AD AD8015

a
Wideband/Differential Output
Transimpedance Amplifier
AD8015
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM
FEATURES
Low Cost, Wide Bandwidth, Low Noise
Bandwidth: 240 MHz
Pulse Width Modulation: 500 ps
Rise Time/Fall Time: 1.5 ns
Input Current Noise: 3.0 pA/√Hz @ 100 MHz
Total Input RMS Noise: 26.5 nA to 100 MHz
Wide Dynamic Range
Optical Sensitivity: –36 dBm @ 155.52 Mbps
Peak Input Current: 6350 mA
Differential Outputs
Low Power: 5 V @ 25 mA
Wide Operating Temperature Range: –408C to +858C
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
The AD8015 is a wide bandwidth, single supply transimpedance
amplifier optimized for use in a fiber optic receiver circuit. It is a
complete, single chip solution for converting photodiode current
into a differential voltage output. The 240 MHz bandwidth enables
AD8015 application in FDDI receivers and SONET/SDH
receivers with data rates up to 155 Mbps. This high bandwidth
supports data rates beyond 300 Mbps. The differential outputs
drive ECL directly, or can drive a comparator/ fiber optic post
amplifier.
8 +VS
10kΩ
50Ω
IIN 2
7 +OUTPUT
+1
G = 30
G=3
NC 3
6 –OUTPUT
50Ω
+1
VBYP 4
– +
5 –VS
+VS
1.7V
NC = NO CONNECT
25.0E+3
DIFFERENTIAL
20.0E+3
X-RESISTANCE – Ω
APPLICATIONS
Fiber Optic Receivers: SONET/SDH, FDDI, Fibre Channel
Stable Operation with High Capacitance Detectors
Low Noise Preamplifiers
Single-Ended to Differential Conversion
I-to-V Converters
AD8015
NC 1
15.0E+3
SINGLE-ENDED
10.0E+3
5.0E+3
000.E+0
10.0E+6
100.0E+6
1.0E+9
FREQUENCY – Hz
Figure 1. Differential/Single-Ended Transimpedance vs.
Frequency
EQUIVALENT INPUT CURRENT NOISE – pA√ Hz
5.0
In addition to fiber optic applications, this low cost, silicon alternative to GaAs-based transimpedance amplifiers is ideal for
systems requiring a wide dynamic range preamplifier or singleended to differential conversion. The IC can be used with a
standard ECL power supply (–5.2 V) or a PECL (+5 V) power
supply; the common mode at the output is ECL compatible.
The AD8015 is available in die form, or in an 8-pin SOIC
package.
3.0pF
4.5
2.0pF
4.0
1.5pF
3.5
3.0
2.5
1.0pF
0.5pF
2.0
000.0E+0
20.0E+6
40.0E+6
60.0E+6
80.0E+6
100.0E+6
FREQUENCY – Hz
REV. A
Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and
reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its
use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties
which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or
otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices.
Figure 2. Noise vs. Frequency (SO-8 Package with
Added Capacitance)
© Analog Devices, Inc., 1996
One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, 02062-9106, U.S.A.
