LM78 Microprocessor System Hardware Monitor General Description Features The LM78 is a highly integrated Data Acquisition system for hardware monitoring of servers, Personal Computers, or virtually any microprocessor based system. In a PC, the LM78 can be used to monitor power supply voltages, temperatures, and fan speeds. Actual values for these inputs can be read at any time, and programmable WATCHDOG limits in the LM78 activate a fully programmable and maskable interrupt system with two outputs. The LM78 has an on-chip temperature sensor, 5 positive analog inputs, two inverting inputs (for monitoring negative voltages), and an 8-bit ADC. An input is provided for the overtemperature outputs of additional temperature sensors and this is linked to the interrupt system. The LM78 provides inputs for three fan tachometer outputs. Additional inputs are provided for Chassis Intrusion detection circuits, VID monitor inputs, and chainable interrupt. The LM78 provides both ISA and Serial Bus interfaces. A 32-byte auto-increment RAM is provided for POST (Power On Self Test) code storage. n n n n n n n n n Temperature sensing 5 positive voltage inputs 2 op amps for negative voltage monitoring 3 fan speed monitoring inputs Input for additional temperature sensors Chassis Intrusion Detector input WATCHDOG comparison of all monitored values POST code storage RAM ISA and I2C™ Serial Bus interfaces Key Specifications j Voltage monitoring j Temperature Accuracy n System Hardware Monitoring for Servers and PCs n Office Electronics n Electronic Test Equipment and Instrumentation ± 3˚C (max) −10˚C to +100˚C j Supply Voltage j Supply Current Applications ± 1% (max) accuracy 5V Operating: 1 mA typ Shutdown: 10 µA typ j ADC Resolution 8 Bits Typical Application DS012873-1 # indicates Active Low (”Not“) I2C ® is a registered trademark of the Phillips Corporation. © 2001 National Semiconductor Corporation DS012873 www.national.com LM78 Microprocessor System Hardware Monitor February 2000 LM78 Ordering Information Temperature Range −10˚C ≤ TA ≤ +100˚C Order Number Device Marking LM78CCVF LM78CCVF-J Connection Diagram Package VGZ44A DS012873-2 Block Diagram DS012873-3 www.national.com 2 LM78 Pin Descriptions Pin Name(s) Pin Number Number of Pins IORD 1 1 Digital Input An active low standard ISA bus I/O Read Control. IOWR 2 1 Digital Input An active low standard ISA bus I/O Write Control. SYSCLK 3 1 Digital Input The reference clock for the ISA bus. Typically ranges from 4.167 MHz to 8.33 MHz. The minimum clock frequency this input can handle is 1 Hz. 4–11 8 Digital I/O Bi-directional ISA bus Data lines. D0 corresponds to the low order bit, with D7 the high order bit. 12 1 POWER +5V VCC power. Bypass with the parallel combination of 10 µF (electolytic or tantalum) and 0.1 µF (ceramic) bypass capacitors. D7–D0 VCC (+5V) Type Description GNDD 13 1 GROUND Internally connected to all digital circuitry. SMI__IN 14 1 Digital Input Chainable SMI (System Management Interrupt) Input. This is an active low input that propagates the SMI signal to the SMI output of the LM78 via SMI Mask Register Bit 6 and SMI enable Bit 1 of the Configuration Register. Chassis Intrusion 15 1 Digital I/O An active high input from an external circuit which latches a Chassis Intrusion event. This line can go high without any clamping action regardless of the powered state of the LM78. The LM78 provides an internal open drain on this line, controlled by Bit 7 of NMI Mask Register 2, to provide a minimum 20 ms reset of this line. Power Switch Bypass 16 1 Digital Output An active low push-pull output intended to drive an external P-channel power MOSFET for software power control. 17–19 3 Digital Input 0V to +5V amplitude fan tachometer input. SCL 20 1 Digital Input Serial Bus Clock. SDA 21 1 Digital I/O Serial Bus bidirectional Data. RESET 22 1 Digital Output Master Reset, 5 mA driver (open drain), active low output with a 20 ms minimum pulse width. Available when enabeld via Bit 7 in SMI Mask Register 2. NTEST 23 1 Test Output NAND Tree totem-pole output that provides board-level connectivity testing. Refer to Section 11.0 on NAND Tree testing. GNDA 24 1 GROUND Internally connected to all analog circuitry. The ground reference for all analog inputs. −IN6 25 1 Analog Input Ground-referred inverting op amp input. Refer to Section 4.0, “ANALOG INPUTS”. FB6 26 1 Analog Output Output of inverting op amp for Input 6. Refer to section 4.0, “ANALOG INPUTS”. FB5 27 1 Analog Output Output of inverting op amp for Input 5. Refer to section 4.0, “ANALOG INPUTS”. −IN5 28 1 Analog Input Ground-referred inverting op amp input. Refer to Section 4.0, “ANALOG INPUTS”. IN4–IN0 29–33 5 Analog Input 0V to 4.096V FSR Analog Inputs. VID3–VID0 34–37 4 Digital Input Voltage Supply readouts from P6. This value is read in the VID/Fan Divisor Register. BTI 38 1 Digital Input Board Temperature Interrupt driven by O.S. outputs of additional temperature sensors such as LM75. Provides internal pull-up of 10 kΩ. NMI/IRQ 39 1 Digital Output Non-Maskable Interrupt (open source)/Interrupt Request (open drain). The mode is selected with Bit 5 of the Configuration Register and the output is enabled when Bit 2 of the Configuration Register is set to 1. The default state is disabled and IRQ mode. SMI 40 1 Digital Output System Management Interrupt (open drain). This output is enabled when Bit 1 in the Configuration Register is set to 1. The default state is disabled. FAN3–FAN1 3 www.national.com LM78 Pin Descriptions Pin Name(s) A2–A0 CS TOTAL PINS www.national.com (Continued) Pin Number Number of Pins 41–43 3 Digital Input The three lowest order bits of the 16-bit ISA Address Bus. A0 corresponds to the lowest order bit. 44 1 Digital Input Chip Select input from an external decoder which decodes high order address bits on the ISA Address Bus. This is an active low input. Type Description 44 4 Vapor Phase (60 seconds) Infrared (15 seconds) Storage Temperature If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required, please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. Positive Supply Voltage (VCC) Voltage on Any Input or Output Pin Ground Difference (GNDD–GNDA) Input Current at any Pin (Note 3) Package Input Current (Note 3) Maximum Junction Temperature (TJ max) ESD Susceptibility(Note 5) Human Body Model Machine Model Soldering Information PQFP Package (Note 6) : 215˚C 220˚C −65˚C to +150˚C Operating Ratings(Notes 1, 2) 6.5V −0.3V to (VCC+0.3V) ± 300 mV ± 5 mA ± 20 mA Operating Temperature Range TMIN ≤ TA ≤ TMAX LM78 −55˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C Specified Temperature Range TMIN ≤ TA ≤ TMAX LM78 −10˚C ≤ TA ≤ +100˚C Junction to Ambient Thermal Resistance (θJA(Note 4) ) NS Package ID: VGZ44A 62˚C/W +4.25V to +5.75V Supply Voltage (VCC) Ground Difference (IGNDD–GNDAI) ≤100 mV −0.05V to VCC + 0.05V VIN Voltage Range 150˚C 2000V 175V DC Electrical Characteristics(Note 7) The following specifications apply for +4.25 VDC ≤VCC ≤ +5.75 VDC, fSYSCLK = 8.33 MHz, RS = 25Ω, unless otherwise specified. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX; all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C. Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limits Units (Note 8) (Note 9) (Limits) Interface Inactive 1.0 2 mA (max) Shutdown Mode 10 POWER SUPPLY CHARACTERISTICS ICC Supply Current µA TEMPERATURE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS Accuracy −10˚C ≤ TA ≤ +100˚C Resolution ±3 ˚C (max) 1 ˚C (min) ±1 ±1 % (max) 1.5 sec (max) ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER CHARACTERISTICS Resolution (8 bits with full-scale at 4.096V) TUE Total Unadjusted Error DNL Differential Non-Linearity PSS Power Supply Sensitivity tC Total Monitoring Cycle Time 16 (Note 10) mV ±1 (Note 11) 1.0 LSB %/V OP AMP CHARACTERISTICS Output Current (Sourcing) Input Offset Voltage IOUT = 50 µA Input Bias Current PSRR 50 µA ±1 ± 0.1 mV 60 dB nA DC Open Loop Gain 70 dB Gain Bandwidth Product 500 kHz MULTIPLEXER/ADC INPUT CHARACTERISTICS On Resistance 400 Off Channel Leakage Current ± 0.1 ± 0.1 Input Current (On Channel Leakage Current) 2000 Ω (max) nA nA FAN RPM-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER Accuracy +25˚C ≤ TA ≤ +75˚C −10˚C ≤ TA ≤ +100˚C Full-scale Count 5 ± 10 ± 15 % (max) 255 (max) % (max) www.national.com LM78 Absolute Maximum Ratings (Notes 1, 2) LM78 DC Electrical Characteristics(Note 7) (Continued) The following specifications apply for +4.25 VDC ≤VCC ≤ +5.75 VDC, fSYSCLK = 8.33 MHz, RS = 25Ω, unless otherwise specified. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX; all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C. Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limits Units (Note 8) (Note 9) (Limits) FAN RPM-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER FAN1 and FAN2 Nominal Input RPM (See Section 6.0) Divisor = 1, Fan Count = 153 (Note 12) 8800 RPM Divisor = 2, Fan Count = 153 (Note 12) 4400 RPM Divisor = 3, Fan Count = 153 (Note 12) 2200 RPM Divisor = 4, Fan Count = 153 (Note 12) 1100 RPM FAN3 Design Nominal Input RPM Fan Count = 153 (Note 12) 4400 RPM Internal Clock Frequency +25˚C ≤ TA ≤ +75˚C 22.5 −10˚C ≤ TA ≤ +100˚C 22.5 20.2 kHz (min) 24.8 kHz (max) 19.1 kHz (min) 25.9 kHz (max) DIGITAL OUTPUTS (Power Switch Bypass, NTEST, NMI/IRQ) VOUT(1) VOUT(0) Logical “1” Output Voltage IOUT = ± 5.0 mA 2.4 V (min) Logical “0” Output Voltage = ± 5.0 mA 0.4 V (max) IOUT ISA D0–D7 DIGITAL OUTPUTS VOUT(1) Logical “1” Output Voltage IOUT = ± 12.0 mA 2.4 V (min) VOUT(0) Logical “0” Output Voltage IOUT = ± 12.0 mA 0.4 V (max) IOUT TRI-STATE ® Output Current VOUT = 0 VDC 0.005 1 µA (max) VOUT = VCC −0.005 −1 µA (min) 0.4 V (min) 0.1 100 µA (max) 45 20 ms (min) OPEN DRAIN DIGITAL OUTPUTS (SDA, RESET, SMI, Chassis Intrusion) VOUT(0) Logical “0” Output Voltage IOUT = −5.0 mA IOH High Level Output Current VOUT = VCC RESET and Chassis Intrusion Pulse Width DIGITAL INPUTS: SMI__IN, VID0–VID3, BTI, CS, A0, A1, A2, Mode Control and Interface Inputs (IORD, IOWR, SYSCLK), Data Lines (D0–D7), Chassis Intrusion, and Tach Pulse Logic Inputs (FAN1, FAN2, FAN3) VIN(1) Logical “1” Input Voltage 2.0 V (min) VIN(0) Logical “0” Input Voltage 0.8 V (max) SERIAL BUS DIGITAL INPUTS (SCL, SDA) VIN(1) Logical “1” Input Voltage 0.7 x VCC V (min) VIN(0) Logical “0” Input Voltage 0.3 x VCC V (max) ALL DIGITAL INPUTS EXCEPT FOR BTI IIN(1) Logical “1” Input Current VIN = VCC −0.005 −1 µA (min) IIN(0) Logical “0” Input Current VIN = 0 VDC 0.005 1 µA (max) CIN Digital Input Capacitance 20 pF BIT DIGITAL INPUT IIN(1) Logical “1” Input Current VIN = VCC IIN(0) Logical “0” Input Current VIN = 0 VDC CIN Digital Input Capacitance www.national.com 1 10 µA (max) −500 −2000 µA (max) 20 6 pF LM78 AC Electrical Characteristics(Note 13) The following specifications apply for +4.25 VDC ≤ VCC ≤ +5.75 VDC unless otherwise specified. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX; all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C. Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limits Units (Note 8) (Note 9) (Limits) ISA TIMING CHARACTERISTICS fSYSCLK System Clock (SYSCLK) Input Frequency tCS(setup) CS Active to IORD/IOWR Active 10 ns (min) tCS (hold) IORD/IOWR Inactive to CS Inactive 10 ns (min) tSA(setup) Address Valid to IORD/IOWR Active 30 ns (min) tSA (hold) IORD/IOWR Inactive to Address Invalid 10 ns (min) 8.33 MHz ISA WRITE TIMING tSDWR(setup) Data Valid to IOWR Active 5 ns (min) tSDWR (hold) IOWR Inactive to Data Invalid 5 ns (min) tWR(setup) IOWR Active to Rising Edge of SYSCLK 20 ns (min) DS012873-4 The delay between consecutive IORD and IOWR pulses should be greater than 50 ns to ensure that an Power-on reset does not occur unintentionally. (See Section 3.2 ‘Resets’ ) FIGURE 1. ISA Bus Write Timing Diagram 7 www.national.com LM78 AC Electrical Characteristics(Note 13) The following specifications apply for +4.25 VDC ≤ VCC ≤ +5.75 VDC unless otherwise specified. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX; all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C. (Continued) Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limits Units (Note 8) (Note 9) (Limits) ISA READ TIMING tSDRD (setup) Data Valid to IORD Inactive tSDRD (hold) IORD Inactive to Data Invalid tRD(setup) IORD Active to Rising Edge of SYSCLK tRS (delay) Rising Edge of SYSCLK number 1 to Data Valid With 8.33 MHz SYSCLK 120 ns (min) 5 ns (min) 20 ns (min) 360 ns (max) DS012873-5 The delay between consecutive IORD and IOWR pulses should be greater than 50 ns to ensure that an Power-on reset does not occur unintentionally. (SeeSection 3.2‘Resets’ ) FIGURE 2. ISA Bus Read Timing Diagram www.national.com 8 The following specifications apply for +4.25 VDC ≤ VCC ≤ +5.75 VDC unless otherwise specified. Boldface limits apply for TA = TJ = TMIN to TMAX; all other limits TA = TJ = 25˚C. (Continued) Symbol Parameter Conditions Typical Limits Units (Note 8) (Note 9) (Limits) SERIAL BUS TIMING CHARACTERISTICS t1 SCL (Clock) Period 2.5 µs (min) t2 Data In Setup Time to SCL High 100 ns (min) t3 Data Out Stable After SCL Low 0 ns (min) t4 SDA Low Setup Time to SCL Low (start) 100 ns (min) t5 SDA High Hold Time After SCL High (stop) 100 ns (min) DS012873-6 FIGURE 3. Serial Bus Timing Diagram 9 www.national.com LM78 AC Electrical Characteristics(Note 13) LM78 Electrical Characteristics (Continued) Note 1: Absolute Maximum Ratings indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is functional, but do not guarantee specific performance limits. For guaranteed specifications and test conditions, see the Electrical Characteristics. The guaranteed specifications apply only for the test conditions listed. Some performance characteristics may degrade when the device is not operated under the listed test conditions. Note 2: All voltages are measured with respect to GND, unless otherwise specified Note 3: When the input voltage (VIN) at any pin exceeds the power supplies (VIN < (GNDD or GNDA) or VIN > VCC), the current at that pin should be limited to 5 mA. The 20 mA maximum package input current rating limits the number of pins that can safely exceed the power supplies with an input current of 5 mA to four. Note 4: The maximum power dissipation must be derated at elevated temperatures and is dictated by TJmax, θJA and the ambient temperature, TA. The maximum allowable power dissipation at any temperature is PD = (TJmax−TA)/θJA. Note 5: The human body model is a 100 pF capacitor discharged through a 1.5 kΩ resistor into each pin. The machine model is a 200 pF capacitor discharged directly into each pin. Note 6: See the section titled “Surface Mount” found in any post 1986 National Semiconductor Linear Data Book for other methods of soldering surface mount devices. Note 7: Each input and output is protected by a nominal 6.5V breakdown voltage zener diode to GND; as shown below, input voltage magnitude up to 0.3V above VCC or 0.3V below GND will not damage the LM78. There are parasitic diodes that exist between the inputs and the power supply rails. Errors in the ADC conversion can occur if these diodes are forward biased by more than 50 mV. As an example, if VCC is 4.50 VDC, input voltage must be ≤ 4.55 VDC, to ensure accurate conversions. DS012873-7 An x indicates that the diode exists. Pin Name D1 D2 Pin Name D3 D1 D2 D3 IORD x FAN1–FAN3 IOWR x SCL x SDA x x x RESET x x x NTEST x x SYSCLK D0–D7 x x SMI__IN Chassis Intrusion Power Switch