AD AD8264ACPZ-RL

Quad, 235 MHz, DC-Coupled VGA
and Differential Output Amplifier
AD8264
FEATURES
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
COMM
Multichannel data acquisition
Positron emission tomography
Gain trim
Industrial and medical ultrasound
Radar receivers
VNEG
OPP1
IPP1
IPN1
VGA1
+
PrA
6dB
–
ATTENUATOR
–24dB TO 0dB
GNH1
OPP2
IPP2
IPN2
+
6dB
–
18dB
+
PrA
6dB
–
ATTENUATOR
–24dB TO 0dB
GNH2
IPN3
+
6dB
–
18dB
+ CH2 GAIN
– CONTROL
IPN4
VOL2
VOH2
OFS2
VGA3
+
PrA
6dB
–
ATTENUATOR
–24dB TO 0dB
+
6dB
–
18dB
+ CH3 GAIN
– CONTROL
VOL3
VOH3
OFS3
OPP4
IPP4
VOH1
VGA2
OPP3
IPP3
VOL1
OFS1
+ CH1 GAIN
CONTROL
–
GNH3
APPLICATIONS
VPOS
VGA4
+
PrA
6dB
–
ATTENUATOR
–24dB TO 0dB
GNH4
+
–
+
6dB
–
18dB
CH4 GAIN
CONTROL
VOL4
VOH4
OFS4
VOCM
GNLO
07736-001
Low noise
Voltage noise: 2.3 nV/√Hz
Current noise: 2 pA/√Hz
Wide bandwidth
Small signal: 235 MHz (VGAx); 80 MHz (differential output
amplifier)
Large signal: 80 MHz (1 V p-p)
Gain range
0 to 24 dB (input to VGA output)
6 to 30 dB (input to differential output)
Gain scaling: 20 dB/V
DC-coupled
Single-ended input and differential output
Supplies: ±2.5 V to ±5 V
Low power: 140 mW per channel @ ±3.3 V
Figure 1.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The AD8264 is a 4-channel, linear-in-dB, general-purpose
variable gain amplifier (VGA) with a preamplifier (preamp),
and a flexible differential output buffer. Intended for a broad
range of applications, dc coupling combined with wide bandwidth makes this amplifier a very good pulse processor.
The gain of each channel is adjusted independently, and all
channels are referenced to a single pin, GNLO. Combined with
a multi-output, digital-to-analog converter (DAC), each section
of the AD8264 can be used for active calibration or as a trim
amplifier.
Each channel includes a single-ended input preamp/VGA
section to preserve the wide bandwidth and fast slew rate for lowdistortion pulse applications. A 6 dB differential output buffer
with common-mode and offset adjustments enable direct coupling
to most modern high speed analog-to-digital converters (ADCs),
using the converter reference output for perfect dc matching levels.
The gain range of the VGA section is 24 dB. Operation from
a dual polarity power supply enables amplification of negative
voltage pulses that are generated by current-sinking pulses into
a grounded load, such as is typical of photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Delay-free processing of wide-band
video signals is also possible. The differential output amplifier
permits convenient level shifting and interfacing to singlesupply ADCs using the VOCM and OFSx pins.
The −3 dB bandwidth of the preamp/VGA is dc to 235 MHz,
and the bandwidth of the differential driver is 80 MHz. The
floating gain control interface provides a precise linear-in-dB scale
of 20 dB/V and is easy to interface to a variety of external circuits.
The AD8264 is available in a 40-lead, 6 mm × 6 mm LFCSP
with an operating temperature range of −40°C to +105°C.
Rev. 0
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other
rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 781.329.4700
www.analog.com
Fax: 781.461.3113
©2009 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved.
AD8264
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Features .............................................................................................. 1 Theory of Operation ...................................................................... 28 Applications ....................................................................................... 1 Overview ..................................................................................... 28 Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1 Preamp ......................................................................................... 28 General Description ......................................................................... 1 VGA ............................................................................................. 28 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 Post Amplifier ............................................................................. 29 Specifications..................................................................................... 3 Noise ............................................................................................ 29 Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 6 Applications Information .............................................................. 30 Thermal Resistance ...................................................................... 6 Maximum Power Dissipation ..................................................... 6 A Low Channel Count Application Concept Using a Discrete
Reference ..................................................................................... 30 ESD Caution .................................................................................. 6 A DC Connected Concept Example ........................................ 31 Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions ............................. 7 Evaluation Board ............................................................................ 34 Typical Performance Characteristics ............................................. 8 Connecting and Using the AD8264-EVALZ .......................... 34 Test Circuits ..................................................................................... 20
Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 38 Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 38 REVISION HISTORY
5/09—Revision 0: Initial Version
Rev. 0 | Page 2 of 40
AD8264
SPECIFICATIONS
VS = ±2.5 V, TA = 25°C, f = 10 MHz, CL = 5 pF, RL = 500 Ω per output (VGAx, VOHx, VOLx), VGAIN = (VGNHx − VGNLO) = 0 V,
VVOCM = GND, VOFSx = GND, gain range = 6 dB to 30 dB, unless otherwise specified.
Table 1.
Parameter
GENERAL PERFORMANCE
–3 dB Small Signal Bandwidth (VGAx)
–3 dB Large Signal Bandwidth (VGAx)
–3 dB Small Signal Bandwidth (Differential Output)1
–3 dB Large Signal Bandwidth (Differential Output)1
Slew Rate
Input Bias Current
Input Resistance
Input Capacitance
Input Impedance
Input Voltage Noise
Input Current Noise
Noise Figure (Differential Output)
Output-Referred Noise (Differential Output)
Output Impedance
Output Signal Range
Output Offset Voltage
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE
Harmonic Distortion
HD2
HD3
HD2
HD3
HD2
HD3
HD2
HD3
HD2
HD3
HD2
HD3
Input 1 dB Compression Point
Conditions
VOUT = 10 mV p-p
VOUT = 1 V p-p
VOUT = 100 mV p-p
VOUT = 2 V p-p
VGAx, VOUT = 2 V p-p
VGAx, VOUT = 1 V p-p
Differential output, VOUT = 2 V p-p
Differential output, VOUT = 1 V p-p
Pins IPPx
Pins IPPx at dc; ΔVIN/ΔIBIAS
Pins IPPx
Pins IPPx at 10 MHz
VGAIN = 0.7 V, RS = 50 Ω, unterminated
VGAIN = 0.7 V (Gain = 30 dB)
VGAIN = −0.7 V (Gain = 6 dB)
VGAx, dc to 10 MHz
Differential output, dc to 10 MHz
Preamp
VGAx, RL ≥ 500 Ω
Differential amplifier, RL ≥ 500 Ω per side
Preamp offset
VGAx offset, VGAIN = 0.7 V
Differential output offset, VGAIN = 0.7 V
VGAx = 1 V p-p, differential
output = 2 V p-p (measured at VGAx)
f = 1 MHz
f = 10 MHz
f = 35 MHz
VGAx = 1 V p-p, differential output = 2 V p-p
(measured at differential output)
f = 1 MHz
f = 10 MHz
f = 35 MHz
VGAIN = −0.7 V, f = 10 MHz
VGAIN = +0.7 V, f = 10 MHz
Rev. 0 | Page 3 of 40
Min
−8
−6
−18
−38
Typ
235
150
80
80
380
290
470
220
−5
4.2
2
7.9
2.3
2
9
72
45
3.5
<1
|VS| − 1.3
|VS| − 1.3
|VS| − 0.5
|<1|
|<5|
|<10|
Max
−3
+6
+18
+38
Unit
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
V/μs
V/μs
V/μs
V/μs
μA
MΩ
pF
kΩ
nV/√Hz
pA/√Hz
dB
nV/√Hz
nV/√Hz
Ω
Ω
V
V
V
mV
mV
mV
−73
−68
−71
−61
−60
−53
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
−78
−66
−71
−43
−56
−20
7
−9.6
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBm 2
dBm
AD8264
Parameter
Two-Tone Intermodulation Distortion (IMD3)
Output Third-Order Intercept
Conditions
VGAx = 1 V p-p, f1 = 10 MHz, f2 = 11 MHz
VGAx = 1 V p-p, f1 = 35 MHz, f2 = 36 MHz
VOUT = 2 V p-p, f1 = 10 MHz, f2 = 11 MHz
VOUT = 2 V p-p, f1 = 35 MHz, f2 = 36 MHz
VGAx = 1 V p-p, f = 10 MHz
Min
VGAx = 1 V p-p, f = 35 MHz
VOUT = 2 V p-p, f = 10 MHz
VOUT = 2 V p-p, f = 35 MHz
Overload Recovery
Group Delay Variation
ACCURACY
Absolute Gain Error 3
Gain Law Conformance 4
Channel-to-Channel Matching
GAIN CONTROL INTERFACE
Gain Scaling Factor
Over Temperature
Gain Range
Gain Intercept to VGAx
Over Temperature
Gain Intercept to Differential Output
Over Temperature
GNHx Input Voltage Range
Input Resistance
GNHx Input Bias Current
Over Temperature
GNLO Input Bias Current
Over Temperature
Response Time
OUTPUT BUFFER
VOCM Input Bias Current
Over Temperature
VOCM Input Voltage Range
Gain (VGAx to Differential Output)
Over Temperature
VGAIN = 0.7 V, VIN stepped from
0.1 V p-p to 1 V p-p
1 MHz < f < 100 MHz, full gain range
−0.7 V < VGAIN < −0.6 V
−0.6 V < VGAIN < −0.5 V
−0.5 V < VGAIN < +0.5 V
0.5 V < VGAIN < 0.6 V
0.6 V < VGAIN < 0.7 V
−0.5 V < VGAIN < +0.5 V, ±2.5 V ≤ VS ≤ ±5 V
−0.5 V < VGAIN < +0.5 V, −40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
Single IC, −0.5 V < VGAIN < +0.5 V,
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
Multiple ICs, −0.5 V < VGAIN < +0.5 V,
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
−0.5 V < VGAIN < +0.5 V
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
0
−1.25
−1
−1.25
−3
−0.5
3
+1.25
+1
+1.25
0
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
+0.5
dB
19.5
20.0
20 ± 0.5
24
11.9
11.9 ± 0.4
17.9
17.9 ± 0.4
−VS
−0.9
0.3
Rev. 0 | Page 4 of 40
ns
ns
dB
17.5
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
0.2 to 2
±0.35
±0.25
±0.35
−0.2 to −2
±0.2
±0.3
±0.1 to ±0.25
Unit
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBc
dBm
dBVRMS
dBm
dBVRMS
dBm
dBVRMS
dBm
dBVRMS
±0.25
11.5
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
OFSx = 0 V, VGAx = 0 V
Max
±1
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
−40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
GNLO = 0 V, no gain foldover
ΔVIN/ΔIBIAS, −0.7 V < VGAIN < +0.7 V
−0.7 V < VGAIN < 0.7 V
−0.7 V < VGAIN < 0.7 V, −40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
−0.7 V < VGAIN < 0.7 V
−0.7 V < VGAIN < 0.7 V, −40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
24 dB gain change
Typ
−68
−51
−49
−34
32
19
23
10
30
17
21
8
25
−1.4
5.75
20.5
12.2
18.2
+VS
70
−0.4
−0.4 ± +0.2
−1.2
−1.2 ± +0.4
200
1.5
1.5 ± 0.3
6
6 ± 0.5
0
2.5
+1.4
6.25
dB/V
dB/V
dB
dB
dB
dB
dB
V
MΩ
μA
μA
μA
μA
ns
nA
nA
V
dB
dB
AD8264
Parameter
POWER SUPPLY
Supply Voltage
Power Consumption
Quiescent Current
Power Dissipation
PSRR
Conditions
Min
Typ
±2.5
VS = ± 2.5 V
VS = ± 2.5 V, −40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
VS = ± 3.3 V
VS = ± 3.3 V, −40°C ≤ TA ≤ +105°C
VS = ± 5 V
VS = ± 5 V, −40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C 5
VS = ± 2.5 V
VS = ±3.3 V
VS = ±5 V
From VPOS to differential output, VGAIN = 0.7 V
From VNEG to differential output, VGAIN = 0.7 V
1
Differential Output = (VOHx − VOLx).
