a value from C0–FFh causes
an RTC alarm event to be generated once per second.
– Setting the hours, and minutes alarm registers with a value from C0–FFh causes an
RTC alarm event to be generated once per minute.
– Setting the hours alarm registers with a value from C0–FFh causes an RTC alarm
event to be generated once per hour.
20.5.1.5
Handling Year 2000 Issues
With appropriate software support, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller is Y2K-compliant. The
Y2K problem is handled by storing the century part of the year in the byte at 32h in the
CMOS memory. The operating system software must handle rollover of the RTC Current
Year (RTCCURYR) register (RTC index 09h).
To be Y2K-compliant, the software that sets the year must accept four-digit years. The
routine that sets the RTC stores the lower portion of the year value in the RTC Current Year
(RTCCURYR) register and the upper portion in the century CMOS memory location.
This operation is handled properly by PC-style BIOS software that supports the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. For information on what BIOS products are supported, see the AMD web
site.
For embedded systems, a simple set of software functions supports four-digit years with
the RTC.
20.5.2
Clocking Considerations
The 32KXTAL2 and 32KXTAL1 pins are used to connect the external 32.768-kHz crystal
or oscillator to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. This clock source is then used to clock the
internal RTC.
For other details, see Chapter 5, “Clock Generation and Control”.
20.5.3
Interrupts
The RTC provides three different interrupt sources. All three interrupts are connected
internally to the programmable interrupt controller and can be mapped to any interrupt
channel. The three interrupt sources are:
■ Periodic Interrupt—Can be set at rates from 122 ms to 500 ms.
■ Alarm Interrupt—Can be set at rates from once-per-second to once-per-day.
■ Update-Ended Interrupt—Provides update cycle status.
These three interrupts are enabled in RTC Control B (RTCCTLB) register. The RTC interrupt
request is only active from low to high.
Before these interrupts can be used, they must be mapped to the programmable interrupt
controller. For more information, see Table 15-4 on page 15-12.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
20-9
Real-Time Clock
20.5.4
Software Considerations
20.5.4.1
Initializing the RTC Divider Chain
An RTC reset event does not initialize either the divider chain or the Internal Oscillator
Control (OSC_CTL) bit field in the RTC Control A (RTCCTLA) register (RTC index 0Ah).
The internal RTC divider chain can be reset by writing a value of 110b or 111b to the
OSC_CTL field. Writing either of these values resets the entire divider chain and disables
the timebase updates. Resetting the divider chain is not required as part of the RTC
initialization, but can be used to provide an accurate start time after initializing the timebase.
To enable the divider chain and set the proper divisor, a value of 010b should be written to
the OSC_CTL field.
20.5.4.2
Accessing the CMOS Memory
Access to CMOS RAM can be performed without any regard for RTC operations. However,
if the RTC is disabled, the CMOS RAM will be unavailable, but not lost, unless both main
and backup power to the RTC core is removed. Re-enabling the RTC will allow access to
the CMOS RAM with its contents intact.
To access CMOS memory, first write the location of the desired byte to the RTC/CMOS
RAM Index (RTCIDX) register (Port 0070h), then read the contents of that location from
the RTC/CMOS RAM Data Port (RTCDATA) register (Port 0071h), or write the desired data
byte to this data port.
20.5.4.3
Legacy NMI Enable Bit Moved
In PC/AT-compatible systems, bit 7 of the write-only RTC/CMOS RAM Index (RTCIDX)
register (Port 0070h) is used to enable non-maskable interrupts (NMIs). On the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller, this NMI_ENB bit has been moved to bit 6 of the Interrupt Control (PICICR)
register (MMCR offset D00h). Legacy software that needs to explicitly enable or disable
interrupts should be modified accordingly. However, due to the difference in nature of the
use of NMIs in legacy systems (memory parity errors and channel check) and in the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller (mappable to any interrupt source), compatibility issues are
minimal. Writes to bit 7 of the RTC/CMOS RAM Index (RTCIDX) register (Port 0070h) on
the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller have no effect and do not affect the index of the data
accessed at the RTC/CMOS RAM Data Port (RTCDATA) register (Port 0071h).
For example:
-mov-al, 85h
-out-70h, al
and
-mov-al, 05h
-out-70h, al
Both sequences result in the contents of the RTC Alarm Hour (RTCALMHR) register (RTC
index 05h) being accessed at the RTC/CMOS RAM Data Port (RTCDATA) register.
20.6
INITIALIZATION
The real-time clock is enabled at system reset.
1. Before initializing the internal registers, disable the time and calendar updates via the
SET bit in RTC Control B (RTCCTLB) register (RTC index 0Bh).
2. Reset the RTC divider chain by writing a value of 11xb to the OSC_CTL field in the RTC
Control A (RTCCTLA) register (RTC index 0Ah).
20-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Real-Time Clock
3. Initialize the ten time, calendar, and alarm registers in either binary or BCD data format.
4. Specify the format in the data mode via the DATE_MODE bit in the RTC Control B
(RTCCTLB) register. All ten time, calendar, and alarm registers must use the same data
mode, either binary or BCD.
5. Enable updates via the SET bit in RTC Control B (RTCCTLB) register.
6. Enable the divider chain by programming 010b in the OSC_CTL field. Time and update
cycles will begin 500 ms after this write.
Steps 2 and 6 are necessary only if precision setting is required. Otherwise, the OSC_CTL
field can be written to 010b in step 2, and step 6 can be skipped. The first update cycle,
however, will occur at an undetermined time after updates are enabled.
When initialized, the RTC makes all updates in whatever data mode has been programmed.
To change the data mode, the ten data bytes must be re-initialized.
20.6.1
RTC Reset
The RTC is not automatically reset by a system reset. There are three conditions that trigger
an RTC reset:
■ BBATSEN drops below 2.0 V (sampled when PWRGOOD asserts)—During operation
from the main power supply, the backup battery voltage might drop below the trip voltage
(2.0 V). The RTC is not reset until a PWRGOOD assertion occurs.
■ Power is applied to VCC_RTC (at backup battery installation)—When the backup battery
is plugged in, the RTC is immediately reset.
■ No battery during power-up (sampled after PWRGOOD asserts)—If the system does
not contain a backup battery and the BBATSEN line potential is below 2.0 V, the RTC is
reset when PWRGOOD asserts.
Note that this RTC reset may or may not occur when a master power-on reset occurs,
depending on the state of BBATSEN.
If the BBATSEN signal drops below the 2.0-V reference and PWRGOOD is Low, an internal
RTC reset signal is generated to notify the user via the RTC_VRT bit (RTC index 0Dh) that
the RTC contents are no longer valid.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
20-11
Real-Time Clock
20-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
21
21.1
UART SERIAL PORTS
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes two industry-standard 16550-compatible UARTs,
both capable of running all existing 16450 and 16550 software.
The UARTs power up in 16450-compatible UART mode (also called character mode or
non-FIFO mode). Each UART can be switched between the 16550-compatible mode (also
called FIFO mode) and 16450-compatible mode under software control. In 16550compatible mode, the receiver and the transmitter are each buffered with 16-byte FIFOs to
offload the CPU from repetitive service routines.
Features:
■ Full UART pinout: SOUT, SIN, CTS, RTS, DSR, DTR, RIN, and DCD for each UART
■ In 16550-compatible mode, the transmitter and receiver are each buffered with 16-byte
FIFOs
■ Full-duplex (data can be sent in both directions simultaneously)
■ DMA operation
■ Internal baud-rate clock of 18.432 MHz or 1.8432 MHz
■ Baud rates from DC to 1.152 Mbaud
– Baud-rate generator provides input clock divisor from 1 to (216–1) to create 16x clock.
■ Programmable serial interface:
– 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-bit character sizes
– Even, odd, or no-parity bit generation and detection
– 1, 1½, or 2 stop bits
– Break generation and detection
– Each UART’s address decode can be individually disabled, allowing external devices
to be used in their place.
■ Internal Diagnostics:
– False start bit detection
– Complete status reporting capabilities
– Break, parity error, overrun error, and framing error detection
– Loopback controls for communications link fault isolation
21.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 21-1 shows a block diagram of a single UART. The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller
includes two UARTS that function identically to each other.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
21-1
UART Serial Ports
Figure 21-1
UART Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
UART
Transmitter
SOUTx
TX shift register
TX Hold Register
TX FIFO
Prescaler
18.432 MHz
1.8432 MHz
Baud
Generator
clk_uart
(18.432 MHz)
Configuration
Registers
Receiver
GP Bus
RX FIFO
RX Buffer Register
SINx
RX shift register
To/from DMA
tx_dack
rx_dack
tx_dma_req
DMA Control
rx_dma_req
gptc
Interrupt
out2
uart_irq
Modem
Control
21.3
From
clocks
To PIC
RTSx
CTSx
DTRx
DSRx
DCDx
RINx
SYSTEM DESIGN
UART 2 shares signals with the PIO31–PIO28 signals, as shown in Table 21-1. When
enabled, the multiplexed signals shown in Table 21-1 either disable or alter any other
function that uses the same pin.
Table 21-1
UART Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
PIO
(Default)
Function
Interface
Function
Control Bit
Register
PIO31
RIN2
PIO31_FNC
PIO30
DCD2
PIO30_FNC
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS31_16) register (MMCR offset C22h)
PIO29
DSR2
PIO29_FNC
PIO28
CTS2
PIO28_FNC
Both UARTs can work with full modem control signals (SOUTx, SINx, CTSx, RTSx, DSRx,
DTRx, RINx, and DCDx) or with two wires only (SOUTx and SINx). If only two wires are
used, the unused input port pins can be left unconnected. (There are internal pullup resistors
on these signals.)
21-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
UART Serial Ports
Each UART supports loopback mode. In this mode, the UART’s transmitter output is
internally connected with the receiver input. It is useful for testing the operation of a local
UART channel without affecting the states of the UART output pins and independently of
the state of the UART input pins.
When in loopback mode, RTS and DTR are internally connected to CTS and DSR,
respectively. In addition, the DTR and RTS signals are forced inactive. Therefore, hardware
flow control is inactive.
UART interrupt requests are disabled while in loopback mode.
Table 21-2 lists the connection of DTE to DTE.
Table 21-2
21.4
Connection of DTE to DTE
DTE
DTE
SOUT
SIN
SIN
SOUT
CTS
RTS
RTS
CTS
DSR
DTR
DTR
DSR
RIN
RIN
DCD
DCD
REGISTERS
The UARTs are controlled by the memory-mapped registers listed in Table 21-3 and the
direct-mapped registers listed in Table 21-4.
Table 21-3
UART Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Address Decode Control
ADDDECCTL
80h
UART 1 and UART 2 disables
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS31_16
C22h
PIO or interface function select: RIN2, DCD2,
DSR2, CTS2
Clock Select
CLKSEL
C26h
CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] pin enable, CLKTEST
output select options (18.432 MHz or 1.8432
MHz UART), CLKTIMER or CLKTEST select
UART 1 General Control
UART 2 General Control
UART1CTL
UART2CTL
CC0h
CC4h
Clock source; receive TC interrupt and transmit
TC interrupt enables
UART 1 General Status
UART 2 General Status
UART1STA
UART2STA
CC1h
CC5h
Receive TC and transmit TC interrupts status
UART 1 FIFO Control
Shadow
UART 2 FIFO Control
Shadow
UART1FCRSHAD
UART2FCRSHAD
CC2h
CC6h
Information written to the direct-mapped UART
x FIFO Control (UARTxFCR) register
UART 1 Interrupt Mapping
UART1MAP
D28h
UART 1 interrupt mapping
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
21-3
UART Serial Ports
Table 21-3
UART Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
UART 2 Interrupt Mapping
UART2MAP
D29h
Table 21-4
Function
UART 2 interrupt mapping
UART Registers—Direct-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
I/O Address Function
UART 1 Transmit Holding
UART 2 Transmit Holding
UART1THR
UART2THR
02F8h
03F8h
Byte to be transmitted
UART 1 Receive Buffer
UART 2 Receive Buffer
UART1RBR
UART2RBR
02F8h
03F8h
Received byte
UART 1 Baud Clock Divisor
Latch LSB
UART 2 Baud Clock Divisor
Latch LSB
UART1BCDL
UART2BCDL
02F8h
03F8h
Least significant byte of a 16-bit baud-rate clock
divisor used to generate the 16x baud clock
UART 1 Baud Clock Divisor
Latch MSB
UART 2 Baud Clock Divisor
Latch MSB
UART1BCDH
UART2BCDH
02F9h
03F9h
Most significant byte of a 16-bit baud-rate clock
divisor used to generate the 16x baud clock
UART 1 Interrupt Enable
UART 2 Interrupt Enable
UART1INTENB
UART2INTENB
02F9h
03F9h
Interrupt enables: modem status, receiver line
status, transmit holding empty, received data
available, and time-out
UART 1 Interrupt ID
UART 2 Interrupt ID
UART1INTID
UART2INTID
02FAh
03FAh
FIFO mode indication, interrupt identification,
interrupt pending status
UART 1 FIFO Control
UART 2 FIFO Control
UART1FCR
UART2FCR
02FAh
03FAh
Trigger level for received data available
interrupt, DMA mode, transmitter FIFO and
receiver FIFO clear, FIFO enable for 16550compatible mode
UART 1 Line Control
UART 2 Line Control
UART1LCR
UART2LCR
02FBh
03FBh
Divisor latch access (DLAB), break, stick parity,
parity, asynchronous data parity, stop, transmit/
receive word length
UART 1 Modem Control
UART 2 Modem Control
UART1MCR
UART2MCR
02FCh
03FCh
Loopback diagnostic mode, UARTx interrupt
enable, RTSx and DTRx control
UART 1 Line Status
UART 2 Line Status
UART1LSR
UART2LSR
02FDh
03FDh
FIFO error, transmitter empty indicator,
Transmitter Holding register or transmit FIFO
empty, break indicator, framing error, parity
error, overrun error, data ready
UART 1 Modem Status
UART 2 Modem Status
UART1MSR
UART2MSR
02FEh
033FEh
Real-time and latched status bits for DCDx,
RINx, DSRx and CTSx
UART 1 Scratch Pad
UART 2 Scratch Pad
UART1SCRATCH
UART2SCRATCH
02FFh
03FFh
Temporary data storage
21-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
UART Serial Ports
21.5
OPERATION
Each UART performs:
■ Serial-to-parallel conversion on data characters received from a modem or a peripheral
device
■ Parallel-to-serial conversion on those data characters written by the CPU or DMA
controller
During communication, data is transmitted and received in frames. The frame format, as
well as the baud rate, must be the same on the transmitter and receiver. The frame format
is determined by the settings in the UART x Line Control (UARTxLCR) register. Each frame
begins with a start bit (Low) and ends with one, one and a half, or two stop bits (High). After
the start bit is transmitted/received, the data bits, which can be programmed to a length of
5, 6, 7 or 8 bits, are transmitted/received serially with least significant bit first.The last data
bit may be followed by an optional parity bit that is enabled using the PENB bit in the UART
x Line Control (UARTxLCR) register. The line is always held High between frames (idle
state).
■ Transmission of a frame is initiated when a byte is written to the UART x Transmit Holding
(UARTxTHR) register.
■ Reception of a frame is initiated when a start bit is received (the SIN input is driven Low
for one baud-rate clock period).
Figure 21-2 shows the frame configurations supported and the bit stream sequence for a
UART on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. Figure 21-3 shows an actual UART frame during
transmission with configuration of even parity, one stop bit, and eight data bits.
Figure 21-2
UART Frame Configuration
Start
Bit
Figure 21-3
5 Data Bits
Optional
6th
Data Bit
Optional
7th
Data Bit
Optional
8th
Data Bit
Optional
Parity Bit
Stop
Bit
Optional
0.5 or 2nd
Stop Bit
UART Frame Transmission
Baud Clock
TxD or RxD
idle
start
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
0
parity
stop idle
Serial data
Asynchronous serial frame
Asynchronous transmission of 03Ah as 8 bits of data, even parity, one stop bit
Each UART includes a programmable baud-rate generator that is capable of dividing the
timing reference clock input by divisors of 1 to ( 2 16 – 1 ), and producing a 16 x clock for driving
the internal transmitter/receiver logic.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
21-5
UART Serial Ports
For each UART, six handshaking signals are provided:
■ DTRx (Data Terminal Ready) output—When the signal is Low, it informs the modem set
that the UART is ready to establish a communications link. The DTRx output signal can
be asserted and deasserted by the UART x Modem Control (UARTxMCR) register.
Loopback mode operation holds DTRx in its inactive state.
■ DSRx (Data Set Ready) input—When the signal is Low, it indicates that the modem is
ready to establish the communications link with the UART. The state of the DSRx pin
can be tested in the UART x Modem Status (UARTxMSR) register. The DDSR status
bit provided in the UART x Modem Status (UARTxMSR) register indicates if the DSRx
signal has changed state since the register was last read. An interrupt can also be
generated upon DSRx change.
■ RTSx (Request-to-Send) output—When the signal is Low, it informs the modem that the
UART is ready to exchange data. The RTSx output signal can be asserted and
deasserted by the UART x Modem Control (UARTxMCR) register. Loopback mode
operation holds RTSx in its inactive state.
■ CTSx (Clear-to-Send) input—When the signal is Low, it indicates that the modem is
ready to exchange data. The state of the CTSx pin can be tested in the UART x Modem
Status (UARTxMSR) register. The DCTS status bit in the UART x Modem Status
(UARTxMSR) register indicates if the CTSx signal has changed state since the register
was last read. An interrupt can also be generated upon CTSx change.
■ DCDx (Data Carrier Detect) input—When the signal is Low, it indicates that the data
carrier has been detected by the modem and that contact between it and the other
modem is established. The state of the DCDx pin can be tested in the UART x Modem
Status (UARTxMSR) register. The DDCD status bit in the UART x Modem Status
(UARTxMSR) register indicates if the DCDx signal has changed state since the register
was last read. An interrupt can also be generated upon DCDx change.
■ RINx (Ring Indicator) input—When the signal is Low, it indicates that a telephone ringing
signal has been received by the modem. The state of the RINx pin can be tested in the
UART x Modem Status (UARTxMSR) register. The TERI status bit is also provided in
the UART x Modem Status (UARTxMSR) register indicates if the RINx signal has
changed state from asserted to deasserted since the register was last read. An interrupt
can also be generated upon RINx deassertion.
21.5.1
Data Transmission
21.5.1.1
16450-Compatible UART Mode
In 16450-compatible (non-FIFO or character) mode:
1. Data written to the UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register is subsequently
latched into the internal transmitter shift register when the transmitter shift register is
empty.
2. Once data has been latched into the internal transmitter shift register, the Transmit
Holding Register Empty (THRE) bit in the UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register
goes to 1 (optionally generating a UART interrupt).
3. The application is once again permitted to write data to the UART x Transmit Holding
(UARTxTHR) register.
Note that writing to the UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register in this mode when
the THRE bit is not set can result in incorrect data being transmitted.
21-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
UART Serial Ports
The Transmitter Empty (TEMT) bit in the UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register is set
in this mode if both the UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register and internal
transmitter shift register are empty. An application could write two bytes consecutively to
the UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register without checking THRE if TEMT is
detected as set.
21.5.1.2
16550-Compatible UART Mode
In 16550-compatible (FIFO) mode:
1. Data written to the UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register address is latched
into the next available FIFO location.
2. The transmit data is shifted directly out of the first FIFO entry with valid data. There are
a total of 16 bytes in the FIFO. Thus, if the TEMT bit is set, then software can safely
write 16 bytes consecutively to the UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register
address for transmission.
The THRE (which can optionally generate an interrupt) and TEMT bits are set whenever
the last character is shifted from the FIFO and the FIFO becomes empty. If the number of
characters currently in the FIFO is unknown, software should wait for the THRE or TEMT
bit to be set before writing additional data.
21.5.2
Data Reception
21.5.2.1
16450-Compatible UART Mode
In 16450-compatible mode:
1. Received data is shifted from the SIN pin into the internal receive shift register.
2. Once an entire UART frame has been received, the character is transferred from the
internal receive shift register into the UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR) register.
3. The Data Ready (DR) bit in the UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register is set to 1
(optionally generating an interrupt).
Note that the DR bit is cleared by a read of the UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR) register.
If a second character is transferred into the UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR) register
before software reads the first one (i.e., the DR bit is still set), then the Overrun Error (OE)
bit in the UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register is set to 1, and the first character is
destroyed. Subsequent received bytes continue to overwrite the UART x Receive Buffer
(UARTxRBR) register until software reads the UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR)
register.
21.5.2.2
16550-Compatible UART Mode
In 16550-compatible mode:
1. Received data is shifted into the internal receive shift register.
2. Once an entire UART frame has been received, the character is transferred from the
internal receive shift register into the FIFO.
– If the FIFO was empty, the DR bit in the UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register is
set and remains set until the FIFO is completely emptied by software.
– If the received character places the FIFO above the limit indicated by the RFRT field
in the UART x FIFO Control (UARTxFCR) register and received data available
interrupts are enabled, then an interrupt is generated.
– A receive FIFO time-out interrupt occurs when this interrupt is enabled if data is present
in the FIFO and no received data have been placed into or read from the receive FIFO
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
21-7
UART Serial Ports
in four character times. In 16550-compatible mode, the Overrun Error (OE) bit is set
if a new character is completely received into the shift register when the FIFO is already
100% full. Data in the FIFO is not overwritten by this overrun. However, the data in
the shift register is lost.
21.5.3
Error Handling
Received data can contain three types of abnormal conditions in addition to the overrun
error:
■ Parity errors
■ Framing errors
■ Break indications
21.5.3.1
Parity Error
A parity error indicates that the parity bit for the character in error did not match the parity
indicated by the Even Parity Select (EPS) bit, Stick Parity Enable (SP) bit, and the
Asynchronous Data Parity Enable (PENB) bit in the UART x Line Control (UARTxLCR)
register.
21.5.3.2
Framing Error
A framing error indicates that the bit following the parity bit (if parity is enabled) or following
the last data bit (if parity is not enabled) was detected to be a logic 0. To resynchronize
following this type of error, the UART assumes that the framing error was due to the next
start bit occurring too early. It samples the start bit twice (once as the erroneous stop bit of
the first character and once as the start bit of the second character) before sampling the
data for the second bit.
21.5.3.3
Break Indication
A break indication means that the received data input was detected to be 0 for a time longer
than a full UART frame (including start bit, data bits, parity, and stop bits). The character
loaded into the FIFO on a break indication is always 0, and subsequent characters are
loaded normally once the receive input returns to its idle state (high).
21.5.3.4
Error Reporting
21.5.3.4.1
16450-Compatible UART Mode
In 16450-compatible mode, the error bits (OE, PE, FE, and BI) in the UART x Line Status
(UARTxLSR) register indicate that the error was detected during reception of the current
byte in the UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR) register. If receiver line status Interrupts
are enabled, any of the OE, PE, FE, or BI conditions trigger an interrupt.
21.5.3.4.2
16550-Compatible UART Mode
In 16550-compatible mode, the error bits (PE, FE, and BI) are set only when an error
condition is detected in the character at the top of the FIFO. Since reading the UART x
Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR) register causes the FIFO to advance to the next received
character, the error bits must be read from the UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register
prior to the data being read from the FIFO. The ERR_IN_FIFO bit in the UART x Line Status
(UARTxLSR) register can be used to detect if any of the characters in the FIFO (not just
the one at the top) had errors.
All of the error bits, with the exception of the ERR_IN_FIFO bit, are cleared when the UART
x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register is read. The ERR_IN_FIFO bit is cleared when the
UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register is read and all data present in the FIFO is errorfree, or the FIFO becomes empty.
21-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
UART Serial Ports
If receiver line status interrupts are enabled, any of the OE, PE, FE, or BI conditions trigger
an interrupt. Note that the ERR_IN_FIFO cannot directly generate an interrupt.
21.5.4
Configuration Information
21.5.4.1
Baud Rate
To generate the baud rate of the transfer, the UART clock is divided by a divisor value
chosen by the programmer. The UART’s baud-rate generator automatically calculates the
baud rate from the divisor value programmed into the two UART x Baud Clock Divisor Latch
MSB and LSB registers. These registers are read at initialization to set the baud rate for
the transfer. The baud rate is calculated according to the following equation:
Baudrate = clockfrequency / 16 * BAUDDIV
Here, clock frequency refers to the frequency of the main reference clock, 1.8432 MHz or
18.432 MHz. This frequency is determined by the CLKSRC bit in the UART x General
Control (UARTxCTL) register. BAUDDIV is defined by the UART x Baud Clock Divisor Latch
MSB and LSB registers. Table 21-5 lists the divisor value (in decimal and hexadecimal) to
use with each clock frequency to achieve common baud rates.
Table 21-5
Baud Rates, Divisors, and Clock Source
DIV[15–0] (Decimal)
Baud Rate
21.5.4.2
DIV[15–0] (Hexadecimal)
1.8432 MHz
18.432 MHz
1.8432 MHz
18.432 MHz
300 baud
384d
3840d
0180h
0F00h
600 baud
192d
1920d
00C0h
0780h
2400 baud
48d
480d
0030h
01E0h
4800 baud
24d
240d
0018h
00F0h
7200 baud
16d
160d
000Fh
00A0h
9600 baud
12d
120d
000Ch
0078h
14.4 kbaud
8d
80d
0008h
0050h
19.2 kbaud
6d
60d
0006h
003Ch
57.6 kbaud
2d
20d
0002h
0014h
115.2 kbaud
1d
10d
0001h
000Ah
144 kbaud
8d
0008h
192 kbaud
6d
0006h
288 kbaud
4d
0004h
576 kbaud
2d
0002h
1.152 Mbaud
1d
0001h
Hardware Flow Control
When the EMSI bit of the UART x Interrupt Enable (UARTxINTENB) register is set, the
modem status interrupt is enabled to facilitate the hardware flow control. The interrupts are
triggered by changes in the following control lines: CTSx, DTRx, RINx, and DCDx.
21.5.4.3
Operating Modes
16450-compatible UART mode and 16550-compatible UART mode can be setup by setting
or clearing the FIFO_ENB bit of UART x FIFO Control (UARTxFCR) register. The
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller UARTs can be switched between the 16550-compatible mode
and 16450-compatible mode under software control.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
21-9
UART Serial Ports
When in 16550-compatible mode, the receiver and transmitter FIFO buffers can be cleared
by the RF_CLR and TF_CLR bits in the UART x FIFO Control (UARTxFCR) register,
respectively. The receiver FIFO trigger level can be programmed by RFRT field of the
UART x FIFO Control (UARTxFCR) register.
21.5.5
DMA Interface
To support higher serial data transfer rates, both UARTs support DMA. For more detailed
information on the operation of the GP-DMA controller, see Chapter 14, “GP Bus DMA
Controller”.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s DMA interface provides up to four 8-bit DMA channels to
support the two integrated UARTs. Each UART can use up to two DMA channels: one for
receive and one for transmit. DMA transfers are supported for both 16450- and 16550compatible modes.
The DMA controller can perform read and write operations in single cycle, demand, or block
transfer mode. However, block transfer mode is not supported for UART transfers.
21.5.5.1
Transmit DMA
The internal tx_dma_req signal from the UART is asserted whenever there is room for
another transmit character in the UART.
■ For 16450-compatible UART mode, this means that either the internal transmitter shift
register or the UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register can accept a character.
■ For 16550-compatible mode, this means that the transmit FIFO is not full.
21.5.5.2
Receive DMA
The internal rx_dma_req signal from the UART is asserted:
■ For 16550-compatible mode, whenever the receive trigger level was reached or a time-
out has occurred. The rx_dma_req signal is made inactive when the receive FIFO is
completely empty.
■ For 16450-compatible UART mode, whenever the UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR)
register contains a valid character.
For either mode, the internal rx_dma_req signal is deasserted whenever a character is
received with an error condition. This allows software to inspect the error condition before
the error status is cleared by a subsequent DMA transfer. Once software has cleared the
error status by a read of the UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register, the rx_dma_req is
asserted when another character is present in the UART.
21.5.6
Clocking Considerations
The clock input to the UARTs to support standard PC/AT baud selections is 1.8432 MHz.
A clock of 18.432 MHz is also provided to the UARTs for fast serial communication. This
frequency is determined by the CLK_SRC bit in the UART x General Control (UARTxCTL)
register.
21.5.7
Interrupts
Each of the two UARTs on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides its own interrupt to the
programmable interrupt controller. Each ÉlanSC520 microcontroller serial port has an
internal interrupt signal that can be mapped to uart1_irq or uart2_irq. For detailed
information, see Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”.
21-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
UART Serial Ports
Table 21-6 provides a summary of UART interrupt sources for both DMA and serial port
interrupts.
Interrupts generated by the UARTs are cleared in a variety of ways, depending on the
source event. For details about clearing a particular event, see the event’s status bit
description in the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Register Set Manual, order #22005.
Table 21-6
UART Interrupt Programming Summary
Interrupt Description
Enable
Register1, 2
Receive DMA transfer count UART x General
Transmit DMA transfer count Control
(UARTxCTL)
Modem status change
Receiver line status
Status
Register3
Source Event
UART x
UART x Receive TC Detected
General Status UART x Transmit TC Detected
(UARTxSTA)
UART x Interrupt UART x
Enable
Modem Status
(UARTxINTENB) (UARTxMSR)
UART x Line
Status
(UARTxLSR)
Polled
Status Bit
RXTC_DET
TXTC_DET
Delta data carrier detect
DDCD
Trailing edge ring indicator
TERI
Delta data set ready
DDSR
Delta clear to send
DCTS
Break indicator
BI
Framing error
FE
Parity error
PE
Overrun error
OE
Transmitter holding register
empty
Transmit holding register (16450- THRE
compatible mode) or transmitter
FIFO (16550-compatible mode)
empty
Received data available
Data ready
(16450-compatible mode)
DR
FIFO trigger level reached
(16550-compatible mode)
—
FIFO time-out
(16550-compatible mode)
—
—4
FIFO time-out5
Notes:
1. Before any UART interrupt is enabled, the corresponding UART x Interrupt Mapping (UARTxMAP) register must
be configured to route the interrupt to the appropriate interrupt request level and priority.