Bypass Pin Name x D1 −IN6 D2 x x x x x Pin Name D3 x x x D1 x BTI x NMI/IRQ x D2 D3 x x x FB6 x x x FB5 x x x SMI x x x x A0–A2 IN4–IN0 x x x CS VID3–VID0 x x x −IN5 x x FIGURE 4. ESD Protection Input Structure Note 8: Typicals are at TJ =TA =25˚C and represent most likely parametric norm. Note 9: Limits are guaranteed to National’s AOQL (Average Outgoing Quality Level). Note 10: TUE (Total Unadjusted Error) includes Offset, Gain and Linearity errors of the ADC and any error introduced by the amplifiers as shown in the circuit of Figure 13 . Note 11: Total Monitoring Cycle Time includes temperature conversion, 7 analog input voltage conversions and 3 tachometer readings. Each temperature and input voltage conversion takes 100 ms typical and 112 ms maximum. Fan tachometer readings take 20 ms typical, at 4400 rpm, and 200 ms max. Note 12: The total fan count is based on 2 pulses per revolution of the fan tachometer output. Note 13: Timing specifications are tested at the TTL logic levels, VIL =0.4V for a falling edge and VIH =2.4V for a rising edge. TRI-STATE output voltage is forced to 1.4V. www.national.com 10 LM78 Test Circuit DS012873-8 FIGURE 5. Digital Output Load Circuitry Functional Description 1.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION The LM78 provides 7 analog inputs, a temperature sensor, a Delta-Sigma ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter), 3 fan speed counters, WATCHDOG registers, and a variety of inputs and outputs on a single chip. Interfaces are provided for both the ISA parallel bus or Serial Bus. The LM78 performs power supply, temperature, and fan monitoring for personal computers. The LM78 continuously converts analog inputs to 8-bit digital words with a 16 mV LSB (Least Significant Bit) weighting, yielding input ranges of from 0V to 4.096V. The two negative analog inputs provide inverting op amps, with their non-inverting input referred to ground. With additional external feedback components, these inputs provide measurements of negative voltages (such as -5V and -12V power supplies). The analog inputs are useful for monitoring several power supplies present in a typical computer. Temperature is converted to an 8-bit two’s-complement digital word with a 1˚C LSB. Fan inputs measure the period of tachometer pulses from the fans, providing a higher count for lower fan speeds. The fan inputs are digital inputs with an acceptable range of 0V to 5V and a transition level of approximately 1.4V. Full scale fan counts are 255 (8-bit counter) and this represents a stopped or very slow fan. Nominal speeds, based on a count of 153, are programmable from 1100 to 8800 RPM on FAN1 and FAN2, with FAN3 fixed at 4400 RPM. Signal conditioning circuitry is included to accommodate slow rise and fall times. The LM78 provides a number of internal registers, as detailed in Figure 6. These include: • Configuration Register: figuration. • Interrupt Status Registers: Two registers to provide status of each WATCHDOG limit or Interrupt event. • Interrupt Mask Registers: Allows masking of individual Interrupt sources, as well as separate masking for each of both hardware Interrupt outputs. • VID/Fan Divisor Registers: A register to read the status of the VID input lines. The high bits of this register contain the divisor bits for FAN1 and FAN2 inputs. • Serial Bus Address Register: Contains the Serial Bus address. At power on it assumes the default value of 0101101 binary, and can be altered via the ISA or Serial Bus interface. • Chip Reset/ID Register: Allows reseting of all the registers to the default power-on reset value. Provides a bit for identification between the current version of this device and an older version which does not have this reset capability. • POST RAM: FIFO RAM to store up to 32 bytes of 8-bit POST codes. Overflow of the POST RAM will set an Interrupt. The POST RAM, located at base address x0h and x4h, allows for easy decoding to address 80h and 84h, the normal addresses for outputting of POST codes. Interrupt will only be set when writing to port x0h or x4h. The POST RAM can be read via ports 85h and 86h. • Value RAM: The monitoring results: temperature, voltages, fan counts, and WATCHDOG limits are all contained in the Value RAM. The Value RAM consists of a total of 64 bytes. The first 11 bytes are all of the results, the next 19 bytes are the WATCHDOG limits, and are located at 20h-3Fh, including two unused bytes in the upper locations. The next 32 bytes, located at 60h-7Fh, mirror the first 32 bytes with identical contents. The only difference in the upper bytes are that they auto-increment the LM78 Internal Address Register when read from or written to via the ISA bus (auto-increment is not available for Serial Bus communications). When the LM78 is started, it cycles through each measurement in sequence, and it continuously loops through the sequence approximately once every second. Each measured value is compared to values stored in WATCHDOG, or Limit registers. When the measured value violates the programmed limit the LM78 will set a corresponding Interrupt in the Interrupt Status Registers. Two hardware Interrupt lines, SMI and NMI/IRQ, are fully programmable with separate masking of each Interrupt source, and masking of each output. In addition, the Configuration Register has control bits to enable or disable the hardware Interrupts. Additional digital inputs are provided for chaining of SMI (System Management Interrupt), outputs of multiple external LM75 temperature sensors via the BTI (Board Temperature Interrupt) input, and a Chassis Intrusion input. The Chassis Intrusion input is designed to accept an active high signal from an external circuit that latches when the case is removed from the computer. Provides control and con- 11 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description A typical application designed to utilize the POST RAM would decode the LM78 to the address space starting at 80h, which is where POST codes are output to. Otherwise, the LM78 can be decoded into a different desired address space. (Continued) 2.0 INTERFACE The LM78 only decodes the three lowest address bits on the ISA bus. Referring to the ISA bus timing diagrams in Figure 1 and Figure 2, the Chip Select Input, CS, should be taken low by external address decoder circuitry to access the LM78. The LM78 decodes the following base addresses: -Port x0h: Power On Self Test codes from ISA bus. -Port x4h: Power On Self Test codes from ISA bus. -Port x5h: The LM78s Internal Address Register -Port x6h: Data Register IORD is the standard ISA bus signal that indicates to the LM78 that it may drive data on to the ISA data bus. IOWR is the standard ISA command to the LM78 that it may latch data from the ISA bus. SYSCLK is the standard ISA SYSCLK, typically 8.33 MHz. This clock is used only for timing of the ISA interface of the LM78. All other clock functions within LM78 such as the ADC and fan counters are done with a separate asynchronous internal clock. www.national.com To communicate with an LM78 Register, first write the address of that Register to Port x5h. Read or write data from or to that register via Port x6h. A write will take IOWR low, while a read will take IORD low. If the Serial Bus Interface and ISA bus interface are used simultaneously there is the possibility of collision. To prevent this from occurring in applications where both interfaces are used, read port x5h and if the Most Significant Bit, D7, is high, ISA communication is limited to reading port x5h only until this bit is low. A Serial Bus communication occurring while ISA is active will not be a problem, since even a single bit of Serial Bus communication requires 10 microseconds, in comparison to less than a microsecond for an entire ISA communication. 