250 MHz, Voltage Output, 4-Quadrant Multiplier AD835 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM FEATURES Simple: basic function is W = XY + Z Complete: minimal external components required Very fast: Settles to 0.1% of full scale (FS) in 20 ns DC-coupled voltage output simplifies use High differential input impedance X, Y, and Z inputs Low multiplier noise: 50 nV/√Hz X1 AD835 X = X1 – X2 X2 XY + XY + Z X1 W OUTPUT + Y2 Y = Y1 – Y2 Z INPUT APPLICATIONS 00883-001 Y1 Figure 1. Very fast multiplication, division, squaring Wideband modulation and demodulation Phase detection and measurement Sinusoidal frequency doubling Video gain control and keying Voltage-controlled amplifiers and filters GENERAL DESCRIPTION PRODUCT HIGHLIGHTS The AD835 is a complete four-quadrant, voltage output analog multiplier, fabricated on an advanced dielectrically isolated complementary bipolar process. It generates the linear product of its X and Y voltage inputs with a −3 dB output bandwidth of 250 MHz (a small signal rise time of 1 ns). Full-scale (−1 V to +1 V) rise to fall times are 2.5 ns (with a standard RL of 150 Ω), and the settling time to 0.1% under the same conditions is typically 20 ns. 1. Its differential multiplication inputs (X, Y) and its summing input (Z) are at high impedance. The low impedance output voltage (W) can provide up to ±2.5 V and drive loads as low as 25 Ω. Normal operation is from ±5 V supplies. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The AD835 is the first monolithic 250 MHz, four-quadrant voltage output multiplier. Minimal external components are required to apply the AD835 to a variety of signal processing applications. High input impedances (100 kΩ||2 pF) make signal source loading negligible. High output current capability allows low impedance loads to be driven. State-of-the-art noise levels achieved through careful device optimization and the use of a special low noise, band gap voltage reference. Designed to be easy to use and cost effective in applications that require the use of hybrid or board-level solutions. Though providing state-of-the-art speed, the AD835 is simple to use and versatile. For example, as well as permitting the addition of a signal at the output, the Z input provides the means to operate the AD835 with voltage gains up to about ×10. In this capacity, the very low product noise of this multiplier (50 nV/√Hz) makes it much more useful than earlier products. The AD835 is available in an 8-lead PDIP package (N) and an 8-lead SOIC package (R) and is specified to operate over the −40°C to +85°C industrial temperature range. Rev. D Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog Devices for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights of third parties that may result from its use. Specifications subject to change without notice. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Analog Devices. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. One Technology Way, P.O. Box 9106, Norwood, MA 02062-9106, U.S.A. Tel: 781.329.4700 www.analog.com Fax: 781.461.3113 ©1994–2010 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. AD835 TABLE OF CONTENTS Features .............................................................................................. 1 Typical Performance Characteristics ..............................................7 Applications....................................................................................... 1 Theory of Operation ...................................................................... 10 General Description ......................................................................... 1 Basic Theory ............................................................................... 10 Functional Block Diagram .............................................................. 