ETC AM186EM/AM188EM

Am186EM and Am188EM
Microcontrollers
User’s Manual
© 1997 Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
PURPOSE OF THIS MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
INTENDED AUDIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
USER’S MANUAL OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
AMD DOCUMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx
E86 Family xx
CHAPTER 1
FEATURES AND PERFORMANCE
1.1 KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
1.2 DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
1.3 APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.1 Clock Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
1.3.2 Memory Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.3.3 Serial Communications Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
1.4 THIRD-PARTY DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT PRODUCTS . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
CHAPTER 2
PROGRAMMING
2.1 REGISTER SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
2.1.1 Processor Status Flags Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
2.2 MEMORY ORGANIZATION AND ADDRESS GENERATION . . . . . . . . . 2-3
2.3 I/O SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
2.4 INSTRUCTION SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
2.5 SEGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.6 DATA TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
2.7 ADDRESSING MODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3.1 PIN DESCRIPTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1
3.1.1 Pins That Are Used by Emulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
3.2 BUS OPERATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16
3.3 BUS INTERFACE UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.3.1 Nonmultiplexed Address Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.3.2 Byte Write Enables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.3.3 Pseudo Static RAM (PSRAM) Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
3.4 CLOCK AND POWER MANAGEMENT UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.4.1 Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.4.2 Crystal-Driven Clock Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
3.4.3 External Source Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
3.4.4 System Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
3.4.5 Power-Save Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
CHAPTER 4
PERIPHERAL CONTROL BLOCK
4.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1
4.1.1 Peripheral Control Block Relocation Register
(RELREG, Offset FEh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
4.1.2 Reset Configuration Register (RESCON, Offset F6h). . . . . . . . . . 4-5
4.1.3 Processor Release Level Register (PRL, Offset F4h) . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
4.1.4 Power-Save Control Register (PDCON, Offset F0h). . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
4.2 INITIALIZATION AND PROCESSOR RESET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Table of Contents
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CHAPTER 5
CHIP SELECT UNIT
5.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
5.2 CHIP SELECT TIMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.3 READY AND WAIT-STATE PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.4 CHIP SELECT OVERLAP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
5.5 CHIP SELECT REGISTERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
5.5.1 Upper Memory Chip Select Register (UMCS, Offset A0h) . . . . . . 5-4
5.5.2 Low Memory Chip Select Register (LMCS, Offset A2h) . . . . . . . . 5-6
5.5.3 Midrange Memory Chip Select Register (MMCS, Offset A6h) . . . 5-8
5.5.4 PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register (MPCS, Offset A8h) . . . . . . . . 5-10
5.5.5 Peripheral Chip Select Register (PACS, Offset A4h) . . . . . . . . . 5-12
CHAPTER 6
REFRESH CONTROL UNIT
6.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.1.1 Memory Partition Register (MDRAM, Offset E0h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
6.1.2 Clock Prescaler Register (CDRAM, Offset E2h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
6.1.3 Enable RCU Register (EDRAM, Offset E4h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
CHAPTER 7
INTERRUPT CONTROL UNIT
7.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.1 Definitions of Interrupt Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1
7.1.2 Interrupt Conditions and Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
7.1.3 Interrupt Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
7.1.4 Software Exceptions, Traps, and NMI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
7.1.5 Interrupt Acknowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7
7.1.6 Interrupt Controller Reset Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
7.2 MASTER MODE OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
7.2.1 Fully Nested Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9
7.2.2 Cascade Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
7.2.3 Special Fully Nested Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
7.2.4 Operation in a Polled Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
7.2.5 End-of-Interrupt Write to the EOI Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
7.3 MASTER MODE INTERRUPT CONTROLLER REGISTERS . . . . . . . . 7-12
7.3.1 INT0 and INT1 Control Registers
(I0CON, Offset 38h, I1CON, Offset 3Ah) (Master Mode) . . . . . . 7-13
7.3.2 INT2 and INT3 Control Registers
(I2CON, Offset 3Ch, I3CON, Offset 3Eh) (Master Mode) . . . . . . 7-15
7.3.3 INT4 Control Register (I4CON, Offset 40h) (Master Mode) . . . . 7-16
7.3.4 Timer and DMA Interrupt Control Registers
(TCUCON, Offset 32h, DMA0CON, Offset 34h, DMA1CON,
Offset 36h) (Master Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
7.3.5 Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control Register (WDCON,
Offset 42h) (Master Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
7.3.6 Serial Port Interrupt Control Register (SPICON, Offset 44h)
(Master Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
7.3.7 Interrupt Status Register (INTSTS, Offset 30h)
(Master Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
7.3.8 Interrupt Request Register (REQST, Offset 2Eh)
(Master Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21
7.3.9 In-Service Register (INSERV, Offset 2Ch)
(Master Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
7.3.10 Priority Mask Register (PRIMSK, Offset 2Ah) (Master Mode). . . 7-23
7.3.11 Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK, Offset 28h) (Master Mode) . . . 7-24
7.3.12 Poll Status Register (POLLST, Offset 26h) (Master Mode). . . . . 7-25
7.3.13 Poll Register (POLL, Offset 24h) (Master Mode). . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26
7.3.14 End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI, Offset 22h) (Master Mode) . . . . 7-27
7.4 SLAVE MODE OPERATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Table of Contents
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
Slave Mode Interrupt Nesting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Slave Mode Interrupt Controller Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Timer and DMA Interrupt Control Registers
(T0INTCON, Offset 32h, T1INTCON, Offset 38h, T2INTCON, Offset
3Ah, DMA0CON, Offset 34h, DMA1CON, Offset 36h)
(Slave Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29
7.4.4 Interrupt Status Register (INTSTS, Offset 30h) (Slave Mode) . . 7-30
7.4.5 Interrupt Request Register (REQST, Offset 2Eh) (Slave Mode) . 7-31
7.4.6 In-Service Register (INSERV, Offset 2Ch) (Slave Mode) . . . . . . 7-32
7.4.7 Priority Mask Register (PRIMSK, Offset 2Ah) (Slave Mode). . . . 7-33
7.4.8 Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK, Offset 28h) (Slave Mode) . . . . 7-34
7.4.9 Specific End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI, Offset 22h)
(Slave Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
7.4.10 Interrupt Vector Register (INTVEC, Offset 20h) (Slave Mode) . . 7-36
CHAPTER 8
TIMER CONTROL UNIT
8.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2 PROGRAMMABLE REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
8.2.1 Timer Operating Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
8.2.2 Timer 0 and Timer 1 Mode and Control Registers
(T0CON, Offset 56h, T1CON, Offset 5Eh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
8.2.3 Timer 2 Mode and Control Register (T2CON, Offset 66h) . . . . . . 8-5
8.2.4 Timer Count Registers
(T0CNT, Offset 50h, T1CNT, Offset 58h, T2CNT, Offset 60h) . . . 8-6
8.2.5 Timer Maxcount Compare Registers
(T0CMPA, Offset 52h, T0CMPB, Offset 54h, T1CMPA, Offset 5Ah,
T1CMPB, Offset 5Ch, T2CMPA, Offset 62h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
CHAPTER 9
DMA CONTROLLER
9.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.2 DMA OPERATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
9.3 PROGRAMMABLE DMA REGISTERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
9.3.1 DMA Control Registers (D0CON, Offset CAh, D1CON,
Offset DAh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
9.3.2 DMA Transfer Count Registers (D0TC, Offset C8h, D1TC,
Offset D8h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5
9.3.3 DMA Destination Address High Register
(High Order Bits) (D0DSTH, Offset C6h, D1DSTH, Offset D6h) . . 9-6
9.3.4 DMA Destination Address Low Register (Low Order Bits)
(D0DSTL, Offset C4h, D1DSTL, Offset D4h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
9.3.5 DMA Source Address High Register (High Order Bits)
(D0SRCH, Offset C2h, D1SRCH, Offset D2h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
9.3.6 DMA Source Address Low Register (Low Order Bits)
(D0SRCL, Offset C0h, D1SRCL, Offset D0h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
9.4 DMA REQUESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
9.4.1 Synchronization Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
9.4.2 DMA Acknowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
9.4.3 DMA Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
9.4.4 DMA Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
9.4.5 DMA Channels on Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
CHAPTER 10
ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORT
10.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2 PROGRAMMABLE REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1
10.2.1 Serial Port Control Register (SPCT, Offset 80h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
10.2.2 Serial Port Status Register (SPSTS, Offset 82h) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
10.2.3 Serial Port Transmit Data Register (SPTD, Offset 84h) . . . . . . . 10-5
10.2.4 Serial Port Receive Data Register (SPRD, Offset 86h). . . . . . . . 10-6
10.2.5 Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor Register (SPBAUD, Offset 88h). . 10-7
Table of Contents
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CHAPTER 11
SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL INTERFACE
11.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
11.1.1 Four-Pin Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.2 PROGRAMMABLE REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
11.2.1 Synchronous Serial Status Register (SSS, Offset 10h). . . . . . . . 11-3
11.2.2 Synchronous Serial Control Register (SSC, Offset 12h) . . . . . . . 11-4
11.2.3 Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 Register (SSD1, Offset 14h)
Synchronous Serial Transmit 0 Register (SSD0, Offset 16h) . . . 11-5
11.2.4 Synchronous Serial Receive Register (SSR, Offset 18h) . . . . . . 11-6
11.3 SSI PROGRAMMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
CHAPTER 12
PROGRAMMABLE I/O PINS
12.1 OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1
12.2 PIO MODE REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.2.1 PIO Mode 1 Register (PIOMODE1, Offset 76h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.2.2 PIO Mode 0 Register (PIOMODE0, Offset 70h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3
12.3 PIO DIRECTION REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.3.1 PIO Direction 1 Register (PDIR1, Offset 78h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.3.2 PIO Direction 0 Register (PDIR0, Offset 72h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-4
12.4 PIO DATA REGISTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.4.1 PIO Data Register 1 (PDATA1, Offset 7Ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.4.2 PIO Data Register 0 (PDATA0, Offset 74h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
12.5 OPEN-DRAIN OUTPUTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-5
APPENDIX A
REGISTER SUMMARY
Table of Contents
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1
Am186ES Microcontroller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Figure 1-2
Am188ES Microcontroller Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Figure 1-3
Basic Functional System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Figure 2-1
Register Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Figure 2-2
Processor Status Flags Register (F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Figure 2-3
Physical Address Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Figure 2-4
Memory and I/O Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Figure 2-5
Supported Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Figure 3-1
Am186ES Microcontroller Address Bus—Normal Read and Write Operation . 3-21
Figure 3-2
Am186ES Microcontroller—Read and Write with Address Bus
Disable In Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Figure 3-3
Am188ES Microcontroller Address Bus—Normal Read
and Write Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Figure 3-4
Am188ES Microcontroller—Read and Write with Address
Bus Disable In Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22
Figure 3-5
Oscillator Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26
Figure 3-6
Clock Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27
Figure 4-1
Peripheral Control Block Relocation Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3
Figure 4-2
Reset Configuration Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Figure 4-3
Processor Release Level Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Figure 4-4
Auxiliary Configuration Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6
Figure 4-5
System Configuration Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7
Figure 5-1
Upper Memory Chip Select Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Figure 5-2
Low Memory Chip Select Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Figure 5-3
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Figure 5-4
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Figure 5-5
Peripheral Chip Select Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12
Figure 6-1
Memory Partition Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1
Figure 6-2
Clock Prescaler Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Figure 6-3
Enable RCU Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Figure 6-4
Watchdog Timer Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Figure 7-1
External Interrupt Acknowledge Bus Cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8
Figure 7-2
Fully Nested (Direct) Mode Interrupt Controller Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-10
Figure 7-3
Cascade Mode Interrupt Controller Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11
Figure 7-4
INT0 and INT1 Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14
Figure 7-5
INT2 and INT3 Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-15
Figure 7-6
INT4 Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16
Figure 7-7
Timer/DMA Interrupt Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17
Figure 7-8
Serial Port 0/1 Interrupt Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Figure 7-9
Interrupt Status Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19
Figure 7-10
Interrupt Request Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-20
Figure 7-11
Interrupt In-Service Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-22
Figure 7-12
Priority Mask Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Figure 7-13
Interrupt Mask Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-24
Figure 7-14
Poll Status Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-25
Figure 7-15
Poll Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-26
Figure 7-16
Example EOI Assembly Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
Figure 7-17
End-of-Interrupt Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27
Figure 7-18
Timer and DMA Interrupt Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29
Figure 7-19
Interrupt Status Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30
Figure 7-20
Interrupt Request Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-31
Figure 7-21
Interrupt In-Service Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32
Figure 7-22
Priority Mask Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-33
Figure 7-23
Interrupt Mask Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34
Figure 7-24
Specific End-of-Interrupt Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-35
Figure 7-25
Interrupt Vector Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-36
Figure 8-1
Typical Waveform Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1
Table of Contents
ix
Figure 8-1
Figure 8-2
Figure 8-3
Figure 8-4
Figure 9-1
Figure 9-2
Figure 9-3
Figure 9-4
Figure 9-5
Figure 9-6
Figure 9-7
Figure 9-8
Figure 9-9
Figure 10-10
Figure 10-11
Figure 10-1
Figure 10-2
Figure 10-3
Figure 10-4
Figure 10-5
Figure 11-1
Figure 11-3
Figure 11-2
Figure 11-4
Figure 11-5
Figure 11-6
Figure 11-7
Figure A-1
x
Timer 0 and Timer 1 Mode and Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Timer 2 Mode and Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Timer Count Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Timer Maxcount Compare Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
DMA Unit Block Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
DMA Control Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
DMA Transfer Count Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6
DMA Destination Address High Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7
DMA Destination Address Low Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
DMA Source Address High Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
DMA Source Address Low Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Source-Synchronized DMA Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-12
Destination Synchronized DMA Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
DCE/DTE Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
CTS/RTR Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
Serial Port Control Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Serial Port 0/1 Status Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Serial Port 0/1 Transmit Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11
Serial Port Receive 0/1 Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12
Serial Port 0/1 Baud Rate Divisor Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14
Programmable I/O Pin Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1
PIO Mode 0 Register (PIOMODE0, offset 70h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
PIO Mode 1 Register (PIOMODE1, offset 76h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
PIO Direction 1 Register (PDIR1, offset 78h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
PIO Direction 0 Register (PDIR0, offset 72h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4
PIO Data 1 Register (PDATA1, offset 7Ah) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
PIO Data 0 Register (PDATA0, offset 74h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Internal Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-4
Table of Contents
LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1
Instruction Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Table 2-2
Segment Register Selection Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8
Table 2-3
Memory Addressing Mode Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Table 3-1
Numeric PIO Pin Designations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Table 3-2
Alphabetic PIO Pin Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
Table 3-3
Programming Am186ES Microcontroller Bus Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Table 4-1
Peripheral Control Block Register Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Table 4-2
Processor Release Level (PRL) Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5
Table 4-3
Initial Register State After Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Table 5-1
Chip Select Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1
Table 5-2
UMCS Block Size Programming Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4
Table 5-3
LMCS Block Size Programming Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Table 5-4
MCS Block Size Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
Table 5-5
PCS Address Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Table 5-6
PCS3–PCS0 Wait-State Encoding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
Table 6-7
Watchdog Timer COUNT Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Table 6-8
Watchdog Timer Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Table 7-1
Am186ES and Am188ES Microcontroller Interrupt Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Table 7-2
Interrupt Controller Registers in Master Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-13
Table 7-3
Priority Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-18
Table 7-4
Priority Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23
Table 7-5
Interrupt Controller Registers in Slave Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28
Table 7-6
Priority Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-33
Table 8-1
Timer Control Unit Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Table 9-1
DMA Controller Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1
Table 9-2
Synchronization Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Table 9-3
Maximum DMA Transfer Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-11
Table 10-4
Serial Port External Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Table 10-1
Asynchronous Serial Port Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4
Table 10-2
DMA Control Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5
Table 10-3
Serial Port MODE Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Table 10-4
Common Baud Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13
Table 11-1
PIO Pin Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Table 11-2
PIO Mode and PIO Direction Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Table A-1
Internal Register Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-1
Table of Contents
xi
xii
Table of Contents
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
AMD’s Am186 and Am188 family of microcontrollers is based on the architecture of the
original 8086 and 8088 microcontrollers, and currently includes the 80C186, 80C188,
80L186, 80L188, Am186™EM, Am188™EM, Am186EMLV, Am188EMLV, Am186ES,
Am188ES, Am186ESLV, Am188ESLV, Am186ER, and Am188ER microcontrollers. The
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide a natural migration path for 80C186/
188 designs that need performance and cost enhancements.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide a low-cost, high-performance solution
for embedded system designers who want to use the x86 architecture. By integrating multiple
functional blocks with the CPU, the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers eliminate the
need for off-chip system-interface logic. It is possible to implement a fully functional system with
ROM and RAM, serial interfaces, and custom I/O capability without additional system-interface
logic.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers can operate at frequencies up to 40 MHz.
The microcontrollers include an on-board PLL so that the input clock can be one-to-one
with the internal processor clock. The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers are
available in versions operating at 20, 25, 33, and 40 MHz.
PURPOSE OF THIS MANUAL
This manual describes the technical features and programming interface of the Am186EM
and Am188EM microcontrollers. The complete instruction set is documented in the Am186
and Am188 Family Instruction Set Manual, order #21267.
INTENDED AUDIENCE
This manual is intended for computer hardware and software engineers and system
architects who are designing or are considering designing systems based on the Am186EM
and Am188EM microcontrollers.
USER’S MANUAL OVERVIEW
This manual contains information on the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers and
is essential for system architects and design engineers. Additional information is available
in the form of data sheets, application notes, and other documentation that is provided with
software products and hardware-development tools.
The information in this manual is organized into 12 chapters and 1 appendix.
n Chapter 1 introduces the features and performance aspects of the Am186EM and
Am188EM microcontrollers.
n Chapter 2 describes the programmer’s model of the Am186 and Am188 family
microcontrollers, including an instruction set overview and register model.
n Chapter 3 provides an overview of the system interfaces, along with clocking
features.
Introduction and Overview
xiii
n Chapter 4 provides a description of the peripheral control block along with power
management and reset configuration.
n Chapter 5 provides a description of the chip select unit.
n Chapter 6 provides a description of the refresh control unit.
n Chapter 7 provides a description of the on-chip interrupt controller.
n Chapter 8 describes the timer control unit.
n Chapter 9 describes the DMA controller.
n Chapter 10 describes the asynchronous serial port.
n Chapter 11 describes the synchronous serial interface.
n Chapter 12 describes the programmable I/O pins.
n Appendix A includes a complete summary of peripheral registers and fields.
For complete information on the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontroller pin lists, timing,
thermal characteristics, and physical dimensions, please refer to the Am186EM/EMLV and
Am188EM/EMLV Microcontrollers Data Sheet (order# 19168).
AMD DOCUMENTATION
E86 Family
ORDER NO.
DOCUMENT TITLE
19168
Am186EM/EMLV and Am188EM/EMLV Microcontrollers Data Sheet
Hardware documentation: pin descriptions, functional descriptions, absolute
maximum ratings, operating ranges, switching characteristics and waveforms,
connection diagrams and pinouts, and package physical dimensions.
21267
Am186 and Am188 Family Instruction Set Manual
Provides a detailed description and examples for each instruction included in the
Am186 and Am188 Family Instruction Set.
19255
FusionE86SM Catalog
Provides information on tools that speed an E86 family embedded product to
market. Includes products from expert suppliers of embedded development solutions.
20071
E86 Family Support Tools Brief
Lists available E86 family software and hardware development tools, as well as
contact information for suppliers.
21058
FusionE86 Development Tools Reference CD
Provides a single-source multimedia tool for customer evaluation of AMD products, as well as Fusion partner tools and technologies that support the E86 family
of microcontrollers and microprocessors. Technical documentation for the E86
family is included on the CD in PDF format.
To order literature, contact the nearest AMD sales office or call 800-222-9323 (in the U.S.
and Canada) or direct dial from any location 512-602-5651.
Literature is also available in postscript and PDF formats on the AMD web site. To access the
AMD home page, go to http://www.amd.com. To download documents and software, ftp to
ftp.amd.com and log on as anonymous using your E-mail address as a password. Or via
your web browser, go to ftp://ftp.amd.com.
xiv
Introduction and Overview
CHAPTER
1
FEATURES AND PERFORMANCE
Compared to the 80C186/188 microcontrollers, the Am186™EM and Am188™EM
microcontrollers enable designers to increase performance and functionality, while
reducing the cost, size, and power consumption of embedded systems. The Am186EM
and Am188EM microcontrollers are cost-effective, enhanced versions of the AMD 80C186/
188 devices.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers are the ideal upgrade for 80C186/188
designs requiring 80C186/188-compatibility, increased performance, serial
communications, and a glueless bus interface. Developed exclusively for the embedded
marketplace, the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers increase the performance of
existing 80C186/188 systems while decreasing their cost.
Because the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers integrate on-chip peripherals and
offer up to twice the performance of an 80C186/188, they are ideal upgrade solutions for
customers requiring more integration and performance than their present x86 solution
delivers.
1.1
KEY FEATURES AND BENEFITS
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers extend the AMD family of microcontrollers
based on the industry-standard x86 architecture. The Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers deliver higher performance and more integration than the 80C186/188
core microcontrollers. Upgrading to the Am186EM or Am188EM microcontrollers is
attractive for the following reasons:
n Minimized total system cost—The new peripherals and on-chip system-interface logic
reduce the cost of existing 80C186 designs.
n x86 software compatibility—80C186/188-compatible and upward-compatible with the
AMD E86 family.
n Enhanced performance—The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers can provide
increased performance over 80C186/188 systems, and the nonmultiplexed address bus
offers faster, unbuffered access to memory.
n No wait-state operation—At 40 MHz with 70-ns memories.
n Enhanced functionality—The new and enhanced on-chip peripherals of the Am186EM
and Am188EM microcontrollers include an asynchronous serial port, a watchdog timer
interrupt, an additional interrupt pin, a high-speed synchronous serial interface, a PSRAM
controller, a 16-bit Reset Configuration register, enhanced chip-select functionality, 32
programmable I/Os, and additional interrupt signals.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers are part of the AMD E86 family of embedded
microcontrollers and microprocessors based on the x86 architecture. The 16-bit members of the
E86 family, referred to throughout this manual as the Am186 and Am188 family, include the
80C186, 80C188, 80L186, 80L188, Am186EMLV, Am188EMLV, Am186ES, Am188ES,
Am186ESLV, Am188ESLV, Am186ER, and Am188ER microcontrollers.
Features and Performance
1-1
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers are designed to meet the most common
requirements of embedded products developed for the office automation, mass storage,
communications, and general embedded markets. Applications include disk drives, handheld terminals, fax machines, terminals, printers, photocopiers, feature phones, cellular
phones, PBXs, multiplexers, modems, and industrial controls.
1.2
DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS
A block diagram of each microcontroller is shown in Figure 1-1 and Figure 1-2. The
Am186EM microcontroller uses a 16-bit external bus, while the Am188EM microcontroller
has an 8-bit external bus.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide the following features:
n High performance:
— 20-, 25-, 33-, and 40-MHz operating frequencies
— Support for zero wait-state operation at 40 MHz with 70-ns memory
— 1-Mbyte memory address space and 64-Kbyte I/O space
n New features remove the requirement for a 2x clock input and provide faster access to
memory:
— Phase-locked loop (PLL) allows processor to operate at the clock input frequency
— Nonmultiplexed address bus
n New integrated peripherals increase functionality while reducing system cost:
— 32 programmable I/O (PIO) pins
— Asynchronous serial port allows full-duplex, 7-bit or 8-bit data transfers
— Pseudo-static RAM (PSRAM) controller includes auto refresh capability
— Reset Configuration register
— Synchronous serial interface allows high-speed, half-duplex, bidirectional data
transfer to and from application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs)
— Additional external interrupts
n Familiar 80C186 peripherals:
— Two independent DMA channels
— Programmable interrupt controller with five external interrupts
— Three programmable 16-bit timers
— Timer 1 can be configured to provide a watchdog timer interrupt
— Programmable memory and peripheral chip-select logic
— Programmable wait-state generator
— Power-save mode
n Software-compatible with the 80C186/188 microcontroller
n Widely available native development tools, applications, and system software
n Available in the following packages:
— 100-pin, thin quad flat pack (TQFP)
— 100-pin, plastic quad flat pack (PQFP)
1-2
Features and Performance
Figure 1-1
Am186EM Microcontroller Block Diagram
INT2/INTA0
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
CLKOUTA
INT1/SELECT
INT4
TMROUT0
INT0
CLKOUTB
TMRIN0
NMI
X2
TMRIN1
DRQ0
0
Clock and
Power
Management
Unit
Interrupt
Control Unit
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
1 (WDT)
2
0
1
20-Bit Source
Pointers
20-Bit Destination
Pointers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
Max Count B
Registers
Max Count A
Registers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
GND
DRQ1
DMA
Unit
Timer Control
Unit
X1
VCC
TMROUT1
RES
ARDY
Control
Registers
Refresh
Control
Unit
SRDY
PSRAM
Control
Unit
Control
Registers
Bus
Interface
Unit
DEN
Asynchronous
Serial Port
HOLD
Chip-Select
Unit
Execution
Unit
PIO31–
PIO0*
Control
Registers
S2–S0
DT/R
PIO
Unit
TXD
RXD
Control
Registers
HLDA
S6/
CLKDIV2
Synchronous Serial
Interface
UZI
RD
WHB
SCLK
PCS6/A2
LCS/ONCE0
SDATA
SDEN0 SDEN1
A19–A0
WLB
AD15–AD0
WR
BHE/ADEN
PCS5/A1
MCS3/RFSH
MCS2–MCS0
PCS3–PCS0
UCS/ONCE1
ALE
Note:
* All PIO signals are shared with other physical pins. See the pin descriptions in Chapter 3 and Table
3-1 on page 3-9 for information on shared functions.
Features and Performance
1-3
Figure 1-2
Am188EM Microcontroller Block Diagram
INT2/INTA0
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
CLKOUTA
INT1/SELECT
INT4
TMROUT0
INT0
CLKOUTB
TMRIN0
NMI
X2
VCC
Interrupt
Control Unit
GND
Control
Registers
TMRIN1
Timer Control
Unit
0
1 (WDT)
Max Count B
Registers
Max Count A
Registers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
X1
Clock and
Power
Management
Unit
TMROUT1
DRQ1
DMA
Unit
2
0
1
20-Bit Source
Pointers
20-Bit Destination
Pointers
16-Bit Count
Registers
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
Control
Registers
DRQ0
RES
Control
Registers
ARDY
SRDY
PSRAM
Control
Unit
Refresh
Control
Unit
Control
Registers
Bus
Interface
Unit
DEN
Asynchronous
Serial Port
HOLD
Chip-Select
Unit
Execution
Unit
PIO31–
PIO0*
Control
Registers
S2–S0
DT/R
PIO
Unit
TXD
RXD
Control
Registers
HLDA
S6/
CLKDIV2
Synchronous Serial
Interface
UZI
RD
SCLK
SDATA
A19–A0
PCS6/A2
LCS/ONCE0
AO15–AO8
WB
AD7–AD0
WR
RFSH2/ADEN
SDEN0 SDEN1
PCS5/A1
MCS3/RFSH
MCS2–MCS0
PCS3–PCS0
UCS/ONCE1
ALE
Note:
* All PIO signals are shared with other physical pins. See the pin descriptions in Chapter 3 and Table
3-1 on page 3-9 for information on shared functions.
1-4
Features and Performance
1.3
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
The integration enhancements of the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide
a high-performance, low-system-cost solution for 16-bit embedded microcontroller designs.
The nonmultiplexed address bus (A19–A0) eliminates system-interface logic for memory
devices, while the multiplexed address/data bus maintains the value of existing customerspecific peripherals and circuits within the upgraded design.
The nonmultiplexed address bus is available in addition to the 80C186 and 80C188
microcontrollers’ multiplexed address/data bus (AD15–AD0). The two buses can operate
simultaneously or the AD15–AD0 bus can be configured to operate only during the data
phase of a bus cycle. See the BHE/ADEN and RFSH2/ADEN pin descriptions in Chapter 3,
and see section 5.5.1 and section 5.5.2 for additional information regarding the AD15–AD0
address enabling and disabling.
Figure 1-3 illustrates a functional system design that uses the integrated peripheral set to
achieve high performance with reduced system cost.
Figure 1-3
Basic Functional System Design
Am186EM
Microcontroller
X2
X1
40-MHz
Crystal
Flash PROM
WHB
WLB
A19–A0
AD15–AD0
WE
WE
Address
Data
RD
OE
UCS
CS
Static RAM
WE
Serial Port
RS-232 Level
Converter
WE
TXD
Address
RXD
Data
OE
LCS
1.3.1
CS
Clock Generation
The integrated PLL clock-generation circuitry of the Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers allows the use of a times-one crystal frequency. The design in Figure 1-3
achieves 40-MHz CPU operation with a 40-MHz crystal.
The integrated PLL lowers system cost by reducing the cost of the crystal and reduces
electromechanical interference (EMI) in the system.
Features and Performance
1-5
1.3.2
Memory Interface
The integrated memory controller logic of the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers
provides a direct address bus interface to memory devices. The use of an external address
latch controlled by the address latch enable (ALE) signal is not required.
Individual byte write-enable signals are provided to eliminate the need for external high/
low-byte, write-enable circuitry. The maximum bank size programmable for the memory
chip-select signals is increased to 512 Kbytes to facilitate the use of high-density memory
devices.
Improved memory timing specifications enables the use of no-wait-state memories with
70-ns access times at 40-MHz CPU operation. This reduces overall system cost
significantly by allowing the use of commonly available memory devices.
Figure 1-3 illustrates an Am186EM microcontroller-based SRAM configuration. The
memory interface requires the following:
n The processor A19–A0 bus connects to the memory address inputs.
n The AD bus connects directly to the data inputs/outputs.
n The chip selects connect to the memory chip-select inputs.
Read operations require that the RD output connects to the SRAM Output Enable (OE) input
pins. Write operations require that the byte write enables connect to the SRAM Write Enable
(WE) input pins.
The design uses 2-Mbit (256-Kbyte) memory technology to fully populate the available
address space. Two Flash PROM devices provide 512 Kbytes of nonvolatile program
storage, and two static RAM devices provide 512 Kbytes of variable storage area.
1.3.3
Serial Communications Port
The integrated universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) controller in the
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers eliminates the need for external logic to
implement a communications interface. The integrated UART generates the serial clock
from the CPU clock so that no external time-base oscillator is required.
Figure 1-3 shows a minimal implementation of an RS-232 console or modem
communications port. The RS-232 to CMOS voltage-level converter is required for the
proper electrical interface with the external device.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers also include a synchronous serial interface.
For more information, see Chapter 11.
1.4
THIRD-PARTY DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT PRODUCTS
The FusionE86 Program of Partnerships for Application Solutions provides the customer with
an array of products designed to meet critical time-to-market needs. Products and solutions
available from the AMD FusionE86 partners include emulators, hardware and software
debuggers, board-level products, and software development tools, among others.
In addition, mature development tools and applications for the x86 platform are widely
available in the general marketplace.
1-6
Features and Performance
CHAPTER
2
PROGRAMMING
All members of the Am186 and Am188 family of microcontrollers, including the Am186EM
and Am188EM, contain the same basic set of registers, instructions, and addressing
modes, and are compatible with the original industry-standard 186/188 parts.
2.1
REGISTER SET
The base architecture of the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers has 14 registers,
as shown in Figure 2-1. These registers are grouped into the following categories:
n General Registers—Eight 16-bit general purpose registers can be used for arithmetic
and logical operands. Four of these (AX, BX, CX, and DX) can be used as 16-bit registers
or split into pairs of separate 8-bit registers (AH, AL, BH, BL, CH, CL, DH, and DL). The
Destination Index (DI) and Source Index (SI) general-purpose registers are used for
data movement and string instructions. The Base Pointer (BP) and Stack Pointer (SP)
general-purpose registers are used for the stack segment and point to the bottom and
top of the stack, respectively.
— Base and Index Registers—Four of the general-purpose registers (BP, BX, DI, and
SI) can also be used to determine offset addresses of operands in memory. These
registers can contain base addresses or indexes to particular locations within a
segment. The addressing mode selects the specific registers for operand and address
calculations.
— Stack Pointer Register—All stack operations (POP, POPA, POPF, PUSH, PUSHA,
PUSHF) utilize the stack pointer. The Stack Pointer register is always offset from the
Stack Segment (SS) register, and no segment override is allowed.
n Segment Registers—Four 16-bit special-purpose registers (CS, DS, ES, and SS)
select, at any given time, the segments of memory that are immediately addressable
for code (CS), data (DS and ES), and stack (SS) memory. (For usage, refer to section
2.2.)
n Status and Control Registers—Two 16-bit special-purpose registers record or alter certain
aspects of the processor state—the Instruction Pointer (IP) register contains the offset
address of the next sequential instruction to be executed and the Processor Status Flags
(FLAGS) register contains status and control flag bits (see Figure 2-1 and Figure 2-2).
Note that the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers have additional on-chip peripheral
registers, which are external to the processor. These external registers are not accessible
by the instruction set. However, because the processor treats these peripheral registers
like memory, instructions that have operands that access memory can also access
peripheral registers. The above processor registers, as well as the additional on-chip
peripheral registers, are described in the chapters that follow.
Programming
2-1
Figure 2-1
Register Set
16-Bit
Register Name
Byte
Addressable
(8-Bit
Register
Names
Shown)
7
0
7
0
Special Register
Functions
16-Bit
Register Name
15
CS
Code Segment
DS
Data Segment
SS
Stack Segment
AX
AH
AL
DX
DH
DL
Multiply/Divide
I/O Instructions
CX
CH
CL
Loop/Shift/Repeat/Count
BX
BH
BL
ES
Base Registers
BP
Base Pointer
SI
Source Index
DI
Destination Index
15
0
General
Registers
2.1.1
0
FLAGS Processor Status Flags
IP
Instruction Pointer
Stack Pointer
15
Extra Segment
Segment Registers
Index Registers
SP
0
Status and Control
Registers
Processor Status Flags Register
The 16-bit processor Status Flags register (Figure 2-2) records specific characteristics of
the result of logical and arithmetic instructions (bits 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11) and controls the
operation of the microcontroller within a given operating mode (bits 8, 9, and 10).
After an instruction is executed, the value of the flags may be set (to 1), cleared/reset (set
to 0), unchanged, or undefined. The term undefined means that the flag value prior to the
execution of the instruction is not preserved, and the value of the flag after the instruction is
executed cannot be predicted.
Figure 2-2
Processor Status Flags Register (F)
7
15
0
Reserved
OF
AF
DF
PF
Res Res
CF
Res
IF
TF
SF
ZF
Bits 15–12—Reserved
Bit 11: Overflow Flag (OF)—Set if the signed result cannot be expressed within the number
of bits in the destination operand, cleared otherwise.
Bit 10: Direction Flag (DF)—Causes string instructions to auto-decrement the appropriate
index registers when set. Clearing DF causes auto-increment.
2-2
Programming
Bit 9: Interrupt-Enable Flag (IF)—When set, enables maskable interrupts to cause the
CPU to transfer control to a location specified by an interrupt vector.
Bit 8: Trace Flag (TF)—When set, a trace interrupt occurs after instructions execute. TF
is cleared by the trace interrupt after the processor status flags are pushed onto the stack.
The trace service routine can continue tracing by popping the flags back with an interrupt
return (IRET) instruction.
Bit 7: Sign Flag (SF)—Set equal to high-order bit of result (0 if 0 or positive, 1 if negative).
Bit 6: Zero Flag (ZF)—Set if result is 0; cleared otherwise.
Bit 5: Reserved
Bit 4: Auxiliary Carry (AF)—Set on carry from or borrow to the low-order 4 bits of the AL
general-purpose register; cleared otherwise.
Bit 3: Reserved
Bit 2: Parity Flag (PF)—Set if low-order 8 bits of result contain an even number of 1 bits;
cleared otherwise.
Bit 1: Reserved
Bit 0: Carry Flag (CF)—Set on high-order bit carry or borrow; cleared otherwise.
2.2
MEMORY ORGANIZATION AND ADDRESS GENERATION
Memory is organized in sets of segments. Each segment is a linear contiguous sequence
of 64K (216) 8-bit bytes. Memory is addressed using a two-component address that consists
of a 16-bit segment value and a 16-bit offset. The offset is the number of bytes from the
beginning of the segment (the segment address), to the data or instruction that is being
accessed.
The processor forms the physical address of the target location by taking the segment
address, shifting it to the left 4 bits (multiplying by 16), and adding this to the 16-bit offset.
The result is the 20-bit address of the target data or instruction. This allows for a 1-Mbyte
physical address size.