12 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) DS012873-9 FIGURE 6. LM78 Register Structure 13 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 2.1 Internal Registers of the LM78 TABLE 1. The internal registers and their corresponding internal LM78 address is as follows: Register LM78 Internal Hex Address Power on Value Notes (This is the data to be written to Port x5h) Configuration Register 40h 0000 1000 Interrupt Status Register 1 41h 0000 0000 Interrupt Status Register 2 42h 0000 0000 SMI Mask Register 1 43h 0000 0000 SMI Mask Register 2 44h 0000 0000 NMI Mask Register 1 45h 0000 0000 NMI Mask Register 2 46h 0100 0000 VID/Fan Divisor Register 47h 0101 XXXX Serial Bus Address Register 48h 0010 1101 Chip Reset/ID Register 49h 0100 0000 POST RAM 00h-1Fh Value RAM 20h-3Fh Value RAM 60h-7Fh Auto-increment to the address of Interrupt Status Register 2 after a read or write to Port x6h. Auto-increment to the address of SMI Mask Register 2 after a read or write to Port x6h. Auto-increment to the address of NMI Mask Register 2 after a read or write to Port x6h. The first four bits set the divisor for Fan Counters 1 and 2. The lower four bits reflect the state of the VID inputs. Auto-increment when written to from Port x0h or x4h. Auto-increment after a read or write to Port x6h, with a separate pointer. Auto-incrementing stops when address 1Fh is reached. Auto-increment after a read or write to Port x6h. Auto-incrementing stops when address 7Fh is reached. A typical communication with the LM78 would consist of: 1. 2. Write to Port x5h the LM78 Internal Address (from column 2 above) of the desired register. Alternatively, when both ISA and Serial Bus interfaces are used, the first step in a communication may be to read Port x5h to ascertain the state of the Busy bit to avoid contention with an Serial Bus communication. Read or write the corresponding registers data with reads/writes from Port x6h. The LM78 Internal Address latches, and does not have to be written if it is already pointing at the desired register. The LM78 Internal Address Register is read/write (Bit 7 is read only). www.national.com 14 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 2.2 Serial Bus Interface DS012873-10 (a) Serial Bus Write to the Internal Address Register followed by the Data Byte DS012873-11 (b) Serial Bus Write to the Internal Address Register Only DS012873-12 (c) Serial Bus Read from a Register with the Internal Address Register Preset to Desired Location FIGURE 7. Serial Bus Timing Auto-Increment does not operate. When writing to or reading from a Register which Auto-Increments with ISA communications, the Register must be manually incremented for Serial Bus communications. The default power on Serial Bus address for the LM78 is: 0101101 binary. This address can be changed by writing any desired value to the Serial Bus address register, which can be done either via the ISA or Serial Bus. During and Serial Bus communication on the BUSY bit (bit 7) in the address register at x5h will be high, and any ISA activity in that situation should be limited to reading port x5h only. All of these communications are depicted in the Serial Bus Interface Timing Diagrams as shown in Figure 7. When using the Serial Bus Interface a write will always consist of the LM78 Serial Bus Interface Address byte, followed by the Internal Address Register byte, then the data byte. There are two cases for a read: 1. If the Internal Address Register is known to be at the desired Address, simply read the LM78 with the Serial Bus Interface Address byte, followed by the data byte read from the LM78. 2. If the Internal Address Register value is unknown, write to the LM78 with the Serial Bus Interface Address byte, followed by the Internal Address Register byte. Then restart the Serial Communication with a Read consisting of the Serial Bus Interface Address byte, followed by the data byte read from the LM78. In all other respects the LM78 functions identically for Serial Bus communications as it does for ISA communications. 15 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description ing loop and puts the LM78 in shutdown mode, reducing power consumption. ISA and Serial Bus communication is possible with any register in the LM78 although activity on these lines will increase shutdown current, up to as much as maximum rated supply current, while the activity takes place. Taking Bit 0 high starts the monitoring loop, described in more detail subsequently. (Continued) 3.0 USING THE LM78 3.1 Power On When power is first applied, the LM78 performs a “power on reset” on several of its registers. The power on condition of registers in shown in Table I. Registers whose power on values are not shown have power on conditions that are indeterminate (this includes the value RAM and WATCHDOG limits). The ADC is inactive. In most applications, usually the first action after power on would be to write WATCHDOG limits into the Value RAM. Bit 1 of the Configuration Register enables the SMI Interrupt hardwire output when this bit is taken high. Similarly, Bit 2 of the Configuration Register enables the NMI/IRQ Interrupt hardwire output when taken high. The NMI/IRQ mode is determined by Bit 5 in the Configuration Register. When Bit 5 is low the output is an active low IRQ output. Taking Bit 5 high inverts this output to provide an active high NMI output. The Power Switch Bypass provides an active low at the Power Switch Bypass output when set high. This is intended for use in software power control by activating an external power control MOSFET. 3.2 Resets Configuration Register INITIALIZATION accomplishes the same function as power on reset on most registers. The POST RAM, Value RAM conversion results, and Value RAM WATCHDOG limits are not Reset and will be indeterminate immediately after power on. If the Value RAM contains valid conversion results and/or Value RAM WATCHDOG limits have been previously set, they will not be affected by a Configuration Register INITIALIZATION. Power on reset, or Configuration Register INITIALIZATION, clear or initialize the following registers (the initialized values are shown on Table I): • • • • • • • • • 3.4 Starting Conversion The monitoring function (Analog inputs, temperature, and fan speeds) in the LM78 is started by writing to the Configuration Register and setting INT__Clear (Bit 3), low, and Start (bit 0), high. The LM78 then performs a “round-robin” monitoring of all analog inputs, temperature, and fan speed inputs approximately once a second. The sequence of items being monitored corresponds to locations in the Value RAM and is: 1. Temperature 2. IN0 3. IN1 4. IN2 5. IN3 6. IN4 7. -IN5 8. -IN6 9. Fan 1 10. Fan 2 11. Fan 3 Configuration Register Interrupt Status Register 1 Interrupt Status Register 2 SMI Mask Register 1 SMI Mask Register 2 NMI Mask Register 1 NMI Mask Register 2 VID/Fan Divisor Register Serial Bus Address Register (Power on reset only, not reset by Configuration Register INITIALIZATION) Configuration Register INITIALIZATION is accomplished by setting Bit 7 of the Configuration Register high. This bit automatically clears after being set. The LM78-J allows the user to perform an unconditional complete Power-on reset by writing a one to Bit 5 of the Chip Reset/ID Register. The LM78-J can be differentiated from the LM78 without the J suffix by reading Chip Reset/ID Register Bit 6. A high would indicate that the LM78-J is being used. The LM78-J allows an unconditional complete Power-on reset to be initiated by taking the IOWR and IORD signal lines low simultaneously, for at least 50 ns, while CS is high. The delay between consecutive IORD and IOWR pulses should be greater than 50 ns to ensure that an Power-on reset does not occur unintentionally. In systems where the serial bus is only being used it may be advantageous to take both IOWR and IORD to the system reset pulse. In this way whenever the system is reset the LM78-J will also be reset to a known state. 