1 Scaling Adjustment .................................................................... 10 Product Highlights ........................................................................... 1 Applications Information .............................................................. 11 Revision History ............................................................................... 2 Multiplier Connections ............................................................. 11 Specifications..................................................................................... 3 Wideband Voltage-Controlled Amplifier ............................... 11 Absolute Maximum Ratings............................................................ 5 Amplitude Modulator................................................................ 11 Thermal Resistance ...................................................................... 5 Squaring and Frequency Doubling.......................................... 12 ESD Caution.................................................................................. 5 Outline Dimensions ....................................................................... 13 Pin Configuration and Function Descriptions............................. 6 Ordering Guide .......................................................................... 14 REVISION HISTORY 12/10—Rev. C to Rev. D Changes to Figure 1.......................................................................... 1 Changes to Absolute Maximum Ratings and Table 2.................. 5 Added Figure 19, Renumbered Subsequent Tables.................... 10 Added Figure 23.............................................................................. 11 10/09—Rev. B to Rev. C Updated Format..................................................................Universal Changes to Figure 22...................................................................... 11 Updated Outline Dimensions ....................................................... 13 Changes to Ordering Guide .......................................................... 14 6/03—Rev. A to Rev. B Updated Format..................................................................Universal Updated Outline Dimensions ....................................................... 10 Rev. D | Page 2 of 16 AD835 SPECIFICATIONS TA = 25°C, VS = ±5 V, RL = 150 Ω, CL ≤ 5 pF, unless otherwise noted. Table 1. Parameter TRANSFER FUNCTION INPUT CHARACTERISTICS (X, Y) Differential Voltage Range Differential Clipping Level Low Frequency Nonlinearity vs. Temperature Common-Mode Voltage Range Offset Voltage vs. Temperature CMRR Bias Current vs. Temperature Offset Bias Current Differential Resistance Single-Sided Capacitance Feedthrough, X Feedthrough, Y DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS −3 dB Small Signal Bandwidth −0.1 dB Gain Flatness Frequency Slew Rate Differential Gain Error, X Differential Phase Error, X Differential Gain Error, Y Differential Phase Error, Y Harmonic Distortion Settling Time, X or Y SUMMING INPUT (Z) Gain −3 dB Small Signal Bandwidth Differential Input Resistance Single-Sided Capacitance Maximum Gain Bias Current Conditions Min W= VCM = 0 V ±1.2 1 X = ±1 V, Y = 1 V Y = ±1 V, X = 1 V TMIN to TMAX 2 X = ±1 V, Y = 1 V Y = ±1 V, X = 1 V Typ U ±1 ±1.4 0.3 0.1 −2.5 ±3 TMIN to TMAX2 f ≤ 100 kHz; ±1 V p-p Max ( X1 − X 2)(Y 1 − Y 2) +Z 0.51 0.31 0.7 0.5 +3 ±201 ±25 701 10 TMIN to TMAX2 201 27 2 100 2 −461 −601 X = ±1 V, Y = 0 V Y = ±1 V, X = 0 V 150 W = −2.5 V to +2.5 V f = 3.58 MHz f = 3.58 MHz f = 3.58 MHz f = 3.58 MHz X or Y = 10 dBm, second and third harmonic Fund = 10 MHz Fund = 50 MHz To 0.1%, W = 2 V p-p From Z to W, f ≤ 10 MHz X, Y to W, Z shorted to W, f = 1 kHz Rev. D | Page 3 of 16 0.990 Unit V V % FS % FS % FS % FS V mV mV dB