For example, if the segment register is loaded with 12A4h and the offset is 0022h, the
resultant address is 12A62h (see Figure 2-3). To find the result:
1. The segment register contains 12A4h.
2. The segment register is shifted 4 places and is now 12A40h.
3. The offset is 0022h.
4. The shifted segment address (12A40h) is added to the offset (00022h) to get 12A62h.
5. This address is placed on the pins of the controller.
All instructions that address operands in memory must specify (implicitly or explicitly) a 16bit segment value and a 16-bit offset value. The 16-bit segment values are contained in one
of four internal segment registers (CS, DS, ES, and SS). See “Addressing Modes” on page
2-10 for more information on calculating the offset value. See “Segments” on page 2-8 for
more information on CS, DS, ES, and SS.
In addition to memory space, all Am186 and Am188 family processors provide 64K of I/O space
(see Figure 2-4).
Programming
2-3
Figure 2-3
Physical Address Generation
Shift
Left
4 Bits
1
2
A
4
19
1
15
2
A
0
15
0
2
4 Segment
Logical
0 Base
Address
2 Offset
0
0
0
0
0
15
0
1
2
A
2
6
19
2
0
2
Physical Address
0
To Memory
2.3
I/O SPACE
The I/O space consists of 64K 8-bit or 32K 16-bit ports. The IN and OUT instructions address
the I/O space with either an 8-bit port address specified in the instruction, or a 16-bit port
address in the DX register. Eight-bit port addresses are zero-extended so that A15–A8 are
Low. I/O port addresses 00F8h through 00FFh are reserved. The Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers provide specific instructions for addressing I/O space.
Figure 2-4
Memory and I/O Space
Memory
Space
1M
I/O
Space
2.4
64K
INSTRUCTION SET
Each member of the Am186 and Am188 family of microcontrollers, including the Am186EM
and Am188EM, share the standard 186 instruction set. An instruction can reference from
zero to several operands. An operand can reside in a register, in the instruction itself, or in
memory. Specific operand addressing modes are discussed on page 2-10.
Table 2-1 lists the instructions for the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers in
alphabetical order. The Am186 and Am188 Family Instruction Set Manual, PID #21076,
provides detailed information on the format and function of the following instructions.
2-4
Programming
Table 2-1
Instruction Set
Mnemonic
Instruction Name
AAA
ASCII adjust for addition
AAD
ASCII adjust for division
AAM
ASCII adjust for multiplication
AAS
ASCII adjust for subtraction
ADC
Add byte or word with carry
ADD
Add byte or word
AND
Logical AND byte or word
BOUND
Detects values outside prescribed range
CALL
Call procedure
CBW
Convert byte to word
CLC
Clear carry flag
CLD
Clear direction flag
CLI
Clear interrupt-enable flag
CMC
Complement carry flag
CMP
Compare byte or word
CMPS
Compare byte or word string
CWD
Convert word to doubleword
DAA
Decimal adjust for addition
DAS
Decimal adjust for subtraction
DEC
Decrement byte or word by 1
DIV
Divide byte or word unsigned
ENTER
Format stack for procedure entry
ESC
Escape to extension processor
HLT
Halt until interrupt or reset
IDIV
Integer divide byte or word
IMUL
Integer multiply byte or word
IN
Input byte or word
INC
Increment byte or word by 1
INS
Input bytes or word string
INT
Interrupt
INTO
Interrupt if overflow
IRET
Interrupt return
JA/JNBE
Jump if above/not below or equal
JAE/JNB
Jump if above or equal/not below
Programming
2-5
2-6
Mnemonic
Instruction Name
JB/JNAE
Jump if below/not above or equal
JBE/JNA
Jump if below or equal/not above
JC
Jump if carry
JCXZ
Jump if register CX = 0
JE/JZ
Jump if equal/zero
JG/JNLE
Jump if greater/not less or equal
JGE/JNL
Jump if greater or equal/not less
JL/JNGE
Jump if less/not greater or equal
JLE/JNG
Jump if less or equal/not greater
JMP
Jump
JNC
Jump if not carry
JNE/JNZ
Jump if not equal/not zero
JNO
Jump if not overflow
JNP/JPO
Jump if not parity/parity odd
JNS
Jump if not sign
JO
Jump if overflow
JP/JPE
Jump if parity/parity even
JS
Jump if sign
LAHF
Load AH register from flags
LDS
Load pointer using DS
LEA
Load effective address
LEAVE
Restore stack for procedure exit
LES
Load pointer using ES
LOCK
Lock bus during next instruction
LODS
Load byte or word string
LOOP
Loop
LOOPE/
LOOPZ
Loop if equal/zero
LOOPNE/
LOOPNZ
Loop if not equal/not zero
MOV
Move byte or word
MOVS
Move byte or word string
MUL
Multiply byte or word unsigned
NEG
Negate byte or word
NOP
No operation
NOT
Logical NOT byte or word
Programming
Mnemonic
Instruction Name
OR
Logical Inclusive OR byte or word
OUT
Output byte or word
POP
Pop word off stack
POPA
Pop all general register off stack
POPF
Pop flags off stack
PUSH
Push word onto stack
PUSHA
Push all general registers onto stack
PUSHF
Push flags onto stack
RCL
Rotate left through carry byte or word
RCR
Rotate right through carry byte or word
REP
Repeat
REPE/REPZ
Repeat while equal/zero
REPNE/
REPNZ
Repeat while not equal/not zero
RET0
Return from procedure
ROL
Rotate left byte or word
ROR
Rotate right byte or word
SAHF
Store AH register in flags SF, ZF, AF, PF, and CF
SAL
Shift left arithmetic byte or word
SAR
Shift right arithmetic byte or word
SBB
Subtract byte or word with borrow
SCAS
Scan byte or word string
SHL
Shift left logical byte or word
SHR
Shift right logical byte or word
STC
Set carry flag
STD
Set direction flag
STI
Set interrupt-enable flag
STOS
Store byte or word string
SUB
Subtract byte or word
TEST
Test (Logical AND, flags only set) byte or word
XCHG
Exchange byte or word
XLAT
Translate byte
XOR
Logical exclusive OR byte or word
Programming
2-7
2.5
SEGMENTS
The Am186EM and Am188EM use four segment registers:
1. Data Segment (DS): The processor assumes that all accesses to the program’s
variables are from the 64K space pointed to by the DS register. The data segment holds
data, operands, etc.
2. Code Segment (CS): This 64K space is the default location for all instructions. All code
must be executed from the code segment.
3. Stack Segment (SS): The processor uses the SS register to perform operations that
involve the stack, such as pushes and pops. The stack segment is used for temporary
space.
4. Extra Segment (ES): Usually this segment is used for large string operations and for
large data structures. Certain string instructions assume the extra segment as the
segment portion of the address. The extra segment is also used (by using segment
override) as a spare data segment.
When a segment is not defined for a data movement instruction, it’s assumed to be a data
segment. An instruction prefix can be used to override the segment register. For speed
and compact instruction encoding, the segment register used for physical address
generation is implied by the addressing mode used (see Table 2-1).
Table 2-1
2.6
Segment Register Selection Rules
Memory Reference
Needed
Segment Register
Used
Local Data
Data (DS)
All data references
Instructions
Code (CS)
Instructions (including immediate data)
Stack
Stack (SS)
All stack pushes and pops
Any memory references that use the BP register
External Data (Global)
Extra (ES)
All string instruction references that use the DI register
as an index
Implicit Segment Selection Rule
DATA TYPES
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers directly support the following data types:
n Integer—A signed binary numeric value contained in an 8-bit byte or a 16-bit word. All
operations assume a two’s complement representation.
n Ordinal—An unsigned binary numeric value contained in an 8-bit byte or a 16-bit word.
n Double Word—A signed binary numeric value contained in two sequential 16-bit
addresses, or in a DX::AX register pair.
n Quad Word—A signed binary numeric value contained in four sequential 16-bit
addresses.
n BCD—An unpacked byte representation of the decimal digits 0–9.
n ASCII—A byte representation of alphanumeric and control characters using the ASCII
standard of character representation.
n Packed BCD—A packed byte representation of two decimal digits (0–9). One digit is
stored in each nibble (4 bits) of the byte.
2-8
Programming
n String—A contiguous sequence of bytes or words. A string can contain from 1 byte up
to 64 Kbyte.
n Pointer—A 16-bit or 32-bit quantity, composed of a 16-bit offset component or a 16-bit
segment base component plus a 16-bit offset component.
In general, individual data elements must fit within defined segment limits. Figure 2-5
graphically represents the data types supported by the Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers.
Figure 2-5
Supported Data Types
Signed
Byte
7
Sign Bit
Unsigned
Byte
0
Magnitude
7
0
+1
15 14
Sign Bit
Signed
Double
Word
Sign Bit
Signed
Quad
Word
+7
+6
48 47
+1
0
32 31
+3 +2
16 15
+1
+0
15
0
7
0
ASCII
Character0
+1
0
+N
7
0
0
7
0
+3
Least
Significant Digit
0
String
Byte/WordN
0
0
0
...
7
+5 +4
BCD
Digit 0
ASCII
Character1
Most Significant
Digit
0
0
...
Packed
BCD
7
+1
0 7
0
0
...
Byte/Word1 Byte/Word0
+2
+1
0
Pointer
MSB
Magnitude
+1
7
+N
1615
7
+1
0
7
MSB
Magnitude
Sign Bit
Unsigned
Word
+2
0
0
BCD
Digit 1
BCD
Digit N
ASCII
CharacterN
0
MSB
Magnitude
63
7
...
ASCII
0
+3
+1
0
7
8 7
31
7
+N
MSB
Magnitude
Signed
Word
+N
Binary
Coded
Decimal
(BCD)
Segment Base
Offset
0
MSB
Magnitude
Programming
2-9
2.7
ADDRESSING MODES
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers use eight categories of addressing modes
to specify operands. Two addressing modes are provided for instructions that operate on
register or immediate operands; six modes are provided to specify the location of an
operand in a memory segment.
Register and Immediate Operands
n Register Operand Mode—The operand is located in one of the 8- or 16-bit registers.
n Immediate Operand Mode—The operand is included in the instruction.
Memory Operands
A memory-operand address consists of two 16-bit components: a segment value and an
offset. The segment value is supplied by a 16-bit segment register either implicitly chosen
by the addressing mode or explicitly chosen by a segment override prefix. The offset, also
called the effective address, is calculated by summing any combination of the following
three address elements:
1. Displacement—an 8-bit or 16-bit immediate value contained in the instruction
2. Base—contents of either the BX or BP base registers
3. Index—contents of either the SI or DI index registers
Any carry from the 16-bit addition is ignored. Eight-bit displacements are sign-extended to
16-bit values.
Combinations of the above three address elements define the following six memory
addressing modes (see Table 2-2):
1. Direct Mode—The operand offset is contained in the instruction as an 8- or 16-bit
displacement element.
2. Register Indirect Mode—The operand offset is in one of the registers BP, BX, DI, or SI.
3. Based Mode—The operand offset is the sum of an 8- or 16-bit displacement and the contents
of a base register (BX or BP).
4. Indexed Mode—The operand offset is the sum of an 8- or 16-bit displacement and the
contents of an index register (DI or SI).
5. Based Indexed Mode—The operand offset is the sum of the contents of a base register
(BP or BX) and an index register (DI or SI).
6. Based Indexed Mode with Displacement—The operand offset is the sum of a base
register’s contents, an index register’s contents, and an 8-bit or 16-bit displacement.
Table 2-2
Memory Addressing Mode Examples
Addressing Mode
Direct
Register Indirect
Based
Indexed
Based Indexed
Based Indexed with Displacement
2-10
Programming
Example
mov ax,
mov ax,
mov ax,
mov ax,
mov ax,
mov ax,
ds:4
[si]
[bx]4
[si]4
[si][bx]
[si][bx]4
CHAPTER
3
SYSTEM OVERVIEW
This chapter contains descriptions of the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontroller pins,
the bus interface unit, the clock and power management unit, and power-save operation.
3.1
PIN DESCRIPTIONS
Pin Terminology
The following terms are used to describe the pins:
Input—An input-only pin.
Output—An output-only pin.
Input/Output—A pin that can be either input or output.
Synchronous—Synchronous inputs must meet setup and hold times in relation to
CLKOUTA. Synchronous outputs are synchronous to CLKOUTA.
Asynchronous—Inputs or outputs that are asynchronous to CLKOUTA.
A19–A0
Address Bus (output, three-state, synchronous)
The A19–A0 pins supply nonmultiplexed memory or I/O addresses to
the system one-half of a CLKOUTA period earlier than the multiplexed
address and data bus (AD15–AD0 on the Am186EM or AO15–AO8 and
AD7–AD0 on the Am188EM). During a bus hold or reset condition, the
address bus is in a high-impedance state.
AD7–AD0
Address and Data Bus
(input/output, three-state, synchronous, level-sensitive)
These time-multiplexed pins supply partial memory or I/O addresses,
as well as data, to the system. This bus supplies the low-order 8 bits of
an address to the system during the first period of a bus cycle (t1), and
it supplies data to the system during the remaining periods of that cycle
(t2, t3, and t4).
The address phase of these pins can be disabled. See the ADEN
description with the BHE/ADEN pin. When WLB is not asserted, these
pins are three-stated during t2, t3, and t4.
During a bus hold or reset condition, the address and data bus is in a
high-impedance state.
During a power-on reset, the address and data bus pins (AD15–AD0
for the Am186EM, AO15–AO8 and AD7–AD0 for the Am188EM) can
also be used to load system configuration information into the internal
Reset Configuration register.
System Overview
3-1
AD15–AD8
Address and Data Bus, Am186EM Microcontroller Only
(input/output, three-state, synchronous, level-sensitive)
AD15–AD8—These time-multiplexed pins supply partial memory or
I/O addresses, as well as data, to the system. This bus supplies an
address to the system during the first period of a bus cycle (t1), and it
supplies data to the system during the remaining periods of that cycle
(t2, t3, and t4).
The address phase of these pins can be disabled. See the ADEN
description with the BHE/ADEN pin. When WHB is not asserted, these
pins are three-stated during t2, t3, and t4.
During a bus hold or reset condition, the address and data bus is in a
high-impedance state. During a power-on reset, the address and data
bus pins (AD15–AD0 for the Am186EM, AO15–AO8 and AD7–AD0 for
the Am188EM) can also be used to load system configuration
information into the internal Reset Configuration register.
AO15–AO8
Address-Only Bus, Am188EM Microcontroller Only
(output, three-state, synchronous, level-sensitive)
AO15–AO8—The address-only bus (AO15–AO8) contains valid highorder address bits from bus cycles t1–t4. These outputs are floated
during a bus hold or reset.
On the Am188EM microcontroller, AO15–AO8 combine with AD7–AD0
to form a complete multiplexed address bus while AD7–AD0 is the 8-bit
data bus.
The address phase of these pins can be disabled during t1. See the
ADEN description with the BHE/ADEN pin.
During a power-on reset on the Am188EM microcontroller, the AO15–
AO8 and AD7–AD0 pins can also be used to load system configuration
information into an internal register for later use.
ALE
Address Latch Enable (output, synchronous)
ALE—This pin indicates to the system that an address appears on the
address and data bus (AD15–AD0 for the Am186EM or AO15–AO8
and AD7–AD0 for the Am188EM). The address is guaranteed valid on
the trailing edge of ALE.
ARDY
Asynchronous Ready (input, asynchronous, level-sensitive)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that the addressed memory
space or I/O device will complete a data transfer. The ARDY pin accepts
a rising edge that is asynchronous to CLKOUTA and is active High. The
falling edge of ARDY must be synchronized to CLKOUTA. To always
assert the ready condition to the microcontroller, tie ARDY High. If the
system does not use ARDY, tie the pin Low to yield control to SRDY.
3-2
System Overview
BHE/ADEN
Bus High Enable, Am186EM Microcontroller Only
(three-state, output, synchronous)
Address Enable, Am186EM Microcontroller Only
(input, internal pullup)
BHE—During a memory access, this pin and the least significant
address bit (AD0 and A0) indicate to the system which bytes of the data
bus (upper, lower, or both) participate in a bus cycle. The BHE/ADEN
and AD0 pins are encoded as shown in the following table.
BHE
AD0
Type of Bus Cycle
0
0
Word Transfer
0
1
High Byte Transfer (Bits 15–8)
1
0
Low Byte Transfer (Bits 7–0)
1
1
Refresh
BHE is asserted during t1 and remains asserted through t3 and tW. BHE
does not need to be latched. BHE floats during bus hold and reset.
On the Am186EM microcontroller, WLB and WHB implement the
functionality of BHE and AD0 for high and low byte write enables.
BHE/ADEN also signals DRAM refresh cycles when using the
multiplexed address and data (AD) bus. A refresh cycle is indicated
when both BHE/ADEN and AD0 are High. During refresh cycles, the A
bus and the AD bus are not guaranteed to provide the same address
during the address phase of the AD bus cycle. For this reason, the A0
signal cannot be used in place of the AD0 signal to determine refresh
cycles. PSRAM refreshes also provide an additional RFSH signal (see
the MCS3/RFSH pin description).
ADEN—If BHE/ADEN is held High or left floating during power-on reset,
the address portion of the AD bus (AD15–AD0) is enabled or disabled
during LCS and UCS bus cycles based on the DA bit in the Upper
Memory Chip Select (UMCS) and Low Memory Chip Select (LMCS)
registers. If the DA bit is set, the memory address is accessed on the
A19–A0 pins. This mode of operation reduces power consumption.
If BHE/ADEN is held Low on power-on reset, the AD bus always drives
both addresses and data. The pin is sampled one crystal clock cycle
after the rising edge of RES.
See section 5.5.1 and section 5.5.2 for additional information on
enabling and disabling the AD bus during the address phase of a bus
cycle.
CLKOUTA
Clock Output A (output, synchronous)
This pin supplies the internal clock to the system. Depending on the
value of the Power-Save Control (PDCON) register, CLKOUTA
operates at either the crystal input frequency (X1), the power-save
frequency, or is three-stated. CLKOUTA remains active during reset
and bus hold conditions.
System Overview
3-3
CLKOUTB
Clock Output B (output, synchronous)
This pin supplies an additional clock to the system. Depending on the
value of the Power-Save Control (PDCON) register, CLKOUTB
operates at either the crystal input frequency (X1), the power-save
frequency, or is three-stated. CLKOUTB remains active during reset
and bus hold conditions.
DEN
Data Enable (output, three-state, synchronous)
This pin supplies an output enable to an external data-bus transceiver.
DEN is asserted during memory, I/O, and interrupt acknowledge cycles.
DEN is deasserted when DT/R changes state. DEN floats during a bus
hold or reset condition.
DRQ1–DRQ0
DMA Requests (input, synchronous, level-sensitive)
These pins indicate to the microcontroller that an external device is
ready for DMA channel 1 or 0 to perform a transfer. DRQ1–DRQ0 are
level triggered and internally synchronized.
The DRQ signals are not latched and must remain active until serviced.
DT/R
Data Transmit or Receive (output, three-state, synchronous)
This pin indicates which direction data should flow through an external
data-bus transceiver. When DT/R is asserted High, the microcontroller
transmits data. When this pin is deasserted Low, the microcontroller
receives data. DT/R floats during a bus hold or reset condition.
GND
Ground
These pins connect the system ground to the microcontroller.
HLDA
Bus Hold Acknowledge (output, synchronous)
This pin is asserted High to indicate to an external bus master that the
microcontroller has relinquished control of the local bus. When an
external bus master requests control of the local bus (by asserting
HOLD), the microcontroller completes the bus cycle in progress and
then relinquishes control of the bus to the external bus master by
asserting HLDA and floating DEN, RD, WR, S2–S0, AD15–AD0, S6,
A19–A0, BHE, WHB, WLB, and DT/R, and then driving the chip selects
UCS, LCS, MCS3–MCS0, PCS6–PCS5, and PCS3–PCS0 High.
When the external bus master has finished using the local bus, it
indicates this to the microcontroller by deasserting HOLD. The
microcontroller responds by deasserting HLDA.
If the microcontroller requires access to the bus (i.e., for refresh), it will
deassert HLDA before the external bus master deasserts HOLD. The
external bus master must be able to deassert HOLD and allow the
microcontroller access to the bus.
HOLD
Bus Hold Request (input, synchronous, level-sensitive)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an external bus master
needs control of the local bus. For more information, see the HLDA pin
description.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers’ HOLD latency time,
that is, the time between HOLD request and HOLD acknowledge, is a
function of the activity occurring in the processor when the HOLD
3-4
System Overview
request is received. A HOLD request is second only to DRAM refresh
requests in priority of activity requests received by the processor. This
implies that if a HOLD request is received just as a DMA transfer begins,
the HOLD latency can be as great as 4 bus cycles. This occurs if a DMA
word transfer operation is taking place (Am186EM microcontroller only)
from an odd address to an odd address. This is a total of 16 clock cycles
or more if wait states are required. In addition, if locked transfers are
performed, the HOLD latency time is increased by the length of the
locked transfer.
INT0
Maskable Interrupt Request 0 (input, asynchronous)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an interrupt request has
occurred. If the INT0 pin is not masked, the microcontroller transfers
program execution to the location specified by the INT0 vector in the
microcontroller interrupt vector table. Interrupt requests are
synchronized internally, and can be edge-triggered or level-triggered.
To guarantee the interrupt is recognized, the device issuing the request
must continue asserting INT0 until the request is acknowledged.
INT1/SELECT
Maskable Interrupt Request 1 (input, asynchronous)
Slave Select (input, asynchronous)
INT1—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an interrupt request
has occurred. If the INT1 pin is not masked, the microcontroller transfers
program execution to the location specified by the INT1 vector in the
microcontroller interrupt vector table. Interrupt requests are synchronized internally, and can be edge-triggered or level-triggered. To guarantee the interrupt is recognized, the device issuing the request must
continue asserting INT1 until the request is acknowledged.
SELECT—When the microcontroller interrupt control unit is operating
as a slave to an external master interrupt controller, this pin indicates
to the microcontroller that an interrupt type appears on the address and
data bus. The INT0 pin must indicate to the microcontroller that an
interrupt has occurred before the SELECT pin indicates to the
microcontroller that the interrupt type appears on the bus.
INT2/INTA0
Maskable Interrupt Request 2 (input, asynchronous)
Interrupt Acknowledge 0 (output, synchronous)
INT2—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an interrupt request
has occurred. If the INT2 pin is not masked, the microcontroller transfers
program execution to the location specified by the INT2 vector in the
microcontroller interrupt vector table. Interrupt requests are
synchronized internally, and can be edge-triggered or level-triggered.
To guarantee the interrupt is recognized, the device issuing the request
must continue asserting INT2 until the request is acknowledged. INT2
becomes INTA0 when INT0 is configured in cascade mode.
INTA0—When the microcontroller interrupt control unit is operating in
cascade mode, this pin indicates to the system that the microcontroller
needs an interrupt type to process the interrupt request on INT0. The
peripheral issuing the interrupt request must provide the microcontroller
with the corresponding interrupt type.
System Overview
3-5
INT3/INTA1/IRQ
Maskable Interrupt Request 3 (input, asynchronous)
Interrupt Acknowledge 1 (output, synchronous)
Slave Interrupt Request (output, synchronous)
INT3—This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an interrupt request
has occurred. If the INT3 pin is not masked, the microcontroller then
transfers program execution to the location specified by the INT3 vector
in the microcontroller interrupt vector table. Interrupt requests are
synchronized internally, and they can be edge-triggered or leveltriggered. To guarantee the interrupt is recognized, the device issuing
the request must continue asserting INT3 until the request is
acknowledged. INT3 becomes INTA1 when INT1 is configured in
cascade mode.
INTA1—When the microcontroller interrupt control unit is operating in
cascade mode, this pin indicates to the system that the microcontroller
needs an interrupt type to process the interrupt request on INT1. The
peripheral issuing the interrupt request must provide the microcontroller
with the corresponding interrupt type.
IRQ—When the microcontroller interrupt control unit is operating as a
slave to an external master interrupt controller, this pin lets the
microcontroller issue an interrupt request to the external master
interrupt controller.
INT4
Maskable Interrupt Request 4 (input, asynchronous)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an interrupt request has
occurred. If the INT4 pin is not masked, the microcontroller then
transfers program execution to the location specified by the INT4 vector
in the microcontroller interrupt vector table. Interrupt requests are
synchronized internally, and they can be edge-triggered or leveltriggered. To guarantee the interrupt is recognized, the device issuing
the request must continue asserting INT4 until the request is
acknowledged.
LCS/ONCE0
Lower Memory Chip Select (output, synchronous, internal pullup)
ONCE Mode Request 0 (input)
LCS—This pin indicates to the system that a memory access is in
progress to the lower memory block. The base address and size of the
lower memory block are programmable up to 512 Kbytes. LCS is held
High during a bus hold condition.
ONCE0—During reset this pin and UCS/ONCE1 indicate to the
microcontroller the mode in which it should operate. ONCE0 and
ONCE1 are sampled on the rising edge of RES. If both pins are asserted
Low, the microcontroller enters ONCE mode; otherwise, it operates
normally.
In ONCE mode, all pins assume a high-impedance state and remain in
that state until a subsequent reset occurs. To guarantee that the
microcontroller does not inadvertently enter ONCE mode, ONCE0 has
a weak internal pullup resistor that is active only during a reset.
3-6
System Overview
MCS3/RFSH
Midrange Memory Chip Select 3
(output, synchronous, internal pullup)
Automatic Refresh (output, synchronous)
MCS3—This pin indicates to the system that a memory access is in
progress to the fourth region of the midrange memory block. The base
address and size of the midrange memory block are programmable.
MCS3 is held High during a bus hold condition. In addition, this pin has
a weak internal pullup resistor that is active during reset.
RFSH—This pin provides a signal timed for auto refresh to PSRAM
devices. It is only enabled to function as a refresh pulse when the
PSRAM mode bit is set in the LMCS register. An active Low pulse is
generated for 1.5 clock cycles with an adequate deassertion period to
ensure overall auto refresh cycle time is met.
MCS2–MCS0
Midrange Memory Chip Selects
(output, synchronous, internal pullup)
These pins indicate to the system that a memory access is in progress
to the corresponding region of the midrange memory block. The base
address and size of the midrange memory block are programmable.
MCS2–MCS0 are held High during a bus hold condition. In addition,
they have weak internal pullup resistors that are active during a reset.
NMI
Nonmaskable Interrupt (input, synchronous, edge-sensitive)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that an interrupt request has
occurred. The NMI signal is the highest priority hardware interrupt and,
unlike the INT4–INT0 pins, cannot be masked. The microcontroller
always transfers program execution to the location specified by the
nonmaskable interrupt vector in the microcontroller interrupt vector
table when NMI is asserted.
Although NMI is the highest priority interrupt source, it does not
participate in the priority resolution process of the maskable interrupts.
There is no bit associated with NMI in the interrupt in-service or interrupt
request registers. This means that a new NMI request can interrupt an
executing NMI interrupt service routine. As with all hardware interrupts,
the IF (interrupt flag) is cleared when the processor takes the interrupt,
disabling the maskable interrupt sources. However, if maskable
interrupts are re-enabled by software in the NMI interrupt service
routine, via the STI instruction for example, the fact that an NMI is
currently in service will not have any effect on the priority resolution of
maskable interrupt requests. For this reason, it is strongly advised that
the interrupt service routine for NMI does not enable the maskable
interrupts.
An NMI transition from Low to High is latched and synchronized
internally, and it initiates the interrupt at the next instruction boundary.
To guarantee that the interrupt is recognized, the NMI pin must be
asserted for at least one CLKOUTA period.
PCS3–PCS0
Peripheral Chip Selects (output, synchronous)
These pins indicate to the system that a memory access is in progress
to the corresponding region of the peripheral memory block (either I/O
or memory address space). The base address of the peripheral memory
block is programmable. PCS3–PCS0 are held High during a bus hold
System Overview
3-7
or reset condition. Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS
outputs assert with the multiplexed AD address bus.
Note: PCS4 is not available on the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers. Note also that each peripheral chip select asserts over a
256-byte address range, which is twice the address range covered by
peripheral chip selects in the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers.
PCS5/A1
Peripheral Chip Select 5 (output, synchronous)
Latched Address Bit 1 (output, synchronous)
PCS5—This pin indicates to the system that a memory access is in
progress to the sixth region of the peripheral memory block (either I/O
or memory address space). The base address of the peripheral memory
block is programmable. PCS5 is held High during a bus hold or reset
condition. It is also held High during reset.
Note: Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs assert
with the multiplexed AD address bus. Note also that each peripheral
chip select asserts over a 256-byte address range, which is twice the
address range covered by peripheral chip selects in the 80C186 and
80C188 microcontrollers.
A1—When the EX bit in the MCS and PCS Auxiliary register is 0, this
pin supplies an internally latched address bit 1 to the system. During a
bus hold condition, A1 retains its previously latched value.
PCS6/A2
Peripheral Chip Select 6 (output, synchronous)
Latched Address Bit 2 (output, synchronous)
PCS6—This pin indicates to the system that a memory access is in
progress to the seventh region of the peripheral memory block (either
I/O or memory address space). The base address of the peripheral
memory block is programmable. PCS6 is held High during a bus hold
or reset condition.
Note: Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs assert
with the multiplexed AD address bus. Note also that each peripheral
chip select asserts over a 256-byte address range, which is twice the
address range covered by peripheral chip selects in the original 80C186
and 80C188 microcontrollers.
A2—When the EX bit in the MCS and PCS Auxiliary register is 0, this
pin supplies an internally latched address bit 2 to the system. During a
bus hold condition, A2 retains its previously latched value.
PIO31–PIO0 (Shared)
Programmable I/O Pins (input/output, asynchronous, open-drain)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide 32 individually
programmable I/O pins. The pins that are multiplexed with PIO31–PIO0
are listed in Table 3-1 and Table 3-2. Each PIO can be programmed
with the following attributes: PIO function (enabled/disabled), direction
(input/output), and weak pullup or pulldown. See Chapter 12 for the PIO
control registers.
After power-on reset, the PIO pins default to various configurations. The
column titled Power-On Reset State in Table 3-1 and Table 3-2 lists the
defaults for the PIOs. The system initialization code must reconfigure
any PIOs as required.
3-8
System Overview
The A19–A17 address pins default to normal operation on power-on
reset, allowing the processor to correctly begin fetching instructions at
the boot address FFFF0h. The DT/R, DEN, and SRDY pins also default
to normal operation on power-on reset.
Table 3-1
PIO Pin Assignments—Numeric Listing
PIO No.
Associated Pin
Power-On Reset Status
TMRIN1
Input with pullup
1
TMROUT1
Input with pulldown
2
PCS6/A2
Input with pullup
3
PCS5/A1
Input with pullup
4
DT/R
Normal operation(3)
5
DEN
Normal operation(3)
6
SRDY
Normal operation(4)
7(1)
A17
Normal operation(3)
8(1)
A18
Normal operation(3)
9(1)
A19
Normal operation(3)
10
TMROUT0
Input with pulldown
11
TMRIN0
Input with pullup
12
DRQ0
Input with pullup
13
DRQ1
Input with pullup
14
MCS0
Input with pullup
15
MCS1
Input with pullup
16
PCS0
Input with pullup
17
PCS1
Input with pullup
18
PCS2
Input with pullup
19
PCS3
Input with pullup
20
SCLK
Input with pullup
21
SDATA
Input with pullup
22
SDEN0
Input with pulldown
23
SDEN1
Input with pulldown
24
MCS2
Input with pullup
25
MCS3/RFSH
Input with pullup
UZI
Input with pullup
27
TXD
Input with pullup
28
RXD
Input with pullup
S6/CLKDIV2
Input with pullup
30
INT4
Input with pullup
31
INT2
Input with pullup
0
(1,2)
26
(1,2)
29
Notes:
1. These pins are used by emulators. (Emulators also use S2–S0, RES, NMI, CLKOUTA, BHE,
ALE, AD15–AD0, and A16–A0.
2. These pins revert to normal operation if BHE/ADEN (Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (Am188EM)
is held Low during power-on reset.
3. When used as a PIO, input with pullup option available.
4. When used as a PIO, input with pulldown option available.
System Overview
3-9
Table 3-2
PIO Pin Assignments—Alphabetic Listing
Associated Pin
PIO No.
Power-On Reset Status
A17(1)
7
Normal operation(3)
A18(1)
8
Normal operation(3)
A19(1)
9
Normal operation(3)
DEN
5
Normal operation(3)
DRQ0
12
Input with pullup
DRQ1
13
Input with pullup
DT/R
4
Normal operation(3)
INT2
31
Input with pullup
INT4
30
Input with pullup
MCS0
14
Input with pullup
MCS1
15
Input with pullup
MCS2
24
Input with pullup
MCS3/RFSH
25
Input with pullup
PCS0
16
Input with pullup
PCS1
17
Input with pullup
PCS2
18
Input with pullup
PCS3
19
Input with pullup
PCS5/A1
3
Input with pullup
PCS6/A2
2
Input with pullup
RXD
28
Input with pullup
29
Input with pullup
SCLK
20
Input with pullup
SDATA
21
Input with pullup
SDEN0
22
Input with pulldown
SDEN1
23
Input with pulldown
SRDY
6
Normal operation(4)
TMRIN0
11
Input with pullup
TMRIN1
0
Input with pullup
TMROUT0
10
Input with pulldown
TMROUT1
1
Input with pulldown
TXD
27
Input with pullup
UZI(1,2)
26
Input with pullup
(1,2)
S6/CLKDIV2
Notes:
1. These pins are used by emulators. (Emulators also use S2–S0, RES, NMI, CLKOUTA, BHE,
ALE, AD15–AD0, and A16–A0.
2. These pins revert to normal operation if BHE/ADEN (Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (Am188EM)
is held Low during power-on reset.
3. When used as a PIO, input with pullup option available.
4. When used as a PIO, input with pulldown option available.
3-10
System Overview
RD
Read Strobe (output, synchronous, three-state)
RD—This pin indicates to the system that the microcontroller is
performing a memory or I/O read cycle. RD is guaranteed not to be
asserted before the address and data bus is floated during the addressto-data transition. RD floats during a bus hold condition.
RES
Reset (input, asynchronous, level-sensitive)
This pin causes the microcontroller to perform a reset. When RES is
asserted, the microcontroller immediately terminates its present
activity, clears its internal logic, and CPU control is transferred to the
reset address FFFF0h. RES must be held Low for at least 1 ms. The
assertion of RES can be asynchronous to CLKOUTA because RES is
synchronized internally. For proper initialization, VCC must be within
specifications, and CLKOUTA must be stable for more than four
CLKOUTA periods during which RES is asserted. The microcontroller
begins fetching instructions approximately 6.5 CLKOUTA periods after
RES is deasserted. This input is provided with a Schmitt trigger to
facilitate power-on RES generation via an RC network.
RFSH2/ADEN
Refresh 2 (three-state, output, synchronous)
Address Enable (input, internal pullup)
RFSH2—Available on the Am188EM microcontroller only, RFSH2/
ADEN is asserted Low to signify a DRAM refresh bus cycle. The use
of RFSH2/ADEN to signal a refresh is not valid when PSRAM mode is
selected. Instead, the MCS3/RFSH signal is provided to the PSRAM.
ADEN—If RFSH2/ADEN is held High or left floating on power-on reset,
the AD bus (AO15–AO8 and AD7–AD0) is enabled or disabled during
the address portion of LCS and UCS bus cycles based on the DA bit in
the LMCS and UMCS registers. If the DA bit is set, the memory address
is accessed on the A19–A0 pins. This mode of operation reduces power
consumption. There is a weak internal pullup resistor on RFSH2/ADEN,
so no external pullup is required.
If RFSH2/ADEN is held Low on power-on reset, the AD bus drives both
addresses and data. The pin is sampled one crystal clock cycle after the
rising edge of RES. RFSH2/ADEN is three-stated during bus holds and
ONCE mode.
See section 5.5.1 and section 5.5.2 for additional information on
enabling and disabling the AD bus during the address phase of a bus
cycle.
RXD
Receive Data (input, asynchronous)
This pin supplies asynchronous serial receive data to the
microcontroller UART.
S2–S0
Bus Cycle Status (output, three-state, synchronous)
These pins indicate to the system the type of bus cycle in progress. S2
can be used as a logical memory or I/O indicator, and S1 can be used
as a data transmit or receive indicator. S2–S0 float during bus hold and
hold acknowledge conditions. The S2–S0 pins are encoded as shown
in the following table.
System Overview
3-11
S2
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
S6/CLKDIV2
S1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
S0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Bus Cycle
Interrupt acknowledge
Read data from I/O
Write data to I/O
Halt
Instruction fetch
Read data from memory
Write data to memory
None (passive)
Bus Cycle Status Bit 6 (output, synchronous)
Clock Divide by 2 (input, internal pullup)
S6—During the second and remaining periods of a cycle (t2, t3, and t4),
this pin is asserted High to indicate a DMA-initiated bus cycle. During
a bus hold or reset condition, S6 floats.
CLKDIV2—If S6/CLKDIV2 is held Low during power-on reset, the chip
enters clock divide-by-2 mode where the processor clock is derived by
dividing the external clock input by 2. If this mode is selected, the PLL
is disabled. The pin is sampled on the rising edge of RES.