2. The OUT2 bit in the UART x Modem Control (UARTxMCR) register is used as a master control for UART interrupts. The OUT2 bit must be set for UART interrupts to be generated. Status bits can be read even when interrupts
are disabled.
3. If two of the interrupts enabled in the UART x Interrupt Enable (UARTxINTENB) register are pending simultaneously, the highest-priority interrupt is identified in the INT_ID bit field of the UART x Interrupt ID (UARTxINTID)
register.
4. There are no polled-status bits for the FIFO trigger level and FIFO time-out events. These events are indicated by
the INT_ID bit field only.
5. The FIFO time-out interrupt is enabled with the received data available interrupt by the ERDAI bit in the UART x
Interrupt Enable (UARTxINTENB) register.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
21-11
UART Serial Ports
21.5.7.1
Serial Port Interrupts
Each serial port supports the standard UART interrupts. These include:
■ Received data available or FIFO trigger level reached
■ Transmit Holding register empty (THRE)
■ Modem status change (including clear-to-send, data-set-ready, ring indicator, data
carrier detect)
■ Line Status register receiver interrupts (including overrun error, parity error, framing error
and break interrupt)
In 16550-compatible mode, the FIFO time-out interrupt is also enabled when the received
data available interrupt is enabled.
The UART interrupt sources and their priority are shown in Table 21-7. If two interrupt
sources are pending simultaneously, the highest priority interrupt is indicated by the ID field
of the UART x Interrupt ID (UARTxINTID) register. When the interrupt source is cleared, a
subsequent read from this port returns the next highest priority interrupt source.
Table 21-7
Serial Port Interrupt and Interrupt Priority
INT_ID
Bit Field
Description
Identification Priority
000b
Modem status change
Fourth (Lowest)
001b
Transmit holding register empty (16540-compatible
mode)/Transmit FIFO empty (16550-compatible mode)
Third
010b
Received data available (16540-compatible mode)/
Receiver FIFO trigger (16550-compatible mode)
Second
011b
Receive line status
First (Highest)
100b
Not used
—
101b
Not used
—
110b
FIFO time-out
Second
111b
Not used
—
Note: In 16450-compatible mode, the INT_ID2 bit always reads back 0. The INT_ID bit
field is located in the UART x Interrupt ID (UARTxINTID) register.
The UART interrupts are enabled by the Interrupt Enable register and read from the UART x
Interrupt ID (UARTxINTID) register.
21.5.7.2
DMA Interrupts
Each UART can generate an interrupt when the Transfer Count (TC) signal associated with
DMA transfers is asserted. Four enable bits and four status bits are available for these
interrupts: transmit and receive Transfer Count reached for each UART. These bits are
located in the UART x General Control (UARTxCTL) and UART x General Status
(UARTxSTA) registers.
21-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
UART Serial Ports
21.5.7.3
Interrupt Disable
Each UART interrupt request can be disabled (gated low) prior to the programmable
interrupt controller by clearing to 0 the OUT2 bit in the UART x Modem Control (UARTxMCR)
register. Note that setting the LOOP bit in the MCR also disables the UART interrupt request.
Therefore, interrupts are not propagated to the PIC while in loopback mode.
21.6
INITIALIZATION
At system reset, the serial port is disabled. To be enabled, it must be configured by software.
1. Configure the UART by programming the desired baud rate, character length, stop-bits,
and parity.
2. Enable interrupts and DMA operation as desired. Note that for UART interrupts to
propagate to the programmable interrupt controller, the OUT2 bit in the UART x Modem
Control (UARTxMCR) register must be set to 1.
After the UART is enabled, it powers up as a 16450-compatible device. It can be switched
between 16550-compatible mode and 16450-compatible mode under software control.
3. Enable 16550-compatible mode by setting the FIFO_ENB bit of UART x FIFO Control
(UARTxFCR) register. Note that the contents of this write-only register can be read back
in the UART x FIFO Control Shadow (UARTxFCRSHAD) register.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
21-13
UART Serial Ports
21-14
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
22
22.1
SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL INTERFACE
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller includes a synchronous serial interface (SSI). The SSI
provides efficient full-duplex and half-duplex, bidirectional communication to peripheral
devices. The interface can be used to configure and monitor the status of devices such as
ISDN transceivers, EEPROMs, SLACs, audio CODECs, LCD drivers, DSPs, etc. It can
easily communicate with slave interfaces that are compatible to Motorola’s Serial Peripheral
Interface (SPI), Motorola’s Serial Communication Port (SCP), National Semiconductor
Corporation’s Microwire, and other industry standards.
Features of the SSI include:
■ Full or half-duplex operation
■ Compatible with either four-pin or three-pin peripheral devices
■ Multiple device enables through programmable I/O (PIO) pins
■ Configurable clock idle state and phase
■ Configurable bit shifting order, most significant bit or least significant bit first
■ Programmable SSI clock speed, from 64 kHz to 8 MHz
■ Transaction complete status, available as interrupt
22.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
A block diagram of the SSI is shown in Figure 22-1. System diagrams, as well as timing
diagrams, of a three-pin SSI interface and a four-pin SSI interface are shown on page 22-3.
22.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Three SSI pins are provided: clock out (SSI_CLK), data out (SSI_DO), and data in (SSI_DI).
The SSI_DO signal is normally at high-impedance when no transmit transaction is active
on the SSI. An external pullup or pulldown resistor can be added to this pin, if required by
the slave device.
Most slave devices require an enable pin to be asserted during an operation and deasserted
when not in operation. PIO pins on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller can be used for this
purpose.
Many slave SSI ports provide an interrupt output pin to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
These can be routed to one of the GPIRQx pins, which are multiplexed with PIOs. See
Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt Controller”, and Chapter 2, “Pin Information”, for
information on external interrupts.
See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for timing tables and
additional timing diagrams.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
22-1
Synchronous Serial Interface
Figure 22-1
SSI Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
GPIRQx
Programmable Interrupt
Controller (PIC)
PIO
Block
PIOx
SSI_DO
SSI
ssi_irq
shift register
SSI Transmit Register
Internal
GP Bus
SSI Control Register
SSI Clock
Generation
33-MHz
Clock
SSI Status Register
SSI Command Register
tri_do
SSI_CLK
shift register
SSI Receive Register
SSI_DI
22.4
REGISTERS
The memory-mapped registers shown in Table 22-1 are used to configure the SSI.
Table 22-1
Synchronous Serial Interface Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
SSI Control
SSICTL
CD0h
SSI clock speed, interrupt enable, clock phase,
clock idle state, bit order
SSI Transmit
SSIXMIT
CD1h
Byte or data to be shifted out to SSI_DO pin
SSI Command
SSICMD
CD2h
Transfer command to be executed: transmit,
receive, or simultaneous transmit/receive
SSI Status
SSISTA
CD3h
Busy status, transaction complete status
SSI Receive
SSIRCV
CD4h
Byte or data shifted in from SSI_DI pin
SSI Interrupt Mapping
SSIMAP
D41h
SSI interrupt mapping
22-2
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Synchronous Serial Interface
22.5
OPERATION
Synchronous serial interface describes a port that can be implemented in several ways.
Typically, the microcontroller port is called the master and one or more peripheral device
ports are slaves.
■ The master port (ÉlanSC520 microcontroller) configures a slave by serial transmission
of slave commands, addresses, and data.
■ A slave (peripheral device) can send requested status information or data, similarly.
Options in the SSI Control (SSICTL) register (MMCR offset CD0h), along with softwarecontrolled device enable signals, can be used to customize the SSI port to emulate a variety
of formats. Its flexibility allows simple communication with multiple devices, reducing
software overhead.
Three commands are provided to initiate the transfer of data through the SSI. A write to the
SSI Control (SSICTL) register selects the type of cycle to execute and initiates the cycle.
The three SSI commands are:
■ Transmit-only (half-duplex)—In a transmit transaction, or cycle, the contents of the SSI
Transmit (SSIXMIT) register (MMCR offset CD1h) are serially shifted onto the SSI_DO
pin.
■ Receive-only (half-duplex)—A receive transaction shifts a byte from SSI_DI to the SSI
Receive (SSIRCV) register (MMCR offset CD4h).
■ Simultaneously transmit and receive (full-duplex)
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller SSI is always the master and drives the clock when the
SSI command is given. Slave devices cannot drive this clock. All transactions complete
within eight clock cycles.
22.5.1
Usage Scenarios
22.5.1.1
Four-Pin Interface
A full-duplex, four-pin port has separate input and output data pins. Figure 22-2 is a block
diagram of the SSI connected to multiple four-pin slave devices. A transmit and receive
operation can take place within the same eight clocks, as shown in Figure 22-3. Many fourpin slave ports, however, operate in half-duplex. In that case, Figure 22-5 would apply.
22.5.1.2
Three-Pin Interface
SSI_DO and SSI_DI can be externally shorted to interface three-pin peripheral devices, as
in Figure 22-4. This creates an I/O signal that matches slave I/O pins. Three-pin ports
multiplex the data output and input for half-duplex communication. A typical half-duplex
operation, as shown in Figure 22-5, is implemented with a two-byte protocol in non-inverted
phase and clock modes. The first byte sends a command/address byte to the slave, which
indicates that the data for the second byte will be transmitted or received. The slave should
begin to transmit or receive when it detects an active clock.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
22-3
Synchronous Serial Interface
Figure 22-2
SSI Four-Pin Interface
SSI_CLK
SSI_DO
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
SSI_DI
Four-Pin Slave Synchronous
Serial Interface
Clock in
Data in
Data out
PIOx
Enable
PIOx
Four-Pin Slave Synchronous
Serial Interface
Clock in
Data in
Data out
Enable
Figure 22-3
SSI Simultaneous Transmit and Receive
PIOx
SSI_CLK
SSI_DO
SSI_DI
Figure 22-4
SSI Three-Pin Interface
SSI_CLK
Clock in
Three-Pin Slave
SSI_DO
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Data in/out
SSI_DI
PIOx
Figure 22-5
Enable
SSI Typical Half-Duplex Communication, Non-Inverted Phase and Clock Modes
PIOx
SSI_CLK
SSI_DO
SSI_DI
22-4
Synchronous
Serial Interface
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Synchronous Serial Interface
22.5.2
Configuration Information
The MSBF_ENB, CLK_INV_ENB, and PHS_INV_ENB bits in the SSI Control (SSICTL)
register (MMCR offset CD0h) define the order of the bits, the clock idle state, and the clock
edge upon which data is transmitted/received (phase).
■ The SSI should be configured to assert SSI_DO on the same clock edge that the slave
uses to transmit.
■ SSI_DI is sampled on the opposite clock edge.
22.5.2.1
Bit Order
The SSI bit order can be changed by the SSI Most Significant Bit First Mode Enable
(MSBF_ENB) bit. A byte can be transferred with the least significant bit first (LSBF) or most
significant bit first (MSBF). MSBF mode is enabled when this bit is written to a 1. This mode
is common for input and output data.
22.5.2.2
Clock Idle State
The clock idle state is controlled by the SSI Inverted Clock Mode Enable (CLK_INV_ENB)
bit. The absolute time to drive/sample is unchanged by the CLK_INV_ENB bit.
■ When the CLK_INV_ENB bit has a value of 0, SSI_CLK idles High, then pulses Low
during a transaction.
■ If the CLK_INV_ENB bit is written to a 1, the clock idle state is Low.
22.5.2.3
Clock Phase
The clock phase, relative to the serial data, is determined by the SSI Inverted Phase Mode
Enable (PHS_INV_ENB) bit.
■ In non-inverted phase mode, data is transmitted on odd edges of the SSI clock, and
received on even edges.Therefore, the first SSI clock edge of a transaction shifts out
the first bit on SSI_DO, if writing. SSI_DI data is latched, during a receive transaction,
on even edges of the SSI clock.
■ Inverted phase mode requires that the SSI_DI signal be sampled on the first (odd) clock
edge(s). Consequently, the first bit is asserted on SSI_DO one-half an SSI clock cycle
before the first edge of SSI_CLK, and even edges afterwards.
22.5.3
Bus Cycles
The four possible combinations of CLK_INV_ENB and PHS_INV_ENB are shown in
Figure 22-6.
■ Microwire compatibility is configured when the PHS_INV_ENB, CLK_INV_ENB, and
MSBF_ENB bits are all set to 1.
■ The SSI is compatible with an SCP interface when the PHS_INV_ENB and
CLK_INV_ENB bits are cleared to 0, and the MSBF_ENB bit is set to 1.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
22-5
Synchronous Serial Interface
Figure 22-6
SSI Clock Phase and Clock Idle State: Effects on Data
PIOx
SSI_DI
SSI_DO
SSI_CLK
PHS_INV_ENB=0
CLK_INV_ENB=0
SSI_CLK
PHS_INV_ENB=0
CLK_INV_ENB=1
SSI_CLK
PHS_INV_ENB=1
CLK_INV_ENB=0
SSI_CLK
PHS_INV_ENB=1
CLK_INV_ENB=1
Transaction complete,
three-state SSI_DO
Write
Read
22.5.3.1
4-Bit Read Cycle
A 4-bit operation can be simulated by ignoring four of the eight bits transferred. Figure 22-7
shows an example of a 4-bit read operation.
1. A full-duplex SSI command is executed in non-inverted phase, non-inverted clock, and
MSBF modes.
2. The first four bits on SSI_DO transmit a slave nibble read command.
3. The last four bits on SSI_DO can specify a four-bit NOP command, if they are not ignored
by the slave.
4. The first four bits on SSI_DI are shifted in, but can be ignored by software.
5. The last four bits on SSI_DI are the requested nibble.
6. The SSI transaction is complete one-half the SSI_CLK period after the last read edge.
Figure 22-7
SSI 4-Bit Read Cycle: Full-Duplex, Non-Inverted Phase, Non-Inverted Clock
PIOx
SSI_CLK
SSI_DO
MSB
LSB
SSI_DI
MSB
22-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
LSB
Synchronous Serial Interface
22.5.3.2
Burst, 16-Bit, and 32-Bit Cycles
Burst,16-bit, and 32-bit exchanges can be simulated by multiple 8-bit transactions. There
is at least one CPU clock period idle time between transactions. Additional delay between
each transaction is determined by software. Figure 22-8 shows an example of a 16-bit
operation. Two full-duplex SSI commands are executed to a Microwire-compatible
peripheral.
Figure 22-8
SSI Back-to-Back Transactions for Full-duplex,
Microwire-Compatible Configuration
Command
Command
PIOx
SSI_CLK
SSI_DO
SSI_DI
7
MSB
0
LSB
7
0
MSB
LSB
Transaction
complete
22.5.4
Transaction
complete
Clocking Considerations
The SSI clock is derived from the 33-MHz clock. The CLK_SEL bit in the SSI Control
(SSICTL) register (MMCR offset CD0h) is used to configure the frequency of the SSI clock
(the SSI_CLK pin). The actual bit rate will vary, depending on whether the system is using
a 33.000-MHz or a 33.333-MHz crystal. See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Register Set
Manual, order #22005, for frequency selection.
22.5.5
Interrupts
An interrupt can be generated by the SSI to alert the CPU that a transaction is complete.
1. The interrupt is enabled by writing the TC_INT_ENB bit to a 1 in the SSI Control (SSICTL)
register.
2. When a transaction is complete, the BSY bit is cleared to a 0 in the SSI Status (SSISTA)
register (MMCR offset CD3h), the SSI Transaction Complete Interrupt (TC_INT) bit is
set to a 1 in the SSI Status (SSISTA) register, and an interrupt may be sent.
3. Hardware updates the SSI Status (SSISTA) register one-half an SSI clock period after
the last receive edge of a transaction (or one full SSI clock period after the last transmit
edge of a transaction, indicating that the SSI is again non-busy.
4. A 1 should be written back to the TC_INT bit to clear the bit and acknowledge the
interrupt; writing a 0 has no effect.
If the interrupt is not enabled, the SSI Status (SSISTA) register can be polled to periodically
read the BSY bit. BSY is set to a 1 when the SSI Command (SSICMD) register is loaded.
The TC_INT and BSY bit values for non-inverted and inverted phase modes are shown in
Figure 22-9.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
22-7
Synchronous Serial Interface
Figure 22-9
SSI Timing: TC_INT and BSY_STA Bits
Write 1 to TC_INT
Write 1 to TC_INT
TC_INT=0
TC_INT=0
BSY=0
TC_INT=1
Write SSI command
BSY=1
BSY=0
TC_INT=1
Write 1 to TC_INT
TC_INT=0
Write SSI command
BSY=1
BSY=0
TC_INT=1
SSI_CLK
PHS_INV_ENB=0
CLK_INV_ENB=0
SSI_CLK
PHS_INV_ENB=1
CLK_INV_ENB=1
22.5.6
Software Considerations
A slave should be enabled (if necessary) before a transmit or receive transaction is initiated
and disabled after the transaction is complete. Software is responsible for controlling PIOs
to implement chip enable signals, including setup and hold time specifications. These pins
do not have associated SSI hardware functionality. See Chapter 23, “Programmable Input/
Output”, for descriptions of these pins.
Unreliable operation will occur if the configuration is modified or a second SSI command
is written during an active operation. Writes to the SSI Transmit (SSIXMIT) register, SSI
Control (SSICTL) register, and SSI Command (SSICMD) register should not be performed
while the SSI is busy. Software should load the SSI Transmit (SSIXMIT) register (if
necessary) before writing an SSI command. The SSI Receive (SSIRCV) register (MMCR
offset CD4h) should not be read until a receive transaction is complete.
22.6
INITIALIZATION
The SSI port is disabled during system reset, and all SSI register bits are initialized to 0.
The SSI is enabled after reset, but inactive until an SSI command is executed. Some or all
of the following steps should be taken to initiate an SSI transaction.
1. Enable/disable CPU transaction complete interrupt via the TC_INT_ENB bit in the SSI
Control (SSICTL) register.
2. Enable/disable inverted phase mode via the PHS_INV_ENB bit in the SSI Control
(SSICTL) register (MMCR offset CD0h).
3. Enable/disable inverted clock mode via the CLK_INV_ENB bit in the SSI Control
(SSICTL) register.
4. Enable/disable MSBF mode via the MSBF_ENB bit in the SSI Control (SSICTL) register.
5. Select SSI clock speed via the CLK_SEL bits in the SSI Control (SSICTL) register.
6. Enable/disable device enable pins using PIOs.
7. Write output data to the SSI Transmit (SSIXMIT) register (MMCR offset CD1h).
8. Write an SSI command to the SSI Command (SSICMD) register (MMCR offset CD2h).
9. Wait for a transaction complete interrupt or poll the SSI Status (SSISTA) register (MMCR
offset CD3h) to read BSY bit for port activity status, if the interrupt is disabled.
10.Read input data from the SSI Receive (SSIRCV) register (MMCR offset CD4h).
11.Write a 1 to the TC_INT bit in the SSI Status (SSISTA) register to clear bit and
acknowledge the interrupt, if enabled.
22-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
23
23.1
PROGRAMMABLE INPUT/OUTPUT
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports 32 programmable I/O signals (PIOs) that can be
used on the system board to monitor signals or control devices that are not handled by the
other functions in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. These signals can be programmed to be
inputs or to be driven out High or Low as outputs.
The PIO signals can be programmed for the following functions:
■ Read as inputs (default condition after reset)
■ Driven High or Low as an output
On the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller, all of the PIOs are shared with other functions that may
not be needed in every system design, e.g., GP bus signals. This is done to give system
designers the most flexibility. For clarity, throughout this document, the two functions
available on the PIO pins are distinguished from each other as the PIO function and the
interface function.
Each of the PIO signals is terminated within the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller with either a
pullup or pulldown resistance. This feature makes system design easier by eliminating the
need for termination on the board. Each PIO signal is terminated according to the pin’s
interface function, i.e., a normally active Low signal will usually have a pullup to make it
inactive on reset. See the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller Data Sheet, order #22003, for the
termination of each PIO signal.
23.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 23-1 is a block diagram of the PIO feature. This structure is repeated for each of the
PIOs; only one example PIO is shown in the diagram.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
23-1
Programmable Input/Output
Figure 23-1
PIO Signal Block Diagram
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Interface
Function
Gate
VCC_IO
50–150 K
PIO
Data
Register
PIOx
50–150 K
PIO
Direction
Register
Interface
Function
PIO
Pin Function
Select
Register
S
PIO Set
Register
Logic
PIO Clear
Register
Notes:
A PIO has either a pullup or pulldown resistor, but not both.
23.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
Because most of the PIOs share pins with other functions, designers are usually constrained
in choosing which PIO pins to use in their system designs (i.e., they may need the interface
function on their board). Choosing between PIOs and interface functions is done on a PIO
basis in the two PIOx Pin Function Select registers, as shown in Table 23-1. When enabled,
the multiplexed signals shown in Table 23-1 either disable or alter any other function that
uses the same pin.
Note: All PIOs are terminated by either pullup or pulldown resistors (depending on interface
function’s needs). The pullup and pulldown resistors are approximately 100–150 ohms. The
termination of the pin should be considered when deciding which PIO to use. For example,
if a PIO that is pulled down by default is to be used for a chip select, the internal pulldown
will have to be overridden by a stronger external pullup resistor, or else the external device
will have its chip select active at reset.
23-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Input/Output
After the assertion of PWRGOOD, all PIO signals default to be inputs with pullup or pulldown
resistive termination, as shown in Table 23-1. The signals must be programmed before
using them as outputs or the alternate interface function. See “Initialization” on page 23-6.
Table 23-1
PIO Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
PIO
(Default)
Function
Interface
Function
Pin Configuration
Following
System Reset
Control Bit
Register
PIO31
RIN2
input with pullup
PIO31_FNC
PIO30
DCD2
input with pullup
PIO30_FNC
PIO29
DSR2
input with pullup
PIO29_FNC
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS31_16) register
(MMCR offset C22h)
PIO28
CTS2
input with pullup
PIO28_FNC
PIO27
GPCS0
input with pullup
PIO27_FNC
PIO26
GPMEMCS16
input with pullup
PIO26_FNC
PIO25
GPIOCS16
input with pullup
PIO25_FNC
PIO24
GPDBUFOE
input with pullup
PIO24_FNC
PIO23
GPIRQ0
input with pullup
PIO23_FNC
PIO22
GPIRQ1
input with pullup
PIO22_FNC
PIO21
GPIRQ2
input with pullup
PIO21_FNC
PIO20
GPIRQ3
input with pullup
PIO20_FNC
PIO19
GPIRQ4
input with pullup
PIO19_FNC
PIO18
GPIRQ5
input with pullup
PIO18_FNC
PIO17
GPIRQ6
input with pullup
PIO17_FNC
PIO16
GPIRQ7
input with pullup
PIO16_FNC
PIO15
GPIRQ8
input with pullup
PIO15_FNC
PIO14
GPIRQ9
input with pullup
PIO14_FNC
PIO13
GPIRQ10
input with pullup
PIO13_FNC
PIO12
GPDACK0
input with pullup
PIO12_FNC
PIO11
GPDACK1
input with pullup
PIO11_FNC
PIO10
GPDACK2
input with pullup
PIO10_FNC
PIO9
GPDACK3
input with pullup
PIO9_FNC
PIO8
GPDRQ0
input with pulldown
PIO8_FNC
PIO7
GPDRQ1
input with pulldown
PIO7_FNC
PIO6
GPDRQ2
input with pulldown
PIO6_FNC
PIO5
GPDRQ3
input with pulldown
PIO5_FNC
PIO4
GPTC
input with pullup
PIO4_FNC
PIO3
GPAEN
input with pullup
PIO3_FNC
PIO2
GPRDY
input with pullup
PIO2_FNC
PIO1
GPBHE
input with pullup
PIO1_FNC
PIO0
GPALE
input with pullup
PIO0_FNC
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS15_0) register
(MMCR offset C20h)
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
23-3
Programmable Input/Output
23.4
REGISTERS
A summary listing of the memory-mapped configuration registers used to control the PIO
signals is shown in Table 23-2.
Table 23-2
PIO Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS15_0
C20h
PIO15–PIO0 or interface function select:
GPIRQ10–GPIRQ8, GPDACK3–GPDACK0,
GPDRQ3–GPDRQ3, GPTC, GPAEN, GPRDY,
GPBHE, GPALE
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function
Select
PIOPFS31_16
C22h
PIO31–PIO16 or interface function select: RIN2,
DCD2, DSR2, CTS2, GPCS0, GPMEMCS16,
GPIOCS16, GPDBUFOE, GPIRQ7–GPIRQ0
Chip Select Pin Function
Select
CSPFS
C24h
GPCS7–GPCS1 or alternate function select:
TMROUTx, TMRINx, PITGATE2, ROMCS2,
ROMCS1
Clock Select
CLKSEL
C26h
CLKTIMER[CLKTEST] pin enable, clock output
select options (18.432 MHz or 1.8432 MHz
UART, PLL1, PLL2, PIT, and RTC), CLKTIMER
or CLKTEST select
Drive Strength Control
DSCTL
C28h
I/O pad drive strength for SCS3–SCS0,
SRASA–SRASB, SCASA–SCASB, SWEA–
SWEB, SDQM3–SDQM0, MA12–MA0, MD31–
MD0, MECC6–MECC0.
PIO15–PIO0 Direction
PIODIR15_0
C2Ah
PIO15–PIO0 as input or output
PIO31–PIO16 Direction
PIODIR31_16
C2Ch
PIO31–PIO16 as input or output
PIO15–PIO0 Data
PIODATA15_0
C30h
Read/write directly the state of the PIO15–PIO0
pin
PIO31–PIO16 Data
PIODATA31_16
C32h
Read/write directly the state of the PIO31–
PIO16 pin
PIO15–PIO0 Set
PIOSET15_0
C34h
Drive PIO15–PIO0 output High
PIO31–PIO16 Set
PIOSET31_16
C36h
Drive PIO31–PIO16 output High
PIO15–PIO0 Clear
PIOCLR15_0
C38h
Drive PIO15–PIO0 output Low
PIO31–PIO16 Clear
PIOCLR31_16
C3Ah
Drive PIO31–PIO16 output Low
23.5
Function
OPERATION
All PIO signal pins can be programmed as inputs, outputs, or to support their interface
function (e.g., GP bus signals). They are enabled as PIO inputs at power-on reset, with
built-in pullup or pulldown resistors.
As inputs, PIOs are used by software to monitor signals from other devices. They provide
a path to bring signals into the chip that are not available through the other interfaces.
As outputs, the PIOs provide the ability for software to control external devices with signals
that can be driven High or Low.
23-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Programmable Input/Output
23.5.1
Configuration Information
23.5.1.1
PIO Pins and Simple Input
PIO pins are selected for simple input when the system powers up. The input value of the
pins can be read using the PIOx Data registers.
Only two actions disable simple input on the PIO pin:
■ Selecting the pin’s interface function
■ Setting the PIO’s PIOx_DIR bit in the PIOx Direction register to configure the PIO as an
output
23.5.1.2
PIO Pins and Simple Output
If the PIO pin's interface function has not been selected, and the PIOx_DIR is set, the PIO
will be an output. The value of the pin can be set by writing to its bit in the PIOx Set and
PIOx Clear registers, or by using the appropriate PIOx Data register.
23.5.2
Software Considerations
Table 23-3 summarizes the register settings required to configure the PIOs.
Table 23-3
PIO Configuration Summary
Function
Select
Register
Bit
Direction
Register
Bit
Data
Register
Bit
(Writes)
1
X2
X
0
0
0
Set
Register
Bit
Data
Register
Bit
Clear
Register
Bit
(Reads)1
X
X
?3
The pin is not a PIO; it uses its interface function. The
value of the pin can be read at the Data bit, but writes to
the Direction, Data, Set, and Clear bits have no effect.
X
X
X
?
The PIO is an input. The state of the pin can be read at
the Data bit. Writes to the Data, Set and Clear bits have
no effect.
1
X
X
14
0
The PIO is an output. The 1 that is written to the Clear bit
causes this PIO pin to be driven Low. The state of the pin
can be read at the Data bit, (in this case the pin is Low).
0
1
X
1
X
1
The PIO is an output. The 1 that is written to the Set bit
causes this PIO pin to be driven High. The state of the pin
can be read at the Data bit, (in this case the pin is High).
0
1
0
X
X
0
The PIO is an output. The 0 that is written to the Data bit
causes this PIO pin to be driven Low. The state of the pin
can be read at the Data bit, (in this case the pin is Low).
0
1
1
X
X
1
The PIO is an output. The 1 that is written to the Data bit
causes this PIO pin to be driven High. The state of the pin
can be read at the Data bit, (in this case the pin is High).
Resulting Programmable I/O Pin Function
Notes:
1. The Data Register Bit (Reads) column shows the resulting state of the Data register bit and the corresponding
PIO pin.
2. X = Not used in this operation.
3. ? = Input value. (The Data register bit state always reflects the corresponding pin state, whether input or output.)
4. For a particular PIO output operation, only one of the pin’s Data, Set, or Clear bits can be used. The state of the
unused bits is not important, but subsequent writes to these bits can change the PIO pin state.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
23-5
Programmable Input/Output
Note that although the registers to set, clear, and read the PIO pins can be accessed with
32-bit instructions, 32-bit accesses are split into two 16-bit accesses. This means, for
example, that it is impossible to simultaneously set PIO5 and PIO18. Similarly, it is
impossible to sample the state of PIO12 and PIO23 simultaneously; the 32-bit value
returned by the instruction contains two 16-bit values sampled at different times. For 32-bit
operations, the lower 16-bit word (for PIO31–PIO16) is always accessed before the upper
16-bit word (for PIO15–PIO0). The time between the two accesses is indeterminate and
based on other masters besides the CPU trying to access the bus.
23.6
INITIALIZATION
After a system reset, all of the PIO31–PIO0 signals default to be inputs with pullup or
pulldown resistive termination. The signals must be programmed before using them as
outputs or the alternate interface function.
To initialize the PIOx signals, the following steps are required:
1. Based on the specific application, determine which ÉlanSC520 microcontroller pins can
utilize the PIO function and which should be programmed as the interface function.