Tel: 617/329-4700
Fax: 617/326-8703
AD8015–SPECIFICATIONS (SO Package @ T = +258C and V
A
S
= +5 V, unless otherwise noted)
AD8015AR
Typ
Parameter
Conditions
Min
DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE
Bandwidth
Pulse Width Modulation
Rise and Fall Time
Settling Time1
3 dB
10 µA to 200 µA Peak
10% to 90%
to 3%, 0.5 V Diff Output Step
180
240
500
1.5
3
MHz
ps
ns
ns
± 2.5%, Nonlinearity
Saturation
155 Mbps, Avg Power
Die, by Design
SOIC, by Design
+VS to IIN and VBYP
± 25
± 200
± 30
± 350
–36
0.2
0.4
1.8
µA
µA
dBm
pF
pF
V
INPUT
Linear Input Current Range
Max Input Current Range
Optical Sensitivity
Input Stray Capacitance
Input Bias Voltage
NOISE
Input Current Noise
Total Input RMS Noise
TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS
Transresistance
Power Supply
Rejection Ratio
OUTPUT
Differential Offset
Output Common-Mode Voltage
Voltage Swing (Differential)
1.6
Die, Single Ended at POUT,
or Differential (POUT–NOUT),
CSTRAY = 0.3 pF
f = 100 MHz
DC to 100 MHz
POWER SUPPLY
Operating Range
8
16
From Positive Supply
Positive Input Current, RL = ∞
Positive Input Current, RL = 50 Ω
–1.5
40
TMIN to TMAX
Single Supply
Dual Supply
2.0
3.0
26.5
Single Ended
Differential
Single Ended
Differential
Output Impedance
Max
+4.5
± 2.25
Current
Units
pA/√Hz
nA
10
20
37.0
40
12
24
kΩ
kΩ
dB
dB
6
–1.3
1.0
600
50
20
–1.1
60
mV
V
V p-p
mV p-p
Ω
+5
+11
± 5.5
26
V
V
mA
25
NOTES
1
Settling Time is defined as the time elapsed from the application of a perfect step input to the time when the output has entered and remained within a specified error
band symmetrical about the final value. This parameter includes propagation delay, slew time, overload recovery, and linear settling times.
Specifications subject to change without notice.
NOTES
1
Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause
permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only and functional
operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the
operational section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute
maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
2
Specification is for device in free air: 8-pin SOIC package: θJA = 155°C/W.
ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS 1
Supply Voltage (+VS to –VS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 V
Internal Power Dissipation2
Small Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9 Watts
Output Short Circuit Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indefinite
Maximum Input Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 mA
Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . –65°C to +125°C
Operating Temperature Range (TMIN to TMAX)
AD8015ACHIP/AR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . –40°C to +85°C
Maximum Junction Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +165°C
Lead Temperature Range (Soldering 10 sec) . . . . . . . . +300°C
ORDERING GUIDE
Model
Temperature
Range
Package
Description
Package
Option
AD8015AR
–40°C to +85°C 8-Pin Plastic SOIC SO-8
AD8015ACHIPS –40°C to +85°C Die Form
CAUTION
ESD (electrostatic discharge) sensitive device. Electrostatic charges as high as 4000 V readily
accumulate on the human body and test equipment and can discharge without detection.
Although the AD8015 features proprietary ESD protection circuitry, permanent damage may
occur on devices subjected to high energy electrostatic discharges. Therefore, proper ESD
precautions are recommended to avoid performance degradation or loss of functionality.
–2–
WARNING!
ESD SENSITIVE DEVICE
REV. A
AD8015
PIN CONFIGURATION
+VS
+VS
1.7V
AD8015
AD8015
NC 1
1
8 +VS
2
7 +OUTPUT
+1
G=3
50Ω
– +
50Ω
R
CLOCK
RECOVERY
– +
4
+VS
CLK
DATA
QUANTIZER
+1
.
5 –VS
+VS
6
LPF:
[email protected]
0.7 x F
G=3
3
6 –OUTPUT
+1
VBYP 4
+1
G = 30
G = 30
NC 3
7
LPF:
R
[email protected]
0.7 x F
50Ω
50Ω
IIN 2
V1
8
10kΩ
10kΩ
R > 40Ω
C1 >100pF
4.5V < VS < 11V
5
1.7V
1.7V
C1
NC = NO CONNECT
Figure 3. Fiber Optic Receiver Application: Photodiode
Referred to Positive Supply
METALIZATION PHOTOGRAPH
Dimensions shown in microns. Not to scale.
OPTIONAL
+VS CONNECTION
+VS
IIN
PHOTODIODE REFERRED TO NEGATIVE SUPPLY
Figure 4 shows the AD8015 used in a circuit where the photodiode is referred to the negative supply. This results in a larger
back bias voltage than when referring the photodiode to the
positive supply. The larger back bias voltage on the photodiode
decreases the photodiode’s capacitance thereby increasing its
bandwidth. The R2, C2 network shown in Figure 4 is added to
decouple the photodiode to the positive supply. This improves
PSRR.