μA μA μA kΩ pF dB dB 250 15 1000 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 MHz MHz V/μs % Degrees % Degrees −70 −40 20 dB dB ns 0.995 250 60 2 50 50 MHz kΩ pF dB μA AD835 Parameter OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS Voltage Swing vs. Temperature Voltage Noise Spectral Density Offset Voltage vs. Temperature 3 Short-Circuit Current Scale Factor Error vs. Temperature Linearity (Relative Error) 4 vs. Temperature POWER SUPPLIES Supply Voltage For Specified Performance Quiescent Supply Current vs. Temperature PSRR at Output vs. VP PSRR at Output vs. VN Conditions TMIN to TMAX2 X = Y = 0 V, f < 10 MHz Min Typ ±2.2 ±2.0 ±2.5 50 ±25 2 MAX TMIN to T 75 ±5 2 MAX TMIN to T ±0.5 TMIN to TMAX2 ±4.5 ±5 16 TMIN to TMAX2 +4.5 V to +5.5 V −4.5 V to −5.5 V 1 All minimum and maximum specifications are guaranteed. These specifications are tested on all production units at final electrical test. TMIN = −40°C, TMAX = 85°C. 3 Normalized to zero at 25°C. 4 Linearity is defined as residual error after compensating for input offset, output voltage offset, and scale factor errors. 2 Rev. D | Page 4 of 16 Max Unit ±81 ±9 ±1.01 ±1.25 V V nV/√Hz mV mV mA % FS % FS % FS % FS ±5.5 251 26 0.51 0.5 V mA mA %/V %/V ±751 ±10 AD835 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS THERMAL RESISTANCE Table 2. Parameter Supply Voltage Internal Power Dissipation Operating Temperature Range Storage Temperature Range Lead Temperature, Soldering 60 sec ESD Rating HBM CDM Rating ±6 V 300 mW −40°C to +85°C −65°C to +150°C 300°C Table 3. Package Type 8-Lead PDIP (N) 8-Lead SOIC (R) ESD CAUTION 1500 V 250 V Stresses above those listed under Absolute Maximum Ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress rating only; functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational section of this specification is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability. For more information, see the Analog Devices, Inc., Tutorial MT-092, Electrostatic Discharge. Rev. D | Page 5 of 16 θJA 90 115 θJC 35 45 Unit °C/W °C/W AD835 Y1 1 8 X1 Y2 2 AD835 7 X2 VN 3 TOP VIEW (Not to Scale) 6 VP Z 4 5 W 00883-002 PIN CONFIGURATION AND FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS Figure 2. Pin Configuration Table 4. Pin Function Descriptions Pin No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mnemonic Y1 Y2 VN Z W VP X2 X1 Description Noninverting Y Multiplicand Input Inverting Y Multiplicand Input Negative Supply Voltage Summing Input Product Positive Supply Voltage Inverting X Multiplicand Input Noninverting X Multiplicand Input Rev. D | Page 6 of 16 AD835 TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS COMPOSITE Wfm → FCC 0.16 0.19 0.20 X, Y CH = 0dBm RL = 150Ω CL ≤ 5pF 0.2 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 5TH 6TH 0 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.06 MAGNITUDE (dB) –0.2 –0.2 –0.3 –0.4 0.2 –0.6 0 MIN = 0 MAX = 0.06 p-p = 0.06 –0.1 –0.2 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 5TH 300k DG DP (NTSC) 0 Wfm → FCC 0 –0.20 X, Y CH = 5dBm RL = 150Ω CL < 5pF MIN = –0.02 MAX = 0.01 p-p/MAX = 0.03 –10 MAGNITUDE (dB) –0.1 –0.2 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 5TH 6TH 0 0.03 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.16 –20 Y FEEDTHROUGH –30 –40 X FEEDTHROUGH –50 X FEEDTHROUGH –60 0.10 Y FEEDTHROUGH MIN = 0 MAX = 0.16 p-p = 0.16 0 –0.10 –0.20 1G FREQUENCY (Hz) 0 0.20 100M COMPOSITE –0.01 0.1 10M Figure 6. Gain Flatness to 0.1 dB 1ST 2ND 3RD 4TH 5TH 00883-004 DIFFERENTIAL GAIN (%) 0.01 0.2 –0.3 DIFFERENTIAL PHASE (DEGREES) FIELD = 1 LINE = 18 0 1M 6TH Figure 3. Typical Composite Output Differential Gain and Phase, NTSC for X Channel; f = 3.58 MHz, RL = 150 Ω 0.3 00883-006 –0.5 0.1 –0.3 –0.1 1M 10M 00883-007 0.3 0 MIN = 0 MAX = 0.2 p-p/MAX = 0.2 0 –0.4 DIFFERENTIAL