3.5 Reading Conversion Results The conversion results are available in the Value RAM. Conversions can be read at any time and will provide the result of the last conversion. Because the ADC stops, and starts a new conversion whenever it is read, reads of any single value should not be done more often then once every 120 ms. When reading all values, allow at least 1.5 seconds between reading groups of values. Reading more frequently than once every 1.5 seconds can also prevent complete updates of Interrupt Status Registers and Interrupt Output’s. A typical sequence of events upon power on of the LM78 would consist of: 1. Set WATCHDOG Limits 2. Set Interrupt Masks 3. Start the LM78 monitoring process 3.3 Using the Configuration Register The Configuration Register provides all control over the LM78. At power on, the ADC is stopped and INT__Clear is asserted, clearing the SMI and NMI/IRQ hardwire outputs. The Configuration Register starts and stops the LM78, enables and disables interrupt outputs and modes, and provides the Reset function described in Section 3.2. Bit 0 of the Configuration Register controls the monitoring loop of the LM78. Setting Bit 0 low stops the LM78 monitorwww.national.com 4.0 ANALOG INPUTS The 8-bit ADC has a 16 mV LSB, yielding a 0V to 4.08V (4.096–1LSB) input range. This is true for all analog inputs. In PC monitoring applications these inputs would most often be connected to power supplies. The 2.5V and 3.3V supplies can be directly connected to the inputs. The 5V and 12V inputs should be attenuated with external resistors to any desired value within the input range. 16 0 to VCC. In the event these inputs are supplied from fan outputs which exceed 0 to VCC, either resistive division or diode clamping must be included to keep inputs within an acceptable range, as shown in Figure 9. R2 is selected so that it does not develop excessive voltage due to input leakage. R1 is selected based on R2 to provide a minimum input of 2V and a maximum of VCC. R1 should be as low as possible to provide the maximum possible input up to VCC for best noise immunity. Alternatively, use a shunt reference or zener diode to clamp the input level. If fans can be powered while the power to the LM78 is off, the LM78 inputs will provide diode clamping. Limit input current to the Input Current at Any Pin specification shown in the ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS section. In most cases, open collector outputs with pull-up resistors inherently limit this current. If this maximum current could be exceeded, either a larger pull up resistor should be used or resistors connected in series with the fan inputs. The Fan Inputs gate an internal 22.5 kHz oscillator for one period of the Fan signal into an 8-bit counter (maximum count = 255). The default divisor, located in the VID/Fan Divisor Register, is set to 2 (choices are 1, 2, 4, and 8) providing a nominal count of 153 for a 4400 rpm fan with two pulses per revolution. Typical practice is to consider 70% of normal RPM a fan failure, at which point the count will be 219. Determine the fan count according to: (Continued) A typical application, such as is shown in Figure 8, might select the input voltage divider to provide 3V at the analog inputs of the LM78. This is sufficiently high for good resolution of the voltage, yet leaves headroom for upward excursions from the supply of about 25%. To simplify the process of resistor selection, set the value of R2 first. Select a value for R2 between 10 kΩ and 100 kΩ. This is low enough to avoid errors due to input leakage currents yet high enough to both protect the inputs under overdrive conditions as well as minimize loading of the source. Then select R1 to provide a 3V input according to: The negative inputs provide inverting op amps with non-inverting inputs connected to ground. The output of these op amps are designed to only drive the input of the LM78 and their associated feedback loops. Avoid heavy loading, long lines, and capacitive loading with these op amps. Additional loading may cause oscillations and thus erroneous readings. The optimum feedback resistor (resistor from Feedback to -IN pin) value is approximately 60 kΩ, based on the op amp nominal output current rating of 50 µA at an output voltage of 3V. Locate the feedback resistors as close as possible to the LM78. The recommended range for RIN is from 30 kΩ to 300 kΩ. Select RIN according to: Note that Fan 1 and Fan 2 Divisors are programmable via the VID/Fan Divisor Register. Fan 3 is not adjustable, and its Divisor is always set to 2. Fans that provide only one pulse per revolution would require a divisor set twice as high as fans that provide two pulses, thus maintaining a nominal fan count of 153. Therefore, the divisor should be set to 4 for a fan that provides 1 pulse per revolution with a nominal RPM of 4400. The analog inputs have internal diodes that clamp inputs exceeding the power supply and ground. Exceeding any analog input has no detrimental effect on other channels. The input diodes will also clamp voltages appearing at the inputs of an un-powered LM78. External resistors should be included to limit input currents to the values given in the ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS for Input Current At Any Pin. Inputs with the attenuator networks will usually meet these requirements. If it is possible for inputs without attenuators (such as the 2.5V or 3.3V supplies) to be turned on while LM78 is powered off, additional resistors of about 10 kΩ should be added in series with the inputs to limit the input current. 5.0 LAYOUT AND GROUNDING Analog inputs will provide best accuracy when referred to the AGND pin. A separate, low-impedance ground plane for analog ground, which provides a ground point for the voltage dividers and analog components, will provide best performance but is not mandatory. Analog components such as voltage dividers and feedback resistors should be located physically as close as possible to the LM78. The power supply bypass, the parallel combination of 10 µF (electrolytic or tantalum) and 0.1 µF (ceramic) bypass capacitors connected between pin 12 and ground, should also be located as close as possible to the LM78. 