All dBm values are calculated with 50 Ω reference, unless otherwise noted.
3
Conformance to theoretical gain expression (see Equation 1 in the Theory of Operation section).
4
Conformance to best-fit dB linear curve.
5
For supplies greater than ±3.3 V, the operating temperature range is limited to −40°C ≤ TA ≤ +85°C.
2
Rev. 0 | Page 5 of 40
65
70
81
79
79 ± 25
85
85 ± 30
99
99 ± 30
395
560
990
−15
−15
Max
Unit
±5
V
88
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mA
mW
mW
mW
dB
dB
95
110
AD8264
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
THERMAL RESISTANCE
Table 2.
Parameter
Voltage
Supply Voltage (VPOS, VNEG)
Input Voltage (INPx)
Gain Voltage (GNHx, GNLO)
Power Dissipation
Temperature
Operating Temperature Range
Storage Temperature Range
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 60 sec)
Package Glass Transition Temperature (TG)
θJA is specified for the worst-case conditions, that is, a device
soldered in a circuit board for surface-mount packages. The θJA
values in Table 3 assume a 4-layer JEDEC standard board with
zero airflow.
Rating
±6 V
VPOS, VNEG
VPOS, VNEG
2.5 W
Table 3. Thermal Resistance
−40°C to +105°C
−65°C to +150°C
300°C
150°C
Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings
may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress
rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any
other conditions above those indicated in the operational
section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect
device reliability.
Package Type
40-Lead LFCSP1
1
θJA
31.0
θJC
2.3
Unit
°C/W
4-Layer JEDEC board (2S2P).
MAXIMUM POWER DISSIPATION
The maximum safe power dissipation for the AD8264 is limited
by the associated rise in junction temperature (TJ) on the die. At
approximately 150°C, which is the glass transition temperature,
the properties of the plastic change. Even temporarily exceeding
this temperature limit may change the stresses that the package
exerts on the die, permanently shifting the parametric performance
of the amplifiers. Exceeding a temperature of 150°C for an
extended period can cause changes in silicon devices, potentially
resulting in a loss of functionality.
ESD CAUTION
Rev. 0 | Page 6 of 40
AD8264
IPP1
COMM
GNH1
GNH2
GNLO
VPOS
VNEG
OFS1
OFS2
VGA1
PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31
IPN1
OPP1
OPP2
IPN2
IPP2
IPP3
IPN3
OPP3
OPP4
IPN4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
PIN1
INDICATOR
AD8264
TOP VIEW
(Not to Scale)
VOL1
VOH1
VOH2
VOL2
VGA2
VGA3
VOL3
VOH3
VOH4
VOL4
NOTES
1. EXPOSED PADDLE (PIN 0) NEEDS AN ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION TO GROUND. FOR PROPER RF GROUNDING
AND INCREASED RELIABILITY, THE PAD MUST BE
CONNECTED TO THE GROUND PLANE.
07736-003
VGA4
VOCM
VPOS
VNEG
OFS4
OFS3
IPP4
COMM
GNH4
GNH3
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Figure 2. Pin Configuration
Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions
Pin No.
0 (EP), 12, 39
Mnemonic
COMM
1, 4, 7, 10
IPN1, IPN2,
IPN3, IPN4
OPP1, OPP2,
OPP3, OPP4
IPP1, IPP2,
IPP3, IPP4
GNH1, GNH2,
GNH3, GNH4
VOCM
VPOS
VNEG
OFS1, OFS2,
OFS3, OFS4
VGA4, VGA3
VGA2, VGA1
VOL1, VOL2
VOL3, VOL4
VOH1, VOH2,
VOH3, VOH4
GNLO
2, 3, 8, 9
5, 6, 11, 40
13, 14, 37, 38
15
16, 35
17, 34
18, 19, 32, 33
20, 25, 26, 31
21, 24, 27, 30
22, 23, 28, 29
36
Description
Ground. Exposed paddle (EP, Pin 0) needs an electrical connection to ground. For proper RF grounding
and increased reliability, the pad must be connected to the ground plane.
Negative Preamp Inputs for Channel 1 Through Channel 4. Normally, no external connection is needed.
Preamp Output for Channel 1 Through Channel 4. This pin is internally connected to the attenuator
(VGA) input, and normally, no external connection is needed.
Positive Preamp Input for Channel 1 Through Channel 4. High impedance.
Positive Gain Control Voltage Input for Channel 1 Through Channel 4. This pin is referenced to GNLO (Pin 36).
This pin sets the differential output amplifier (VOHx and VOLx) common-mode voltage.
Positive Supply (Internally Tied Together).
Negative Supply (Internally Tied Together).
Voltage sets the differential output offset for Channel 1 through Channel 4. This is the noninverting input
to the differential amplifier, and it has the same bandwidth as the inverting input (VGAx).
VGA Output for Channel 1 Through Channel 4.
Negative Differential Amplifier Output for Channel 1 Through Channel 4.
Positive Differential Amplifier Output for Channel 1 Through Channel 4.
Negative Gain Control Input (Reference for GNHx Pins).
Rev. 0 | Page 7 of 40
AD8264
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
VS = ±2.5 V, TA = 25°C, f = 10 MHz, CL = 5 pF, RL = 500 Ω per output (VGAx, VOHx, VOLx), VGAIN = (VGNHx − VGNLO) = 0 V,
VVOCM = GND, VOFSx = GND, gain range = 6 dB to 30 dB, unless otherwise specified.