2. Program the PIOx Pin Function Select registers to select between the PIO function and
the interface function of each of the PIO31–PIO0 pins.
3. For pins specified as using the PIO functionality, define the PIO direction by programming
the PIOx Direction registers.
4. PIO pins that are defined as inputs can now be read via the PIOx Data registers.
5. PIO pins defined as outputs can now be written via the PIOx Data, PIOx Set, or PIOx
Clear registers.
23-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
24
24.1
SYSTEM TEST AND DEBUGGING
OVERVIEW
This chapter describes various system-level test features included in the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. These features are useful for debugging hardware and software in an
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller-based system. Some of the system-level debugging features
are useful in conjunction with the AMDebug interface for software debugging. This
functionality is described in Chapter 26, “AMDebug™ Technology”.
The list below summarizes the functionality that has been included in the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller to facilitate system-level debugging.
■ A simple three-pin interface to aid in-circuit emulation tools with tracing external bus
activity
■ A write buffer test mode to assist in determining which bus masters contributed to the
current active write buffer write cycle on the SDRAM interface
■ A nonconcurrent arbitration mode that reduces the complexity of system transactions
when the Am5x86 CPU or PCI bus masters or GP-DMA cycles occur simultaneously
■ Echoing internal cycles and read data on the GP bus during Am5x86 CPU accesses of
internal integrated peripherals
■ Disabling the Am5x86 CPU’s integrated cache controller, controlling the cache write
policy, and specifying noncacheable memory regions
■ Controlling the clock speed of the Am5x86 CPU’s internal core
■ Disabling the SDRAM read buffer and write buffer
■ Ability to interrupt the Am5x86 CPU when an illegal memory write occurs to a write-
protected memory region, or to cause an exception when a code fetch occurs from data
memory
■ Ability to identify the source of a reset event
■ Ability to trace Error Correcting Code (ECC) errors for testing
■ Ability to override the ECC syndrome code
24.2
SYSTEM DESIGN
As shown in Table 24-1, three debugging pins on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller operate
as either CF_DRAM, DATASTRB, and CF_ROM_GPCS, or WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0,
depending on if the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller has been configured for system test mode
(default) or write buffer test mode.
The CFG2–CFG0 pinstrap functions associated with these three pins are sampled only as
a result of PWRGOOD assertion and do not affect the other functions of these pins, so they
are not shown in this table. When enabled, the multiplexed signals shown in Table 24-1
either disable or alter any other function that uses the same pin.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
24-1
System Test and Debugging
Table 24-1
24.2.1
System Test and Debugging Signals Shared with Other Interfaces
Default Signal
Alternate Function Control Bit
Register
CF_ROM_GPCS
WBMSTR0
DATASTRB
WBMSTR1
SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register
(MMCR offset 10h)
CF_DRAM
WBMSTR2
WB_TST_ENB
Loading
When a logic analyzer is connected to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller pins, it presents an
additional load that must be taken into consideration on critical buses, such as the SDRAM
interface. Extreme care must be taken when connecting to either the SDRAM clock or the
PCI bus clock. When external clock drivers are used on the system circuit board, it may be
best to connect to the output of a lightly loaded or unused clock driver.
24.3
REGISTERS
Table 24-2 lists the memory-mapped registers that are used to control the system-level
debugging features.
Table 24-2
System Test and Debugging Registers—Memory-Mapped
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Am5x86 CPU Control
CPUCTL
02h
CPU cache mode select (write-through or writeback), CPU clock speed
SDRAM Control
DRCCTL
10h
System test mode (CF_DRAM, DATASTRB, and
CF_ROM_GPCS), write buffer test mode
(WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0) enable
ECC Check Code Test
ECCCKTEST
23h
ECC check code override for test and error
handler development
ECC Single-Bit Error Address ECCSBAD
24h
Physical address of the location in SDRAM that
caused a single-bit ECC error
ECC Multi-Bit Error Address
ECCMBADD
28h
Physical address of the location in SDRAM that
caused a multi-bit ECC error
SDRAM Buffer Control
DBCTL
40h
Write buffer functions: write buffer enable, readahead enable, write buffer watermark, write
buffer flush.
System Arbiter Control
SYSARBCTL
70h
System arbitration concurrency mode enable
Address Decode Control
ADDDECCTL
80h
Write-protect violation interrupt enable
Programmable Address
Region x
PAR0–PAR15
88–C4h
Set noncacheable, write-protected, and nonexecutable memory regions
GP Echo Mode
GPECHO
C00h
Echo mode enable for monitoring integrated
peripheral accesses on GP bus
Reset Configuration
RESCFG
D72h
AMDebug mode enable
24-2
Function
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Test and Debugging
Table 24-2
System Test and Debugging Registers—Memory-Mapped (Continued)
Register
Mnemonic
MMCR
Offset
Address
Reset Status
RESSTA
D74h
24.4
Function
Reset source status: SCP reset, AMDebug hard
reset detect, AMDebug system reset, watchdog
timer time-out, CPU shutdown (soft reset),
PRGRESET pin, and PWRGOOD pin
OPERATION
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides several features that are useful in a lab
environment for system-level debugging of both hardware and software. These features
can be used in conjunction with an in-circuit emulation system, but can also be used
independently to simplify some debugging activities. Many features are expected to be used
with a logic analyzer to capture system transaction information. These distinct system-level
debugging features are described in the separate sections of this chapter.
The three-pin debugging interface is a particularly useful feature of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller. This interface operates in two different modes:
■ System test mode
■ Write buffer test mode
24.4.1
System Test Mode
System test mode is the primary use of the three-pin interface, which enables the pins to
be monitored with a logic analyzer or external in-circuit emulation system hardware to gain
important knowledge of current Am5x86 CPU cycles.
System test mode is used primarily to differentiate Am5x86 CPU code fetches from normal
memory read cycles on the SDRAM and ROM/Flash or GP bus interface. A signal
(DATASTRB) is also provided to identify when the data on the SDRAM data bus is valid.
This signal is used primarily by in-circuit emulation tools for capturing SDRAM data when
monitoring this interface.
System test mode is enabled by clearing the WB_TST_ENB bit in the SDRAM Control
(DRCCTL) register (MMCR offset 10h). System test mode is the default test mode on the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller. The multiplexed debugging signals then operate as described
in Section 24.4.1.1.
24.4.1.1
Pin Functions in System Test Mode
24.4.1.1.1
CF_DRAM
During SDRAM read cycles, the CF_DRAM signal provides code fetch status.
■ When Low, if DATASTRB is active in the current cycle, this signal indicates that the
current SDRAM read is a CPU code fetch demanded by the CPU, or a read prefetch
initiated due to a demand code fetch by the CPU.
■ When High, this signal indicates that the SDRAM read is not a code fetch, and it could
have been initiated by the CPU, PCI master, or the GP-DMA controller, either demand
or prefetch.
During SDRAM write cycles, the CF_DRAM signal provides an indication of the source of
the data, either GP-DMA controller/PCI bus master, or CPU.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
24-3
System Test and Debugging
■ When High, this signal indicates that either a GP-DMA initiator or an external PCI bus
master contributed to the current SDRAM write cycle (the CPU may also have
contributed).
■ A Low indicates that the CPU is the only master that contributed to this write cycle.
24.4.1.1.2
DATASTRB
The DATASTRB signal is useful for the external in-circuit emulation system to latch data
from the SDRAM interface, regardless of the programmed SDRAM timing.
■ When Low, data on the SDRAM data bus is invalid.
■ When High, data on the SDRAM data bus can be latched on the next rising edge of the
CLKMEMIN signal.
24.4.1.1.3
CF_ROM_GPCS
The CF_ROM_GPCS signal can be sampled on the Low-to-High transition of the ROMRD
signal during ROM/Flash cycles or during the Low-to-High transition of GPMEMRD for
GPCS7–GPCS0 cycles.
■ The CF_ROM_GPCD signal should be sampled only when either GPMEMRD or
ROMRD is asserted.
■ When Low under these conditions, this signal indicates that the CPU is performing a
code fetch from ROM (on either the GP bus or SDRAM interface) or a GP bus memory
device.
24.4.1.2
Using the System Test Mode Interface
The system test mode interface is useful for tracing Am5x86 CPU activity on the SDRAM
and GP bus interfaces, including when the Am5x86 CPU is the initiator, when the data is
valid during SDRAM read and write cycles, and differentiating between code fetches and
data accesses. This still requires demultiplexing the BA1–BA0 and MA12–MA0 SDRAM
address bus to construct a full 28-bit address, which also requires knowledge of the
programming of some of the SDRAM controller configuration registers for device size and
symmetry. Since a data strobe is provided on the WBMSTR1 pin in this mode, detailed
knowledge of the programming of the SDRAM timing is not required. See Chapter 10,
“SDRAM Controller”, for details of SDRAM cycle timing and address multiplexing.
The CF_DRAM and CF_ROM_GPCS signals enable external determination of code fetches
from SDRAM, ROM/Flash, or any GP bus memory device. Prefetches from the SDRAM
controller’s read buffer can also be identified.
24.4.1.3
SDRAM Write Cycle in System Test Mode
Figure 24-1 illustrates the timing of a page hit SDRAM write cycle during system test mode.
To capture the CF_DRAM, BA1–BA0, MA12–MA0, and MD31–MD0 signals, the logic
analyzer or external in-circuit emulation system can use the DATASTRB signal to identify
the appropriate time to latch the information. This information must be captured on the
rising edge of CLKMEMIN when DATASTRB is sampled active. Note that DATASTRB is not
asserted during the read portion of a read-modify-write cycle that occurs for sub-doubleword
writes with ECC enabled.
24-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Test and Debugging
Figure 24-1
System Test Mode Timing During a SDRAM Write Cycle (Page Hit)
CLKMEMIN
BA1–BA0
MA12–MA0
Col
Command
Nop
Wr
MD31–MD0
Nop
a
DATASTRB
CF_DRAM
Valid on this clock edge
24.4.1.4
SDRAM Read Cycle in System Test Mode
Figure 24-2 illustrates the timing of a page miss SDRAM read cycle (with a CAS Latency
of 2) during system test mode. To capture the CF_DRAM, BA1–BA0, MA12–MA0, and
MD31–MD0 signals, the logic analyzer or external in-circuit emulation system can use the
DATASTRB signal to identify the appropriate time to latch the information. This information
must be captured on the rising edge of CLKMEMIN when DATASTRB is sampled active.
The CAS latency timing is configured in the SDRAM Timing Control (DRCTMCTL) register
(MMCR offset 12h). The BA1–BA0 and MA12–MA0 bus can be used to determine the
physical address generated by the requesting master.
Figure 24-2
System Test Mode Timing During an SDRAM Read Cycle (Page Miss)
CLKMEMIN
BA1–BA0
MA12–MA0
Row
Command
Act
MD31–MD0
Col
Nop
Rd
Nop
Nop
a
b
c
d
DATASTRB
CF_DRAM
Notes:
CAS latency is 2.
24.4.1.5
Tracing Transactions on the ROM Interface
Tracing transactions on the ROM interface requires only the CF_ROM_GPCS signal if it is
desired to differentiate code fetches from memory read cycles. Only the Am5x86 CPU can
be the initiator of ROM accesses. The address bus is non-multiplexed, and thus can be
read directly from the GPA25–GPA0 pins during ROM/Flash cycles. The system
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
24-5
System Test and Debugging
configuration of the ROM array must be known, because the ROM data bus can be
connected to either the SDRAM interface data pins (MD31–MD0), or the GP bus interface
data pins (GPD15–GP0). Also, the timing of the ROM cycle will vary, depending on the
device that has been connected to each of the ROM chip selects and the programming of
the ROM controller configuration registers. The following pins can be monitored to trace
transactions on the ROM interface:
■ CF_ROM_GPCS if it is necessary to identify code fetches
■ GPA25±GPA0 ROM non-multiplexed address bus
■ GPD15±GPD0 ROM data bus, or MD31±MD0 SDRAM data bus, depending on the
programming of the ROM controller configuration registers
■ ROM chip selects BOOTCS, and optionally ROMCS1 and ROMCS2
■ ROMRD, FLASHWR control signals
See Chapter 12, “ROM/Flash Controller”, for further details of ROM interface signals and
timing to determine the appropriate time when the address and data pins are valid.
24.4.1.6
Tracing Transactions on the GP Bus Interface
Capturing transactions on the GP bus interface requires only the CF_ROM_GPCS signal
if it is desired to differentiate code fetches from memory read cycles. However, some further
signal qualification is required to filter out GP-DMA transactions from Am5x86 CPU cycles.
PCI bus masters are not permitted to initiate cycles on the GP bus. The signals required
to trace cycles on the GP bus will vary depending on the type of slave devices connected
externally.
Note that due to performance limitations of the GP bus, it is highly recommended that code
execution from this bus be avoided.
The GPAEN signal must be monitored by the GP bus devices when GP-DMA initiators are
connected on the GP bus to prevent address decoding during GP-DMA cycles. GP bus
control signals asserted when the GPAEN signal is active (High) are controlling a read or
write of a GP-DMA initiator, and the address on the GPA25±GPA0 pins are invalid. GPAEN
is also driven active during internally echoed cycles to prevent address decoding by GP
bus devices.
Since the GP bus supports several different cycle types, dynamic bus sizing, and timing
control, there are numerous signals that may be required for adequate tracing of GP bus
transactions. The following list summarizes the various signals that should be considered
for such tracing.
■ CF_ROM_GPCS if it is necessary to identify code fetches
■ GPA25±GPA0 non-multiplexed address bus
■ GPD7±GPD0 data bus for 8-bit cycles, or GPD15±GPD0 for 16-bit cycles
■ GP bus chip selects, multiplexed on ROMCS1 or ROMCS2, or PIO pins
■ GPALE, GPIORD/GPMEMRD, GPIOWR/GPMEMWR, GPAEN control signals
■ GPRDY signal for devices that dynamically stretch GP bus cycles
■ GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16 for devices that dynamically identify the bus width of the
target device’s cycle
See Chapter 13, “General-Purpose Bus Controller”, for details of cycle timing.
24-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Test and Debugging
24.4.2
Write Buffer Test Mode
Write buffer test mode identifies which bus owners (Am5x86 CPU, PCI bus master, or GPDMA controller) have contributed to the current SDRAM write cycle, and which bus owner
is requesting the current SDRAM read cycle.
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller implements a 32-rank First-In-First-Out (FIFO) write buffer
for improved memory performance. The write buffer also supports write merging and write
collapsing. Therefore, each of the 32-bit ranks and each byte within the rank can be written
by either the Am5x86 CPU, PCI bus masters, or the GP-DMA controller. For example, byte
0 and byte 1 of a write buffer rank can be written by the Am5x86 CPU, byte 2 of the same
rank can be written by a PCI bus master, and byte 3 of the same rank can be written by the
GP-DMA controller.
Although this will result in improved performance of the SDRAM subsystem, it can be
confusing when attempting system debugging with a logic analyzer, because it is impossible
to identify the source of SDRAM write cycles from the normal SDRAM interface alone. (For
more information on the write buffer, see Chapter 11, “Write Buffer and Read Buffer”.)
When write buffer test mode is enabled via the WB_TST_ENB bit in the SDRAM Control
(DRCCTL) register (MMCR offset 10h), the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins indicate whether
the Am5x86 CPU, PCI bus master, GP-DMA controller, or a combination of these has written
into a particular rank of the write buffer.
24.4.2.1
Using the Write Buffer Test Mode Interface
Sampling the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins for write buffer debugging requires external
decoding of the SDRAM interface signals to determine when write cycles are occurring on
the SDRAM interface. To provide useful information about the cycle, the BA1–BA0 and
MA12–MA0 SDRAM address bus must be demultiplexed to provide the full 28-bit memory
address, and the SRASx, SCASx, and SWEx command signals must be sampled to
differentiate reads, writes, refresh cycles, etc.
Figure 24-3 shows WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 timing during a SDRAM write cycle. The trace
information is available one clock before the clock edge where the command is driven to
the SDRAM. This guarantees sufficient setup so the trace information can be captured on
the clock edge where the SDRAM command is sampled. It is the responsibility of the
monitoring equipment to capture the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 trace signals information at
the appropriate time and cycle type. This can be accomplished by monitoring the SDRAM
interface pins and decoding the SDRAM cycle type for the programmed SDRAM timing.
See Chapter 10, “SDRAM Controller”, for details on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s
address multiplexing scheme and SDRAM timing and signaling.
Determining when the data is valid during SDRAM read cycles requires knowledge of the
SDRAM timing configuration, such as CAS latency, etc. See “SDRAM Read Cycle in Write
Buffer Test Mode” on page 24-8. For writes, the data is available at the time of the write.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
24-7
System Test and Debugging
24.4.2.2
SDRAM Write Cycle in Write Buffer Test Mode
Table 24-3 describes the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 decoding during an SDRAM write
operation.
Table 24-3
WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 Pin Definition During Write Buffer Write Cycles
WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 Pins
Am5x86 CPU
PCI
Bus Master
GP-DMA
Controller
0
0
0
Reserved
0
0
1
GP-DMA contributed write data
0
1
0
PCI master contributed write data
0
1
1
PCI master and GP-DMA contributed write data
1
0
0
Am5x86 CPU contributed write data
1
0
1
Am5x86 CPU and GP-DMA contributed write data
1
1
0
Am5x86 CPU and PCI master contributed write
data
1
1
1
All masters contributed write data
Description
Figure 24-3 illustrates the timing of an example of a page hit SDRAM write cycle during
write buffer test mode. To capture the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins, the logic analyzer or
external in-circuit emulation system must decode the SDRAM command and latch the
WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pin on the rising edge of CLKMEMIN.
Figure 24-3
Write Buffer Test Mode Timing During an SDRAM Write Cycle (Page Hit)
CLKMEMIN
BA1–BA0
MA12–MA0
Command
Wr
Nop
Nop
MD31–MD0
Sample WBMSTRx pins here
WBMSTR2–
WBMSTR0
24.4.2.3
SDRAM Read Cycle in Write Buffer Test Mode
During read operations, the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins can be used to determine which
master is performing the current SDRAM read cycle. Although more than one of these
sources may have written to a given rank in the write buffer, only one initiator can read a
rank at any given time.
Table 24-4 describes the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins during a SDRAM read operation in
write buffer test mode. Note that SDRAM read cycles can occur with more than one of the
WBMSTR2±WBMST0 signals active during the read portion of a read-modify-write cycle.
24-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Test and Debugging
In this case, the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins represent which bus initiators contributed to
the rank of the write buffer that is being written to SDRAM.
Table 24-4
WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 Pin Definition During SDRAM Read Cycles
WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 Pins
PCI
Bus Master
Am5x86 CPU
GP-DMA
Controller
Description
0
0
0
Read prefetch cycle (No master requested
read cycle)
0
0
1
GP-DMA is current read master
0
1
0
PCI master is current read master
0
1
1
Reserved
1
0
0
Am5x86 CPU is current read master
1
0
1
Reserved
1
1
0
Reserved
1
1
1
Reserved
Figure 24-4 illustrates the timing of a page miss SDRAM read cycle (with a CAS latency of
2) during write buffer test mode. To capture the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins during a read
cycle, the logic analyzer or external in-circuit emulation system must decode the SDRAM
read command and delay latching the WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 pins until the appropriate
CAS latency timing is met. WBMSTR2±WBMSTR0 are captured on the rising edge of
CLKMEMIN. The CAS latency timing is configured in the SDRAM Timing Control
(DRCTMCTL) register (MMCR offset 12h). The MA12–MA0 and BA1–BA0 signals can be
used to determine the physical address generated by the requesting master.
Figure 24-4
Write Buffer Test Mode Timing During a SDRAM Read Cycle (Page Miss)
CLKMEMIN
BA1–BA0
MA12–MA0
Command
MD31–MD0
Row
Act
Col
Nop
Rd
Nop
Nop
a
WBMSTR2–
WBMSTR0
b
c
d
CPU
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
24-9
System Test and Debugging
24.4.3
Other Debugging Features on the Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
24.4.3.1
Nonconcurrent Arbitration Mode
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s system arbitration is comprised of an Am5x86 CPU bus
arbiter and a PCI bus arbiter, which enables concurrent mode operation. In the concurrent
arbitration mode, transactions on the Am5x86 CPU bus and the PCI bus can occur
simultaneously. For example, a peer-to-peer PCI bus transaction can occur simultaneously
with an Am5x86 CPU transaction. The advantage of this mode is the optimal utilization of
the two buses. However, this can be confusing when attempting system debugging, because
it is difficult to trace bus activity with concurrency. Also, some system bugs can be traced
back to improper configuration during concurrent arbitration mode while both the Am5x86
CPU and external PCI bus masters are active. This occurs, for example, when the Am5x86
CPU is modifying configuration registers such as address decode registers that affect PCI
bus master operation. In this case, using nonconcurrent arbitration mode instead can assist
in tracing these problems.
At system initialization, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller boots up in the nonconcurrent
arbitration mode until the CNCR_MODE_ENB bit in the System Arbiter Control
(SYSARBCTL) register (MMCR offset 70h) is set. For debugging purposes, it can be useful
to omit this step and remain in nonconcurrent arbitration mode. For more details, see
Chapter 8, “System Arbitration”.
24.4.3.2
Echoing Integrated Peripheral Accesses on the GP Bus
All accesses from the Am5x86 CPU to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s integrated
peripherals are not externally visible, but can optionally be directly monitored on the GP
bus using GP bus echo mode. If required, a logic analyzer can be connected to the GP bus
to monitor and debug the transactions. When the GP_ECHO_ENB bit is set in the GP Echo
Mode (GPECHO) register (MMCR offset C00h), accesses to the GP-DMA controller, RTC,
internal timers, PIC, UARTs, and PIOs are echoed externally on the GP bus. During reads,
the data from the peripheral is also driven on the GP bus data lines, GPD15–GPD0.
24.4.3.3
Summary of Additional System Debugging Features
There are additional features in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller that are not included
specifically for system debugging but can be useful during the debugging phase. These
features are described in other chapters, but are summarized below for reference.
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides the ability to control the Am5x86 CPU’s cache
write policy with the Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register (MMCR offset 02h) and
to disable the cache using the CPU’s machine status (CR0) register. This can be useful
in debugging some system problems when cache coherency is a problem or when
visibility of all Am5x86 CPU memory cycles are required externally. See Chapter 7,
“Am5x86® CPU”, for details on cache control.
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides the ability to dynamically control the Am5x86
CPU’s internal clock speed in the Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register. This is
primarily to allow thermal management, but there may be some cases when it is useful
to adjust the clock speed for debugging purposes. See Chapter 7, “Am5x86® CPU”, for
details on clock speed control.
■ The SDRAM controller’s write buffer and read buffer can be disabled by resetting the
WB_ENB bit in the SDRAM Buffer Control (DBCTL) register (MMCR offset 40h). This
can be useful during system debugging, because it prevents queued SDRAM writes and
prefetching on the SDRAM interface that can make it difficult to trace bus activity. See
Chapter 11, “Write Buffer and Read Buffer”, for details on disabling these features.
24-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
System Test and Debugging
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s address decode logic allows notification of violations
of write-protected memory regions, which is useful when debugging a software task that
is illegally attempting to modify a portion of memory modified as write-protected. See
Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”, for further details on enabling this feature.
■ The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s address decode logic also allows notification of
violations of memory regions marked as non-executable address space. This is useful
when debugging a software task that is attempting to execute code from a portion of
memory designated for data only. See Chapter 4, “System Address Mapping”, for further
details on enabling this feature.
■ If the ICE_ON_RST bit is set in the Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register (MMCR
offset D72h), the Am5x86 CPU enters AMDebug mode whenever it is reset (immediately
after the reset sequence). The debugging tool can read the Reset Status (RESSTA)
register (MMCR offset D74h) to identify the source of the reset.
■ The programmable interrupt controller (PIC) supports many features, such as the ability
to mask specific interrupts and to force software interrupts, which can also be useful
during the system debugging phase. See Chapter 15, “Programmable Interrupt
Controller”, for details on configuring interrupts in a system.
■ To assist in the development of software to handle ECC single-bit and multi-bit errors,
the ECC Check Code Test (ECCCKTEST) register (MMCR offset 23h) is provided. This
register can be used to override the automatically-generated ECC check code with a
user-provided check code for the following SDRAM write access.
24.4.4
Software Considerations
The cache should always be flushed after the cacheability attribute for an address range
is changed from cacheable to noncacheable for any memory region (by programming a
PAR register), or when the cache write policy is changed from write-back to write-through.
Software must include proper interrupt service routines and exception handlers when
enabling write-protection violation interrupts and non-executable region attributes in the
Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register (MMCR offset 80h). Note that in the case
of the write-protect violation, the address of the violation is latched in a 32-bit register and
retained until the register is cleared by software; any additional violations that occur before
the register is read will not be seen.
A write-protection violation occurs when the Am5x86 CPU, any PCI bus master, or the GPDMA controller attempt to write to any memory region that has been marked as writeprotected by a PAR register attribute. When this occurs, the cycle is always forwarded to
SDRAM as a write-protected cycle (the SDQM3–SDQM0 pins are forced inactive), and the
original data is discarded.
24.4.5
Latency
Some features described in this chapter to aid the debugging process may affect system
performance, and these effects should therefore be considered when enabling or disabling.
A brief list of the features and their direct affects on latency are listed.
■ Write buffer and system test modes do not affect performance, unless the SDRAM timing
has been programmed at slower speeds to accommodate external capturing of data.
■ Nonconcurrent arbitration affects PCI bus latency, the Am5x86 CPU’s latency, and the
GP-DMA controller’s latency, since ownership of both buses must be negotiated before
any transaction is allowed to begin. The effect in a system with no PCI bus masters or
GP-DMA initiators is much less, because bus acquisition is immediate.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
24-11
System Test and Debugging
■ The Am5x86 CPU’s internal cache can greatly affect system performance.
– When disabled, all Am5x86 CPU operations require an external bus cycle, which yields
significantly less bus bandwidth for PCI bus masters and GP-DMA initiators.
– When configured in write-through cache mode, all Am5x86 CPU write cycles are
forwarded to the Am5x86 CPU bus, whereas in write-back cache mode, they are only
forwarded out of the Am5x86 CPU when a cache miss or write-back/copy-back cycle
occurs. Although write-through cache mode takes much less of the bandwidth away
from PCI bus masters and GP-DMA initiators, it is significantly more than when the
cache is operating in write-back mode.
– When areas of memory are marked as noncacheable in the PAR registers, the
overhead of cache write-backs is reduced, yielding lower latency for all system bus
owners.
■ The internal Am5x86 CPU core clock speed affects overall Am5x86 CPU performance
when the Am5x86 CPU is able to execute from its internal cache. When the cache is
disabled, the effect of a higher core speed is much less, because all operations require
an external bus cycle at the fixed bus speed of 33 MHz.
■ Disabling the write buffer and read buffer may significantly affect performance, depending
on the ordering of reads and writes, and the number of PCI bus masters and the amount
of GP-DMA activity in the system. It is difficult to predict the exact effect of these buffers
on each system, because there are many dependencies. However, it should be noted
that, in some cases, a notable change in system performance will occur. This also
complicates the system debugging process, because the system bus activity profile may
be much different in the two cases.
■ Enabling interrupts for write-protect violation notification (as with all maskable interrupts),
causes a context switch to occur, which naturally imposes a reload of the Interrupt
Descriptor Table and saving the current state of the Am5x86 CPU before servicing the
interrupt. This should not be a long-term problem, because it is expected that the write
violation protection would occur only during the initial debugging phases of system
development.
■ When GP bus echoing is enabled, the access times of the integrated peripherals is
subject to the timing programmed for the external GP bus.
24.5
INITIALIZATION
The state of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller debugging features after system reset is:
■ The WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0 pins default to system test mode, in which they assume the
function of CF_DRAM, DATASTRB, and CF_ROM_GPCS pins respectively.
■ The system arbitration defaults to nonconcurrent arbitration mode operation.
■ Echoing of integrated peripheral accesses is disabled.
■ The Am5x86 CPU’s cache is disabled and configured for write-back cache mode.
■ The Am5x86 CPU default clock speed is 100 MHz.
■ The write buffer and the read buffer are disabled.
■ The write-protection violation interrupt is disabled, and the Programmable Address
Region (PAR) registers are cleared; thus, no write-protect or non-executable memory
regions are defined.
24-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
25
BOUNDARY SCAN TEST INTERFACE
25.1
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides test and debug features compliant with IEEE
Standard Test Access Port (TAP) and Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) (IEEE Std 1149.11990). The test logic is provided to test and ensure that:
■ Components function correctly
■ Interconnections between various components are correct
■ Various components interact correctly on the printed circuit board
25.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 25-1 shows a block diagram of the Boundary Scan register of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
Figure 25-1
Logical Structure of Boundary Scan Register
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller
Boundary Scan Register
BSR
JTAG_TMS
JTAG_TRST
TAP
Control
Controller
JTAG_TCK
B/S
cell
On-Chip
Input pins
B/S
cell
System
Logic
B/S
cell
Bidirectional
pins
B/S
cell
B/S
cell
JTAG_TDI
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Output pins
JTAG_TDO
25-1
Boundary Scan Test Interface
25.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
25.3.1
JTAG Pin Strapping
Designers using JTAG for board continuity testing commonly expect to exercise any pin in
an arbitrary fashion. However, pinstrapping on the GPA25 pin could cause unexpected
behavior. The pinstrap on the GPA25 pin is {DEBUG_ENTER}. If, at the assertion of
PWRGOOD, {DEBUG_ENTER} is High, AMDebug mode will be enabled and the CPU will
not perform as expected. The GPA25{DEBUG_ENTER} pin cannot be High at the assertion
of PWRGOOD if the JTAG port is to be used for continuity testing.
25.4
REGISTERS
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller contains four test data registers: Bypass register, Boundary
Scan register, Device Identification register and Serial Debug Port Data register. A fifth
register, the Instruction register, is used to specify the test to be executed and the data
register to be accessed.
