M TC7662A Charge Pump DC-to-DC Converter Package Type Features • Wide Operating Range - 3V to 18V • Increased Output Current (40mA) • Pin Compatible with ICL7662/SI7661/TC7660/ LTC1044 • No External Diodes Required • Low Output Impedance @ IL = 20mA - 40Ω Typ. • No Low-Voltage Terminal Required • CMOS Construction • Available in 8-Pin PDIP and 8-Pin CERDIP Packages Applications • • • • Laptop Computers Disk Drives Process Instrumentation µP-based Controllers Device Selection Table Part Number Package Operating Temp. Range TC7662ACPA 8-Pin PDIP 0°C to +70°C TC7662AEPA 8-Pin PDIP -40°C to +85°C TC7662AIJA 8-Pin CERDIP -25°C to +85°C TC7662AMJA 8-Pin CERDIP -55°C to +125°C 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 8-Pin PDIP 8-Pin CERDIP NC 1 8 VDD C+ 2 GND 3 6 NC C– 4 5 VOUT TC7662A 7 OSC General Description The TC7662A is a pin-compatible upgrade to the industry standard TC7660 charge pump voltage converter. It converts a +3V to +18V input to a corresponding -3V to -18V output using only two lowcost capacitors, eliminating inductors and their associated cost, size and EMI. In addition to a wider power supply input range (3V to 18V versus 1.5V to 10V for the TC7660), the TC7662A can source output currents as high as 40mA. The on-board oscillator operates at a nominal frequency of 12kHz. Operation below 12kHz (for lower supply current applications) is also possible by connecting an external capacitor from OSC to ground. The TC7662A directly is recommended for designs requiring greater output current and/or lower input/ output voltage drop. It is available in 8-pin PDIP and CERDIP packages in commercial and extended temperature ranges. DS21468B-page 1 TC7662A Functional Block Diagram 8 VDD I OSC TC7662A 7 Q + – F/F C Q Comparator with Hysteresis Level Shift P SW1 2 Level Shift N SW4 CAP + + CP EXT GND 3 VREF + Level Shift OUT 4 Level Shift CR EXT N SW2 CAP – RL N SW3 5 VOUT DS21468B-page 2 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC7662A 1.0 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS Stresses above those listed under "Absolute Maximum Ratings" may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings only and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operation sections of the specifications is not implied. Exposure to Absolute Maximum Rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. Absolute Maximum Ratings* Supply Voltage VDD to GND................................. +18V Input Voltage (Any Pin) .........(VDD + 0.3) to (VSS – 0.3) Current into Any Pin ............................................ 10mA Output Short Circuit ........... Continuous (at 5.5V Input) ESD Protection ................................................ ±2000V Package Power Dissipation (TA ≤ 70°C) 8-Pin CERDIP .......................................... 800mW 8-Pin PDIP ............................................... 730mW Package Thermal Resistance CPA, EPA θJA ......................................... 140°C/W IJA, MJA θJA ............................................ 90°C/W Operating Temperature Range C Suffix............................................ 0°C to +70°C I Suffix .......................................... -25°C to +85°C E Suffix......................................... -40°C to +85°C M Suffix ...................................... -55°C to +125°C Storage Temperature Range.............. -65°C to +150°C TC7662A ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS Electrical Characteristics: VDD = 15V, TA = +25°C, Test circuit (Figure 3-1) unless otherwise noted. Symbol Parameter Min Typ Max Units Test Conditions VDD Supply Voltage 3 — 18 V IS Supply Current — — — — — — — — 510 560 650 190 210 210 — 700 — — — — — µA RL = ∞ VDD = +15V 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C -55°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C VDD = +5V 0°C ≤ TA ≤ +70°C -55°C ≤ TA ≤ +125°C RO Output Source Resistance — — — 40 50 100 50 60 125 Ω IL = 20mA, VDD = +15V IL = 40mA, VDD = +15V IL = 3mA, VDD = +5V FOSC Oscillator Frequency — 12 — kHz PEFF Power Efficiency 93 — 97 — — — % VDD = +15V RL = 2kΩ VEFF Voltage Efficiency 99 — 96 99.9 — — — — — % VDD = +15V RL = ∞ Over operating temperature range. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21468B-page 3 TC7662A 2.0 PIN DESCRIPTIONS The descriptions of the pins are listed in Table 2-1. TABLE 2-1: PIN FUNCTION TABLE Pin No. (8-Pin PDIP, CERDIP) Symbol 1 NC No connection. 2 C+ Charge pump capacitor positive terminal. 3 GND - Description Ground terminal. Charge pump capacitor negative terminal. 4 C 5 VOUT Output voltage. 6 NC No connection. 7 OSC Oscillator control input. Bypass with an external capacitor to slow the oscillator. 8 VDD Power supply positive voltage input. DS21468B-page 4 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC7662A 3.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION 3.1 The TC7662A is a capacitive charge pump (sometimes called a switched-capacitor circuit), where four MOSFET switches control the charge and discharge of a capacitor. The functional block diagram shows how the switching action works. SW1 and SW2 are turned on simultaneously, charging CP to the supply voltage, VDD. This assumes that the ON resistance of the MOSFETs in series with the capacitor produce a charging time (3 time constants) less than the ON time provided by the oscillator frequency, as shown: 3 (RDS(ON) CP) <CP/(0.5 fOSC). An oscillator supplies pulses to a flip-flop that is fed to a set of level shifters. These level shifters then drive each set of switches at one-half the oscillator frequency. The oscillator has a pin that controls the frequency of oscillation. Pin 7 can have a capacitor added that is connected to ground. This will lower the frequency of the oscillator by adding capacitance to the internal timing capacitor of the TC7662A. (See Typical Characteristics – Oscillator Frequency vs. COSC.) TC7662A TEST CIRCUIT IS NC CP + 10µF 1 8 2 7 3 TC7662A 6 4 5 VDD IL (+5V) NC COSC RL VOUT (-5V) CR 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. In theory, a voltage converter can approach 100% efficiency if certain conditions are met: 1. 2. The drive circuitry consumes minimal power. The output switches have extremely low ON resistance and virtually no offset. The impedances of the pump and reservoir capacitors are negligible at the pump frequency. 3. The TC7662A approaches these conditions for negative voltage conversion if large values of CP and CR are used. Note: In the next cycle, SW1 and SW2 are turned OFF and, after a very short interval with all switches OFF (preventing large currents from occurring due to cross conduction), SW3 and SW4 are turned ON. The charge in CP is then transferred to CR, but with the polarity inverted. In this way, a negative voltage is derived. FIGURE 3-1: Theoretical Power Efficiency Considerations + 10µF Energy is lost only in the transfer of charge between capacitors if a change in voltage occurs. The energy lost is defined by: E = 1/2 CP (V12 – V22) V1 and V2 are the voltages on CP during the pump and transfer cycles. If the impedances of CP and CR are relatively high at the pump frequency (refer to Figure 31), compared to the value of RL, there will be a substantial difference in voltages V1 and V2. Therefore, it is desirable not only to make CR as large as possible to eliminate output voltage ripple, but also to employ a correspondingly large value for CP in order to achieve maximum efficiency of operation. 