MICROCHIP PIC16F1947

PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Data Sheet
64-Pin Flash-Based, 8-Bit
CMOS Microcontrollers with
LCD Driver and nanoWatt XLP Technology
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
allow unauthorized access to your software or other copyrighted work, you may have a right to sue for relief under that Act.
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
and may be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to
ensure that your application meets with your specifications.
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability
arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip
devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at
the buyer’s risk, and the buyer agrees to defend, indemnify and
hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims,
suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip
intellectual property rights.
Trademarks
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, dsPIC,
KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro, PICSTART,
PIC32 logo, rfPIC and UNI/O are registered trademarks of
Microchip Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A. and other
countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, HI-TECH C, Linear Active Thermistor,
MXDEV, MXLAB, SEEVAL and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard,
dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, HI-TIDE, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB Certified
logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, Omniscient Code
Generation, PICC, PICC-18, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICkit,
PICtail, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select Mode, Total Endurance,
TSHARC, UniWinDriver, WiperLock and ZENA are
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2010-2011, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in
the U.S.A., All Rights Reserved.
Printed on recycled paper.
ISBN: 978-1-61341-240-4
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
DS41414C-page 2
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
64-Pin Flash-Based, 8-Bit CMOS Microcontrollers with
LCD Driver and nanoWatt XLP Technology
Devices Included In This Data Sheet:
• PIC16F1946
• PIC16F1947
• PIC16LF1946
• PIC16LF1947
PIC16LF1946/47 Low-Power Features:
High-Performance RISC CPU:
• Only 49 Instructions to Learn:
- All single-cycle instructions except branches
• Operating Speed:
- DC – 32 MHz oscillator/clock input
- DC – 125 ns instruction cycle
• Up to 16K x 14 Words of Flash Program Memory
• Up to 1024 Bytes of Data Memory (RAM)
• Interrupt Capability with Automatic Context
Saving
• 16-Level Deep Hardware Stack
• Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes
• Processor Read Access to Program Memory
Special Microcontroller Features:
• Precision Internal Oscillator:
- Factory calibrated to ±1%, typical
- Software selectable frequency range from
32 MHz to 31 kHz
• Power-Saving Sleep mode
• Power-on Reset (POR)
• Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up
Timer (OST)
• Brown-out Reset (BOR):
- Selectable between two trip points
- Disable in Sleep option
• Multiplexed Master Clear with Pull-up/Input Pin
• Programmable Code Protection
• High Endurance Flash/EEPROM cell:
- 100,000 write Flash endurance
- 1,000,000 write EEPROM endurance
- Flash/Data EEPROM retention: > 40 years
• Wide Operating Voltage Range:
- 1.8V-5.5V (PIC16F1946/47)
- 1.8V-3.6V (PIC16LF1946/47)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
• Standby Current:
- 60 nA @ 1.8V, typical