If S6 is to be used as PIO29 in input mode, the device driving PIO29
must not drive the pin Low during power-on reset. S6/PIO29 defaults
to a PIO input with pullup, so the pin does not need to be driven High
externally.
SCLK
Serial Clock (output, synchronous, three-state)
This pin supplies the synchronous serial interface (SSI) clock to a slave
device, allowing transmit and receive operations to be synchronized
between the microcontroller and the slave. SCLK is derived from the
microcontroller internal clock and then divided by 2, 4, 8, or 16,
depending on register settings. An access to any of the SSR or SSD
registers activates SCLK for eight SCLK cycles (see Figure 11-5 and
Figure 11-6 on page 11-8). When SCLK is inactive, it is held High by
the microcontroller.
SDATA
Serial Data (input/output, synchronous)
This pin transmits and receives synchronous serial interface (SSI) data
to and from a slave device. When SDATA is inactive, a weak keeper
holds the last value of SDATA on the pin.
SDEN1–SDEN0
Serial Data Enables (output, synchronous)
These pins enable data transfers on ports 1 and 0 of the synchronous
serial interface (SSI). The microcontroller asserts either SDEN1 or
SDEN0 at the beginning of a transfer and deasserts it after the transfer
is complete. When SDEN1–SDEN0 are inactive, they are held Low by
the microcontroller.
3-12
System Overview
SRDY
Synchronous Ready (input, synchronous, level-sensitive)
This pin indicates to the microcontroller that the addressed memory
space or I/O device will complete a data transfer. The SRDY pin accepts
an active-High input synchronized to CLKOUTA. Using SRDY instead
of ARDY allows a relaxed system timing because of the elimination of
the one-half clock period required to internally synchronize ARDY. To
always assert the ready condition to the microcontroller, tie SRDY High.
If the system does not use SRDY, tie the pin Low to yield control to
ARDY.
TMRIN0
Timer Input 0 (input, synchronous, edge-sensitive)
This pin supplies a clock or control signal to the internal microcontroller
timer 0. After internally synchronizing a Low-to-High transition on
TMRIN0, the microcontroller increments the timer. TMRIN0 must be
tied High if not being used.
TMRIN1
Timer Input 1 (input, synchronous, edge-sensitive)
This pin supplies a clock or control signal to the internal microcontroller
timer 1. After internally synchronizing a Low-to-High transition on
TMRIN1, the microcontroller increments the timer. TMRIN1 must be
tied High if not being used.
TMROUT0
Timer Output 0 (output, synchronous)
This pin supplies to the system either a single pulse or a continuous
waveform with a programmable duty cycle. TMROUT0 is floated during
a bus hold or reset.
TMROUT1
Timer Output 1 (output, synchronous)
This pin supplies to the system either a single pulse or a continuous
waveform with a programmable duty cycle. It can also be programmed
as a watchdog timer. TMROUT1 is floated during a bus hold or reset.
TXD
Transmit Data (output, asynchronous)
This pin supplies asynchronous serial transmit data from the
microcontroller UART to the system.
UCS/ONCE1
Upper Memory Chip Select (output, synchronous)
ONCE Mode Request 1 (input, internal pullup)
UCS—This pin indicates to the system that a memory access is in
progress to the upper memory block. The base address and size of the
upper memory block are programmable up to 512 Kbytes. UCS is held
High during a bus hold condition.
After power-on reset, UCS is asserted because the processor begins
executing at FFFF0h and the default configuration for the UCS chip
select is 64 Kbytes from F0000h to FFFFFh. See section 5.5.1.
ONCE1—During reset this pin and ONCE0 indicate to the
microcontroller the mode in which it should operate. ONCE0 and
ONCE1 are sampled on the rising edge of RES. If both pins are asserted
Low, the microcontroller enters ONCE mode; otherwise, it operates
normally. In ONCE mode, all pins assume a high-impedance state and
remain in that state until a subsequent reset occurs. To guarantee that
the microcontroller does not inadvertently enter ONCE mode, ONCE1
has a weak internal pullup resistor that is active only during a reset.
System Overview
3-13
UZI
Upper Zero Indicate (output, synchronous)
This pin lets the designer determine whether an access to the interrupt
vector table is in progress by ORing it with bits 15–10 of the address
and data bus (AD15–AD10 on the Am186EM and AO15–AO10 on the
Am188EM). UZI is the logical OR of the inverted A19–A16 bits, and it
asserts in the first period of a bus cycle and is held throughout the cycle.
This pin should be allowed to float or should be pulled High at reset. If
this pin is Low at the negation of reset, the Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers will enter a reserved clock test mode.
VCC
Power Supply (input)
These pins supply power (+5 V) to the microcontroller.
WHB
Write High Byte, Am186EM Microcontroller Only
(output, three-state, synchronous)
This pin and WLB indicate to the system which bytes of the data bus
(upper, lower, or both) participate in a write cycle. In 80C186 designs,
this information is provided by BHE, the least-significant address bit
(AD0), and by WR. However, by using WHB and WLB, the standard
system-interface logic and external address latch that were required
are eliminated.
WHB is asserted with AD15–AD8. WHB is the logical OR of BHE and
WR. This pin floats during reset.
WLB/WB
Write Low Byte, Am186EM Microcontroller Only
(output, three-state, synchronous)
Write Byte, Am188EM Microcontroller Only
(output, three-state, synchronous)
WLB—This pin and WHB indicate to the system which bytes of the data
bus (upper, lower, or both) participate in a write cycle. In 80C186
designs, this information is provided by BHE, the least-significant
address bit (AD0), and by WR. However, by using WHB and WLB, the
standard system interface logic and external address latch that were
required are eliminated.
WLB is asserted with AD7–AD0. WLB is the logical OR of AD0 and WR.
This pin floats during reset.
WB—On the Am188EM microcontroller, this pin indicates a write to the
bus. WB uses the same early timing as the nonmultiplexed address
bus. WB is associated with AD7–AD0. This pin floats during reset. WB
is the logical OR of WHB and WLB, which are not present on the
Am188EM microcontroller.
WR
Write Strobe (output, synchronous)
WR—This pin indicates to the system that the data on the bus is to be
written to a memory or I/O device. WR floats during a bus hold or reset
condition.
3-14
System Overview
X1
Crystal Input (input)
This pin and the X2 pin provide connections for a fundamental mode
or third-overtone parallel-resonant crystal used by the internal oscillator
circuit. To provide the microcontroller with an external clock source,
connect the source to the X1 pin and leave the X2 pin unconnected.
X2
Crystal Output (output)
This pin and the X1 pin provide connections for a fundamental mode
or third-overtone parallel-resonant crystal used by the internal oscillator
circuit. To provide the microcontroller with an external clock source,
leave the X2 pin unconnected and connect the source to the X1 pin.
3.1.1
Pins That Are Used by Emulators
The following pins are used by emulators: A19–A0, AO15–AO8, AD7–AD0, ALE, BHE/
ADEN (on the Am186EM), CLKOUTA, RFSH2/ADEN (on the Am188EM), RD, S2–S0, S6/
CLKDIV2, and UZI.
Emulators require that S6/CLKDIV2 and UZI be configured in their normal functionality,
that is, as S6 and UZI.
If BHE/ADEN (on the Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (on the Am188EM) is held Low during
the rising edge of RES, S6 and UZI are configured in their normal functionality, instead of
as PIOs, at reset.
System Overview
3-15
3.2
BUS OPERATION
The industry-standard 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers use a multiplexed address
and data (AD) bus. The address is present on the AD bus only during the t1 clock phase.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers continue to provide the multiplexed AD bus and,
in addition, provide a nonmultiplexed address (A) bus. The A bus provides an address to the
system for the complete bus cycle (t1–t4).
For systems where power consumption is a concern, it is possible to disable the address
from being driven on the AD bus on the Am186EM microcontroller and on the AD and AO
buses on the Am188EM microcontroller during the normal address portion of the bus cycle
for accesses to UCS and/or LCS address spaces. In this mode, the affected bus is placed
in a high impedance state during the address portion of the bus cycle. This feature is enabled
through the DA bits in the UMCS and LMCS registers. When address disable is in effect,
the number of signals that assert on the bus during all normal bus cycles to the associated
address space is reduced, thus decreasing power consumption, reducing processor
switching noise, and preventing bus contention with memory devices and peripherals when
operating at high clock rates. On the Am188EM microcontroller, the address is driven on
A015–A08 during the data portion of the bus cycle, regardless of the setting of the DA bits.
If the ADEN pin is pulled Low during processor reset, the value of the DA bits in the UMCS and
LMCS registers is ignored and the address is driven on the AD bus for all accesses, thus
preserving the industry-standard 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers’ multiplexed address bus
and providing support for existing emulation tools.
Figure 3-1 on page 3-17 shows the affected signals during a normal read or write operation
for an Am186EM microcontroller. The address and data will be multiplexed onto the AD bus.
Figure 3-2 on page 3-17 shows an Am186EM microcontroller bus cycle when address bus
disable is in effect. This results in the AD bus operating in a nonmultiplexed data-only mode.
The A bus will provide the address during a read or write operation.
Figure 3-3 on page 3-18 shows the affected signals during a normal read or write operation
for an Am188EM microcontroller. The multiplexed address/data mode is compatible with
80C188 microcontrollers and might be used to take advantage of existing logic or
peripherals.
Figure 3-4 on page 3-18 shows an Am188EM microcontroller bus cycle when address bus
disable is in effect. The address and data are not multiplexed. The AD7–AD0 signals will
have only data on the bus, while the A bus will have the address during a read or write
operation. The AO bus will also have the address during t2–t4.
3-16
System Overview
Figure 3-1
Am186EM Microcontroller Address Bus—Normal Read and Write Operation
t1
t2
t3
Address
Phase
t4
Data
Phase
CLKOUTA
A19–A0
Address
AD15–AD0
(Read)
Address
AD15–AD0
(Write)
Address
Data
Data
LCS or UCS
MCSx, PCSx
Figure 3-2
Am186EM Microcontroller—Read and Write with Address Bus Disable In Effect
t1
Address
Phase
t2
t3
Data
Phase
t4
CLKOUTA
A19–A0
Address
AD7–AD0
(Read)
Data
AD15–AD8
(Read)
Data
AD15–AD0
(Write)
Data
LCS, UCS
System Overview
3-17
Figure 3-3
Am188EM Microcontroller Address Bus—Normal Read and Write Operation
t1
t2
t3
Address
Phase
t4
Data
Phase
CLKOUTA
A19–A0
AD7–AD0
(Read)
Address
Address
Data
AO15–AO8
(Read or Write)
AD7–AD0
(Write)
Address
Address
Data
LCS or UCS
MCSx, PCSx
Figure 3-4
Am188EM Microcontroller—Read and Write with Address Bus Disable In Effect
t1
t2
Address
Phase
t3
t4
Data
Phase
CLKOUTA
A19–A0
Address
AD7–AD0
(Read)
Data
AO15–AO8
Address
AD7–AD0
(Write)
Data
LCS, UCS
3-18
System Overview
3.3
BUS INTERFACE UNIT
The bus interface unit controls all accesses to external peripherals and memory devices.
External accesses include those to memory devices, as well as those to memory-mapped
and I/O-mapped peripherals and the peripheral control block. The Am186EM and
Am188EM microcontrollers provide an enhanced bus interface unit with the following
features:
n A nonmultiplexed address bus
n Separate byte write enables for high and low bytes in the Am186EM microcontroller
n Pseudo-Static RAM (PSRAM) support
The standard 80C186 multiplexed address and data bus requires system-interface logic
and an external address latch. On the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers, new
byte write enables, PSRAM control logic, and a new nonmultiplexed address bus can reduce
design costs by eliminating external logic.
Timing diagrams for the operations described in this chapter appear in the Am186EM/EMLV
and Am188EM/EMLV Microcontrollers Data Sheet, order# 19168.
3.3.1
Nonmultiplexed Address Bus
The nonmultiplexed address bus (A19–A0) is valid one-half CLKOUTA cycle in advance
of the address on the AD bus. When used in conjunction with the modified UCS and LCS
outputs and the byte write enable signals, the A19–A0 bus provides a seamless interface
to SRAM, PSRAM, and Flash/EPROM memory systems.
3.3.2
Byte Write Enables
The Am186EM microcontroller provides two signals that act as byte write enables—WHB
(Write High Byte, AD15–AD8) and WLB (Write Low Byte, AD7–AD0). WHB is the logical
OR of BHE and WR (WHB is Low when both BHE and WR are Low). WLB is the logical
OR of AD0 and WR (WLB is Low when both AD0 and WR are both Low).
The Am188EM microcontroller provides one signal for byte write enables—WB (Write Byte).
WB is the logical OR of WHB and WLB, which are not present on the Am188EM
microcontroller.
The byte write enables are driven in conjunction with the demultiplexed address bus as
required for the write timing requirements of common SRAMs.
3.3.3
Pseudo Static RAM (PSRAM) Support
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers support the use of PSRAM devices in low
memory chip select (LCS) space only. When PSRAM mode is enabled, the timing for the
LCS signal is modified by the chip select control unit to provide a CS precharge period
during PSRAM accesses. The 40-MHz timing of the Am186EM microcontroller is
appropriate to allow 70-ns PSRAM to run with one wait state. PSRAM mode is enabled
through a bit in the Low Memory Chip Select (LMCS) register. (See section 5.5.2 on page
5-6.) The PSRAM feature is disabled on CPU reset.
In addition to the LCS timing changes for PSRAM precharge, the PSRAM devices also
require periodic refresh of all internal row addresses to retain their data. Although refresh
of PSRAM can be accomplished several ways, the Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers implement auto refresh only. The microcontroller generates a refresh
signal, RFSH, to the PSRAM devices when PSRAM mode is enabled. No refresh address
is required by the PSRAM when using the auto refresh mechanism. The RFSH signal is
multiplexed with the MCS3 signal pin. When PSRAM mode is enabled, MCS3 is not
available for use as a chip select signal.
System Overview
3-19
The refresh control unit must be programmed before accessing PSRAM in LCS space. The
refresh counter in the Clock Prescaler (CDRAM) register must be configured with the
required refresh interval value. The ending address of LCS space and the ready and waitstate generation in the LMCS register must also be programmed.
The refresh counter reload value in the CDRAM register should not be set to less than 18
(12h) in order to provide time for processor cycles within refresh. In PSRAM mode, the
refresh address counter must be set to 0000h to prevent another chip select from asserting.
LCS is held High during a refresh cycle. The A19–A0 bus is not used during refresh cycles.
The LMCS register must be configured to external Ready ignored (R2=1) with one wait
state (R1–R0=01b), and the PSRAM mode enable bit (PSE) must be set to 1. See section
5.5.2 on page 5-6.
3.4
CLOCK AND POWER MANAGEMENT UNIT
The clock and power management unit of the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers
includes a phase-locked loop (PLL) and a second programmable system clock output
(CLKOUTB).
3.4.1
Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)
In a traditional 80C186/188 design, the crystal frequency is twice that of the desired internal
clock. Because of the internal PLL on the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers, the
internal clock generated by the microcontroller (CLKOUTA) is the same frequency as the
crystal. The PLL takes the crystal inputs (X1 and X2) and generates a 45/55% (worst case)
duty cycle intermediate system clock of the same frequency. This feature removes the need
for an external 2x oscillator, thereby reducing system cost. The PLL is reset during poweron reset by an on-chip power-on reset (POR) circuit.
3.4.2
Crystal-Driven Clock Source
The internal oscillator circuit of the microcontroller is designed to function with a parallel
resonant fundamental or third overtone crystal. Because of the PLL, the crystal frequency
is equal to the processor frequency. Replacement of a crystal with an LC or RC equivalent
is not recommended.
The X1 and X2 signals are connected to an internal inverting amplifier (oscillator) which
provides, along with the external feedback loading, the necessary phase shift (Figure 3-5).
In such a positive feedback circuit, the inverting amplifier has an output signal (X2) 180
degrees out of phase of the input signal (X1). The external feedback network provides an
additional 180-degree phase shift. In an ideal system, the input to X1 will have 360 or zero
degrees of phase shift.
The external feedback network is designed to be as close as possible to ideal. If the
feedback network is not providing necessary phase shift, negative feedback will dampen
the output of the amplifier and negatively affect the operation of the clock generator. Values
for the loading on X1 and X2 must be chosen to provide the necessary phase shift and
crystal operation.
3-20
System Overview
3.4.2.1
Selecting a Crystal
When selecting a crystal, the load capacitance should always be specified (CL). This value
can cause variance in the oscillation frequency from the desired specified value (resonance).
The load capacitance and the loading of the feedback network have the following relationship:
CL =
(C1 ⋅ C2)
(C1 + C2)
+ CS
where CS is the stray capacitance of the circuit. Placing the crystal and CL in series across the
inverting amplifier and tuning these values (C1, C2) allows the crystal to oscillate at resonance.
This relationship is true for both fundamental and third-overtone operation. Finally, there is a
relationship between C1 and C2. To enhance the oscillation of the inverting amplifier, these values
need to be offset with the larger load on the output (X2). Equal values of these loads tend to
balance the poles of the inverting amplifier.
The characteristics of the inverting amplifier set limits on the following parameters for
crystals:
ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance).................... 80 ohm Max
Drive Level ............................................................... 1 mW Max
The recommended range of values for C1 and C2 are as follows:
C1............................................................................... 15 pF ± 20%
C2............................................................................... 22 pF ± 20%
The specific values for C1 and C2 must be determined by the designer and are dependent on
the characteristics of the chosen crystal and board design.
Figure 3-5
Oscillator Configurations
C1
X1
Crystal
X2
Crystal
C1
C2
C2
a. Inverting Amplifier Configuration
Note 1
Am186EM/
Am188EM
Microcontroller
200 pF
b. Crystal Configuration
Note 1: Use for Third Overtone Mode
XTAL Frequency L1 Value (Max
20 MHz
12 µH ±20%
25 MHz
8.2 µH ±20%
33 MHz
4.7 µH ±20%
40 MHz
3.0 µH ±20%
System Overview
3-21
3.4.3
External Source Clock
Alternately, the internal oscillator can be driven from an external clock source. This source
should be connected to the input of the inverting amplifier (X1) with the output (X2) not
connected.
3.4.4
System Clocks
Figure 3-6 shows the organization of the clocks. The 80C186 microcontroller system clock
has been renamed CLKOUTA. CLKOUTB is provided as an additional output.
Figure 3-6
Clock Organization
Processor Internal Clock
PLL
Power-Save
Divisor
(/2 to /128)
CLKOUTA
Mux
X1, X2
Drive
Enable
Mux
Time
Delay
6 ± 2.5ns
CLKOUTB
Drive
Enable
CLKOUTA and CLKOUTB operate at either the processor frequency or the PLL frequency.
The output drivers for both clocks are individually programmable for drive enable or disable.
The second clock output (CLKOUTB) lets one clock run at the PLL frequency and another
clock run at the power-save frequency. Individual drive enable bits allow selective enabling
of just one or both of these clock outputs.
3.4.5
Power-Save Operation
The power-save mode reduces power consumption and heat dissipation, which can reduce
power supply costs and size in all systems and extend battery life in portable systems. In
power-save mode, operation of the CPU and internal peripherals continues at a slower
clock frequency. When an interrupt occurs, the microcontroller automatically returns to its
normal operating frequency on the internal clock’s next rising edge of t3.
Note: Power-save operation requires that clock-dependent devices be reprogrammed for
clock frequency changes. Software drivers must be aware of clock frequency.
3-22
System Overview
CHAPTER
4
4.1
PERIPHERAL CONTROL BLOCK
OVERVIEW
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontroller integrated peripherals are controlled by
16-bit read/write registers. The peripheral registers are contained within an internal 256byte control block—the peripheral control block. Registers are physically located in the
peripheral devices they control, but they are addressed as a single 256-byte block. Figure
4-1 shows a map of the peripheral control block registers.
Code that is intended to execute on the Am188EM microcontroller should perform all writes
to the PCB registers as byte writes. These writes will transfer 16 bits of data to the PCB
register even if an 8-bit register is named in the instruction. For example, out dx, al
results in the value of ax being written to the port address in dx. Reads to the PCB should be
done as word reads. Code written in this manner will run correctly on the Am188EM
microcontroller and on the Am186EM microcontroller. Unaligned reads and writes to the PCB
result in unpredictable behavior on both the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers.
The peripheral control block can be mapped into either memory or I/O space. The base
address of the control block must be on an even 256-byte boundary (i.e., the lower eight
bits of the base address are 00h). Internal logic recognizes control block addresses and
responds to bus cycles. During bus cycles to internal registers, the bus controller signals
the operation externally (i.e., the RD, WR, status, address, and data lines are driven as in
a normal bus cycle), but the data bus, SRDY, and ARDY are ignored.
At reset, the Peripheral Control Block Relocation register is set to 20FFh, which maps the
control block to start at FF00h in I/O space. An offset map of the 256-byte peripheral control
register block is shown in Figure 4-1. See section 4.1.1 on page 4-4 for a complete
description of the Peripheral Control Block Relocation (RELREG) register.
Peripheral Control Block
4-1
Figure 4-1
Peripheral Control Block Register Map
Offset
(Hexadecimal)
Register Name
FE
Peripheral Control Block Relocation Register
w
w
F6
Reset Configuration Register
F4
Processor Release Level Register
F0
Chapter 4
PDCON Register
w
w
E4
Enable RCU Register
E2
Clock Prescaler Register
E0
Chapter 6
Memory Partition Register
w
w
DA
DMA 1 Control Register
D8
DMA 1 Transfer Count Register
D6
DMA 1 Destination Address High Register
D4
DMA 1 Destination Address Low Register
D2
DMA 1 Source Address High Register
D0
DMA 1 Source Address Low Register
CA
DMA 0 Control Register
C8
DMA 0 Transfer Count Register
C6
DMA 0 Destination Address High Register
C4
DMA 0 Destination Address Low Register
C2
DMA 0 Source Address High Register
C0
DMA 0 Source Address Low Register
w
Chapter 9
w
A8
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register
A6
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register
A4
Peripheral Chip Select Register
A2
Low Memory Chip Select Register
A0
Upper Memory Chip Select Register
w
Chapter 5
w
88
Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor Register
86
Serial Port Receive Register
84
Serial Port Transmit Register
82
Serial Port Status Register
80
Serial Port Control Register
Chapter 10
Note: Gaps in offset addresses
indicate reserved registers.
Changed from 80C186
microcontroller.
4-2
Peripheral Control Block
Offset
(Hexadecimal)
w
Register Name
7A
PIO Data 1 Register
78
PIO Direction 1 Register
76
74
PIO Mode 1 Register
PIO Data 0 Register
72
PIO Direction 0 Register
w
w
66
Timer 2 Mode/Control Register
62
Timer 2 Maxcount Compare A Register
Timer 2 Count Register
60
5E
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register
5C
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare B Register
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare A Register
5A
58
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare B Register
50
Timer 0 Count Register
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare A Register
w
w
44
Serial Port Interrupt Control Register
42
Watchdog Timer Control Register
40
INT4 Control Register
3E
INT3 Control Register
3C
INT2 Control Register
INT1 Control Register
36
34
32
30
2E
2C
Chapter 8
Timer 1 Count Register
56
54
52
38
Chapter 12
PIO Mode 0 Register
70
3A
w
INT0 Control Register
DMA 1 Interrupt Control Register
DMA 0 Interrupt Control Register
Timer Interrupt Control Register
Interrupt Status Register
Interrupt Request Register
Chapter 7
In-service Register
2A
Priority Mask Register
28
Interrupt Mask Register
26
Poll Status Register
24
22
Poll Register
End-of-Interrupt Register
20
Interrupt Vector Register
18
Synchronous Serial Receive Register
16
14
Synchronous Serial Transmit 0 Register
12
Synchronous Serial Enable Register
10
Synchronous Serial Status Register
Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 Register
Chapter 11
Note: Gaps in offset addresses
indicate reserved registers.
Changed from 80C186
microcontroller.
Peripheral Control Block
4-3
4.1.1
Peripheral Control Block Relocation Register (RELREG, Offset FEh)
The peripheral control block is mapped into either memory or I/O space by programming
the Peripheral Control Block Relocation (RELREG) register (see Figure 4-2). This register
is a 16-bit register at offset FEh from the control block base address. The RELREG register
provides the upper 12 bits of the base address of the control block. The control block is
effectively an internal chip select range.
Other chip selects can overlap the control block only if they are programmed to zero wait
states and ignore external ready. If the control register block is mapped into I/O space, the
upper four bits of the base address must be programmed as 0000b (since I/O addresses
are only 16 bits wide).
In addition to providing relocation information for the control block, the RELREG register
contains a bit that places the interrupt controller into either slave mode or master mode.
At reset, the RELREG register is set to 20FFh, which maps the control block to start at
FF00h in I/O space. An offset map of the 256-byte peripheral control register block is shown
in Figure 4-1.
Figure 4-2
Peripheral Control Block Relocation Register (RELREG, offset FEh)
7
15
0
R19–R8
S/M M/IO
Res Res
The value of the RELREG register is 20FFh at reset.
Bit 15: Reserved
Bit 14: Slave/Master (S/M)—Configures the interrupt controller for slave mode when set
to 1 and for master mode when set to 0.
Bit 13: Reserved
Bit 12: Memory/IO Space (M/IO)—When set to 1, the peripheral control block (PCB) is
located in memory space. When set to 0, the PCB is located in I/O space.
Bits 11–0: Relocation Address Bits (R19–R8)—R19–R8 define the upper address bits
of the PCB base address. The lower eight bits (R7–R0) default to 00h. R19–R16 are ignored
when the PCB is mapped to I/O space.
4-4
Peripheral Control Block
4.1.2
Reset Configuration Register (RESCON, Offset F6h)
The Reset Configuration (RESCON) register (see Figure 4-3) in the peripheral control block
latches system-configuration information that is presented to the processor on the address/
data bus (AD15–AD0 for the Am186EM or AO15–AO8 and AD7–AD1 for the Am188EM)
during the rising edge of reset. The interpretation of this information is system-specific. The
processor does not impose any predetermined interpretation, but simply provides a means
for communicating this information to software.
When the RES input is asserted Low, the contents of the address/data bus are written into
the RESCON register. The system can place configuration information on the address/data
bus using weak external pullup or pulldown resistors, or using an external driver that is
enabled during reset. The processor does not drive the address/data bus during reset.
For example, the RESCON register could be used to provide the software with the position
of a configuration switch in the system. Using weak external pullup and pulldown resistors
on the address and data bus, the system could provide the microcontroller with a value
corresponding to the position of a jumper during a reset.
Figure 4-3
Reset Configuration Register (RESCON, offset F6h)
15
7
0
RC
On reset, the RESCON register is set to the value found on AD15–AD0.
Bits 15–0: Reset Configuration (RC)—There is a one-to-one correspondence between
address/data bus signals during the reset and the Reset Configuration register’s bits. On
the Am186EM microcontroller, AD15 corresponds to bit 15 of the Reset Configuration
register, and so on. On the Am188EM microcontroller, AO15 corresponds to register bit
15, and AD7 corresponds to bit 7. Once RES is deasserted, the RESCON register holds
its value. This value can be read by software to determine the configuration information.
The contents of the RESCON register are read-only and remain valid until the next
processor reset.
Peripheral Control Block
4-5
4.1.3
Processor Release Level Register (PRL, Offset F4h)
The Processor Release Level (PRL) register (Figure 4-4) is a read-only register that
specifies the processor version.
Figure 4-4
Processor Release Level Register (PRL, offset F4h)
7
15
PRL
0
Reserved
The values of the PRL register are listed in Table 4-1.
Bits 15–8: Processor Release Level (PRL)—This field is an 8-bit, read-only identification
number that specifies the processor release level. The values of the PRL field for the
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers are shown in Table 4-1. Each release level is
numbered one higher than the previous level.
Bits 7–0: Reserved
Table 4-1
4-6
Processor Release Level (PRL) Values
PRL Value
Processor Release Level
01h
02h
03h
04h
C
D
E
F
Peripheral Control Block
4.1.4
Power-Save Control Register (PDCON, Offset F0h)
Figure 4-5
Power-Save Control Register (PDCON, offset F0h)
7
15
0 0 0
PSEN
0
0 0 0 0 0
CBF CAF
CBD
CAD
F1
F2
F0
The value of the PDCON register is 0000h at reset.
Bit 15: Enable Power-Save Mode (PSEN)—When set to 1, enables Power-Save mode
and divides the internal operating clock by the value in F2–F0. PSEN is automatically
cleared when an external interrupt, including those generated by on-chip peripheral
devices, occurs. The value of the PSEN bit is not restored by the execution of an IRET
instruction. Software interrupts (INT instruction) and exceptions do not clear the PSEN bit,
and interrupt service routines for these conditions should do so if desired. This bit is 0 after
processor reset.
Bits 14–12: Reserved—Read back as 0.
Bit 11: CLKOUTB Output Frequency (CBF)—When set to 1, CLKOUTB follows the crystal
input (PLL) frequency. When set to 0, CLKOUTB follows the internal processor frequency
(after the clock divisor). Set to 0 on reset.
CLKOUTB can be used as a full-speed clock source in power-save mode.
Bit 10: CLKOUTB Drive Disable (CBD)—When set to 1, CBD three-states the clock output
driver for CLKOUTB. When set to 0, CLKOUTB is driven as an output. Set to 0 on reset.
Bit 9: CLKOUTA Output Frequency (CAF)—When set to 1, CLKOUTA follows the crystal
input (PLL) frequency. When set to 0, CLKOUTA follows the internal processor frequency
(after the clock divisor). Set to 0 on reset.
CLKOUTA can be used as a full-speed clock source in power-save mode.
Bit 8: CLKOUTA Drive Disable (CAD)—When set to 1, CAD three-states the clock output
driver for CLKOUTA. When set to 0, CLKOUTA is driven as an output. Set to 0 on reset.
Bits 7–3: Reserved—Read back as 0.
Bits 2–0: Clock Divisor Select (F2–F0)—Controls the division factor when Power-Save
mode is enabled. Allowable values are as follows:
F2
0
F1
0
F0
0
Divider Factor
Divide by 1 (20)
0
0
1
Divide by 2 (21)
0
1
0
Divide by 4 (22)
0
1
1
Divide by 8 (23)
1
0
0
Divide by 16 (24)
1
0
1
Divide by 32 (25)
1
1
0
Divide by 64 (26)
1
1
1
Divide by 128 (27)
Peripheral Control Block
4-7
4.2
INITIALIZATION AND PROCESSOR RESET
Processor initialization or startup is accomplished by driving the RES input pin Low. RES
must be Low during power-up to ensure proper device initialization. RES forces the
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers to terminate all execution and local bus activity.
No instruction or bus activity occurs as long as RES is active.
After RES is deasserted and an internal processing interval elapses, the microcontroller
begins execution with the instruction at physical location FFFF0h. RES also sets some
registers to predefined values as shown in Table 4-2.
4-8
Peripheral Control Block
Table 4-2
Initial Register State After Reset
Register Name
Mnemonic
Value at
Reset
Comments
Processor Status Flags
F
F002h
Interrupts disabled
Instruction Pointer
IP
0000h
Code Segment
CS
FFFFh
Boot address is FFFF0h
Data Segment
DS
0000h
DS = ES = SS = 0000h
Extra Segment
ES
0000h
Stack Segment
SS
0000h
Processor Release Level
Peripheral Control Block
Relocation
PRL
XXxxh
RELREG
20FFh
PRL XX = Revision (lower half-word is undefined)
Peripheral control block located at FF00h in I/O space and
interrupt controller in master mode
Memory Partition
MDRAM
0000h
Refresh base address is 00000h
Enable RCU
EDRAM
0000h
Upper Memory Chip Select
UMCS
F03Bh
Refresh disabled, counter = 0
UCS active for 64K from F0000h to FFFFFh, 3 wait states,
external Ready signal required
Low Memory Chip Select
LMCS
Undefined
Serial port interrupts disabled, no loopback, no break,
BRKVAL low, no parity, word length = 7, 1 stop bit,
transmitter and receiver disabled
Serial Port Control
SPCT
0000h
PIO Direction 1
PIODIR1
FFFFh
PIO Mode 1
PIOMODE1
0000h
PIO Direction 0
PIODIR0
FC0Fh
PIO Mode 0
PIOMODE0
0000h
Serial Port Interrupt Control
SPICON
001Fh
Serial port interrupt masked, priority 7
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control WDCON
000Fh
Watchdog timer interrupt masked, priority 7
INT4 Control
I4CON
000Fh
Int4 interrupt masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
INT3 Control
I3CON
000Fh
Int3 interrupt masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
INT2 Control
I2CON
000Fh
Int2 interrupt masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
INT1 Control
I1CON
000Fh
Int1 interrupt masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
INT0 Control
I0CON
000Fh
Int0 interrupt masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
DMA1 Interrupt Control
DMA1CON
000Fh
DMA1 interrupts masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
DMA0 Interrupt Control
DMA0CON
000Fh
DMA0 interrupts masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
Timer Interrupt Control
TCUCON
000Fh
Timer interrupts masked, edge-triggered, priority 7
In-Service
INSERV
0000h
No interrupts are in-service
Priority Mask
PRIMSK
0007h
Allow all interrupts based on priority
Interrupt Mask
IMASK
07FDh
All interrupts masked (off)
Synchronous Serial Control
SSC
0000h
Synchronous Serial Status
SSS
0000h
SCLK = 1/2 CLKOUTA, no data enabled
Synchronous serial port not busy, no errors, no transmit or
receive completed.
DMA 1 Control
D1CON
FFF9h
DMA 0 Control
D0CON
FFF9h
Note:
Registers not listed in this table are undefined at reset.
Peripheral Control Block
4-9
4-10
Peripheral Control Block
CHAPTER
5
5.1
CHIP SELECT UNIT
OVERVIEW
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers contain logic that provides programmable
chip select generation for both memories and peripherals. In addition, the logic can be
programmed to provide ready or wait-state generation and latched address bits A1 and A2.
The chip select lines are active for all memory and I/O cycles in their programmed areas,
whether they are generated by the CPU or by the integrated DMA unit.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide six chip select outputs for use with
memory devices and six more for use with peripherals in either memory space or I/O space.
The six memory chip selects can be used to address three memory ranges. Each peripheral
chip select addresses a 256-byte block offset from a programmable base address (see
section 4.1.1 on page 4-4).
The chip selects are programmed through the use of five 16-bit peripheral registers (Table
5-1). The UMCS register, offset A0h, is used to program the Upper Memory Chip Select
(UCS). The LMCS register, offset A2h, is used to program the Lower Memory Chip Select
(LCS). The Midrange Memory Chip Selects (MCS3–MCS0) are programmed through the
use of two registers—the Midrange Memory Chip Select (MMCS) register, offset A6h and
the PCS and MCS Auxiliary (MPCS) register, offset A8h. In addition to its use in configuring
the MCS chip selects, the MPCS register and the PACS register are used to program the
Peripheral Chip Selects (PCS6–PCS5 and PCS3–PCS0).
Note: The PCS4 chip select is not implemented on the Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers.
Table 5-1
Chip Select Register Summary
Offset
Register
Mnemonic
Register Name
Affected Pins
Comments
A0h
UMCS
Upper Memory Chip Select
UCS
Ending address is fixed at FFFFFh
A2h
LMCS
Lower Memory Chip Select
LCS
Starting address is fixed at 00000h
A4h
PACS
Peripheral Chip Select
PCS6–PCS5
PCS3–PCS0
Block size is fixed at 256 bytes
A6h
MMCS
Midrange Chip Select
MCS3–MCS0
Starting address and block size are
programmable
A8h
MPCS
PCS and MCS Auxiliary
PCS6–PCS5
PCS3–PCS0
MCS3–MCS0
Affects both PCS and MCS
chip selects
Note:
A read or write will enable a chip select register.
Chip Select Unit
5-1
Except for the UCS chip select, which is active on reset as discussed in section 5.5.1, chip
selects are not activated until the associated registers have been accessed. (An access is
any read or write operation.) For this reason, the chip select registers should not be read
by the processor initialization code until after they have been written with valid data. The
LCS chip select is activated when the LMCS register is accessed, the MCS chip selects
are activated after both the MMCS and MPCS registers have been accessed, and the PCS
chip selects are activated after both the PACS and MPCS registers have been accessed.
5.2
CHIP SELECT TIMING
The timing for the UCS and LCS outputs has been modified from the 80C186 and 80C188
microcontrollers. These outputs now assert in conjunction with the demultiplexed address
bus (A19–A0) for normal memory timing. To make these outputs available earlier in the
bus cycle, the number of programmable memory size selections has been reduced.
The MCS3–MCS0 and PCS chip selects assert with the AD bus.