30
DIFFERENTIAL
OUTPUT
MEAN: –0.1dB
SD: 0.05dB
100
80
HITS
18
VGA
12
60
6
40
0
20
–6
–0.7
VGAIN = 0V
120
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
0
–0.6
07736-004
GAIN (dB)
24
140
–40°C
–40°C
+25°C
+25°C
+85°C
+85°C
+105°C
+105°C
–0.4
–0.2
0
0.2
Figure 6. VGA Absolute Gain Error Histogram
Figure 3. Gain vs. VGAIN vs. Temperature
2.0
TA = +105°C
TA = +25°C
TA = –40°C
180
MAX
MIN
150
1.5
0.5
MEAN: 20.1dB
SD: 0.09dB
120
HITS
GAIN ERROR (dB)
1.0
0.4
GAIN ERROR (dB)
07736-007
36
0
90
–0.5
60
–1.0
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
0
19.0
07736-005
–2.0
–0.7
19.5
20.0
20.5
Figure 7. Gain Scale Factor Histogram (−0.4 V < VGAIN < +0.4 V)
Figure 4. Gain Error vs. VGAIN vs. Temperature
2
80
0
HITS
60
–1
40
–2
20
–4
–0.7
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
VGAIN (V)
0.3
0.5
0.7
0
11.7
11.8
11.9
12.0
GAIN INTERCEPT (dB)
Figure 5. Gain Error vs. VGAIN at Various Frequencies to VGAx
Figure 8. VGA Gain Intercept Histogram
Rev. 0 | Page 8 of 40
12.1
07736-009
–3
07736-006
GAIN ERROR (dB)
MEAN: 11.9dB
SD: 0.08dB
1MHz
10MHz
70MHz
100MHz
150MHz
1
21.0
GAIN SCALING (dB/V)
07736-008
30
–1.5
AD8264
700
30
CH 1 TO CH 2
CH 1 TO CH 3
CH 1 TO CH 4
600
20
500
–10
200
–20
100
–30
0
–0.5
–0.4
–0.3
–0.2
–0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
GAIN ERROR MATCHING (dB)
–40
100k
07736-028
HITS
300
0
CL = 0pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 22pF
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 9. Channel-to-Channel Gain Match Histogram
07736-012
GAIN (dB)
10
400
30
VOUT = 0.1V p-p
VGAIN = 0V
Figure 12. Frequency Response to Differential Output for
Various Capacitive Loads
30
PIN = –28dBm
VOUT = 0.1V p-p
24
20
18
10
GAIN (dB)
6
0
–12
–18
100k
1M
–10
–20
–30
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
–40
100k
CL = 0pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 22pF
1M
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 10. Frequency Response vs. Gain to VGAx for
Various Values of VGAIN
40
0
07736-013
–6
VGAIN = +0.7V
VGAIN = +0.5V
VGAIN = +0.2V
VGAIN = 0V
VGAIN = –0.2V
VGAIN = –0.5V
VGAIN = –0.7V
07736-010
GAIN (dB)
12
Figure 13. Frequency Response to Differential Output for
Various Capacitive Loads with Series R = 10 Ω
20
PIN = –44dBm
VOUT = 0.1V p-p
30
10
GAIN (dB)
0
–10
–20
–30
–40
100k
VGAIN = +0.7V
VGAIN = +0.5V
VGAIN = +0.2V
VGAIN = 0V
VGAIN = –0.2V
VGAIN = –0.5V
VGAIN = –0.7V
1M
0
–10
–20
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
–30
100k
07736-011
GAIN (dB)
10
CL = 0pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 22pF
CL = 47pF
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 14. Small Signal Frequency Response to VGAx for
Various Capacitive Loads
Figure 11. Frequency Response vs. Gain to Differential Output for
Various Values of VGAIN
Rev. 0 | Page 9 of 40
07736-014
20
AD8264
20
30
PIN = –10dBm
VOUT = 0.1V p-p
24
VGAIN = +0.7V
10
VGAIN = 0V
12
0
GAIN (dB)
GAIN (dB)
18
–10
6
VGAIN = –0.7V
0
–6
–12
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
–18
100k
1M
100M
500M
Figure 18. Small Signal Frequency Response vs. Gain to VGAx for
Various Supply Voltages
40
PIN = –28dBm
VOUT = 0.1V p-p
30
10
0
GAIN (dB)
GAIN (dB)
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 15. Large Signal Frequency Response to VGAx for
Various Capacitive Loads
20
VS = ±5V
VS = ±3.3V
VS = ±2.5V
07736-018
–30
100k
CL = 47pF
CL = 22pF
CL = 9pF
CL = 0pF
07736-015
–20
–10
VGAIN = +0.7V
20
VGAIN = 0V
10
VGAIN = –0.7V
0
–10
–20
–30
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
–40
100k
Figure 16. Small Signal Frequency Response to VGAx for
Various Capacitive Loads with Series R = 10 Ω
VS = ±5V
VS = ±3.3V
VS = ±2.5V
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
07736-019
–30
100k
CL = 47pF
CL = 22pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 0pF
07736-016
–20
Figure 19. Small Signal Frequency Response vs. Gain to Differential Output
for Various Supply Voltages
20
36
PIN = –8dBm
30
VOUT = 0.1V p-p
VGAIN = 0.7V
DIFFERENTIAL
OUTPUT
10
VGA
–10
18
12
6
–20
–30
100k
CL = 47pF
CL = 22pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 0pF
0
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 17. Large Signal Frequency Response to VGAx for
Various Capacitive Loads with Series R = 10 Ω
–6
100k
VS = ±5V
VS = ±3.3V
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±5V
VS = ±3.3V
VS = ±2.5V
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 20. Large Signal Frequency Response to VGAx and
Differential Output for Various Supply Voltages
Rev. 0 | Page 10 of 40
07736-020
GAIN (dB)
0
07736-017
GAIN (dB)
24
AD8264
1
5
PIN = –16dBm
4
3
DELAY (ns)
GAIN (dB)
0
–1
VGAIN = 0V
VGAIN = –0.7V
2
VGAIN = +0.7V
1M
10M
100M
0
1M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
10M
100M
07736-024
1
100M
07736-025
–3
100k
VS = ±2.5V, VOHx
VS = ±3.3V, VOHx
VS = ±5V, VOHx
VS = ±2.5V, VOLx
VS = ±3.3V, VOLx
VS = ±5V, VOLx
07736-021
–2
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 21. Frequency Response from VOCM to VOHx and VOLx for
Various Supplies
Figure 24. Group Delay vs. Frequency to VGAx
8
9
VOUT = 0.1V p-p
7
–3
DELAY (ns)
GAIN (dB)
3
–9
6
VGAIN = –0.7V
5
VGAIN = +0.7V
VGAIN = 0V
4
–15
1M
10M
100M
500M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
2
1M
07736-022
–21
100k
3
VS = ±5V
VS = ±3.3V
VS = ±2.5V
Figure 22. Frequency Response from OFSx to Differential Output for
Various Supply Voltages
Figure 25. Group Delay vs. Frequency to Differential Output
15
12
PIN = –22dBm
–6
1M
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 23. Preamp Frequency Response to OPPx
1G
07736-023
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±3.3V
VS = ±5V
TA = +105°C
TA = +25°C
TA = –40°C
MAX
MIN
5
0
–5
–10
–0.7
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
VGAIN (V)
0.3
0.5
0.7
07736-026
0
–12
100k
10
OFFSET VOLTAGE RTO (mV)
6
GAIN (dB)
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 26. Differential Output Offset Voltage vs. VGAIN vs. Temperature
Rev. 0 | Page 11 of 40
AD8264
0
–5
–10
–0.7
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
0.1
0.1
10
100
Figure 30. Output Resistance (VOHx, VOLx) vs.Frequency
10
VGAIN = –0.4V
VGAIN = 0V
VGAIN = +0.4V
2000
HITS
1
FREQUENCY (MHz)
OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)
2500
VS = ±5V
1
Figure 27. VGAx Output Offset Voltage vs. VGAIN vs. Temperature
3000
VS = ±2.5V
10
07736-030
OUTPUT RESISTANCE (Ω)
5
100
TA = +105°C
TA = +25°C
TA = –40°C
MAX
MIN
07736-027
OFFSET VOLTAGE RTO (mV)
10
1500
1000
VS = ±5V
VS = ±2.5V
–20
–10
0
10
20
30
OUTPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (mV)
1
0.1
07736-029
0
–30
700
100
Figure 31. Output Resistance (VGAx) vs. Frequency
100
VGAIN = –0.4V
VGAIN = 0V
VGAIN = +0.4V
80
OUTPUT NOISE (nV/√Hz)
600
500
400
300
200
60
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT
40
20
100
–20
–10
0
10
20
OUTPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE (mV)
Figure 29. Output Offset Histogram to Differential Output
30
0
–0.7
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
VGAIN (V)
0.3
0.5
0.7
07736-032
0
–30
VGAx
07736-095
HITS
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 28. Output Offset Histogram to VGAx
800
1
07736-031
500
Figure 32. Output Referred Noise to VGAx and Differential Output vs. VGAIN
Rev. 0 | Page 12 of 40
AD8264
35
25
VGAx (TERMINATED)
20
VGAx (UNTERMINATED)
15
VGAx
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT
(UNTERMINATED)
10
1
–0.7
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
5
–0.7
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
100
Figure 36. Noise Figure vs. VGAIN
100
–10
–20
–30
CMRR (dB)
10
–40
–50
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT
–60
VGAx
1
100
1k
10k
100k
1M
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
–70
0.1
07736-034
1
1
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 34. Input Referred Noise vs. Frequency at Maximum Gain
Figure 37. VOCM Common-Mode Rejection Ratio vs. Frequency
100
−30
HD2,
HD3,
HD2,
HD3,
−40
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±5V
VS = ±5V
HD (dBc)
−50
10
−60
−70
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT
−80
VGAx
1
10
100
1k
RSOURCE (Ω)
Figure 35. Input Referred Noise vs. RSOURCE
10k
−90
07736-035
1
0
400
800
1200
RLOAD (Ω)
1600
2000
07736-038
INPUT REFERRED NOISE (nV/√Hz)
–0.3
VGAIN (V)
Figure 33. Input Referred Noise from VGAx and Differential Output vs. VGAIN
INPUT REFERRED NOISE (nV/√Hz)
–0.5
07736-036
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT
10
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT
(TERMINATED)
07736-037
NOISE FIGURE (dB)
30
07736-033
INPUT REFERRED NOISE (nV/√Hz)
100
Figure 38. Harmonic Distortion to VGAx vs. RLOAD and Various Supplies
Rev. 0 | Page 13 of 40
AD8264
−30
HD2,
HD3,
HD2,
HD3,
−40
–30
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±5V
VS = ±5V
–40
−60
–60
−70
–70
−80
–80
−90
0
10
20
30
40
50
CLOAD (pF)
–90
–0.7
HD2,
HD3,
HD2,
HD3,
−40
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
Figure 39. Harmonic Distortion to VGAx vs. CLOAD
−30
1MHz
10MHz
35MHz
100MHz
07736-042
HD2 (dBc)
–50
07736-039
HD (dBc)
−50
Figure 42. HD2 vs. VGAIN vs. Frequency to VGAx
−20
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±2.5V
VS = ±5V
VS = ±5V
−30
−40
HD3 (dBc)
−60
−70
−60
−70
−80
400
800
1200
1600
2000
RLOAD (Ω)
−90
–0.7
07736-040
0
−30
−40
−50
−50
HD2 (dBc)
−40
−60
−80
−80
30
40
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
50
CLOAD (pF)
0.7
VGAx = 0.5Vp-p
VGAx = 1Vp-p
VGAx = 2Vp-p
INPUT LIMITED
−70
20
–0.1
−60
−70
07736-041
HD (dBc)
HD2, VS = ±2.5V
HD3, VS = ±2.5V
10
–0.3
Figure 43. HD3 vs. VGAIN vs. Frequency to VGAx
−30
0
–0.5
VGAIN (V)
Figure 40. Harmonic Distortion to Differential Output vs.