6.0 FAN INPUTS Inputs are provided for signals from fans equipped with tachometer outputs. These are logic-level inputs with an approximate threshold of 1.4V. Signal conditioning in the LM78 accommodates the slow rise and fall times typical of fan tachometer outputs. The maximum input signal range is 17 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description LM78 Functional Description (Continued) Voltage Measurements (VS) R1 or RIN R2 or RF Voltage at Analog Inputs +2.50V 0 NONE +2.50V +3.30V 0 NONE +3.30V +5V 6.8 kΩ 10 kΩ +2.98V +12V 30 kΩ 10 kΩ +3.00V −12V 240 kΩ 60 kΩ +3.00V −5V 100 kΩ 60 kΩ +3.00V DS012873-13 FIGURE 8. Input Examples. Resistor Values Shown Provide Approximately 3V at the Analog Inputs www.national.com 18 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) DS012873-14 (a) Fan with Tach Pull-Up to +5V DS012873-15 (b) Fan with Tach Pull-Up to +12V, or Totem-Pole Output and Resistor Attenuator DS012873-16 (c) Fan with Tach Pull-Up to +12V and Diode Clamp DS012873-17 (d) Fan with Strong Tach Pull-Up or Totem Pole Output and Diode Clamp FIGURE 9. Alternatives for Fan Inputs Counts are based on 2 pulses per revolution tachometer outputs. RPM Time per Revolution Counts for “Divide by 2” Comments (Default) in Decimal 4400 13.64 ms 153 counts Typical RPM 3080 19.48 ms 219 counts 70% RPM 2640 22.73 ms 255 counts 60% RPM (maximum counts) Nominal RPM Time per Revolution Divide by 1 8800 6.82 ms 153 6160 9.74 ms Divide by 2 4400 13.64 ms 153 3080 19.48 ms Divide by 4 2200 27.27 ms 153 1540 38.96 ms Divide by 8 1100 54.54 ms 153 770 77.92 ms Mode Select Counts for the 70% RPM Given Speed in Decimal 19 Time per Revolution for 70% RPM www.national.com LM78 Functional Description 7.1 Temperature Data Format (Continued) Temperature data can be read from the Temperature, TOI Set Point, and THYST Set Point registers; and written to the TOI Set Point, and THYST Set Point registers. Temperature data is represented by an 8-bit, two’s complement word with an LSB (Least Significant Bit) equal to 1.0˚C: 7.0 TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM The LM78 bandgap type temperature sensor and ADC perform 8-bit two’s-complement conversions of the temperature. A digital comparator is also incorporated that compares the readings to the user-programmable Overtemperature setpoint and Hysteresis values. Temperature Digital Output Binary Hex +125˚C 0111 1101 7Dh +25˚C 0001 1001 19h +1.0˚C 0000 0001 01h +0˚C 0000 0000 00h −1.0˚C 1111 1111 FFh −25˚C 1110 0111 E7h −55˚C 1100 1001 C9h 7.2 Temperature Interrupts The normal mode for temperature interrupts in the LM78 is an “Interrupt”mode operating in the following way: Exceeding TOI causes an interrupt that will remain active indefinitely until reset by reading Interrupt Status Register 1. Once an interrupt event has occurred by crossing TOI, then reset, an interrupt will only occur again by the temperature going below THYST. Again, it will remain active indefinitely until being reset by reading Interrupt Status Register 1. A “Comparator” mode for temperature interrupts can be made available by setting the THYST limit to 127˚C. This results in a simple “thermostat” type of function where an interrupt will be set whenever the temperature exceeds the TOI limit. Reading Interrupt Status Register 1 will clear the interrupt as usual, but the interrupt will set again after the completion of another measurement cycle. It will remain set until the temperature goes below the TOI limit (allow up to two measurement cycles for clearing after descending below TOI while in Comparator mode). DS012873-18 FIGURE 10. Temperature-to-Digital Transfer Function (Non-Linear Scale for Clarity) DS012873-19 DS012873-20 *Note: Interrupt resets occur only when interrupt Status Register 1 is read. (a) Interrupt Mode Interrupt resets occur when Interrupt Status Register 1 is read but will set again when monitoring cycle continues (as long as temperature exceeds TOI). When temperature descends below TOI allow up to two monitoring loops before the Temperature Interrupt resets. (b) Comparator Mode FIGURE 11. Temperature Interrupt Response Diagram www.national.com 20 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 8.0 THE LM78 INTERRUPT STRUCTURE DS012873-21 FIGURE 12. Interrupt Structure Figure 12 depicts the Interrupt Structure of the LM78. The LM78 can generate Interrupts as a result of each of its internal WATCHDOG registers on the analog, temperature, and fan inputs. Overflow of the POST RAM (greater than 32 bytes written to POST RAM) will also cause an Interrupt. External Interrupts can come from the following three sources. While the labels suggest a specific type or source of Interrupt, these labels are not restrictions of their usage, and they could come from any desired source: • ceeds a programmed threshold. Up to 8 LM75’s can be connected to a single Serial Bus bus with their O.S. output’s wire or’d to the BTI input of the LM78. If the temperature of any LM75 exceeds its programmed limit, it drives BTI low. This generates an Interrupt to notify the host of a possible overtemperature condition. Provides an internal pull-up of 10 kΩ. BTI: This is an active low Interrupt intended to come from the O.S. output of LM75 temperature sensors. The LM75 O.S. output goes active when its temperature ex- 21 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description • POST RAM auto-increments the internal pointer of the LM78. Up to 32 bytes may be stored. An excess of 32 bytes will generate an Interrupt and stop incrementing. (Continued) Chassis Intrusion: This is an active high interrupt from any type of device that detects and captures chassis intrusion violations. This could be accomplished mechanically, optically, or electrically, and circuitry external to the LM78 is expected to latch the event. The design of the LM78 allows this input to go high even with no power applied to the LM78, and no clamping or other interference with the line will occur. This line can also be pulled low for at least 20 ms by the LM78 to reset a typical Chassis Intrusion circuit. Accomplish this reset by setting Bit 7 of NMI Mask Register 2 high. The bit in the Register is self-clearing. The POST RAM is read as like any other register at Ports x5h and x6h, with the POST RAM located at the LM78 Internal Address from 00h to 1Fh. Reading the POST RAM via x6h will also auto-increment, but this is a separate pointer than the one used for ports 80h and 84h. 11.0 NAND TREE TESTS A NAND tree is provided in the LM78 for Automated Test Equipment (ATE) board level connectivity testing. NAND tree tests are accomplished in either power on reset or Configuration Register reset state, with the Start Bit, Bit 0 of the Configuration Register low, and the INT__Clear (Bit 3) high. In this mode, forcing the SMI output low takes all pins except Power Switch Bypass, RESET, -IN5, -IN6, VCC, GNDA, and GNDD to a high impedance (either TRI-STATE or open drain) state. All high impedance pins can be taken to 0 and VCC to accomplish NAND tree tests. To perform a NAND tree test all pins included in the NAND tree should be driven to 1. Each individual pin (excluding the aforementioned exceptions) can be toggled and the resulting toggle observed on the NTEST pin. Allow for a typical propagation delay of 200 ns. • SMI__IN: This active low Interrupt merely provides a way to chain the SMI Interrupt from other devices through the LM78 to the processor. All Interrupts are indicated in the two Interrupt Status Registers. The NMI/IRQ and SMI outputs have individual mask registers, and individual masks for each Interrupt. As described in Section 3.3, these two hardware Interrupt lines can also be enabled/disabled in the Configuration Register. The Configuration Register is also used to set the mode of the NMI/IRQ Interrupt line. 8.1 Interrupt Clearing Reading the Interrupt Status Register will output the contents of the Register, and reset the Register. A subsequent read done before the analog “round-robin” monitoring loop is complete will indicate a cleared Register. Allow at least 1.5 seconds to allow all Registers to be updated between reads. In summary, the Interrupt Status Register clears upon being read, and requires at least 1.5 seconds to be updated. When the Interrupt Status Register clears, the hardware interrupt line will also clear until the Registers are updated by the monitoring loop. The hardware Interrupt lines are cleared with the INT__Clear bit, which is Bit 3 of the Configuration Register. When this bit is high, the LM78 monitoring loop will stop. It will resume when the bit is low. 9.0 RESET AND Power Switch Bypass OUTPUTS In PC applications the Power Switch Bypass provides a gate drive signal to an external P-channel MOSFET power switch. This external MOSFET then would keep power turned on regardless of the state of front panel power switches when software power control is used. In any given application this signal is not limited to the function described by its label. For example, since the LM78 incorporates temperature sensing, the Power Switch Bypass output could also be utilized to control power to a cooling fan. Take Power Switch Bypass active low by setting Bit 6 in the Configuration Register high. RESET is intended to provide a master reset to devices connected to this line. SMI Mask Register 2, Bit 7, must be set high to enable this function. Setting Bit 4 in the Configuration Register high outputs a least 20 ms low on this line, at the end of which Bit 4 in the Configuration Register automatically clears. Again, the label for this pin is only its suggested use. In applications where the RESET capability is not needed it can be used for any type of digital control that requires a 20 ms active low open drain output. 