PHASE (Degrees) FIELD = 1 LINE = 18 0.06 0.11 00883-003 DIFFERENTIAL GAIN (%) DG DP (NTSC) 0 0.4 100M 1G FREQUENCY (Hz) 6TH Figure 4. Typical Composite Output Differential Gain and Phase, NTSC for Y Channel; f = 3.58 MHz, RL = 150 Ω Figure 7. X and Y Feedthrough vs. Frequency X, Y, Z CH = 0dBm RL = 150Ω CL ≤ 5pF 90 –2 0 PHASE –4 –90 –6 –180 +0.2V PHASE (Degrees) 0 180 GAIN GND –0.2V –10 1M 10M 100M FREQUENCY (Hz) 100mV 10ns 00883-008 –8 00883-005 MAGNITUDE (dB) 2 1G Figure 5. Gain and Phase vs. Frequency of X, Y, Z Inputs Figure 8. Small Signal Pulse Response at W Output, RL = 150 Ω, CL ≤ 5 pF, X Channel = ±0.2 V, Y Channel = ±1.0 V Rev. D | Page 7 of 16 AD835 10MHz +1V GND 10dB/DIV –1V 30MHz 10ns 00883-012 500mV 00883-009 20MHz Figure 9. Large Signal Pulse Response at W Output, RL = 150 Ω, CL ≤ 5 pF, X Channel = ±1.0 V, Y Channel = ±1.0 V Figure 12. Harmonic Distortion at 10 MHz; 10 dBm Input to X or Y Channels, RL = 150 Ω, CL = ≤ 5 pF 50MHz 20 40 60 CMRR (dB) 0 10dB/DIV 100MHz 150MHz 1M 10M 100M FREQUENCY (Hz) 00883-013 00883-010 80 1G Figure 10. CMRR vs. Frequency for X or Y Channel, RL = 150 Ω, CL ≤ 5 pF Figure 13. Harmonic Distortion at 50 MHz, 10 dBm Input to X or Y Channel, RL = 150 Ω, CL ≤ 5 pF 0dBm ON SUPPLY X, Y = 1V 100MHz PSSR ON V+ –10 –30 200MHz –40 10dB/DIV –50 300MHz PSSR ON V– –60 300k 1M 10M 100M FREQUENCY (Hz) Figure 11. PSRR vs. Frequency for V+ and V– Supply 00883-014 00883-011 PSSR (dB) –20 1G Figure 14. Harmonic Distortion at 100 MHz, 10 dBm Input to X or Y Channel, RL = 150 Ω, CL ≤ 5 pF Rev. D | Page 8 of 16 AD835 THIRD ORDER INTERCEPT (dBm) 35 +2.5V 10dB/DIV –2.5V 20 15 10 0 00883-017 10ns 25 5 00883-015 1V X CH = 6dBm Y CH = 10dBm RL = 100Ω 30 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 RF FREQUENCY INPUT TO X CHANNEL (MHz) Figure 15. Maximum Output Voltage Swing, RL = 50 Ω, CL ≤ 5 pF Figure 17. Fixed LO on Y Channel vs. RF Frequency Input to X Channel 35 15 OUTPUT OFFSET DRIFT WILL TYPICALLY BE WITHIN SHADED AREA THIRD ORDER INTERCEPT (dBm) 5 0 –5 –10 25 20 15 10 –35 –15 5 25 45 65 85 105 00883-016 5 OUTPUT VOS DRIFT, NORMALIZED TO 0 AT 25°C –15 –55 X CH = 6dBm Y CH = 10dBm RL = 100Ω 30 0 125 00883-018 VOS OUTPUT DRIFT (mV) 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 LO FREQUENCY ON Y CHANNEL (MHz) TEMPERATURE (°C) Figure 18. Fixed IF vs. LO Frequency on Y Channel Figure 16. VOS Output Drift vs. Temperature Rev. D | Page 9 of 16 200 AD835 THEORY OF OPERATION The AD835 is a four-quadrant, voltage output analog multiplier, fabricated on an advanced dielectrically isolated complementary bipolar process. In its basic mode, it provides the linear product of its X and Y voltage inputs. In this mode, the −3 dB output voltage bandwidth is 250 MHz (with small signal rise time of 1 ns). Full-scale (−1 V to +1 V) rise to fall times are 2.5 ns (with a standard RL of 150 Ω), and the settling time to 0.1% under the same conditions is typically 20 ns. As in earlier multipliers from Analog Devices a unique summing feature is provided at the Z input. As well as providing independent ground references for the input and the output and enhanced versatility, this feature allows the AD835 to operate with voltage gain. Its X-, Y-, and Z-input voltages are all nominally ±1 V FS, with an overrange of at least 20%. The inputs are fully differential at high impedance (100 kΩ||2 pF) and provide a 70 dB CMRR (f ≤ 1 MHz). The low impedance output is capable of driving loads as small as 25 Ω. The peak output can be as large as ±2.2 V minimum for RL = 150 Ω, or ±2.0 V minimum into RL = 50 Ω. The AD835 has much lower noise than the AD534 or AD734, making it attractive in low level, signal processing applications, for example, as a wideband gain control element or modulator. avoid the needless use of less intuitive subscripted variables (such as, VX1). All variables as being normalized to 1 V. For example, the input X can either be stated as being in the −1 V to +1 V range or simply –1 to +1. The latter representation is found to facilitate the development of new functions using the AD835. The explicit inclusion of the denominator, U, is also less helpful, as in the case of the AD835, if it is not an electrical input variable. SCALING ADJUSTMENT The basic value of U in Equation 1 is nominally 1.05 V. Figure 20, which shows the basic multiplier connections, also shows how the effective value of U can be adjusted to have any lower voltage (usually 1 V) through the use of a resistive divider between W (Pin 5) and Z (Pin 4). Using the general resistor values shown, Equation 1can be rewritten as W= XY + kW + (1 − k )Z ' U (3) where Z' is distinguished from the signal Z at Pin 4. It follows that W= XY + Z' (1 − k )U (4) In this way, the effective value of U can be modified to U’ = (1 − k)U BASIC THEORY (5) The multiplier is based on a classic form, having a translinear core, supported by three (X, Y, and Z) linearized voltage-to-current converters, and the load driving output amplifier. The scaling voltage (the denominator U in the equations) is provided by a band gap reference of novel design, optimized for ultralow noise. Figure 19 shows the functional block diagram. without altering the scaling of the Z' input, which is expected because the only ground reference for the output is through the Z' input. In general terms, the AD835 provides the function In many applications, the exact gain of the multiplier may not be very important; in which case, this network may be omitted entirely, or R2 fixed at 100 Ω. ( X1 − X 2)(Y 1 − Y 2) U +Z (1) +5V where the variables W, U, X, Y, and Z are all voltages. Connected as a simple multiplier, with X = X1 − X2, Y = Y1 − Y2, and Z = 0 and with a scale factor adjustment (see Figure 19) that sets U = 1 V, the output can be expressed as W = XY X1 FB 4.7μF TANTALUM + (2) X2 XY + XY + Z W 8 7 6 5 X1 X2 VP W AD835 X1 W OUTPUT + Y1 Y2 VN Z 1 2 3 4 Y Y = Y1 – Y2 Z INPUT R1 = (1–k) R 2kΩ Y1 + 00883-025 Y2 0.01μF CERAMIC X AD835 X = X1 – X2 R2 = kR 200Ω 4.7μF TANTALUM 0.01μF CERAMIC Z1 FB Figure 19. Functional Block Diagram Simplified representations of this sort, where all signals are presumed expressed in V, are used throughout this data sheet to Rev. D | Page 10 of 16 –5V Figure 20. Multiplier Connections 00883-020 W= Therefore, to set U' to 1 V, remembering that the basic value of U is 1.05 V, R1 must have a nominal value of 20 × R2. The values shown allow U to be adjusted through the nominal range of 0.95 V to 1.05 V. That is, R2 provides a 5% gain adjustment. AD835 APPLICATIONS INFORMATION The AD835 is easy to use and versatile. The capability for adding another signal to the output at the Z input is frequently valuable. Three applications of this feature are presented here: a wideband voltage-controlled amplifier, an amplitude modulator, and a frequency doubler. Of course, the AD835 may also be used as a square law detector (with its X inputs and Y inputs connected in parallel). In this mode, it is useful at input frequencies to well over 250 MHz because that is the bandwidth limitation of the output amplifier only. The ac response of this amplifier for gains of 0 dB (VG = 0.25 V), 6 dB (VG = 0.5 V), and 12 dB (VG = 1 V) is shown in Figure 22. In this application, the resistor values have been slightly adjusted to reflect the nominal value of U = 1.05 V. The overall sign of the gain may be controlled by the sign of VG. 21 18 15 12dB (VG = 1V) 12 GAIN (dB) MULTIPLIER CONNECTIONS Figure 20 shows the basic connections for multiplication. The inputs are often single sided, in which case the X2 and Y2 inputs are normally grounded. Note that by assigning Pin 7 (X2) and Pin 2 (Y2), respectively, to these (inverting) inputs, an extra measure of isolation between inputs and output is provided. The X and Y inputs may be reversed to achieve some desired overall sign with inputs of a particular polarity, or they may be driven fully differentially. 