RLOAD and Various Supplies
−90
1MHz
10MHz
35MHz
100MHz
07736-043
−80
−90
−50
07736-044
HD (dBc)
−50
−90
–0.7
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
VGAIN (V)
Figure 44. HD2 vs. Amplitude to VGAx
Figure 41. Harmonic Distortion to Differential Output vs. CLOAD
Rev. 0 | Page 14 of 40
0.5
AD8264
−40
INPUT LIMITED
HD2 (dBc)
−50
−60
−60
−70
−70
−80
−80
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
−90
–0.7
07736-045
HD3 (dBc)
−50
−90
–0.7
VOUT = 0.5V p-p
VOUT = 1V p-p
VOUT = 2V p-p
−40
0.5
0.7
0.7
HD3 (dBc)
−50
−60
−70
−80
−80
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
−90
–0.7
07736-046
HD2 (dBc)
0.3
−40
−70
VOUT = 0.5V p-p
VOUT = 1V p-p
VOUT = 2V p-p
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
VGAIN (V)
Figure 46. HD2 vs. VGAIN vs. Frequency to Differential Output
−15
0.1
−30
1MHz
10MHz
35MHz
−60
0
–0.1
Figure 48. HD2 vs. Amplitude to Differential Output
−50
−90
–0.7
–0.3
VGAIN (V)
Figure 45. HD3 vs. Amplitude to VGAx
−30
–0.5
07736-048
−40
−30
VGAx = 0.5V p-p
VGAx = 1V p-p
VGAx = 2V p-p
07736-049
−30
Figure 49. HD3 vs. Amplitude to Differential Output
0
1MHz
10MHz
35MHz
VOUT = 1V p-p
−20
IMD3 (dBc)
−45
−40
−60
−60
−80
−75
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
Figure 47. HD3 vs. VGAIN vs. Frequency to Differential Output
−100
1M
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 50. IMD3 vs. Frequency to VGAx
Rev. 0 | Page 15 of 40
100M
07736-050
LOW TONE, f – 50kHz
HIGH TONE, f + 50kHz
−90
–0.7
07736-047
HD3 (dBc)
−30
AD8264
15
30
20
10
10
5
0
−5
−10
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
VGAIN (V)
−15
–0.7
07736-051
0
–0.7
VGAx (VS = ±5V)
DIFF OUT (VS = ±5V)
VGAx (VS = ±3.3V)
DIFF OUT (VS = ±3.3V)
VGAx (VS = ±2.5V)
DIFF OUT (VS = ±2.5V)
–0.5
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
80
100
100
Figure 54. Input P1dB vs. VGAIN
0.10
VOUT = 1V p-p
−20
VGAIN = 0.7V
VOLTAGE (V)
0.05
−40
IMD3 (dBc)
–0.1
VGAIN (V)
Figure 51. OIP3 vs. VGAIN vs. Frequency to VGAx
0
–0.3
07736-054
INPUT-REFERRED P1dB (dBm)
OIP3 (dBm)
40
20
f = 35MHz, OIP3L
f = 35MHz, OIP3H
f = 100MHz, OIP3L
f = 100MHz, OIP3H
07736-055
f = 1MHz, OIP3L
f = 1MHz, OIP3H
f = 10MHz, OIP3L
f = 10MHz, OIP3H
07736-056
50
−60
0
LOW TONE, f – 50kHz
–0.05
−80
HIGH TONE, f + 50kHz
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
–0.10
–40
07736-052
−100
1M
–20
0
20
40
60
TIME (ns)
Figure 52. IMD3 vs. Frequency to Differential Output
Figure 55. Small Signal Pulse Response to VGAx
50
0.15
VGAIN = 0.7V
0.10
40
VOLTAGE (V)
20
0
–0.05
f = 1MHz, OIP3L
f = 1MHz, OIP3H
f = 10MHz, OIP3L
f = 10MHz, OIP3H
f = 35MHz, OIP3L
f = 35MHz, OIP3H
10
0
–0.7
–0.5
–0.3
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.5
VGAIN (V)
0.7
–0.10
07736-053
OIP3 (dBm)
0.05
30
Figure 53. OIP3 vs. Frequency to Differential Output
–0.15
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
TIME (ns)
Figure 56. Small Signal Pulse Response to Differential Output
Rev. 0 | Page 16 of 40
AD8264
1.5
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.5
VOLTAGE (V)
1.0
0
1V p-p
–1.5
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
1V p-p
–0.5
2V p-p
–1.0
0
2V p-p
–1.0
80
100
TIME (ns)
–1.5
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
TIME (ns)
Figure 57. Large Signal Pulse Response to VGAx
07736-060
–0.5
07736-057
VOLTAGE (V)
VGAIN = 0.7V
Figure 60. OFSx Large Signal Pulse Response
1.5
1.0
VGAIN = 0.7V
CL = 0pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 22pF
VGAIN = 0.7V
1.0
0.5
VOLTAGE (V)
0
1V p-p
–0.5
2V p-p
–1.0
–1.5
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
TIME (ns)
Figure 58. Large Signal Pulse Response to Differential Output
1.5
–1.0
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
TIME (ns)
Figure 61. Large Signal Pulse Response to VGAx for Various Capacitive Loads
2.0
2V p-p (VOL)
2V p-p (VOH)
1V p-p (VOL)
1V p-p (VOH)
1.0
0
07736-061
–0.5
07736-058
VOLTAGE (V)
0.5
CL = 0pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 22pF
1.5
1.0
VOLTAGE (V)
0
–0.5
0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
–1.0
–1.5
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
TIME (ns)
160
Figure 59. VOCM Large Signal Pulse Response
–2.0
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
TIME (ns)
Figure 62. Large Signal Pulse Response to Differential Output for
Various Capacitive Loads
Rev. 0 | Page 17 of 40
07736-062
–1.5
07736-059
VOLTAGE (V)
0.5
AD8264
–2.0
VGAIN = 0.7V
1.5
CL = 0pF
CL = 10pF
CL = 22pF
–1.5
1.0
0.5
–0.5
VOTLAGE (V)
VOLTAGE (V)
–1.0
0
–0.5
0
–0.5
–1.0
20
40
60
80
100
TIME (ns)
–1.5
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
07736-066
0
1200
07736-067
–20
07736-096
–2.0
–40
100M
07736-068
–1.0
–1.5
TIME (ns)
Figure 63. Large Signal Pulse Response to Differential Output for
Various Capacitive Loads with Series R = 10 Ω
Figure 66. Preamp Overdrive Recovery
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0
VGAIN PULSE
VOTLAGE (V)
0.5
GAIN
RESPONSE
0
0
–0.5
–0.5
–1.0
–1.0
–1.5
0
400
800
1200
1600
2000
TIME (ns)
–1.5
07736-064
VOTLAGE (V)
0.5
0
600
800
1000
Figure 67. VGA Overdrive Recovery
1.5
0
1.0
VGAx (VGAIN = +0.7V)
DIFF OUT (VGAIN = +0.7V)
VGAx (VGAIN = −0.7V)
DIFF OUT (VGAIN = −0.7V)
–10
0.5
–20
PSRR (dB)
GAIN
RESPONSE
0
–0.5
–30
–40
VGAIN PULSE
–50
–1.0
0
400
800
1200
1600
2000
TIME (ns)
07736-065
VOTLAGE (V)
400
TIME (ns)
Figure 64. VGAx Response to Change in VGAIN
–1.5
200
Figure 65. Differential Output Response to Change in VGAIN
–60
100k
1M
10M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 68. Power Supply Rejection vs. Frequency (VPOS)
Rev. 0 | Page 18 of 40
AD8264
5
135
VGAx (VGAIN = +0.7V)
DIFF OUT (VGAIN = +0.7V)
VGAx (VGAIN = −0.7V)
DIFF OUT (VGAIN = −0.7V)
125
SUPPLY CURRENT (mA)
–5
–25
–35
105
95
±2.5V
±3.3V
85
75
–45
–55
100k
1M
10M
100M
FREQUENCY (Hz)
Figure 69. Power Supply Rejection vs. Frequency (VNEG)
55
–40
–15
10
35
60
85
TEMPERATURE (°C)
Figure 70. Quiescent Supply Current vs. Temperature
Rev. 0 | Page 19 of 40
110
07736-070
65
07736-069
PSRR (dB)
–15
±5V
115
AD8264
TEST CIRCUITS
VS = ±2.5 V, TA = 25°C, f = 10 MHz, CL = 5 pF, RL = 500 Ω per output (VGAx, VOHx, VOLx), VGAIN = (VGNHx − VGNLO) = 0 V,
VVOCM = GND, VOFSx = GND, gain range = 6 dB to 30 dB, unless otherwise specified.