5.3
READY AND WAIT-STATE PROGRAMMING
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers can be programmed to sense a ready signal
for each of the peripheral or memory chip select lines. The ready signal can be either the
ARDY or SRDY signal. Each chip select control register (UMCS, LMCS, MMCS, PACS,
and MPCS) contains a single-bit field, R2, that determines whether the external ready signal
is required or ignored. When R2 is set to 1, external ready is ignored. When R2 is set to 0,
external ready is required.
The number of wait states to be inserted for each access to a peripheral or memory region
is programmable. Zero wait states to 15 wait states can be inserted for the PCS3–PCS0
peripheral chip selects. Zero wait states to three wait states can be inserted for all other
chip selects.
Each of the chip select control registers, other than the PACS register (UMCS, LMCS,
MMCS, and MPCS), contains a two-bit field, R1–R0, whose value determines the number
of wait states from none to three to be inserted. A value of 00b in this field specifies no
inserted wait states. A value of 11b specifies three inserted wait states.
The PCS3–PCS0 peripheral chip selects can be programmed for up to 15 wait states. The
PACS register uses bits R3 and R1–R0 for the additional wait states.
When external ready is required (R2 is set to 0), internally programmed wait states will
always complete before external ready can terminate or extend a bus cycle. For example,
if the internal wait states are set to insert two wait states (R1–R0 = 10b), the processor
samples the external ready pin during the first wait cycle. If external ready is asserted at
that time, the access completes after six cycles (four cycles plus two wait states). If external
ready is not asserted during the first wait state, the access is extended until ready is
asserted, which is followed by one more wait state followed by t4.
5.4
CHIP SELECT OVERLAP
Although programming the various chip selects on the Am186EM microcontroller so that
multiple chip select signals are asserted for the same physical address is not recommended,
it may be unavoidable in some systems. In such systems, the chip selects whose assertions
overlap must have the same configuration for ready (external ready required or not required)
and the number of wait states to be inserted into the cycle by the processor.
The peripheral control block (PCB) is accessed using internal signals. These internal signals
function as chip selects configured with zero wait states and no external ready. Therefore,
the PCB can be programmed to addresses that overlap external chip select signals if those
external chip selects are programmed to zero wait states with no external ready required.
5-2
Chip Select Unit
When overlapping an additional chip select with either the LCS or UCS chip selects, it must
be noted that setting the Disable Address (DA) bit in the LMCS or UMCS register will disable
the address from being driven on the AD bus for all accesses for which the associated chip
select is asserted, including any accesses for which multiple chip selects assert.
The MCS and PCS chip select pins can be configured as either chip selects (normal
function) or as PIO inputs or outputs. It should be noted; however, that the ready and wait
state generation logic for these chip selects is in effect, regardless of their configurations
as chip selects or PIOs. This means that if these chip selects are enabled (by a read or
write to the MMCS and MPCS registers for the MCS chip selects, or by a read or write to
the PACS and MPCS registers for the PCS chip selects), the ready and wait state
programming for these signals must agree with the programming for any other chip selects
with which their assertion would overlap if they were configured as chip selects.
Although the PCS4 signal is not available on an external pin, the ready and wait state logic
for this signal still exists internal to the part. For this reason, the PCS4 address space must
follow the rules for overlapping chip selects. The ready and wait-state logic for PCS6–PCS5
is disabled when these signals are configured as address bits A2–A1.
Failure to configure overlapping chip selects with the same ready and wait state
requirements may cause the processor to hang with the appearance of waiting for a ready
signal. This behavior may occur even in a system in which ready is always asserted (ARDY
or SRDY tied High).
Configuring PCS in I/O space with LCS or any other chip select configured for memory
address 0 is not considered overlapping of the chip selects. Overlapping chip selects refers
to configurations where more than one chip select asserts for the same physical address.
5.5
CHIP SELECT REGISTERS
The following sections describe the chip select registers.
Chip Select Unit
5-3
5.5.1
Upper Memory Chip Select Register (UMCS, Offset A0h)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide the UCS chip select pin for the top
of memory. On reset, the microcontroller begins fetching and executing instructions starting
at memory location FFFF0h, so upper memory is usually used as instruction memory. To
facilitate this usage, UCS defaults to active on reset with a default memory range of 64
Kbytes from F0000h to FFFFFh, external ready required, and three wait states automatically
inserted.
The UCS memory range always ends at FFFFFh. The lower boundary is programmable.
The Upper Memory Chip Select is configured through the UMCS register (Figure 5-1).
Figure 5-1
Upper Memory Chip Select Register (UMCS, offset A0h)
7
15
1
0 0 0 0
0
0 1 1 1
A19
LB2–LB0
DA
R2 R1–R0
The value of the UMCS register at reset is F03Bh.
Bit 15: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bits 14–12: Lower Boundary (LB2–LB0)—The LB2–LB0 bits define the lower bound of
the memory accessed through the UCS chip selects. The number of programmable bits
has been reduced from eight bits in the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers to three bits
in the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide an additional block size of 512K,
which is not available on the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers. Table 5-2 outlines the
possible configurations and differences with the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers.
Table 5-2
5-4
UMCS Block Size Programming Values
Memory
Block
Size
64K
Starting
Address
F0000h
LB2–LB0
111b
128K
E0000h
110b
256K
C0000h
100b
512K
80000h
000b
Comments
Default
Not available on the 80C186 or 80C188 microcontroller
Chip Select Unit
Bits 11–8: Reserved
Bit 7: Disable Address (DA)—The DA bit enables or disables the AD15–AD0 bus during
the address phase of a bus cycle when UCS is asserted. If DA is set to 1, AD15–AD0 is
not driven during the address phase of a bus cycle when UCS is asserted. If DA is set to
0, AD15–AD0 is driven during the address phase of a bus cycle. Disabling AD15–AD0
reduces power consumption. DA defaults to 0 at power-on reset.
Note: On the Am188EM microcontroller, the AO15–AO8 address pins are driven during
the data phase of the bus cycles, even when the DA bit is set to 1 in either the UMCS or
LMCS register.
If BHE/ADEN (on the Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (on the Am188EM) is held Low on the
rising edge of RES, then AD15–AD0 is always driven regardless of the DA setting. This
configures AD15–AD0 to be enabled regardless of the setting of DA.
If BHE/ADEN (on the Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (on the Am188EM) is High on the rising
edge of RES, then DA in the Upper Memory Chip Select (UMCS) register and DA in the
Lower Memory Chip Select (LMCS) register control the AD15–AD0 disabling.
See the descriptions of the BHE/ADEN and RFSH2/ADEN pins in Chapter 3.
Bits 6: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bits 5–3: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bit 2: Ready Mode (R2)—The R2 bit is used to configure the ready mode for the UCS chip
select. If R2 is set to 0, external ready is required. If R2 is set to 1, external ready is ignored.
In each case, the processor also uses the value of the R1–R0 bits to determine the number
of wait states to insert. R2 defaults to 0 at reset.
Bits 1–0: Wait-State Value (R1–R0)—The value of R1–R0 determines the number of wait
states inserted into an access to the UCS memory area. From zero to three wait states can
be inserted (R1–R0 = 00b to 11b). R1–R0 default to 11b at reset.
Chip Select Unit
5-5
5.5.2
Low Memory Chip Select Register (LMCS, Offset A2h)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide the LCS chip select pin for the
bottom of memory. Since the interrupt vector table is located at 00000h at the bottom of
memory, the LCS pin has been provided to facilitate this usage. The LCS pin is not active
on reset, but any read or write access to the LMCS register activates this pin.
The Low Memory Chip Select is configured through the LMCS register (see Figure 5-2).
Figure 5-2
Low Memory Chip Select Register (LMCS, offset A2h)
7
15
1 1 1 1
0
0
1 1 1
A19
UB2–UB0
DA PSE
R2 R1–R0
The value of the LMCS register at reset is undefined.
Bit 15: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bits 14–12: Upper Boundary (UB2–UB0)—The UB2–UB0 bits define the upper bound of
the memory accessed through the LCS chip select. Because of the timing requirements of
the LCS output and the nonmultiplexed address bus, the number of programmable memory
sizes for the LMCS register is reduced compared to the 80C186 and 80C188
microcontrollers. Consequently, the number of programmable bits has been reduced from
eight bits in the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers to three bits in the Am186EM and
Am188EM microcontrollers.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers have a block size of 512 Kbytes, which is
not available on the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers. Table 5-3 outlines the possible
configurations and the differences between the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers and
the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers.
Table 5-3
5-6
LMCS Block Size Programming Values
Memory
Block
Size
64K
Ending
Address
0FFFFh
UB2–UB0
000b
128K
1FFFFh
001b
256K
3FFFFh
011b
512K
7FFFFh
111b
Comments
Not available on the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers
Chip Select Unit
Bits 11–8: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bit 7: Disable Address (DA)—The DA bit enables or disables the AD15–AD0 bus during
the address phase of a bus cycle when LCS is asserted. If DA is set to 1, AD15–AD0 is
not driven during the address phase of a bus cycle when LCS is asserted. If DA is set to
0, AD15–AD0 is driven during the address phase of a bus cycle. Disabling AD15–AD0
reduces power consumption.
Note: On the Am188EM microcontroller, the AO15–AO8 address pins are driven during
the data phase of the bus cycles, even when the DA bit is set to 1 in either the Upper
Memory Chip Select register (UMCS) or the Low Memory Chip Select register (LMCS).
If BHE/ADEN (on the Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (on the Am188EM) is held Low on the
rising edge of RES, then AD15–AD0 is always driven regardless of the DA setting. This
configures AD15–AD0 to be enabled regardless of the setting of DA.
If BHE/ADEN (on the Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (on the Am188EM) is High on the rising
edge of RES, then the DA bit in the UMCS register and the DA bit in the LMCS register
control the AD15–AD0 disabling.
See the descriptions of the BHE/ADEN and RFSH2/ADEN pins in Chapter 3.
Bit 6: PSRAM Mode Enable (PSE)—The PSE bit is used to enable PSRAM support for
the LCS chip select memory space. When PSE is set to 1, PSRAM support is enabled.
When PSE is set to 0, PSRAM support is disabled. The refresh control unit registers
EDRAM, MDRAM, and CDRAM, must be configured for auto refresh before PSRAM
support is enabled.
Bits 5–3: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bit 2: Ready Mode (R2)—The R2 bit is used to configure the ready mode for the LCS chip
select. If R2 is set to 0, external ready is required. If R2 is set to 1, external ready is ignored.
In each case, the processor also uses the value of the R1–R0 bits to determine the number
of wait states to insert.
Bits 1–0: Wait-State Value (R1–R0)—The value of R1–R0 determines the number of wait
states inserted into an access to the LCS memory area. From zero to three wait states can
be inserted (R1–R0 =00b to 11b).
Chip Select Unit
5-7
5.5.3
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register (MMCS, Offset A6h)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide four chip select pins, MCS3–MCS0,
for use within a user-locatable memory block. The base address of the memory block can
be located anywhere within the 1-Mbyte memory address space, exclusive of the areas
associated with the UCS and LCS chip selects (and, if they are mapped to memory, the
address range of the Peripheral Chip Selects, PCS6–PCS5 and PCS3–PCS0). The MCS
address range can overlap the PCS address range if the PCS chip selects are mapped to
I/O space.
The Midrange Memory Chip Selects are programmed through two registers. The Midrange
Memory Chip Select (MMCS) register (see Figure 5-3) determines the base address and
the ready condition and wait states of the memory block accessed through the MCS pins.
The PCS and MCS Auxiliary (MPCS) register is used to configure the block size. The
MCS3–MCS0 pins are not active on reset. Both the MMCS and MPCS registers must be
accessed with a read or write to activate these chip selects.
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the MCS3–MCS0 outputs assert with the multiplexed
AD address bus (AD15–AD0 or AO15–AO8 and AD7–AD0) rather than the earlier timing
of the A19–A0 bus. The A19–A0 bus can still be used for address selection, but the timing
is delayed for a half cycle later than that for UCS and LCS.
The Midrange Memory Chip Selects are configured by the MMCS register (Figure 5-3).
Figure 5-3
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register (MMCS, offset A6h)
7
15
BA19–BA13
0
1 1 1 1 1 1
R2 R1–R0
The value of the MMCS register at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–9: Base Address (BA19–BA13)—The base address of the memory block that is
addressed by the MCS chip select pins is determined by the value of BA19–BA13. These
bits correspond to bits A19–A13 of the 20-bit memory address. Bits A12–A0 of the base
address are always 0.
The base address can be set to any integer multiple of the size of the memory block size
selected in the MPCS register. For example, if the midrange block is 32 Kbytes, the block
could be located at 10000h or 18000h but not at 14000h.
The base address of the midrange chip selects can be set to 00000h only if the LCS chip
select is not active. This is due to the fact that the LCS base address is defined to be
address 00000h and chip select address ranges are not allowed to overlap. Because of
the additional restriction that the base address must be a multiple of the block size, a 512K
MMCS block size can only be used when located at address 00000h, and the LCS chip
selects must not be active in this case. Use of the MCS chip selects to access low memory
allows the timing of these accesses to follow the AD address bus rather than the A address
bus. Locating a 512K MMCS block at 80000h always conflicts with the range of the UCS
chip select and is not allowed.
5-8
Chip Select Unit
Bits 8–3: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bit 2: Ready Mode (R2)—The R2 bit is used to configure the ready mode for the MCS
chip selects. If R2 is set to 0, external ready is required. If R2 is set to 1, external ready is
ignored. In each case, the processor also uses the value of the R1–R0 bits to determine
the number of wait states to insert.
Bits 1–0: Wait-State Value (R1–R0)—The value of R1–R0 determines the number of wait
states inserted into an access to the MCS memory area. From zero to three wait states
can be inserted (R1–R0 = 00b to 11b).
Chip Select Unit
5-9
5.5.4
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register (MPCS, Offset A8h)
The PCS and MCS Auxiliary (MPCS) register (see Figure 5-4) differs from the other chip
select control registers in that it contains fields that pertain to more than one type of chip
select. The MPCS register fields provide program information for MCS3–MCS0 as well as
PCS6–PCS5 and PCS3–PCS0.
In addition to its function as a chip select control register, the MPCS register contains a
field that configures the PCS6–PCS5 pins as either chip selects or as alternate sources for
the A2 and A1 address bits. When programmed to provide address bits A1 and A2, PCS6–
PCS5 cannot be used as peripheral chip selects. These outputs can be used to provide
latched address bits for A2 and A1.
On reset, PCS6–PCS5 are not active. If PCS6–PCS5 are configured as address pins, an
access to the MPCS register causes the pins to activate. No corresponding access to the
PACS register is required to activate the PCS6–PCS5 pins as addresses.
Figure 5-4
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register (MPCS, offset A8h)
7
15
1
0
M6–M0
1 1 1
MS
R2 R1–R0
EX
The value of the MPCS register at reset is undefined.
Bit 15: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bits 14–8: MCS Block Size (M6–M0)—This field determines the total block size for the
MCS3–MCS0 chip selects. Each individual chip select is active for one quarter of the total
block size. The size of the memory block defined is shown in Table 5-4.
Only one of the M6–M0 bits can be set at any time. If more than one of the M6–M0 bits is
set, unpredictable operation of the MCS lines occurs.
Table 5-4
MCS Block Size Programming
Total Block
Size
8K
16K
32K
64K
128K
256K
512K
5-10
Individual
Select Size
2K
4K
8K
16K
32K
64K
128K
M6–M0
0000001b
0000010b
0000100b
0001000b
0010000b
0100000b
1000000b
Chip Select Unit
Bit 7: Pin Selector (EX)—This bit determines whether the PCS6–PCS5 pins are configured
as chip selects or as alternate outputs for A2–A1. When this bit is set to 1, PCS6–PCS5
are configured as peripheral chip select pins. When EX is set to 0, PCS5 becomes address
bit A1 and PCS6 becomes address bit A2.
Bit 6: Memory/ I/O Space Selector (MS)—This bit determines whether the PCS pins are
active during memory bus cycles or I/O bus cycles. When MS is set to 1, the PCS outputs
are active for memory bus cycles. When MS is set to 0, the PCS outputs are active for I/O
bus cycles.
Bits 5–3: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bit 2: Ready Mode (R2)—This bit applies only to the PCS6–PCS5 chip selects. If R2 is
set to 0, external ready is required. If R2 is set to 1, external ready is ignored. In each case,
the processor also uses the value of the R1–R0 bits to determine the number of wait states
to insert.
Bits 1–0: Wait-State Value (R1–R0)—These bits apply only to the PCS6–PCS5 chip
selects. The value of R1–R0 determines the number of wait states inserted into an access
to the PCS memory or I/O area. From zero to three wait states can be inserted
(R1–R0 = 00b to 11b).
Chip Select Unit
5-11
5.5.5
Peripheral Chip Select Register (PACS, Offset A4h)
Unlike the UCS and LCS chip selects, the PCS outputs assert with the same timing as the
multiplexed AD address bus. Also, each peripheral chip select asserts over a 256-byte
address range, which is twice the address range covered by peripheral chip selects in the
80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide six chip selects, PCS6–PCS5 and
PCS3–PCS0, for use within a user-locatable memory or I/O block. (PCS4 is not
implemented on the Am186EM and Am 188EM microcontrollers.) The base address of the
memory block can be located anywhere within the 1-Mbyte memory address space,
exclusive of the areas associated with the UCS, LCS, and MCS chip selects, or they can
be configured to access the 64-Kbyte I/O space.
The Peripheral Chip Selects are programmed through two registers—the Peripheral Chip
Select (PACS) register and the PCS and MCS Auxiliary (MPCS) register. The Peripheral
Chip Select (PACS) register (Figure 5-5) determines the base address, the ready condition,
and the wait states for the PCS3–PCS0 outputs.
The PCS and MCS Auxiliary (MPCS) register (see Figure 5-4) contains bits that configure
the PCS6–PCS5 pins as either chip selects or address pins A1 and A2. When the PCS6–
PCS5 pins are chip selects, the MPCS register also determines whether PCS chip selects
are active during memory or I/O bus cycles and specifies the ready and wait states for the
PCS6–PCS5 outputs.
The PCS pins are not active on reset. Both the PACS and MPCS registers must be accessed
with a read or write to activate the PCS pins as chip selects.
PCS6–PCS5 can be configured and activated as address pins by writing only the MPCS
register. No corresponding access to the PACS register is required in this case.
PCS3–PCS0 can be configured for zero wait states to 15 wait states. PCS6–PCS5 can be
configured for zero wait states to three wait states.
Figure 5-5
Peripheral Chip Select Register (PACS, offset A4h)
7
15
BA19–BA11
0
1 1 1
R3
R1–R0
R2
The value of the PACS register at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–7: Base Address (BA19–BA11)—The base address of the peripheral chip select
block is defined by BA19–BA11 of the PACS register. BA19–BA11 correspond to bits
19–11 of the 20-bit programmable base address of the peripheral chip select block. Bit 6
of the PACS register corresponds to bit 10 of the base address in the 80C186 and 80C188
microcontrollers, and is not implemented. Thus, code previously written for the 80C186
microcontroller in which bit 6 was set with a meaningful value would not produce the address
expected on the Am186EM.
When the PCS chip selects are mapped to I/O space, BA19–16 must be programmed to
0000b because the I/O address bus is only 16-bits wide.
5-12
Chip Select Unit
Table 5-5
PCS Address Ranges
Range
PCS Line
Low
High
PCS0
Base Address
Base Address+255
PCS1
Base Address+256
Base Address+511
PCS2
Base Address+512
Base Address+767
PCS3
Base Address+768
Base Address+1023
Reserved N/A
N/A
PCS5
Base Address+1280 Base Address+1535
PCS6
Base Address+1536 Base Address+1791
Bits 6–4: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bit 3: Wait-State Value (R3)—If this bit is set to 0, the number of wait states from zero to
three is encoded in the R1–R0 bits. In this case, R1–R0 encodes from zero (00b) to three
(11b) wait states.
When R3 is set to 1, the four possible values of R1–R0 encode four additional wait-state
values as follows: 00b = 5 wait states, 01b = 7 wait states, 10b = 9 wait states, and
11b = 15 wait states. Table 5-6 shows the wait-state encoding.
Table 5-6
PCS3–PCS0 Wait-State Encoding
R3
R1
R0
Wait States
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
3
5
7
9
15
Bit 2: Ready Mode (R2)—The R2 bit is used to configure the ready mode for the PCS3–
PCS0 chip selects. If R2 is set to 0, external ready is required. External ready is ignored
when R2 is set to 1. In each case, the processor also uses the value of the R3 and R1–R0
bits to determine the number of wait states to insert. The ready mode for PCS6–PCS5 is
configured through the MPCS register.
Bits 1–0: Wait-State Value (R1–R0)—The value of R3 and R1–R0 determines the number
of wait states inserted into a PCS3–PCS0 access. Up to 15 wait states can be inserted.
See the discussion of bit 3 (R3) for the wait-state encoding of R1–R0.
From zero to three wait states for the PCS6–PCS5 outputs are programmed through the
R1–R0 bits in the MPCS register.
Chip Select Unit
5-13
5-14
Chip Select Unit
CHAPTER
6
6.1
REFRESH CONTROL UNIT
OVERVIEW
The Refresh Control Unit (RCU) automatically generates refresh bus cycles. After a
programmable period of time, the RCU generates a memory read request to the bus
interface unit. The RCU is fixed to three wait states for the PSRAM auto refresh mode.
The Refresh Control Unit operates off the processor internal clock. If the power-save mode
is in effect, the Refresh Control Unit must be reprogrammed to reflect the new clock rate.
If the HLDA pin is active when a refresh request is generated (indicating a bus hold
condition), then the microcontroller deactivates the HLDA pin in order to perform a refresh
cycle. The circuit external bus master must remove the HOLD signal for at least one clock
to allow the refresh cycle to execute.
6.1.1
Memory Partition Register (MDRAM, Offset E0h)
Figure 6-1
Memory Partition Register (MDRAM, offset E0h)
7
15
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
M6–M0
RA19
0
RA13
The MDRAM register is set to 0000h on reset.
Bits 15–9: Refresh Base (M6–M0)—Upper bits corresponding to address bits A19–A13
of the 20-bit memory refresh address. Since these bits are available only on the AD bus,
the AD bit must not be set in the LMCS register if the refresh control unit is used. When
using PSRAM mode, M6–M0 must be programmed to 0000000b.
These bits are cleared to 0 at reset.
Bits 8–0: Reserved—Read back as 0.
Refresh Control Unit
6-1
6.1.2
Clock Prescaler Register (CDRAM, Offset E2h)
Figure 6-2
Clock Prescaler Register (CDRAM, offset E2h)
7
15
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
RC8–RC0
The CDRAM register is undefined on reset.
Bits 15–9: Reserved—Read back as 0.
Bits 8–0: Refresh Counter Reload Value (RC8–RC0)—Contains the value of the desired
clock count interval between refresh cycles. The counter value should not be set to less
than 18 (12h), otherwise there would never be sufficient bus cycles available for the
processor to execute code.
In power-save mode, the refresh counter value must be adjusted to take into account the
reduced processor clock rate.
6.1.3
Enable RCU Register (EDRAM, Offset E4h)
Figure 6-3
Enable RCU Register (EDRAM, offset E4h)
7
15
E 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
T8–T0
The EDRAM register is set to 0000h on reset.
Bit 15: Enable RCU (E)—Enables the refresh counter unit when set to 1. Clearing the E
bit at any time clears the refresh counter and stops refresh requests, but it does not reset
the refresh address. Set to 0 on reset.
Bits 14–9: Reserved—Read back as 0.
Bits 8–0: Refresh Count (T8–T0)—This read-only field contains the present value of the
down counter which triggers refresh requests.
6-2
Refresh Control Unit
CHAPTER
7
7.1
INTERRUPT CONTROL UNIT
OVERVIEW
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers can receive interrupt requests from a
variety of sources, both internal and external. The internal interrupt controller arranges
these requests by priority and presents them one at a time to the CPU.
There are six external interrupt sources on the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers—
five maskable interrupt pins (INT4–INT0) and the non-maskable interrupt (NMI) pin. There
are six internal interrupt sources that are not connected to external pins—three timers, two
DMA channels, and the asynchronous serial port.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide three interrupts that are not present
on the 80C186 and 80C188 microcontrollers:
n INT4, an additional external interrupt pin that operates like the INT3–INT0 pins
n An internal watchdog timer interrupt
n An internal interrupt from the serial port
The INT4–INT0 interrupt request pins can be used as direct interrupt requests. If more
inputs are needed, INT3–INT0 can also be cascaded with an 82C59A-compatible external
interrupt control device. An external interrupt controller can be used as the system master
by programming the internal interrupt controller to operate in slave mode. In all cases,
nesting can be enabled that allows high priority interrupts to interrupt lower-priority interrupt
service routines.
7.1.1
Definitions of Interrupt Terms
The following definitions cover some of the terminology that is used in describing the
functionality of the interrupt controller. Table 7-1 contains information regarding the
reserved interrupts.
7.1.1.1
Interrupt Type
An 8-bit interrupt type identifies each of the 256 possible interrupts.
Software exceptions, internal peripherals, and non-cascaded external interrupts supply the
interrupt type through the internal interrupt controller.
Cascaded external interrupts and slave-mode external interrupts get the interrupt type from
the external interrupt controller by means of interrupt acknowledge cycles on the bus.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-1
7.1.1.2
Interrupt Vector Table
The interrupt vector table is a memory area of 1 Kbyte beginning at address 00000h that
holds up to 256 four-byte address pointers containing the address for the interrupt service
routine for each possible interrupt type. For each interrupt, an 8-bit interrupt type identifies
the appropriate interrupt vector table entry.
Interrupts 00h to 1Fh are reserved. See Table 7-1.
The processor calculates the index to the interrupt vector table by shifting the interrupt type
left 2 bits (multiplying by 4).
7.1.1.3
Maskable and Non-Maskable Interrupts
Interrupt types 08h through 1Fh are maskable. Of these, only 08h through 14h are actually
in use (see Table 7-1). The maskable interrupts are enabled and disabled by the interrupt
enable flag (IF) in the processor status flags, but the INT command can execute any interrupt
regardless of the setting of IF.
Interrupt types 00h through 07h and all software interrupts (the INT instruction) are nonmaskable. The non-maskable interrupts are not affected by the setting of the IF flag.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide two methods for masking and
unmasking the maskable interrupt sources. Each interrupt source has an interrupt control
register that contains a mask bit specific to that interrupt. In addition, the Interrupt Mask
register is provided as a single source to access all of the mask bits.
If the Interrupt Mask register is written while interrupts are enabled, it is possible that an
interrupt could occur while the register is in an undefined state. This can cause interrupts
to be accepted even though they were masked both before and after the write to the Interrupt
Mask register. Therefore, the Interrupt Mask register should only be written when interrupts
are disabled. Mask bits in the individual interrupt control registers can be written while
interrupts are enabled, and there will be no erroneous interrupt operation.
7.1.1.4
Interrupt Enable Flag (IF)
The interrupt enable flag (IF) is part of the processor status flags (see section 2.1.1 on page
2-2). If IF is set to 1, maskable interrupts are enabled and can cause processor interrupts.
(Individual maskable interrupts can still be disabled by means of the mask bit in each control
register.)
If IF is set to 0, all maskable interrupts are disabled.
The IF flag does not affect the NMI or software exception interrupts (interrupt types 00h to
07h), and it does not affect the execution of any interrupt through the INT instruction.
7.1.1.5
Interrupt Mask Bit
Each of the interrupt control registers for the maskable interrupts contains a mask bit (MSK).
If MSK is set to 1 for a particular interrupt, that interrupt is disabled regardless of the IF
setting.
7.1.1.6
Interrupt Priority
The column titled Overall Priority in Table 7-1 shows the fundamental priority breakdown
for the interrupts at power-on reset. The non-maskable interrupts 00h through 07h are
always prioritized ahead of the maskable interrupts.
The maskable interrupts can be reprioritized by reconfiguring the PR2–PR0 bits in the
interrupt control registers. The PR2–PR0 bits in all the maskable interrupts are set to priority
level 7 at power-on reset.
7-2
Interrupt Control Unit
7.1.1.7
Software Interrupts
Software interrupts can be initiated by the INT instruction. Any of the 256 possible interrupts
can be initiated by the INT instruction. INT 21h causes an interrupt to the vector located at
00084h in the interrupt vector table. INT FFh causes an interrupt to the vector located at
003FCh in the interrupt vector table. Software interrupts are not maskable and are not
affected by the setting of the IF flag.
7.1.1.8
Software Exceptions
A software exception interrupt occurs when an instruction causes an interrupt due to some
condition in the processor. Interrupt types 00h, 01h, 03h, 04h, 05h, 06h, and 07h are
software exception interrupts. Software exceptions are not maskable and are not affected
by the setting of the IF flag.
Table 7-1
Am186EM and Am188EM Microcontroller Interrupt Types
Interrupt Name
Divide Error Exception
Trace Interrupt
Non-Maskable Interrupt (NMI)
Breakpoint Interrupt
INTO Detected Overflow Exception
Array Bounds Exception
Unused Opcode Exception
Interrupt
Type
00h
01h
02h
03h
04h
05h
06h
Vector Table
Address
00h
04h
08h
0Ch
10h
14h
18h
EOI
Type
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Overall
Priority
1
1A
1B
1
1
1
1
ESC Opcode Exception
Timer 0 Interrupt
Timer 1 Interrupt
Timer 2 Interrupt
Reserved for AMD Use
DMA 0 Interrupt
DMA 1 Interrupt
INT0 Interrupt
INT1 Interrupt
INT2 Interrupt
INT3 Interrupt
INT4 Interrupt
Watchdog Timer Interrupt
Asynchronous Serial Port Interrupt
Reserved for AMD Use
07h
08h
12h
13h
09h
0Ah
0Bh
0Ch
0Dh
0Eh
0Fh
10h
11h
14h
15h–1Fh
1Ch
20h
48h
4Ch
N/A
08
08
08
1
2A
2B
2C
28h
2Ch
30h
34h
38h
3Ch
40h
44h
50h
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F
10
11
14
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
9
Related
Instructions
DIV, IDIV
All
INT 3
INTO
BOUND
Undefined
Opcodes
ESC Opcodes
Notes
1
2
1
1
1
1
1, 3
4, 5
4, 5
4, 5
5
5
6
6
6
Notes:
1. Interrupts generated as a result of an instruction execution.
2. Trace is performed in the same manner as 80C186 and 80C188.
3. An ESC opcode causes a trap. This is part of the 80C186 and 80C188 co-processor interface, which is not
supported on the Am186EM.
4. All three timers constitute one source of request to the interrupt controller. As such, they share the same priority
level with respect to other interrupt sources. However, the timers have a defined priority order among themselves
(2A>2B>2C).
5. The interrupt types of these sources are programmable in slave mode.
6. Not available in slave mode.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-3
7.1.2
Interrupt Conditions and Sequence
Interrupts are generally serviced as follows.
7.1.2.1
Non-Maskable Interrupts
Non-maskable interrupts—the trace interrupt, the NMI interrupt, and software interrupts
[both user-defined (INT) and software exceptions]—are serviced regardless of the setting
of the interrupt enable flag (IF) in the processor status flags.
7.1.2.2
Maskable Hardware Interrupts
In order for maskable hardware interrupt requests to be serviced, the IF flag must be set
by the STI instruction, and the mask bit associated with each interrupt must be reset.
7.1.2.3
The Interrupt Request
When an interrupt is requested, the internal interrupt controller verifies that the interrupt is
enabled and that there are no higher priority interrupt requests being serviced or pending.
If the interrupt request is granted, the interrupt controller uses the interrupt type (see Table
7-1) to access a vector from the interrupt vector table.
Each interrupt type has a four-byte vector available in the interrupt vector table. The interrupt
vector table is located in the 1024 bytes from 00000h to 003FFh. Each four-byte vector
consists of a 16-bit offset (IP) value and a 16-bit segment (CS) value. The 8-bit interrupt
type is shifted left 2 bit positions (multiplied by 4) to generate the index into the interrupt
vector table.
7.1.2.4
Interrupt Servicing
A valid interrupt transfers execution to a new program location based on the vector in the
interrupt vector table. The next instruction address (CS:IP) and the processor status flags
are pushed onto the stack.
The interrupt enable flag (IF) is cleared after the processor status flags are pushed on the
stack, disabling maskable interrupts during the interrupt service routine (ISR).
The segment:offset values from the interrupt vector table are loaded into the code segment
(CS) and the instruction pointer (IP), and execution of the ISR begins.
7.1.2.5
Returning from the Interrupt
The interrupt return (IRET) instruction pops the processor status flags and the return
address off the stack. Program execution resumes at the point where the interrupt occurred.
The interrupt enable flag (IF) is restored by the IRET instruction along with the rest of the
processor status flags. If the IF flag was set before the interrupt was serviced, interrupts
are re-enabled when the IRET is executed. If there are valid interrupts pending when the
IRET is executed, the instruction at the return address is not executed. Instead, the new
interrupt is serviced immediately.
If an ISR intends to permanently modify the value of any of the saved flags, it must modify
the copy of the Processor Status Flags register that was pushed onto the stack.
7-4
Interrupt Control Unit
7.1.3
Interrupt Priority
Table 7-1 shows the predefined types and overall priority structure for the Am186EM and
Am188EM microcontrollers. Non-maskable interrupts (interrupt types 0–7) are always
higher priority than maskable interrupts. Maskable interrupts have a programmable priority
that can override the default priorities relative to one another.
The levels of interrupt priority are as follows:
n Interrupt priority for non-maskable interrupts and software interrupts
n Interrupt priority for maskable hardware interrupts
7.1.3.1
Non-Maskable Interrupts and Software Interrupt Priority
The non-maskable interrupts from 00h to 07h and software interrupts (INT instruction)
always take priority over the maskable hardware interrupts. Within the non-maskable and
software interrupts, the trace interrupt has the highest priority, followed by the NMI interrupt,
followed by the remaining non-maskable and software interrupts.
After the trace interrupt and the NMI interrupt, the remaining software exceptions are
mutually exclusive and can only occur one at a time, so there is no further priority
breakdown.
7.1.3.2
Maskable Hardware Interrupt Priority
Beginning with interrupt type 8 (the Timer 0 interrupt), the maskable hardware interrupts
have both an overall priority (see Table 7-1) and a programmable priority. The
programmable priority is the primary priority for maskable hardware interrupts. The overall
priority is the secondary priority for maskable hardware interrupts.
Since all maskable interrupts are set to a programmable priority of seven on reset, the
overall priority of the interrupts determines the priority in which each interrupt is granted by
the interrupt controller until programmable priorities are changed by reconfiguring the
control registers.
The overall priority levels shown in Table 7-1 are not the same as the programmable priority
level that is associated with each maskable hardware interrupt. Each of the maskable
hardware interrupts has a programmable priority from zero to seven, with zero being the
highest priority (see Table 7-3 on page 7-14).
For example, if the INT4–INT0 interrupts are all changed to programmable priority six and
no other programmable priorities are changed from the reset value of seven, then the INT4–
INT0 interrupts take precedence over all other maskable interrupts. (Within INT4–INT0,
INT0 takes precedence over INT1, and INT1 takes precedence over INT2, etc., because
of the underlying hierarchy of the overall priority.)
Interrupt Control Unit
7-5
7.1.4
Software Exceptions, Traps, and NMI
The following predefined interrupts cannot be masked by programming.
7.1.4.1
Divide Error Exception (Interrupt Type 00h)
Generated when a DIV or IDIV instruction quotient cannot be expressed in the number of
destination bits.
7.1.4.2
Trace Interrupt (Interrupt Type 01h)
If the trace flag (TF) in the Processor Status flags register is set, the trace interrupt is
generated after most instructions. This interrupt allows programs to execute in single-step
mode. The interrupt is not generated after prefix instructions like REP, instructions that
modify segment registers like POP DS, or the WAIT instruction.
Taking the trace interrupt clears the TF bit after the processor status flags are pushed onto
the stack. The IRET instruction at the end of the single step interrupt service routine restores
the processor status flags (and the TF bit) and transfers control to the next instruction to
be traced.
Trace mode is initiated by pushing the processor status flags onto the stack, setting the TF
flag on the stack, and then popping the flags.
7.1.4.3
Non-Maskable Interrupt—NMI (Interrupt Type 02h)
The NMI pin provides an external interrupt source that is serviced regardless of the state
of the IF (interrupt enable flag) bit. No external interrupt acknowledge sequence is
performed for an NMI interrupt (see section 7.1.5). A typical use of NMI is to activate a
power failure routine.
7.1.4.4
Breakpoint Interrupt (Interrupt Type 03h)
An interrupt caused by the 1-byte version of the INT instruction (INT3).
7.1.4.5
INTO Detected Overflow Exception (Interrupt Type 04h)
Generated by an INTO instruction if the OF bit is set in the Processor Status Flags (FLAGS)
register.