3.2 Dos and Don’ts • Do not exceed maximum supply voltages. • Do not short circuit the output to V+ supply for voltages above 5.5V for extended periods; however, transient conditions including start-up are okay. • When using polarized capacitors in the inverting mode, the + terminal of CP must be connected to pin 2 of the TC7662A and the + terminal of CR must be connected to GND (pin 3). • If the voltage supply driving the TC7662A has a large source impedance (25-30 ohms), then a 2.2µF capacitor from pin 8 to ground may be required to limit the rate of rise of the input voltage to less than 2V/µsec. DS21468B-page 5 TC7662A 4.0 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS 4.1 Simple Negative Voltage Converter Combining the four RSWX terms as RSW, we see that: RO ≅ 2 x RSW + The majority of applications will undoubtedly utilize the TC7662A for generation of negative supply voltages. Figure 4-1 shows typical connections to provide a negative supply where a positive supply of +3V to +18V is available. FIGURE 4-1: SIMPLE NEGATIVE CONVERTER AND ITS OUTPUT EQUIVALENT VDD 1 + 10µF 8 2 3 7 TC7662A 6 5 VOUT = -V+ – 10µF A + RSW, the total switch resistance, is a function of supply voltage and temperature (See Section 5.0, Typical Characteristics “Output Source Resistance” graphs), typically 23Ω at +25°C and 5V. Careful selection of CP and CR will reduce the remaining terms, minimizing the output impedance. High value capacitors will reduce the 1/(fPUMP x CP) component, and low ESR capacitors will lower the ESR term. Increasing the oscillator frequency will reduce the 1/(fPUMP x CP) term, but may have the side effect of a net increase in output impedance when CP > 10µF and there is not enough time to fully charge the capacitors every cycle. In a typical application when fOSC = 12kHz and C = CP = CR = 10µF: RO ≅ 2 x 23 + RO 4 VOUT – 1 + 4 x ESRCP + ESRCRΩ fPUMP x CP 1 + 4 x ESRCP + ESRCR (5 x 123 x 10 x 10-6) RO ≅ (46 + 20 + 5 x ESRC)Ω V VDD V DD DD + B The output characteristics of the circuit in Figure 4-1 are those of a nearly ideal voltage source in series with a resistance as shown in Figure 4-1b. The voltage source has a value of -(VDD). The output impedance (RO) is a function of the ON resistance of the internal MOS switches (shown in the Functional Block Diagram), the switching frequency, the value of CP and CR, and the ESR (equivalent series resistance) of CP and CR. A good first order approximation for RO is: Since the ESRs of the capacitors are reflected in the output impedance multiplied by a factor of 5, a high value could potentially swamp out a low 1/(fPUMP x CP) term, rendering an increase in switching frequency or filter capacitance ineffective. Typical electrolytic capacitors may have ESRs as high as 10Ω. RO ≅ 2(RSW1 + RSW2 + ESRCP) + 2(RSW3 + RSW4 + 1 + ESRCR ESRCP) + fPUMP x CP f (fPUMP = OSC, RSWX = MOSFET switch resistance) 2 DS21468B-page 6 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC7662A 4.2 Output Ripple 4.3 ESR also affects the ripple voltage seen at the output. The total ripple is determined by 2 voltages, A and B, as shown in Figure 4-2. Segment A is the voltage drop across the ESR of CR at the instant it goes from being charged by CP (current flowing into CR) to being discharged through the load (current flowing out of CR). The magnitude of this current change is 2 x IOUT, hence the total drop is 2 x IOUT x ESRCR volts. Segment B is the voltage change across CR during time t2, the half of the cycle when CR supplies current to the load. The drop at B is IOUT x t2/CR volts. The peak-to-peak ripple voltage is the sum of these voltage drops: 1 ( Any number of TC7662A voltage converters may be paralleled to reduce output resistance (Figure 4-3). The reservoir capacitor, CR, serves all devices, while each device requires its own pump capacitor, CP. The resultant output resistance would be approximately: ROUT = 4.4 ) OUTPUT RIPPLE t2 0 ROUT (of TC7662A) n (number of devices) Cascading Devices The TC7662A may be cascaded as shown (Figure 4-4) to produce larger negative multiplication of the initial supply voltage. However, due to the finite efficiency of each device, the practical limit is 10 devices for light loads. The output voltage is defined by: VRIPPLE ≅ 2 x f + 2 x ESRCR x IOUT PUMP x CR FIGURE 4-2: Paralleling Devices VOUT = – n (VIN) t1 where n is an integer representing the number of devices cascaded. The resulting output resistance would be approximately the weighted sum of the individual TC7662A ROUT