DC
METER
AD8264
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
VGAx
VOLx
+
6dB
–
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
VOHx
500Ω
500Ω
500Ω
DC
METER
OFSx
07736-119
VGAIN
OVEN
Figure 71. Gain vs. VGAIN vs. Temperature (See Figure 3 and Figure 4)
NETWORK ANALYZER
OSCILLOSCOPE
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
OUT
CH1
50Ω
CH1
CH2
50Ω
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
AD8264
VGAx
VGAx
IPPx
+
50Ω
IPNx
–
500Ω
PrA
6dB
6dB
–
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
VOLx
+
IPPx
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
500Ω
6dB
–
VOHx
VOHx
500Ω
VOCM
OFSx
VGAIN
Figure 72. Gain Error vs. VGAIN at Various Frequencies to VGAx (See Figure 5)
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-101
GNLO
VGAIN
07736-100
GNHx
GNHx
Figure 74. Frequency Response vs. Gain to Differential Output for Various
Values of VGAIN (See Figure 11)
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH1
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH2
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
CH1
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
AD8264
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
VGAx
IPPx
+
50Ω
IPNx
–
500Ω
PrA
6dB
AD8264
VOLx
+
VGAx
6dB
–
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
VOHx
PrA
6dB
6dB
–
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-072
GNHx
VGAIN
Figure 73. Frequency Response vs. Gain to VGAx for Various Values of VGAIN,
VGAIN = GNHx – GNLO (See Figure 10)
Rev. 0 | Page 20 of 40
GNHx
VOLx
+
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
500Ω
VOHx
CL
500Ω
Figure 75. Frequency Response to Differential Output for
Various Capacitive Loads (See Figure 12)
CL
07736-102
50Ω
AD8264
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH1
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH2
50Ω
CH1
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
AD8264
VGAx
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
VGAx
–
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
–
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
10Ω
500Ω
6dB
VOHx
–
PrA
6dB
10Ω
GNHx
CL
VOHx
GNLO
VS
OFSx
VOCM
VGAIN
VSUPPLY
Figure 79. Frequency Response vs. Gain to VGAx for
Various Supply Voltages (See Figure 18)
NETWORK ANALYZER
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH2
50Ω
6dB
–
Figure 76. Frequency Response to Differential Output for Various Capacitive
Loads with Series R = 10 Ω (See Figure 13)
CH1
VOLx
+
CL
500Ω
OFSx
50Ω
IPNx
07736-078
+
IPNx
+
07736-103
IPPx
50Ω
IPPx
CH1
50Ω
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
VGAx
+
IPNx
–
500Ω
PrA
6dB
AD8264
CL
VGAx
VOLx
+
6dB
–
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
VOHx
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
500Ω
6dB
–
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
500Ω
GNHx
07736-076
GNHx
VGAIN
VOCM
OFSx
VS
VSUPPLY
Figure 80. Frequency Response vs. Gain to Differential Output for
Various Supply Voltages (See Figure 19)
NETWORK ANALYZER
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH2
50Ω
GNLO
VGAIN
Figure 77. Frequency Response to VGAx for Various Capacitive Loads
(See Figure 14)
CH1
VOHx
07736-104
IPPx
50Ω
CH1
50Ω
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
10Ω
VGAx
IPPx
50Ω
IPNx
+
–
500Ω
PrA
6dB
AD8264
CL
VGAx
VOLx
+
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
6dB
–
VOHx
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
500Ω
6dB
–
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
500Ω
GNHx
07736-077
GNHx
VOHx
VGAIN
GNLO
VOCM
50Ω
Figure 78. Frequency Response to VGAx for Various Capacitive Loads with
Series R =10 Ω (See Figure 16)
OFSx
VS
VSUPPLY
07736-105
AD8264
Figure 81. VOCM Frequency Response to Differential Output (See Figure 21)
Rev. 0 | Page 21 of 40
AD8264
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH1
CH2
50Ω
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
50Ω
CH1
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
CH2
50Ω
AD8264
50Ω
VGAx
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
PrA
6dB
AD8264
VOLx
+
–
VOHx
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
PrA
6dB
6dB
OFSx
–
AD8129
VOHx
10×
VS
VSUPPLY
50Ω
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-112
VOCM
07736-106
GNLO
10×
VOLx
+
500Ω
GNHx
AD8129
VGAx
500Ω
6dB
VGAIN
Figure 85. Output Referred Noise vs. VGAIN (See Figure 32)
Figure 82. OFSx Frequency Response to Differential Output (See Figure 22)
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
220Ω
CH1
CH2
AD8264
IPPx
IPNx
+
–
VGAx
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
6dB
–
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
VOHx
50Ω
500Ω
50Ω
50Ω
500Ω
500Ω
AD8264
DC
METER
AD8129
10×
VGAx
IPPx
IPNx
OFSx
+
–
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
6dB
–
AD8129
VOHx
10×
OVEN
GNLO
VOCM
Figure 86. Input Referred Noise vs. Frequency (See Figure 34)
Figure 83. Output Offset Voltage vs. VGAIN vs. Temperature
(See Figure 26 and Figure 27)
NOISE METER
NETWORK ANALYZER
CH1
50Ω
NOISE
SOURCE
CH2
50Ω
OFSx
07736-113
GNHx
07736-110
VGAIN
50Ω
AD8264
VGAx
AD8264
+
–
PrA
6dB
IPNx
–
PrA
6dB
6dB
–
VOLx
+
VOLx
+
–
GNHx
VOHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
VGAIN
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
VS
VSUPPLY
07736-111
GNHx
VOHx
6dB
Figure 87. Noise Figure vs. VGAIN (See Figure 36)
Figure 84. Output Resistance vs. Frequency
(See Figure 30 and Figure 31)
Rev. 0 | Page 22 of 40
07736-115
IPPx
+
50Ω
VGAx
50Ω
IPNx
IPPx
AD8264
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
220Ω
CH1
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω 0.1µF
AD8129
10×
AD8264
VGAx
RS
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
6dB
–
GNHx
GNLO
50Ω 0.1µF
10×
50Ω 0.1µF
1kΩ
OFSx
VOCM
AD8129
VOHx
1kΩ
07736-114
50Ω
Figure 88. Input Referred Noise vs. RSOURCE (See Figure 35)
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
NETWORK ANALYZER
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
OUT
CH1
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
LPF
AD8264
AD8264
VGAx
VGAx
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
IPPx
VOLx
+
IPNx
–
PrA
6dB
VOCM
VOHx
VOHx
OFSx
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-116
GNLO
CL
6dB
–
500Ω
GNHx
VOLx
+
500Ω
6dB
–
+
50Ω
10Ω
07736-118
50Ω
CH1
50Ω
Figure 89. VOCM Common-Mode Rejection vs. Frequency (See Figure 37)
Figure 91. Harmonic Distortion to VGAx vs. CLOAD (Figure 39)
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
OUT
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
CH1
50Ω
50Ω
OUT
500Ω
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
CH1
50Ω
50Ω
LPF
AD8264
VGAx
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
VGAx
6dB
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
AD8264
VOLx
+
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
–
GNHx
450Ω
LPF
VOHx
PrA
6dB
GNHx
Figure 90. Test Circuit Harmonic Distortion to VGAx vs.
RLOAD and Various Supplies (See Figure 38)
AD8130
6dB
–
VS
VSUPPLY
VOLx
+
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
1×
VOHx
VS
RL
VSUPPLY
RL
07736-128
+
07736-117
IPPx
Figure 92. Harmonic Distortion to Differential Output vs. RLOAD and Various
Supplies (See Figure 40)
Rev. 0 | Page 23 of 40
AD8264
OUT
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
CH1
50Ω
CH1
50Ω
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
OUT
50Ω
50Ω
350Ω
LPF
450Ω
AD8264
AD8264
VGAx
VGAx
IPNx
–
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
6dB
–
GNLO
GNHx
VOCM
VOHx
AD8130
–
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
AD8130
6dB
–
1×
CL
OFSx
GNHx
CL
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
VS
VGAIN
Figure 95. HD2 and HD3 to Differential Output (See Figure 46 through Figure 49)
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
1×
VOHx
10Ω
Figure 93. Harmonic Distortion to Differential Output vs.
CLOAD (See Figure 41)
OUT
IPNx
50Ω
10Ω
07736-131
+
+
07736-129
IPPx
50Ω
IPPx
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
CH1
CH1
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
OUT
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
50Ω
450Ω
LPF
AD8264
VGAx
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
VOLx
+
OUT
450Ω
AD8264
50Ω
VGAx
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
6dB
–
50Ω
VOHx
6dB
–
GNHx
VOHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
VGAIN
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-130
GNHx
VGAIN
Figure 94. HD2 and HD3 to VGAx (See Figure 42 Through Figure 45)
Figure 96. IMD3 and OIP3 to VGAx (See Figure 50 and Figure 51)
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
CH1
50Ω
450Ω
AD8264
50Ω
VGAx
IPPx
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
OUT
+
50Ω
IPNx
–
10Ω
PrA
6dB
6dB
–
50Ω
GNHx
VOLx
+
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
VOHx
500Ω
Figure 97. IMD3 and OIP3 to Differential Output (See Figure 52 and Figure 53)
Rev. 0 | Page 24 of 40
AD8130
1×
10Ω
500Ω
07736-133
OUT
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
50Ω
07736-132
LPF
AD8264
NETWORK ANALYZER
OSCILLOSCOPE
CH2
CH1
CH3
CH1
50Ω 50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
500Ω
AD8264
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
VGAx
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
VGAx
–
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
500Ω
6dB
–
VOHx
500Ω
GNHx
500Ω
6dB
IPPx
PULSE
GENERATOR
VOHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
OUT
07736-120
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
500Ω
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-134
GNHx
VGAIN
Figure 101. VOCM Pulse Response (See Figure 59)
Figure 98. Input P1dB vs. VGAIN (See Figure 54)
OSCILLOSCOPE
OSCILLOSCOPE
PULSE
GENERATOR
OUT
CH1
50Ω
CH2
50Ω
CH1
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
VGAx
AD8264
VGAx
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
–
PrA
6dB
6dB
–
VOCM
GNHx
PULSE
GENERATOR
OFSx
07736-135
GNLO
VOHx
GNLO
VOCM
Figure 102. OFSx Pulse Response (See Figure 60)
OSCILLOSCOPE
PULSE
GENERATOR
OUT
CH1
50Ω
CH2
50Ω
PULSE
GENERATOR
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
AD8264
VGAx
VGAx
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
IPPx
6dB
IPNx
500Ω
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
CL
500Ω
6dB
VOHx
OFSx
VOLx
+
VOHx
OFSx
07736-136
VOCM
–
PrA
6dB
–
500Ω
GNLO
+
50Ω
VOLx
+
–
GNHx
CH1
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
+
OFSx
50Ω
OSCILLOSCOPE
IPPx
VOHx
OUT
50Ω
Figure 99. Pulse Response to VGAx, VGAIN = 0.7 V (See Figure 55 and Figure 57)
OUT
VOLx
+
6dB
–
GNHx
IPNx
07736-121
+
+
50Ω
500Ω
Figure 100. Pulse Response to Differential Outputs, VGAIN = 0.7 V
(See Figure 56 and Figure 58)
Figure 103. Pulse Response to VGAx for Various Capacitive Loads,
VGAIN = 0.7 V (See Figure 61)
Rev. 0 | Page 25 of 40
07736-122
IPPx
IPPx
AD8264
OSCILLOSCOPE
OUT
PULSE
GENERATOR
OUT
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
50Ω
50Ω
CH1
50Ω
CH1
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
OSCILLOSCOPE
50Ω
OPPx
AD8264
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
VGAx
AD8264
VGAx
+
50Ω
–
IPNx
PrA
6dB
VOCM
VOLx
+
6dB
–
VOHx
CL
OFSx
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-123
GNLO
PrA
6dB
VOHx
500Ω
GNHx
–
CL
500Ω
6dB
–
IPNx
50Ω
VOLx
+
+
07736-126
IPPx
IPPx
Figure 104. Pulse Response to Differential Output for Various Capacitive
Loads, VGAIN = 0.7 V (See Figure 62)
Figure 107. Preamp Overdrive Recovery (See Figure 66)
OSCILLOSCOPE
OSCILLOSCOPE
PULSE
GENERATOR
OUT
CH1
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
VGAx
AD8264
VGAx
IPPx
+
PrA
6dB
50Ω
–
IPNx
VOLx
+
VOHx
CL
VOCM
OFSx
OSCILLOSCOPE
CH1
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
CH2
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
VGAx
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
500Ω
6dB
–
500Ω
VOLx
+
VOHx
500Ω
GNHx
VOCM
OFSx
OUT
50Ω
07736-125
PULSE
GENERATOR
GNLO
PrA
6dB
VOLx
+
6dB
VOHx
CL
Figure 105. Pulse Response to Differential Output for Various Capacitive
Loads with Series R = 10 Ω, VGAIN = 0.7 V (See Figure 63)
OUT
–
–
07736-124
GNLO
IPNx
10Ω
500Ω
GNHx
+
50Ω
10Ω
500Ω
6dB
–
IPPx
Figure 106. Gain Response to VGAx or Differential Output
(See Figure 64 and Figure 65)
Rev. 0 | Page 26 of 40
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
Figure 108. VGA Overdrive Recovery, VGAIN = 0.7 V (See Figure 67)
07736-127
OUT
CH1
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
AD8264
OSCILLOSCOPE
CH2
CH3
50Ω
50Ω
50Ω
DMM
(+1)
DIFFERENTIAL
PROBE
AD8264
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
PrA
6dB
VPOS
VOLx
–
IPPx
+
IPNx
–
50Ω
500Ω
6dB
VNEG
AD8264
VGAx
500Ω
+
DMM
(–1)
VOHx
PrA
6dB
6dB
VOCM
OFSx
–
VOHx
VS
VSUPPLY
GNHx
GNLO
VOCM
OFSx
07736-108
VGAIN
GNLO
VOLx
+
500Ω
GNHx
VGAx
Figure 110. Quiescent Supply Current (See Figure 70)
Figure 109. PSRR (See Figure 68 and Figure 69)
Rev. 0 | Page 27 of 40
07736-109
CH1
AD8264
THEORY OF OPERATION
OVERVIEW
VGA
The AD8264 is a dc-coupled quad channel VGA with a fixed
gain-of-2 (6 dB) preamplifier and a single-ended-to-differential
output amplifier with level shift capability that can be used as an
ADC driver. Figure 111 shows a representative block diagram of
a single channel; all four channels are identical. The supply can
operate from ±2.5 V to ±5 V. The primary application is as a
pulse processor for medical positron emission tomography
(PET) imaging; however, the part is useful for any dc-coupled
application that can benefit from variable gain.