7.1.4.6
Array BOUNDS Exception (Interrupt Type 05h)
Generated by a BOUND instruction if the array index is outside the array bounds. The array
bounds are located in memory at a location indicated by one of the instruction operands.
The other operand indicates the value of the index to be checked.
7.1.4.7
Unused Opcode Exception (Interrupt Type 06h)
Generated if execution is attempted on undefined opcodes.
7.1.4.8
ESC Opcode Exception (Interrupt Type 07h)
Generated if execution of ESC opcodes (D8h–DFh) is attempted. The microcontrollers do
not check the escape opcode trap bit. The return address of this exception points to the
ESC instruction that caused the exception. If a segment override prefix preceded the ESC
instruction, the return address points to the segment override prefix.
Note: All numeric coprocessor opcodes cause a trap. The Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers do not support the numeric coprocessor interface.
7-6
Interrupt Control Unit
7.1.5
Interrupt Acknowledge
Interrupts can be acknowledged in two different ways—the internal interrupt controller can
provide the interrupt type or an external interrupt controller can provide the interrupt type.
The processor requires the interrupt type as an index into the interrupt vector table.
When the internal interrupt controller is supplying the interrupt type, no bus cycles are
generated. The only external indication that an interrupt is being serviced is the processor
reading the interrupt vector table.
When an external interrupt controller is supplying the interrupt type, the processor
generates two interrupt acknowledge bus cycles (see Figure 7-1). The interrupt type is
written to the AD7–AD0 lines by the external interrupt controller during the second bus cycle.
Interrupt acknowledge bus cycles have the following characteristics:
n The two interrupt acknowledge cycles are internally locked. (There is no LOCK pin on
the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers.)
n Two idle states are always inserted between the two cycles.
n Wait states are inserted if READY is not returned to the processor.
Figure 7-1
External Interrupt Acknowledge Bus Cycles
T1
S0–S2
T2
T3
T4
Ti
Interrupt
Acknowledge
Ti
T1
T2
T3
T4
Interrupt
Acknowledge
INTA
Internal lock
Interrupt
Type
AD7–AD0
Notes:
1. ALE is active for each INTA cycle.
2. RD is inactive.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-7
7.1.6
Interrupt Controller Reset Conditions
On reset, the interrupt controller performs the following nine actions:
1. All special fully nested mode (SFNM) bits are reset, implying fully nested mode.
2. All priority (PR) bits in the various control registers are set to 1. This places all sources
at the lowest priority (level 7).
3. All level-triggered mode (LTM) bits are reset to 0, resulting in edge-triggered mode.
4. All interrupt in-service bits are reset to 0.
5. All interrupt request bits are reset to 0.
6. All mask (MSK) bits are set to 1. All interrupts are masked.
7. All cascade (C) bits are reset to 0 (non-cascade).
8. The interrupt priority mask is set to 7, allowing interrupts of all priorities.
9. The interrupt controller is initialized to master mode.
7-8
Interrupt Control Unit
7.2
MASTER MODE OPERATION
This section describes master mode operation of the internal interrupt controller. See
section 7.4 on page 7-28 for a description of slave mode operation.
Six pins are provided for external interrupt sources. One of these pins is NMI, the nonmaskable interrupt. NMI is generally used for unusual events like power failure. The other
five pins can be configured in any of the following ways:
n Fully nested mode—five interrupt lines with internally-generated interrupt types
n Cascade mode one—an interrupt line and interrupt acknowledge line pair with externallygenerated interrupt types, plus three interrupt input lines with internally-generated types
n Cascade mode two—two pairs of interrupt and interrupt acknowledge lines with
externally-generated interrupt types, and one interrupt input line (INT4) with internallygenerated type
The basic modes of operation of the interrupt controller in master mode are similar to the
82C59A. The interrupt controller responds identically to internal interrupts in all three
modes, the difference is only in the interpretation of function of the five external interrupt
pins. The interrupt controller is set into one of these modes by programming the correct
bits in the INT0 and INT1 control registers. The modes of interrupt controller operation are
fully nested mode, cascade mode, special fully nested mode, and polled mode.
7.2.1
Fully Nested Mode
In fully nested mode, five pins are used as direct interrupt requests as in Figure 7-2. The
interrupt types for these five inputs are generated internally. An in-service bit is provided
for every interrupt source. If a lower-priority device requests an interrupt while the in-service
bit (IS) is set for a higher priority interrupt, no interrupt is generated by the interrupt controller.
In addition, if another interrupt request occurs from the same interrupt source while the inservice bit is set, no interrupt is generated by the interrupt controller. This allows interrupt
service routines operating with interrupts enabled to be suspended only by interrupts of
equal or higher priority than the in-service interrupt.
When an interrupt service routine is completed, the proper IS bit must be reset by writing
the interrupt type to the EOI register. This is required to allow subsequent interrupts from
this interrupt source and to allow servicing of lower-priority interrupts. A write to the EOI
register should be executed at the end of the interrupt service routine just before the return
from interrupt instruction.
Figure 7-2
Fully Nested (Direct) Mode Interrupt Controller Connections
INT0
Interrupt Source
INT1
Interrupt Source
Am186EM
or Am188EM
Microcontroller
INT2
Interrupt Source
INT3
Interrupt Source
INT4
Interrupt Source
Interrupt Control Unit
7-9
7.2.2
Cascade Mode
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers have five interrupt pins, two of which (INT2
and INT3) have dual functions. In fully nested mode, the five pins are used as direct interrupt
inputs and the corresponding interrupt types are generated internally. In cascade mode,
four of the five pins can be configured into interrupt input and dedicated acknowledge signal
pairs. INT0 can be configured with interrupt acknowledge INTA0 (INT2). INT1 can be
configured with interrupt acknowledge INTA1 (INT3).
External sources in cascade mode use externally generated interrupt types. When an
interrupt is acknowledged, two INTA cycles are initiated and the type is read into the
microcontroller on the second cycle (see section 7.1.5 on page 7-7). The capability to interface
to one or two external 82C59A programmable interrupt controllers is provided when the inputs
are configured in cascade mode.
Figure 7-3 shows the interconnection for cascade mode. INT0 is an interrupt input interfaced
to one 82C59A, and INT2/INTA0 serves as the dedicated interrupt acknowledge signal to that
peripheral. INT1 and INT3/INTA1 are also interfaced to an 82C59A. Each interrupt and
acknowledge pair can be selectively placed in the cascade or non-cascade mode by
programming the proper value into the INT0 and INT1 control registers. The dedicated
acknowledge signals eliminate the need for external logic to generate INTA and device select
signals.
Cascade mode provides the capability to serve up to 128 external interrupt sources through
the use of external master and slave 82C59As. Three levels of priority are created, requiring
priority resolution in the microcontroller interrupt controller, the master 82C59As, and the
slave 82C59As. If an external interrupt is serviced, one IS bit is set at each of these levels.
When the interrupt service routine is completed, up to three end-of-interrupt (EOI) register
writes must be issued by the program.
Figure 7-3
Cascade Mode Interrupt Controller Connections
Interrupt Sources
INT0
VCC
82C59A
82C59A
INTA0
Am186EM
or Am188EM
Microcontroller
INT1
VCC
82C59A
INTA1
82C59A
INT4
Interrupt Sources
7-10
Interrupt Control Unit
7.2.3
Special Fully Nested Mode
Specially fully nested mode is entered by setting the SFNM bit in the INT0 or INT1 control
registers. (See section 7.3.1 on page 7-13.) It enables complete nesting with external
82C59A masters or multiple interrupts from the same external interrupt pin when not in
cascade mode. In this case, the ISRs must be re-entrant.
In fully nested mode, an interrupt request from an interrupt source is not recognized when
the in-service bit for that source is set. In this case, if more than one interrupt source is
connected to an external interrupt controller, all of the interrupts go through the same
Am186EM or Am188EM microcontroller interrupt request pin. As a result, if the external
interrupt controller receives a higher-priority interrupt, its interrupt is not recognized by the
microcontroller until the in-service bit is reset.
In special fully nested mode, the microcontroller’s interrupt controller allows the processor
to take interrupts from an external pin regardless of the state of the in-service bit for an
interrupt source in order to allow multiple interrupts from a single pin. An in-service bit
continues to be set, however, to inhibit interrupts from other lower-priority Am186EM or
Am188EM microcontroller interrupt sources.
In special fully nested mode with cascade mode, when a write is issued to the EOI register
at the end of the interrupt service routine, software polling of the IS register in the external
master 82C59A must determine if there is more than one IS bit set. If so, the IS bit in the
microcontroller remains active and the next ISR is entered.
7.2.4
Operation in a Polled Environment
To allow reading of the Poll register information without setting the indicated in-service bit,
the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide a Poll Status register (Figure 7-15)
in addition to the Poll register. Poll register information is duplicated in the Poll Status
register, but the Poll Status register can be read without setting the associated in-service
bit. These registers are located in two adjacent memory locations in the peripheral control
block.
The interrupt controller can be used in polled mode if interrupts are not desired. When
polling, interrupts are disabled and software polls the interrupt controller as required. The
interrupt controller is polled by reading the Poll Status register (Figure 7-15). Bit 15 in the
Poll Status register indicates to the processor that an interrupt of high enough priority is
requesting service. Bits 4–0 indicate to the processor the interrupt type of the highest priority
source requesting service. After determining that an interrupt is pending, software reads
the Poll register (rather than the Poll Status register), which causes the in-service bit of the
highest priority source to be set.
7.2.5
End-of-Interrupt Write to the EOI Register
A program must write to the EOI register to reset the in-service (IS) bit when an interrupt
service routine is completed. There are two types of writes to the EOI register—specific
EOI and non-specific EOI (see section 7.3.14 on page 7-27).
Non-specific EOI does not specify which IS bit is to be reset. Instead, the interrupt controller
automatically resets the IS bit of the highest priority source with an active service routine.
Specific EOI requires the program to send the interrupt type to the interrupt controller to indicate
the source IS bit that is to be reset. Specific reset is applicable when interrupt nesting is possible
or when the highest priority IS bit that was set does not belong to the service routine in progress.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-11
7.3
MASTER MODE INTERRUPT CONTROLLER REGISTERS
The interrupt controller registers for master mode are shown in Table 7-2. All the registers
can be read and written unless otherwise specified.
Registers can be redefined in slave mode. See section 7.4 on page 7-28 for detailed
information regarding slave mode register usage. On reset, the microcontroller is in master
mode. Bit 14 of the relocation register (see Figure 4-2) must be set to initiate slave mode
operation.
Table 7-2
7-12
Interrupt Controller Registers in Master Mode
Offset
3Ah
38h
3Eh
3Ch
40h
36h
34h
32h
Register
Mnemonic
I1CON
I0CON
I3CON
I2CON
I4CON
DMA1CON
DMA0CON
TCUCON
Register Name
INT1 Control
INT0 Control
INT3 Control
INT2 Control
INT4 Control
DMA1 Interrupt Control
DMA0 Interrupt Control
Timer Interrupt Control
42h
44h
30h
2Eh
WDCON
SPICON
INTSTS
REQST
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control
Serial Port Interrupt Control
Interrupt Status
Interrupt Request
2Ch
INSERV
In-Service
2Ah
28h
PRIMSK
IMASK
Priority Mask
Interrupt Mask
26h
24h
22h
POLLST
POLL
EOI
Poll Status
Poll
End of Interrupt
Interrupt Control Unit
Associated
Pins
INT1
INT0
INT3
INT2
INT4
DRQ1
DRQ0
TMRIN1
TMRIN0
TMROUT1
TMROUT0
Comments
TXD, RXD
INT4–INT0
DRQ1–DRQ0
INT4–INT0
DRQ1–DRQ0
Read-only register
INT4–INT0
DRQ1–DRQ0
Read-only register
Read-only register
Write-only register
7.3.1
INT0 and INT1 Control Registers
(I0CON, Offset 38h, I1CON, Offset 3Ah)
(Master Mode)
The INT0 interrupt is assigned to interrupt type 0Ch. The INT1 interrupt is assigned to
interrupt type 0Dh.
When cascade mode is enabled for INT0 by setting the C bit of I0CON to 1, the INT2 pin
becomes INTA0, the interrupt acknowledge for INT0.
When cascade mode is enabled for INT1 by setting the C bit of I1CON to 1, the INT3 pin
becomes INTA1, the interrupt acknowledge for INT1.
Figure 7-4
INT0 and INT1 Control Registers (I0CON, I1CON, offsets 38h and 3Ah)
7
15
0
Reserved
C MSK PR1
SFNM LTM PR2 PR0
The value of I0CON and I1CON at reset is 000Fh.
Bits 15–7: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 6: Special Fully Nested Mode (SFNM)—When set to 1, enables special fully nested
mode.
Bit 5: Cascade Mode (C)—When set to 1, this bit enables cascade mode.
Bit 4: Level-Triggered Mode (LTM)—This bit determines whether the microcontroller
interprets an INT0 or INT1 interrupt request as edge- or level-sensitive. A 1 in this bit
configures INT0 or INT1 as an active High, level-sensitive interrupt. A 0 in this bit configures
INT0 or INT1 as a Low-to-High, edge-triggered interrupt. In either case, INT0 or INT1 must
remain High until they are acknowledged.
Bit 3: Mask (MSK)—This bit determines whether the INT0 or INT1 signal can cause an
interrupt. A 1 in this bit masks this interrupt source, preventing INT0 or INT1 from causing
an interrupt. A 0 in this bit enables INT0 or INT1 interrupts.
This bit is duplicated in the Interrupt Mask register. See the Interrupt Mask register in section
7.3.11 on page 7-24.
Bits 2–0: Priority Level (PR2–PR0)—This field determines the priority of INT0 or INT1
relative to the other interrupt signals, as shown in Table 7-3 on page 7-14.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-13
Table 7-3
7-14
Priority Level
Priority
(High) 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
(Low) 7
PR2–PR0
0 0 0b
0 0 1b
0 1 0b
0 1 1b
1 0 0b
1 0 1b
1 1 0b
1 1 1b
Interrupt Control Unit
7.3.2
INT2 and INT3 Control Registers
(I2CON, Offset 3Ch, I3CON, Offset 3Eh)
(Master Mode)
The INT2 interrupt is assigned to interrupt type OEh. The INT3 interrupt is assigned to
interrupt type 0Fh.
The INT2 and INT3 pins can be configured as interrupt acknowledge pins INTA0 and INTA1
when cascade mode is implemented.
Figure 7-5
INT2 and INT3 Control Registers (I2CON, I3CON, offsets 3Ch and 3Eh)
7
15
0
Reserved
MSK PR1
LTM PR2
PR0
The value of I2CON and I3CON at reset is 000Fh.
Bits 15–5: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 4: Level-Triggered Mode (LTM)—This bit determines whether the microcontroller
interprets an INT2 or INT3 interrupt request as edge- or level-sensitive. A 1 in this bit
configures INT2 or INT3 as an active High, level-sensitive interrupt. A 0 in this bit configures
INT2 or INT3 as a Low-to-High, edge-triggered interrupt. In either case, INT2 or INT3 must
remain High until they are acknowledged.
Bit 3: Mask (MSK)—This bit determines whether the INT2 or INT3 signal can cause an
interrupt. A 1 in this bit masks this interrupt source, preventing INT2 or INT3 from causing
an interrupt. A 0 in this bit enables INT2 or INT3 interrupts.
This bit is duplicated in the Interrupt Mask register. See the Interrupt Mask register in section
7.3.11 on page 7-24.
Bits 2–0: Priority Level (PR2–PR0)—This field determines the priority of INT2 or INT3
relative to the other interrupt signals, as shown in Table 7-3 on page 7-14.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-15
7.3.3
INT4 Control Register (I4CON, Offset 40h)
(Master Mode)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide INT4, an additional external
interrupt pin. This input behaves like INT3–INT0 on the 80C186/188 microcontroller with
the exception that INT4 is only intended for use as a nested-mode interrupt source.
This interrupt is assigned to interrupt type 10h. The Interrupt 4 Control register (see Figure
7-6) controls the operation of the INT4 signal.
Figure 7-6
INT4 Control Register (I4CON, offset 40h)
7
15
0
Reserved
MSK PR1
LTM PR2 PR0
The value of I4CON at reset is 000Fh.
Bits 15–5: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 4: Level-Triggered Mode (LTM)—This bit determines whether the microcontroller
interprets an INT4 interrupt request as edge- or level-sensitive. A 1 in this bit configures
INT4 as an active High, level-sensitive interrupt. A 0 in this bit configures INT4 as a Lowto-High, edge-triggered interrupt. In either case, INT4 must remain High until it is
acknowledged.
Bit 3: Mask (MSK)—This bit determines whether the INT4 signal can cause an interrupt.
A 1 in this bit masks this interrupt source, preventing INT4 from causing an interrupt. A 0
in this bit enables INT4 interrupts.
This bit is duplicated in the Interrupt Mask register. See the Interrupt Mask register in section
7.3.11 on page 7-24.
Bits 2–0: Priority (PR)—This field determines the priority of INT4 relative to the other
interrupt signals, as shown in Table 7-3 on page 7-14.
7-16
Interrupt Control Unit
7.3.4
Timer and DMA Interrupt Control Registers
(TCUCON, Offset 32h, DMA0CON, Offset 34h, DMA1CON,
Offset 36h)
(Master Mode)
The three timer interrupts are assigned to interrupt type 08h, 12h, and 13h. All three timer
interrupts are configured through TCUCON, offset 32h. The DMA0 interrupt is assigned to
interrupt type 0Ah. The DMA1 interrupt is assigned to interrupt type 0Bh.
Figure 7-7
Timer/DMA Interrupt Control Registers (TCUCON, DMA0CON, DMA1CON,
offsets 32h, 34h, and 36h)
7
15
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MSK PR1
PR2 PR0
The value of TCUCON, DMA0CON, and DMA1CON at reset is 000Fh.
Bits 15–4: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 3: Interrupt Mask (MSK)—This bit determines whether the corresponding signal can
generate an interrupt. A 1 masks this interrupt source. A 0 enables the corresponding
interrupt.
This bit is duplicated in the Interrupt Mask register. See the Interrupt Mask register in section
7.3.11 on page 7-24.
Bits 2–0: Priority Level (PR2–PR0)—Sets the priority level for its corresponding source.
See Table 7-3 on page 7-14.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-17
7.3.5
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control Register (WDCON, Offset 42h)
(Master Mode)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide an additional on-chip interrupt
source, the watchdog timer. This timer is constructed from existing 80C186 microcontroller
pins. It is implemented by connecting the TMROUT1 output to an additional internal interrupt
to create the watchdog timer interrupt. This interrupt is assigned to interrupt type 11h. The
control register format is shown in Figure 7-8.
The systems programmer should program the timer (see section 8.2.2 on page 8-3) and
then program the interrupt pin.
Figure 7-8
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control Register (WDCON, offset 42h)
7
15
0
Reserved
MSK PR1
PR2
PR0
The value of WDCON at reset is 000Fh.
Bits 15–5: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 4: Reserved—Must be set to 0 to ensure proper operation of the Am186EM and
Am188EM microcontrollers.
Bit 3: Mask (MSK)—This bit determines whether the watchdog timer can cause an interrupt.
A 1 in this bit masks this interrupt source, preventing the watchdog timer from causing an
interrupt. A 0 in this bit enables watchdog timer interrupts.
This bit is duplicated in the Interrupt Mask register. See the Interrupt Mask register in section
7.3.11 on page 7-24.
Bits 2–0: Priority (PR)—This field determines the priority of the watchdog timer relative
to the other interrupt signals, as shown in Table 7-3 on page 7-14.
7-18
Interrupt Control Unit
7.3.6
Serial Port Interrupt Control Register (SPICON, Offset 44h)
(Master Mode)
The Serial Port Interrupt Control register controls the operation of the asynchronous serial
port interrupt source (SPI, bit 10 in the Interrupt Request register). This interrupt is assigned
to interrupt type 14h. The control register format is shown in Figure 7-9.
Figure 7-9
Serial Port Interrupt Control Register (SPICON, offset 44h)
7
15
Reserved
0
1
MSK PR1
Res PR2 PR0
The value of SPICON at reset is 001Fh.
Bits 15–5: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 4: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bit 3: Mask (MSK)—This bit determines whether the serial port can cause an interrupt. A
1 in this bit masks this interrupt source, preventing the serial port from causing an interrupt.
A 0 in this bit enables serial port interrupts.
This bit is duplicated in the Interrupt Mask register. See the Interrupt Mask register in section
7.3.11 on page 7-24.
Bits 2–0: Priority (PR2–PR0)—This field determines the priority of the serial port relative to
the other interrupt signals. After a reset, the priority is 7. See Table 7-3 on page 7-14.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-19
7.3.7
Interrupt Status Register (INTSTS, Offset 30h)
(Master Mode)
The Interrupt Status (INTSTS) register indicates the interrupt request status of the three
timers.
Figure 7-10
Interrupt Status Register (INTSTS, offset 30h)
7
15
0
Reserved
DHLT
TMR2
TMR0
TMR1
Bit 15: DMA Halt (DHLT)—When set to 1, halts any DMA activity. This pin is automatically
set to 1 when non-maskable interrupts occur and is reset when an IRET instruction is
executed. Time-critical software, such as interrupt handlers, can modify this bit directly to
inhibit DMA transfers. Because of the function of this register as an interrupt request register
for the timers, the DHLT bit should not be modified by software when timer interrupts are
enabled.
Bits 14–3: Reserved
Bits 2–0: Timer Interrupt Request (TMR2–TMR0)—When set to 1, these bits indicate
that the corresponding timer has an interrupt request pending. (Note that the timer TMR
bit in the REQST register is the OR of these timer interrupt requests.)
7-20
Interrupt Control Unit
7.3.8
Interrupt Request Register (REQST, Offset 2Eh)
(Master Mode)
The hardware interrupt sources have interrupt request bits inside the interrupt controller.
A read from this register yields the status of these bits. The Interrupt Request register is a
read-only register. The format of the REQST register is shown in Figure 7-11.
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers define three new bits to report the state of
INT4, the Watchdog Timer, and the asynchronous serial port.
For internal interrupts (SPI, WD, D1, D0, and TMR), the corresponding bit is set to 1 when
the device requests an interrupt. The bit is reset during the internally generated interrupt
acknowledge.
For INT4–INT0 external interrupts, the corresponding bit (I4–I0) reflects the current value
of the external signal. The device must hold this signal High until the interrupt is serviced.
Generally the interrupt service routine signals the external device to remove the interrupt
request.
Figure 7-11
Interrupt Request Register (REQST, offset 2Eh)
15
7
0
Reserved
SPI
I4
I2
I0
D0 TMR
WD
I3
I1
D1 Res
The REQST register is undefined on reset.
Bits 15–11: Reserved
Bit 10: Serial Port Interrupt Request (SPI)—This bit indicates the interrupt state of the
serial port. If enabled, the SPI bit is the logical OR of all possible serial port interrupt sources
(THRE, RDR, BRKI, FER, PER, and OER status bits).
Bit 9: Watchdog Timer Interrupt Request (WD)—When this bit is set to 1, the Watchdog
Timer has an interrupt pending.
Bits 8–4: Interrupt Requests (I4–I0)—When set to 1, the corresponding INT pin has an
interrupt pending (i.e., when INT0 is pending, I0 is set). These bits reflect the status of the
external pin.
Bits 3–2: DMA Channel Interrupt Request (D1–D0)—When set to 1, the corresponding
DMA channel has an interrupt pending.
Bit 1: Reserved
Bit 0: Timer Interrupt Request (TMR)—This bit indicates the state of the timer interrupts.
This bit is the logical OR of the timer interrupt requests. When set to a 1, this bit indicates
that the timer control unit has an interrupt pending.
The Interrupt Status register indicates the specific timer that is requesting an interrupt. See
section 7.3.7.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-21
7.3.9
In-Service Register (INSERV, Offset 2Ch)
(Master Mode)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers define three new bits to report the in-service
state of INT4, the Virtual Watchdog Timer, and the asynchronous serial port. The format
of the modified In-Service register is shown in Figure 7-12.
The bits in the INSERV register are set by the interrupt controller when the interrupt is
taken. Each bit in the register is cleared by writing the corresponding interrupt type to the
End-of-Interrupt (EOI) register. See Table 7-1 on page 7-3.
When an in-service bit is set, the microcontroller will not generate an interrupt request for
the associated source, preventing an interrupt from interrupting itself if interrupts are
enabled in the ISR. Special fully nested mode allows the INT1–INT0 requests to circumvent
this restriction for the INT0 and INT1 sources.
Figure 7-12
In-Service Register (INSERV, offset 2Ch)
15
7
0
Reserved
SPI
I4
I2
I0
D0 TMR
WD
I3
I1
D1 Res
The INSERV register is set to 0000h on reset.
Bits 15–11: Reserved
Bit 10: Serial Port Interrupt In-Service (SPI)—This bit indicates the in-service state of
the asynchronous serial port.
Bit 9: Watchdog Timer Interrupt In-Service (WD)—This bit indicates the in-service state
of the Watchdog Timer.
Bits 8–4: Interrupt In-Service (I4–I0)—These bits indicate the in-service state of the
corresponding INT pin.
Bits 3–2: DMA Channel Interrupt In-Service (D1–D0)—These bits indicate the in-service
state of the corresponding DMA channel.
Bit 1: Reserved
Bit 0: Timer Interrupt In-Service (TMR)—This bit indicates the state of the in-service timer
interrupts. This bit is the logical OR of all the timer interrupt status bits. When set to a 1,
this bit indicates that the corresponding timer interrupt status bit is in-service.
7-22
Interrupt Control Unit
7.3.10
Priority Mask Register (PRIMSK, Offset 2Ah)
(Master Mode)
The Priority Mask (PRIMSK) register provides the value that determines the minimum
priority level at which maskable interrupts can generate an interrupt.
Figure 7-13
Priority Mask Register (PRIMSK, offset 2Ah)
7
15
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PRM2
PRM1
PRM0
The value of PRIMSK at reset is 0007h.
Bits 15–3: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bits 2–0: Priority Field Mask (PRM2–PRM0)—This field determines the minimum priority
that is required in order for a maskable interrupt source to generate an interrupt. Maskable
interrupts with programmable priority values that are numerically higher than this field are
masked. The possible values are zero (000b) to seven (111b).
A value of seven (111b) allows all interrupt sources that are not masked to generate
interrupts. A value of five (101b) allows only unmasked interrupt sources with a
programmable priority of zero to five (000b to 101b) to generate interrupts.
Table 7-4
Priority Level
Priority
(High) 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
(Low) 7
PR2–PR0
0 0 0b
0 0 1b
0 1 0b
0 1 1b
1 0 0b
1 0 1b
1 1 0b
1 1 1b
Interrupt Control Unit
7-23
7.3.11
Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK, Offset 28h)
(Master Mode)
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers define three new bits to report the mask
state of the INT4 Control, Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control, and Serial Port Interrupt
Control registers.
The Interrupt Mask (IMASK) register is a read/write register. Programming a bit in the IMASK
register has the effect of programming the MSK bit in the associated control register. The
format of the IMASK register is shown in Figure 7-14.
Do not write to the interrupt mask register while interrupts are enabled. To modify mask
bits while interrupts are enabled, use the individual interrupt control registers.
Figure 7-14
Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK, offset 28h)
7
15
0
Reserved
SPI
I4
I2
I0
D0 TMR
WD
I3
I1
D1 Res
The IMASK register is set to 07FDh on reset.
Bits 15–11: Reserved
Bit 10: Serial Port Interrupt Mask (SPI)— When set to 1, this bit indicates that the
asynchronous serial port interrupt is masked.
Bit 9: Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt Mask (WD)—When set to 1, this bit indicates
that the Watchdog Timer interrupt is masked.
Bits 8–4: Interrupt Mask (I4–I0)—When set to 1, an I4–I0 bit indicates that the
corresponding interrupt is masked.
Bits 3–2: DMA Channel Interrupt Masks (D1–D0)—When set to 1, a D1–D0 bit indicates
that the corresponding DMA channel interrupt is masked.
Bit 1: Reserved
Bit 0: Timer Interrupt Mask (TMR)—When set to 1, this bit indicates that interrupt requests
from the timer control unit are masked.
7-24
Interrupt Control Unit
7.3.12
Poll Status Register (POLLST, Offset 26h)
(Master Mode)
The Poll Status (POLLST) register mirrors the current state of the Poll register. The POLLST
register can be read without affecting the current interrupt request. But when the Poll register
is read, the current interrupt is acknowledged and the next interrupt takes its place in the
Poll register.
Figure 7-15
Poll Status Register (POLLST, offset 26h)
7
15
Reserved
0
S4–S0
IREQ
Bit 15: Interrupt Request (IREQ)—Set to 1 if an interrupt is pending. When this bit is set
to 1, the S4–S0 field contains valid data.
Bits 14–5: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bits 4–0: Poll Status (S4–S0)—Indicates the interrupt type of the highest priority pending
interrupt.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-25
7.3.13
Poll Register (POLL, Offset 24h)
(Master Mode)
When the Poll register is read, the current interrupt is acknowledged and the next interrupt
takes its place in the Poll register.
The Poll Status register mirrors the current state of the Poll register, but the Poll Status
register can be read without affecting the current interrupt request.
Figure 7-16
Poll Register (POLL, offset 24h)
7
15
Reserved
0
S4–S0
IREQ
Bit 15: Interrupt Request (IREQ)—Set to 1 if an interrupt is pending. When this bit is set
to 1, the S4–S0 field contains valid data.
Bits 14–5: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bits 4–0: Poll Status (S4–S0)—Indicates the interrupt type of the highest priority pending
interrupt. Reading the Poll register acknowledges the highest priority pending interrupt and
enables the next interrupt to advance into the register.
Although the IS bit is set, the interrupt service routine does not begin execution
automatically. The application software must execute the appropriate ISR.
7-26
Interrupt Control Unit
7.3.14
End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI, Offset 22h)
(Master Mode)
The End-of-Interrupt (EOI) register is a write-only register. The in-service flags in the InService register (see section 7.3.9 on page 7-22) are reset by writing to the EOI register.
Before executing the IRET instruction that ends an interrupt service routine (ISR), the ISR
should write to the EOI register to reset the IS bit for the interrupt.
The specific EOI reset is the most secure method to use for resetting IS bits. Figure 7-17
shows example code for a specific EOI reset. See Table 7-1 on page 7-3 for specific EOI
values.
Figure 7-17
Example EOI Assembly Code
exit:
Figure 7-18
...
...
...
mov dx, EOI_ADDR
mov ax,int_type
out dx,ax
popa
iret
;ISR code
;load the interrupt type in ax
;write the interrupt type to EOI
;return from interrupt
End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI, offset 22h)
7
15
Reserved
0
S4–S0
NSPEC
Bit 15: Non-Specific EOI (NSPEC)—The NSPEC bit determines the type of EOI command.
When written as a 1, NSPEC indicates non-specific EOI. When written as a 0, NSPEC
indicates the specific EOI interrupt type in S4–S0.
Bits 14–5: Reserved
Bits 4–0: Source EOI Type (S4–S0)—Specifies the EOI type of the interrupt that is
currently being processed. See Table 7-1 on page 7-3.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-27
7.4
SLAVE MODE OPERATION
When slave mode is used, the microcontroller’s internal interrupt controller is used as a
slave controller to an external master interrupt controller. The internal interrupts are
monitored by the internal interrupt controller, while the external controller functions as the
system master interrupt controller.
On reset, the microcontroller is in master mode. To activate slave mode operation, bit 14
of the relocation register must be set (see Figure 4-2 on page 4-4).
Because of pin limitations caused by the need to interface to an external 82C59A master,
the internal interrupt controller does not accept external inputs. However, there are enough
interrupt controller inputs (internally) to dedicate one to each timer. In slave mode, each
timer interrupt source has its own mask bit, IS bit, and control word.
The INT4, watchdog timer, and serial port interrupts are not available in slave mode. In
slave mode, each peripheral must be assigned a unique priority to ensure proper interrupt
controller operation. The programmer must assign correct priorities and initialize interrupt
control registers before enabling interrupts.
7.4.1
Slave Mode Interrupt Nesting
Slave mode operation allows nesting of interrupt requests. When an interrupt is
acknowledged, the priority logic masks off all priority levels except those with equal or higher
priority.
7.4.2
Slave Mode Interrupt Controller Registers
The Interrupt Controller Registers for slave mode are shown in Table 7-5. All registers can
be read and written, unless specified otherwise.
Table 7-5
7-28
Interrupt Controller Registers in Slave Mode
Offset
3Ah
38h
Register
Mnemonic
T2INTCON
T1INTCON
Register Name
Timer 2 Interrupt Control
Timer 1 Interrupt Control
36h
34h
32h
DMA1CON
DMA0CON
T0INTCON
DMA 1 Interrupt Control
DMA 0 Interrupt Control
Timer 0 Interrupt Control
30h
2Eh
2Ch
2Ah
28h
22h
20h
INTSTS
REQST
INSERV
PRIMSK
IMASK
EOI
INTVEC
Interrupt Status
Interrupt Request
In-Service
Priority Mask
Interrupt Mask
Specific EOI
Interrupt Vector
Interrupt Control Unit
Affected Pins
TMRIN1
TMROUT1
TMRIN0
TMROUT0
Comments
Interrupt Type XXXXX101
Interrupt Type XXXXX100
Interrupt Type XXXXX011
Interrupt Type XXXXX010
Interrupt Type XXXXX000
Read Only
Read Only
Write Only
7.4.3
Timer and DMA Interrupt Control Registers
(T0INTCON, Offset 32h, T1INTCON, Offset 38h, T2INTCON, Offset
3Ah, DMA0CON, Offset 34h, DMA1CON, Offset 36h)
(Slave Mode)
In slave mode, there are three separate registers for the three timers. In master mode, all
three timers are masked and prioritized in one register, TCUCON.
In slave mode, the two DMA control registers retain their functionality and addressing from
master mode.
Figure 7-19
Timer and DMA Interrupt Control Registers
(T0INTCON, T1INTCON, T2INTCON, DMA0CON, DMA1CON,
offsets 32h, 38h, 3Ah, 34h, and 36h)
7
15
0
Reserved
MSK PR1
PR2
PR0
These registers are set to 000Fh on reset.
Bits 15–4: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 3: Mask (MSK)—This bit determines whether the interrupt source can cause an
interrupt. A 1 in this bit masks the interrupt source, preventing the source from causing an
interrupt. A 0 in this bit enables interrupts from the source.
This bit is duplicated in the Interrupt Mask register. See the Interrupt Mask register in section
7.4.8 on page 7-34.
Bits 2–0: Priority Level (PR2–PR0)—This field determines the priority of the interrupt
source relative to the other interrupt signals, as shown in Table 7-3 on page 7-14.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-29
7.4.4
Interrupt Status Register (INTSTS, Offset 30h)
(Slave Mode)
The Interrupt Status register controls DMA activity when non-maskable interrupts occur
and indicates the current interrupt status of the three timers.
Figure 7-20
Interrupt Status Register (INTSTS, offset 30h)
7
15
0
Reserved
DHLT
TMR1
TMR2 TMR0
The INTSTS register is set to 0000h on reset.
Bit 15: DMA Halt (DHLT)—When set to 1, halts any DMA activity. Automatically set to 1
when non-maskable interrupts occur and reset when an IRET instruction is executed.
Bits 14–3: Reserved
Bits 2–0: Timer Interrupt Request (TMR2–TMR0)—When set to 1, indicates the
corresponding timer has an interrupt request pending.
7-30
Interrupt Control Unit
7.4.5
Interrupt Request Register (REQST, Offset 2Eh)
(Slave Mode)
The internal interrupt sources have interrupt request bits inside the interrupt controller. A
read from this register yields the status of these bits. The Interrupt Request register is a
read-only register. The format of the Interrupt Request register is shown in Figure 7-21.
For internal interrupts (D1, D0, TMR2, TMR1, and TMR0), the corresponding bit is set to
1 when the device requests an interrupt. The bit is reset during the internally generated
interrupt acknowledge.
Figure 7-21
Interrupt Request Register (REQST, offset 2Eh)
7
15
0
Reserved
TMR2 D1 Res
TMR1 D0 TMR0
The REQST register is set to 0000h on reset.
Bits 15–6: Reserved
Bits 5–4: Timer 2/Timer 1 Interrupt Request (TMR2–TMR1)—When set to 1, these bits
indicate the state of any interrupt requests from the associated timer.
Bits 3–2: DMA Channel Interrupt Request (D1–D0)—When set to 1, D1–D0 indicate that
the corresponding DMA channel has an interrupt pending.
Bit 1: Reserved
Bit 0: Timer 0 Interrupt Request (TMR0)—When set to 1, this bit indicates the state of
an interrupt request from Timer 0.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-31
7.4.6
In-Service Register (INSERV, Offset 2Ch)
(Slave Mode)
The format of the In-Service register is shown in Figure 7-22. The bits in the In-Service
register are set by the interrupt controller when the interrupt is taken. The in-service bits
are cleared by writing to the End-of-Interrupt (EOI) register.