The Bypass register and Boundary Scan register are serially connected to JTAG_TDI and
JTAG_TDO, with JTAG_TDI connected to the most significant bit and JTAG_TDO connected
to the least significant bit of the test data register. Data is shifted one stage (bit position
within the register) on each rising edge of the test clock (JTAG_TCK). Table 25-1 gives a
description of each register. The Serial Debug Port Data register is part of the AMDebug
utility and is physically located in the AMDebug logic. See Chapter 26, “AMDebug™
Technology”, for more information on the AMDebug interface.
Table 25-1
Chip Test and Debugging Registers
Register
Mnemonic
Function
Boundary Scan
BSR
A single shift register path containing the boundary scan cells that are
connected to all input and output pins of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Figure 25-1 shows the logical structure of the Boundary Scan register. Data
is transferred without inversion from JTAG_TDI to JTAG_TDO through the
Boundary Scan register during scanning. The Boundary Scan register is
affected by the EXTEST and SAMPLE/PRELOAD instructions.
Bypass
BPR
Provides a path from JTAG_TDI to JTAG_TDO with one clock cycle
latency.Used to bypass the chip completely while testing boards containing
many chips.
Device Identification
DID
A 32-bit register that contains AMD’s ID code for the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
Serial Debug Port Data SDPD
A 38 bit register that serves as a command/status/data interface with the
Am5x86 CPU processor. Figure 25-2 on page 25-14 shows the format.
Instruction
Determines the test that has to be executed and the data register to access.
25.5
IR
OPERATION
The test and debugging features on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller include the following
elements:
■ Pins—JTAG_TDI, JTAG_TMS, JTAG_TDO, JTAG_TCK and JTAG_TRST. In addition,
there are four pins for the AMDebug utility: CMDACK, BR/TC, STOP/TX, and TRIG/
TRACE.
■ Instruction Register (IR)—The instruction codes select the specific test or debug
operation to be performed and the test data register to be accessed.
25-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
■ Test Data Registers—Boundary Scan (BSR) register, Device Identification (DID)
register, Bypass (BPR) register, and Serial Debug Port Data (SDPD) register.
■ Test Access Port (TAP) controller—State-machine and control logic implementation.
The instruction and test data registers are separate shift-register paths connected in parallel
that have a common serial data input and a common serial data output connected to the
TAP signals, JTAG_TDI and JTAG_TDO, respectively.
25.5.1
Instruction Register
The Instruction register is a 4-bit register that allows instructions to be serially shifted into
the device. The instruction determines the test to be executed and the data register to be
accessed. The least significant bit is nearest the JTAG_TDO output. When the test access
port (TAP) controller is reset, the Instruction register is loaded with the default instruction
IDCODE.
25.5.1.1
Implemented Instructions
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports all three mandatory boundary-scan instructions:
BYPASS, SAMPLE/PRELOAD, and EXTEST, along with three additional instructions:
IDCODE, HIGHZ and DEBUG.
Table 25-2 shows the test access port (TAP) instructions that are supported on the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller.
Table 25-2
Test Access Port Instruction Set
Instruction
25.5.1.1.1
IR3–IR0
EXTEST
0000
SAMPLE/PRELOAD
0001
IDCODE
0010
HIGHZ
0011
Reserved
0100
DEBUG
0101
Reserved
0110–1110
BYPASS
1111
EXTEST Instruction
The instruction code is 0000b. The EXTEST instruction allows testing of circuitry external
to the component package, typically board interconnects. It does so by driving the values
loaded into the microcontroller’s Boundary Scan register out on to the output pins
corresponding to each boundary scan cell. It then captures the values on the
microcontroller’s input pins to be loaded into their corresponding Boundary Scan register
locations. I/O pins are selected as input or output, depending on the value loaded into their
control setting locations in the Boundary Scan register. Values shifted into input latches in
the Boundary Scan register are never used by the internal logic of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
Note: After using the EXTEST instruction, the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller should be reset
before normal (non-boundary scan) use to ensure the state of the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-3
Boundary Scan Test Interface
25.5.1.1.2
SAMPLE/PRELOAD Instruction
The instruction code is 0001b. The SAMPLE/PRELOAD instruction performs two functions.
■ When the TAP controller is in the Capture-DR state, the SAMPLE/PRELOAD instruction
allows a “snapshot” of the normal operation of the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller without
interfering with that normal operation. The instruction causes Boundary Scan register
cells associated with outputs to sample the value being driven by the microcontroller. It
causes the cells associated with inputs to sample the value being driven into the
microcontroller. On both outputs and inputs, the sampling occurs on the rising edge of
JTAG_TCK.
■ When the TAP controller is in the Update-DR state, the SAMPLE/PRELOAD instruction
preloads data to the device pins to be driven to the board by executing the EXTEST
instruction. Data is preloaded to the pins from the Boundary Scan register on the falling
edge of JTAG_TCK.
25.5.1.1.3
IDCODE Instruction
The instruction code is 0010b. The IDCODE instruction selects the Device Identification
register to be connected to JTAG_TDI and JTAG_TDO, allowing the device identification
code to be shifted out of the device on JTAG_TDO. Note that the Device Identification
register is not altered by data being shifted in on JTAG_TDI.
25.5.1.1.4
HIGHZ Instruction
The instruction code is 0011b. The HIGHZ instruction connects the Bypass register between
JTAG_TDI and JTAG_TDO. This instruction forces all outputs to a high-impedance state.
25.5.1.1.5
BYPASS Instruction
The instruction code is 1111b. The BYPASS instruction selects the Bypass register to be
connected to JTAG_TDI or JTAG_TDO, effectively bypassing the test logic on the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller by reducing the shift length of the device to one bit.
Note that an open circuit fault in the board-level test data path causes the Bypass register
to be selected following an instruction scan cycle due to the pullup resistor on the JTAG_TDI
input. This has been done to prevent any unwanted interference with the proper operation
of the system logic. The Instruction register can be accessed when this command is being
executed, because only the Boundary Scan register is affected during this instruction.
25.5.1.1.6
DEBUG Instruction
The instruction code is 0101. The DEBUG instruction enables a 38-bit dedicated data
register that serves as a command/status/data interface with Am5x86 CPU processor.
When the DEBUG instruction is written into the Instruction register, the serial debug shifter
is connected to the JTAG TDI–TDO serial interface. The DEBUG command and data are
loaded into and read from the serial debug shifter using the Capture-DR–Update-DR
sequence in the TAP controller state machine.
Loading the DEBUG instruction enables additional AMDebug technology signals to provide
pinpoint accuracy of external breakpoint assertion and elimination of status polling of the
JTAG serial interface. These signals are: CMDACK, BR/TC, STOP/TX and TRIG/TRACE.
25-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
25.5.2
Configuration Information
There are five scan paths from JTAG_TDI to JTAG_TDO in the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller:
■ Instruction path
■ Bypass path
■ Main data path through the Boundary Scan register
■ Serial Debug Port Data register
■ Device Identification register
25.5.2.1
Instruction Path
This four-cell path is used to scan into the Instruction register. This chain is loaded when
the TAP controller is driven to the states Select-IR-Scan through Update-IR. See
Figure 25-4 on page 25-15.
25.5.2.2
Bypass Path
This path bypasses the test logic on the microcontroller by reducing the shift length of the
device to one bit. Commands can still be entered in the Instruction register during this
operation.
25.5.2.3
Main Data Scan Path
Table 25-3 shows the main data scan path. The order shown is first-to-last; i.e., the first is
closest to JTAG_TDI and the last is closest to JTAG_TDO. Control cells are used to control
the enables of the three-state pads. If a 1 is shifted into the control cell, the associated pins
are three-stated or selected as inputs.
Note: Each of the shaded control cells shown in Table 25-3 contains the output enable
control for the pads listed below the control cell and before the next control cell. For
bidirectional pads, the output is listed first (closest to JTAG_TDI).
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path
Pad Name
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
Control
486
BA1
Output
485
BA0
Output
484
MA12
Output
483
MA11
Output
482
MA10
Output
481
MA9
Output
480
MA8
Output
479
MA7
Output
478
MA6
Output
477
MA5
Output
476
MA4
Output
475
MA3
Output
474
MA2
Output
473
MA1
Output
472
MA0
Output
471
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-5
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
Control
470
MD31
Bidirectional
468, 469
MD30
Bidirectional
466, 467
MD29
Bidirectional
464, 465
MD28
Bidirectional
462, 463
MD27
Bidirectional
460, 461
MD26
Bidirectional
458, 459
MD25
Bidirectional
456, 457
MD24
Bidirectional
454, 455
MD23
Bidirectional
452, 453
MD22
Bidirectional
450, 451
MD21
Bidirectional
448, 449
MD20
Bidirectional
446, 447
MD19
Bidirectional
444, 445
MD18
Bidirectional
442, 443
MD17
Bidirectional
440, 441
MD16
Bidirectional
438, 439
MD15
Bidirectional
436, 437
MD14
Bidirectional
434, 435
MD13
Bidirectional
432, 433
MD12
Bidirectional
430, 431
MD11
Bidirectional
428, 429
MD10
Bidirectional
426, 427
MD9
Bidirectional
424, 425
MD8
Bidirectional
422, 423
MD7
Bidirectional
420, 421
MD6
Bidirectional
418, 419
MD5
Bidirectional
416, 417
MD4
Bidirectional
414, 415
MD3
Bidirectional
412, 413
MD2
Bidirectional
410, 411
MD1
Bidirectional
408, 409
MD0
Bidirectional
406, 407
MECC6
Bidirectional
404, 405
MECC5
Bidirectional
402, 403
MECC4
Bidirectional
400, 401
MECC3
Bidirectional
398, 399
MECC2
Bidirectional
396, 397
MECC1
Bidirectional
394, 395
MECC0
Bidirectional
392, 393
Control
391
Output
390
SCS3
25-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
SCS2
Output
389
SCS1
Output
388
SCS0
Output
387
Control
386
CLKMEMOUT
Output
385
CLKMEMIN
Input
384
Control
383
SRASB
Output
382
SRASA
Output
381
Control
380
SCASB
Output
379
SCASA
Output
378
Control
377
SWEB
Output
376
SWEA
Output
375
Control
374
SDQM3
Output
373
SDQM2
Output
372
SDQM1
Output
371
SDQM0
Output
370
Control
369
Output
368
Control
367
Output
366
Control
365
Output
364
Control
363
BOOTCS
ROMRD
FLASHWR
Output
362
Control
361
Output
360
Control
359
Output
358
Control
357
AD31
Bidirectional
355, 356
AD30
Bidirectional
353, 354
AD29
Bidirectional
351, 352
AD28
Bidirectional
349, 350
AD27
Bidirectional
347, 348
AD26
Bidirectional
345, 346
AD25
Bidirectional
343, 344
AD24
Bidirectional
341, 342
AD23
Bidirectional
339, 340
ROMBUFOE
ROMCS1
ROMCS2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-7
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
AD22
Bidirectional
337, 338
AD21
Bidirectional
335, 336
AD20
Bidirectional
333, 334
AD19
Bidirectional
331, 332
AD18
Bidirectional
329, 330
AD17
Bidirectional
327, 328
AD16
Bidirectional
325, 326
AD15
Bidirectional
323, 324
AD14
Bidirectional
321, 322
AD13
Bidirectional
319, 320
AD12
Bidirectional
317, 318
AD11
Bidirectional
315, 316
AD10
Bidirectional
313, 314
AD9
Bidirectional
311, 312
AD8
Bidirectional
309, 310
AD7
Bidirectional
307, 308
AD6
Bidirectional
305, 306
AD5
Bidirectional
303, 304
AD4
Bidirectional
301, 302
AD3
Bidirectional
299, 300
AD2
Bidirectional
297, 298
AD1
Bidirectional
295, 296
AD0
Bidirectional
293, 294
Control
292
CBE3
Bidirectional
290, 291
CBE2
Bidirectional
288, 289
CBE1
Bidirectional
286, 287
CBE0
Bidirectional
284, 285
Control
283
PAR
Bidirectional
281, 282
SERR
Input
280
Control
279
Bidirectional
277, 278
Control
276
Bidirectional
274, 275
Control
273
Bidirectional
271, 272
Control
270
Bidirectional
268, 269
Control
267
Bidirectional
265, 266
Control
264
PERR
FRAME
TRDY
IRDY
STOP
25-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
DEVSEL
Bidirectional
262, 263
Control
261
CLKPCIOUT
Output
260
CLKPCIIN
Input
259
Control
258
RST
Output
257
INTD
Input
256
INTC
Input
255
INTB
Input
254
INTA
Input
253
REQ4
Input
252
REQ3
Input
251
REQ2
Input
250
REQ1
Input
249
REQ0
Input
248
Control
247
Output
246
Control
245
Output
244
Control
243
Output
242
Control
241
Output
240
Control
239
Output
238
Control
237
GPA25
Bidirectional
235, 236
GPA24
Bidirectional
233, 234
GPA23
Bidirectional
231, 232
GPA22
Bidirectional
229, 230
GPA21
Bidirectional
227, 228
GPA20
Bidirectional
225, 226
GPA19
Bidirectional
223, 224
GPA18
Bidirectional
221, 222
GPA17
Bidirectional
219, 220
GPA16
Bidirectional
217, 218
GPA15
Bidirectional
215, 216
GPA14
Output
214
GPA13
Output
213
GPA12
Output
212
GPA11
Output
211
GPA10
Output
210
GNT4
GNT3
GNT2
GNT1
GNT0
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-9
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
GPA9
Output
209
GPA8
Output
208
GPA7
Output
207
GPA6
Output
206
GPA5
Output
205
GPA4
Output
204
GPA3
Output
203
GPA2
Output
202
GPA1
Output
201
GPA0
Output
200
Control
199
GPD15
Bidirectional
197, 198
GPD14
Bidirectional
195, 196
GPD13
Bidirectional
193, 194
GPD12
Bidirectional
191, 192
GPD11
Bidirectional
189, 190
GPD10
Bidirectional
187, 188
GPD9
Bidirectional
185, 186
GPD8
Bidirectional
183, 184
Control
182
GPD7
Bidirectional
180, 181
GPD6
Bidirectional
178, 179
GPD5
Bidirectional
176, 177
GPD4
Bidirectional
174, 175
GPD3
Bidirectional
172, 173
GPD2
Bidirectional
170, 171
GPD1
Bidirectional
168, 169
GPD0
Bidirectional
166, 167
Control
165
Output
164
Control
163
Output
162
Control
161
Output
160
Control
159
GPRESET
GPIORD
GPIOWR
GPMEMRD
GPMEMWR
PIO27
PIO26
25-10
Output
158
Control
157
Output
156
Control
155
Bidirectional
153, 154
Control
152
Bidirectional
150, 151
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
PIO25
PIO24
PIO23
PIO22
PIO21
PIO20
PIO19
PIO18
PIO17
PIO16
PIO15
PIO14
PIO13
PIO12
PIO11
PIO10
PIO9
PIO8
PIO7
PIO6
PIO5
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
Control
149
Bidirectional
147, 148
Control
146
Bidirectional
144, 145
Control
143
Bidirectional
141, 142
Control
140
Bidirectional
138, 139
Control
137
Bidirectional
135, 136
Control
134
Bidirectional
132, 133
Control
131
Bidirectional
129, 130
Control
128
Bidirectional
126, 127
Control
125
Bidirectional
123, 124
Control
122
Bidirectional
120, 121
Control
119
Bidirectional
117, 118
Control
116
Bidirectional
114, 115
Control
113
Bidirectional
111, 112
Control
110
Bidirectional
108, 109
Control
107
Bidirectional
105, 106
Control
104
Bidirectional
102, 103
Control
101
Bidirectional
99, 100
Control
98
Bidirectional
96, 97
Control
95
Bidirectional
93, 94
Control
92
Bidirectional
90, 91
Control
89
Bidirectional
87, 88
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-11
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
PIO4
PIO3
Boundary Scan Order
Control
86
Bidirectional
84, 85
Control
83
Bidirectional
81, 82
Control
80
Bidirectional
78, 79
Control
77
Bidirectional
75, 76
Control
74
Bidirectional
72, 73
Control
71
SOUT1
Output
70
SIN1
Input
69
Control
68
RTS1
Output
67
CTS1
Input
66
DSR1
Input
65
Control
64
DTR1
Output
63
DCD1
Input
62
RIN1
Input
61
Control
60
SOUT2
Output
59
SIN2
Input
58
Control
57
Output
56
Control
55
Bidirectional
53, 54
Control
52
Bidirectional
50, 51
Control
49
Output
48
Control
47
Bidirectional
45, 46
Control
44
Bidirectional
42, 43
Control
41
SSI_CLK
Output
40
SSI_DI
Input
39
Control
38
Output
37
Control
36
PIO2
PIO1
PIO0
RTS2
PIO28
PIO29
DTR2
PIO30
PIO31
SSI_DO
25-12
Scan Type
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Table 25-3
Main Data Scan Path (Continued)
Pad Name
Scan Type
Boundary Scan Order
CLKTIMER
Bidirectional
34, 35
PWRGOOD
Input
33
PRGRESET
Input
32
Control
31
CMDACK
Output
30
BR/TC
Input
29
Control
28
Output
27
Control
26
Output
25
Control
24
Bidirectional
22, 23
Control
21
Bidirectional
19, 20
Control
18
Bidirectional
16, 17
Control
15
Bidirectional
13, 14
Control
12
STOP/TX
TRIG/TRACE
DC
DATASTRB
CPUACT
PITOUT2
PITGATE2
TMRIN1
TMRIN0
TMROUT1
TMROUT0
Bidirectional
10, 11
Control
9
Bidirectional
7, 8
Control
6
Bidirectional
4, 5
Control
3
Output
2
Control
1
Output
0
Notes:
The control cell for the BA1–BA0 and MA12–MA0 pins is closest to the JTAG_TDI pin (beginning of
the boundary scan chain), and TMROUT0 is closest to the JTAG_TDO pin (end of the boundary
scan chain).
Each of the shaded control cells shown in Table 25-3 contains the output enable control for the pads
listed below the control cell and before the next control cell. For bidirectional pads, the output is listed
first (closest to JTAG_TDI).
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-13
Boundary Scan Test Interface
25.5.2.4
Serial Debug Port Data Register
Figure 25-2 shows the format of the Serial Debug Port Data register. The 38-bit Serial
Debug Port Data register serves as a command/status/data interface with the Am5x86 CPU.
Figure 25-2
Serial Debug Port Data Register Format
37
6
Debug Data
JTAG_TDI
25.5.2.5
5
2
Command
Bit
Name
Function
37–6
DEBUG_DATA[31–0]
Debug Data
5–2
COMMAND[3–0]
Command
1
P
Command pending flag status
0
F
Command finished flag status
1
0
P
F
JTAG_TDO
Device Identification Register
Figure 25-3 shows the format of the Device Identification register. For the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller, the least significant 28-bits of the Device Identification register are hardcoded to a value of 0EFF003h. The VERSION field, represented by bits 31–28, reflects the
value of the MINORSTEP field of the ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller Revision ID (REVID)
register (MMCR offset 00h).
Figure 25-3
Device Identification Register Format
28 27
31
Version
25-14
12 11
Part Number
Manufacturer Identity
Bit
Name
Function
31–28
VERSION
Value of the MINORSTEP field of the
ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller Revision
ID (REVID) register
27–0
Part Number and
Manufacturer Identity
Hardcoded to 0EFF003h
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
0
Boundary Scan Test Interface
25.5.3
Test Access Port (TAP) Controller
The test access port (TAP) controller is a synchronous, finite state-machine that controls
the sequence of operations of the test logic. The TAP controller changes state in response
to the rising edge of JTAG_TCK. It can be reset to the Test-Logic-Reset state either by
holding the JTAG_TRST pin Low or by holding the JTAG_TMS pin High for five JTAG_TCK
periods.
The TAP controller state-machine is shown in Figure 25-4.
Figure 25-4
Test Access Port Controller State Diagram
JTAG_TRST
1
Test-Logic-Reset
0
1
0
1
Run-Test/Idle
1
Select-DR-Scan
Select-IR-Scan
0
0
1
1
Capture-DR
Capture-IR
0
0
0
0
Shift-DR
Shift-IR
1
1
1
1
Exit1-DR
Exit1-IR
0
0
0
0
Pause-DR
Pause-IR
1
1
0
0
Exit2-DR
Exit2-IR
1
1
Update-DR
1
25.5.3.1
TAP Controller States
25.5.3.1.1
Test-Logic-Reset State
0
Update-IR
1
0
In this state, the test logic is disabled so that normal operation of the device can continue
unhindered. This is achieved by initializing the Instruction register such that the IDCODE
instruction is loaded. No matter what the original state of the controller, the controller enters
Test-Logic-Reset state when the JTAG_TMS input is held High (1) for at least five rising
edges of JTAG_TCK. The controller remains in this state while JTAG_TMS is High. The
TAP controller is also forced to enter this state when JTAG_TRST is asserted.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-15
Boundary Scan Test Interface
The JTAG TAP controller is not reset as a function of PWRGOOD when the system is
powered up. Rather, JTAG_TRST has an internal pulldown resistor which causes the TAP
controller to reset.
25.5.3.1.2
Run-Test-Idle State
This is a controller state between scan operations. When in this state, the controller remains
in this state as long as JTAG_TMS is held Low. For instructions not causing functions to
execute during this state, no activity occurs in the test logic. The Instruction register and
all test data registers retain their previous state. When JTAG_TMS is High and a rising edge
is applied to JTAG_TCK, the controller moves to the Select-DR state.
25.5.3.1.3
Select-Data Register (DR)-Scan State
This is a temporary controller state. The test data register selected by the current instruction
retains its previous state. If JTAG_TMS is held Low and a rising edge is applied to
JTAG_TCK when in this state, the controller moves into the Capture-DR state and a scan
sequence for the selected test data register is initiated. If JTAG_TMS is held High and a
rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the controller moves to the Select-IR-Scan state.
The instruction does not change in this state.
25.5.3.1.4
Capture-DR State
In this state, the Boundary Scan register captures input pin data if the current instruction
is EXTEST or SAMPLE/PRELOAD. The other test data registers, which do not have parallel
input, are not changed.
The instruction does not change in this state.
When the TAP controller is in this state and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the
controller enters the Exit1-DR state if JTAG_TMS is High, or the Shift-DR state if JTAG_TMS
is Low.
25.5.3.1.5
Shift-DR State
In this controller state, the test data register connected between JTAG_TDI and JTAG_TDO
as a result of the current instruction shifts data one stage toward its serial output on each
rising edge of JTAG_TCK.
The instruction does not change in this state.
When the TAP controller is in this state and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the
controller enters the Exit1-DR state if JTAG_TMS is High, or remains in the Shift-DR state
if JTAG_TMS is Low.
25.5.3.1.6
Exit1-DR State
This is a temporary state. While in this state, if JTAG_TMS is held High, a rising edge applied
to JTAG_TCK causes the controller to enter the Update-DR state, which terminates the
scanning process. If JTAG_TMS is held Low and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK,
the controller enters the Pause-DR state.
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
25.5.3.1.7
Pause-DR State
The pause state allows the test controller to temporarily halt the shifting of data through
the test data register in the serial path between JTAG_TDI and JTAG_TDO. An example of
using this state could be to allow a tester to reload its pin memory from disk during
application of a long test sequence.
25-16
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
The controller remains in this state as long as JTAG_TMS is Low. When JTAG_TMS goes
High and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the controller moves to the Exit2-DR state.
25.5.3.1.8
Exit2-DR State
This is a temporary state. While in this state, if JTAG_TMS is held High, a rising edge applied
to JTAG_TCK causes the controller to enter the Update-DR state, which terminates the
scanning process. If JTAG_TMS is held Low and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK,
the controller enters the Shift-DR state.
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
25.5.3.1.9
Update-DR State
The Boundary Scan register is provided with a latched parallel output to prevent changes
at the parallel output while data is shifted in response to the EXTEST and SAMPLE/
PRELOAD instructions. When the TAP controller is in this state and the Boundary Scan
register is selected, data is latched onto the parallel output of this register from the
shift-register path on the falling edge of JTAG_TCK. The data held at the latched parallel
output does not change other than in this state.
All shift-register stages in a test data register selected by the current instruction retain their
previous values during this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
When the TAP controller is in this state and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the
controller enters the Select-DR State if JTAG_TMS is held High or the Run-Test/Idle State
if JTAG_TMS is held Low.
25.5.3.1.10
Select-Instruction Register (IR)-Scan State
This is a temporary controller state. The test data register selected by the current instruction
retains its previous state. If JTAG_TMS is held Low and a rising edge is applied to
JTAG_TCK when in this state, the controller moves into the Capture-IR state and a scan
sequence for the Instruction register is initiated. If JTAG_TMS is held High and a rising
edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the controller moves to the Test-Logic-Reset state.
The instruction does not change in this state.
25.5.3.1.11
Capture-IR State
In this controller state, the shift register contained in the Instruction register loads the fixed
value 0001b on the rising edge of JTAG_TCK.
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
When the controller is in this state and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the controller
enters the Exit1-IR state if JTAG_TMS is held High, or the Shift-IR state if JTAG_TMS is
held Low.
25.5.3.1.12
Shift-IR State
In this state, the shift register contained in the Instruction register is connected between
JTAG_TDI and JTAG_TDO and shifts data one stage towards its serial output on each rising
edge of JTAG_TCK.
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-17
Boundary Scan Test Interface
When the controller is in this state and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the controller
enters the Exit1-IR state if JTAG_TMS is held High, or remains in the Shift-IR state if
JTAG_TMS is held Low.
25.5.3.1.13
Exit1-IR State
This is a temporary state. In this state, if JTAG_TMS is held High, a rising edge applied to
JTAG_TCK causes the controller to enter the Update-IR state, which terminates the
scanning process. If JTAG_TMS is held Low and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK,
the controller enters the Pause-IR state.
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
25.5.3.1.14
Pause-IR State
The pause state allows the test controller to temporarily halt the shifting of data through
the Instruction register.
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
The controller remains in this state as long as JTAG_TMS is Low. When JTAG_TMS goes
High and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the controller moves to the Exit2-IR state.
25.5.3.1.15
Exit2-IR State
This is a temporary state. While in this state, if JTAG_TMS is held High, a rising edge applied
to JTAG_TCK causes the controller to enter the Update-IR state, which terminates the
scanning process. If JTAG_TMS is held Low and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK,
the controller enters the Shift-IR state.
The test data register selected by the current instruction retains its previous value during
this state. The instruction does not change in this state.
25.5.3.1.16
Update-IR State
The instruction shifted into the Instruction register is latched onto the parallel output from
the shift-register path on the falling edge of JTAG_TCK. When the new instruction has been
latched, it becomes the current instruction.
Test data registers selected by the current instruction retain their previous value.
When the TAP controller is in this state and a rising edge is applied to JTAG_TCK, the
controller enters the Select-DR State if JTAG_TMS is held High or Run-Test Idle state if
JTAG_TMS is held Low.
25-18
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Boundary Scan Test Interface
25.5.4
Bus Cycles
Figure 25-5 and Figure 25-6 on page 25-20 give the bus cycles information of the test logic
operation in data scan mode and instruction scan mode, respectively.
Figure 25-5
Test Logic Operation: Data Scan
JTAG_TCK
JTAG_TMS
Test-Logic-Reset
Select-IR-Scan
Select-DR-Scan
Run-Test/Idle
Update-DR
Exit1-DR
Shift-DR
Exit2-DR
Pause-DR
Exit1-DR
Shift-DR
Capture-DR
Select-DR-Scan
Run-Test/Idle
Controller State
JTAG_TDI
Data Input to IR
IR Shift Register
Parallel Output of IR
Instruction
IDCODE
Data Input to BSR
BSR Shift Register
Parallel Output of BSR
Old Data
Register Selected
JTAG_TDO Enable
New Data
Boundary Scan Register
Inactive
Active
Inactive
Active
Inactive
JTAG_TDO
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
25-19
Boundary Scan Test Interface
Figure 25-6
Test Logic Operation: Instruction Scan
JTAG_TCK
JTAG_TMS
Run-Test/Idle
Update-IR
Exit1-IR
Shift-IR
Exit2-IR
Pause-IR
Exit1-IR
Shift-IR
Capture-IR
Select-IR-Scan
Select-DR-Scan
Run-Test/Idle
Test-Logic-Reset
Controller State
JTAG_TDI
Data Input to IR
0001
IR Shift Register
Parallel Output of IR
New Instruction
IDCODE
Data Input to BSR
BSR Shift Register
Parallel Output of BSR
Register Selected
JTAG_TDO Enable
Instruction Register
Active
Inactive
Inactive
Active
Inactive
JTAG_TDO
25.5.5
Clocking Considerations
The targeted speed of operation for boundary scan is 25 MHz.
25.6
INITIALIZATION
The JTAG TAP controller is not reset as a function of PWRGOOD when the system is
powered up.
The test access port controller can be reset in the following ways:
■ When the JTAG_TRST pin is driven Low (0)—This resets the entire JTAG subsystem
including the Instruction register.
■ When the JTAG_TMS pin is held High (1) for at least five rising edges of JTAG_TCK—
It remains in this state while JTAG_TMS is High (1). If the TAP controller leaves the reset
state owing to an erroneous Low (0) signal on the JTAG_TMS line at the time of a rising
edge on JTAG_TCK, it returns to the reset state after JTAG_TMS is held High for three
rising edges of JTAG_TCK.
In the Test-Logic-Reset State of the TAP controller, the test logic is disabled so that normal
operation of the device can continue without any hindrance. See “Test-Logic-Reset State”
on page 25-15.
25-20
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
CHAPTER
26
26.1
AMDebug™ TECHNOLOGY
OVERVIEW
The ÉlanSC520 microcontroller supports a full-featured, high-performance in-circuit emulation capability. This in-circuit emulation support was developed at AMD specifically to
enable users to test and debug their software earlier in the design cycle. Utilizing this
capability, the software can be more extensively exercised, and at full execution speeds. It
also allows tracing during execution from the Am5x86 CPU’s internal cache.