values. B V A -(VDD) FIGURE 4-3: PARALLELING DEVICES LOWERS OUTPUT IMPEDANCE VDD 1 8 2 7 1 6 2 TC7662A C1 3 4 "1" 8 RL 7 TC7662A 5 C1 3 4 6 "n" 5 + FIGURE 4-4: C2 INCREASED OUTPUT VOLTAGE BY CASCADING DEVICES VDD 1 8 2 7 1 6 2 TC7662A + 10µF 3 4 "1" 5 + 10µF 8 TC7662A 3 4 7 6 "n" 5 VOUT* + 10µF 10µF *VOUT = -nVDD 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21468B-page 7 TC7662A 4.5 Changing the TC7662A Oscillator Frequency It is possible to increase the conversion efficiency of 4.7 Combined Negative Voltage Conversion and Positive Supply Multiplication the TC7662A at low load levels by lowering the oscillator frequency. This reduces the switching losses, and is shown in Figure 4-5. However, lowering the oscillator frequency will cause an undesirable increase in the impedance of the pump (CP) and reservoir (CR) capacitors; this is overcome by increasing the values of CP and CR by the same factor that the frequency has been reduced. For example, the addition of a 100pF capacitor between pin 7 (OSC) and VDD will lower the oscillator frequency to 2kHz from its nominal frequency of 12kHz (multiple of 6), and thereby necessitate a corresponding increase in the value of CP and CR (from 10µF to 68µF). Figure 4-7 combines the functions shown in Figure 4-1 and Figure 4-6 to provide negative voltage conversion and positive voltage doubling simultaneously. This approach would be, for example, suitable for generating +9V and -5V from an existing +5V supply. In this instance, capacitors C1 and C3 perform the pump and reservoir functions, respectively, for the generation of the negative voltage, while capacitors C2 and C4 are pump and reservoir, respectively, for the doubled positive voltage. There is a penalty in this configuration which combines both functions, however, in that the source impedances of the generated supplies will be somewhat higher due to the finite impedance of the common charge pump driver at pin 2 of the device. FIGURE 4-5: FIGURE 4-7: LOWERING OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY COMBINED NEGATIVE CONVERTER AND POSITIVE DOUBLER VDD VDD 1 2 10µF + 3 VOUT = -(VDD – VF) 8 1 7 TC7662A 6 7 TC7662A 5 4 8 2 COSC VOUT 10µF + + C1 3 6 4 5 D1 D2 VOUT = (2 VDD) – (2 VF) + C4 Positive Voltage Doubling The TC7662A may be employed to achieve positive voltage doubling using the circuit shown in Figure 4-6. In this application, the pump inverter switches of the TC7662A are used to charge CP to a voltage level of VDD – VF (where VDD is the supply voltage and VF is the forward voltage on CP plus the supply voltage (VDD) applied through diode D2 to capacitor CR). The voltage thus created on CR becomes (2 VDD) – (2 VF), or twice the supply voltage minus the combined forward voltage drops of diodes D1 and D2. The source impedance of the output (VOUT) will depend on the output current, but for VDD = 5V and an output current of 10 mA, it will be approximately 60Ω. FIGURE 4-6: 3 7 TC7662A 4 The same bidirectional characteristics can be used to split a higher supply in half, as shown in Figure 4-8. The combined load will be evenly shared between the two sides. Because the switches share the load in parallel, the output impedance is much lower than in the standard circuits, and higher currents can be drawn from the device. By using this circuit, and then the circuit of Figure 4-4, +15V can be converted (via +7.5V and -7.5V) to a nominal -15V, though with rather high series resistance (~250Ω). FIGURE 4-8: SPLITTING A SUPPLY IN HALF RL1 D1 5 VOUT = (2 VDD) – (2 VF) D2 6 VDD + 8 2 Voltage Splitting POSITIVE VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER VDD 1 4.8 C3 + C2 4.6 + VOUT = VDD – V – 50 µF 2 50µF CP CR 1 8 2 – RL2 50µF 7 TC7662A + + + – 3 6 4 5 + – V– DS21468B-page 8 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC7662A 5.0 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS Note: The graphs and tables provided following this note are a statistical summary based on a limited number of samples and are