Figure 7-22
In-Service Register (INSERV, offset 2Ch)
7
15
0
Reserved
TMR2 D1 Res
TMR1 D0 TMR0
The INSERV register is set to 0000h on reset.
Bits 15–6: Reserved
Bits 5–4: Timer 2/Timer 1 Interrupt In-Service (TMR2–TMR1)—When set to 1, these bits
indicate that the corresponding timer interrupt is currently being serviced.
Bits 3–2: DMA Channel Interrupt In-Service (D1–D0)—When set to 1, the corresponding
DMA channel is currently being serviced.
Bit 1: Reserved
Bit 0: Timer 0 Interrupt In-Service (TMR0)—When set to 1, this bit indicates Timer 0 is
currently being serviced.
7-32
Interrupt Control Unit
7.4.7
Priority Mask Register (PRIMSK, Offset 2Ah)
(Slave Mode)
The format of the Priority Mask register is shown in Figure 7-23. The Priority Mask register
provides the value that determines the minimum priority level at which maskable interrupts
can generate an interrupt.
Figure 7-23
Priority Mask Register (PRIMSK, offset 2Ah)
7
15
0
Reserved
PRM2
PRM1
PRM0
The value of the PRIMSK register at reset is 0007h.
Bits 15–3: Reserved
Bits 2–0: Priority Field Mask (PRM2–PRM0)—This field determines the minimum priority
which is required in order for a maskable interrupt source to generate an interrupt.
A value of seven (111b) allows all interrupt sources that are not masked to generate
interrupts. A value of five (101b) allows only unmasked interrupt sources with a
programmable priority of zero to five (000b to 101b) to generate interrupts.
Table 7-6
Priority Level
Priority
(High) 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
(Low) 7
PR2–PR0
0 0 0b
0 0 1b
0 1 0b
0 1 1b
1 0 0b
1 0 1b
1 1 0b
1 1 1b
Interrupt Control Unit
7-33
7.4.8
Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK, Offset 28h)
(Slave Mode)
The format of the Interrupt Mask register is shown in Figure 7-24. The Interrupt Mask register
is a read/write register. Programming a bit in the Interrupt Mask register has the effect of
programming the MSK bit in the associated control register.
Figure 7-24
Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK, offset 28h)
7
15
0
Reserved
TMR2 D1 Res
TMR1 D0
TMR0
The IMASK register is set to 003Dh on reset.
Bits 15–6: Reserved
Bits 5–4: Timer 2/Timer 1 Interrupt Mask (TMR2–TMR1)—These bits indicate the state
of the mask bit of the Timer Interrupt Control register and when set to a 1, indicate which
source has its interrupt requests masked.
Bits 3–2: DMA Channel Interrupt Mask (D1–D0)—These bits indicate the state of the
mask bits of the corresponding DMA control register.
Bit 1: Reserved
Bit 0: Timer 0 Interrupt Mask (TMR0)—This bit indicates the state of the mask bit of the
Timer Interrupt Control register and when set to a 1, indicates Timer 0 has its interrupt
request masked.
7-34
Interrupt Control Unit
7.4.9
Specific End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI, Offset 22h)
(Slave Mode)
In slave mode, a write to the EOI register resets an in-service bit of a specific priority. The
user supplies a three-bit priority-level value that points to an in-service bit to be reset. The
command is executed by writing the correct value in the Specific EOI register at offset 22h.
Figure 7-25
Specific End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI, offset 22h)
7
15
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
L2–L0
The EOI register is undefined on reset.
Bits 15–3: Reserved—Write as 0.
Bits 2–0: Interrupt Type (L2–L0)—Encoded value indicating the priority of the IS (interrupt
service) bit to be reset. Writes to these bits cause an EOI to be issued for the interrupt type
in slave mode. Write-only register.
Interrupt Control Unit
7-35
7.4.10
Interrupt Vector Register (INTVEC, Offset 20h)
(Slave Mode)
Vector generation in slave mode is exactly like that of an 8259A or 82C59A slave. The
interrupt controller generates an 8-bit interrupt type that the CPU shifts left two bits
(multiplies by four) to generate an offset into the interrupt vector table.
Figure 7-26
Interrupt Vector Register (INTVEC, offset 20h)
7
15
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
T4–T0
0 0 0
The INTVEC register is undefined on reset.
Bits 15–8: Reserved—Read as 0.
Bits 7–3: Interrupt Type (T4–T0)—Sets the five most significant bits of the interrupt types
for the internal interrupt type. The interrupt controller itself provides the lower three bits of
the interrupt type, as determined by the priority level of the interrupt request. See Table 75 on page 7-15.
Bits 2–0: Reserved—Read as 0.
7-36
Interrupt Control Unit
CHAPTER
8
8.1
TIMER CONTROL UNIT
OVERVIEW
There are three 16-bit programmable timers in the Am186EM and Am188EM
microcontrollers. Timers 0 and 1 are highly versatile and are each connected to two external
pins (each one has an input and an output). These two timers can be used to count or time
external events, or they can be used to generate nonrepetitive or variable-duty-cycle
waveforms. Timer 1 can also be configured as a watchdog timer.
The watchdog timer provides a mechanism for detecting software crashes or hangs. The
TMROUT1 output is internally connected to the watchdog timer interrupt. Software
developers must first program the TIMER1 Mode/Control, Count, and Max Count registers,
and then program the Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control register (see Figure 7-8 on page
7-18). The TIMER1 Count register must be reloaded at intervals less than the TIMER1 max
count to assure the watchdog interrupt is not taken. If the code crashes or hangs, the
TIMER1 countdown can cause a watchdog interrupt.
Timer 2 is not connected to any external pins. It can be used for real-time coding and timedelay applications. It can also be used as a prescale to timer 0 and timer 1 or as a DMA
request source.
8.2
PROGRAMMABLE REGISTERS
The timers are controlled by eleven 16-bit registers (see Table 8-1) that are located in the
peripheral control block.
Table 8-1
Timer Control Unit Register Summary
Offset from Register
PCB
Mnemonic Register Name
56h
5Eh
66h
50h
58h
60h
52h
54h
5Ah
5Ch
62h
T0CON
T1CON
T2CON
T0CNT
T1CNT
T2CNT
T0CMPA
T0CMPB
T1CMPA
T0CMPB
T2CMPA
Timer 0 Mode/Control
Timer 1 Mode/Control
Timer 2 Mode/Control
Timer 0 Count
Timer 1 Count
Timer 2 Count
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare A
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare B
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare A
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare B
Timer 2 Maxcount Compare A
The timer-count registers contain the current value of a timer. The timer-count registers
can be read or written at any time, regardless of whether the corresponding timer is running.
The microcontroller increments the value of a timer-count register each time a timer event
occurs.
Timer Control Unit
8-1
Each timer also has a corresponding maximum-count register that defines the maximum
value for the timer. When the timer reaches the maximum value, it resets to 0 during the
same clock cycle. (The value in the timer-count register never equals the maximum-count
register.) In addition, timers 0 and 1 have a secondary maximum-count register. Using both
the primary and secondary maximum-count registers lets the timer alternate between two
maximum values.
If the timer is programmed to use only the primary maximum-count register, the timer output
pin switches Low for one clock cycle, the clock cycle after the maximum value is reached.
If the timer is programmed to use both of its maximum-count registers, the output pin creates
a waveform by indicating which maximum-count register is currently in control. The duty
cycle and frequency of the waveform depend on the values in the alternating maximumcount registers.
8.2.1
Timer Operating Frequency
Each timer is serviced on every fourth clock cycle. Therefore, a timer can operate at a
maximum speed of one-quarter of the internal clock frequency. A timer can be clocked
externally at the same maximum frequency of one-fourth of the internal clock frequency.
However, because of internal synchronization and pipelining of the timer circuitry, the timer
output takes up to six clock cycles to respond to the clock or gate input.
The timers are run by the processor’s internal clock. If power-save mode is in effect, the
timers operate at the reduced power-save clock rate.
8-2
Timer Control Unit
8.2.2
Timer 0 and Timer 1 Mode and Control Registers
(T0CON, Offset 56h, T1CON, Offset 5Eh)
These registers control the functionality of timer 0 and timer 1. See Figure 8-1.
Figure 8-1
Timer 0 and Timer 1 Mode and Control Registers (T0CON, T1CON,
offsets 56h and 5Eh)
7
15
0
0 0 0 0 0 0
MC
RTG
P
INH
RIU
EN INT
ALT
CONT
EXT
The value of T0CON and T1CON at reset is 0000h.
Bit 15: Enable Bit (EN)—When set to 1, the timer is enabled. When set to 0, the timer is
inhibited from counting. This bit can only be written with the INH bit set at the same time.
Bit 14: Inhibit Bit (INH)—Allows selective updating of enable (EN) bit. When set to 1 during
a write, EN can also be modified. When set to 0 during a write, writes to EN are ignored.
This bit is not stored and is always read as 0.
Bit 13: Interrupt Bit (INT)—When set to 1, an interrupt request is generated when the
count register equals a maximum count. If the timer is configured in dual maxcount mode,
an interrupt is generated each time the count reaches maxcount A or maxcount B. When
INT is set to 0, the timer will not issue interrupt requests. If the enable bit is cleared after
an interrupt request has been generated but before the pending interrupt is serviced, the
interrupt request will still be present.
Bit 12: Register in Use Bit (RIU)—When the Maxcount Compare A register is being used
for comparison to the timer count value, this bit is set to 0. When the Maxcount Compare
B register is being used, this bit is set to 1.
Bits 11–6: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 5: Maximum Count Bit (MC)—The MC bit is set to 1 when the timer reaches a maximum
count. In dual maxcount mode, the bit is set each time either Maxcount Compare A or B
register is reached. This bit is set regardless of the timer interrupt-enable bit. The MC bit
can be used to monitor timer status through software polling instead of through interrupts.
Bit 4: Retrigger Bit (RTG)—Determines the control function provided by the timer input
pin. When set to 1, a 0 to 1 edge transition on TMRIN0 or TMRIN1 resets the count. When
set to 0, a High input enables counting and a Low input holds the timer value. This bit is
ignored when external clocking (EXT=1) is selected.
Bit 3: Prescaler Bit (P)—When set to 1, the timer is prescaled by timer 2. When set to 0,
the timer counts up every fourth CLKOUT period. This bit is ignored when external clocking
is enabled (EXT=1).
Timer Control Unit
8-3
Bit 2: External Clock Bit (EXT)—When set to 1, an external clock is used. When set to
0, the internal clock is used.
Bit 1: Alternate Compare Bit (ALT)—When set to 1, the timer counts to maxcount compare
A, then resets the count register to 0. Then the timer counts to maxcount compare B, resets
the count register to zero, and starts over with maxcount compare A.
If ALT is clear, the timer counts to maxcount compare A and then resets the count register
to zero and starts counting again against maxcount compare A. In this case, maxcount
compare B is not used.
Bit 0: Continuous Mode Bit (CONT)—When set to 1, CONT causes the associated timer
to run in the normal continuous mode.
When CONT is set to 0, EN is cleared after each timer count sequence and the timer clears
and then halts on reaching the maximum count. If CONT=0 and ALT=1, the timer counts
to the maxcount compare A register value and resets, then it counts to the B register value
and resets and halts.
8-4
Timer Control Unit
8.2.3
Timer 2 Mode and Control Register
(T2CON, Offset 66h)
This register controls the functionality of timer 2. See Figure 8-2.
Figure 8-2
Timer 2 Mode and Control Register (T2CON, offset 66h)
7
15
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
MC
INH
INT
EN
CONT
The value of T2CON at reset is 0000h.
Bit 15: Enable Bit (EN)—When EN is set to 1, the timer is enabled. When set to 0, the
timer is inhibited from counting. Do not write to this bit unless the INH bit is set to 1 during
the same write.
Bit 14: Inhibit Bit (INH)—Allows selective updating of enable (EN) bit. When INH is set to
1 during a write, EN can be modified on the same write. When INH is set to 0 during a write,
writes to EN are ignored. This bit is not stored and is always read as 0.
Bit 13: Interrupt Bit (INT)—When INT is set to 1, an interrupt request is generated when
the count register equals a maximum count. When INT is set to 0, the timer will not issue
interrupt requests. If the EN enable bit is cleared after an interrupt request has been
generated, but before the pending interrupt is serviced, the interrupt request remains active.
Bits 12–6: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 5: Maximum Count Bit (MC)—The MC bit is set to 1 when the timer reaches its
maximum count. This bit is set regardless of the timer interrupt-enable bit. The MC bit can
be used to monitor timer status through software polling instead of through interrupts.
Bits 4–1: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 0: Continuous Mode Bit (CONT)—When CONT is set to 1, it causes the associated
timer to run continuously. When set to 0, EN is cleared after each timer count sequence
and the timer halts on reaching the maximum count.
Timer Control Unit
8-5
8.2.4
Timer Count Registers
(T0CNT, Offset 50h, T1CNT, Offset 58h, T2CNT, Offset 60h)
These registers can be incremented by one every four internal processor clocks. Timer 0
and timer 1 can also be configured to increment based on the TMRIN0 and TMRIN1 external
signals, or they can be prescaled by timer 2. See Figure 8-3.
The count registers are compared to maximum count registers and various actions are
triggered based on reaching a maximum count.
Figure 8-3
Timer Count Registers (T0CNT, T1CNT, T2CNT, offsets 50h, 58h, and 60h)
15
7
0
TC15–TC0
The value of these registers at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–0: Timer Count Value (TC15–TC0)—This register contains the current count of
the associated timer. The count is incremented every fourth processor clock in internal
clocked mode, or each time the timer 2 maxcount is reached if prescaled by timer 2. Timer
0 and timer 1 can be configured for external clocking based on the TMRIN0 and TMRIN1
signals.
8-6
Timer Control Unit
8.2.5
Timer Maxcount Compare Registers
(T0CMPA, Offset 52h, T0CMPB, Offset 54h, T1CMPA, Offset 5Ah,
T1CMPB, Offset 5Ch, T2CMPA, Offset 62h)
These registers serve as comparators for their associated count registers. Timer 0 and
timer 1 each have two maximum count compare registers. See Figure 8-4.
Timer 0 and timer 1 can be configured to count and compare to register A and then count
and compare to register B. Using this method, the TMROUT0 or TMROUT1 signals can
be used to generate waveforms of various duty cycles.
Timer 2 has one compare register, T2CMPA.
If a maximum count compare register is set to 0000h, the timer associated with that compare
register will count from 0000h to FFFFh before requesting an interrupt. With a 40-MHz
clock, a timer configured this way interrupts every 6.5536 ms.
Figure 8-4
Timer Maxcount Compare Registers
(T0CMPA, T0CMPB, T1CMPA, T1CMPB, T2CMPA,
offsets 52h, 54h, 5Ah, 5Ch, and 62h)
15
7
0
TC15–TC0
The value of these registers at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–0: Timer Compare Value (TC15–TC0)—This register contains the maximum
value a timer will count to before resetting its count register to 0.
Timer Control Unit
8-7
8-8
Timer Control Unit
CHAPTER
9
9.1
DMA CONTROLLER
OVERVIEW
Direct memory access (DMA) permits transfer of data between memory and peripherals
without CPU involvement. The DMA unit in the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers
provides two high-speed DMA channels. Data transfers can occur between memory and I/O
spaces (e.g., memory to I/O) or within the same space (e.g., memory-to-memory or I/O-to-I/O).
Either bytes or words can be transferred to or from even or odd addresses on the Am186EM.
(The Am188EM microcontroller does not support word transfers.) Two bus cycles (a minimum
of eight clocks) are necessary for each data transfer.
Each channel accepts a DMA request from one of two sources: the channel request pin
(DRQ1–DRQ0) or Timer 2. The two DMA channels can be programmed with different
priorities to resolve simultaneous DMA requests, and transfers on one channel can interrupt
the other channel.
9.2
DMA OPERATION
The format of the DMA control block is shown in Table 9-1. Six registers in the peripheral
control block define the operation of each channel. The DMA registers consist of a 20-bit
source address (2 registers), a 20-bit destination address (2 registers), a 16-bit transfer
count register, and a 16-bit control register.
Table 9-1
DMA Controller Register Summary
Offset from
PCB
CAh
DAh
C8h
D8h
C6h
D6h
C4h
D4h
C2h
D2h
C0h
D0h
Register
Mnemonic
D0CON
D1CON
D0TC
D1TC
D0DSTH
D1DSTH
D0DSTL
D1DSTL
D0SRCH
D1SRCH
D0SRCL
D1SRCL
Register Name
DMA 0 Control
DMA 1 Control
DMA 0 Transfer Count
DMA 1 Transfer Count
DMA 0 Destination Address High
DMA 1 Destination Address High
DMA 0 Destination Address Low
DMA 1 Destination Address Low
DMA 0 Source Address High
DMA 1 Source Address High
DMA 0 Source Address Low
DMA 1 Source Address Low
The DMA transfer count register (DTC) specifies the number of DMA transfers to be
performed. Up to 64 Kbytes or 64 Kwords can be transferred with automatic termination.
The DMA control registers define the channel operations (see Figure 9-1). All registers
can be modified or altered during any DMA activity. Any changes made to these registers
are reflected immediately in DMA operation.
DMA Controller
9-1
Figure 9-1
DMA Unit Block Diagram
20-bit Adder/Subtractor
Adder Control
Logic
Timer Request
DRQ1
20
Request
Selection
Logic
Transfer Counter Ch. 1
Destination Address Ch. 1
Source Address Ch. 1
Transfer Counter Ch. 0
Destination Address Ch. 0
Source Address Ch. 0
DRQ0
DMA
Control
Logic
Interrupt
Request
Channel Control Register 1
Channel Control Register 0
20
16
Internal Address/Data Bus
9.3
PROGRAMMABLE DMA REGISTERS
The sections on the following pages describe the control registers that are used to configure
and operate the two DMA channels.
9-2
DMA Controller
9.3.1
DMA Control Registers (D0CON, Offset CAh, D1CON, Offset DAh)
The DMA control registers (see Figure 9-2) determine the mode of operation for the DMA
channels. These registers specify the following options:
n Whether the destination address is memory or I/O space
n Whether the destination address is incremented, decremented, or maintained constant
after each transfer
n Whether the source address is memory or I/O space
n Whether the source address is incremented, decremented, or maintained constant after
each transfer
n If DMA activity ceases after a programmed number of DMA cycles
n If an interrupt is generated after the last transfer
n The mode of synchronization
n The relative priority of one DMA channel with respect to the other DMA channel
n Whether timer 2 DMA requests are enabled or disabled
n Whether bytes or words are transferred
The DMA channel control registers can be changed while the channel is operating. Any
changes made during DMA operations affect the current DMA transfer.
Figure 9-2
DMA Control Registers (D0CON, D1CON, offsets CAh and DAh)
15
7
0
DINC
SINC INT
P
Res
B/W
DDEC
SDEC TC SYN TDRQ
ST
DM/IO
SM/IO
CHG
The value of D0CON and D1CON at reset is FFF9h.
Bit 15: Destination Address Space Select (DM/IO)—Selects memory or I/O space for
the destination address. When DM/IO is set to 1, the destination address is in memory
space. When set to 0, the destination address is in I/O space.
Bit 14: Destination Decrement (DDEC)—When DDEC is set to 1, the destination address
is automatically decremented after each transfer. The address decrements by 1 or 2,
depending on the byte/word bit (B/W, bit 0). The address remains constant if the increment
and decrement bits are set to the same value (00b or 11b).
Bit 13: Destination Increment (DINC)—When DINC is set to 1, the destination address
is automatically incremented after each transfer. The address increments by 1 or 2,
depending on the byte/word bit (B/W, bit 0). The address remains constant if the increment
and decrement bits are set to the same value (00b or 11b).
Bit 12: Source Address Space Select (SM/IO)—When SM/IO is set to 1, the source
address is in memory space. When set to 0, the source address is in I/O space.
DMA Controller
9-3
Bit 11: Source Decrement (SDEC)—When SDEC is set to 1, the source address is
automatically decremented after each transfer. The address decrements by 1 or 2
depending on the byte/word bit (B/W, bit 0). The address remains constant if the increment
and decrement bits are set to the same value (00b or 11b).
Bit 10: Source Increment (SINC)—When SINC is set to 1, the source address is
automatically incremented after each transfer. The address increments by 1 or 2 depending
on the byte/word bit (B/W, bit 0). The address remains constant if the increment and
decrement bits are set to the same value (00b or 11b).
Bit 9: Terminal Count (TC)—The DMA decrements the transfer count for each DMA
transfer. When TC is set to 1, source or destination synchronized DMA transfers terminate
when the count reaches 0. When TC is set to 0, source or destination synchronized DMA
transfers do not terminate when the count reaches 0. Unsynchronized DMA transfers
always terminate when the count reaches 0, regardless of the setting of this bit.
Bit 8: Interrupt (INT)—When INT is set to 1, the DMA channel generates an interrupt
request on completion of the transfer count. The TC bit must also be set to generate an
interrupt.
Bits 7–6: Synchronization Type (SYN1–SYN0)—The SYN1–SYN0 bits select channel
synchronization as shown in Table 9-2. For more information on DMA synchronization, see
section 9.4 on page 9-10.
Table 9-2
Synchronization Type
SYN1
SYN0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Sync Type
Unsynchronized
Source Synch
Destination Synch
Reserved
Bit 5: Relative Priority (P)—When P is set to 1, it selects high priority for this channel
relative to the other channel during simultaneous transfers.
Bit 4: Timer Enable/Disable Request (TDRQ)—When TDRQ is set to 1, it enables DMA
requests from timer 2. When set to 0, TDRQ disables DMA requests from timer 2.
Bit 3: Reserved
Bit 2: Change Start Bit (CHG)—This bit must be set to 1 during a write to allow modification
of the ST bit. When CHG is set to 0 during a write, ST is not altered when writing the control
word.
Bit 1: Start/Stop DMA Channel (ST)—The DMA channel is started when the start bit is
set to 1. This bit can be modified only when the CHG bit is set to a 1 during the same
register write.
Bit 0: Byte/Word Select (B/W)—On the Am186EM microcontroller, when B/W is set to 1,
word transfers are selected. When B/W is set to 0, byte transfers are selected. Word
transfers are not supported on the Am188EM microcontroller.
9-4
DMA Controller
9.3.2
DMA Transfer Count Registers (D0TC, Offset C8h, D1TC,
Offset D8h)
Each DMA channel maintains a 16-bit DMA Transfer Count register (DTC). This register
is decremented after every DMA cycle, regardless of the state of the TC bit in the DMA
Control register. However, if the TC bit in the DMA control word is set or if unsynchronized
transfers are programmed, DMA activity terminates when the Transfer Count register
reaches 0.
Figure 9-3
DMA Transfer Count Registers (D0TC, D1TC, offsets C8h and D8h)
15
7
0
TC15–TC0
The value of D0TC and D1TC at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–0: DMA Transfer Count (TC15–TC0)—Contains the transfer count for a DMA
channel. Value is decremented by 1 after each transfer.
DMA Controller
9-5
9.3.3
DMA Destination Address High Register
(High Order Bits) (D0DSTH, Offset C6h, D1DSTH, Offset D6h)
Each DMA channel maintains a 20-bit destination and a 20-bit source register. Each register
takes up two full 16-bit registers (the high register and the low register) in the peripheral
control block. For each DMA channel to be used, all four registers must be initialized. These
registers can be individually incremented or decremented after each transfer. If word
transfers are performed, the address is incremented or decremented by 2 after each
transfer. If byte transfers are performed, the address is incremented or decremented by 1.
Each register can point into either memory or I/O space. The user must program the upper
four bits to 0000b in order to address the normal 64K I/O space. Since the DMA channels
can perform transfers to or from odd addresses, there is no restriction on values for the
destination and source address registers. Higher transfer rates can be achieved on the
Am186EM microcontroller if all word transfers are performed to or from even addresses so
that accesses occur in single, 16-bit bus cycles.
Figure 9-4
DMA Destination Address High Register (D0DSTH, D1DSTH, offsets C6h and D6h)
7
15
0
Reserved
DDA19–DDA16
The value of D0DSTH and D1DSTH at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–4: Reserved
Bits 3–0: DMA Destination Address High (DDA19–DDA16)—These bits are driven onto
A19–A16 during the write phase of a DMA transfer.
9-6
DMA Controller
9.3.4
DMA Destination Address Low Register
(Low Order Bits) (D0DSTL, Offset C4h, D1DSTL, Offset D4h)
Figure 9-5 shows the DMA Destination Address Low register. The sixteen bits of this register
are combined with the four bits of the DMA Destination Address High register (see Figure
9-4) to produce a 20-bit destination address.
Figure 9-5
DMA Destination Address Low Register (D0DSTL, D1DSTL, offsets C4h and D4h)
15
7
0
DDA15–DDA0
The value of D0DSTL and D1DSTL at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–0: DMA Destination Address Low (DDA15–DDA0)—These bits are driven onto
A15–A0 during the write phase of a DMA transfer.
DMA Controller
9-7
9.3.5
DMA Source Address High Register
(High Order Bits) (D0SRCH, Offset C2h, D1SRCH, Offset D2h)
Each DMA channel maintains a 20-bit destination and a 20-bit source register. Each register
takes up two full 16-bit registers (the high register and the low register) in the peripheral
control block. For each DMA channel to be used, all four registers must be initialized. These
registers can be individually incremented or decremented after each transfer. If word
transfers are performed, the address is incremented or decremented by 2 after each
transfer. If byte transfers are performed, the address is incremented or decremented by 1.
Each register can point into either memory or I/O space. The user must program the upper
four bits to 0000b in order to address the normal 64K I/O space. Since the DMA channels
can perform transfers to or from odd addresses, there is no restriction on values for the
destination and source address registers. Higher transfer rates can be achieved on the
Am186EM microcontroller if all word transfers are performed to or from even addresses so
that accesses occur in single, 16-bit bus cycles.
Figure 9-6
DMA Source Address High Register (D0SRCH, D1SRCH, offsets C2h and D2h)
7
15
0
Reserved
DSA19–DSA16
The value of D0SRCH and D1SRCH at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–4: Reserved
Bits 3–0: DMA Source Address High (DSA19–DSA16)—These bits are driven onto
A19–A16 during the read phase of a DMA transfer.
9-8
DMA Controller
9.3.6
DMA Source Address Low Register
(Low Order Bits) (D0SRCL, Offset C0h, D1SRCL, Offset D0h)
Figure 9-7 shows the DMA Source Address Low register. The sixteen bits of this register
are combined with the four bits of the DMA Source Address High register (see Figure 9-6)
to produce a 20-bit source address.
Figure 9-7
DMA Source Address Low Register (D0SRCL, D1SRCL, offsets C0h and D0h)
15
7
0
DSA15–DSA0
The value of D0SRCL and D1SRCL at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–0: DMA Source Address Low (DSA15–DSA0)—These bits are driven onto
A15–A0 during the read phase of a DMA transfer.
DMA Controller
9-9
9.4
DMA REQUESTS
Data transfers can be either source or destination synchronized—either the source of the
data or the destination of the data can request the data transfer. DMA transfers can also
be unsynchronized (i.e., the transfer takes place continually until the correct number of
transfers has occurred).
During source synchronized or unsynchronized transfers, the DMA channel can begin a
transfer immediately after the end of the previous DMA transfer, and a complete transfer
can occur every two bus cycles or eight clock cycles (assuming no wait states).
When destination synchronization is performed, data is not fetched from the source address
until the destination device signals that it is ready to receive it. When destination
synchronized transfers are requested, the DMA controller relinquishes control of the bus
after every transfer. If no other bus activity is initiated, another DMA cycle begins after two
processor clocks. This allows the destination device time to remove its request if another
transfer is not desired.
When the DMA controller relinquishes the bus during destination synchronized transfers,
the CPU can initiate a bus cycle. As a result, a complete bus cycle is often inserted between
destination-synchronized transfers. Table 9-3 shows the maximum DMA transfer rates
based on the different synchronization strategies.
Table 9-3
Maximum DMA Transfer Rates
Synchronization Type
Unsynchronized
Source Synch
Destination Synchronized
(CPU needs bus)
Destination Synchronized
(CPU does not need bus)
9-10
Maximum DMA
Transfer Rate (Mbytes/sec)
40 MHz
33 MHz 25 MHz 20 MHz
10
10
6.6
8.25
8.25
5.5
6.25
6.25
4.16
5
5
3.3
8
6.6
5
4
DMA Controller
9.4.1
Synchronization Timing
DRQ1 or DRQ0 must be deasserted before the end of the DMA transfer to prevent another
DMA cycle from occurring. The timing for the required deassertion depends on whether
the transfer is source-synchronized or destination-synchronized.
9.4.1.1
Source Synchronization Timing
Figure 9-8 shows a typical source-synchronized DMA transfer. The DRQ signal must be
deasserted at least four clocks before the end of the transfer (at T1 of the deposit phase).
If more transfers are not required, a source-synchronized transfer allows the source device
at least three clock cycles from the time it is acknowledged to deassert its DRQ line.
Figure 9-8
Source-Synchronized DMA Transfers
Fetch Cycle
T1
T2
T3
Fetch Cycle
T4
T1
T2
T3
T4
CLKOUT
DRQ (First case)
1
DRQ (Second case)
2
Notes:
1. This source-synchronized transfer is not followed immediately by another DMA transfer.
2. This source-synchronized transfer is immediately followed by another DMA transfer because
DRQ is not deasserted soon enough.
9.4.1.2
Destination Synchronization Timing
Figure 9-9 shows a typical destination-synchronized DMA transfer. A destinationsynchronized transfer differs from a source-synchronized transfer in that two idle states are
added to the end of the deposit cycle. The two idle states allow the destination device to
deassert its DRQ signal four clocks before the end of the cycle. Without the two idle states,
the destination device would not have time to deassert its DRQ signal.
Because of the two extra idle states, a destination-synchronized DMA channel allows other
bus masters to take the bus during the idle states. The CPU, the refresh control unit, and
another DMA channel can all access the bus during the idle states.
DMA Controller
9-11
Figure 9-9
Destination Synchronized DMA Transfers
Fetch Cycle
T1
T2
T3
Deposit Cycle
T4
T1
T2
T3
T4
TI
TI
CLKOUT
DRQ
(First case)
1
DRQ
(Second case)
2
Notes:
1. This destination-synchronized transfer is not followed immediately by another DMA transfer.
2. This destination-synchronized transfer is immediately followed by another DMA transfer because
DRQ is not deasserted soon enough.
9.4.2
DMA Acknowledge
No explicit DMA acknowledge signal is provided. Since both source and destination
registers are maintained, a read from a requesting source or a write to a requesting
destination should be used as the DMA acknowledge signal. Since the chip-select lines
can be programmed to be active for a given block of memory or I/O space, and the DMA
source and destination address registers can be programmed to point to the same given
block, a chip-select line could be used to indicate a DMA acknowledge.
9.4.3
DMA Priority
The DMA channels can be programmed so that one channel is always given priority over
the other, or they can be programmed to alternate cycles when both have DMA requests
pending (see section 9.3.1, bit 5, the P bit). DMA cycles always have priority over internal
CPU cycles except between internally locked memory accesses or word accesses to odd
memory locations. However, an external bus hold takes priority over an internal DMA cycle.
Because an interrupt request cannot suspend a DMA operation and the CPU cannot access
memory during a DMA cycle, interrupt latency time suffers during sequences of continuous
DMA cycles. An NMI request, however, causes all internal DMA activity to halt. This allows
the CPU to respond quickly to the NMI request.
9.4.4
DMA Programming
DMA cycles occur whenever the ST bit of the control register is set. If synchronized transfers
are programmed, a DRQ must also be generated. Therefore, the source and destination
transfer address registers and the transfer count register (if used) must be programmed
before the ST bit is set.
9-12
DMA Controller
Each DMA register can be modified while the channel is operating. If the CHG bit is set to
0 when the control register is written, the ST bit of the control register will not be modified
by the write. If multiple channel registers are modified, an internally LOCKed string transfer
should be used to prevent a DMA transfer from occurring between updates to the channel
registers.
9.4.5
DMA Channels on Reset
On reset, the state of the DMA channels is as follows:
n The ST bit for each channel is reset.
n Any transfer in progress is aborted.
n The values of the transfer count registers, source address registers, and destination
address registers are undefined.
DMA Controller
9-13
9-14
DMA Controller
CHAPTER
10
ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORT
10.1
OVERVIEW
The Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers provide an asynchronous serial port. The
asynchronous serial port is a two-pin interface that permits full-duplex bidirectional data
transfer. The asynchronous serial port supports the following features:
n Full-duplex operation
n 7-bit or 8-bit data transfers
n Odd parity, even parity, or no parity
n 1 or 2 stop bits
If additional RS-232 signals are required, they can be created with available PIO pins (see
section 12.1 on page 12-1). The asynchronous serial port transmit and receive sections
are double-buffered. Break character recognition, framing, parity, and overrun error
detection are provided. Exception interrupt generation is programmed by the user.
The transmit/receive clock is based on the internal processor clock internally divided down
to the serial port operating frequency. If power-save mode is in effect, the divide factor must
be reprogrammed. The serial port permits 7-bit and 8-bit data transfers. DMA transfers
through the serial port are not supported.
The serial port generates one interrupt for all serial port events (transmit complete, data
received, or error). The Serial Port Status register contains the reason for the serial port
interrupt. The interrupt type assigned to the serial port is 14h.
The serial port can be used in power-save mode, but the transfer rate must be adjusted to
correctly reflect the new internal operating frequency and the serial port must not receive
any information until the frequency is changed.
10.2
PROGRAMMABLE REGISTERS
The asynchronous serial port is programmed through the use of five, 16-bit peripheral
registers. See Table 10-1.
Table 10-1
Asynchronous Serial Port Register Summary
Offset from Register
PCB
Mnemonic Register Name
80h
82h
84h
86h
88h
SPCT
SPSTS
SPTD
SPRD
SPBAUD
Serial Port Control
Serial Port Status
Serial Port Transmit Data
Serial Port Receive Data
Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor
Asynchronous Serial Port
10-1
10.2.1
Serial Port Control Register (SPCT, Offset 80h)
The Serial Port Control register controls both the transmit and receive sections of the serial
port. The format of the Serial Port Control register is shown in Figure 10-1.
Figure 10-1
Serial Port Control Register (SPCT, offset 80h)
7
15
0
Reserved
TXIE
RXIE
LOOP
BRK
BRKVAL
PMODE
RMODE
RSIE
TMODE
STP
WLGN
The value of SPCT at reset is 0000h.
Bits 15–12: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 11: Transmit Holding Register Empty Interrupt Enable (TXIE)—This bit enables the
serial port to generate an interrupt for the transmit holding register empty condition,
indicating that the serial port is ready to accept a new character for transmission. If this bit
is 1 and the Serial Port Transmit Holding register does not contain valid data, the serial
port generates an interrupt request. The value of TXIE after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 10: Receive Data Ready Interrupt Enable (RXIE)—This bit enables the serial port to
generate an interrupt for the receive data ready condition. If this bit is 1 and the Serial Port
Receive Buffer register contains data that has been received on the serial port, the serial
port generates an interrupt request. The value of RXIE after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 9: Loopback (LOOP)—Setting this bit to 1 places the serial port in the loopback mode.
In this mode, the TXD output is set High and the transmit shift register is connected to the
receive shift register. Data transmitted by the transmit section is immediately received by
the receive section. The loopback mode is provided for testing the serial port. The value of
LOOP after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 8: Send Break (BRK)—Setting this bit to 1 causes the serial port to send a continuous
level on the TXD output. A break is a continuous Low on the TXD output for a duration of
more than one frame transmission time. The level driven on the TXD output is determined
by the BRKVAL bit.
To use the transmitter to time the frame, set the BRK bit when the transmitter is empty
(indicated by the TEMT bit of the Serial Port Status register), write the serial port transmit
holding register, then wait until the TEMT bit is again set before resetting the BRK bit. Since
the TXD output is held constant while BRK is set, the data written to the transmit holding
register will not appear on the pin. The value of BRK after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 7: Break Value (BRKVAL)—This bit determines the output value transmitted on the
TXD pin during a send break operation. If BRKVAL is 1, a continuous High level is driven
on the TXD output. If BRKVAL is 0, a continuous Low level is driven on the TXD output.
Only a continuous Low value (BRKVAL=0) will result in a break being detected by the
receiver. The value of BRKVAL after power-on reset is 0.
10-2
Asynchronous Serial Port
Bits 6–5: Parity Mode (PMODE)—This field specifies how parity generation and checking
are performed during transmission and reception, as shown in Table 10-2.
Table 10-2
Parity Mode Bit Settings
Parity
None (No parity bit in frame)
Odd (Odd number of 1s in frame)
Even (Even number of 1s in frame)
PMODE
0X
10
11
If parity checking and generation is selected, a parity bit is received or sent in addition to
the specified number of data bits.