The VGA has a voltage feedback architecture and uses analog
control to vary the gain. Its low gain range helps to maintain
low offset and is intended for gain trim applications. The offset
of the preamp and the VGA are trimmed; therefore, the maximum
input referred offset is <0.5 mV over temperature (see Figure 26).
Keeping the gain of each stage relatively low also allows the
bandwidth to stay high.
The signal chain consists of three fundamental stages: the
preamplifier, the variable gain amplifier, and the differential
output buffer amplifier. The preamplifier has an internally fixed
gain-of-2 (6 dB). The VGA comprises an attenuator that
provides 0 dB to 24 dB of attenuation, followed by a fixed gain
18 dB (8×) amplifier. The single-ended VGA output is connected
directly to the noninverting input of the differential output
(post) amplifier, which has a differential fixed gain-of-2 (6 dB).
The gain range from the preamp input to the VGA output is
0 dB to 24 dB. The aggregate gain range from preamp input to
the differential postamplifier output is 6 dB to 30 dB.
The ideal gain equation for the gain from the single-ended
input to the output is
VGAIN = VGNHx − VGNLO
(1)
dB
Gain = 20
× VGAIN + ICPT
V
(2)
The ideal value for ICPT, or the intercept, is defined at VGAIN = 0 V.
The ICPT for the VGA output and differential amplifier outputs
equals 12.1 dB and 18.1 dB, respectively. The actual intercept
varies with any additional gain or loss along the signal path.
The measured values are both approximately 0.2 dB low.
PREAMP
The preamplifier is a current feedback amplifier, designed to
drive the internal 100 Ω gain setting resistors and the resistive
attenuator, which together result in a nominal load to the
preamplifier of about 113 Ω. Normally, the negative preamp
input, IPNx, is not connected externally. The positive input
IPPx is the high impedance input of the current feedback amp.
Note that, at the largest supply voltage of ±5 V, the input signal
can become so large that the preamplifier output cannot deliver
the required current to drive the 113 Ω load and, therefore, limits
at 6 V p-p. This means that the input limits at 3 V p-p.
The gain of the VGA is adjusted using the fully differential
control inputs, GNHx and GNLO. The GNLO pin is internally
connected to all four channels and must be biased externally.
Under typical conditions, the GNLO pin is grounded. The gain
high control pins (GNHx) are independent for each channel.
The gain slope is nominally 20 dB/V. With GNLO connected to
ground, each GNHx input can have a voltage applied from VNEG
to VPOS without gain foldover.
To make use of the full gain range of the VGA, the nominal gain
control voltage needed at GNHx is ±0.65 V relative to the voltage
applied to GNLO. At the lowest supply voltage of ±2.5 V, the pin
GNLO should always be grounded. With increasing supply, the
common-mode range of the gain control interface increases.
This means that GNLO can be anywhere within ±1.2 V at
±3.3 V supplies and ±2.8 V at ±5 V supplies.
Table 5. Gain Control Input Range
Supply Voltage (V)
±5
±3.3
±2.5
GNLO Voltage Range (V)
±2.8
±1.2
0
VGAIN Range (V)
±0.65
±0.65
±0.65
For example, at ±3.3 V supplies, the outputs of a single-supply
unipolar DAC, such as the 10-bit, 4-channel AD5314, can be
used to drive the GNHx pins directly, in conjunction with using
the ADR318 1.8 V reference to bias the GNLO pin at VREF/2 = 0.9.
Because the GNLO pin sources only about 1.2 μA for the four
channels (~300 nA per channel, the same as for the GNHx pins), a
simple resistive divider is generally adequate to set the voltage at
the GNLO input.
The short-circuit input referred noise at maximum VGA gain is
about 2.3 nV/√Hz, and this accounts for all of the amplifiers and
gain setting resistors. When measuring the input referred noise
from the VGA output, the number is slightly lower at 2.1 nV/√Hz
because the noise of the postamplifier is not included in the
noise calculation.
Rev. 0 | Page 28 of 40
AD8264
COMPOSITE GAIN IS +6dB TO +30dB
OPPx
NONINVERTING
AMPLIFIER INPUT
IPPx
1
IPNx
INVERTING AMPLIFIER
INPUT (NOT USED)
POWER
SUPPLIES
100Ω
VGAx
FIXED GAIN VGA
AMPLIFIER
18dB (8×)
PREAMP
6dB (2×)
SINGLE-ENDED HS
VGA OUTPUT 3
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT
AMPLIFIER 6dB (2×)
1kΩ
+ ATTENUATOR
– –24dB TO 0dB
2kΩ
747Ω
VOLx
2
100Ω
VPOS
VNEG
PREAMP OUTPUT
(NOT USED)
INTERPOLATOR
107Ω
GAIN
INTERFACE
VOHx
DIFFERENTIAL
VGA OUTPUT
2kΩ
BIAS
1kΩ
COMM
GNHx
GNLO
DIFFERENTIAL GAIN
CONTROL INPUTS
2 DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT NEVER LIMITS
BECAUSE VGA LIMITS FIRST.
DIFFERENTIAL OUTPUT SWING = 2x VGA OUT
5.2V p-p MAX @ ±2.5V
8V p-p MAX @ ±3.5V TO ±3.3V
15V p-p MAX @ ±5V
73nV/√Hz
OFSx
OUTPUT COMMON-MODE
VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT
OFFSET
ADJUST
3 2.6V p-p MAX @ ±2.5V
4V p-p MAX @ ±3.5V TO ±3.3V
7.5V p-p MAX @ ±5V
34nV/√Hz
07736-081
1 1.2V p-p MAX @ ±2.5V
2V p-p MAX @ ±3.5V TO ±3.3V
3V p-p [email protected] ±5V (PREAMP
DRIVE LIMITED)
2.3nV/√Hz
VOCM
Figure 111. Single-Channel Block Diagram
POST AMPLIFIER
From the preamp input to the VGA output (VGAx), the gain
is noninverting. As can be seen in Figure 111, the VGAx pins
drive the positive input of the differential amplifier. The gain
is inverting from the input of the preamp to the output pin at
VOLx, and the gain is noninverting to the output VOHx.
Other than the input from VGAx, each differential amplifier
has two additional inputs: VOCM and OFSx. A common
VOCM pin is shared among all four postamplifiers, while
separate OFSx pins are provided for each channel.
VOCM Pin
The VOCM pin sets the common-mode voltage of the differential
output and must be biased by an external voltage. When driving
a dc-coupled ADC, the voltage typically comes from the ADC
reference, as shown in the Applications Information section.
If dc level shift is not necessary, the VOCM pin is connected
to ground.
OFSx Pins
The OFSx pins are the inverting inputs of the differential post
amplifiers and can be used to prebias a differential dc offset at
the output. This is very useful when the input is a unipolar pulse
because the user can set up the gain and the offset in such a way
as to optimally map a unipolar pulse into the full-scale input of
an ADC, while dc coupling throughout.
If dc offset is not desired, then the OFSx pins should be connected
to ground. However, the OFSx pins can also be used as separate
inputs if the user wants this function.
NOISE
At maximum gain, the preamplifier is the primary contributor
of noise and results in a differential output referred noise of
roughly 73 nV/√Hz. The noise at the VGAx outputs is 34 nV/√Hz,
and because of the gain-of-2, the VGA output noise is amplified
by 6 dB to 68 nV/√Hz. The differential amplifier, including the
gain setting resistors, contributes another 26 nV/√Hz, and the
rms sum results in a total noise of 73 nV/√Hz. At the lowest
gain, the noise at the VGA output is approximately 19 nV/√Hz, and
when multiplied by two, it results in 38 nV/√Hz at the differential
output; again, rms summing this with the 26 nV/√Hz of the
differential amplifier causes the total output referred noise to
be approximately 46 nV/√Hz.
The input referred noise to the preamplifier at maximum gain
is 2.3 nV/√Hz and increases with decreasing gain. Note that all
noise numbers include the necessary gain setting resistors.
Rev. 0 | Page 29 of 40
AD8264
APPLICATIONS INFORMATION
A LOW CHANNEL COUNT APPLICATION CONCEPT
USING A DISCRETE REFERENCE
Figure 112 also includes the DAC output equation, which
indicates that the output can vary between 0 V and VREF = 1.25 V.
The AD8264 is particularly well suited for use in the analog
front end of medical PET imaging systems. Figure 112 shows
how the AD8264 may be used with the AD5314 (a 4-channel,
10-bit DAC) and the AD9222/AD9228 (an octal or quad, 12-bit
ADC, respectively). The DAC sets the gain of the AD8264. Note
that the full gain span of 24 dB is achieved with this setup because
the gain control input range of the AD8264 is very close to 1.25 V.