9 6dB (VG = 0.5V) 6 3 0dB (VG = 0.25V) 0 –3 –9 10k 100k 1M FREQUENCY (Hz) 10M Figure 22. AC Response of VCA Power supply decoupling and careful board layout are always important in applying wideband circuits. The decoupling recommendations shown in Figure 20 should be followed closely. In Figure 21, Figure 23, and Figure 24, these power supply decoupling components are omitted for clarity but should be used wherever optimal performance with high speed inputs is required. However, if the full, high frequency capabilities of the AD835 are not being exploited, these components can be omitted. AMPLITUDE MODULATOR WIDEBAND VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED AMPLIFIER Figure 21 shows the AD835 configured to provide a gain of nominally 0 dB to 12 dB. (In fact, the control range extends from well under –12 dB to about +14 dB.) R1 and R2 set the gain to be nominally ×4. The attendant bandwidth reduction that comes with this increased gain can be partially offset by the addition of the peaking capacitor C1. Although this circuit shows the use of dual supplies, the AD835 can operate from a single 9 V supply with a slight revision. Figure 23 shows a simple modulator. The carrier is applied to the Y input and the Z input, while the modulating signal is applied to the X input. For zero modulation, there is no product term so the carrier input is simply replicated at unity gain by the voltage follower action from the Z input. At X = 1 V, the RF output is doubled, while for X = –1 V, it is fully suppressed. That is, an X input of approximately ±1 V (actually ±U or about 1.05 V) corresponds to a modulation index of 100%. Carrier and modulation frequencies can be up to 300 MHz, somewhat beyond the nominal −3 dB bandwidth. Of course, a suppressed carrier modulator can be implemented by omitting the feedforward to the Z input, grounding that pin instead. +5V MODULATION SOURCE +5V 8 7 6 5 X1 X2 VP W Y1 Y2 VN Z 1 2 3 4 AD835 VG (GAIN CONTROL) VOLTAGE OUTPUT 6 5 X1 X2 VP W Y1 Y2 VN Z 1 2 3 4 AD835 VIN (SIGNAL) MODULATED CARRIER OUTPUT R1 97.6Ω –5V C1 33pF CARRIER SOURCE R2 301Ω –5V Figure 21. Voltage-Controlled 50 MHz Amplifier Using the AD835 Rev. D | Page 11 of 16 Figure 23. Simple Amplitude Modulator Using the AD835 00883-026 7 00883-021 8 100M 00883-022 –6 AD835 SQUARING AND FREQUENCY DOUBLING C1 Amplitude domain squaring of an input signal, E, is achieved simply by connecting the X and Y inputs in parallel to produce an output of E2/U. The input can have either polarity, but the output in this case is always positive. The output polarity can be reversed by interchanging either the X or Y inputs. VOLTAGE OUTPUT U = Figure 24 shows a frequency doubler that overcomes this limitation and provides a relatively constant output over a moderately wide frequency range, determined by the time constant R1C1. The voltage applied to the X and Y inputs is exactly in quadrature at a frequency f = ½πC1R1, and their amplitudes are equal. At higher frequencies, the X input becomes smaller while the Y input increases in amplitude; the opposite happens at lower frequencies. The result is a double frequency output centered on ground whose amplitude of 1 V for a 1 V input varies by only 0.5% over a frequency range of ±10%. Because there is no squared dc component at the output, sudden changes in the input amplitude do not cause a bounce in the dc level. 