The value of PMODE after power-on reset is 00b.
Bit 4: Word Length (WLGN)—This bit determines the number of bits transmitted or
received in a frame. If WLGN is 0, the serial port sends and receives 7 bits of data per
frame. If WLGN is 1, the serial port sends and receives 8 bits of data per frame. The value
of WLGN after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 3: Stop Bits (STP)—A 0 in the STP bit specifies that one stop bit is used to signify the
end of a frame. A 1 in this bit specifies that two stop bits are used to signify the end of a
frame. The value of STP after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 2: Transmit Mode (TMODE)—The TMODE bit enables data transmission and controls
the operational mode of the serial port for the transmission of data. If TMODE is 0, the
transmit section and transmit interrupts of the serial port are disabled. If TMODE is 1, the
transmit section of the serial port is enabled. The value of TMODE after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 1: Receive Status Interrupt Enable (RSIE)—This bit enables the serial port to generate
an interrupt because of an exception during reception. If this bit is 1 and the serial port
receives a break, or experiences a framing error, parity error, or overrun error, the serial
port generates a serial port interrupt. The value of RSIE after power-on reset is 0.
Bit 0: Receive Mode (RMODE)—This field enables data reception and controls the
operational mode of the serial port for the reception of data. If RMODE is 0, the receive
section and receive interrupts of the serial port are disabled. If RMODE is 1, the receive
section of the serial port is enabled. The value of RMODE after power-on reset is 0.
Asynchronous Serial Port
10-3
10.2.2
Serial Port Status Register (SPSTS, Offset 82h)
The Serial Port Status register indicates the status of the transmit and receive sections of
the serial port. The format of the Serial Port Status register is shown in Figure 10-2.
Figure 10-2
Serial Port Status Register (SPSTS, offset 82h)
7
15
0
Reserved
TEMT
THRE
RDR
BRKI
FER OER
PER
Bits 15–7: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 6: Transmitter Empty (TEMT)—The TEMT bit is 1 when the transmitter has no data
to transmit and the transmit shift register is empty. This indicates to software that it is safe
to disable the transmit section. This bit is read-only.
Bit 5: Transmit Holding Register Empty (THRE)—When the THRE bit is 1, the transmit
holding register contains invalid data and can be written with data to be transmitted. When
the THRE bit is 0, the transmit holding register cannot be written because it contains valid
data that has not yet been copied to the transmit shift register for transmission.
If transmit interrupts are enabled by the TMODE and TXIE fields, a serial port interrupt
request is generated when the THRE bit is 1. The THRE bit is reset automatically by writing
the transmit holding register. This bit is read-only, allowing other bits of the Serial Port
Status register to be written (i.e., resetting the BRKI bit) without interfering with the current
data request.
Bit 4: Receive Data Ready (RDR)—When the RDR bit is 1, the receive buffer register
contains data that can be read. When the RDR bit is 0, the receive buffer register does not
contain valid data. This bit is read-only.
If receive interrupts are enabled by the RMODE and RXIE fields, a serial port interrupt
request is generated when the THRE bit is 1. Reading the receive buffer register resets
the RDR bit.
Bit 3: Break Interrupt (BRKI)—The BRKI bit is set to indicate that a break has been
received. If the RSIE bit is 1, the BRKI bit being set causes a serial port interrupt request.
The BRKI bit should be reset by software.
Bit 2: Framing Error (FER)—The FER bit is set to indicate that a framing error occurred
during reception of data. If the RSIE bit is 1, the FER bit being set causes a serial port
interrupt request. The FER bit should be reset by software.
Bit 1: Parity Error (PER)—The PER bit is set to indicate that a parity error occurred during
reception of data. If the RSIE bit is 1, the PER bit being set causes a serial port interrupt
request. The PER bit should be reset by software.
Bit 0: Overrun Error (OER)—The OER bit is set when an overrun error occurs during
reception of data. If the RSIE bit is 1, the OER bit being set causes a serial port interrupt
request. The OER bit should be reset by software.
10-4
Asynchronous Serial Port
10.2.3
Serial Port Transmit Data Register (SPTD, Offset 84h)
Software writes this register (Figure 10-4) with data to be transmitted on the serial port.
The transmitter is double-buffered, and the transmit section copies data from the transmit
data register to the transmit shift register (which is not accessible to software) before
transmitting the data.
Figure 10-3
Serial Port Transmit Data Register (SPTD, offset 84h)
7
15
Reserved
0
TDATA
The value of SPTD at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–8: Reserved
Bit 7–0: Transmit Data (TDATA)—This field is written with data to be transmitted on the
serial port. The THRE bit in the Serial Port Status register indicates whether there is valid
data in the SPTD register. To avoid overwriting data in the SPTD register, the THRE bit
should be read as a 1 before writing this register. Writing this register causes the THRE bit
to be reset.
Asynchronous Serial Port
10-5
10.2.4
Serial Port Receive Data Register (SPRD, Offset 86h)
This register (Figure 10-4) contains data received over the serial port. The receiver is
double-buffered, and the receive section can be receiving a subsequent frame of data in
the receive shift register (which is not accessible to software) while the receive data register
is being read by software.
Figure 10-4
Serial Port Receive Data Register (SPRD, offset 86h)
7
15
Reserved
0
RDATA
The value of SPRD at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–8: Reserved
Bits 7–0: Receive Data (RDATA)—This field contains data received on the serial port.
The RDR bit of the Serial Port Status register indicates valid data in the SPRD register. To
avoid reading invalid data, the RDR bit should be read as a 1 before the SPRD register is
read. Reading this register causes the RDR bit to be reset.
10-6
Asynchronous Serial Port
10.2.5
Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor Register (SPBAUD, Offset 88h)
This register (Figure 10-5) specifies a clock divisor for the generation of the serial clock
that controls the serial port. The serial clock rate is 16 times the baud rate of transmission
or reception of data. The SPBAUD register specifies the number of internal processor cycles
in one phase (half period) of the 16x serial clock.
If power-save mode is in effect, the baud rate divisor must be reprogrammed to reflect the
new processor clock frequency.
A general formula for the baud rate divisor is:
BAUDDIV=(Processor Frequency÷(32 ⋅ Baud Rate))–1
The maximum baud rate is 1/32 of the internal processor clock and is achieved by setting
BAUDDIV=0000h. For a 40-MHz clock, a baud rate of 9600 can be achieved with
BAUDDIV=129 (81h). A 1% error applies.
Figure 10-5
Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor Register (SPBAUD, offset 88h)
7
15
0
BAUDDIV
The value of SPBAUD at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–0: Baud Rate Divisor (BAUDDIV)—This field specifies the divisor for the internal
processor clock that generates one phase (half period) of the serial clock. The serial clock
operates at 16 times the data transmission or reception baud rate.
Table 10-3 shows baud rate divisors for a range of common baud rates and processor clock
rates.
Table 10-3
Serial Port Baud Rate Table
Divisor Based on CPU Clock Rate
Baud Rate
300
600
1200
2400
4800
9600
14,400
19,200
625 Kbaud
781.25 Kbaud
1.041 Mbaud
1.25 Mbaud
20 MHz
2082
1040
519
259
129
64
42
31
0
N/A
N/A
N/A
25 MHz
2603
1301
650
324
161
80
53
39
N/A
0
N/A
N/A
Asynchronous Serial Port
33 MHz
3471
1735
867
433
216
107
71
53
N/A
N/A
0
N/A
40 MHz
4165
2082
1040
519
259
129
85
64
1
N/A
N/A
0
10-7
10-8
Asynchronous Serial Port
CHAPTER
11
SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL INTERFACE
11.1
OVERVIEW
The synchronous serial interface lets the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers
communicate with application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that require
programmability but are short on pins. The four-pin interface permits half-duplex,
bidirectional data transfer at speeds of up to 20 Mbit/s with a 40-MHz CPU clock.
Unlike the asynchronous serial port, the SSI operates in a master/slave configuration. The
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers operate as the master port.
The SSI interface provides four pins for communicating with system components: two
enables (SDEN0 and SDEN1), a clock (SCLK), and a data pin (SDATA). Five registers
(see Table 11-1) are used to control and monitor the interface.
n The Synchronous Serial Status register (SSS) reports the current port status.
n The Synchronous Serial Control register (SSC) sets the port clock rate and controls the
enable signals.
n There are two data transmit registers—the Synchronous Serial Transmit 0 register
(SSD0) and the Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 register (SSD1)—but data is transmitted
and received over a single pin (SDATA).
n The Synchronous Serial Receive Register (SSR) holds data received over the SSI.
Table 11-1
Synchronous Serial Interface Register Summary
Offset
from PCB
Register
Mnemonic
Register Name
10h
SSS
Synchronous Serial Status
12h
SSC
Synchronous Serial Control
14h
SSD1
Synchronous Serial Transmit 1
16h
SSD0
Synchronous Serial Transmit 0
18h
SSR
Synchronous Serial Receive
Synchronous Serial Interface
11-1
11.1.1
Four-Pin Interface
The SDEN1–SDEN0 enable pins can be enabled for up to two peripheral devices.
Transmit and receive operations are synchronized between the master (Am186EM or
Am188EM microcontroller) and slave (peripheral) by means of the SCLK output. SCLK is
derived from the processor internal clock divided by 2, 4, 8, or 16, as specified by the SSC
register. SCLK is only driven during data transmit or receive operations. The inactive state
of SCLK is High.
If power-save mode is in effect, the SCLK frequency is affected by the reduced processor
clock frequency.
Data is transferred across the SDATA input/output pin. Data is driven on the falling edge
of SCLK and latched on the rising edge of SCLK. The least-significant bit of the data is
shifted first for both transmit and receive operations. During write operations, the processor
holds data for one-half of an SCLK period following the transfer of the last data bit. SDATA
has a weak keeper that holds the last value of SDATA on the pin.
11.2
PROGRAMMABLE REGISTERS
The registers documented on the following pages are accessible to the system programmer.
11-2
Synchronous Serial Interface
11.2.1
Synchronous Serial Status Register (SSS, Offset 10h)
This read-only register indicates the state of the SSI port. The format of the Synchronous
Serial Status register is shown in Figure 11-1.
Figure 11-1
Synchronous Serial Status Register (SSS, offset 10h)
7
15
0
Reserved
RE/TE
DR/DT
PB
The value of the SSS register at reset is 0000h.
Bits 15–3: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 2: Receive/Transmit Error Detect (RE/TE)—This bit is set when the SSI detects either
a read of the Synchronous Serial Receive register or a write to one of the transmit registers
while the SSI is busy (PB=1). This bit is reset when the SDEN output is inactive (bits DE1–
DE0 in the SSC register are both 0).
Bit 1: Data Receive/Transmit Complete (DR/DT)—The DR/DT bit is set at the end of the
transfer of data bit 7 (SCLK rising edge) during a transmit or receive operation. This bit is
reset when the SSR register is read, when one of the SSD0 or SSD1 registers is written,
when the SSS register is read (unless the SSI completes an operation and sets the bit in
the same cycle), or when both SDEN0 and SDEN1 become inactive.
Bit 0: SSI Port Busy (PB)—When the PB bit is set, a transmit or receive operation is in
progress. When PB is reset, the port is ready to transmit or receive data.
Synchronous Serial Interface
11-3
11.2.2
Synchronous Serial Control Register (SSC, Offset 12h)
This read/write register controls the operation of the SDEN0–SDEN1 outputs and the
transfer rate of the SSI port. The SDEN0 and SDEN1 outputs are asserted when a 1 is
written to the corresponding bit. However, in the case when both DE0 and DE1 are set,
only SDEN0 will be asserted. The format of the Synchronous Serial Control register is
shown in Figure 11-2.
Figure 11-2
Synchronous Serial Control Register (SSC, offset 12h)
7
15
0
Res
Reserved
SCLKDIV
DE1
DE0
The value of the SSC register at reset is 0000h.
Bits 15–6: Reserved—Set to 1.
Bits 5–4: SCLK Divide (SCLKDIV)—These bits determine the SCLK frequency. SCLK is
derived from the internal processor clock by dividing by 2, 4, 8, or 16. Table 11-2 shows
the processor clock frequency divider values for the possible SCLKDIV settings.
If power-save mode is in effect, the SCLK frequency is affected by the reduced processor
clock frequency.
Table 11-2
SCLK Divider Values
SCLKDIV
SCLK Frequency Divider
00b
Processor clock / 2
01b
Processor clock / 4
10b
Processor clock / 8
11b
Processor clock / 16
Bits 3–2: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bit 1: SDEN1 Enable (DE1)—When this bit is set to 1, the SDEN1 pin is held High. When
DE1 is set to 0, the SDEN1 pin is Low.
Bit 0: SDEN0 Enable (DE0)—When this bit is set to 1, the SDEN0 pin is held High. When
DE0 is set to 0, the SDEN0 pin is Low.
11-4
Synchronous Serial Interface
11.2.3
Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 Register (SSD1, Offset 14h)
Synchronous Serial Transmit 0 Register (SSD0, Offset 16h)
The Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 and 0 registers contain data to be transferred from the
processor to the peripheral on a write operation. Only the least-significant 8 bits of the
register are used. The format of SSD1 and SSD0 is shown in Figure 11-3.
Writes to SSD1 or SSD0 cause the PB bit in the SSS register to be set and a transmission
sequence to begin as shown in Figure 11-5 on page 11-8. A write to either SSD1 or SSD0
while the port is busy sets the RE/TE (Receive/Transmit Error) bit in the SSS register and
does not generate additional data transfers.
Figure 11-3
Synchronous Serial Transmit Register (SSD1, SSD0, offsets 14h and 16h)
7
15
Reserved
0
SD
The value of these registers at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–8: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bits 7–0: Send Data (SD)—Data to transmit over the SDATA pin. Bit 0 is transmitted first,
bit 7 is transmitted last.
Synchronous Serial Interface
11-5
11.2.4
Synchronous Serial Receive Register (SSR, Offset 18h)
The Synchronous Serial Receive (SSR) register contains the data transferred from the
peripheral to the processor on a read operation. Only the least-significant 8 bits of the
register are used. The format of the SSR register is shown in Figure 11-4.
A receive data transmission is initiated by reading the SSR register while the port is not
busy (PB bit in SSS register is 0) and one or both of the enable bits (DE1–DE0 in the SSC
register) is set. A receive transmission is not initiated by reading the SSR register when
neither of the enable bits is set (DE1–DE0 = 00b). This allows the software to read the
received data without initiating another receive transmission.
A read of the Synchronous Serial Receive register while the port is busy (PB bit is set in
the SSS register) sets the RE/TE (Receive/Transmit Error) bit in the SSS register and
returns an indeterminate value. Such a read does not generate additional data transfers.
Figure 11-4
Synchronous Serial Receive Register (SSR, offset 18h)
7
15
Reserved
0
SR
The value of this register at reset is undefined.
Bits 15–8: Reserved—Set to 0.
Bits 7–0: Receive Data (SR)—Data received over the SDATA pin. Bit 0 is transmitted first,
bit 7 is transmitted last.
11-6
Synchronous Serial Interface
11.3
SSI PROGRAMMING
The SSI interface allows for a variety of software and hardware protocols.
n Signaling a read/write—In general, software uses the first write to the SSI to transmit
an address or count to the peripheral. This value can include a read/write flag in the
case where the device supports both reads and writes.
n Using SSD1 as an address register—The SSD1 register can be an address register
that holds the value of the last address accessed, and the SSD0 register can be the
data transmit register. In this case, the current value in the SSD1 register can be used
by software to generate the next address or to determine if the last transaction was a
read or a write.
n Using SSD1 and SSD0 as transmit registers for two peripheral devices—In some
systems, it may clarify the code and aid in debugging to view the two data transmit
registers as unique to different peripheral devices. This allows the last value transmitted
to each device to be examined by debug code.
Synchronous Serial Interface
11-7
Figure 11-5
PB=0
DR/DT=0
Synchronous Serial Interface Multiple Write
PB=1
DR/DT=0
PB=0
DR/DT=1
PB=1
DR/DT=0
PB=0
DR/DT=1
PB=1
DR/DT=0
PB=0
DR/DT=1
PB=0
DR/DT=0
SDEN
SCLK
SDATA
Poll SSS for
PB=0
Write to SSD
Poll SSS for
PB=0
Poll SSS for
PB=0
Write to SSD
Write to SSD
Write to SSC bit
DE=0
Write to SSC
bit DE=1
Figure 11-6
PB=0
DR/DT=0
Synchronous Serial Interface Multiple Read
PB=1
DR/DT=0
PB=0
DR/DT=1
PB=1
DR/DT=0
PB=0
DR/DT=1
PB=1
DR/DT=0
PB=0
DR/DT=1
PB=0
DR/DT=0
SDEN
SCLK
SDATA
Poll SSS for
PB=0
Write to SSD
Poll SSS for
PB=0
Poll SSS for
PB=0
Read from SSR
(dummy)
Read from
SSR
Write to SSC
bit DE=1
11-8
Synchronous Serial Interface
Write to SSC
bit DE=0
Read from SSR
CHAPTER
12
PROGRAMMABLE I/O PINS
12.1
OVERVIEW
Thirty-two pins on the Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers are available as userprogrammable I/O signals (PIOs). Each of these pins can be used as a PIO if the normal
function of the pin is not needed. If a pin is enabled to function as a PIO signal, the normal
function is disabled and does not affect the pin. A PIO signal can be configured to operate
as an input or output with or without internal pullup or pulldown resistors, or as an opendrain output.
After power-on reset, the PIO pins default to various configurations. The column titled
Power-On Reset State in Table 12-1 lists the defaults for the PIOs. The system initialization
code must reconfigure PIOs as required.
The A19–A17 address pins default to normal operation on power-on reset, allowing the
processor to correctly begin fetching instructions at the boot address FFFF0h. The DT/R,
DEN, and SRDY pins also default to normal operation on power-on reset.
Figure 12-1
Programmable I/O Pin Operation
Mode
Dir.
VCC
PIO
Mode
Normal
Function
Int.
Bus
PIO
Direction
0
D
1
Q
Pin
WR
PDATA
Q
D
Data In
OE
40 MHz
(CLK)
RD
PDATA
Normal
Data In
PIOTRI
PIOPULL
PIODRV
Programmable I/O Pins
12-1
Table 12-1
PIO Pin Assignments
PIO No.
Associated Pin
Power-On Reset Status
0
TMRIN1
Input with pullup
1
TMROUT1
Input with pulldown
2
PCS6/A2
Input with pullup
3
PCS5/A1
Input with pullup
4
DT/R
Normal operation(3)
5
DEN
Normal operation(3)
6
SRDY
Normal operation(4)
7(1)
A17
Normal operation(3)
8(1)
A18
Normal operation(3)
9(1)
A19
Normal operation(3)
10
TMROUT0
Input with pulldown
11
TMRIN0
Input with pullup
12
DRQ0
Input with pullup
13
DRQ1
Input with pullup
14
MCS0
Input with pullup
15
MCS1
Input with pullup
16
PCS0
Input with pullup
17
PCS1
Input with pullup
18
PCS2
Input with pullup
19
PCS3
Input with pullup
20
SCLK
Input with pullup
21
SDATA
Input with pullup
22
SDEN0
Input with pulldown
23
SDEN1
Input with pulldown
24
MCS2
Input with pullup
25
MCS3/RFSH
Input with pullup
26(1,2)
UZI
Input with pullup
27
TXD
Input with pullup
28
RXD
Input with pullup
S6/CLKDIV2
Input with pullup
30
INT4
Input with pullup
31
INT2
Input with pullup
29(1,2)
Notes:
1. These pins are used by emulators. (Emulators also use S2–S0, RES, NMI, CLKOUTA, BHE,
ALE, AD15–AD0, and A16–A0.)
2. These pins revert to normal operation if BHE/ADEN (Am186EM) or RFSH2/ADEN (Am188EM)
is held Low during power-on reset.
3. When used as a PIO, input with pullup option available.
4. When used as a PIO, input with pulldown option available.
12-2
Programmable I/O Pins
12.2
PIO MODE REGISTERS
Table 12-2 shows the possible settings for the PIO Mode and PIO Direction bits. The
Am186EM and Am188EM microcontrollers default the 32 PIO pins to either 00b (normal
operation) or 01b (PIO input with weak internal pullup or pulldown enabled).
Pins that default to active High outputs at reset are pulled down. All other pins are pulled
up or are normal operation. See Table 12-2. The column titled Power-On Reset State in
Table 12-1 lists the defaults for the PIOs.
The internal pullup resistor has a value of approximately 10 Kohms. The internal pulldown
resistor has a value of approximately 10 Kohms.
Table 12-2
PIO Mode and PIO Direction Settings
PIO
Mode
Figure 12-2
15
PIO
Direction Pin Function
0
0
Normal operation
0
1
PIO input with pullup/pulldown
1
0
PIO output
1
1
PIO input without pullup/pulldown
PIO Mode 1 Register
(PIOMODE1, offset 76h)
7
Figure 12-3
0
15
PMODE (31–16)
12.2.1
PIO Mode 0 Register
(PIOMODE0, offset 70h)
7
0
PMODE (15–0)
PIO Mode 1 Register (PIOMODE1, Offset 76h)
The value of PIOMODE1 at reset is 0000h.
Bits 15–0: PIO Mode Bits (PMODE31–PMODE16)—This field with the PIO direction
registers determines whether each PIO pin performs its pre-assigned function or is enabled
as a custom PIO signal. The most significant bit of the PMODE field determines whether
PIO31 is enabled, the next bit determines whether PIO30 is enabled, and so on.
Table 12-2 shows the values that the PIO mode bits and the PIO direction bits can encode.
12.2.2
PIO Mode 0 Register (PIOMODE0, Offset 70h)
The value of PIOMODE0 at reset is 0000h.
Bits 15–0: PIO Mode Bits (PMODE15–PMODE0)—This field is a continuation of the
PMODE field in the PIO Mode 1 register.
Programmable I/O Pins
12-3
12.3
PIO DIRECTION REGISTERS
Each PIO is individually programmed as an input or output by a bit in one of the PIO Direction
registers (see Figure 12-4 and Figure 12-5). Table 12-2 on page 12-3 shows the values
that the PIO mode bits and the PIO direction bits can encode. The column titled Power-On
Reset State in Table 12-1 lists the reset default values for the PIOs. Bits in the PIO Direction
registers have the same correspondence to pins as bits in the PIO Mode registers.
Figure 12-4
15
PIO Direction 1 Register
(PDIR1, offset 78h)
7
0
Figure 12-5
PIO Direction 0 Register
(PDIR0, offset 72h)
15
0
PDIR (15–0)
PDIR (31–16)
12.3.1
7
PIO Direction 1 Register (PDIR1, Offset 78h)
The value of PDIR1 at reset is FFFFh.
Bits 15–0: PIO Direction Bits (PDIR31–PDIR16)—This field determines whether each
PIO pin acts as an input or an output. The most significant bit of the PDIR field determines
the direction of PIO31, the next bit determines the direction of PIO30, and so on. A 1 in the
bit configures the PIO signal as an input, and a 0 in the bit configures it as an output or as
normal pin function.
12.3.2
PIO Direction 0 Register (PDIR0, Offset 72h)
The value of PDIR0 at reset is FC0Fh.
Bits 15–0: PIO Direction Bits (PDIR15–PDIR0)—This field is a continuation of the PDIR
field in the PIO Direction 1 register.
12-4
Programmable I/O Pins
12.4
PIO DATA REGISTERS
If a PIO pin is enabled as an output, the value in the corresponding bit in one of the PIO
Data registers (see Figure 12-6 and Figure 12-7) is driven on the pin with no inversion
(Low=0, High=1). If a PIO pin is enabled as an input, the value on the PIO pin is reflected
in the value of the corresponding bit in the PIO Data register, with no inversion. Bits in the
PIO Data registers have the same correspondence to pins as bits in the PIO Mode registers
and PIO Direction registers.
Figure 12-6
15
PIO Data 1 Register
(PDATA1, offset 7Ah)
7
Figure 12-7
0
15
7
0
PDATA (15–0)
PDATA (31–16)
12.4.1
PIO Data 0 Register
(PDATA0, offset 74h)
PIO Data Register 1 (PDATA1, Offset 7Ah)
Bits 7–0: PIO Data Bits (PDATA31–PDATA16)—This field determines the level driven on
each PIO pin or reflects the external level of the pin, depending upon whether the pin is
configured as an output or an input in the PIO Direction registers. The most significant bit
of the PDATA field indicates the level of PIO31, the next bit indicates the level of PIO30,
and so on.
The value of PDATA1 at reset is undefined.
12.4.2
PIO Data Register 0 (PDATA0, Offset 74h)
Bits 15–0: PIO Data Bits (PDATA15–PDATA0)—This field is a continuation of the PDATA
field in the PIO Data 1 register.
The value of PDATA0 at reset is undefined.
12.5
OPEN-DRAIN OUTPUTS
The PIO Data registers permit the PIO signals to be operated as open-drain outputs. This
is accomplished by keeping the appropriate PDATA bits constant in the PIO Data register
and writing the data value into its associated bit position in the PIO Direction register, so
the output is either driving Low or is disabled, depending on the data.
Programmable I/O Pins
12-5
12-6
Programmable I/O Pins
APPENDIX
A
REGISTER SUMMARY
This appendix summarizes the peripheral control block registers. Table A-1 lists all the
registers. Figure A-1 shows the layout of each of the internal registers.
The column titled Comment in Table A-1 is used to identify the specific use of interrupt
registers when there is a mix of master mode and slave mode usage. The registers that
are marked as Slave & master can have different configurations for the different modes.
Register Summary
A-1
Table A-1
A-2
Internal Register Summary
Hex Offset
Mnemonic
Register Description
FE
RELREG
Peripheral control block relocation register
F6
RESCON
Reset configuration register
F4
PRL
F0
PDCON
Power-save control register
E4
EDRAM
Enable RCU register
E2
CDRAM
Clock prescaler register
E0
MDRAM
Memory partition register
D8
D1TC
D6
D1DSTH
DMA 1 destination address high register
D4
D1DSTL
DMA 1 destination address low register
D2
D1SRCH
DMA 1 source address high register
D0
D1SRCL
DMA 1 source address low register
CA
D0CON
DMA 0 control register
C8
D0TC
C6
D0DSTH
DMA 0 destination address high register
C4
D0DSTL
DMA 0 destination address low register
C2
D0SRCH
DMA 0 source address high register
C0
D0SRCL
DMA 0 source address low register
A8
MPCS
PCS and MCS auxiliary register
A6
MMCS
Midrange memory chip select register
A4
PACS
Peripheral chip select register
A2
LMCS
Low memory chip select register
A0
UMCS
Upper memory chip select register
88
SPBAUD
86
SPRD
Serial port receive data register
84
SPTD
Serial port transmit data register
82
SPSTS
Serial port status register
80
SPCT
Serial port control register
7A
PDATA1
78
PDIR1
76
PIOMODE1
PIO mode 1 register
74
PDATA0
PIO data 0 register
72
PDIR0
70
PIOMODE0
66
T2CON
62
T2CMPA
60
T2CNT
Timer 2 count register
5E
T1CON
Timer 1 mode/control register
Processor release level register
DMA 1 transfer count register
DMA 0 transfer count register
Serial port baud rate divisor register
PIO data 1 register
PIO direction 1 register
PIO direction 0 register
PIO mode 0 register
Timer 2 mode/control register
Timer 2 maxcount compare A register
Register Summary
Comment
Table A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
Hex Offset
Mnemonic
5C
T1CMPB
Timer 1 maxcount compare B register
5A
T1CMPA
Timer 1 maxcount compare A register
58
T1CNT
Timer 1 count register
56
T0CON
Timer 0 mode/control register
54
T0CMPB
Timer 0 maxcount compare B register
52
T0CMPA
Timer 0 maxcount compare A register
50
T0CNT
44
SPICON
Serial port interrupt control register
Master mode
42
WDCON
Watchdog timer interrupt control register
Master mode
40
I4CON
INT4 control register
Master mode
3E
I3CON
INT3 control register
Master mode
3C
I2CON
INT2 control register
Master mode
3A
I1CON
INT1 control register
Master mode
Timer 2 interrupt control register
Slave mode
INT0 control register
Master mode
T1INTCON
Timer 1 interrupt control register
Slave mode
36
DMA1CON
DMA 1 interrupt control register
Slave & master
34
DMA0CON
DMA 0 interrupt control register
Slave & master
32
TCUCON
Timer interrupt control register
Master mode
Timer 0 interrupt control register
Slave mode
T2INTCON
38
I0CON
T0INTCON
Register Description
Comment
Timer 0 count register
30
INTSTS
Interrupt status register
Slave & master
2E
REQST
Interrupt request register
Slave & master
2C
INSERV
In-service register
Slave & master
2A
PRIMSK
Priority mask register
Slave & master
28
IMASK
Interrupt mask register
Slave & master
26
POLLST
Poll status register
Master mode
24
POLL
Poll register
Master mode
22
EOI
End-of-interrupt register
Master mode
EOI
Specific end-of-interrupt register
Slave mode
Interrupt vector register
Slave mode
20
INTVEC
18
SSR
Synchronous serial receive register
16
SSD0
Synchronous serial transmit 0 register
14
SSD1
Synchronous serial transmit 1 register
12
SSC
Synchronous serial control register
10
SSS
Synchronous serial status register
Register Summary
A-3
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary
Offset
(Hexadecimal)
15
7
0
R19–R8
FE
Res S/M
Res M/IO
Peripheral Control Block Relocation Register (RELREG)
Page 4-4
15
7
0
7
0
RC
F6
Reset Configuration Register (RESCON)
Page 4-5
15
Reserved
PRL
F4
Processor Release Level Register (PRL)
Page 4-6
15
7
0
F0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F2–F0
CBF CBD CAF CAD
PSEN
Power-Save Control Register (PDCON)
Page 4-7
7
15
E4
E
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
T8–T0
Enable RCU Register (EDRAM)
Page 6-2
7
15
E2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Clock Prescaler Register (CDRAM)
Page 6-2
A-4
Register Summary
0
RC8–RC0
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
15
7
E0
0
M6–M0
RA19
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
RA13
Memory Partition Register (MDRAM)
Page 6-1
15
7
TC
CA
DM/IO
DDEC
DINC
SM/IO
SDEC
INT
SYN
0
P
Res CHG ST
B/W
TDRQ
SINC
DMA 1 Control Register (D1CON)
Page 9-3
15
7
D8
0
TC15–TC0
DMA 1 Transfer Count Register (D1TC)
Page 9-5
15
7
Reserved
D6
0
DDA19–DDA16
DMA 1 Destination Address High Register (D1DSTH)
Page 9-6
15
7
0
DDA15–DDA0
D4
DMA 1 Destination Address Low Register (D1DSTL)
Page 9-7
7
15
Reserved
D2
0
DSA19–DSA16
DMA 1 Source Address High Register (D1SRCH)
Page 9-8
7
15
D0
0
DSA15–DSA0
DMA 1 Source Address Low Register (D1SRCL)
Page 9-9
Register Summary
A-5
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
15
7
TC
CA
DM/IO
DDEC
DINC
SM/IO
SDEC
INT
0
SYN
P
Res CHG
ST
B/W
TDRQ
SINC
DMA 0 Control Register (D0CON)
Page 9-3
15
7
0
TC15–TC0
C8
DMA 0 Transfer Count Register (D0TC)
Page 9-5
15
7
Reserved
C6
0
DDA19–DDA16
DMA 0 Destination Address High Register (D0DSTH)
Page 9-6
15
7
0
DDA15–DDA0
C4
DMA 0 Destination Address Low Register (D0DSTL)
Page 9-7
7
15
DSA19–DSA16
Reserved
C2
0
DMA 0 Source Address High Register (D0SRCH)
Page 9-8
7
15
C0
DSA15–DSA0
DMA 0 Source Address Low Register (D0SRCL)
Page 9-9
A-6
Register Summary
0
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
15
A8
7
1
M6–M0
EX
0
MS
1
1
1
R2
R1–R0
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register (MPCS)
Page 5-10
15
7
BA19–BA13
A6
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
R2
R1–R0
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register (MMCS)
Page 5-8
7
15
BA19–BA11
A4
0
1
1
1
R3
R2
R1–R0
Peripheral Chip Select Register (PACS)
Page 5-12
15
A2
0
7
UB2–UB0
1
1
1
1
R7
0
PSE
1
1
1
R2
R1–R0
A19
Low Memory Chip Select Register (LMCS)
Page 5-6
15
A0
1
7
LB2–LB0
0
0
0
0
R7
0
0
1
1
1
R2
R1–R0
A19
Upper Memory Chip Select Register (UMCS)
Page 5-4
15
88
7
0
BAUDDIV
Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor Register (SPBAUD)
Page 10-7
Register Summary
A-7
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
15
7
0
RDATA
Reserved
86
Serial Port Receive Data Register (SPRD)
Page 10-6
7
15
0
TDATA
Reserved
84