+OUTPUT
838µ
998µ
+VS
–OUTPUT
+VS
AD8015
1
+1
3
–VS
G=3
50Ω
– +
1.7V
973µ
+VS
5
R
R
CLOCK
RECOVERY
CLK
DATA
QUANTIZER
R > 40Ω
C1 >100pF
4.5V < VS < 11V
R2 AND C2 OPTIONAL
FOR IMPROVED PSRR
C1
NOTE:
FOR BEST PERFORMANCE ATTACH PACKAGE
SUBSTRATE TO +VS.
MATERIAL AT BACK OF DIE IS SILICON. USE OF
+VS OR –VS FOR DIE ATTACH IS ACCEPTABLE.
Figure 4. Fiber Optic Receiver Application: Photodiode
Referred to Negative Supply
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM NOISE PERFORMANCE
FIBER OPTIC RECEIVER APPLICATIONS
The AD8015 maintains 26.5 nA referred to input (RTI) to 100
MHz. Calculations below translate this specification into minimum power level and bit error rate specifications for SONET
and FDDI systems. The dominant sources of noise are: 10 kΩ
feedback resistor current noise, input bipolar transistor base
current noise, and input voltage noise.
In a fiber optic receiver, the photodiode can be placed from the
IIN pin to either the positive or negative supply. The AD8015
converts the current from the photodiode to a differential voltage in these applications. The voltage at the VBYP pin is ≈1.8 V
below the positive supply. This node must be bypassed with a
capacitor (C1 in Figures 3 and 4 below) to the signal ground. If
large levels of power supply noise exist, then connecting C1 to
+VS is recommended for improved noise immunity. For optimum performance, choose C1 such that C1 > 1/(2 π × 1000 ×
fMIN); where fMIN is the minimum useful
frequency in Hz.
The AD8015 has dielectrically isolated devices and bond pads
that minimize stray capacitance at the IIN pin. Input voltage
noise is negligible at lower frequencies, but can become the
dominant noise source at high frequencies due to IIN pin stray
capacitance. Minimizing the stray capacitance at the IIN pin is
critical to maintaining low noise levels at high frequencies. The
pins surrounding the IIN pin (Pins 1 and 3) have no internal
connection and should be left unconnected in an application.
This minimizes IIN pin package capacitance. It is best to have no
ground plane or metal runs near Pins 1, 2, and 3 and to minimize capacitance at the IIN pin.
PHOTODIODE REFERRED TO POSITIVE SUPPLY
Figure 3 shows the AD8015 used in a circuit where the photodiode is referred to the positive supply. The back bias voltage on
the photodiode is ≈1.8 V. This method of referring the photodiode provides greater power supply noise immunity (PSRR)
than referring the photodiode to the negative supply. The signal
path is referred to the positive rail, and the photodiode capacitance is not modulated by high frequency noise that may exist
on the negative rail.
REV. A
+1
4
813µ
6
LPF:
[email protected]
0.7 x F
G = 30
R2
VBYP
7
LPF:
[email protected]
0.7 x F
50Ω
2
+VS
1.7V
V1
8
10kΩ
C2
The AD8015AR (8-pin SOIC) IIN pin total stray capacitance is
0.4 pF without the photodiode. Photodiodes used for SONET
or FDDI systems typically add 0.3 pF, resulting in roughly
0.7 pF total stray capacitance.
–3–
AD8015
SONET OC-3 SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
Sensitivity (minimum power level) = 492/0.85 nW
OC-3 Minimum Bandwidth = 0.7 × 155 MHz ≈ 110 MHz
= 579 nW (peak)
Total Current Noise = (π/2) × 26.5 nA
= –32.4 dBm (peak)
= 42 nA (assuming single pole response)
= –35.4 dBm (average)
To maintain a BER < 1 × 10–10 (1 error per 10 billion bits):
The FDDI specification allows for a minimum power level of
–28 dBm peak, or –31 dBm average. Using the AD8015 provides 4.4 dB margin.