6 5 X1 X2 VP W R2 97.6Ω Y1 Y2 VN Z 1 2 3 4 R1 –5V R3 301Ω Figure 24. Broadband Zero-Bounce Frequency Doubler (6) While useful, Equation 6 shows a dc term at the output, which varies strongly with the amplitude of the input, E. 7 00883-024 E2 (1 − cos 2ωt ) 2U 8 AD835 When the input is a sine wave E sin ωt, a signal squarer behaves as a frequency doubler because ( E sin ωt )2 +5V VG This circuit is based on the identity 1 cos θ sin θ = sin 2θ 2 (7) At ωO = 1/C1R1, the X input leads the input signal by 45° (and is attenuated by √2, while the Y input lags the input signal by 45° and is also attenuated by √2. Because the X and Y inputs are 90° out of phase, the response of the circuit is W= 1 E E E2 (sin ωt − 45°) (sin ωt + 45°) = (sin 2ωt ) U 2 2 2U (8) which has no dc component, R2 and R3 are included to restore the output to 1 V for an input amplitude of 1 V (the same gain adjustment as previously mentioned). Because the voltage across the capacitor (C1) decreases with frequency, while that across the resistor (R1) increases, the amplitude of the output varies only slightly with frequency. In fact, it is only 0.5% below its full value (at its center frequency ωO = 1/C1R1) at 90% and 110% of this frequency. Rev. D | Page 12 of 16 AD835 OUTLINE DIMENSIONS 0.400 (10.16) 0.365 (9.27) 0.355 (9.02) 8 5 1 4 0.280 (7.11) 0.250 (6.35) 0.240 (6.10) 0.100 (2.54) BSC 0.325 (8.26) 0.310 (7.87) 0.300 (7.62) 0.060 (1.52) MAX 0.210 (5.33) MAX 0.015 (0.38) MIN 0.150 (3.81) 0.130 (3.30) 0.115 (2.92) SEATING PLANE 0.022 (0.56) 0.018 (0.46) 0.014 (0.36) 0.195 (4.95) 0.130 (3.30) 0.115 (2.92) 0.015 (0.38) GAUGE PLANE 0.014 (0.36) 0.010 (0.25) 0.008 (0.20) 0.430 (10.92) MAX 0.005 (0.13) MIN 0.070 (1.78) 0.060 (1.52) 0.045 (1.14) 070606-A COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-001 CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES; MILLIMETER DIMENSIONS (IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF INCH EQUIVALENTS FOR REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN. CORNER LEADS MAY BE CONFIGURED AS WHOLE OR HALF LEADS. Figure 25. 8-Lead Plastic Dual In-Line Package [PDIP] Narrow Body (N-8) Dimensions shown in inches and (millimeters) 5.00 (0.1968) 4.80 (0.1890) 1 5 4 1.27 (0.0500) BSC 0.25 (0.0098) 0.10 (0.0040) COPLANARITY 0.10 SEATING PLANE 6.20 (0.2441) 5.80 (0.2284) 1.75 (0.0688) 1.35 (0.0532) 0.51 (0.0201) 0.31 (0.0122) 0.50 (0.0196) 0.25 (0.0099) 45° 8° 0° 0.25 (0.0098) 0.17 (0.0067) 1.27 (0.0500) 0.40 (0.0157) COMPLIANT TO JEDEC STANDARDS MS-012-AA CONTROLLING DIMENSIONS ARE IN MILLIMETERS; INCH DIMENSIONS (IN PARENTHESES) ARE ROUNDED-OFF MILLIMETER EQUIVALENTS FOR REFERENCE ONLY AND ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR USE IN DESIGN. Figure 26. 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N] Narrow Body (R-8) Dimensions shown in millimeters and (inches) Rev. D | Page 13 of 16 012407-A 8 4.00 (0.1574) 3.80 (0.1497) AD835 ORDERING GUIDE Model 1 AD835AN AD835ANZ AD835AR AD835AR-REEL AD835AR-REEL7 AD835ARZ AD835ARZ-REEL AD835ARZ-REEL7 1 Temperature Range −40°C to +85°C −40°C to +85°C −40°C to +85°C −40°C to +85°C −40°C to +85°C −40°C to +85°C −40°C to +85°C −40°C to +85°C Package Description 8-Lead Plastic Dual In-Line Package [PDIP] 8-Lead Plastic Dual In-Line Package [PDIP] 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N] 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N] 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N] 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N] 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N] 8-Lead Standard Small Outline Package [SOIC_N] Z = RoHS Compliant Part. Rev. D | Page 14 of 16 Package Option N-8 N-8 R-8 R-8 R-8 R-8 R-8 R-8 AD835 NOTES Rev. D | Page 15 of 16 AD835 NOTES ©1994–2010 Analog Devices, Inc. All rights reserved. Trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. D00883-0-12/10(D) Rev. D | Page 16 of 16

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