Serial Port Transmit Data Register (SPTD)
Page 10-5
15
7
0
Reserved
FER PER OER
82
Serial Port Status Register (SPSTS)
Page 10-4
TEMT
THRE
RDR
BRKI
15
7
Reserved
80
BRK
0
STP
PMODE
TXIE
RXIE
LOOP
BRKVAL
WLGN
RSIE
TMODE
RMODE
Serial Port Control Register (SPCT)
Page 10-2
15
7
0
PDATA31–PDATA16
7A
PIO Data 1 Register (PDATA1)
Page 12-5
15
7
PDIR31–PDIR16
78
PIO Direction 1 Register (PDIR1)
Page 12-4
A-8
Register Summary
0
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
15
7
0
PMODE31–PMODE16
76
PIO Mode 1 Register (PIOMODE1)
Page 12-3
15
7
0
PDATA15–PDATA0
74
PIO Data 0 Register (PDATA0)
Page 12-5
15
7
0
PDIR15–PDIR0
72
PIO Direction 0 Register (PDIR0)
Page 12-4
15
7
0
PMODE15–PMODE0
70
PIO Mode 0 Register (PIOMODE0)
Page 12-3
7
15
66
EN
INH
INT
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MC
0
0
0
0
CONT
Timer 2 Mode/Control Register (T2CON)
Page 8-5
7
15
62
0
0
TC15–TC0
Timer 2 Maxcount Compare A Register (T2CMPA)
Page 8-7
Register Summary
A-9
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
7
15
60
0
TC15–TC0
Timer 2 Count Register (T2CNT)
Page 8-6
15
5E
EN
7
INH
INT
RIU
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
MC
RTG
P
EXT ALT
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register (T1CON)
Page 8-3
CONT
15
7
0
TC15–TC0
5C
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare B Register (T1CMPB)
Page 8-7
7
15
5A
0
TC15–TC0
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare A Register (T1CMPA)
Page 8-7
7
15
58
0
TC15–TC0
Timer 1 Count Register (T1CNT)
Page 8-6
7
15
56
EN
INH
INT
RIU
0
0
0
0
0
7
15
TC15–TC0
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare B Register (T0CMPB)
Page 8-7
A-10
0
MC
RTG
P
EXT ALT
CONT
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register (T0CON)
Page 8-3
54
0
Register Summary
0
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
15
7
52
0
TC15–TC0
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare A Register (T0CMPA)
Page 8-7
7
15
0
TC15–TC0
50
Timer 0 Count Register (T0CNT)
Page 8-6
7
15
(1)
Res MSK
Reserved
44
0
PR2–PR0
Serial Port Interrupt Control Register (SPICON)
Master Mode
Page 7-19
7
15
0
Reserved
42
MSK
PR2–PR0
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control Register (WDCON)
Master Mode
Page 7-18
15
7
Reserved
40
0
LTM MSK
PR2–PR0
INT4 Control Register (I4CON)
Master Mode
Page 7-15
7
15
3E
Reserved
0
LTM
MSK
PR2–PR0
INT3 Control Register (I3CON)
Master Mode
Page 7-15
Register Summary
A-11
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
7
15
0
Reserved
3C
INT2 Control Register (I2CON)
Master Mode
Page 7-15
15
LTM
0
C
LTM MSK
PR2–PR0
SFNM
INT1 Control Register (I1CON)
Master Mode
Page 7-13
7
15
0
Reserved
3A
PR2–PR0
7
Reserved
3A
MSK
MSK
PR2–PR0
Timer 2 Interrupt Control Register (T2INTCON)
Slave Mode
Page 7-29
7
15
0
Reserved
38
C
PR2–PR0
SFNM
INT0 Control Register (I0CON)
Master Mode
Page 7-13
7
15
Reserved
38
LTM MSK
0
MSK
PR2–PR0
Timer 1 Interrupt Control Register (T1INTCON)
Slave Mode
Page 7-29
7
15
36
Reserved
DMA 1 Interrupt Control Register (DMA1CON)
Master Mode—Page 7-17
Slave Mode—Page 7-29
A-12
Register Summary
0
MSK
PR2–PR0
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
7
15
0
Reserved
34
MSK
PR2–PR0
DMA 0 Interrupt Control Register (DMA0CON)
Master Mode—Page 7-17
Slave Mode—Page 7-29
7
15
0
Reserved
32
MSK
PR2–PR0
Timer Interrupt Control Register (TCUCON)
Master Mode—Page 7-17
Timer 0 Interrupt Control Register (T0INTCON)
Slave Mode—Page 7-29
7
15
0
TMR2–TMR0
Reserved
30
DHLT
Interrupt Status Register (INTSTS)
Master Mode—Page 7-20
Slave Mode—Page 7-30
7
15
Reserved
2E
SPI
WD
I4
I3
0
I2
I1
I0
D1
D0
Res
TMR
Interrupt Request Register (REQST)
Master Mode
Page 7-21
7
15
2E
0
Reserved
D1
TMR2
TMR1
D0
Res
TMR0
Interrupt Request Register (REQST)
Slave Mode
Page 7-31
Register Summary
A-13
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
7
15
Reserved
2C
SPI
WD
I4
I3
0
I2
I1
I0
D1
D0
Res TMR
In-Service Register (INSERV)
Master Mode
Page 7-22
7
15
0
Reserved
2C
D1
TMR2
D0
Res
TMR1
TMR0
In-Service Register (INSERV)
Slave Mode
Page 7-32
7
15
0
Reserved
2A
PRM2–PRM0
Priority Mask Register (PRIMSK)
Master Mode—Page 7-23
Slave Mode—Page 7-33
7
15
28
Reserved
SPI
WD
I4
I3
0
I2
I1
I0
D1
D0 Res
TMR
Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK)
Master Mode
Page 7-24
7
15
28
Reserved
Interrupt Mask Register (IMASK)
Slave Mode
Page 7-34
A-14
Register Summary
0
D1
TMR2 TMR1
D0
Res
TMR0
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
7
15
0
Reserved
26
S4–S0
IREQ
Poll Status Register (POLLST)
Master Mode
Page 7-25
7
15
0
Reserved
24
S4–S0
IREQ
Poll Register (POLL)
Master Mode
Page 7-26
7
15
0
Reserved
22
S4–S0
NSPEC
End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI)
Master Mode
Page 7-27
7
15
0
Reserved
22
L2–L0
Specific End-of-Interrupt Register (EOI)
Slave Mode
Page 7-35
7
15
20
Reserved
0
T4–T0
0
0
0
Interrupt Vector Register (INTVEC)
Slave Mode
Page 7-36
Register Summary
A-15
Figure A-1
Internal Register Summary (continued)
7
15
0
SR
Reserved
18
Synchronous Serial Receive Register (SSR)
Page 11-6
7
15
0
SD
Reserved
16
Synchronous Serial Transmit 0 Register (SSD0)
Page 11-5
15
7
0
SD
Reserved
14
Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 Register (SSD1)
Page 11-5
7
15
0
Reserved
12
Res
DE1
DE0
SCLKDIV
Synchronous Serial Control Register (SSC)
Page 11-4
15
10
7
PB
Reserved
Synchronous Serial Status Register (SSS)
Page 11-3
A-16
0
Register Summary
RE/TE
DR/DT
INDEX
Symbols
BAUDDIV field (Baud Rate Divisor) 10-7
BHE signal (Bus High Enable)
(IRET) interrupt return 7-4
definition 3-3
bits
A
ALT (Alternate Compare Bit) 8-4
B/W (Byte/Word Select) 9-4
A1 signal (Latched Address Bit 1)
BA19-BA11 (Base Address) 5-12
definition 3-8
BA19-BA13 (Base Address) 5-8
A19-A0 signals (Address Bus)
BAUDDIV (Baud Rate Divisor) 10-7
definition 3-1
BRK (Send Break) 10-2
A2 signal (Latched Address Bit 2)
BRKI (Break Interrupt) 10-4
definition 3-8
BRKVAL (Break Value) 10-2
AD15-AD0 signals (Address and Data Bus)
C (Cascade Mode) 7-13
definition 3-2
CAD (CLKOUTA Drive Disable) 4-7
AD7-AD0 signals (Address and Data Bus)
CAF (CLKOUTA Output Frequency) 4-7
definition 3-1
CBD (CLKOUTB Drive Disable) 4-7
ALE signal (Address Latch Enable)
CBF (CLKOUTB Output Frequency) 4-7
definition 3-2
CHG (Change Start Bit) 9-4
ALT bit (Alternate Compare Bit)
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-4
CONT (Continuous Mode Bit) 8-4, 8-5
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-4
D1-D0 (DMA Channel Interrupt InService) 7-22, 732, 7-34
Am186EM microcontroller
design philosophy xiii
D1-D0 (DMA Channel Interrupt Masks) 7-24
product support iii
D1-D0 (DMA Channel Interrupt Request) 7-21, 7-31
Am188EM microcontroller
DDA15-DDA0 (DMA Destination Address Low) 9-7
signal descriptions
DDA19-DDA16 (DMA Destination Address High) 96
AD7-AD0 (Address and Data Bus) 3-1
MA15-MA7 (Multiplexed Address Bus) 3-2
RFSH2/ADEN (Refresh 2/Address Enable)
3-11
WB (Write Byte) 3-14
ARDY signal (Asynchronous Ready)
DDEC (Destination Decrement) 9-3
DE0 (SDEN0 Enable) 11-4
DE1 (SDEN1 Enable) 11-4
DHLT (DMA Halt) 7-20, 7-30
DINC (Destination Increment) 9-3
definition 3-2
DM/IO (Destination Address Space Select) 9-3
DR/DT (Data Receive/Transmit Complete) 11-3
DSA15-DSA0 (DMA Source Address Low) 9-9
B
DSA19-DSA16 (DMA Source Address High) 9-8
B/W bit (Byte/Word Select) 9-4
E (Enable RCU) 6-2
BA19-BA11 field (Base Address)
EN (Enable Bit) 8-3, 8-5
Peripheral Chip Select Register 5-12
EX (Pin Selector) 5-11
BA19-BA13 field (Base Address)
EXT (External Clock Bit) 8-4
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register 5-8
F2-F0 (Clock Divisor Select) 4-7
Index
I-1
FER (Framing Error) 10-4
RE/TE (Receive/Transmit Error Detect) 11-3
I4-I0 (Interrupt InService) 7-22
RIU (Register in Use) 8-3
I4-I0 (Interrupt Mask) 7-24
RMODE (Receive Mode) 10-3
I4-I0 (Interrupt Requests) 7-21
RSIE (Receive Status Interrupt Enable) 10-3
INH (Inhibit Bit) 8-3, 8-5
RTG (Retrigger Bit) 8-3
INT (Interrupt Bit) 8-3, 8-5
RXIE (Receive Data Ready Interrupt Enable) 10-2
INT (Interrupt) 9-4
S/M (Slave/Master) 4-4
IREQ (Interrupt Request) 7-25, 7-26
S4-S0 (Poll Status) 7-25, 7-26
L2-L0 (Interrupt Type) 7-35
S4-S0 (Source Vector Type) 7-27
LB2-LB0 (Lower Boundary) 5-4
SD (Send Data) 11-5
LOOP (Loopback) 10-2
SDEC (Source Decrement) 9-4
LTM (LevelTriggered Mode) 7-13, 7-15, 7-16
SFNM (Special Fully Nested Mode) 7-13
M/IO (Memory/I/O Space) 4-4
SINC (Source Increment) 9-4
M6-M0 (MCS Block Size) 5-10
SM/IO (Source Address Space Select) 9-3
M6-M0 (Refresh Base) 6-1
SPI (Serial Port Interrupt InService) 7-22
MC (Maximum Count Bit) 8-3, 8-5
SPI (Serial Port Interrupt Mask) 7-24
MS (Memory/I/O Space Selector) 5-11
SPI (Serial Port Interrupt Request) 7-21
MSK (Interrupt Mask) 7-17
SR (Receive Data) 11-6
MSK (Mask) 7-13, 7-15, 7-16, 7-18, 7-19, 7-29
ST (Start/Stop DMA Channel) 9-4
NSPEC (NonSpecific EOI) 7-27
STP (Stop Bits) 10-3
OER (Overrun Error) 10-4
SYN1-SYN0 (Synchronization Type) 9-4
P (Prescaler Bit) 8-3
T4-T0 (Interrupt Type) 7-36
P (Relative Priority) 9-4
T8-T0 (Refresh Count) 6-2
PB (SSI Port Busy) 11-3
TC (Terminal Count) 9-4
PDATA15-PDATA0 (PIO Data BIts) 12-5
TC15-TC0 (Timer Compare Value) 8-7
PDATA31-PDATA16 (PIO Data BIts) 12-5
TC15-TC0 (Timer Count Register) 9-5
PDIR15-PDIR0 (PIO Direction Bits) 12-4
TC15-TC0 (Timer Count Value) 8-6
PDIR31-PDIR16 (PIO Direction Bits) 12-4
TDATA (Transmit Data) 10-5
PER (Parity Error) 10-4
TDRQ (Timer Enable/Disable Request) 9-4
PMODE (Parity Mode) 10-3
TEMT (Transmitter Empty) 10-4
PMODE15-PMODE0 (PIO Mode Bits) 12-3
THRE (Transmit Holding Register Empty) 10-4
PMODE31-PMODE16 (PIO Mode Bits) 12-3
TMODE (Transmit Mode) 10-3
PR2-PR0 (Priority Level) 7-29
TMR (Timer Interrupt InService) 7-22
PR2-PR0 (Priority) 7-13, 7-15, 7-16, 7-17, 7-18, 719
TMR (Timer Interrupt Mask) 7-24
PRM2-PRM0 (Priority Field Mask) 7-23, 7-33
TMR0 (Timer 0 Interrupt InService) 7-32
PSE (PSRAM Mode Enable) 5-7
TMR0 (Timer 0 Interrupt Mask) 7-34
PSEN (Enable PowerSave Mode) 4-7
TMR0 (Timer 0 Interrupt Request) 7-31
R19-R8 (Relocation Address Bits) 4-4
TMR2-TMR0 (Timer Interrupt Request) 7-20, 7-30
R1-R0 (Wait State Value) 5-5, 5-7, 5-9, 5-11
R2 (Ready Mode) 5-5, 5-7, 5-9, 5-11
TMR2-TMR1 (Timer 2/Timer 1 Interrupt InService)
7-32
R7 (Address Disable) 5-5, 5-7
TMR2-TMR1 (Timer 2/Timer 1 Interrupt Mask) 7-34
RC (Reset Configuration) 4-5
TRM2-TMR1 (Timer2/Timer1 Interrupt Request) 731
RC8-RC0 (Refresh Counter Reload Value) 6-2
TXIE (Transmit Holding Register Empty Interrupt
Enable) 10-2
RDATA (Receive Data) 10-6
RDR (Receive Data Ready) 10-4
I-2
TMR (Timer Interrupt Request) 7-21
UB2-UB0 (Upper Boundary) 5-6
Index
thirdparty products xiv
WD (Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt InService) 722
DHLT bit (DMA Halt) 7-20, 7-30
WD (Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt Mask) 7-24
DINC bit (Destination Increment) 9-3
WD (Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt Request) 721
DM/IO bit (Destination Address Space Select) 9-3
WLGN (Word Length) 10-3
DMA 0 Control Register
description 9-3
BRK bit (Send Break) 10-2
DMA 0 Destination Address High Register
BRKI bit (Break Interrupt) 10-4
description 9-6
BRKVAL bit (Break Value) 10-2
DMA 0 Destination Address Low Register
description 9-7
C
DMA 0 Interrupt Control Register
description
C bit (Cascade Mode) 7-13
Master mode 7-17
Slave mode 7-29
CAD bit (CLKOUTA Drive Disable) 4-7
CAF bit (CLKOUTA Output Frequency) 4-7
DMA 0 Source Address High Register
Cascade mode 7-10
description 9-8
CBD bit (CLKOUTB Drive Disable) 4-7
DMA 0 Source Address Low Register
CBF bit (CLKOUTB Output Frequency) 4-7
description 9-9
CHG bit (Change Start Bit) 9-4
DMA 0 Transfer Count Register
CLKDIV2 signal (Clock Divide by 2)
description 9-5
definition 3-12
DMA 1 Control Register
CLKOUTA signal (Clock Output A)
description 9-3
definition 3-3
DMA 1 Destination Address High Register
CLKOUTB signal (Clock Output B)
description 9-6
definition 3-4
DMA 1 Destination Address Low Register
Clock Prescaler Register
description 9-7
description 6-2
DMA 1 Interrupt Control Register
CONT bit (Continuous Mode Bit)
description
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-4
Master mode 7-17
Slave mode 7-29
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-4
Timer 2 Mode/Control Register 8-5
DMA 1 Source Address High Register
description 9-8
DMA 1 Source Address Low Register
D
D1-D0 field (DMA Channel Interrupt InService) 7-22, 732, 7-34
description 9-9
DMA 1 Transfer Count Register
description 9-5
D1-D0 field (DMA Channel Interrupt Masks) 7-24
D1-D0 field (DMA Channel Interrupt Request) 7-21, 731
documentation
AMD E86 Family publications xiv
ordering documentation and literature iii
DDA15-DDA0 field (DMA Destination Address Low) 9-7
DDA19-DDA16 field (DMA Destination Address High)
9-6
DR/DT bit (Data Receive/Transmit Complete) 11-3
DRQ1-DRQ0 signals (DMA Requests)
DDEC bit (Destination Decrement) 9-3
definition 3-4
DE0 bit (SDEN0 Enable) 11-4
DSA15-DSA0 field (DMA Source Address Low) 9-9
DE1 bit (SDEN1 Enable) 11-4
DSA19-DSA16 field (DMA Source Address High) 9-8
DEN signal (Data Enable)
DT/R signal (Data Transmit or Receive)
definition 3-4
definition 3-4
development tools
Index
I-3
E
Timer 2 Mode/Control Register 8-5
InService Register
E bit (Enable RCU) 6-2
description
EN bit (Enable Bit)
Master mode 7-22
Slave mode 7-32
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Instruction exceptions 7-3
Timer 2 Mode/Control Register 8-5
INT bit (Interrupt Bit)
EN bit (Enable PowerSave Mode) 4-7
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Enable RCU Register
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-3
description 6-2
Timer 2 Mode/Control Register 8-5
Endofinterrupt processing 7-11
INT0 Control Register
EndofInterrupt Register
description
description
Master mode 7-13
Master mode 7-27
INT0 signal (Maskable Interrupt Request 0)
EOI 7-11
definition 3-5
EX bit (Pin Selector) 5-11
INT1 Control Register
EXT bit (External Clock Bit)
description
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-4
Master mode 7-13
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-4
INT1 signal (Maskable Interrupt Request 1)
External interrupt acknowledge bus cycles table 7-7
definition 3-5
INT2 Control Register
description
F
Master mode 7-15
F2-F0 field (Clock Divisor Select) 4-7
INT2 signal (Maskable Interrupt Request 2)
FER bit (Framing Error) 10-4
definition 3-5
Figure
INT3 Control Register
external interrupt acknowledge bus cycles 7-7
description
Fully nested mode interrupt controller connections
7-9
Fully nested mode 7-9
Fully nested mode interrupt controller connections 7-9
Master mode 7-15
INT3 signal (Maskable Interrupt Request 3)
definition 3-6
INT4 Control Register
description
H
HLDA signal (Bus Hold Acknowledge)
definition 3-4
HOLD signal (Bus Hold Request)
definition 3-4
I
Master mode 7-16
INT4 signal (Maskable Interrupt Request 4)
definition 3-6
INTA0 signal (Interrupt Acknowledge 0)
definition 3-5
INTA1 signal (Interrupt Acknowledge 1)
definition 3-6
Interrupt acknowledge 7-7
I4-I0 field (Interrupt InService) 7-22
Interrupt conditions and sequence 7-4
I4-I0 field (Interrupt Mask) 7-24
Interrupt control unit 7-1
I4-I0 field (Interrupt Requests) 7-21
Interrupt controller registers
IF (the interrupt enable flag) 7-2
master mode 7-12
INH bit (Inhibit Bit)
slave mode 7-28
I-4
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Interrupt controller reset conditions 7-8
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Interrupt enable flag (IF) 7-2
Index
L
Interrupt mask bit 7-2
Interrupt Mask Register
description
Master mode 7-24
Slave mode 7-34
L2-L0 field (Interrupt Type) 7-35
LB2-LB0 field (Lower Boundary) 5-4
LCS signal (Lower Memory Chip Select)
definition 3-6
Interrupt priority 7-2, 7-5
Interrupt Request Register
description
Master mode 7-21
Slave mode 7-31
LOOP bit (Loopback) 10-2
Low Memory Chip Select Register
description 5-6
LTM bit (LevelTriggered Mode)
Interrupt return (IRET) 7-4
INT0 Control Register 7-13
Interrupt Status Register
INT1 Control Register 7-13
INT2 Control Register 7-15
description
INT3 Control Register 7-15
Master mode 7-20
Slave mode 7-30
INT4 Control Register 7-16
Interrupt type 7-1
Interrupt types 7-6
M
Interrupt types table 7-3
Interrupt Vector Register
description
Slave mode 7-36
Interrupt vector table 7-2
M/IO bit (Memory/I/O Space) 4-4
M6-M0 field (MCS Block Size) 5-10
M6-M0 field (Refresh Base) 6-1
MA15-MA7 signals (Multiplexed Address Bus)
Interrupts
definition 3-2
array BOUNDs exception 7-6
Maskable interrupts 7-2
breakpoint 7-6
Master mode interrupt registers 7-12
cascade mode 7-10
Master mode operation 7-9
divide error exception 7-6
MC bit (Maximum Count Bit)
EOI 7-11
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-3
ESC opcode exception 7-6
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-3
fully nested mode 7-9
Timer 2 Mode/Control Register 8-5
Instruction exceptions 7-3
INTO overflow detected 7-6
MCS2-MCS0 signals (Midrange Memory Chip Selects
2-0)
definition 3-7
Maskable and nonmaskable 7-2
master mode operation 7-9
MCS3 signal (Midrange Memory Chip Select 3)
definition 3-7
nonmaskable (NMI) 7-6
polled 7-11
Memory Partition Register
description 6-1
slave mode 7-28
slave mode nesting 7-28
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register
description 5-8
Special fully nested mode 7-11
trace 7-6
MS bit (Memory/I/O Space Selector) 5-11
unused opcode 7-6
MSK (interrupt mask bit) 7-2
IREQ bit (Interrupt Request)
MSK bit (Interrupt Mask)
DMA Interrupt Control Registers 7-17
Poll Register 7-26
Timer Interrupt Control Registers 7-17
Poll Status Register 7-25
IRQ signal (Slave Interrupt Request)
MSK bit (Mask)
DMA Interrupt Control Registers 7-29
definition 3-6
INT0 Control Register 7-13
Index
I-5
INT1 Control Register 7-13
physical dimensions xiv
INT2 Control Register 7-15
pin description xiv
INT3 Control Register 7-15
PIO Data 0 Register
description 12-5
INT4 Control Register 7-16
PIO Data 1 Register
Serial Port Interrupt Control Register 7-19
description 12-5
Timer Interrupt Control Registers 7-29
Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control Register
7-18
PIO Direction 0 Register
description 12-4
PIO Direction 1 Register
N
NMI signal (Nonmaskable Interrupt)
definition 3-7
Nonmaskable interrupts 7-2, 7-6
NSPEC bit (NonSpecific EOI) 7-27
description 12-4
PIO Mode 0 Register
description 12-3
PIO Mode 1 Register
description 12-3
PIO31-PIO0 signals (Programmable I/O Pins 31-0)
definition 3-8
O
PLLBYPS signal (PLL Bypass)
definition 3-14
OER bit (Overrun Error) 10-4
ONCE0 signal (ONCE Mode Request 0)
definition 3-6
ONCE1 signal (ONCE Mode Request 1)
definition 3-13
PMODE field (Parity Mode) 10-3
PMODE15-PMODE0 field (PIO Mode Bits) 12-3
PMODE31-PMODE16 field (PIO Mode Bits) 12-3
Poll Register
description
Master mode 7-26
P
Poll Status Register
P bit (Prescaler Bit)
description
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-3
P bit (Relative Priority) 9-4
Master mode 7-25
Polled interrupts 7-11
PowerSave Control Register
description 4-7
PB bit (SSI Port Busy) 11-3
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register
PR2-PR0 field (Priority Level)
DMA Interrupt Control Register 7-29
description 5-10
Timer Interrupt Control Register 7-29
PCS3-PCS0 signals (Peripheral Chip Selects 3-0)
definition 3-7
PR2-PR0 field (Priority)
DMA Interrupt Control Registers 7-17
PCS5 signal (Peripheral Chip Select 5)
INT0 Control Register 7-13
definition 3-8
INT1 Control Register 7-13
PCS6 signal (Peripheral Chip Select 6)
INT2 Control Register 7-15
definition 3-8
PDATA15-PDATA0 field (PIO Data BIts) 12-5
INT3 Control Register 7-15
PDATA31-PDATA16 field (PIO Data BIts) 12-5
INT4 Control Register 7-16
PDIR15-PDIR0 field (PIO Direction Bits) 12-4
Serial Port Interrupt Control Register 7-19
PDIR31-PDIR16 field (PIO Direction Bits) 12-4
Timer Interrupt Control Registers 7-17
PER bit (Parity Error) 10-4
Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control Register
7-18
Peripheral Chip Select Register
description 5-12
Priority Mask Register
description
Peripheral Control Block Relocation Register 4-4
Master mode 7-23
I-6
Index
C4h) 9-7
Slave mode 7-33
PRM2-PRM0 field (Priority Field Mask) 7-23, 7-33
DMA 1 Destination Address Low (D1DSTL, Offset
D4h) 9-7
Processor Release Level Register
DMA 1 Interrupt Control (DMA1CON, Offset 36h) 717, 7-29
description 4-6
product support
DMA 1 Source Address High (D1SRCH, Offset
D2h) 9-8
bulletin board service iii
documentation and literature iii
DMA 1 Source Address Low (D1SRCL, Offset D0h)
9-9
technical support hotline iii
PSE bit (PSRAM Mode Enable) 5-7
DMA 1 Transfer Count (D1TC, Offset D8h) 9-5
Enable RCU (EDRAM, Offset E4h) 6-2
R
EndofInterrupt (EOI, Offset 22h) 7-27
InService (INSERV, Offset 2Ch) 7-22, 7-32
R19-R8 field (Relocation Address Bits) 4-4
INT0 Control (INT0, Offset 38h)
R1-R0 field (Wait State Value)
Master mode 7-13
Low Memory Chip Select Register 5-7
INT1 Control (INT1, Offset 3Ah)
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register 5-9
Master mode 7-13
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register 5-11
INT2 Control (INT2, Offset 3Ch)
Upper Memory Chip Select Register 5-5
Master mode 7-15
R2 bit (Ready Mode)
INT3 Control (INT3, Offset 3Eh)
Low Memory Chip Select Register 5-7
Master mode 7-15
Midrange Memory Chip Select Register 5-9
INT4 Control (INT4, Offset 40h)
PCS and MCS Auxiliary Register 5-11
Master mode 7-16
Interrupt Mask (IMASK, Offset 28h) 7-24, 7-34
Upper Memory Chip Select Register 5-5
Interrupt Request (REQST, Offset 2Eh) 7-21, 7-31
R7 field (Address Disable)
Interrupt Status (INSTS, Offset 30h) 7-20
Upper Memory Chip Select Register 5-5, 5-7
RC field (Reset Configuration) 4-5
Interrupt Status (INTSTS, Offset 30h) 7-30
RC8-RC0 field (Refresh Counter Reload Value) 6-2
Interrupt Vector (INTVEC, Offset 20h) 7-36
RD signal (Read Strobe)
Low Memory Chip Select (LMCS, Offset A2h) 5-6
Memory Partition (MDRAM, Offset E0h) 6-1
definition 3-11
RDR bit (Receive Data Ready) 10-4
Midrange Memory Chip Select (MMCS, Offset A6h)
5-8
RE/TE bit (Receive/Transmit Error Detect) 11-3
PCS and MCS Auxiliary (MPCS, Offset A8h) 5-10
registers
Peripheral Chip Select (PACS, Offset A4h) 5-12
RDATA field (Receive Data) 10-6
Peripheral Control Block Relocation (RELREG, Offset FEh) 4-4
Clock Prescaler (CDRAM, Offset E2h) 6-2
DMA 0 Control (D0CON, Offset CAh) 9-3
DMA 0 Interrupt Control (DMA0CON, Offset 34h) 717, 7-29
PIO Data 0 (PDATA0, Offset 74h) 12-5
PIO Data 1 (PDATA1, Offset 7Ah) 12-5
DMA 0 Source Address High (D0SRCH, Offset
C2h) 9-8
PIO Direction 0 (PDIR0, Offset 72h) 12-4
DMA 0 Source Address Low (D0SRCL, Offset C0h)
9-9
PIO Mode 0 (PIOMODE0, Offset 70h) 12-3
DMA 0 Transfer Count (D0TC, Offset C8h) 9-5
Poll (POLL, Offset 24h) 7-26
DMA 1 Control (D1CON, Offset DAh) 9-3
Poll Status (POLLST, Offset 26h) 7-25
DMA 1 Destination Address High (D0DSTH, Offset
C6h) 9-6
PowerSave Control (PDCON, Offset F0h) 4-7
DMA 1 Destination Address High (D1DSTH, Offset
D6h) 9-6
Processor Release Level (PRL, Offset F4) 4-6
DMA 1 Destination Address Low (D0DSTL, Offset
Index
PIO Direction 1 (PDIR1, Offset 78h) 12-4
PIO Mode 1 (PIOMODE1, Offset 76h) 12-3
Priority Mask (PRIMSK, Offset 2Ah) 7-23, 7-33
Reset Configuration (RESCON, Offset F6h) 4-5
I-7
Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor (SPBAUD, Offset
88h) 10-7
description 4-5
RFSH signal (Automatic Refresh)
Serial Port Control (SPCT, Offset 80h) 10-2
definition 3-7
Serial Port Interrupt Control (SPICON, Offset 44h)
RFSH2/ADEN signal
Master mode 7-19
definition 3-11
Serial Port Receive Data (SPRD, Offset 86h) 10-6
RIU bit (Register in Use)
Serial Port Status (SPSTS, Offset 82h) 10-4
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Serial Port Transmit (SPTD, Offset 84h) 10-5
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Specific EndofInterrupt (EOI, OFfset 22h) 7-35
RMODE bit (Receive Mode) 10-3
Synchronous Serial Control (SSC, Offset 12h) 11-4
RSIE bit (Receive Status Interrupt Enable) 10-3
Synchronous Serial Receive (SSR, Offset 18h) 116
RTG bit (Retrigger Bit)
Timer 0 Mode/Control Register 8-3
Synchronous Serial Status (SSS, Offset 10h) 11-3
Synchronous Serial Transmit 0 (SSD0, Offset 14h)
11-5
Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 (SSD1, Offset 14h)
11-5
Timer 1 Mode/Control Register 8-3
RXD signal (Receive Data)
definition 3-11
RXIE bit (Receive Data Ready Interrupt Enable) 10-2
Timer 0 Count (T0CNT, Offset 50h) 8-6
Timer 0 Interrupt Control (T0INTCON, Offset 32h)
7-29
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare A (T0CMPA, Offset
52h) 8-7
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare B (T0CMPB, Offset
54h) 8-7
S
S/M bit (Slave/Master) 4-4
S2-S0 signals (Bus Cycle Status 2-0)
definition 3-11
S4-S0 field (Poll Status)
Timer 0 Mode and Control (T0CON, Offset 56h) 8-3
Poll Register 7-26
Timer 1 Count (T1CNT, Offset 58h) 8-6
Poll Status Register 7-25
Timer 1 Interrupt Control (T1INTCON, Offset 38h)
7-29
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare A (T1CMPA, Offset
5Ah) 8-7
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare B (T1CMPB, Offset
5Ch) 8-7
S4-S0 field (Source Vector Type) 7-27
S6 signal (Bus Cycle Status 6)
definition 3-12
SCLK signal (Serial Clock)
definition 3-12
Timer 1 Mode and Control (T1CON, Offset 5Eh) 8-3
SD field (Send Data) 11-5
Timer 2 Count (T2CNT, Offset 60h) 8-6
SDATA signal (Serial Data)
Timer 2 Interrupt Control (T2INTCON, Offset 3Ah)
7-29
definition 3-12
SDEC bit (Source Decrement) 9-4
Timer 2 Maxcount Compare A (T2CMPA, Offset
62h) 8-7
SDEN1-SDEN0 signals (Serial Data Enables 1-0)
Timer 2 Mode and Control (T2CON, Offset 66h) 8-5
SELECT signal (Slave Select)
definition 3-12
Timer Interrupt Control (TCUCON, Offset 32h) 7-17
Upper Memory Chip Select (UMCS, Offset A0h) 5-4
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control (WDCON, Offset
42h)
Master mode 7-18
RES signal (Reset)
definition 3-11
definition 3-5
Serial Port Baud Rate Divisor Register
description 10-7
Serial Port Control Register
description 10-2
Serial Port Interrupt Control Register
description
Reset
interrupt controller conditions 7-8
Reset Configuration Register
I-8
Master mode 7-19
Serial Port Receive Data Register
description 10-6
Index
RFSH2/ADEN (Refresh 2/Address Enable) 3-11
Serial Port Status Register
RXD (Receive Data) 3-11
description 10-4
S2-S0 (Bus Cycle Status 2-0) 3-11
Serial Port Transmit Data Register
S6 (Bus Cycle Status 6) 3-12
description 10-5
SFNM bit (Special Fully Nested Mode) 7-13
SCLK (Serial Clock) 3-12
signal description
SDATA (Serial Data) 3-12
A1 (Latched Address Bit 1) 3-8
SDEN1-SDEN0 (Serial Data Enables 1-0) 3-12
A19-A0 (Address Bus) 3-1
SELECT (Slave Select) 3-5
A2 (Latched Address Bit 2) 3-8
SRDY (Synchronous Ready) 3-13
AD15-AD0 (Address and Data Bus) 3-2
TMRIN0 (Timer Input 0) 3-13
AD7-AD0 (Address and Data Bus) 3-1
TMRIN1 (Timer Input 1) 3-13
ALE (Address Latch Enable) 3-2
TMROUT0 (Timer Output 0) 3-13
ARDY (Asynchronous Ready) 3-2
TMROUT1 (Timer Output 1) 3-13
BHE (Bus High Enable) 3-3
TXD (Transmit Data) 3-13
CLKDIV2 (Clock Divide by 2) 3-12
UCS (Upper Memory Chip Select) 3-13
CLKOUTA (Clock Output A) 3-3
UZI (Upper Zero Indicate) 3-14
CLKOUTB (Clock Output B) 3-4
WB (Write Byte) 3-14
DEN (Data Enable) 3-4
WHB (Write High Byte) 3-14
DRQ1-DRQ0 (DMA Requests) 3-4
WLB (Write Low Byte) 3-14
WR (Write Strobe) 3-14
DT/R (Data Transmit or Receive) 3-4
HLDA (Bus Hold Acknowledge) 3-4
SINC bit (Source Increment) 9-4
HOLD (Bus Hold Request) 3-4
Slave mode interrupts 7-28
INT0 (Maskable Interrupt Request 0) 3-5
Slave mode nesting 7-28
INT1 (Maskable Interrupt Request 1) 3-5
SM/IO bit (Source Address Space Select) 9-3
INT2 (Maskable Interrupt Request 2) 3-5
Software interrupt 7-3
INT3 (Maskable Interrupt Request 3) 3-6
Special fully nested mode 7-11
INT4 (Maskable Interrupt Request 4) 3-6
Specific EndofInterrupt Register
description
INTA0 (Interrupt Acknowledge 0) 3-5
INTA1 (Interrupt Acknowledge 1) 3-6
Slave mode 7-35
IRQ (Slave Interrupt Request) 3-6
SPI bit (Serial Port Interrupt InService) 7-22
LCS (Lower Memory Chip Select) 3-6
SPI bit (Serial Port Interrupt Mask) 7-24
MA15-MA7 (Multiplexed Address Bus) 3-2
SPI bit (Serial Port Interrupt Request) 7-21
MCS2-MCS0 (Midrange Memory Chip Selects 2-0)
3-7
SR field (Receive Data) 11-6
SRDY signal (Synchronous Ready)
MCS3 (Midrange Memory Chip Select 3) 3-7
definition 3-13
NMI (Nonmaskable Interrupt) 3-7
ST bit (Start/Stop DMA Channel) 9-4
ONCE0 (ONCE Mode Request 0) 3-6
STP bit (Stop Bits) 10-3
ONCE1 (ONCE Mode Request 1) 3-13
SYN1-SYN0 field (Synchronization Type) 9-4
PCS30-PCS0 (Peripheral Chip Selects 3-0) 3-7
Synchronous Serial Control Register
PCS5 (Peripheral Chip Select 5) 3-8
PCS6 (Peripheral Chip Select 6) 3-8
description 11-4
Synchronous Serial Receive Register
PIO31-PIO0 (Programmable I/O Pins 31-0) 3-8
PLLBYPS (PLL Bypass) 3-14
description 11-6
Synchronous Serial Status Register
RD (Read Strobe) 3-11
RES (Reset) 3-11
description 11-3
Synchronous Serial Transmit 0 Register
RFSH (Automatic Refresh) 3-7
description 11-5
Index
I-9
Synchronous Serial Transmit 1 Register
Timer 2 Maxcount Compare B Register
description 11-5
description 8-7
Timer 2 Mode and Control Register
T
description 8-5
TImer Interrupt Control Register
T4-T0 field (Interrupt Type) 7-36
description
T8-T0 field (Refresh Count) 6-2
Table
Master mode 7-17
timing characteristics xiv
interrupt controller registers in master mode 7-12
TMODE bit (Transmit Mode) 10-3
interrupt controller registers in slave mode 7-28
TMR bit (Timer Interrupt InService) 7-22
Interrupt types 7-3
TMR bit (Timer Interrupt Mask) 7-24
TC bit (Terminal Count) 9-4
TMR bit (Timer Interrupt Request) 7-21
TC15-TC0 field (Timer Compare Value) 8-7
TMR0 bit (Timer 0 Interrupt InService) 7-32
TC15-TC0 field (Timer Count Register) 9-5
TMR0 bit (Timer 0 Interrupt Mask) 7-34
TC15-TC0 field (Timer Count Value) 8-6
TMR0 bit (Timer 0 Interrupt Request) 7-31
TDATA field (Transmit Data) 10-5
TMR2-TMR0 field (Timer Interrupt Request) 7-20, 7-30
TDRQ bit (Timer Enable/Disable Request) 9-4
TMR2-TMR1 field (Timer 2/Timer 1 Interrupt InService)
7-32
TEMT bit (Transmitter Empty) 10-4
THRE bit (Transmit Holding Register Empty) 10-4
TMR2-TMR1 field (Timer 2/Timer 1 Interrupt Mask) 734
Timer 0 Count Register
TMRIN0 signal (Timer Input 0)
thermal characteristics xiv
definition 3-13
description 8-6
Timer 0 Interrupt Control Register
TMRIN1 signal (Timer Input 1)
definition 3-13
description
Slave mode 7-29
TMROUT0 signal (Timer Output 0)
definition 3-13
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare A Register
description 8-7
TMROUT1 signal (Timer Output 1)
definition 3-13
Timer 0 Maxcount Compare B Register
description 8-7
Timer 0 Mode and Control Register
description 8-3
Timer 1 Count Register
trace interrupt 7-6
TRM2-TMR1 field (Timer2/Timer1 Interrupt Request) 731
TXD signal (Transmit Data)
definition 3-13
description 8-6
Timer 1 Interrupt Control Register
description
TXIE bit (Transmit Holding Register Empty Interrupt Enable) 10-2
Slave mode 7-29
U
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare A Register
description 8-7
Timer 1 Maxcount Compare B Register
UB2-UB0 field (Upper Boundary) 5-6
UCS signal (Upper Memory Chip Select)
description 8-7
Timer 1 Mode and Control Register
definition 3-13
Upper Memory Chip Select Register
description 8-3
Timer 2 Count Register
description 5-4
UZI signal (Upper Zero Indicate)
description 8-6
definition 3-14
Timer 2 Interrupt Control Register
description
Slave mode 7-29
I-10
Index
W
Watchdog Timer Interrupt Control Register
description
Master mode 7-18
WB signal (Write Byte)
definition 3-14
WD bit (Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt InService) 722
WD bit (Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt Mask) 7-24
WD bit (Virtual Watchdog Timer Interrupt Request) 7-21
WHB signal (Write High Byte)
definition 3-14
WLB signal (Write Low Byte)
definition 3-14
WLGN bit (Word Length) 10-3
WR signal (Write Strobe)
definition 3-14
Index
I-11
I-12
Index