provided for informational purposes only. The performance characteristics listed herein are not tested or guaranteed. In some graphs or tables, the data presented may be outside the specified operating range (e.g., outside specified power supply range) and therefore outside the warranted range. Circuit of Figure 3-1, CP = CR = 10µF, CESRCP ≈ CESRCR ≈ 1Ω, TA = 25°C unless otherwise noted. Supply Current vs. Temperature Oscillator Frequency vs. COSC TA = +25°C 10k 600 FREQUENCY (Hz) SUPPLY CURRENT (µA) 700 500 VDD = 15V 400 300 200 1k 100 VDD = 5V 100 0 -60 -40 -20 10 0 20 40 60 80 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 120 140 1 160 18 140 16 14 12 10 8 6 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 TEMPERATURE (°C) VDD = 5V, IL = 3mA 100 60 150 100 90 135 Efficiency 120 70 105 60 90 75 Supply Current 60 30 45 20 30 TA = +25°C 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 LOAD CURRENT (mA) 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. 64 72 15 0 80 OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω) 100 10 0 20 40 60 80 TEMPERATURE (°C) 100 120 140 Output Resistance vs. Input Voltage 110 40 VDD = 15V, IL = 20mA 40 165 SUPPLY CURRENT (mA) POWER CONVERSION EFFICIENCY (%) 80 20 -60 -40 -20 100 120 140 Power Conversion Efficiency vs. ILOAD 50 10,000 120 110 80 100 1000 CAPACITANCE (pF) Output Resistance vs. Temperature 20 OUTPUT RESISTANCE ( Ω) FREQUENCY (kHz) Frequency vs. Temperature 10 TA = +25°C 90 80 70 60 50 IL = 20mA 40 30 20 10 0 2 4 6 10 8 12 14 INPUT VOLTAGE (V) 16 18 20 DS21468B-page 9 TC7662A 6.0 PACKAGING INFORMATION 6.1 Package Marking Information Package marking data not available at this time. 6.2 Package Dimensions 8-Pin Plastic DIP PIN 1 .260 (6.60) .240 (6.10) .045 (1.14) .030 (0.76) .070 (1.78) .040 (1.02) .310 (7.87) .290 (7.37) .400 (10.16) .348 (8.84) .200 (5.08) .140 (3.56) .040 (1.02) .020 (0.51) .150 (3.81) .115 (2.92) .110 (2.79) .090 (2.29) .015 (0.38) .008 (0.20) 3° MIN. .400 (10.16) .310 (7.87) .022 (0.56) .015 (0.38) Dimensions: inches (mm) 8-Pin CDIP (Narrow) .110 (2.79) .090 (2.29) PIN 1 .300 (7.62) .230 (5.84) .020 (0.51) MIN. .055 (1.40) MAX. .320 (8.13) .290 (7.37) .400 (10.16) .370 (9.40) .200 (5.08) .160 (4.06) .040 (1.02) .020 (0.51) .150 (3.81) MIN. .200 (5.08) .125 (3.18) .015 (0.38) .008 (0.20) 3° MIN. .400 (10.16) .320 (8.13) .065 (1.65) .020 (0.51) .045 (1.14) .016 (0.41) Dimensions: inches (mm) DS21468B-page 10 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC7662A Sales and Support Data Sheets Products supported by a preliminary Data Sheet may have an errata sheet describing minor operational differences and recommended workarounds. To determine if an errata sheet exists for a particular device, please contact one of the following: 1. 2. 3. Your local Microchip sales office The Microchip Corporate Literature Center U.S. FAX: (480) 792-7277 The Microchip Worldwide Site (www.microchip.com) Please specify which device, revision of silicon and Data Sheet (include Literature #) you are using. New Customer Notification System Register on our web site (www.microchip.com/cn) to receive the most current information on our products. 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. DS21468B-page11 TC7662A NOTES: DS21468B-page12 2002 Microchip Technology Inc. TC7662A Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Microchip Technology Incorporated with respect to the accuracy or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use of Microchip’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written approval by Microchip. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights. 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Le Colleoni 1 20041 Agrate Brianza Milan, Italy Tel: 39-039-65791-1 Fax: 39-039-6899883 United Kingdom Arizona Microchip Technology Ltd. 505 Eskdale Road Winnersh Triangle Wokingham Berkshire, England RG41 5TU Tel: 44 118 921 5869 Fax: 44-118 921-5820 03/01/02 '!" ' DS21468B-page 14 2002 Microchip Technology Inc.