The AMDebug interface included on the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller provides the product
design team with two different communication paths, each of which is supported by powerful
debug tools from third-party vendors in AMD’s FusionE86 program. (See AMD FusionE86
partners documentation on p. iii under Third-Party Support.)
■ Serial AMDebug technology uses a serial connection based on an enhanced JTAG
protocol and an inexpensive 12-pin connector that can be placed on each board design.
This low-cost solution satisfies the requirement of a large number of software developers.
■ Parallel AMDebug technology uses a 25-pin parallel debug port to exchange commands
and data between the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller and the host. The higher pin count
requires that the extra signal pins be provided on a special bond-out package of the
ÉlanSC520 microcontroller; this package is made available only to tool developers such
as in-circuit emulator manufacturers. The parallel AMDebug port greatly simplifies the
task of supporting high-speed data exchange.
An on-chip trace controller provides trace information for reconstructing instruction execution flow in the processor. It supports tracing either to the serial AMDebug port, the bondout parallel port, or to an internal trace buffer.
Use of JTAG technology for conventional boundary scan testing is described in Chapter 25,
“Boundary Scan Test Interface”.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
26-1
AMDebug™ Technology
26.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Figure 26-1 shows a system diagram of AMDebug software architecture. Two different
configurations are shown.
Figure 26-1
AMDebug™ Technology Software Architecture
Target System
RAM
Élan™SC520
Microcontroller
Low-Cost
Serial
Converter
Host System
PC
CPU
OR
UART
Trace
Cache
ROM
AMDebug
Logic
Trace
Capture
Plus
Parallel
Interface
Debug
Control
Software
Serial Port, 12-Pin Connector, or
Parallel Port, 25-Pin Bond-Out
26.3
SYSTEM DESIGN
The pinstrap functions associated with the GPA25–GPA23 pins, DEBUG_ENTER,
INST_TRCE, and AMDEBUG_DIS, are sampled only as a result of PWRGOOD assertion
and do not affect the GP bus functions of these pins.
Note that AMDebug technology does not function at 133 MHz. Debugging must be performed at 100 MHz.. Software tests and diagnostics can still be performed at 133 MHz if
required, but the AMDebug port will not function reliably at frequencies above 100 MHz.
26-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
AMDebug™ Technology
26.3.1
Connecting the AMDebug™ Port
There are multiple ways of connecting the host computer to the ÉlanSC520 microcontroller’s
AMDebug port, including through a host computer’s serial port, parallel port, or via an
Ethernet connection. For specific tool and connection types, refer to AMD FusionE86 partners documentation on p. iii under Third-Party Support.
At a minimum, AMDebug operation can be achieved with the four basic JTAG signal pins:
JTAG_TCK, JTAG_TMS, JTAG_TDI, and JTAG_TDO. Using JTAG pins alone, without the
advantages of additional support pins, the lowest possible cost is achieved in terms of
processor pins, but with the cost of reduced functionality. No attempt is made to multiplex
the function of the JTAG pins. Multiplexing would prevent ensuring their availability for
communication with the processor at all times and under any operating condition.
An inexpensive connector that links the PC port to the AMDebug port can be acquired to
satisfy the requirement of a large number of software developers. Connection to a target
via this simple arrangement offers considerable advantages:
■ There is no need to remove the processor to connect an in-circuit emulator-like umbilical.
■ Connection is ensured no matter what the processor packaging technology.
■ Debug communication is independent of processor or memory system clocking speeds.
There are two AMDebug connector formats specified: a 12-pin connector (Figure 26-2) and
a 20-pin connector (Figure 26-3). They differ in maximum operating frequency and number
of connector pins. They both have the same number of active signals, but the 20-pin version
has a ground wire placed between each signal wire.
.
Table 26-1
AMDebug™ Technology Connector Pins
Name
I/O
External
Resistor
Description
JTAG_TCK
Input
PU
Clock for the TAP controller and the debug serial/parallel interface
JTAG_TDI
Input
PU
Input test data and instructions
JTAG_TDO
Output PU
Output data; three-stated when data is not driven
JTAG_TMS
Input
PU
Test functions and sequence of test changes
JTAG_TRST
Input
PU
Reset the JTAG controller
SYSRESET
Input
PU
Reset all system logic. This pin should be held Low for at least four TCK
clock cycles. SYSRESET can be ANDed directly with the PWRGOOD
signal. This enables the AMDebug control unit to drive the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller’s reset.
BR/TC
Input
PD
Request entry to AMDebug mode/Turn instruction trace capture on-off
CMDACK
Output
—
Acknowledge command
STOP/TX
Output
—
Asserted High on entry to AMDebug mode; during normal mode set High
TRIG/TRACE
Output
—
Trigger event to logic analyzer (optional, from Am486 debug registers)
PWRGOOD
Output
—
Sample power level used by the JTAG controller driving hardware
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
26-3
AMDebug™ Technology
Software development systems based on the integrated debug technology should consider:
■ Providing for at least a 12-pin connector on each board design
■ Assigning the necessary tracking from the processor’s pins supporting the AMDebug
port to the standard 12-pin connector
■ Including the small connector on production systems to enable in-field debugging
Figure 26-2
12-Pin Connector Format
1
Ground
VGND
Test Clock
2
PWRGOOD
Sample Power Source
JTAG_TCK
CMDACK
Command Acknowledge
Test Mode Select
JTAG_TMS
BR/TC
Enter AMDebug Mode, Trace Control
Test Data In
JTAG_TDI
STOP/TX
In AMDebug Mode, Receive Data
Test Data Out
JTAG_TDO
TRIG/TRACE
Trigger Event
Reserved for
System Reset
SYSRESET
Keyed
12
When the serial connector is clocked at high speeds, e.g., above 10 MHz, there is danger
of signal cross talk. To alleviate this problem, a 20-pin serial connector format is also
available, as shown in Figure 26-3. The arrangement places a ground wire between each
signal wire. Low-cost tools based on AMDebug technology operate satisfactorily with the
12-pin connector shown in Figure 26-2, as long as cable lengths are not too long.
Figure 26-3
20-Pin Serial Connector Format
1
2
Ground
Gnd
PWRGOOD
Test Clock
JTAG_TCK
Gnd
Test Mode Select
JTAG_TMS
Gnd
Test Data In
JTAG_TDI
Gnd
Test Data Out
JTAG_TDO
Gnd
Test Reset
JTAG_TRST
Gnd
Reserved for
System Reset
Command Acknowledge
SYSRESET
Gnd
CMDACK
Gnd
Enter AMDebug Mode, Trace Control
BR/TC
In AMDebug Mode, Receive Data
STOP/TX
TRIG/TRACE
Keyed
19
26-4
20
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Sample Power Source
Trigger Event
AMDebug™ Technology
26.3.2
Mechanical Specifications for the Target Connector
A target board should contain a connector with male header pins. Pin spacing is 2 mm for
both 12-pin and 20-pin formats, as shown in Figure 26-4. Debugging equipment should
support a ribbon cable equipped with a female connector for attaching to the target. The
appropriate last pin, pin 12 or pin 20, should not be installed, or, if necessary, removed at
this location. At this location the female connector on the ribbon cable is populated with a
post, which prevents the connector’s insertion in the reverse position. Compatible connectors are available from Samtec, Inc. (model TMM-112-02-x-D for 12-pin), 3M, and other
companies.
Figure 26-4
Mechanical Specifications for AMDebug™ Technology Target Connector
2 mm
Male connector
on target board
2 mm
3.7 mm
Side View
Key
26.3.3
Locating the Connector on the Target System
Because the AMDebug port can contain high-frequency signals, position the connector as
close to the processor as possible. However, allowances should be made for the physical
requirements of the AMDebug control unit. For systems that support JTAG-based boundary
scanning, a jumper block should be provided for isolating from the rest of the JTAG scan
chain (see Figure 26-5) the connection from the AMDebug port to the processor. This
jumper is not required by systems that only use JTAG to support AMDebug technology.
When AMDebug technology debugging is not used, the jumpers can be set to connect the
processor with the other devices forming the scan chain.
The target board should be equipped with pullup and pulldown resistors, as shown in
Figure 26-5. The signal lines driven by the female cable connector should be three-stated
before connection is established. The connection device can sense the required high voltage by sampling the VCC signal pin before driving the AMDebug port.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
26-5
AMDebug™ Technology
Figure 26-5
Locating the Target Connector
Bus
33 W
CMDACK
JTAG_TCK
BR/TC
JTAG_TMS
STOP/TX
10 kW
TRIG/TRACE
GND
ÉlanSC520
Microcontroller
33 W
JTAG_TDI
JTAG_TRST
SYSRESET
JTAG_TDO
10 kW
Jumper setting when
not used for debugging
VCC
33 W
JTAG_TDI on next
chip in chain
26.4
JTAG_TDO on previous
chip in chain
OPERATION
The AMD software debugging strategy enables a range of debugging tool solutions offered
by tool providers. The AMDebug port provides for commands to be sent to the ÉlanSC520
microcontroller for processing by microcode. The AMDebug communication and data registers are used to exchange information between the target (ÉlanSC520 microcontroller)
and a host system used to control the target.
The low-cost communication path, which meets the requirements of most software developers, uses the serial connection based on the enhanced JTAG protocol. This option requires very few signal pins to the processor and enables a 12-pin connector to be placed
on each board design. A PC-port-to-AMDebug-port converter can be acquired inexpensively (see AMD FusionE86 partners documentation on p. iii under Third-Party Support).
The high-performance communication path, which is made available only to tool developers
such as in-circuit emulator manufacturers, uses a parallel port connection that provides
command and data exchange between the AMDebug port and the host. The higher pin
count (25 instead of 8) requires that the extra signal pins be provided on a bond-out package.
The die for both connection methods is the same. A standard parallel-interface format
greatly simplifies the task of supporting high-speed data exchange with the target processor.
The parallel access also enables execution trace data to be provided on the bond-out
parallel access pins. This is the same data that is gathered in the on-chip trace cache,
described in Section 26.4.1, except that now trace depth is limited by the external hardware
rather than the depth of the on-chip trace cache provided by the non bond-out processor.
26-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
AMDebug™ Technology
26.4.1
On-Chip Trace Cache
An on-chip instruction cache makes it difficult to fully trace a program’s execution path by
merely observing the external pins. Software engineers need to know a program’s address
flow without turning off the cache or in any way intrusively monitoring the processor’s
operation. The use of clock scaling and high internal clock speed make it difficult to provide
trace information to the outside world without the use of on-chip trace cache.
The AMD software debug strategy provides for a small on-chip trace cache that stores only
critical information, such as the outcome of a branch decision. The compression techniques
employed enable much of the execution path to be retained in the on-chip trace cache. The
cache can also log other information, such as operating system activity or performancecritical parameters. On the bond-out package, the trace information can be continually
provided off-chip at system bus speeds rather than the higher internal clock speeds. This
is an advantage to the in-circuit emulator developer.
The trace cache is also useful when a multitasking operating system is employed. It is
possible to unobtrusively trace the execution of a single task, thus extending the debugging
capability beyond what is normally offered by debuggers incorporated with operating systems. This method overcomes the typically poor integration between operating systems
and external trace capture hardware, such as a logic analyzer or in-circuit emulator.
26.4.2
Software Performance Profiling
Software profiling refers to examining the execution times, frequencies, and calling patterns
of different software procedures within a complete program. A variety of techniques are
currently used, some based on statistical analysis, others based on measurements
achieved without statistical sampling. Execution times and call linkage are typically captured
by external (off-chip) instrumentation watching the system buses.
Performance profiling is an exceptionally useful tool for the software engineer trying to
optimize application execution times. When a bond-out package is used, an external hardware device can be constructed to capture the necessary data. When used for instruction
tracing, the trace cache will contain more information than is necessary to perform only
profile analysis. Typically, code first must be “instrumented” before it can be analyzed.
Alternatively, to support performance profiling, the breakpoint control registers can be further configured to start and stop a counter that measures elapsed time. When the counter
is started, it is first set to zero, and when the counter is stopped, its value is placed in the
trace cache. This scheme does not have all of the capabilities offered by a system assisted
by external (off-chip) hardware; however, no instrumentation of code is required before
profiling can commence.
In this case:
■ A breakpoint/trace control register is set to trigger (start) the counter on the entry to a
procedure.
■ A second breakpoint control register is used to stop counting when the procedure
prologue is entered.
■ A similar scheme is used to measure other parameters, such as an interrupt handler
execution times.
■ When the counter is stopped, the 16-bit count value is placed in the trace cache.
■ Post processing software is required to analyze the profile data.
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
26-7
AMDebug™ Technology
The trace cache, when used to profile software, does not gather execution trace information.
When profiling, the trace cache gathers information about the execution time spent, for
example, in the selected procedure. Only one procedure can be profiled at one time. By
examining the trace cache, the minimum, average, and maximum time spent in the procedure can be determined (within the limitations of the samples gathered).
A trace entry takes the form of a pair of time values. A second counter runs continually, but
is reset to zero after it is placed in the trace cache. The second counter is used to obtain
the frequency of occurrence of the procedure of interest; whereas, the first counter provides
information about the procedures execution time (duration).
26-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
INDEX
Numerics
32KXTAL2–32KXTAL1 signals
description, 2-10
usage, 5-3, 5-8
33MXTAL2–33MXTAL1 signals
description, 2-10
usage, 2-7, 5-3
A
A10–A8 bit field, 15-18
a20 gate support, 6-8
A20G_CTL bit field, 6-8
GP bus. See general-purpose (GP) bus.
AD31–AD0 signals
description, 2-6
usage, 2-7, 9-3, 9-9
ADDDECCTL register, 4-2
address buses
general-purpose (GP) bus address bus, 2-6
PCI address bus, 2-6
ROM/Flash controller address bus, 2-6
SDRAM controller address bus, 2-5
shared buses, 13-10
Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL) register
function, 4-2, 20-6, 21-3, 24-2
usage, 3-21, 4-12, 4-13, 4-14, 4-20, 20-5, 24-11
address mapping
bus master address spaces (table), 4-3
cacheability control, 4-15, 4-20
code execution control, 4-15, 4-20
configuration, 4-15
buses, 4-4
chip select for noncontiguous memory or
I/O, 4-16
chip selects, 4-4
external memory, 4-4
external super I/O chip, 4-16
GP bus peripheral space, 4-16
memory regions above DOS application
space, 4-17
PCI bus devices, 4-18
ROM/Flash space, 4-15
Windows® compatibility, 4-17
configuration register access, 4-20
I/O map (figure), 4-11
I/O space, 4-11
Configuration Base Address register, 4-11
GP bus I/O region, 4-15
PC/AT-compatible I/O peripherals region, 4-13
PCI configuration space, 4-12
PCI I/O space, 4-12
initialization, 4-21
interrupts, 4-18
memory and I/O space summary (table), 4-4
memory map (figure), 4-7
memory space, 4-7
GP bus memory space, 4-9
integrated memory-mapped peripherals, 4-10
memory-mapped configuration region (MMCR)
space, 4-9
PCI bus memory space, 4-9
SDRAM space, 4-8
operation, 4-3
PC/AT peripherals I/O map (table), 4-14
positive address decoding, 3-13, 4-9
positive address decoding (example), 3-14, 4-16
Programmable Address Region (PAR) registers, 4-5
PAR register format (figure), 4-6
registers, 4-2
software considerations, 4-18
write protection violation, 4-18, 4-20
write-protection violation, 4-15
AEOI bit field, 15-18
AINIT bit field, 14-14
ALM_AM_PM bit field, 20-8
ALM_INT_ENB bit field, 20-9
ALT_CMP bit field, 17-4, 17-5
AM_PM bit field, 20-8
Am486® CPU
instruction set, xxiv
Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL) register
function, 5-6, 7-1, 24-2
usage, 5-7, 7-3–7-4
Am5x86® CPU
block diagram (figure), 7-2
bus arbitration, 8-3
cache
behavior during clock speed changes, 7-4
configuration options (table), 7-4
flushing, 24-11
memory management, 7-4
performance considerations, 24-12
clocking considerations, 7-4, 8-7
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-1
Index
CPU core identification, 3-7
CPU PLL stabilization time, 7-4
CPU speed, 3-7
documentation, xxiv
floating point unit (FPU), 7-3
initialization, 7-5
hard CPU reset, 7-5
soft CPU reset, 6-7, 7-5
interrupts, 7-5
latency, 7-5
operation, 7-3
registers, 7-1
AMDebug Disable signal. See AMDEBUG_DIS signal.
AMDebug Technology RX/TX Interrupt Mapping
(ICEMAP) register
function, 15-5
AMDEBUG_DIS signal
description, 2-13
usage, 26-2
AMDebug™ technology
block diagram (figure), 26-2
on-chip trace cache, 26-7
operation, 26-6
signal descriptions, 2-12
software architecture (figure), 26-2
software performance profiling, 26-7
system design, 26-2
12-pin connector format (figure), 26-4
20-pin serial connector format (figure), 26-4
connecting the AMDebug port, 26-3
connector pins (table), 26-3
locating the target connector (figure), 26-6
target connector mechanical specifications, 26-5
Analog Ground signal. See GND_ANLG signal.
Analog Power Supply signal. See VCC_ANLG signal.
applications. See Élan™SC520 microcontroller.
Arbiter Priority Control (ARBPRICTL) register
function, 8-2
usage, 8-8, 8-20, 8-22
arbitration. See system arbitration.
ARBPRICTL register, 8-2
ATTR bit field, 3-10, 3-12, 4-5, 4-16
B
BA1–BA0 signals
control, 10-10, 10-19
description, 2-5
Backup Battery Sense signal. See BBATSEN signal.
Bank Address signals. See BA1–BA0 signals.
BBATSEN signal
description, 2-14
usage, 6-7, 20-3, 20-4, 20-7, 20-11
BI bit field, 21-8
Index-2
BIOS. See system initialization.
bit fields
A10–A8, 15-18
A20G_CTL, 6-8
AEOI, 15-18
AINIT, 14-14
ALM_AM_PM, 20-8
ALM_INT_ENB, 20-9
ALT_CMP, 17-4, 17-5
AM_PM, 20-8
ATTR, 3-10, 3-12, 4-5, 4-16
BI, 21-8
BNKx_BNK_CNT, 10-15, 10-15
BNKx_COLWDTH, 10-15, 10-15
BSY, 22-7
BUS_MAS, 9-11
BUS_NUM, 9-10
BUS_PARK_SEL, 8-10, 8-22
CACHE_WR_MODE, 7-4, 8-6
CAS_LAT, 10-20, 10-31
CH3_ALT_SIZE, 14-21
CLK_INV_ENB, 22-5
CLK_PIN_DIR, 5-3, 5-9, 16-1, 16-6, 16-7
CLK_PIN_ENB, 5-9
CLK_SEL, 5-8, 22-7
CLK_SRC, 21-10
CLK_TST_SEL, 5-9
CNCR_MODE_ENB, 8-3, 8-22, 24-10
COMPTIM, 14-9
CONT_CMP, 17-4
CPU_PRI, 8-8
CPU_RST, 6-4, 6-7
CTR_MODE, 16-4
DCTS, 21-6
DDCD, 21-6
DDSR, 21-6
DEVICE_NUM, 9-10
DGP, 12-7
DR, 21-7
ECC_CHK_POS, 10-28
EMSI, 21-9
ENABLE, 4-12, 4-17, 9-10, 9-11
ENB, 19-3, 19-4, 19-6
ENH_MODE_ENB, 14-10
EPS, 21-8
ERR_IN_FIFO, 21-8
EXP_SEL, 5-8, 19-4
EXT_CLK, 17-3
FE, 21-8
FIFO_ENB, 21-9, 21-13
FIRST_DLY, 12-8
FUNCTION_NUM, 9-10
GNT_TO_ID, 8-23
GNT_TO_INT_ENB, 8-19, 8-23
GNT_TO_STA, 8-19
GP_ECHO_ENB, 24-10
GP_RST, 6-4, 6-7, 13-22
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
bit fields (continued)
GPCSx_SEL, 12-3, 13-3, 16-1, 17-1
HI_PRI_0_SEL, 8-8
HI_PRI_1_SEL, 8-8
HOUR_MODE_SEL, 20-7
ICE_HRST_DET, 6-8
ICE_ON_RST, 6-5, 6-7, 24-11
ICE_SRST_DET, 6-8
INT_ENB, 17-4
IRQ_FLG, 19-4, 19-5
LOOP, 21-13
LTIM, 3-19
M_AD_IRQ_ID, 9-27
M_CMD_IRQ_ID, 9-27
M_GINT_MODE, 15-18
M_RETRY_TO, 9-12, 9-28
M_WPOST_ENB, 9-11
MATCH, 4-18
MBIT_ERR, 10-27
MEM_ENB, 9-11, 9-18
MODE, 12-7
MSBF_ENB, 22-5
MULT_INT_ENB, 10-27
NMI_DONE, 15-14
NMI_ENB, 6-7, 15-14, 15-20, 20-10
OE, 21-7, 21-8
OPMODE_SEL, 10-20, 10-30, 10-31, 10-32
OSC_CTL, 20-7, 20-10
OUT2, 21-13
PCI_RST, 6-4, 6-7, 9-29
PE, 21-8
PENB, 21-5, 21-8
PER_INT_ENB, 20-8
PER_INT_FLG, 20-8
PG_SZ, 3-9, 3-10, 4-5
PHS_INV_ENB, 22-5
PIOx_FNC, 13-3, 14-4, 15-2, 21-2, 23-3
PIT_GATE2, 16-4
PIT_OUT2_ENB, 16-4
PIT_OUT2_STA, 16-4
PRG_RST_ENB, 3-4, 6-4, 6-6, 10-29
PRGRST_DET, 6-8
PSC_SEL, 17-3
PWRGOOD_DET, 6-8
RAS_CAS_DLY, 10-21
RAS_PCHG_DLY, 10-21
RATE_SEL, 20-8
REGISTER_NUM, 9-10
RF_CLR, 21-10
RFRT, 21-7, 21-10
RFSH_ENB, 10-19
RFSH_SPD, 10-18
RTC_DIS, 3-21, 20-5
RTC_VRT, 6-7, 20-4
RTG, 17-3
S1_GINT_MODE, 15-18
S2, 15-17, 15-18, 15-19
bit fields (continued)
S2_GINT_MODE, 3-19
S5, 15-17, 15-18, 15-19
SBIT_ERR, 10-27
SD_RST_DET, 6-8
SET, 20-7
SFNM, 15-18
SGL_INT_ENB, 10-27
SNGL, 15-18
SP, 21-8
SUB_DLY, 12-8
SYS_RST, 6-4, 6-5
SZ_ST_ADR, 3-9, 3-10, 4-5
T_DLYTR_ENB, 9-19
T_IRQ_ID, 9-27
T_PURGE_RD_ENB, 9-22
T7–T3, 15-18
TARGET, 3-10, 4-5, 4-8, 4-16, 4-19, 9-18
TC_INT, 22-7
TC_INT_ENB, 22-7
TEMT, 21-7
TERI, 21-6
TF_CLR, 21-10
THRE, 21-6
TRNMOD, 14-11, 14-19
UART1_DIS, 3-21
UART2_DIS, 3-21
UIP, 20-7
WB_ENB, 24-10
WB_FLUSH, 11-5, 11-13
WB_TST_ENB, 10-19, 24-2, 24-3, 24-7
WB_WM, 11-9
WDT_RST_DET, 6-8
WIDTH, 12-7
WRST_ENB, 19-4
WRTSEL, 14-9
XTAL_FREQ, 18-3
BNKx_BNK_CNT bit field, 10-15, 10-15
BNKx_COLWDTH bit field, 10-15, 10-15
BOOTCS Control (BOOTCSCTL) register
function, 12-5
usage, 12-7, 12-14
BOOTCS signal
configuration, 12-2, 12-14
control, 3-10
description, 2-6
usage, 3-5, 3-17, 4-4, 4-7, 4-8, 4-15, 4-21,
19-6, 24-6
BOOTCSCTL register, 12-5
bootstraps
signal descriptions, 2-13
Boundary Scan (BSR) register
function, 25-2
usage, 25-3–25-5, 25-16–25-17
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-3
Index
BR/TC signal
control, 25-4
description, 2-12
BSY bit field, 22-7
Buffer Chaining Control (GPDMABCCTL) register
function, 14-5
usage, 14-15
Buffer Chaining Interrupt Enable (GPDMABSINTENB)
register
function, 14-5
Buffer Chaining Status (GPDMABCSTA) register
function, 14-5
Buffer Chaining Valid (GPDMABCVAL) register
function, 14-5
usage, 14-15
bus arbitration. See system arbitration.
Bus Grant signals. See GNT4–GNT0 signals.
Bus Request signals. See REQ4–REQ0 signals.
BUS_MAS bit field, 9-11
BUS_NUM bit field, 9-10
BUS_PARK_SEL bit field, 8-10, 8-22
Bypass (BPR) register
function, 25-2
usage, 25-4
C
cache. See Am5x86® CPU.
CACHE_WR_MODE bit field, 7-4, 8-6
cacheability control, 3-12
CAS_LAT bit field, 10-20, 10-31
CBAR register, 4-2
CBE3–CBE0 signals
description, 2-6
usage, 2-7
CF_DRAM signal
control, 24-2
description, 2-12
usage, 10-19, 24-1, 24-3, 24-12
CF_ROM_GPCS signal
control, 24-2
description, 2-12
usage, 10-19, 24-1, 24-4, 24-5, 24-6, 24-12
CFG2–CFG0 signals
description, 2-13
usage, 2-6, 6-4, 6-6, 11-3, 12-2, 12-7, 12-14, 24-1
CFG3 signal
description, 2-13
usage, 16-1
CH3_ALT_SIZE bit field, 14-21
Chip Select Pin Function Select (CSPFS) register
function, 12-5, 13-6, 16-2, 17-2, 23-4
usage, 12-3, 13-3, 13-22, 16-1, 17-1, 23-5
Index-4
chip selects. See GPCS7–GPCS0 signals.
Class Code/Revision ID (PCICCREVID) register
function, 9-8
Clear To Send signals. See CTS2–CTS1 signals.
CLK_INV_ENB bit field, 22-5
CLK_PIN_DIR bit field, 5-3, 5-9, 16-1, 16-6, 16-7
CLK_PIN_ENB bit field, 5-9
CLK_SEL bit field, 5-8, 22-7
CLK_SRC bit field, 5-8, 21-10
CLK_TST_SEL bit field, 5-9
CLKMEMIN signal
description, 2-5
usage, 10-6, 10-7, 10-11
CLKMEMOUT signal
description, 2-5
usage, 10-6, 10-7, 10-11
CLKPCIIN signal
description, 2-6
usage, 9-5
CLKPCIOUT signal
description, 2-7
usage, 5-5, 9-2, 9-5, 9-6
CLKSEL register, 5-6, 23-4
CLKTEST signal
control, 5-3, 5-6, 16-1, 16-2
description, 2-10
usage, 5-9
CLKTIMER signal
control, 5-3, 5-6, 16-1, 16-2
description, 2-10
usage, 5-8, 5-9, 16-6, 16-7
clock generation and control
block diagram (figure), 5-2
CLKTEST clock routing (figure), 5-9
CLKTEST signal, 5-9
CLKTIMER signal, 5-9
clock distribution (figure), 5-3
clock sources (figure), 5-2
clock startup and lock times (table), 5-2
initialization, 5-9
internal clocks, 5-7
CPU, 5-7
general-purpose (GP) bus, 5-7
general-purpose (GP) timers, 5-8
GP-DMA controller, 5-8
PCI bus, 5-7
programmable interval timer (PIT), 5-8
real-time clock (RTC), 5-8
ROM/Flash interface, 5-7
SDRAM controller, 5-7
software timer, 5-8
synchronous serial interface (SSI), 5-8
UART serial ports, 5-8
watchdog timer, 5-8
operation, 5-7
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
PLL lock time (table), 5-2
PLLs, 5-7
registers, 5-6
signal descriptions, 2-10
system design, 5-3
bypassing 32.768-kHz oscillator (figure), 5-5
bypassing 33-MHz oscillator (figure), 5-6
bypassing internal oscillators, 2-10, 5-5
clock pin loading, 5-4
crystal selection, 5-4
shared signals (table), 5-3
timing error and clock accuracy (table), 5-5
Clock Select (CLKSEL) register
function, 5-6, 16-2, 21-3, 23-4
usage, 5-3, 5-9, 16-1, 16-6, 16-7
CMDACK signal
control, 25-4
description, 2-12
CNCR_MODE_ENB bit field, 8-3, 8-22, 24-10
code execution control, 3-12
Code Fetch ROM/GPCS signal.
See CF_ROM_GPCS signal.
Code Fetch SDRAM signal. See CF_DRAM signal.
Column Address Strobe signals.
See SCASA–SCASB signals.
Command Acknowledge signal. See CMDACK signal.
Command or Byte-Enable Bus signals.
See CBE3–CBE0 signals.
COMPTIM bit field, 14-9
configuration
signal descriptions, 2-13
Configuration Base Address (CBAR) register
function, 4-2
usage, 3-4, 4-9, 4-11, 4-17, 4-18, 4-21
Configuration Input 3 signal. See CFG3 signal.
Configuration Input signals. See CFG2–CFG0 signals.
configuration RAM
function, 20-7
CONT_CMP bit field, 17-4
CPU. See Am5x86® CPU.
CPU bus arbitration. See system arbitration.
CPU_PRI bit field, 8-8
CPU_RST bit field, 6-4, 6-7
CPUCTL register, 7-1
CSPFS register, 23-4
CTR_MODE bit field, 16-4
CTS2–CTS1 signals
control, 13-6, 21-2, 21-3, 21-4
description, 2-9, 21-6
usage, 21-2, 21-9
customer service, iii
D
data buses
boot device configuration, 12-7, 12-14
CFG2 pinstrap, 2-13
general-purpose (GP) bus data bus, 2-8
loading, 10-9, 12-3, 13-4
PCI data bus, 2-6
ROM/Flash controller data bus, 2-6
ROM/Flash controller data bus connection options
(table), 12-1
SDQMx signal behavior, 10-6
SDRAM controller data bus, 2-5
shared buses, 13-10
voltage isolation, 12-3
Data Carrier Detect signals. See DCD2–DCD1 signals.