• Operating Current:
- 7.0 A @ 32 kHz, 1.8V, typical
(PIC16LF1946/47)
- 75 A @ 1 MHz, 1.8V, typical
(PIC16LF1946/47)
• Timer1 Oscillator Current:
- 600 nA @ 32 kHz, 1.8V, typical
• Low-Power Watchdog Timer Current:
- 500 nA @ 1.8V, typical (PIC16LF1946/47)
Peripheral Features:
• Up to 54 I/O Pins and 1 Input-only pin:
- High-current source/sink for direct LED drive
- Individually programmable Interrupt-on-pin
change pins
- Individually programmable weak pull-ups
• Integrated LCD Controller:
- Up to 184 segments
- Variable clock input
- Contrast control
- Internal voltage reference selections
• Capacitive Sensing (CSM) Module (mTouchTM):
- Up to 16 selectable channels
• A/D Converter:
- 10-bit resolution and up to 14 channels
- Selectable 1.024/2.048/4.096V voltage
reference
• Timer0: 8-Bit Timer/Counter with 8-Bit
Programmable Prescaler
• Enhanced Timer1:
- Dedicated low-power 32 kHz oscillator driver
- 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler
- External Gate Input mode with toggle and
single shot modes
- Interrupt-on-gate completion
• Timer2, 4, 6: 8-Bit Timer/Counter with 8-Bit Period
Register, Prescaler and Postscaler
• Two Capture, Compare, PWM Modules (CCP):
- 16-bit Capture, max. resolution 125 ns
- 16-bit Compare, max. resolution 125 ns
- 10-bit PWM, max. frequency 31.25 kHz
• Three Enhanced Capture, Compare, PWM
Modules (ECCP):
- 3 PWM time-base options
- Auto-shutdown and auto-restart
- PWM steering
- Programmable Dead-band Delay
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 3
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Peripheral Features (Continued):
• Two Master Synchronous Serial Ports (MSSPs)
with SPI and I2 CTM with:
- 7-bit address masking
- SMBus/PMBusTM compatibility
- Auto-wake-up on start
• Two Enhanced Universal Synchronous:
Asynchronous Receiver Transmitters (EUSARTs)
- RS-232, RS-485 and LIN compatible
- Auto-Baud Detect
• SR Latch (555 Timer):
- Multiple Set/Reset input options
- Emulates 555 Timer applications
• 2 Comparators:
- Rail-to-rail inputs/outputs
- Power mode control
- Software enable hysteresis
• Voltage Reference Module:
- Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR) with 1.024V,
2.048V and 4.096V output levels
- 5-bit rail-to-rail resistive DAC with positive
and negative reference selection
Device
Program Memory
Flash (words)
Data EEPROM
(bytes)
SRAM (bytes)
I/O’s
10-bit A/D
(ch)
CapSense
(ch)
Comparators
Timers
8/16-bit
EUSART
I2C™/SPI
ECCP
CCP
LCD
PIC16F/LF1946/47 Family Types
PIC16F1946
PIC16LF1946
8192
256
512
54
17
17
3
4/1
2
2
3
2
184/4
PIC16F1947
16384
PIC16LF1947
256
1024
54
17
17
3
4/1
2
2
3
2
184/4
DS41414C-page 4
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
RE2/P2B(1)/VLCD3
RE3/P3C(1)/COM0
RE4/P3B(1)/COM1
RE5/P1C(1)/COM2
RE6/P1B(1)/COM3
RE7/CCP2(2)/P2A(2)/SEG31
RD0/P2D(2)/SEG0
VDD
VSS
RD1/P2C(2)/SEG1
RD2/P2B(2)/SEG2
RD3/P3C(2)/SEG3
RD4/SDO2/P3B(2)/SEG4
RD5/SDI2/SDA2/P1C(2)/SEG5
RD6/SCK2/SCL2/P1B(2)/SEG6
RD7/SS2/SEG7
Pin Diagram – 64-Pin TQFP/QFN (PIC16(L)F1946/1947)
64-pin TQFP, QFN
64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49
VLCD2/P2C(1)/RE1
VLCD1/P2D(1)/RE0
SEG42/P3A/CCP3/RG0
SEG43/C3OUT/CK2/TX2/CPS15/AN15/RG1
SEG44/C3IN+/DT2/RX2/CPS14/AN14/RG2
SEG45/P3D/CCP4/C3IN0-/CPS13/AN13/RG3
VPP/MCLR/RG5
SEG26/P1D/CCP5/C3IN1-/CPS12/AN12/RG4
VSS
VDD
SEG25/SS1/C1IN3-/C2IN3-/C3IN3-/CPS5/AN5/RF7
SEG24/C1IN+/CPS11/AN11/RF6
SEG23/DACOUT/C1IN1-/C2IN1-/CPS10/AN10/RF5
SEG22/C2IN+/CPS9/AN9/RF4
SEG21/C1IN2-/C2IN2-/C3IN2-/CPS8/AN8/RF3
SEG20/SRQ/C1OUT/CPS7/AN7/RF2
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
RB0/INT/SRI/FLT0/SEG30
RB1/SEG8
RB2/SEG9