The GNLO pin must offset by 1.25/2 = 625 mV because the
gain control input is bipolar around the voltage applied at GNLO.
This is done with two 1 kΩ, 1% resistors. The approximately 1 μA
of bias current flowing from the GNLO pin does not contribute
a significant error because the basic gain error of the AD8264 is
the limiting factor.
The output of the AD8264 is ideal to drive an ADC like the 1.8 V
quad-channel AD9228. If eight channels are needed, two AD8264s
with the octal AD9222 ADC achieve the same thing. The same
resistive divider can be used for two AD8264s because the bias
current flowing is now ~2 μA, but this still only introduces an
error of 1 mV with ideally matched resistors. With 20 dB/V gain
scaling, this is a gain error of only 0.02 dB, which is much
smaller than the fundamental gain error of the AD8264
(typically ~0.2 dB).
The single-ended-to-differential amplifier of the AD8264
amplifies the VGA output signal by 6 dB and can provide the
required dc bias of the AD9222/AD9228, as shown in Figure 112.
The ADC is connected with the default internal reference because
the SENSE pin is grounded. With this connection, the AD9222/
AD9228 VREF pin is an output that provides 1 V; this is then
connected to the VOCM input of the AD8264, which sets the
output common-mode voltage of the VOHx and VOLx pins to
1 V. This voltage is very close to the recommended optimal value of
VDD/2 = 0.9 V. With this configuration, the ADC inputs are set
to a full-scale (FS) of 2 V p-p.
The ADR127 1.25 V precision reference with an input of 3.3 V
can supply −2 mA to +5 mA from −40°C to +125°C, which is
sufficient to drive both the resistive divider and the REFIN pin
of the AD5314. The AD5314 is based on the string DAC concept,
which means that the REFIN pin looks like a resistor that is
nominally 45 kΩ; this results in a current draw of 1.25V/45 kΩ =
28 μA. Even at the lowest specified resistance of 37 kΩ, this is
still only a current of 34 μA. Therefore, the total current draw from
the ADR127 is the 625 μA of the resistive divider plus ~30 μA,
which equals ~655 μA, well below the 5 mA maximum current.
Note that the ADC VREF should not drive many loads; therefore,
for multiple AD8264s, the VREF should be buffered.
ADR127
NC 6
3 VIN
0.1µF
NC 5
VOUT 4
1.25V
V
×D
VOUT = REFIN
2N
1µF
+3.3V
10µF
625mV
RS
VPOS
IPPx
RTERM
GNLO
AD8264
0.1µF
GND
VOUTD
VGA OUTPUTS TO OTHER
SIGNAL PROCESSING
RFILT
0.1µF
VOUTB
VOUTC
~250nA EACH
VGAx
–3.3V
VOUTA
GNH1
GNH2
GNH3
GNH4
VNEG VOCM OFSx VOHx VOLx
10µF
DAC
AD5314
~1µA
1kΩ
1%
+3.3V
REFIN VDD
1kΩ
1%
VOUT RANGE = 0V TO 1.25V
EACH
+1.8V
FS = 2V p-p
CFILT
RFILT
OUTPUT COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE = 1V
VOHx = 1V, VOLx = 1V; VOFS = 0V
VIN – x
VDD
ADC
AD9222/
AD9228 GND
VIN + x VREF SENSE
SENSE GROUNDED: VREF = 1V
07736-082
2 GND
625µA
1 NC
+3.3V
Figure 112. Application Concept of the AD8264 with the AD5314 10-Bit DAC and the AD9222/AD9228 12-Bit ADC
Rev. 0 | Page 30 of 40
AD8264
Figure 113 shows how the AD8264 is connected in a PET
application. The PMT generates a negative-going current pulse
that results in a voltage pulse at the preamplifier input and a
differential output pulse on VOLx and VOHx.
A DC CONNECTED CONCEPT EXAMPLE
The dc connected concept example in Figure 113 is an application
with the 40-channel AD5381, 3 V, 12-bit DAC. The main difference
between this example and Figure 112 is that, for the same ADR127
1.25 V reference, the full-scale output of the DAC is from
0 V to 2 × VREFIN = 2.5 V. Two options for gain control
include the following:
•
Use the same circuit as in Figure 112 but use only half the
DAC output voltage from 0 V to 1.25 V. This is the simplest
solution, requiring the fewest extra components. Note that
the overall gain resolution increases by one bit to 11 bits
over the 10-bit AD5314.
Ground GNLO and scale the DAC output so that the
GNHx inputs vary from −0.652 V to +0.625 V. Figure 113
shows a possible circuit implementation using a divider
between the DAC output and a −1.25 V reference.
The full-scale input of the converter is 0 V to 2 V, with a commonmode of 1 V. Match the VOCM voltage of the AD8264 to the
ADC common mode (VREF = 1 V), and the two devices can be
connected directly using an appropriate level of the antialiasing
filter. The PMT signal is 0 V to −0.1 V. With a gain of 20× (26 dB),
the AD8264 output signal range is 2 V p-p. Prebias the signal
negative by −0.5 V using the AD8264 OFSx inputs, which sets
VOHx = 1.5 V and VOLx = 0.5 V for VOCM = 1 V. The output
is perfectly matched to the input of the ADC.
GNLO cannot simply be increased to 1.25 V because, for a
given supply voltage, GNLO has a limited voltage range to
achieve the full gain span (see Table 5).
However, a third possibility is to use another voltage that is
between 1.2 V and 625 mV on GNLO, such as 1 V. In this case,
the DAC must vary from 0.375 V to 1.625 V to achieve the fully
specified gain range.
Note that, by connecting VOLx to the positive ADC input and
VOHx to the negative ADC input, the negative input pulse is
inverted automatically. The VGAx output is still a negative
pulse, amplified by 20 dB for this example.
Note the gain limits when the differential gain control exceeds
±0.625 V, either to 6 dB or to 30 dB. If the differential gain
control input voltage is exceeded, no gain foldover occurs.
ADR127
+3.3V
1 NC
NC 6
2 GND
NC 5
3 VIN VOUT 4
0.1µF
VREF = 1.25V
VOUT =
1µF
+3.3V
10µF
REFIN VDD
EXAMPLE
0V
SCALE
CIRCUIT –0.1V
2N
VARIES FROM
12.5 TO 32.5µA
TO 9 OTHER
AD8264s
GND VOUT39
+3.3V
VPOS
IPPx
100Ω
GNLO
AD8264
PMT
SCALE CIRCUIT
SCALE CIRCUIT
SCALE CIRCUIT
SCALE CIRCUIT
VGA OUTPUTS TO OTHER
SIGNAL PROCESSING
VGAx
VNEG VOCM OFSx VOHx VOLx
RFILT
VIN + x
CFILT
VOFS = –0.5V
10µF
ADC VDD
AD9222/
AD9228 GND
0.1µF
49.9kΩ
1%
0.1µF
SCALE CIRCUIT
+3.3V
+1.8V
49.9kΩ
1%
GNH1
10µF
0.1µF
AD8663
–3.3V
VIN – x VREF SENSE
RFILT
OUTPUT COMMON-MODE VOLTAGE = 1V
VOHx = 1.5V, VOLx = 0.5V; VOFx = –0.5V
49.9kΩ
1%
–1.25V
FS = 2V p-p
–3.3V
49.9kΩ
GNH4 ~250nA
1%
–625mV
TO
49.9kΩ
+625mV
1%
VREF = 1.25V
49.9kΩ
1%
~250nA EACH
GNH1
GNH2
GNH3
GNH4
VOLTAGE FROM DAC AD5381 = 0 TO 2.5V
VOUT0
VOUT39
VOUT RANGE = 0V TO 1.25V
EACH
VOUT0
VOUT1
VOUT2
VOUT4
DAC
AD5381
2 × VREFIN × D
0.1µF
SENSE GROUNDED: VREF = 1V
Figure 113. Concept Application of AD8264 with 40-Channel AD5381 12-Bit, 3 V DAC and AD9222/AD9228 12-Bit ADC
Rev. 0 | Page 31 of 40
07736-083
•
To fully appreciate the advantages of the AD8264, note the
common-mode and polarity conversion afforded. The AD9228,
as with most modern ADCs, is a low voltage, single-polarity
device. Recall that the PMT is a high voltage device that yields a
negative pulse. To map the pulse to the input range of the ADC,
the pulse must be inverted, shifted, and amplified to the full
input range of the ADC. This is done by using the gain control,
signal offset, and common-mode features of the AD8264.
AD8264
VOUT RANGE = 0V TO 1.25V
EACH
+3.3V +3.3V
VOUT0
VOUT1
VOUT3
VOUT4
DVDD AVDDx
PARALLEL
INTERFACE
TO PC
CONTROL
DAC
AD5381
TO 9
OTHER
AD8264s
EVAL BOARD
VOUT39
+2.5V
+3.3V
GNH1 VPOS
GNH2
GNH3
GNH4
DGND AGNDx
VNEG
VOHx
EVAL BOARD
GNLO
VPOS
–INx
VOLx
AD8264 VGA
IPPx
TO
SWITCHING
POWER
SUPPLY
–3.3V
VGA
OUTPUTS TO
OTHER
SIGNAL
PROCESSING
+INx
USB 2.0 TO PC
ADI VISUAL
ANALOG
ANALYSIS
SOFTWARE
ADC
AD9228
EVAL KIT
VGAx
OFSx VOCM
+1.0V
VREF
GNLO = 625mV OFSx = −0.5V VOCM = 1.0V
–0.1V
PULSE
GENERATOR
INx
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
–0.2
–0.4
–0.6
–0.8
–1.0
0
50
100 150 200
SAMPLES
250
07736-084
0V
VOLTAGE (V)
INPUT EXAMPLES
REFIN
(ON BOARD)
300
07736-085
Figure 114. Evaluation Setup for DC-Coupled Analog Front-End Pulse Processing Application Using the AD8264
Figure 115. AD5381 Evaluation Software
A convenient method of verifying and customizing the signal
chains shown in Figure 112 or Figure 113 is by ordering the
corresponding evaluation boards available on www.analog.com.