Data Input/Output Mask signals.
See SDQM3–SDQM0 signals.
Data Set Ready signals. See DSR2–DSR1 signals.
data sheet, xxiv
Data Strobe signal. See DATASTRB signal.
Data Terminal Ready signals.
See DTR2–DTR1 signals.
DATASTRB signal
control, 24-2
description, 2-12
usage, 10-19, 24-1, 24-3, 24-4, 24-12
DBCTL register, 11-4
DCD2–DCD1 signals
control, 13-6, 21-2, 21-3, 21-4
description, 2-9, 21-6
usage, 21-2, 21-9
DCTS bit field, 21-6
DDCD bit field, 21-6
DDSR bit field, 21-6
DEBUG_ENTER signal
description, 2-13
usage, 25-2, 26-2
debugging. See chip test and debugging.
See also system test and debugging.
See also AMDebug™ technology.
Device Identification (DID) register
format, 25-14
function, 25-2
usage, 25-4, 25-14
Device Select signal. See DEVSEL signal.
Device/Vendor ID (PCIDEVID) register
function, 9-8
DEVICE_NUM bit field, 9-10
DEVSEL signal
control, 9-8
description, 2-7
timing, 9-19
usage, 9-3, 9-19
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-5
Index
DGP bit field, 12-7
DMA Buffer Chaining Interrupt Mapping
(DMABCINTMAP) register
function, 14-4, 15-5
DMA. See GP-DMA controller.
DMABCINTMAP register, 15-5
documentation, xxiv
Élan™SC520 microcontroller documentation, xxiv
literature ordering, iii, xxv
world wide web site, iii, xxv
documentation conventions, xxv
Documentation Notation table, xxv
DR bit field, 21-7
DRAM. See SDRAM controller.
DRCBENDADR register, 10-10
DRCCFG register, 10-10
DRCCTL register, 10-10
DRCTMCTL register, 10-10
Drive Strength Control (DSCTL) register
function, 10-10, 23-4
usage, 10-19
DSCTL register, 23-4
DSR2–DSR1 signals
control, 13-6, 21-2, 21-3, 21-4
description, 2-9, 21-6
usage, 21-2
DTR2–DTR1 signals
control, 21-4
description, 2-9, 21-6
usage, 21-2, 21-9
E
ECC Check Bit Position (ECCCKBPOS) register
function, 10-10
usage, 10-28
ECC Check Code Test (ECCCKTEST) register
function, 10-10, 24-2
usage, 10-17, 24-11
ECC Control (ECCCTL) register
function, 10-10
usage, 10-27
ECC Interrupt Mapping (ECCMAP) register
function, 10-10, 15-4
ECC Multi-Bit Error Address (ECCMBADD) register
function, 10-10, 24-2
usage, 10-28
ECC Single-Bit Error Address (ECCSBADD) register
function, 10-10, 24-2
usage, 10-28
ECC Status (ECCSTA) register
function, 10-10
usage, 10-27
Index-6
ECC. See SDRAM controller.
ECC_CHK_POS bit field, 10-28
ECCCKBPOS register, 10-10
ECCCKTEST register, 10-10
ECCCTL register, 10-10
ECCMAP register, 15-4
ECCMBADD register, 10-10
ECCSBADD register, 10-10
ECCSTA register, 10-10
Élan™SC520 microcontroller
applications, 1-8
digital set top box, 1-9
smart residential gateway, 1-8
telephone line concentrator, 1-9
thin client, 1-8
architectural overview, 1-4
address-mapping, 1-5
AMDebug™ technology, 1-4
clock generation, 1-6
general-purpose (GP) bus interface, 1-6
integrated peripherals, 1-7
JTAG boundary scan test interface, 1-7
PCI bus interface, 1-5
ROM/Flash controller, 1-5
SDRAM controller, 1-5
system testing and debugging features, 1-8
x86 architecture, 1-4
block diagram, 1-2
crystal specifications, xxiv
customer support, iii
distinctive characteristics, 1-1
logic diagram by default pin function, 2-3
logic diagram by interface, 2-2
package dimensions, xxiv
pin designations, xxiv
register descriptions, xxiv
thermal characteristics, xxiv
timing, xxiv
ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller Revision ID (REVID)
register
function, 7-1
usage, 25-14
EMSI bit field, 21-9
ENABLE bit field, 4-12, 4-17, 9-10, 9-11
ENB bit field, 19-3, 19-4, 19-6
ENH_MODE_ENB bit field, 14-10
Enter AMDebug Mode signal. See DEBUG_ENTER
signal.
EPS bit field, 21-8
ERR_IN_FIFO bit field, 21-8
EXP_SEL bit field, 5-8, 19-4
EXT_CLK bit field, 17-3
external oscillator, 2-10, 5-5
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
F
FE bit field, 21-8
FERRMAP register, 15-5
fields. See bit fields.
FIFO_ENB bit field, 21-9, 21-13
FIRST_DLY bit field, 12-8
Flash memory. See ROM/Flash controller
FLASHWR signal
description, 2-6
usage, 24-6
Floating Point Error Interrupt Clear (FPUERRCLR)
register
function, 7-1, 15-7
usage, 15-12
Floating Point Error Interrupt Mapping (FERRMAP)
register
function, 7-1, 15-5
floating point unit (FPU), 7-3
error handling, 15-12, 15-19
system reset, 7-3
FNINIT instruction, 7-3
FPUERRCLR register, 15-7
FRAME signal
description, 2-7
usage, 9-3, 9-9
FUNCTION_NUM bit field, 9-10
G
general-purpose (GP) bus
block diagram (figure), 13-2
bus cycles, 13-16
8-bit access of 16-bit I/O device (figure), 13-19
8-bit access of 8-bit I/O device (figure), 13-16
16-bit access of 16-bit I/O device (figure), 13-17
16-bit access of 8-bit I/O device (figure), 13-17
32-bit access of 16-bit I/O device (figure), 13-18
32-bit access of 8-bit I/O device (figure), 13-18
differentiating byte accesses of 16-bit devices
(table), 13-19
GPIOCS16 and GPMEMCS16 timing, 13-19
GPRDY timing (figure), 13-21
wait states, 13-20
bus sizing, 13-19
dynamic bus sizing override (table), 13-20
chip select qualification, 13-9
configuration, 4-16
configuring external GP bus devices, 3-7, 3-13
multiple devices on one chip select, 3-14
single device performing its own decode, 3-14
single device using one chip select, 3-14
configuring Programmable Address Region x
(PARx) registers, 3-8
data sizing, 13-9
DMA interface, 13-11
echo mode, 13-8, 13-10
echo mode minimum timing (table), 13-9
GP bus reset, 6-7
I/O space, 4-15
I/O-mapped device support, 13-9
initialization, 13-22
interrupts, 13-21
ISA bus compatibility, 13-11
ISA signals and GP bus signals (table), 13-12
latency, 13-21
8/16-bit GP bus width, 13-21
noncacheable GP bus, 13-21
slow GP bus cycles, 13-21
memory space, 4-9
memory-mapped device support, 13-9
operation, 13-6
overview, 13-1
programmable timing, 13-7
GPRDY, 13-8
programmable timing format (figure), 13-8
timing requirements, 13-7
registers, 13-5
serial communications controller interface, 13-14
Am85C30 interface (figure), 13-15
Am85C30 interface timing (figure), 13-16
sharing address and data bus with
ROM/Flash, 13-10
signal descriptions, 2-7, 2-11
Super I/O controller interface, 13-13
Super I/O controller interface (figure), 13-13
Super I/O interface timing (figure), 13-14
system design, 13-1
external data buffer (figure), 13-4
loading, 13-4
shared signals (table), 13-3
voltage translation, 13-4
voltage translation example (figure), 13-5
unaligned accesses, 13-9
usage scenarios, 13-11
general-purpose (GP) timers
block diagram (figure), 17-2
cascaded 32-bit timer, 17-6
clocking considerations, 17-5
external clock sources (table), 17-6
internal clock sources (table), 17-5
configuration, 17-5
GP Timer 0, 17-3
GP Timer 1, 17-3
GP Timer 2, 17-4
initialization, 17-8
interrupts, 17-6
operating modes, 17-4
alternate compare mode, 17-4
continuous mode, 17-4
hardware retrigger mode, 17-4
interrupt on terminal count mode, 17-4
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-7
Index
prescaler mode, 17-4
square wave mode, 17-4
operation, 17-3
registers, 17-2
signal descriptions, 2-10
software considerations, 17-6
combining GP Timer Count elements, 17-6
reading the cascaded 32-bit timer, 17-6
system design, 17-1
shared signals (table), 17-1
General-Purpose Address Bus signals.
See GPA25–GPA0 signals.
General-Purpose Chip Select signals.
See GPCS7–GPCS0 signals.
General-Purpose CMOS RAM (RTCCMOS) register
function, 20-7
General-Purpose Data Bus signals.
See GPD15–GPD0 signals.
GND signals
description, 2-14
GND_ANLG signal
description, 2-14
GNT_TO_ID bit field, 8-23
GNT_TO_INT_ENB bit field, 8-19, 8-23
GNT_TO_STA bit field, 8-19
GNT4–GNT0 signals
description, 2-7
usage, 8-7
GP ALE Offset (GPALEOFF) register
function, 13-6
usage, 13-8
GP ALE Pulse Width (GPALEW) register
function, 13-6
usage, 13-8
GP Bus Address Enable signal. See GPAEN signal.
GP Bus Address Latch Enable signal. See GPALE
signal.
GP Bus Byte High Enable signal. See GPBHE signal.
GP Bus Data Bus Buffer Output Enable signal.
See GPDBUFOE signal.
GP Bus DMA Acknowledge signals.
See GPDACK3–GPDACK0 signals.
GP Bus DMA Request signals.
See GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0 signals.
GP Bus I/O Chip-Select 16 signal.
See GPIOCS16 signal.
GP Bus I/O Read signal. See GPIORD signal.
GP Bus I/O Write signal. See GPIOWR signal.
GP Bus Interrupt Request signals.
See GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0 signals.
GP Bus Memory Chip-Select 16 signal.
See GPMEMCS16 signal.
GP Bus Memory Read signal. See GPMEMRD signal.
Index-8
GP Bus Memory Write signal. See GPMEMWR signal.
GP Bus Ready signal. See GPRDY signal.
GP Bus Reset signal. See GPRESET signal.
GP Bus Terminal Count signal. See GPTC signal.
GP Chip Select Data Width (GPCSDW) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-9, 13-19, 13-20, 13-22
GP Chip Select Offset (GPCSOFF) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-8
GP Chip Select Pulse Width (GPCSPW) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-8
GP Chip Select Qualification (GPCSQUAL) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-9, 13-22
GP Chip Select Recovery Time (GPCSRT) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-8
GP Echo Mode (GPECHO) register
function, 13-5, 24-2
usage, 13-22, 24-10
GP Read Offset (GPRDOFF) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-8
GP Read Pulse Width (GPRDW) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-8
GP Timer x Count (GPTMRxCNT) register
function, 17-2, 17-3
usage, 17-4
GP Timer x Interrupt Mapping (GPTMRxMAP) register
function, 15-4, 17-3
GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A
(GPTMRxMAXCMPA) register
function, 17-2, 17-3
usage, 17-4, 17-5, 17-6, 17-7, 17-8
GP Timer x Maxcount Compare B
(GPTMRxMAXCMPB) register
function, 17-2, 17-3
usage, 17-4, 17-5, 17-6, 17-8
GP Timer x Mode/Control (GPTMRxCTL) register
function, 5-6, 17-2, 17-3
usage, 5-8, 17-3, 17-4, 17-5, 17-6, 17-8
GP Timers Status (GPTMRSTA) register
function, 17-2
usage, 17-6
GP timers. See general-purpose (GP) timers.
GP Write Offset (GPWROFF) register
function, 13-6
usage, 13-8
GP Write Pulse Width (GPWRW) register
function, 13-5
usage, 13-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
GP_ECHO_ENB bit field, 24-10
GP_RST bit field, 6-4, 6-7, 13-22
GPA25–GPA0 signals
description, 2-6, 2-7
usage, 2-8, 13-1, 13-4, 13-10, 24-5, 24-6
GPAEN signal
control, 13-3, 13-6, 14-4
description, 2-8
usage, 13-10, 14-9, 14-17, 24-6
GPALE signal
control, 13-3, 13-6
description, 2-8
usage, 13-7, 24-6
GPALEOFF register, 13-6
GPALEW register, 13-6
GPBHE signal
control, 13-3, 13-6
description, 2-8
usage, 13-19
GPCS7–GPCS0 signals
configuration, 3-13, 4-5, 4-9, 4-16, 4-20
control, 3-10, 12-3, 13-3, 13-5, 13-6, 16-2, 17-1
description, 2-11
usage, 3-10, 12-3, 13-7, 24-4
GPCSDW register, 13-5
GPCSOFF register, 13-5
GPCSPW register, 13-5
GPCSQUAL register, 13-5
GPCSRT register, 13-5
GPCSx_SEL bit field, 12-3, 13-3, 16-1, 17-1
GPD15–GPD0 signals
description, 2-8
usage, 12-9, 13-10, 14-9, 24-6, 24-10
GPDACK3–GPDACK0 signals
control, 13-3, 13-6, 14-4
description, 2-8
usage, 14-3
GPDBUFOE signal
control, 13-3, 13-6
description, 2-8
usage, 13-4
GP-DMA Channel x Extended Page (GPDMAEXTPGx)
register
function, 14-4
usage, 14-11, 14-12
GP-DMA Channel x Extended Transfer Count
(GPDMAEXTTCx) register
function, 14-5
GP-DMA Channel x Next Address High
(GPDMANXTADDHx) register
function, 14-5, 14-6
usage, 14-15, 14-18
GP-DMA Channel x Next Address Low
(GPDMANXTADDLx) register
function, 14-5, 14-6
usage, 14-15, 14-18
GP-DMA Channel x Next Transfer Count High
(GPDMANXTTCHx) register
function, 14-6
usage, 14-15, 14-18
GP-DMA Channel x Next Transfer Count Low
(GPDMANXTTCLx) register
function, 14-6
usage, 14-15, 14-18
GP-DMA Control (GPDMACTL) register
function, 5-6, 14-4
usage, 5-8, 14-10, 14-18, 14-20
GP-DMA controller
addressing GP-DMA channels, 14-11
16-bit channel address generation (table), 14-12
8-bit channel address generation (table), 14-12
enhanced GP-DMA mode, 14-12
normal GP-DMA mode, 14-11
block diagram (figure), 14-2
bus cycles, 14-16
cycle types (table), 14-16
GP bus I/O to SDRAM, 14-16
read in demand transfer mode (figure), 14-16
read transfer (figure), 14-13
read transfer with cache hit (figure), 14-17
verify transfer (figure), 14-14
write transfer (figure), 14-14
channel mapping, 14-10
channel mapping (table), 14-10
clocking considerations, 14-18
example configurations, 14-19
16-bit channel in enhanced mode, 14-21
16-bit channel in normal mode, 14-20
8-bit channel in enhanced mode, 14-20
8-bit channel in normal mode, 14-19
fly-by transfers, 14-8
GP bus echo mode, 14-17
GP bus timing, 13-11
GP-DMA initiators, 14-9
external I/O devices, 14-9
external memory-mapped I/O devices, 14-10
internal UARTs, 14-9
GP-DMA transfer modes
automatic initialization control, 14-14
block transfer mode, 14-13
buffer chaining, 14-15
demand transfer mode, 14-12
priority, 14-15
single transfer mode, 14-12
transfer types, 14-13
GP-DMA transfers, 14-8
initialization, 14-19
initiator, 14-8
initiator/target combinations supported (table), 14-9
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-9
Index
interrupts, 14-18
latency, 14-18
nonpreemptive latency, 14-18
preemptive latency, 14-19
master and slave core cascading (figure), 14-3
operating modes, 14-10
enhanced GP-DMA mode, 14-11
normal GP-DMA mode, 14-10
operation, 14-8
overview, 14-1
PCI considerations, 14-9
peer-to-peer transfers, 14-9
registers, 14-4
signal descriptions, 2-7
software considerations, 14-18
system design, 14-3
shared signals (table), 14-4
target, 14-8
transfer modes, 14-12
GP-DMA Memory-Mapped I/O (GPDMAMMIO) register
function, 14-4
usage, 14-10
GP-DMA Resource Channel Map A
(GPDMAEXTCHMAPA) register
function, 14-4
usage, 14-10
GP-DMA Resource Channel Map B
(GPDMAEXTCHMAPB) register
function, 14-4
usage, 14-10
GPDMABCCTL register, 14-5
GPDMABCSTA register, 14-5
GPDMABCVAL register, 14-5
GPDMABSINTENB register, 14-5
GPDMACTL register, 14-4
GPDMAEXTCHMAPA register, 14-4
GPDMAEXTCHMAPB register, 14-4
GPDMAEXTPGx register, 14-4, 14-5
GPDMAEXTTCx register, 14-5
GPDMAMMIO register, 14-4
GPDMANXTADDHx register, 14-5, 14-6
GPDMANXTADDLx register, 14-5, 14-6
GPDMANXTTCHx register, 14-6
GPDMANXTTCLx register, 14-5, 14-6
GPDMAxMAR register, 14-7
GPDMAxPG register, 14-7
GPDMAxTC register, 14-7
GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0 signals
control, 13-3, 13-6, 14-4
description, 2-8
usage, 14-3, 14-10
GPECHO register, 13-5
Index-10
GPIOCS16 signal
control, 13-3, 13-6
description, 2-8
timing, 13-19
usage, 13-4, 13-10, 13-11, 24-6
GPIORD signal
control, 13-5
description, 2-8
usage, 13-4, 13-7, 13-9, 13-11, 13-20, 14-9,
14-17, 24-6
GPIOWR signal
control, 13-5
description, 2-8
usage, 13-7, 13-9, 13-11, 13-20, 14-9, 24-6
GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0 signals
control, 9-7, 13-3, 13-6, 15-2, 15-4
description, 2-9
usage, 2-7, 9-2, 13-21, 15-2, 15-5, 15-8, 23-3
GPIRQx Interrupt Mapping (GPxIMAP) register
function, 15-5
GPMEMCS16 signal
control, 13-3, 13-6
description, 2-9
timing, 13-19
usage, 13-4, 13-10, 13-11, 24-6
GPMEMRD signal
control, 13-5
description, 2-9
usage, 13-4, 13-7, 13-9, 13-11, 13-20, 14-10,
14-17, 24-4, 24-6
GPMEMWR signal
control, 13-5
description, 2-9
usage, 13-7, 13-9, 13-11, 13-20, 14-10, 14-17, 24-6
GPRDOFF register, 13-5
GPRDW register, 13-5
GPRDY signal
control, 13-3, 13-6
description, 2-9
timing, 13-20
usage, 13-4, 13-8, 13-11, 13-13, 13-20, 24-6
GPRESET signal
control, 6-3, 13-6, 13-22
description, 2-9
usage, 6-4, 6-7
GPTC signal
control, 13-3, 13-6, 14-4
description, 2-9
usage, 14-3, 14-9, 14-12, 14-18
GPTMRSTA register, 17-2
GPTMRxCNT register, 17-2, 17-3
GPTMRxCTL register, 17-2, 17-3
GPTMRxMAP register, 15-4
GPTMRxMAXCMPA register, 17-2, 17-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
GPTMRxMAXCMPB register, 17-2, 17-3
GPWROFF register, 13-6
GPWRW register, 13-5
GPxIMAP register, 15-5
Ground signal. See GND signal.
H
HBCTL register, 9-7
HBMSTIRQCTL register, 9-7
HBMSTIRQSTA register, 9-7
HBTGTIRQCTL register, 9-7
HBTGTIRQSTA register, 9-7
Header Type (PCIHEADTYPE) register
function, 9-8
HI_PRI_0_SEL bit field, 8-8
HI_PRI_1_SEL bit field, 8-8
Host Bridge Control (HBCTL) register
function, 6-3, 9-7
usage, 6-7, 9-11, 9-19, 9-22, 9-29
Host Bridge Master Interrupt Address (MSTINTADD)
register
function, 9-7
usage, 9-12, 9-27
Host Bridge Master Interrupt Control (HBMSTIRQCTL)
register
function, 9-7
usage, 8-19
Host Bridge Master Interrupt Status (HBMSTIRQSTA)
register
function, 9-7
usage, 9-27
Host Bridge Target Interrupt Control (HBTGTIRQCTL)
register
function, 9-7
usage, 8-19
Host Bridge Target Interrupt Status (HBTGTIRQSTA)
register
function, 9-7
usage, 9-27
HOUR_MODE_SEL bit field, 20-7
I
I/O map. See address mapping.
ICE_HRST_DET bit field, 6-8
ICE_ON_RST bit field, 6-5, 6-7, 24-11
ICE_SRST_DET bit field, 6-8
ICEMAP register, 15-5
initialization
See also system initialization.
address mapping, 4-21
Am5x86® CPU, 7-5
clocks, 5-9
general-purpose (GP) bus, 13-22
general-purpose (GP) timers, 17-8
GP-DMA controller, 14-19
JTAG test access port (TAP) controller, 25-20
PCI host bridge, 9-29
power-on reset, 6-9
programmable input/output (PIO), 23-6
programmable interrupt controller (PIC), 15-20
programmable interval timer (PIT), 16-7
read buffer, 11-15
real-time clock (RTC), 20-10
reset types, 6-3
ROM/Flash controller, 12-14
SDRAM controller, 10-29
software timer, 18-3
synchronous serial interface (SSI), 22-8
system arbiter, 8-22
system reset, 6-4
UART serial ports, 21-13
watchdog timer (WDT), 19-6
write buffer, 11-15
Initiator Ready signal. See IRDY signal.
INST_TRCE signal
description, 2-13
usage, 26-2
Instruction (IR) register
function, 25-2
usage, 25-3, 25-3, 25-4–25-5, 25-15, 25-17, 25-20
instruction set manual, xxiv
Instruction Trace signal. See INST_TRCE signal.
INT_ENB bit field, 17-4
INTA–INTD signals
control, 9-7
description, 2-7, 15-4
usage, 9-2, 15-2, 15-8
Interrupt Control (PICICR) register
function, 15-4
usage, 3-19, 7-6, 15-14, 15-18, 20-10
Interrupt Pin Polarity (INTPINPOL) register
function, 9-7, 15-4
usage, 3-20
Interrupt Request signals. See INTA–INTD signals.
interrupts. See programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
INTPINPOL register, 15-4
IRDY signal
description, 2-7
usage, 9-3
IRQ_FLG bit field, 19-4, 19-5
ISA bus compatibility
ISA features not supported, 13-11
ISA signals and GP bus signals (table), 13-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-11
Index
J
JTAG boundary scan test interface
block diagram (figure), 25-1
board continuity testing, 25-2
Boundary Scan register (figure), 25-1
bus cycles, 25-19
data scan (figure), 25-19
instruction scan (figure), 25-20
clocking considerations, 25-20
configuration information, 25-5
bypass path, 25-5
instruction path, 25-5
main data scan path, 25-5
Device Identification register (figure), 25-14
initialization, 25-20
instruction register, 25-3
BYPASS instruction, 25-4
EXTEST instruction, 25-3
HIGHZ instruction, 25-4
IDCODE instruction, 25-4
SAMPLE/PRELOAD instruction, 25-4
main data scan path (table), 25-5
operation, 25-2
overview, 25-1
registers, 25-2
Serial Debug Port Data register (figure), 25-14
signal descriptions, 2-12
TAP controller state diagram (figure), 25-15
TAP instruction set (table), 25-3
test access port (TAP) controller, 25-15
capture-DR state, 25-16
capture-IR state, 25-17
exit1-DR state, 25-16
exit1-IR state, 25-18
exit2-DR state, 25-17
exit2-IR state, 25-18
pause-DR state, 25-16
pause-IR state, 25-18
run-test-idle state, 25-16
select-DR-scan state, 25-16
select-IR-scan state, 25-17
shift-DR state, 25-16
shift-IR state, 25-17
test-logic-reset state, 25-15
update-DR state, 25-17
update-IR state, 25-18
JTAG_TCK signal
description, 2-12
usage, 25-2, 25-4, 26-3
JTAG_TDI signal
description, 2-12
usage, 25-2, 25-4, 25-5, 26-3
JTAG_TDO signal
description, 2-12
usage, 25-2, 25-3, 25-4, 25-5, 26-3
Index-12
JTAG_TMS signal
usage, 2-12, 25-15, 26-3
JTAG_TRST signal
description, 2-12
usage, 25-15
L
LF_PLL1 signal
description, 2-10
usage, 5-2
logic diagram
default pin function, 2-3
interface, 2-2
LOOP bit field, 21-13
Loop Filter Interface signal. See LF_PLL1 signal.
LTIM bit field, 3-19
M
M_AD_IRQ_ID bit field, 9-27
M_CMD_IRQ_ID bit field, 9-27
M_GINT_MODE bit field, 15-18
M_RETRY_TO bit field, 9-12, 9-28
M_WPOST_ENB bit field, 9-11
MA12–MA0 signals
control, 10-10, 10-19
description, 2-5
usage, 10-31, 24-4, 24-7, 24-9
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Control (MSTDMACTL)
register
function, 14-7
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mask (MSTDMAMSK)
register
function, 14-7
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mode (MSTDMAMODE)
register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-11, 14-14, 14-19
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Status (MSTDMASTA)
register
function, 14-7
Master DMA Channel x Memory Address
(GPDMAxMAR) register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-11, 14-12, 14-18
Master DMA Channel x Page (GPDMAxPG) register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-11, 14-12
Master DMA Channel x Transfer Count (GPDMAxTC)
register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-9, 14-18
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
Master DMA Clear Byte Pointer (MSTDMACBP)
register
function, 14-7
Master DMA Controller Reset (MSTDMARST) register
function, 14-8
usage, 14-19
Master DMA Controller Temporary (MSTDMATMP)
register
function, 14-8
Master DMA General Mask (MSTDMAGENMSK)
register
function, 14-8
usage, 14-20
Master DMA Mask Reset (MSTDMAMSKRST) register
function, 14-8
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 1 (MPICICW1)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-16, 15-18
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 2 (MPICICW2)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-16, 15-18
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 3 (MPICICW3)
register
function, 15-7
usage, 15-16, 15-17, 15-18, 15-19
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 4 (MPICICW4)
register
function, 15-7
usage, 15-16, 15-17, 15-18
Master PIC In-Service (MPICISR) register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-17
Master PIC Interrupt Mask (MPICINTMSK) register
function, 15-7
usage, 15-17
Master PIC Interrupt Mode (MPICMODE) register
function, 15-4
Master PIC Interrupt Request (MPICIR) register
function, 15-6
Master PIC Operation Control Word 2 (MPICOCW2)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-17
Master PIC Operation Control Word 3 (MPICOCW3)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-17
Master Retry Time-Out (PCIMRETRYTO) register
function, 9-8
usage, 9-12, 9-28
Master Software DRQ(n) Request (MSTDMASWREQ)
register
function, 14-7
MATCH bit field, 4-18
MBIT_ERR bit field, 10-27
MD31–MD0 signals
control, 10-10, 10-19, 23-4
description, 2-5, 2-6
usage, 10-6, 10-9, 24-4, 24-6
MECC6–MECC0 signals
control, 10-10, 10-19, 23-4
description, 2-5
usage, 10-9
MEM_ENB bit field, 9-11, 9-18
Memory Data Bus signals. See MD31–MD0 signals.
Memory Error Correction Code signals.
See MECC6–MECC0 signals.
memory map. See address mapping.
memory-mapped configuration region, 4-1, 4-9
memory space, 4-4
priority, 4-18
relocating, 4-11, 4-18
memory-mapped configuration region (MMCR)
integrated memory-mapped peripherals, 4-10
MMCR. See memory-mapped configuration region.
See also address mapping.
MODE bit field, 12-7
MPICICW1 register, 15-6
MPICICW2 register, 15-6
MPICICW3 register, 15-7
MPICICW4 register, 15-7
MPICINTMSK register, 15-7
MPICIR register, 15-6
MPICISR register, 15-6
MPICMODE register, 15-4
MPICOCW2 register, 15-6
MPICOCW3 register, 15-6
MSBF_ENB bit field, 22-5
MSTDMACBP register, 14-7
MSTDMACTL register, 14-7
MSTDMAGENMSK register, 14-8
MSTDMAMODE register, 14-7
MSTDMAMSK register, 14-7
MSTDMAMSKRST register, 14-8
MSTDMARST register, 14-8
MSTDMASTA register, 14-7
MSTDMASWREQ register, 14-7
MSTDMATMP register, 14-8
MSTINTADD register, 9-7
MULT_INT_ENB bit field, 10-27
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-13
Index
N
NMI. See programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
NMI_DONE bit field, 15-14
NMI_ENB bit field, 6-7, 15-14, 15-20, 20-10
O
OE bit field, 21-7, 21-8
OPMODE_SEL bit field, 10-20, 10-30, 10-31, 10-32
OSC_CTL bit field, 20-7, 20-10
OUT2 bit field, 21-13
P
PAR signal
description, 2-7
Parity Error signal. See PERR signal.
PARx register, 4-2
PC/AT compatibility, 1-7
a20 gate support, 6-8
address mapping, 4-13
general-purpose (GP) bus configuration, 13-6
GP-DMA transfers, 14-1, 14-8
interrupt channel mapping (table), 15-12
ISA devices, 13-11
ISA signals and GP bus signals (table), 13-12
normal GP-DMA mode, 14-11
PC/AT peripherals I/O map (table), 4-14
PC/AT port logic, 6-8, 16-4
programmable interrupt controller (PIC)
configuration, 15-18
programmable interval timer (PIT) clock
source, 16-6
real-time clock (RTC), 20-5
Windows® compatibility, 4-17
PC/AT port logic
a20 gate support, 6-8
SCP Command Port register (Port 0064h), 6-8
SCP Data Port register (Port 0060h), 6-8
System Control Port A register (Port 0092h), 6-8
System Control Port B register (Port 0061h), 16-4
PCI Address Data Bus signals. See AD31–AD0 signals.