RB3/SEG10
RB4/SEG11
RB5/T1G/SEG29
RB6/ICSPCLK/ICDCLK/SEG38
VSS
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT/SEG36
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN/SEG37
VDD
RB7/ICSPDAT/ICDDAT/SEG39
RC5/SDO1/SEG12
RC4/SDI1/SDA1/SEG16
RC3/SCK1/SCL1/SEG17
RC2/CCP1/P1A/SEG13
AVSS
SEG35/CPS3/VREF+/AN3/RA3
SEG34/CPS2/VREF-/AN2/RA2
SEG18/CPS1/AN1/RA1
SEG33/CPS0/AN0/RA0
VSS
VDD
SEG15/CPS4/AN4/RA5
SEG14/T0CKI/RA4
SEG32/CCP2(1)/P2A(1)//T1OSI/RC1
SEG40/T1CKI/T1OSO/RC0
SEG27/CK1/TX1/RC6
SEG28/DT1/RX1/RC7
SEG19/SRNQ/C2OUT/CPS6/AN6/RF1
VCAP/SEG41/C1IN0-/C2IN0-/CPS16/AN16/RF0
AVDD
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
Note 1: Pin location selected by APFCON register setting. Default location.
2: Pin function can be moved using the APFCON register. Alternate location.
3: QFN package orientation is the same. No leads are present on the QFN package.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 5
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Reference
Cap Sense
Comparator
SR Latch
Timers
CCP
USART
MSSP
LCD
Y
AN0
—
CPS0
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG33
—
—
—
23
Y
AN1
—
CPS1
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG18
—
—
—
Basic
A/D
24
Pull-up
ANSEL
RA0
RA1
Interrupt
64-Pin TQFP, QFN
64-PIN SUMMARY(PIC16(L)F1946/1947)
I/O
TABLE 1:
RA2
22
Y
AN2
VREF-
CPS2
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG34
—
—
—
RA3
21
Y
AN3
VREF+
CPS3
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG35
—
—
—
RA4
28
—
—
—
—
—
—
T0CKI
—
—
—
SEG14
—
—
—
RA5
27
Y
AN4
—
CPS4
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG15
—
—
—
RA6
40
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG36
—
—
OSC2/
CLKOUT
RA7
39
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG37
—
—
OSC1/
CLKIN
RB0
48
—
—
—
—
—
SRI
—
FLT0
—
—
SEG30
INT/
IOC
Y
—
RB1
47
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG8
IOC
Y
—
RB2
46
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG9
IOC
Y
—
RB3
45
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG10
IOC
Y
—
RB4
44
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG11
IOC
Y
—
RB5
43
—
—
—
—
—
—
T1G
—
—
—
SEG29
IOC
Y
—
RB6
42
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG38
IOC
Y
ICSPCLK/
ICDCLK
RB7
37
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SEG39
IOC
Y
ICSPDAT/
ICDDAT
RC0
30
—
—
—
—
—
—
T1OSO/
T1CKI
—
—
—
SEG40
—
—
—
RC1
29
—
—
—
—
—
—
T1OSI
CCP2(1)/
P2A(1)
—
—
SEG32
—
—
—
RC2
33
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP1/
P1A
—
—
SEG13
—
—
—
RC3
34
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SCK1/
SCL1
SEG17
—
—
—
RC4
35
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SDI1/
SDA1
SEG16
—
—
—
RC5
36
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SDO1
SEG12
—
—
—
RC6
31
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TX1/
CK1
—
SEG27
—
—
—
RC7
32
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
RX1/
DT1
—
SEG28
—
—
—
RD0
58
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P2D(2)
—
—
SEG0
—
—
—
RD1
55
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P2C(2)
—
—
SEG1
—
—
—
RD2
54
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P2B(2)
—
—
SEG2
—
—
—
RD3
53
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P3C(2)
—
—
SEG3
—
—
—
RD4
52
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P3B(2)
—
SDO2
SEG4
—
—
—
RD5
51
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P1C(2)
—
SDI2
SDA2
SEG5
—
—
—
RD6
50
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P1B(2)
—
SCK2/
SCL2
SEG6
—
—
—
Note 1: Pin functions can be moved using the APFCON register(s). Default location.