Minimum current level needs to be > 13 × Total Current Noise
= 541 nA (peak)
Assume a typical photodiode current/power conversion ratio
= 0.85 A/W
THEORY OF OPERATION
The simplified schematic is shown in Figure 5. Q1 and Q3 make
up the input stage, with Q3 running at 300 µA and Q1 running
at 2.7 mA. Q3 runs essentially as a grounded emitter. A large
capacitor (0.01 µF) placed from VBYP to the positive supply
shorts out the noise of R17, R21, and Q16. The first stage of the
amplifier (Q3, R2, Q4, and C1) functions as an integrator, integrating current into the IIN pin. The integrator drives a differential stage (Q5, Q6, R5, R3, and R4) with gains of +3 and –3.
The differential stage then drives emitter followers (Q41, Q42,
Q60 and Q61). The positive output of the differential stage provides the feedback by driving RFB. The differential outputs are
buffered using Q7 and Q8.
Sensitivity (minimum power level) = 541/0.85 nW
= 637 nW (peak)
= –32.0 dBm (peak)
= –35.0 dBm (average)
The SONET OC-3 specification allows for a minimum power
level of –31 dBm peak, or –34 dBm average. Using the AD8015
provides 1 dB margin.
FDDI SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
FDDI Minimum Bandwidth = 0.7 × 125 MHz ≈ 88 MHz
88 MHz
Total Current Noise = (π / 2) ×
The bandwidth of the AD8015 is set to within +20% of the
nominal value, 240 MHz, by factory trimming R5 to 60 Ω. The
following formula describes the AD8015 bandwidth:
× 26.5 nA
100 MHz
Bandwidth = 1/(2 π × C1 × RFB × (R5 + 2 re)/R4)
= 39 nA (assuming single pole response)
To maintain a BER < 2.5 × 10
–10
where re (of Q5 and Q6) = 9 Ω each, constant over temperature,
and RFB/R4 = 43.5, constant over temperature.
(1 error per 4 billion bits):
The bandwidth equation simplifies, and the bandwidth depends
only on the value of C1:
Minimum current level needs to be > 12.6 × Total Current Noise
= 492 nA (peak)
Bandwidth = 1/(2 π × 3393 × C1).
Assume a typical photodiode current/power conversion ratio
= 0.85 A/W
+VS
R17
635
R1
300
R2
3k
R3
230
R4
230
Q4
R21
1.8k
VBYP
Q16
330
Q42
Q41
INPUT
CLAMPS
+OUTPUT
Q8
R44 50
Q60
Q7
IIN
Q1 Q3
Q5
Q6
C1 0.2pF
330
+VS
–OUTPUT
R5 60
I10
0.75MA
Q61
Q56
R43 50
RFB
10k
I1
1.5MA
I2
3MA
I3
1MA
I4
3MA
I5
3MA
I6
1MA
I7
1MA
I8
1MA
I9
1MA
–VS
Figure 5. AD8015 Simplified Schematiic
–4–
REV. A
AD8015
1.5
9
+85°C
+85°C
+ 25°C
0.5
– 40°C
–40°C AND 0°C
GAIN – dB
OUTPUT VOLTAGE – Volts
1.0
0
5
4k
–0.5
VOUT
0
IN
50Ω
AD8015
–1.0
–1.5
–100
–80
–60
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
1
INPUT CURRENT – µA
10
Figure 6. Differential Output vs. Input Current
Figure 9. Gain vs. Frequency
0
10
+85°C
+25°C
PIN 7
GROUP DELAY – ns
OUTPUT VOLTAGE – Volts
–0.5
–1.0
–40°C
–1.5
1000
100
FREQUENCY – MHz
–40°C
PIN 6
5V, +25°C
0
–2.0
+25°C
+85°C
–2.5
–100
–80
–60
–40
–20
0
20
40
60
80
100
10
100
INPUT CURRENT – µA
1000
FREQUENCY – MHz
Figure 10. Group Delay vs. Frequency
Figure 7. Single-Ended Output vs. Input Current
9.0
300
290
8.5
280
11.0V
8.0
7.5
260
GAIN – dB
BANDWIDTH – MHz
270
250
240
5.0V
4.5V
7.0
6.5
230
6.0
220
210
5.5
200
–40
–30 –20 –10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
5.0
10.0E+6
80
TEMPERATURE – °C
100.0E+6
1.0E+9
FREQUENCY – Hz
Figure 8. Bandwidth vs. Temperature
REV. A
Figure 11. Differential Gain vs. Supply
–5–
AD8015
APPLICATION
155 Mbps Fiber Optic Receiver
100
The AD8015 and AD807 can be used together for a complete
155 Mbps Fiber Optic Receiver (Transimpedance Amplifier,
Post Amplifier with Signal Detect Output, and Clock Recovery
and Data Retiming) as shown in Figure 16.