10.0 POST RAM The POST RAM is located at address x0h and x4h, which typical address decoders will decode to 80h or 84h, where the BIOS will output Power On Self Test codes. A write to the www.national.com 22 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 12.0 FAN MANUFACTURERS Manufacturers of cooling fans with tachometer outputs are listed below: NMB Tech 9730 Independence Ave. Chatsworth, California 91311 818 341-3355 818 341-8207 Model Number Frame Size Airflow CFM 2408NL 2.36 in sq. X 0.79 in 9-16 (60 mm sq. X 20 mm) 2410ML 2.36 in sq. X 0.98 in 14-25 (60 mm sq. X 25 mm) 3108NL 3.15 in sq. X 0.79 in 25-42 (80 mm sq. X 20 mm) 3110KL 3.15 in sq. X 0.98 in 25-40 (80 mm sq. X 25 mm) Mechatronics Inc. P.O. Box 20 Mercer Island, WA 98040 800 453-4569 Various sizes available with tach output option. Sanyo Denki America, Inc. 468 Amapola Ave. Torrance, CA 90501 310 783-5400 Model Number Frame Size Airflow CFM 109P06XXY601 2.36 in sq. X 0.79 in 11-15 (60 mm sq. X 20 mm) 109R06XXY401 2.36 in sq. X 0.98 in 13-28 (60 mm sq. X 25 mm) 109P08XXY601 3.15 in sq. X 0.79 in 23-30 (80 mm sq. X 20 mm) 109R08XXY401 3.15 in sq. X 0.98 in 21-42 (80 mm sq. X 25 mm) 23 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description (Continued) REGISTERS AND RAM 13.1 Address Register (Port x5h) The main register is the ADDRESS Register located at Port x5h. The bit designations are as follows: Bit 6-0 7 Name Read/ Write Description Address Pointer Read/Write Address of RAM and Registers. See the tables below for detail. Busy Read Only A one indicates the device is busy because of a Serial Bus transaction or another ISA bus transaction. With checking this bit, multiple ISA drivers can use LM78 without interfering with each other or a Serial Bus driver. It is the user’s responsibility not to have a Serial Bus and ISA bus operations at the same time. This bit is: Set: with a write to Port x5h or when a Serial Bus transaction is in progress. Reset: with a write or read from Port x6h if it is set by a write to Port x5h, or when the Serial Bus transaction is finished. Bit 7 Bit 6 Bit 5 Busy Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Bit 0 A1 A0 Address Pointer (Power On default 00h) (Power On default 0) A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 Address Pointer Index (A6–A0) Registers and RAM A6–A0 in Hex Power On Value of Registers: Notes < 7:0 > in Binary Configuration Register 40h 0000 1000 Interrupt Status Register 1 41h 0000 0000 Auto-increment to the address of Interrupt Status Register 2 after a read or write to Port x6h. Interrupt Status Register 2 42h 0000 0000 SMI Mask Register 1 43h 0000 0000 SMI Mask Register 2 44h 0000 0000 NMI Mask Register 1 45h 0000 0000 NMI Mask Register 2 46h 0100 0000 VID/Fan Divisor Register 47h < 7:4 > = 0101; < 3:0 > = VID3–VID0 Serial Bus Address Register 48h Chip Reset/ID Register Auto-increment to the address of NMI Mask Register 2 after a read or write to Port x6h. 0010 1101 49h POST RAM 00–1Fh Value RAM 20–3Fh Value RAM 60–7Fh www.national.com Auto-increment to the address of SMI Mask Register 2 after a read or write to Port x6h. 0100 0000 Auto-increment to the next location after a read or write to Port x6h and stop at 1Fh. Auto-increment to the next location after a read or write to Port x6h and stop at 7Fh. 24 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 13.2 Data Register (Port x6h) Power on default < 7:0 > = 00h Bit Name 7–0 Data Read/ Write Description Read/Write Data to be read from or to be written to RAM and Register. 13.3 Configuration Register — Address 40h Power on default < 7:0 > = 00001000 binary Bit 0 Name Start Read/ Write Read/Write Description A one enables startup of monitoring operations, a zero puts the part in standby mode. Note: The outputs of Interrupt pins will not be cleared if the user writes a zero to this location after an interrupt has occurred unlike “INT__Clear” bit. 1 SMI Enable Read/Write A one enables the SMI Interrupt output. 2 NMI/IRQ Enable Read/Write A one enables the NMI/IRQ Interrupt output. 3 INT__Clear Read/Write A one disables the SMI and NMI/IRQ outputs without affecting the contents of Interrupt Status Registers. The device will stop monitoring. It will resume upon clearing of this bit. 4 RESET Read/Write A one outputs at least a 20 ms active low reset signal at RESET if < 7 > = 1 in SMI Mask Register 2. This bit is cleared once the pulse has gone inactive. 5 NMI/IRQ Select Read/Write A one selects NMI, and a zero selects IRQ. 6 Power Switch Bypass Read/Write A one in this bit drives a zero on Power Switch Bypass pin. 7 INITIALIZATION Read/Write A one restores power on default value to all registers except the Serial Bus Address register. This bit clears itself since the power on default is zero. 25 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 13.4 Interrupt Status Register 1 — Address 41h Power on default < 7:0 > = 00h Bit Name Read/Write Description 0 IN0 Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 1 IN1 Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 2 IN2 Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 3 IN3 Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 4 Temperature Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 5 BTI Read Only A one indicates an interrupt has occurred from the Board Temperature Interrupt (BTI) input (O.S. output of multiple LM75 chips). 6 FAN1 Read Only A one indicates the fan count limit has been exceeded. 7 FAN2 Read Only A one indicates the fan count limit has been exceeded. 13.5 Interrupt Status Register 2 — Address 42h Power on default < 7:0 > = 00h Bit Name Read/Write Description 0 IN4 Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 1 -IN5 Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 2 -IN6 Read Only A one indicates a High or Low limit has been exceeded. 3 FAN3 Read Only A one indicates the fan count limit has been exceeded. 4 Chassis Intrusion Read Only A one indicates Chassis Intrusion has gone high. 5 FIFO Overflow Read Only A one indicates an overflow in FIFO (POST RAM) i.e. 32nd location in FIFO has been written via Port x0h or x4h. A one indicates SMI__IN has gone low. 6 SMI__IN Read Only 7 Reserved Read Only 13.6 SMI Mask Register 1 — Address 43h Power on default < 7:0 > = 00h Bit Name Read/ Write Description 0 IN0 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 1 IN1 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 2 IN2 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 3 IN3 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 4 Temperature Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 5 BTI Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 6 FAN1 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 7 FAN2 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. www.national.com 26 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 13.7 SMI Mask Register 2 — Address 44h Power on default < 7:0 > = 00h Bit Name Read/ Write Description 0 IN4 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 1 -IN5 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 2 -IN6 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 3 FAN3 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 4 Chassis Intrusion Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 5 FIFO Overflow Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 6 SMI__IN Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for SMI interrupt. 