2: Pin function can be moved using the APFCON register. Alternate location.
3: Weak pull-up always enabled when MCLR is enabled, otherwise the pull-up is under user control.
4: See Section 8.0 “Low Dropout (LDO) Voltage Regulator”.
DS41414C-page 6
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Cap Sense
Comparator
SR Latch
Timers
CCP
USART
MSSP
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SS2
Y
—
—
—
—
—
—
P2D(1)
—
RE1
1
Y
—
—
—
—
—
—
P2C(1)
—
RE2
64
Y
—
—
—
—
—
—
P2B(1)
RE3
63
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P3C(1)
Basic
Reference
—
2
Pull-up
A/D
49
RE0
Interrupt
ANSEL
RD7
LCD
64-Pin TQFP, QFN
64-PIN SUMMARY(PIC16(L)F1946/1947) (Continued)
I/O
TABLE 1:
SEG7
—
—
—
VLCD1
—
—
—
—
VLCD2
—
—
—
—
—
VLCD3
—
—
—
—
—
COM0
—
—
—
RE4
62
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P3B(1)
—
—
COM1
—
—
—
RE5
61
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P1C(1)
—
—
COM2
—
—
—
RE6
60
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
P1B(1)
—
—
COM3
—
—
—
—
—
SEG31
—
—
—
RE7
59
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP2(2)/
P2A(2)
RF0
18
Y
AN16
—
CPS16
C1IN0C2IN0-
—
—
—
—
—
SEG41
—
—
VCAP(3)
RF1
17
Y
AN6
—
CPS6
C2OUT
SRNQ
—
—
—
—
SEG19
—
—
—
RF2
16
Y
AN7
—
CPS7
C1OUT
SRQ
—
—
—
—
SEG20
—
—
—
RF3
15
Y
AN8
CPS8
C1IN2C2IN2C3IN2-
—
—
—
—
—
SEG21
—
—
—
RF4
14
Y
AN9
—
CPS9
C2IN+
—
—
—
—
—
SEG22
—
—
—
RF5
13
Y
AN10
DACOUT
CPS10
C1IN1C2IN1-
—
—
—
—
SEG23
—
—
—
RF6
12
Y
AN11
—
CPS11
C1IN+
—
—
—
—
—
SEG24
—
—
—
RF7
11
Y
AN5
—
CPS5
C1IN3C2IN3C3IN3-
—
—
—
—
SS1
SEG25
—
—
—
RG0
3
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
CCP3
P3A
—
—
SEG42
—
—
—
RG1
4
Y
AN15
—
CPS15
C3OUT
—
—
—
TX2/
CK2
—
SEG43
—
—
—
RG2
5
Y
AN14
—
CPS14
C3IN+
—
—
—
RX2/
DT2
—
SEG44
—
—
—
RG3
6
Y
AN13
—
CPS13
C3IN0-
—
—
CCP4
P3D
—
—
SEG45
—
—
—
RG4
8
Y
AN12
—
CPS12
C3IN1-
—
—
CCP5
P1D
—
—
SEG26
—
—
—
RG5
7
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Y(2)
MCLR/
VPP
VDD
10
26
38
57
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
VDD
VSS
9
25
41
56
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
VSS
AVDD
19
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
AVDD
AVSS
20
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
AVSS
Note 1: Pin functions can be moved using the APFCON register(s). Default location.
2: Pin function can be moved using the APFCON register. Alternate location.
3: Weak pull-up always enabled when MCLR is enabled, otherwise the pull-up is under user control.