PIN 7
The PIN diode front end is connected to a single mode, 1300 nm
laser source. The PIN diode has 3.3 V reverse bias, 0.8 A/W
responsivity, 0.7 pF capacitance, and 2.5 GHz bandwidth.
50
PIN 6
The AD8015 outputs (POUT and NOUT) drive a differential, constant impedance (50 Ω) low-pass π filter with a 3 dB cutoff of
100 MHz. The outputs of the low-pass filter are ac coupled to
the AD807 inputs (PIN and NIN). The AD807 PLL damping
factor is set at 10 using a 0.22 µF capacitor.
0
1
10
1000
100
FREQUENCY – MHz
The entire circuit was enclosed in a shielded box. Table I summarizes results of tests performed using a 223–1 PRN sequence,
and varying the average power at the PIN diode.
Figure 12. Output Impedance vs. Frequency
The circuit acquires and maintains lock with an average input
power as low as –39.25 dBm.
100
30 DEVICES, 2 LOTS:
(+OUT, –OUT) × (25°C, –40°C, 85°C) × (5V, 4.5V, 11.0V)
100
90
70
80
0
POPULATION – Parts
VOLTAGE – mV
80
–100
0
10
60
70
50
60
40
50
40
30
30
20
20
20
TIME – ns
10
10
0
0
200.000E+6
205.000E+6
210.000E+6
215.000E+6
220.000E+6
225.000E+6
230.000E+6
235.000E+6
240.000E+6
245.000E+6
250.000E+6
255.000E+6
260.000E+6
265.000E+6
270.000E+6
275.000E+6
280.000E+6
285.000E+6
290.000E+6
295.000E+6
300.000E+6
Figure 13. Small Signal Pulse Response
2
0
CUMULATIVE – %
IMPEDANCE – Ω
5V, +25°C
FREQUENCY – Hz
1pF
–2
GAIN – dB
Figure 15. Bandwidth Distribution Matrix
–4
5pF
0pF
–6
8pF
3pF
–8
–10
–12
10.0E+6
100.0E+6
1.0E+9
FREQUENCY – Hz
Figure 14. Differential Gain vs. Input Capacitance
–6–
REV. A
AD8015
C1
0.1µF
SDOUT
TP7
TP8
DATAOUTN
DATAOUTP
C2
R1 R2
0.1µF 100 100
C3
0.1µF
C4
0.1µF
R11 R10
154 154
R5 100
R6 100
R8 100
CLKOUTP
C5
0.1µF
C8
R4
100
R11
154
1
DATAOUTN
2
DATAOUTP
3
VCC2
4
CLKOUTN
5
CLKOUTP
6
VCC1
7
CF1
C7
R7 100
CLKOUTN
R3
100
C1
100pF
R12
154
C6
0.1µF
TP1
CD
8
TP2
DAMPING
CAP,0.22µF
GND
TP4
16
R17
3.65k
SDOUT 15
C11
VEE
AVCC
14
PIN
13
NIN
12
AVCC
11
THRADJ
10
CF2
AD807
R13
THRADJ
TP5
C15
0.1µF
10µF
1 NC
+VS
8
2 IIN
+OUT
7
3 NC
–OUT
6
–VS
5
150nH
15pF
VBYP
150nH 15pF
AD8015
NC = NO CONNECT
0.1µF
0.01µF
Figure 16. 155 Mbps Fiber Optic Receiver Schematic
Table I. AD8015, AD807 Fiber Optic Receiver Circuit:
Output Bit Error Rate & Output Jitter vs. Average Input Power
REV. A
Average Optical
Input Power (dBm)
Output Bit
Error Rate
Output Jitter
(ps rms)
–6.4
–6.45
–6.50
–6.60
–6.70
–7.0 to
–35.50
–36.00
–36.50
–37.00
–37.50
–38.00
–38.50
–39.00
–39.1
–39.20
–39.25
–39.30
Loses Lock
1.2 × 10–2
7.5 × 10–3
9.4 × 10–4
1 × 10–14
1 × 10–14
< 40
3.0 × 10–12
4.8 × 10–10
2.8 × 10–8
8.2 × 10–7
1.3 × 10–5
1.1 × 10–4
1.0 × 10–3
1.3 × 10–3
1.9 × 10–3
2.2 × 10–3
Loses Lock
–7–
R15
50
TP6
100
pF
0.1µF
4
C13
0.1µF
C10
5V
TP3
0.8 A/W, 0.7pF
2.5GHz
R16
301
R14
50
C9
10µF
ABB HAFO
1A227
FC HOUSING
NOTES
1. ALL CAPS ARE CHIP,
15pF ARE MICA.
2. 150 nH ARE SMT
9
AVEE
C12
2.2µF
< 40
C14
0.1µF
50Ω
LINE
50Ω
LINE
AC COUPLED PHOTODIODE APPLICATION FOR
IMPROVED DYNAMIC RANGE
and typical sensitivity of –35 dBm. AC coupling the input also
results in improved pulse width modulation performance.
AC coupling the photodiode current input to the AD8015 (Figure 17) extends fiber optic receiver overload by 3 dB while sacrificing only 1 dB of sensitivity (increasing receiver dynamic range
by 2 dB). This application results in typical overload of –4 dBm,
Careful attention to minimize parasitic capacitance at the
AD8015 input (from the photodetector input), RAC and CAC are
critical for sensitivity performance in this application. Note that
CAC of 0.01 µF was chosen for a low frequency cutoff equal to
2.2 kHz.
+VS
+VS
AD8015
1
7
LPF:
R
[email protected]
0.7 x F
6
LPF:
[email protected]
0.7 x F
50Ω
2
RAC
7k
V1
8
10kΩ
CAC
+1
G = 30
0.01µF
G=3
3
50Ω
R
CLOCK
RECOVERY
– +
+VS
CLK
DATA
QUANTIZER
+1
4
C1973–6–1/96
AD8015
R > 40Ω
C1 >100pF
4.5V < VS < 11V
5
1.7V
C1
Figure 17. AC Coupled Photodiode Application for Improved Dynamic Range
OUTLINE DIMENSIONS
Dimensions shown in inches and (mm).
8-Lead Small Outline IC Package (SO-8)
0.1968 (5.00)
0.1890 (4.80)
0.1574 (4.00)
0.1497 (3.80)
PIN 1
0.0098 (0.25)
8
5
1
4
0.2440 (6.20)
0.2284 (5.80)
0.0688 (1.75)
0.0196 (0.50)
0.0532 (1.35)
0.0099 (0.25)
x 45°
0.0040 (0.10)
0.0500 0.020 (0.51)
(1.27) 0.013 (0.33)
BSC
0.0098 (0.25)
8°
0° 0.0500 (1.27)
0.0075 (0.19)
0.0160 (0.41)
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
SEATING
PLANE
–8–
REV. A