7 RESET Enable Read/Write < 7 > = 1 in SMI Mask Register 2 enables the RESET in the Configuration Register. 13.8 NMI Mask Register 1 — Address 45h Power on default < 7:0 > = 00h Bit Name Read/ Write Description 0 IN0 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 1 IN1 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 2 IN2 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 3 IN3 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 4 Temperature Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 5 BTI Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 6 FAN1 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 7 FAN2 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 13.9 NMI Mask Register 2 — Address 46h Power on < 7:0 > = 01000000 binary Bit Name Read/ Write Description 0 IN4 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 1 -IN5 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 2 -IN6 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 3 FAN3 Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 4 Chassis Intrusion Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 5 FIFO Overflow Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 6 SMI__IN Read/Write A one disables the corresponding interrupt status bit for NMI/IRQ interrupt. 7 Chassis Clear Read/Write Note: The Power on default is 1 for this bit. A one outputs a minimum 20 ms active low pulse on the Chassis Intrusion pin. The register bit self clears after the pulse has been output. 27 www.national.com LM78 Functional Description (Continued) 13.10 VID/Fan Divisor Register — Address 47h Power on – < 7:4 > is 0101, and < 3:0 > is mapped to VID < 3:0 > Bit Name 3-0 VID < 3:0 > Read/Write Read Only The VID < 3:0 > inputs Description 5-4 FAN1 RPM Control Read/Write FAN1 Speed Control. < 5:4 > < 5:4 > < 5:4 > < 5:4 > 7-6 FAN2 RPM Control Read/Write = 00 - divide by 1; = 01 - divide by 2; = 10 - divide by 4; = 11 - divide by 8. FAN2 Speed Control. < 7:6 > < 7:6 > < 7:6 > < 7:6 > = 00 - divide by 1; = 01 - divide by 2; = 10 - divide by 4; = 11 - divide by 8. 13.11 Serial Bus Address Register — Address 48h Power on default Serial Bus address < 6:0 > = 0101101 and < 7 > = 0 binary Bit Name Read/Write 6-0 Serial Bus Address Read/Write 7 Reserved Read Only Description Serial Bus address < 6:0 > 13.12 Chip Reset/ID Register Address 49h Power on default for the LM78-J < 7:0 > = 0100 0000; Power on default for LM78 < 7:0 > = 0000 0000. Bit 0-4 Name Reserved Read/Write Description Read Only 5 Chip Reset Read/Write A one will reset all the registers of the LM78 to the power on default state. 6 Device ID Read Only When set the latest version of the LM78 the LM78-J is being used. When cleared designates the old version of LM78. 7 Reserved Read Only 13.13 POST RAM — Address 00h–1Fh The address pointer for the POST RAM auto-increments when written to at Port x0h or x4h. Once the address pointer reaches 1Fh, a FIFO overflow interrupt will be generated and the FIFO will stop incrementing. Normal reads via Port x5h and x6h auto-increment a separate pointer, and will not cause a FIFO overflow interrupt. 13.14 Value RAM — Address 20h–3Fh or 60h–7Fh (auto-increment) Address A6–A0 Address A6–A0 with Auto-Increment 20h 60h IN0 reading 21h 61h IN1 reading 22h 62h IN2 reading 23h 63h IN3 reading 24h 64h IN4 reading 25h 65h -IN5 reading 26h 66h -IN6 reading 27h 67h Temperature reading 28h 68h FAN1 reading www.national.com Description 28 Address A6–A0 LM78 Functional Description (Continued) Address A6–A0 with Auto-Increment Description Note: This location stores the number of counts of the internal clock per revolution. 29h 69h FAN2 reading Note: This location stores the number of counts of the internal clock per revolution. 2Ah 6Ah FAN3 reading Note: This location stores the number of counts of the internal clock per revolution. 2Bh 6Bh IN0 High Limit 2Ch 6Ch IN0 Low Limit 2Dh 6Dh IN1 High Limit 2Eh 6Eh IN1 Low Limit 2Fh 6Fh IN2 High Limit 30h 70h IN2 Low Limit 31h 71h IN3 High Limit 32h 72h IN3 Low Limit 33h 73h IN4 High Limit 34h 74h IN4 Low Limit 35h 75h -IN5 High Limit 36h 76h -IN5 Low Limit 37h 77h -IN6 High Limit 38h 78h -IN6 Low Limit 39h 79h Over Temperature Limit (High) 3Ah 7Ah Temperature Hysteresis Limit (Low) 3Bh 7Bh FAN1 Fan Count Limit Note: It is the number of counts of the internal clock for the Low Limit of the fan speed. 3Ch 7Ch FAN2 Fan Count Limit Note: It is the number of counts of the internal clock for the Low Limit of the fan speed. 3Dh 7Dh FAN3 Fan Count Limit Note: It is the number of counts of the internal clock for the Low Limit of the fan speed. 3E–3Fh 7E–7Fh Reserved Note: Setting all ones to the high limits for voltages and fans (0111 1111 binary for temperature) means interrupts will never be generated except the case when voltages go below the low limits. For voltage input high limits, the device is doing > comparison. For low limits, however, it is doing ≤ comparison. 29 www.national.com LM78 Typical Application DS012873-22 FIGURE 13. In this PC application the LM78 monitors temperature, fan speed for 3 fans, and 7 power supply voltages. It also monitors the O.S. Output of up to 8 LM75 digital temperature sensors as well as an optical chassis intrusion detector. www.national.com 30 LM78 Microprocessor System Hardware Monitor Physical Dimensions inches (millimeters) unless otherwise noted 44-Lead (10 mm x 10 mm) Molded Plastic Quad Flatpak Order Number LM78CCVF-J NS Package Number VGZ44A LIFE SUPPORT POLICY NATIONAL’S PRODUCTS ARE NOT AUTHORIZED FOR USE AS CRITICAL COMPONENTS IN LIFE SUPPORT DEVICES OR SYSTEMS WITHOUT THE EXPRESS WRITTEN APPROVAL OF THE PRESIDENT AND GENERAL COUNSEL OF NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR CORPORATION. As used herein: 1. Life support devices or systems are devices or systems which, (a) are intended for surgical implant into the body, or (b) support or sustain life, and whose failure to perform when properly used in accordance with instructions for use provided in the labeling, can be reasonably expected to result in a significant injury to the user. National Semiconductor Corporation Americas Tel: 1-800-272-9959 Fax: 1-800-737-7018 Email: [email protected] www.national.com National Semiconductor Europe Fax: +49 (0) 180-530 85 86 Email: [email protected] Deutsch Tel: +49 (0) 69 9508 6208 English Tel: +44 (0) 870 24 0 2171 Français Tel: +33 (0) 1 41 91 8790 2. A critical component is any component of a life support device or system whose failure to perform can be reasonably expected to cause the failure of the life support device or system, or to affect its safety or effectiveness. National Semiconductor Asia Pacific Customer Response Group Tel: 65-2544466 Fax: 65-2504466 Email: [email protected] National Semiconductor Japan Ltd. Tel: 81-3-5639-7560 Fax: 81-3-5639-7507 National does not assume any responsibility for use of any circuitry described, no circuit patent licenses are implied and National reserves the right at any time without notice to change said circuitry and specifications.