4: See Section 8.0 “Low Dropout (LDO) Voltage Regulator”.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 7
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Table of Contents
1.0 Device Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
2.0 Enhanced Mid-Range CPU ........................................................................................................................................................ 19
3.0 Memory Organization ................................................................................................................................................................. 21
4.0 Device Configuration .................................................................................................................................................................. 55
5.0 Oscillator Module (With Fail-Safe Clock Monitor)....................................................................................................................... 61
6.0 Resets ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 79
7.0 Interrupts .................................................................................................................................................................................... 87
8.0 Low Dropout (LDO) Voltage Regulator .................................................................................................................................... 103
9.0 Power-Down Mode (Sleep) ...................................................................................................................................................... 105
10.0 Watchdog Timer ....................................................................................................................................................................... 107
11.0 Data EEPROM and Flash Program Memory Control ............................................................................................................... 111
12.0 I/O Ports ................................................................................................................................................................................... 125
13.0 Interrupt-On-Change ................................................................................................................................................................ 151
14.0 Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR) ............................................................................................................................................... 155
15.0 Temperature Indicator Module ................................................................................................................................................. 157
16.0 Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Module .............................................................................................................................. 159
17.0 Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) Module .............................................................................................................................. 173
18.0 Comparator Module.................................................................................................................................................................. 177
19.0 SR Latch................................................................................................................................................................................... 187
20.0 Timer0 Module ......................................................................................................................................................................... 193
21.0 Timer1 Module with Gate Control............................................................................................................................................. 197
22.0 Timer2/4/6 Modules.................................................................................................................................................................. 209
23.0 Capture/Compare/PWM Modules ............................................................................................................................................ 213
24.0 Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP1 and MSSP2) Module .............................................................................................. 241
25.0 Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) ............................................................... 297
26.0 Capacitive Sensing (CPS) Module ........................................................................................................................................... 327
27.0 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Driver Module ............................................................................................................................. 335
28.0 In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™) ............................................................................................................................... 371
29.0 Instruction Set Summary .......................................................................................................................................................... 375
30.0 Electrical Specifications............................................................................................................................................................ 389
31.0 DC and AC Characteristics Graphs and Charts ....................................................................................................................... 423
32.0 Development Support............................................................................................................................................................... 425
33.0 Packaging Information.............................................................................................................................................................. 429
Appendix A: Data Sheet Revision History.......................................................................................................................................... 435
Appendix B: Migrating From Other PIC® Devices.............................................................................................................................. 435
Index .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 437
The Microchip Web Site ..................................................................................................................................................................... 445
Customer Change Notification Service .............................................................................................................................................. 445
Customer Support .............................................................................................................................................................................. 445
Reader Response .............................................................................................................................................................................. 446
Product Identification System............................................................................................................................................................. 447
DS41414C-page 8
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TO OUR VALUED CUSTOMERS
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 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 9
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 10
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
1.0
DEVICE OVERVIEW
The PIC16(L)F1946/1947 are described within this
data sheet. They are available in 64-pin packages.
Figure 1-1 shows a block diagram of the
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 devices. Table 1-2 shows the
pinout descriptions.
Reference Table 1-1 for peripherals available per
device.
Peripheral
PIC16LF1946/47
DEVICE PERIPHERAL
SUMMARY
PIC16F1946/47
TABLE 1-1:
ADC
●
●
Capacitive Sensing (CPS) Module
●
●
Data EEPROM
●
●
Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)
●
●
Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR)
●
●
LCD
●
●
SR Latch
●
●
ECCP1
●
●
ECCP2
●
●
ECCP3
●
●
CCP4
●
●
CCP5
●
●
C1
●
●
C2
●
●
C3
●
●
EUSART1
●
●
EUSART2
●
●
MSSP1
●
●
MSSP2
●
●
Timer0
●
●
Timer1
●
●
Timer2
●
●
Timer4
●
●
Timer6
●
●
Capture/Compare/PWM Modules
Comparators
EUSARTS
Master Synchronous Serial Ports
Timers
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 11
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 1-1:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 BLOCK DIAGRAM
Program
Flash Memory
RAM
EEPROM
PORTA
OSC2/CLKOUT
OSC1/CLKIN
Timing
Generation
PORTB
CPU
INTRC
Oscillator
Figure 2-1
PORTC
MCLR
PORTD
PORTE
PORTF
SR
Latch
ADC
10-Bit
Timer0
Timer1
Timer2
Timer4
Timer6
Comparators
LCD
ECCP1
ECCP2
ECCP3
CCP4
CCP5
MSSPx
EUSARTx
Note 1:
DS41414C-page 12
PORTG
See applicable chapters for more information on peripherals.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 PINOUT DESCRIPTION
Name
RA0/AN0/CPS0/SEG33
RA1/AN1/CPS1/SEG18
RA2/AN2/VREF-/CPS2/SEG34
RA3/AN3/VREF+/CPS3/SEG35
RA4/T0CKI/SEG14
RA5/AN4/CPS4/SEG15
RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT/SEG36
RA7/OSC1/CLKIN/SEG37
RB0/INT/SRI/FLT0/SEG30
RB1/SEG8
Function
Input
Type
RA0
TTL
AN0
AN
Output
Type
Description
CMOS General purpose I/O.