PCI Bus Arbiter Status (PCIARBSTA) register
function, 8-2
usage, 8-10, 8-19, 8-23
PCI bus arbitration. See system arbitration.
PCI Bus Clock Input signal. See CLKPCIIN signal.
PCI Bus Clock Output signal. See CLKPCIOUT signal.
PCI bus. See PCI host bridge.
PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR) register
format (figure), 9-10
function, 9-8
usage, 4-12, 9-9, 9-10, 9-17
Index-14
PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA) register
function, 9-8
usage, 4-12, 9-9, 9-10, 9-11, 9-17
PCI host bridge
arbitration, 8-3
block diagram (figure), 9-2
broken transactions, 8-19
bus arbitration, 8-3
configuration, 9-9
generating configuration cycles, 9-10
configuration space, 4-12
configuring PCI bus devices
network adapter, 3-16
VGA controller on PCI bus, 3-15
host bridge as PCI bus master, 9-11
bus cycles, 9-12
configuration read/write (figure), 9-17
CPU non-posted write cycle (figure), 9-16
CPU posted write cycle (figure), 9-15
CPU read cycle (figure), 9-12
CPU read with external target retry
(figure), 9-14
delayed transaction support, 9-12
read cycles, 9-12
write posting, 9-11
host bridge as PCI bus target, 9-18
address FIFO, 9-20
burst ordering, 9-21
bus cycles, 9-22
external master SDRAM read (figure), 9-24
external master SDRAM write (figure), 9-22
target disconnect (figure), 9-25
command support, 9-19
data coherency, 9-21
delayed transaction support, 9-19
DEVSEL timing, 9-19
FIFOs and prefetching, 9-20
target address space, 9-18
I/O space, 4-4, 4-12
initialization, 9-29
interrupts, 8-19, 9-27
delayed transaction time-out, 9-27
master abort, 9-27
parity errors, 9-27
retry time-out counter expired, 9-27
system error, 9-27
target abort, 9-27
latency, 9-28
master latency, 9-28
target latency, 9-28
memory space, 4-4, 4-9
operation, 9-8
PCI bus arbiter
bus parking, 8-7
PCI reset, 6-7
registers, 9-7
SDRAM read buffer, 11-12
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
SDRAM write buffer, 11-12
signal descriptions, 2-6
system design, 9-2
clocking in heavily loaded system (figure), 9-6
clocking in lightly loaded system (figure), 9-6
crystal selection implications, 9-6
external PCI bus master connection (figure), 9-4
external PCI bus target connection (figure), 9-3
PCI clocking, 9-5
SERR and PERR connection (figure), 9-5
unsupported configuration registers, 9-9
unsupported functions, 9-8
PCI Host Bridge Interrupt Mapping (PCIHOSTMAP)
register
function, 8-3, 9-7, 15-4
usage, 8-19
PCI Interrupt A Mapping (PCIINTAMAP) register
function, 9-7, 15-5
PCI Interrupt B Mapping (PCIINTBMAP) register
function, 9-7, 15-5
PCI Interrupt C Mapping (PCIINTCMAP) register
function, 9-7, 15-5
PCI Interrupt D Mapping (PCIINTDMAP) register
function, 9-7, 15-5
PCI Parity signal. See PAR signal.
PCI_RST bit field, 6-4, 6-7, 9-29
PCIARBSTA register, 8-2
PCICCREVID register, 9-8
PCICFGADR register, 9-8
PCICFGDATA register, 9-8
PCIDEVID register, 9-8
PCIHEADTYPE register, 9-8
PCIHOSTMAP register, 15-4
PCIINTAMAP register, 15-5
PCIINTBMAP register, 15-5
PCIINTCMAP register, 15-5
PCIINTDMAP register, 15-5
PCIMRETRYTO register, 9-8
PCISTACMD register, 9-8
PE bit field, 21-8
PENB bit field, 21-5, 21-8
PER_INT_ENB bit field, 20-8
PER_INT_FLG bit field, 20-8
PERR signal
description, 2-7
usage, 9-3
PG_SZ bit field, 3-9, 3-10, 4-5
PHS_INV_ENB bit field, 22-5
PIC. See programmable interrupt controller (PIC).
PICICR register, 15-4
pins. See signals.
pinstraps
signal descriptions, 2-13
PIO functions. See programmable input/output (PIO).
PIO15–PIO0 Clear (PIOCLR15_0) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIO15–PIO0 Data (PIODATA15_0) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIO15–PIO0 Direction (PIODIR15_0) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select (PIOPFS15_0)
register
function, 13-6, 14-4, 15-4, 23-4
usage, 3-8, 13-3, 14-4, 15-2, 23-3, 23-5
PIO15–PIO0 Set (PIOSET15_0) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIO31–PIO0 signals
control, 13-3, 14-4, 15-2, 21-2, 23-3
usage, 23-6
PIO31–PIO16 Clear (PIOCLR31_16) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIO31–PIO16 Data (PIODATA31_16) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIO31–PIO16 Direction (PIODIR31_16) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function Select (PIOPFS31_16)
register
function, 13-6, 15-4, 21-3, 23-4
usage, 3-8, 13-3, 15-2, 21-2, 23-3, 23-5
PIO31–PIO16 Set (PIOSET31_16) register
function, 23-4
usage, 23-5
PIOCLR15_0 register, 23-4
PIOCLR31_16 register, 23-4
PIODATA15_0 register, 23-4
PIODATA31_16 register, 23-4
PIODIR15_0 register, 23-4
PIODIR31_16 register, 23-4
PIOPFS15_0 register, 23-4
PIOPFS31_16 register, 23-4
PIOSET31_16 register, 23-4
PIOx_FNC bit field, 13-3, 14-4, 15-2, 21-2, 23-3
PIT Channel x Count (PITxCNT) register
function, 16-3
usage, 16-4, 16-6
PIT Counter Latch Command (PITCNTLAT) register
function, 16-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-15
Index
PIT Mode Control (PITMODECTL) register
function, 16-3
usage, 16-4, 16-7
PIT Read-Back Command (PITRDBACK) register
function, 16-3
PIT x Interrupt Mapping (PITxMAP) register
function, 15-4, 16-2
PIT x Status (PITxSTA) register
function, 16-3
PIT. See programmable interval timer (PIT).
PIT_GATE2 bit field, 16-4
PIT_OUT2_ENB bit field, 16-4
PIT_OUT2_STA bit field, 16-4
PITCNTLAT register, 16-3
PITGATE2 signal
control, 13-3, 13-6, 16-1, 16-2, 16-4
description, 2-10
PITMODECTL register, 16-3
PITOUT2 signal
control, 16-3
description, 2-10
usage, 16-1, 16-4
PITRDBACK register, 16-3
PITxCNT register, 16-3
PITxMAP register, 15-4
PITxSTA register, 16-3
PLL. See clock generation and control. See also reset
generation.
power
signal descriptions, 2-14
Power Good signal. See PWRGOOD signal.
Power Supply signals. See VCC_CORE signal, VCC_I/
O signal, and VCC_RTC signal.
power-on reset, 6-9
PRG_RST_ENB bit field, 3-4, 6-4, 6-6, 10-29
PRGRESET signal
control, 6-3, 10-10
description, 2-10
timing (figure), 6-6
usage, 3-4, 6-4, 6-6, 6-8, 6-9, 10-10, 10-29
PRGRST_DET bit field, 6-8
Programmable Address Region x (PARx) registers
address region attributes, 3-12
cacheability control, 3-12
code execution control, 3-12
doubleword boundaries, 4-20
external GP bus devices, 3-13
external ROM devices, 3-17
format (figure), 3-10
function, 4-2, 24-2
maximum region size, 4-20
PAR register priority, 3-13
PCI bus devices, 3-15
Index-16
performance considerations of attributes, 3-12
region size, 4-18
SDRAM regions, 3-18
software considerations, 4-18
specifying pages and regions, 3-9
start address, 4-18
usage, 2-11, 3-8, 3-10, 4-5, 12-14, 13-6, 13-9, 13-2
2, 15-9
worksheet (figure), 3-11
write-protection, 3-12
programmable input/output (PIO)
block diagram (figure), 23-2
configuration
configuration summary (table), 23-5
input pins, 23-5
output pins, 23-5
initialization, 23-6
operation, 23-4
overview, 23-1
PIO31–PIO0 signals, 23-4
registers, 23-4
signal descriptions, 2-11
software considerations, 23-5
system design, 23-2
shared signals (table), 23-3
Programmable Input/Output signals. See PIO31–PIO0
signals.
programmable interrupt controller (PIC)
block diagram (figure), 15-3
configuration, 15-16
PC/AT configuration, 15-18
programming, 15-16
configuring interrupt mapping, 3-19
edge-triggered or level-sensitive interrupts, 15-13
initialization, 15-20
interrupt flow sequence, 15-7
interrupt sharing, 15-13
interrupt source routing, 15-10
disabling the slave controllers, 15-13
floating point error handling, 15-12
PC/AT compatibility, 15-12
polarity inversion of interrupt requests, 15-10
interrupt source routing (figure), 15-11
interrupt sources, 15-8
hardware-generated interrupts, 15-8
interrupt sources (figure), 15-9
non-maskable interrupts and routing, 15-14
NMI routing (figure), 15-15
NMI sharing, 15-14
operation, 15-7
overview, 15-1
PC/AT interrupt channel mapping (table), 15-12
priority types, 15-16
registers, 15-4
software considerations, 15-18
detecting invalid interrupt requests, 15-19
disabling the slave controllers, 15-19
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
floating point unit error handling, 15-19
interrupt sharing, 15-18
system design, 15-2
shared signals (table), 15-2
programmable interval timer (PIT)
block diagram (figure), 16-2
clocking considerations, 16-6
external clock source (table), 16-6
internal clock source (table), 16-6
initialization, 16-7
interrupts, 16-6
operating modes, 16-4
hardware-retriggerable one-shot, 16-4
hardware-triggered strobe, 16-5
interrupt on terminal count, 16-4
rate generator, 16-5
software-triggered strobe, 16-5
square wave mode, 16-5
operation, 16-3
overview, 16-1
PIT Channel 0, 16-3
PIT Channel 1, 16-3
PIT Channel 2, 16-4
registers, 16-2
signal descriptions, 2-10
software considerations, 16-6
PC/AT-compatible systems, 16-6
system design, 16-1
shared signals (table), 16-1
Programmable Interval Timer 2 Gate signal. See
PITGATE2 signal.
Programmable Interval Timer 2 Output signal. See
PITOUT2 signal.
programmable reset, 6-6, 10-29
Programmable Reset signal. See PRGRESET signal.
PSC_SEL bit field, 17-3
pulldown resistors
configuration signals, 2-13
ECC devices not installed, 10-9
internal value, 2-4
JTAG boundary scan test interface, 25-16
JTAG signals, 2-12
PIO31–PIO0 signals, 23-1–23-2
PIO31–PIO0 signals (table), 23-3
SSI devices, 22-1
pullup resistors
GP bus external pullups required, 13-4
GPRDY signal, 2-9
internal value, 2-4
JTAG boundary scan test interface, 25-4
JTAG signals, 2-12
PCI external pullups required, 9-3
PIO31–PIO0 signals, 23-1–23-2
PIO31–PIO0 signals (table), 23-3
SSI devices, 22-1
UART serial port signals, 21-2
PWRGOOD signal
description, 2-10
timing, 6-9
usage, 6-2, 6-4, 6-8, 20-5
PWRGOOD_DET bit field, 6-8
R
RAS_CAS_DLY bit field, 10-21
RAS_PCHG_DLY bit field, 10-21
RATE_SEL bit field, 20-8
read buffer. See write buffer and read buffer.
real-time clock (RTC)
block diagram (figure), 20-2
configuration, 20-7
alarm function, 20-9
date and time, 20-8
hour format, 20-7
periodic interrupts, 20-8
using RATE_SEL (table), 20-8
year 2000 issues, 20-9
disabling, 3-21
initialization, 20-10
RTC reset, 20-11
interrupts, 20-9
operation, 20-7
overview, 20-1
registers, 20-6
RTC reset, 6-7
software considerations, 20-10
accessing the CMOS memory, 20-10
initializing the RTC divider chain, 20-10
legacy NMI enable bit moved, 20-10
system design, 20-3
backup battery considerations, 20-3
circuit with backup battery (figure), 20-4
circuit without backup battery (figure), 20-5
external RTC, 20-5
selecting and interfacing a 32.768-kHz
crystal, 20-5
voltage monitor, 20-2
voltage monitor block diagram (figure), 20-3
register set manual, xxiv
REGISTER_NUM bit field, 9-10
registers
Address Decode Control (ADDDECCTL), 4-2
Am5x86 CPU Control (CPUCTL), 7-1
AMDebug Technology RX/TX Interrupt Mapping
(ICEMAP), 15-5
Arbiter Priority Control (ARBPRICTL), 8-2
BOOTCS Control (BOOTCSCTL), 12-5
Buffer Chaining Control (GPDMABCCTL), 14-5
Buffer Chaining Interrupt Enable
(GPDMABSINTENB), 14-5
Buffer Chaining Status (GPDMABCSTA), 14-5
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-17
Index
registers (continued)
Buffer Chaining Valid (GPDMABCVAL), 14-5
Chip Select Pin Function Select (CSPFS), 23-4
Class Code/Revision ID (PCICCREVID), 9-8
Clock Select (CLKSEL), 5-6, 23-4
Configuration Base Address (CBAR), 4-2
Device/Vendor ID (PCIDEVID), 9-8
DMA Buffer Chaining Interrupt Mapping
(DMABCINTMAP), 14-4, 15-5
Drive Strength Control (DSCTL), 23-4
ECC Check Bit Position (ECCCKBPOS), 10-10
ECC Check Code Test (ECCCKTEST), 10-10
ECC Control (ECCCTL), 10-10
ECC Interrupt Mapping (ECCMAP), 15-4
ECC Multi-Bit Error Address (ECCMBADD), 10-10
ECC Single-Bit Error Address (ECCSBADD), 10-10
ECC Status (ECCSTA), 10-10
ÉlanSC520 Microcontroller Revision ID
(REVID), 7-1
Floating Point Error Interrupt Clear
(FPUERRCLR), 15-7
Floating Point Error Interrupt Mapping
(FERRMAP), 15-5
General-Purpose CMOS RAM (RTCCMOS), 20-7
GP ALE Offset (GPALEOFF), 13-6
GP ALE Pulse Width (GPALEW), 13-6
GP Chip Select Data Width (GPCSDW), 13-5
GP Chip Select Offset (GPCSOFF), 13-5
GP Chip Select Pulse Width (GPCSPW), 13-5
GP Chip Select Qualification (GPCSQUAL), 13-5
GP Chip Select Recovery Time (GPCSRT), 13-5
GP Echo Mode (GPECHO), 13-5
GP Read Offset (GPRDOFF), 13-5
GP Read Pulse Width (GPRDW), 13-5
GP Timer x Count (GPTMRxCNT), 17-2, 17-3
GP Timer x Interrupt Mapping (GPTMRxMAP), 15-4
GP Timer x Maxcount Compare A
(GPTMRxMAXCMPA), 17-2, 17-3
GP Timer x Maxcount Compare B
(GPTMRxMAXCMPB), 17-2, 17-3
GP Timer x Mode/Control
(GPTMRxCTL), 17-2, 17-3
GP Timers Status (GPTMRSTA), 17-2
GP Write Offset (GPWROFF), 13-6
GP Write Pulse Width (GPWRW), 13-5
GP-DMA Channel x Extended Page
(GPDMAEXTPGx), 14-4, 14-5
GP-DMA Channel x Extended Transfer Count
(GPDMAEXTTCx), 14-5
GP-DMA Channel x Next Address High
(GPDMANXTADDHx), 14-5, 14-6
GP-DMA Channel x Next Address Low
(GPDMANXTADDLx), 14-5, 14-6
GP-DMA Channel x Next Transfer Count High
(GPDMANXTTCHx), 14-6
GP-DMA Channel x Next Transfer Count Low
(GPDMANXTTCLx), 14-6
Index-18
registers (continued)
GP-DMA Control (GPDMACTL), 14-4
GP-DMA Memory-Mapped I/O
(GPDMAMMIO), 14-4
GP-DMA Resource Channel Map A
(GPDMAEXTCHMAPA), 14-4
GP-DMA Resource Channel Map B
(GPDMAEXTCHMAPB), 14-4
GPIRQx Interrupt Mapping (GPxIMAP), 15-5
Header Type (PCIHEADTYPE), 9-8
Host Bridge Control (HBCTL), 9-7
Host Bridge Master Interrupt Address
(MSTINTADD), 9-7
Host Bridge Master Interrupt Control
(HBMSTIRQCTL), 9-7
Host Bridge Master Interrupt Status
(HBMSTIRQSTA), 9-7
Host Bridge Target Interrupt Control
(HBTGTIRQCTL), 9-7
Host Bridge Target Interrupt Status
(HBTGTIRQSTA), 9-7
Interrupt Control (PICICR), 15-4
Interrupt Pin Polarity (INTPINPOL), 15-4
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Control
(MSTDMACTL), 14-7
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mask
(MSTDMAMSK), 14-7
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Mode
(MSTDMAMODE), 14-7
Master DMA Channel 4–7 Status
(MSTDMASTA), 14-7
Master DMA Channel x Memory Address
(GPDMAxMAR), 14-7
Master DMA Channel x Page (GPDMAxPG), 14-7
Master DMA Channel x Transfer Count
(GPDMAxTC), 14-7
Master DMA Clear Byte Pointer
(MSTDMACBP), 14-7
Master DMA Controller Reset (MSTDMARST), 14-8
Master DMA Controller Temporary
(MSTDMATMP), 14-8
Master DMA General Mask
(MSTDMAGENMSK), 14-8
Master DMA Mask Reset (MSTDMAMSKRST), 14-8
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 1
(MPICICW1), 15-6
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 2
(MPICICW2), 15-6
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 3
(MPICICW3), 15-7
Master PIC Initialization Control Word 4
(MPICICW4), 15-7
Master PIC In-Service (MPICISR), 15-6
Master PIC Interrupt Mask (MPICINTMSK), 15-7
Master PIC Interrupt Mode (MPICMODE), 15-4
Master PIC Interrupt Request (MPICIR), 15-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
registers (continued)
Master PIC Operation Control Word 2
(MPICOCW2), 15-6
Master PIC Operation Control Word 3
(MPICOCW3), 15-6
Master Retry Time-Out (PCIMRETRYTO), 9-8
Master Software DRQ(n) Request
(MSTDMASWREQ), 14-7
PCI Bus Arbiter Status (PCIARBSTA), 8-2
PCI Configuration Address (PCICFGADR), 9-8
PCI Configuration Data (PCICFGDATA), 9-8
PCI Host Bridge Interrupt Mapping
(PCIHOSTMAP), 15-4
PCI Interrupt A Mapping (PCIINTAMAP), 15-5
PCI Interrupt B Mapping (PCIINTBMAP), 15-5
PCI Interrupt C Mapping (PCIINTCMAP), 15-5
PCI Interrupt D Mapping (PCIINTDMAP), 15-5
PIO15–PIO0 Clear (PIOCLR15_0), 23-4
PIO15–PIO0 Data (PIODATA15_0), 23-4
PIO15–PIO0 Direction (PIODIR15_0), 23-4
PIO15–PIO0 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS15_0), 23-4
PIO15–PIO0 Set (PIOSET15_0), 23-4
PIO31–PIO16 Clear (PIOCLR31_16), 23-4
PIO31–PIO16 Data (PIODATA31_16), 23-4
PIO31–PIO16 Direction (PIODIR31_16), 23-4
PIO31–PIO16 Pin Function Select
(PIOPFS31_16), 23-4
PIO31–PIO16 Set (PIOSET31_16), 23-4
PIT Channel x Count (PITxCNT), 16-3
PIT Counter Latch Command (PITCNTLAT), 16-3
PIT Mode Control (PITMODECTL), 16-3
PIT Read-Back Command (PITRDBACK), 16-3
PIT x Interrupt Mapping (PITxMAP), 15-4
PIT x Status (PITxSTA), 16-3
Programmable Address Region x (PARx), 4-2
Reset Configuration (RESCFG), 6-3
Reset Status (RESSTA), 6-3
ROMCS1 Control (ROMCS1CTL), 12-5
ROMCS2 Control (ROMCS2CTL), 12-5
RTC Alarm Hour (RTCALMHR), 20-6
RTC Alarm Minute (RTCALMMIN), 20-6
RTC Alarm Second (RTCALMSEC), 20-6
RTC Control A (RTCCTLA), 20-7
RTC Control B (RTCCTLB), 20-7
RTC Current Day of the Month
(RTCCURDOM), 20-6
RTC Current Day of the Week
(RTCCURDOW), 20-6
RTC Current Hour (RTCCURHR), 20-6
RTC Current Minute (RTCCURMIN), 20-6
RTC Current Month (RTCCURMON), 20-6
RTC Current Second (RTCCURSEC), 20-6
RTC Current Year (RTCCURYR), 20-6
RTC Interrupt Mapping (RTCMAP), 15-5
RTC Status C (RTCSTAC), 20-7
RTC Status D (RTCSTAD), 20-7
registers (continued)
RTC/CMOS RAM Data Port (RTCDATA), 20-6
RTC/CMOS RAM Index (RTCIDX), 20-6
SCP Command Port (SCPCMD), 6-3
SCP Data Port (SCPDATA), 6-3
SDRAM Bank 0–3 Ending Address
(DRCBENDADR), 10-10
SDRAM Bank Configuration (DRCCFG), 10-10
SDRAM Buffer Control (DBCTL), 11-4
SDRAM Control (DRCCTL), 10-10
SDRAM Timing Control (DRCTMCTL), 10-10
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Control (SLDMACTL), 14-7
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Mask (SLDMAMSK), 14-7
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Mode
(SLDMAMODE), 14-7
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Status (SLDMASTA), 14-7
Slave DMA Channel x Memory Address
(GPDMAxMAR), 14-7
Slave DMA Channel x Page (GPDMAxPG), 14-7
Slave DMA Channel x Transfer Count
(GPDMAxTC), 14-7
Slave DMA Clear Byte Pointer (SLDMACBP), 14-7
Slave DMA Controller Reset (SLDMARST), 14-8
Slave DMA Controller Temporary
(SLDMATMP), 14-8
Slave DMA General Mask (SLDMAGENMSK), 14-8
Slave DMA Mask Reset (SLDMAMSKRST), 14-8
Slave Software DRQ(n) Request
(SLDMASWREQ), 14-7
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 1
(SxPICICW1), 15-6
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 2
(SxPICICW2), 15-6
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 3
(SxPICICW3), 15-7
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 4
(SxPICICW4), 15-7
Slave x PIC In-Service (SxPICISR), 15-6
Slave x PIC Interrupt Mask (SxPICINTMSK), 15-7
Slave x PIC Interrupt Mode (SLxPICMODE), 15-4
Slave x PIC Interrupt Request (SxPICIR), 15-6
Slave x PIC Operation Control Word 2
(SxPICOCW2), 15-6
Slave x PIC Operation Control Word 3
(SxPICOCW3), 15-6
Software Interrupt 16–1 Control (SWINT16_1), 15-4
Software Interrupt 22–17/NMI Control
(SWINT22_17), 15-4
Software Timer Configuration (SWTMRCFG), 18-2
Software Timer Microsecond Count
(SWTMRMICRO), 18-2
Software Timer Millisecond Count
(SWTMRMILLI), 18-2
SSI Command (SSICMD), 22-2
SSI Control (SSICTL), 22-2
SSI Interrupt Mapping (SSIMAP), 15-5
SSI Receive (SSIRCV), 22-2
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-19
Index
registers (continued)
SSI Status (SSISTA), 22-2
SSI Transmit (SSIXMIT), 22-2
Status/Command (PCISTACMD), 9-8
System Arbiter Control (SYSARBCTL), 8-2
System Arbiter Master Enable
(SYSARBMENB), 8-2
System Board Information (SYSINFO), 6-3
System Control Port A (SYSCTLA), 6-3
System Control Port B (SYSCTLB), 16-3
UART x Baud Clock Divisor Latch LSB
(UARTxBCDL), 21-4
UART x Baud Clock Divisor Latch MSB
(UARTxBCDH), 21-4
UART x FIFO Control (UARTxFCR), 21-4
UART x FIFO Control Shadow
(UARTxFCRSHAD), 21-3
UART x General Control (UARTxCTL), 21-3
UART x General Status (UARTxSTA), 21-3
UART x Interrupt Enable (UARTxINTENB), 21-4
UART x Interrupt ID (UARTxINTID), 21-4
UART x Interrupt Mapping (UARTxMAP), 15-5
UART x Line Control (UARTxLCR), 21-4
UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR), 21-4
UART x Modem Control (UARTxMCR), 21-4
UART x Modem Status (UARTxMSR), 21-4
UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR), 21-4
UART x Scratch Pad (UARTxSCRATCH), 21-4
UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR), 21-4
Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL), 19-2
Watchdog Timer Count High
(WDTMRCNTH), 19-3, 19-6
Watchdog Timer Count Low (WDTMRCNTL), 19-2
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Mapping
(WDTMAP), 15-5
Write-Protect Violation Interrupt Mapping
(WPVMAP), 15-5
Write-Protect Violation Status (WPVSTA), 4-2
REQ4–REQ0 signals
control, 2-7, 8-2
usage, 8-7
Request To Send signals. See RTS2–RTS1 signals.
RESCFG register, 6-3
Reset Configuration (RESCFG) register
function, 6-3, 10-10, 13-6, 24-2
usage, 6-4, 6-5, 6-6, 6-7, 10-29, 13-22, 24-11
reset generation
a20 gate support, 6-8
block diagram (figure), 6-2
core states after system reset (table), 6-5
determining reset sources, 6-8
GP bus reset, 6-7
hard CPU reset, 7-5
initialization, 6-9
latency, 6-9
operation, 6-3
Index-20
overview, 6-1
PCI reset, 6-7
PLL start-up, 6-8
PLL start-up timing (figure), 6-9
power-on reset, 6-9
power-on reset timing (figure), 6-9
PRGRESET timing (figure), 6-6
programmable reset, 6-6, 10-29
registers, 6-3
reset sources (table), 6-4
reset types, 6-3
reset vector and reset segment, 3-4
RTC reset, 6-7
signal descriptions, 2-10
soft CPU reset, 6-7, 7-5
software considerations, 6-8
system design, 6-2
system reset, 6-4
system reset with SDRAM retention, 6-6
Reset Latched Input signals.
See RSTLD7–RSTLD0 signals.
Reset signal. See RST signal.
Reset Status (RESSTA) register
function, 6-3, 7-1, 10-10, 19-3, 24-3
usage, 6-8, 24-11
RESSTA register, 6-3
REVID register, 7-1
RF_CLR bit field, 21-10
RFRT bit field, 21-7, 21-10
RFSH_ENB bit field, 10-19
RFSH_SPD bit field, 10-18
RIN2–RIN1 signals
control, 13-6, 21-2, 21-3, 21-4
description, 2-9, 21-6
usage, 21-2, 21-9
Ring Indicate signals. See RIN2–RIN1 signals.
ROM Buffer Output Enable signal.
See ROMBUFOE signal.
ROM/Flash Boot Chip Select signal.
See BOOTCS signal.
ROM/Flash Chip Select signals.
See ROMCS2–ROMCS1 signals.
ROM/Flash controller
access timing and wait states example (table), 12-9
accesses and ROM width (table), 12-9
address decoding, 12-12
block diagram (figure), 12-2
bus cycles, 12-9
2 doublewords from 16-bit ROM (figure), 12-11
4 aligned doublewords from 32-bit ROM
(figure), 12-8
4 unaligned doublewords from 8-bit ROM
(figure), 12-8
4 words from 16-bit ROM (figures), 12-8
burst access from 32-bit ROM (figure), 12-10
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
cache-line fill (figure), 12-11
multiple accesses from 8-bit ROM (figure), 12-10
page-mode read access, 12-10
single CPU read access, 12-9
word write cycle to Flash memory (figure), 12-12
writing to Flash, 12-11
cacheability control, 3-12
code execution control, 3-12
configuration, 12-7
access timing, 12-8
operating mode, 12-7
ROM location, 12-7
ROM width, 12-7
configuring external ROM devices
boot device mapping for BIOS shadowing, 3-17
two Flash banks for XIP operating system, 3-17
device types supported, 12-6
initialization, 12-14
CFGx options for BOOTCS (table), 12-14
latency, 12-13
memory space, 4-4
operation, 12-5
overview, 12-1
programming Flash, 12-12
registers, 12-5
sharing address and data bus with GP bus, 13-10
signal descriptions, 2-6
software considerations, 12-12
system design, 12-2
data bus connection options (table), 12-1
shared signals (table), 12-3
voltage isolation, 12-3
voltage isolation examples (figure), 12-4
write-protection, 3-12, 3-18
ROM/Flash controller data bus, 2-8
ROM/Flash Read signal. See ROMRD signal.
ROMBUFOE signal
description, 2-6
usage, 2-8, 12-3
ROMCS1 Control (ROMCS1CTL) register
function, 12-5
usage, 12-14
ROMCS1CTL register, 12-5
ROMCS2 Control (ROMCS2CTL) register
function, 12-5
usage, 12-14
ROMCS2CTL register, 12-5
ROMCS2–ROMCS1 signals
control, 3-10, 12-3, 13-3, 13-6
description, 2-6
usage, 3-17, 4-8, 4-15, 12-3, 12-14, 24-6
ROMRD signal
description, 2-6
usage, 12-3, 24-4, 24-6
Row Address Strobe signals. See SRASA–SRASB
signals.
RST signal
control, 9-29
description, 2-7
usage, 6-4, 6-7, 9-2, 9-3, 9-29
RSTLD7–RSTLD0 signals
description, 2-14
usage, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, 6-6
RTC. See real-time clock (RTC).