The AD8264-EVALZ is a platform through which the user can
quickly become familiar with the features and performance
capabilities of the AD8264. See the Evaluation Board section for
more information.
The EVAL-AD5381EB (40-channel DAC) includes a parallel PC
interface and software evaluation program to control the DAC.
The AD5381evaluation software allows the user to configure
and program such DAC parameters as input codes, offset level,
and output range based on a 2.5 V or 1.25 V reference. For
example, as shown in Figure 114, the reference can be set to 1.25 V,
with a 0 V to 1.25 V output range to drive the GNHx inputs.
The ADC evaluation kit includes the AD9228-65EBZ board and
HSC-ADC-FIFO5 board to decode the ADC output. It also
leverages the capabilities of VisualAnalog®, powerful simulation
and data analysis software that enables the user to run FFTs and
to do real-time capture of the output levels.
Rev. 0 | Page 32 of 40
AD8264
+3.3V +3.3V
DVDD AVDDx
PARALLEL
INTERFACE
TO PC
CONTROL
DAC
AD5381
VOUT RANGE = 0V TO 1.25V
EACH
VOUT0
VOUT1
VOUT3
VOUT4
TO 9
OTHER
AD8264S
EVAL BOARD
VOUT39
+2.5V
+3.3V
GNH1 VPOS
GNH2
GNH3
GNH4
DGND AGNDx
VNEG
VOHx
EVAL BOARD
GNLO
VPOS
–INx
VOLx
AD8264 VGA
IPPx
TO
SWITCHING
POWER
SUPPLY
–3.3V
VGA
OUTPUTS TO
OTHER
SIGNAL
PROCESSING
+INx
USB 2.0 TO PC
ADI VISUAL
ANALOG
ANALYSIS
SOFTWARE
ADC
AD9228
EVAL KIT
VGAx
OFSx VOCM
+1.0V
VREF
GNLO = 625mV
INx
AC
SOURCE
VOCM = 1.0V
0
–15
–30
–45
–60
–75
–90
–105
–120
–135
–150
+
2
1.5M 3.0M 4.5M 6.0M 7.5M 9.0M 10.5M
Figure 116. Evaluation Setup for AC Signal Processing Application Using the AD8264
Rev. 0 | Page 33 of 40
3
4
07736-086
INPUT EXAMPLES
REFIN
(ON BOARD)
AD8264
EVALUATION BOARD
Analog Devices, Inc. provides evaluation boards to customers as
a support service so that the circuit designer can become
familiar with the device in the most efficient way possible. The
AD8264 evaluation board provides a fast, easy, and convenient
means to assess the performance of the AD8264 before going
through the hassle and expense of design and layout of a custom
board. The board is shipped fully assembled and tested, and it
provides basic functionality as shipped. Standard connectors
enable the user to attach standard lab test equipment without
having to wait for the rest of the design to be completed. Figure 117
shows a digital image of the top view, and Figure 118 shows the
schematic diagram of the AD8264 evaluation board.
CONNECTING AND USING THE AD8264-EVALZ
The printed circuit board (PCB) artwork for all conductor and silkscreen layers is shown in Figure 119 to Figure 124. A description of
a typical test setup can be found in the Applications Information
section. The PCB artwork can be used as a guide for circuit
layout and placement of parts. This is particularly useful for
multiple function circuits with many pins, requiring multiple
passive components.
Apply input signals to any of the preamps at the SMA connectors,
IN1 through IN4. These connectors are terminated with 50 Ω to
accommodate typical signal generator analyzer voltage source
impedances. The gain of the AD8264 preamps is fixed at 6 dB (2×)
and can be monitored at the SMA connectors, OP1_2 and OP3_4,
if desired. Note that there are output selector switches for each pair
of preamps and 453 Ω resistors in series with the preamp outputs.
The AD8264 operates with bipolar power supplies from ±2.5 V dc
to ±5 V dc. Make sure the current capacity is ≥400 mA. Connect a
ground reference from the supplies to any of the black test loops,
the positive supply to the red test loop (+V), and the negative
supply to the blue test loop (−V).
07736-087
Notice that the board is shipped with jumpers installed on the
2-pin headers marked GN1_2, GN3_4, OFS_12, OFS_34, and
VOCM. If these jumpers are missing, the offset and commonmode functions float high, substantially increasing the
quiescent current of the board.
Figure 117. Digital Image of the AD8264-EVALZ (Top View)
Rev. 0 | Page 34 of 40
AD8264
GN12
+V
–V
+
C34
10µF
R10
DNI
GNLO
IN_1
R51
0Ω
3
IN4
VGA1
OFS2
OFS1
PIN 0: EXPOSED PADDLE
6 IPP3
VGA3
7 IPN3
VOL3
8
VOH3
9 OPP4
VOH4
IPN4
R29
DNI
11
R72
0Ω
12
13
R80
0Ω
R12
DNI
14
R79
0Ω
15
16
17
18
R70
0Ω
C23
0.1µF
R28
DNI
C22
0.1µF
C21
0.1µF
OFS3
10
VGA4
OPP3
IN_4
R17
49.9Ω
VNEG
VGA2
OFS4
OPP34
VPOS
5 IPP2
OP34
R19
DNI
GNLO
VOL2
IPP4
OP3_4
R6
453Ω
IPN2
VNEG
R20
DNI
VOH2
PIN 0
EXPOSED PADDLE
VPOS
R25
DNI
OPP2
19
R71
0Ω
R1
453Ω
VGA1
31
VOH1
VOCM
R46
49.9Ω
4
35
VGA1
R47 R48
0Ω
0Ω
34
33
32
OPP1
GNH3
R78
0Ω
OFS_12
VOL1
GNH4
R23 R22
DNI DNI
IN_3
IN3
C19
0.1µF
R9
DNI
IPN1
COMM
IN_2
2
COMM
IPP1
1
R31
DNI
IN2
C20
0.1µF
36
GNH2
40
R24
DNI
R45
49.9Ω
R49 R86
0Ω
0Ω
39
38
37
GNH1
OPP12
R73
0Ω
L2
FB
C24
0.1µF
R11
49.9Ω
OP1_2
C33
+ 10µF
L1
FB
R32
DNI
GN1_2
R7 OP12
453Ω
OFS12
+V
GND1 GND2 GND3 GND4 GND5 GND6
IN1
–V
VOL4
30
R55
0Ω
29
R56
0Ω
28
R58
0Ω
27
R57
0Ω
VOUT_1
VOUT_2
26 VGA2
R69
453Ω
25 VGA3
R67
453Ω
VGA2
24
R66
0Ω
23
R65
0Ω
22
R63
0Ω
21
R64
0Ω
VOUT_4
R8
453Ω
VGA4
20
VGA3
VOUT_3
VGA4
R16
DNI
OFS_34
GN3_4
L3
FB
VOCM
GN34
L4
FB
+V
–V
OFS34
07736-088
VOCM
Figure 118. AD8264-EVALZ Schematic
The SMA connectors, VGA1 through VGA4, enable signal
monitoring at these nodes, with 453 Ω resistors for protecting
the device. These resistors can be shorted at the discretion of
the user if wide bandwidth is desired. The differential outputs
are provided with 0.1” spacing 2-pin headers, which fit the low
capacitance Tektronix differential scope probe P6045 model.
Note that the gain control input of the AD8264 is differential.
Each channel has its own gain control pin (GNHx); however,
pairs of pins are connected together on the evaluation board
and connected to a test loop. The 2-pin headers are provided for
jumpers to connect the gain pins to ground, preventing the
quiescent gain control voltage at the GNHx pins from floating
high. The low sides of the gain controls for each channel are
internally connected in the AD8264, and a 2-pin header with
jumper is provided to connect this pin (GNLO) to ground as well.
A similar arrangement of 2-pin headers is provided for the output
offset voltage. As shipped, the offset pins are connected to ground,
preventing the pins from floating high.
For connecting to an ADC, remove the jumpers at the OF1_2
and OF3_4 headers and connect the appropriate offset voltage
at the test loops, OF12 and OF34. If the VOCM pin is buffered,
it can be connected to the reference of the ADC.
Rev. 0 | Page 35 of 40
07736-091
07736-089
AD8264
07736-090
07736-092
Figure 121. Component Side Silk Screen
Figure 119. Component Side Assembly
Figure 122. Secondary Side Copper
Figure 120. Component Side Copper
Rev. 0 | Page 36 of 40
Figure 123. Ground Plane
07736-094
07736-093
AD8264
Figure 124. Power Plane
Rev. 0 | Page 37 of 40
AD8264
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
6.00
BSC SQ
0.60 MAX
0.60 MAX
TOP
VIEW
0.50
BSC
5.75
BSC SQ
0.50
0.40
0.30
12° MAX
0.05 MAX
0.02 NOM
0.30
0.23
0.18
1
4.25
4.10 SQ
3.95
EXPOSED
PAD
(BOT TOM VIEW)
21
20
11
10
0.25 MIN
4.50
REF
0.80 MAX
0.65 TYP
SEATING
PLANE
40
0.20 REF
COPLANARITY
0.08
FOR PROPER CONNECTION OF
THE EXPOSED PAD, REFER TO
THE PIN CONFIGURATION AND
FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS
SECTION OF THIS DATA SHEET.
072108-A
PIN 1
INDICATOR
1.00
0.85
0.80
PIN 1
INDICATOR
31
30
COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MO-220-VJJD-2
Figure 125. 40-Lead Lead Frame Chip Scale Package [LFCSP_VQ]
6 mm × 6 mm Body, Very Thin Quad
(CP-40-1)
Dimensions shown in millimeters
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
AD8264ACPZ 1
AD8264ACPZ-R71
AD8264ACPZ-RL1
AD8264-EVALZ1
1
Temperature Range
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
−40°C to +85°C
Package Description
40-Lead LFCSP_VQ
40-Lead LFCSP_VQ, 7” Tape and Reel
40-Lead LFCSP_VQ, 13” Tape and Reel
Evaluation Board
Z = RoHS Compliant Part.
Rev. 0 | Page 38 of 40
Package Option
CP-40-1
CP-40-1
CP-40-1
Branding
H1V
H1V
H1V
AD8264
NOTES
Rev. 0 | Page 39 of 40
AD8264
NOTES
©2009 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and
registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
D07736-0-5/09(0)
Rev. 0 | Page 40 of 40