—
A/D Channel 0 input.
CPS0
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 0.
SEG33
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RA1
TTL
AN1
AN
CMOS General purpose I/O.
—
CPS1
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 1.
SEG18
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
A/D Channel 1 input.
RA2
TTL
AN2
AN
—
A/D Channel 2 input.
VREF-
AN
—
A/D Negative Voltage Reference input.
CPS2
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 2.
AN
LCD Analog output.
SEG34
—
RA3
TTL
CMOS General purpose I/O.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN3
AN
—
A/D Channel 3 input.
VREF+
AN
—
A/D Voltage Reference input.
CPS3
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 3.
SEG35
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RA4
TTL
T0CKI
ST
SEG14
—
RA5
TTL
CMOS General purpose I/O.
—
Timer0 clock input.
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN4
AN
—
A/D Channel 4 input.
CPS4
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 4.
AN
LCD Analog output.
SEG5
—
RA6
TTL
OSC2
—
CLKOUT
—
SEG36
—
RA7
TTL
CMOS General purpose I/O.
XTAL
Crystal/Resonator (LP, XT, HS modes).
CMOS FOSC/4 output.
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
OSC1
XTAL
—
Crystal/Resonator (LP, XT, HS modes).
CLKIN
CMOS
—
External clock input (EC mode).
AN
LCD Analog output.
SEG37
—
RB0
TTL
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
INT
ST
—
External interrupt.
SRI
—
ST
SR Latch input.
FLT0
ST
—
ECCP Auto-shutdown Fault input.
SEG30
—
AN
LCD analog output.
RB1
TTL
SEG8
—
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
AN
LCD Analog output.
Legend: AN = Analog input or output CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
OD = Open Drain
TTL = TTL compatible input ST
= Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I2C™ = Schmitt Trigger input with I2C
HV = High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
levels
Note 1: Pin function is selectable via the APFCON register.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 13
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Name
RB2/SEG9
RB3/SEG10
RB4/SEG11
RB5/T1G/SEG29
RB6/ICSPCLK/ICDCLK/SEG38
RB7/ICSPDAT/ICDDAT/SEG39
RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI/SEG40
RC1/T1OSI/P2A(1)/CCP2(1)/
SEG32
RC2/CCP1/P1A/SEG13
RC3/SCK/SCL/SEG17
RC4/SDI1/SDA1/SEG16
Function
Input
Type
RB2
TTL
SEG9
—
RB3
TTL
SEG10
—
RB4
TTL
SEG11
—
RB5
TTL
Output
Type
Description
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
T1G
ST
—
Timer1 Gate input.
SEG29
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RB6
TTL
ICSPCLK
ST
ICDCLK
SEG38
RB7
TTL
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
—
Serial Programming Clock.
ST
—
In-Circuit Debug Clock.
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O. Individually controlled interrupt-on-change.
Individually enabled pull-up.
ICSPDAT
ST
CMOS ICSP™ Data I/O.
ICDDAT
ST
CMOS In-Circuit Data I/O.