RTC Alarm Hour (RTCALMHR) register
function, 20-6
usage, 20-7, 20-10
RTC Alarm Minute (RTCALMMIN) register
function, 20-6
RTC Alarm Second (RTCALMSEC) register
function, 20-6
RTC Control A (RTCCTLA) register
function, 20-7
usage, 20-7, 20-8, 20-10
RTC Control B (RTCCTLB) register
function, 20-7
usage, 20-7, 20-9, 20-10
RTC Current Day of the Month (RTCCURDOM) register
function, 20-6
RTC Current Day of the Week (RTCCURDOW) register
function, 20-6
RTC Current Hour (RTCCURHR) register
function, 20-6
usage, 20-7
RTC Current Minute (RTCCURMIN) register
function, 20-6
RTC Current Month (RTCCURMON) register
function, 20-6
RTC Current Second (RTCCURSEC) register
function, 20-6
RTC Current Year (RTCCURYR) register
function, 20-6
usage, 20-9
RTC Interrupt Mapping (RTCMAP) register
function, 15-5
RTC Status C (RTCSTAC) register
function, 20-7
RTC Status D (RTCSTAD) register
function, 20-7
usage, 6-7, 20-4
RTC/CMOS RAM Data Port (RTCDATA) register
function, 20-6
usage, 20-10
RTC/CMOS RAM Index (RTCIDX) register
function, 20-6
usage, 20-10
RTC_DIS bit field, 3-21, 20-5
RTC_VRT bit field, 6-7, 20-4
RTCALMHR register, 20-6
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-21
Index
RTCALMMIN register, 20-6
RTCALMSEC register, 20-6
RTCCMOS register, 20-7
RTCCTLA register, 20-7
RTCCTLB register, 20-7
RTCCURDOM register, 20-6
RTCCURDOW register, 20-6
RTCCURHR register, 20-6
RTCCURMIN register, 20-6
RTCCURMON register, 20-6
RTCCURSEC register, 20-6
RTCCURYR register, 20-6
RTCDATA register, 20-6
RTCIDX register, 20-6
RTCMAP register, 15-5
RTCSTAC register, 20-7
RTCSTAD register, 20-7
RTG bit field, 17-3
RTS2–RTS1 signals
control, 21-4
description, 2-9, 21-6
usage, 21-2
S
S1_GINT_MODE bit field, 15-18
S2 bit field, 15-17, 15-18, 15-19
S2_GINT_MODE bit field, 3-19
S5 bit field, 15-17, 15-18, 15-19
SBIT_ERR bit field, 10-27
SCASA–SCASB signals
control, 10-10, 10-19, 23-4
description, 2-5
usage, 10-5
SCP Command Port (SCPCMD) register
function, 6-3, 7-1
usage, 6-7, 6-8
SCP Data Port (SCPDATA) register
function, 6-3, 7-1
usage, 6-8
SCPCMD register, 6-3
SCPDATA register, 6-3
SCS3–SCS0 signals
control, 10-10, 10-19, 23-4
description, 2-5
usage, 10-1, 10-5, 10-12, 10-30
SD_RST_DET bit field, 6-8
SDQM3–SDQM0 signals
control, 10-10, 10-19, 23-4
description, 2-5
usage, 10-6, 10-28, 24-11
SDRAM Address signals. See MA12–MA0 signals.
Index-22
SDRAM Bank 0–3 Ending Address (DRCBENDADR)
register
function, 10-10
usage, 10-32, 10-33, 10-35
SDRAM Bank Configuration (DRCCFG) register
function, 10-10
usage, 10-15, 10-33
SDRAM Buffer Control (DBCTL) register
function, 11-4, 24-2
usage, 11-5, 11-9, 11-13, 24-10
SDRAM Chip Select signals. See SCS3–SCS0 signals.
SDRAM Clock Input signal. See CLKMEMIN signal.
SDRAM Clock Output signal. See CLKMEMOUT signal.
SDRAM Control (DRCCTL) register
function, 10-10, 11-4, 24-2
usage, 10-18, 10-19, 10-30, 24-2, 24-3, 24-7
SDRAM controller
addressing, 10-12
address mapping to MA (table), 10-12
page sizes (table), 10-16
SDRAM devices supported (table), 10-13
supported SDRAM devices, 10-13
block diagram (figure), 10-2
block diagram detail (figure), 10-3
buffering, 10-17
bus cycles, 10-22
auto refresh cycle (figure), 10-27
burst read cycle (figure), 10-22
burst read cycle with ECC enabled
(figure), 10-25
CPU burst write (figure), 10-24
ECC cycles, 10-24
mode register access (figure), 10-27
read-modify-write cycle with ECC (figure), 10-26
write cycle (figure), 10-23
cacheability control, 3-12
code execution control, 3-12
column address configuration (table), 10-15
configuring GP-DMA buffers with PAR
registers, 3-18
control configuration, 10-18
drive-strength selection, 10-19
operation mode select, 10-30
refresh control, 10-18
refresh rates (table), 10-18
write buffer test mode, 10-19
error correction code (ECC), 10-16, 10-27, 10-28
initialization, 10-29
boot process, 10-32
programmable reset, 10-29
SDRAM device initialization, 10-30
auto refresh command, 10-31
load mode register (table), 10-31
mode register programming, 10-31
NOP command, 10-31
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
operation mode select, 10-20
precharge command, 10-31
sizing algorithm, 10-32
external bank column number, 10-33
internal bank number, 10-34
true external bank ending address, 10-35
interrupts, 10-27
multi-bit error, 10-27
single-bit error, 10-27
latency, 10-28
memory space, 4-4, 4-8
operation, 10-11
registers, 10-10
SDRAM support, 10-11
signal descriptions, 2-5
software considerations, 10-28
disabling buffers during configuration, 10-28
ECC errors, 10-28
write protection, 10-28
system design, 10-1
168-pin SDRAM DIMM configuration
(figure), 10-5
bank configuration (figure), 10-4
clock generation (figure), 10-7
clock generation with external driver
(figure), 10-7
clock loading estimates (table), 10-6
clocking, 10-6
delay calculation, 10-7
estimated capacitance (tables), 10-8
loading, 10-8
pins, 10-5
timing configuration, 10-20
auto-refresh-to-RAS (TRC), 10-21
CAS latency (CL), 10-20
minimum RAS (TRAS), 10-22
RAS precharge (TRP), 10-21
RAS-to-CAS delay (TRCD), 10-21
RAS-to-RAS, 10-21
write-protection, 3-12, 3-18
SDRAM Memory Write Enable signals. See SWEA–
SWEB signals.
SDRAM Timing Control (DRCTMCTL) register
function, 10-10
usage, 10-20, 10-31, 24-5, 24-9
Serial Data In signals. See SIN2–SIN1 signals.
Serial Data Out signals. See SOUT2–SOUT1 signals.
Serial Debug Port Data (SDPD) register
format, 25-14
function, 25-2
usage, 25-14
SERR signal
control, 9-8
description, 2-7
usage, 9-3, 9-27
SET bit field, 20-7
Set Interrupt-Enable Flag (STI)
instruction, 15-7, 15-18, 15-20
SFNM bit field, 15-18
SGL_INT_ENB bit field, 10-27
signal descriptions
AMDebug™ technology, 2-12
configuration, 2-13
descriptions (table), 2-5
general-purpose (GP) bus, 2-7, 2-11
general-purpose (GP) timers, 2-10
GP-DMA controller, 2-7
JTAG, 2-12
PCI host bridge, 2-6
power, 2-14
programmable input/output (PIO), 2-11
programmable interval timer (PIT), 2-10
reset generation, 2-10
ROM/Flash controller, 2-6
SDRAM controller, 2-5
synchronous serial interface (SSI), 2-9
UART serial ports, 2-9
signals
32KXTAL2–32KXTAL1, 2-10
33MXTAL2–33MXTAL1, 2-10
AD31–AD0, 2-6
AMDEBUG_DIS, 2-13
BA1–BA0, 2-5
BBATSEN, 2-14
BOOTCS, 2-6
BR/TC, 2-12
CBE3–CBE0, 2-6
CF_DRAM, 2-12
CF_ROM_GPCS, 2-12
CFG2–CFG0, 2-13
CFG3, 2-13
CLKMEMIN, 2-5
CLKMEMOUT, 2-5
CLKPCIIN, 2-6
CLKPCIOUT, 2-7
CLKTEST, 2-10
CLKTIMER, 2-10
CMDACK, 2-12
CTS2–CTS1, 2-9
DATASTRB, 2-12
DCD2–DCD1, 2-9
DEBUG_ENTER, 2-13
DEVSEL, 2-7
DSR2–DSR1, 2-9
DTR2–DTR1, 2-9
FLASHWR, 2-6
FRAME, 2-7
GND, 2-14
GNT4–GNT0, 2-7
GPA25–GPA0, 2-6, 2-7
GPAEN, 2-8
GPALE, 2-8
GPBHE, 2-8
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-23
Index
signals (continued)
GPCS7–GPCS0, 2-11
GPD15–GPD0, 2-6, 2-8
GPDACK3–GPDACK0, 2-8
GPDBUFOE, 2-8
GPDRQ3–GPDRQ0, 2-8
GPIOCS16, 2-8
GPIORD, 2-8
GPIOWR, 2-8
GPIRQ10–GPIRQ0, 2-9
GPMEMCS16, 2-9
GPMEMRD, 2-9
GPMEMWR, 2-9
GPRDY, 2-9
GPRESET, 2-9
GPTC, 2-9
INST_TRCE, 2-13
INTA–INTD, 2-7
IRDY, 2-7
JTAG_TCK, 2-12
JTAG_TDI, 2-12
JTAG_TDO, 2-12
JTAG_TMS, 2-12
JTAG_TRST, 2-12
LF_PLL1, 2-10
MA12–MA0, 2-5
MD31–MD0, 2-5, 2-6
MECC6–MECC0, 2-5
PAR, 2-7
PERR, 2-7
PIO31–PIO0, 2-11
PITGATE2, 2-10
PITOUT2, 2-10
PRGRESET, 2-10
PWRGOOD, 2-10
REQ4–REQ0, 2-7
RIN2–RIN1, 2-9
ROMBUFOE, 2-6
ROMCS2–ROMCS1, 2-6
ROMRD, 2-6
RST, 2-7
RSTLD7–RSTLD0, 2-14
RTS2–RTS1, 2-9
SCASA–SCASB, 2-5
SCS3–SCS0, 2-5
SDQM3–SDQM0, 2-5
SERR, 2-7
SIN2–SIN1, 2-9
SOUT2–SOUT1, 2-9
SRASA–SRASB, 2-5
SSI_CLK, 2-10
SSI_DI, 2-10
SSI_DO, 2-10
STOP, 2-7
STOP/TX, 2-12
SWEA–SWEB, 2-5
TMRIN1–TIMIN0, 2-10
Index-24
signals (continued)
TRDY, 2-7
TRIG/TRACE, 2-12
VCC_ANLG, 2-14
VCC_CORE, 2-14
VCC_I/O, 2-14
VCC_RTC, 2-14
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0, 2-13
SIN2–SIN1 signals
description, 2-9
usage, 21-2
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Control (SLDMACTL) register
function, 14-7
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Mask (SLDMAMSK) register
function, 14-7
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Mode (SLDMAMODE) register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-14
Slave DMA Channel 0–3 Status (SLDMASTA) register
function, 14-7
Slave DMA Channel x Memory Address
(GPDMAxMAR) register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-11, 14-12, 14-18
Slave DMA Channel x Page (GPDMAxPG) register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-11, 14-12
Slave DMA Channel x Transfer Count (GPDMAxTC)
register
function, 14-7
usage, 14-9, 14-18
Slave DMA Clear Byte Pointer (SLDMACBP) register
function, 14-7
Slave DMA Controller Reset (SLDMARST) register
function, 14-8
usage, 14-19
Slave DMA Controller Temporary (SLDMATMP) register
function, 14-8
Slave DMA General Mask (SLDMAGENMSK) register
function, 14-8
usage, 14-19
Slave DMA Mask Reset (SLDMAMSKRST) register
function, 14-8
Slave Software DRQ(n) Request (SLDMASWREQ)
register
function, 14-7
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 1 (SxPICICW1)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 3-19, 15-16
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 2 (SxPICICW2)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-16, 15-18
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 3 (SxPICICW3)
register
function, 15-7
usage, 15-16, 15-17
Slave x PIC Initialization Control Word 4 (SxPICICW4)
register
function, 15-7
usage, 15-17, 15-18
Slave x PIC In-Service (SxPICISR) register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-17
Slave x PIC Interrupt Mask (SxPICINTMSK) register
function, 15-7
usage, 15-17
Slave x PIC Interrupt Mode (SLxPICMODE) register
function, 15-4
usage, 3-19
Slave x PIC Interrupt Request (SxPICIR) register
function, 15-6
Slave x PIC Operation Control Word 2 (SxPICOCW2)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-17
Slave x PIC Operation Control Word 3 (SxPICOCW3)
register
function, 15-6
usage, 15-17
SLDMACBP register, 14-7
SLDMAGENMSK register, 14-8
SLDMAMODE register, 14-7
SLDMAMSK register, 14-7
SLDMAMSKRST register, 14-8
SLDMARST register, 14-8
SLDMASTA register, 14-7
SLDMASWREQ register, 14-7
SLDMATMP register, 14-8
SLxPICMODE register, 15-4
SNGL bit field, 15-18
Software Interrupt 16–1 Control (SWINT16_1) register
function, 15-4
usage, 15-8
Software Interrupt 22–17/NMI Control (SWINT22_17)
register
function, 15-4
usage, 15-8
software timer
block diagram (figure), 18-1
configuration, 18-2
initialization, 18-3
operation, 18-2
overview, 18-1
registers, 18-2
Software Timer Configuration (SWTMRCFG) register
function, 5-6, 18-2
usage, 5-8, 18-3
Software Timer Microsecond Count (SWTMRMICRO)
register
function, 18-2
usage, 18-2
Software Timer Millisecond Count (SWTMRMILLI)
register
function, 18-2
usage, 18-2
SOUT2–SOUT1 signals
description, 2-9
usage, 21-2
SP bit field, 21-8
SRASA–SRASB signals
control, 10-10, 10-19, 23-4
description, 2-5
usage, 10-5, 10-8
sreset CPU signal, 6-7
SSI. See synchronous serial interface (SSI).
SSI Clock signal. See SSI_CLK signal.
SSI Command (SSICMD) register
function, 22-2
usage, 22-7, 22-8
SSI Control (SSICTL) register
function, 5-6, 22-2
usage, 5-8, 22-3, 22-5, 22-7, 22-8
SSI Data Input signal. See SSI_DI signal.
SSI Data Output signal. See SSI_DO signal.
SSI Interrupt Mapping (SSIMAP) register
function, 15-5, 22-2
SSI Receive (SSIRCV) register
function, 22-2
usage, 22-3, 22-8
SSI Status (SSISTA) register
function, 22-2
usage, 22-7, 22-8
SSI Transmit (SSIXMIT) register
function, 22-2
usage, 22-3, 22-8
SSI_CLK signal
description, 2-10
usage, 5-8, 22-1, 22-5, 22-7
SSI_DI signal
description, 2-10
usage, 22-1, 22-3, 22-5
SSI_DO signal
description, 2-10
usage, 22-1, 22-3, 22-5
SSICMD register, 22-2
SSICTL register, 22-2
SSIMAP register, 15-5
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-25
Index
SSIRCV register, 22-2
SSISTA register, 22-2
SSIXMIT register, 22-2
Status/Command (PCISTACMD) register
function, 9-8
usage, 9-10, 9-18, 9-27
STOP signal
description, 2-7
usage, 9-3
Stop/Transmit signal. See STOP/TX signal.
STOP/TX signal
control, 25-4
description, 2-12
SUB_DLY bit field, 12-8
SWEA–SWEB signals
control, 10-10, 10-19, 23-4
description, 2-5
usage, 10-5
SWINT16_1 register, 15-4
SWINT22_17 register, 15-4
SWT. See software timer.
SWTMRCFG register, 18-2
SWTMRMICRO register, 18-2
SWTMRMILLI register, 18-2
SxPICICW1 register, 15-6
SxPICICW2 register, 15-6
SxPICICW3 register, 15-7
SxPICICW4 register, 15-7
SxPICINTMSK register, 15-7
SxPICIR register, 15-6
SxPICISR register, 15-6
SxPICOCW2 register, 15-6
SxPICOCW3 register, 15-6
synchronous DRAM. See SDRAM controller.
synchronous serial interface (SSI)
block diagram (figure), 22-2
bus cycles, 22-5
4-bit read cycle, 22-6
burst, 16-bit, and 32-bit cycles, 22-7
clock phase and clock idle state (figure), 22-6
full-duplex, back-to-back transactions
(figure), 22-7
full-duplex, non-inverted phase, non-inverted
clock (figure), 22-6
half-duplex, non-inverted phase and clock modes
(figure), 22-4
simultaneous transmit and receive (figure), 22-4
TC_INT and BSY_STA timing (figure), 22-8
clocking considerations, 22-7
configuration, 22-5
bit order, 22-5
clock idle state, 22-5
clock phase, 22-5
Index-26
initialization, 22-8
interrupts, 22-7
operation, 22-3
overview, 22-1
registers, 22-2
signal descriptions, 2-9
software considerations, 22-8
system design, 22-1
four-pin interface (figure), 22-4
three-pin interface (figure), 22-4
SYS_RST bit field, 6-4, 6-5
SYSARBCTL register, 8-2
SYSARBMENB register, 8-2
SYSCTLA register, 6-3
SYSCTLB register, 16-3
SYSINFO register, 6-3
System Arbiter Control (SYSARBCTL) register
function, 8-2, 24-2
usage, 8-3, 8-10, 8-19, 8-22, 24-10
System Arbiter Master Enable (SYSARBMENB)
register
function, 8-2
usage, 8-19, 8-23
system arbitration
arbitration mode changes, 8-19
block diagram (figure), 8-2
broken transactions, 8-19
bus cycles, 8-11
CPU bus arbitration (figure), 8-11
CPU bus cache write-back (figure), 8-12
CPU-to-PCI cycle (figure), 8-14
nonconcurrent mode arbitration (figure), 8-18
PCI bus arbitration (figure), 8-15
PCI bus arbitration parking (figure), 8-16
CPU bus arbiter, 8-5
accessing the PCI host bridge target, 8-6
arbitration protocol, 8-5
cache snooping, 8-6
clock speed changes, 8-7
GP-DMA arbitration, 8-7
rotating priority queue (figure), 8-6
skipped master example (figure), 8-5
initialization, 8-22
interrupts, 8-19
latency, 8-20
concurrent arbitration mode, 8-22
concurrent arbitration mode bus parking, 8-22
CPU, 8-21
high-priority queue, 8-21
low-priority queue, 8-21
nonconcurrent arbitration mode, 8-21
simple rotating priority, 8-20
simple rotating priority queue (figure), 8-20
operating modes, 8-3
concurrent arbitration mode, 8-4
nonconcurrent arbitration mode, 8-3
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
operation, 8-3
PCI bus arbiter, 8-7
arbitration protocol, 8-8
bus parking, 8-10
external PCI master queues (figure), 8-9
host bridge master queue (figure), 8-9
rearbitration, 8-10
registers, 8-2
software considerations, 8-19
write posting, 8-19
System Board Information (SYSINFO) register
function, 6-3
usage, 19-6
System Control Port A (SYSCTLA) register
function, 6-3, 7-1
usage, 6-7, 6-8
System Control Port B (SYSCTLB) register
function, 16-3
usage, 16-4
System Error signal. See SERR signal.
system initialization
BIOS initialization sequence, 3-3
configuration register access, 4-20
CPU core identification, 3-7
CPU speed, 3-7
disabling internal peripherals, 3-21
external GP bus devices, 3-7
multiple devices on one chip select, 3-14
single device performing its own decode, 3-14
single device using one chip select, 3-14
external ROM devices
boot device mapping for BIOS shadowing, 3-17
two Flash banks for XIP operating system, 3-17
interrupt mapping, 3-19
edge-sensitive or level-triggered interrupts, 3-19
interrupt polarity, 3-20
memory-mapped configuration region (MMCR), 3-3
native embedded initialization sequence, 3-1
PCI bus devices
network adapter, 3-16
VGA controller on PCI bus, 3-15
PCI host bridge and arbitration, 3-20
pin multiplexing, 3-8
Programmable Address Region x (PARx) regions
specifying pages and regions, 3-9
Programmable Address Region x (PARx)
registers, 3-8
address region attributes, 3-12
cacheability control, 3-12
code execution control, 3-12
external GP bus devices, 3-13
external ROM devices, 3-17
format (figure), 3-10
PAR register priority, 3-13
PCI bus devices, 3-15
performance considerations of attributes, 3-12
SDRAM regions, 3-18
worksheet (figure), 3-11
write-protection, 3-12
programmable I/O pins, 3-20
reset event, 3-4
reset vector and reset segment, 3-5
initial near jump example (figure), 3-6
SDRAM regions
configuring DMA buffers, 3-18
write-protected code segments, 3-18
system reset, 6-6
system test and debugging
cache mode control, 24-10
CPU clock speed control, 24-10
disabling write buffer and read buffer, 24-10
ECC check code override, 24-11
echoing integrated peripheral accesses, 24-10
execution control violation notification, 24-11
forcing software interrupts, 24-11
initialization, 24-12
interrupt masking, 24-11
latency, 24-11
nonconcurrent arbitration mode, 24-10
operation, 24-3
overview, 24-1
registers, 24-2
reset source identification, 24-11
software considerations, 24-11
system design, 24-1
loading, 24-2
logic analyzer use, 24-2
shared signals (table), 24-2
system test mode, 24-3
pin functions, 24-3
SDRAM read cycle (figure), 24-5
SDRAM write cycle (figure), 24-4
tracing transactions on GP bus, 24-6
tracing transactions on ROM interface, 24-5
write buffer test mode, 24-7
SDRAM read cycle (figure), 24-8
SDRAM write cycle (figure), 24-8
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0 during SDRAM read cycles (table), 24-9
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0 during write buffer write
cycles (table), 24-8
write protection violation notification, 24-11
SZ_ST_ADR bit field, 3-9, 3-10, 4-5
T
T_DLYTR_ENB bit field, 9-19
T_IRQ_ID bit field, 9-27
T_PURGE_RD_ENB bit field, 9-22
T7–T3 bit field, 15-18
TARGET bit field, 3-10, 4-5, 4-8, 4-16, 4-19, 9-18
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-27
Index
Target Ready signal. See TRDY signal.
TC_INT bit field, 22-7
TC_INT_ENB bit field, 22-7
technical support, iii
TEMT bit field, 21-7
TERI bit field, 21-6
test access port (TAP) controller. See JTAG boundary
scan test interface.
Test Clock Output signal. See CLKTEST signal.
Test Data Input signal. See JTAG_TDI signal.
Test Data Output signal. See JTAG_TDO signal.
Test Mode Select signal. See JTAG_TMS signal.
testing. See JTAG boundary scan test interface.
See also system test and debugging.
See also AMDebug™ technology.
TF_CLR bit field, 21-10
third-party support products, iii
THRE bit field, 21-6
Timer Clock Input signal. See CLKTIMER signal.
Timer Input 0 and 1 signals.
See TMRIN1–TMRIN0 signals.
Timer Output 0 and 1 signals.
See TMROUT1–TMROUT0 signals.
TMRIN1–TIMIN0 signals
control, 13-3, 13-6, 17-1
description, 2-10
usage, 17-3, 17-4, 17-6
TMROUT1–TMROUT0 signals
control, 13-3, 13-6, 17-1
description, 2-10
usage, 14-3, 17-5
TRDY signal
description, 2-7
usage, 9-3, 9-20, 9-21
TRIG/TRACE signal
control, 25-4
description, 2-12
Trigger/Trace signal. See TRIG/TRACE signal.
TRNMOD bit field, 14-11, 14-19
U
UART serial ports
baud rates, divisors, and clock source (table), 21-9
block diagram (figure), 21-2
clocking considerations, 21-10
configuration, 21-9
baud rate, 21-9
hardware flow control, 21-9
operating modes, 21-9
data reception, 21-7
data transmission, 21-6
disabling, 3-21
Index-28
DMA interface, 21-10
receive DMA, 21-10
transmit DMA, 21-10
UART as GP-DMA initiator, 14-9
error handling, 21-8
break indication, 21-8
error reporting, 21-8
framing error, 21-8
parity error, 21-8
frame configuration (figure), 21-5
frame transmission (figure), 21-5
GP-DMA channel mapping (table), 14-10
initialization, 21-13
interrupts, 21-10
DMA interrupts, 21-12
interrupt disable, 21-13
interrupt priority (table), 21-12
interrupt programming summary (table), 21-11
serial port interrupts, 21-12
operation, 21-5
overview, 21-1
registers, 21-3
signal descriptions, 2-9
system design, 21-2
connection of DTE to DTE (table), 21-3
shared signals (table), 21-2
UART x Baud Clock Divisor Latch LSB (UARTxBCDL)
register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-9
UART x Baud Clock Divisor Latch MSB (UARTxBCDH)
register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-9
UART x FIFO Control (UARTxFCR) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-3, 21-7, 21-9, 21-10, 21-13
UART x FIFO Control Shadow (UARTxFCRSHAD)
register
function, 21-3
usage, 21-13
UART x General Control (UARTxCTL) register
function, 5-6, 21-3
usage, 5-8, 21-9, 21-10, 21-11, 21-12
UART x General Status (UARTxSTA) register
function, 21-3
usage, 21-11, 21-12
UART x Interrupt Enable (UARTxINTENB) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-9, 21-11
UART x Interrupt ID (UARTxINTID) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-11, 21-12
UART x Interrupt Mapping (UARTxMAP) register
function, 15-5, 21-3, 21-11
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index
UART x Line Control (UARTxLCR) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-5, 21-8
UART x Line Status (UARTxLSR) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-6, 21-7, 21-8, 21-10, 21-11
UART x Modem Control (UARTxMCR) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-6, 21-11, 21-13
UART x Modem Status (UARTxMSR) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-6, 21-11
UART x Receive Buffer (UARTxRBR) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-7, 21-8, 21-10
UART x Scratch Pad (UARTxSCRATCH) register
function, 21-4
UART x Transmit Holding (UARTxTHR) register
function, 21-4
usage, 21-5, 21-6, 21-7, 21-10
UART1_DIS bit field, 3-21
UART2_DIS bit field, 3-21
UARTxBCDH register, 21-4
UARTxBCDL register, 21-4
UARTxCTL register, 21-3
UARTxFCR register, 21-4
UARTxFCRSHAD register, 21-3
UARTxINTENB register, 21-4
UARTxINTID register, 21-4
UARTxLCR register, 21-4
UARTxLSR register, 21-4
UARTxMAP register, 15-5
UARTxMCR register, 21-4
UARTxMSR register, 21-4
UARTxRBR register, 21-4
UARTxSCRATCH register, 21-4
UARTxSTA register, 21-3
UARTxTHR register, 21-4
UIP bit field, 20-7
universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART).
See UART serial ports.
V
VCC_ANLG signal
description, 2-14
usage, 5-3, 20-4
VCC_CORE signal
description, 2-14
VCC_I/O signal
description, 2-14
VCC_RTC signal
usage, 2-10, 2-14, 6-9, 20-3, 20-4, 20-11
W
watchdog timer (WDT)
AMDebug™ technology interface, 19-5
block diagram (figure), 19-2
configuration, 19-3
interrupt request generation, 19-4
keyed sequences, 19-3
system reset generation, 19-4
time-out duration, 19-4
initialization, 19-6
interrupts, 19-5
operation, 19-3
overview, 19-1
registers, 19-2
software considerations, 19-5
time-out duration (table), 19-4
Watchdog Timer Control (WDTMRCTL) register
function, 6-3, 19-2
usage, 5-8, 19-3, 19-4, 19-5, 19-6
Watchdog Timer Count High (WDTMRCNTH) register
function, 19-3
usage, 19-6
Watchdog Timer Count Low (WDTMRCNTL) register
function, 19-2
usage, 19-6
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Mapping (WDTMAP) register
function, 15-5, 19-3
WB_ENB bit field, 24-10
WB_FLUSH bit field, 11-5, 11-13
WB_TST_ENB bit field, 10-19, 24-2, 24-3, 24-7
WB_WM bit field, 11-9
WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0 signals
control, 24-2
description, 2-13
usage, 10-19, 11-4, 24-1, 24-7, 24-8, 24-12
WDT. See watchdog timer (WDT).
WDT_RST_DET bit field, 6-8
WDTMAP register, 15-5
WDTMRCNTH register, 19-3, 19-6
WDTMRCNTL register, 19-2
WDTMRCTL register, 19-2
web site, iii
WIDTH bit field, 12-7
WPVMAP register, 15-5
WPVSTA register, 4-2
write buffer and read buffer
block diagram (figure), 11-2
data coherency, 11-13
disabling during SDRAM sizing or test, 11-13
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual
Index-29
Index
DMA considerations, 11-11
initialization, 11-15
operation, 11-4
PCI considerations, 11-12
read cycles, 11-12
write cycles, 11-12
read buffer, 11-10
disabled, 11-10
enabled, 11-10
registers, 11-4
SDRAM bandwidth improvements, 11-13
bus thrashing (figure), 11-14
software considerations, 11-13
system design, 11-3
shared signals (table), 11-4
write buffer, 11-5
disabled, 11-5
enabled, 11-5
read-merging, 11-8
read-merging example (figure), 11-9
watermark, 11-9
write-collapsing, 11-6
write-collapsing example (figure), 11-8
write-merging, 11-6
Write Buffer Master signals.
See WBMSTR2–WBMSTR0 signals.
Write-Protect Violation Interrupt Mapping (WPVMAP)
register
function, 15-5
Write-Protect Violation Status (WPVSTA) register
function, 4-2
usage, 4-20
write-protection, 3-12
WRST_ENB bit field, 19-4
WRTSEL bit field, 14-9
X
XTAL_FREQ bit field, 18-3
Index-30
Élan™SC520 Microcontroller User’s Manual