SEG39
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RC0
ST
T1OSO
XTAL
CMOS General purpose I/O.
XTAL
T1CKI
ST
—
Timer1 clock input.
SEG40
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
Timer1 oscillator connection.
RC1
ST
T1OSI
XTAL
CMOS General purpose I/O.
P2A
—
CMOS PWM output.
CCP2
ST
CMOS Capture/Compare/PWM2.
XTAL
AN
Timer1 oscillator connection.
SEG32
—
RC2
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
CCP1
ST
CMOS Capture/Compare/PWM1.
P1A
—
CMOS PWM output.
SEG13
—
RC3
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
SCK
ST
CMOS SPI clock.
SCL
I2C
SEG17
—
RC4
ST
AN
LCD Analog output.
LCD Analog output.
OD
I2C™ clock.
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
SDI1
ST
—
SPI data input.
SDA1
I2C
OD
I2C™ data input/output.
SEG16
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
Legend: AN = Analog input or output CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
OD = Open Drain
TTL = TTL compatible input ST
= Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I2C™ = Schmitt Trigger input with I2C
HV = High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
levels
Note 1: Pin function is selectable via the APFCON register.
DS41414C-page 14
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Name
RC5/SDO1/SEG12
RC6/TX1/CK1/SEG27
RC7/RX1/DT1/SEG28
RD0/P2D(1)/SEG0
RD1/P2C(1)/SEG1
(1)
RD2/P2B /SEG2
RD3/P3C(1)/SEG3
RD4/SDO2/P3B(1)/SEG4
RD5/SDI2/SDA2/P1C(1)/SEG5
RD6/SCK2/SCL2/P1B(1)/SEG6
RD7/SS2/SEG7
RE0/P2D(1)/VLCD1
Function
Input
Type
Output
Type
RC5
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
CMOS SPI data output.
Description
SDO1
—
SEG12
—
RC6
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
TX1
—
CMOS USART1 asynchronous transmit.
CMOS USART1 synchronous clock.
CK1
ST
SEG27
—
RC7
ST
RX
ST
AN
AN
LCD Analog output.
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
—
USART1 asynchronous input.
DT1
ST
SEG28
—
CMOS USART1 synchronous data.
RD0
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
P2D
—
CMOS PWM output.
AN
AN
LCD Analog output.
SEG0
—
RD1
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
LCD Analog output.
CMOS PWM output.
P2C
—
SEG1
—
RD2
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
P2B
—
CMOS PWM output.
SEG2
—
RD3
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
CMOS PWM output.
AN
AN
LCD Analog output.
LCD Analog output.
P3C
—
SEG3
—
RD4
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
SDO2
—
CMOS SPI data output.
CMOS PWM output.
AN
LCD analog output.
P3B
—
SEG4
—
RD5
ST
SDI2
ST
—
SPI data input.
SDA2
2
I C
OD
I2C™ data input/output.
AN
LCD analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
P1C
—
SEG5
—
CMOS PWM output.
RD6
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
SCK2
ST
CMOS SPI clock.
SCL2
I2C
AN
OD
LCD analog output.
I2C™ clock.
P1B
—
SEG6
—
CMOS PWM output.
RD7
ST
SS2
ST
—
Slave Select input.
SEG7
—
AN
LCD analog output.
RE0
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
P2D
—
CMOS PWM output.
VLCD1
AN
AN
LCD analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
—
LCD analog input.
Legend: AN = Analog input or output CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
OD = Open Drain
TTL = TTL compatible input ST
= Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I2C™ = Schmitt Trigger input with I2C
HV = High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
levels
Note 1: Pin function is selectable via the APFCON register.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 15
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Name
RE1/P2C(1)/VLCD2
RE2/P2B(1)/VLCD3
RE3/P3C(1)/COM0
RE4/P3B(1)/COM1
RE5/P1C(1)/COM2
RE6/P1B(1)/COM3
RE7/CCP2(1)/P2A(1)/SEG31
RF0/AN16/CPS16/C12IN0-/
SEG41/VCAP
RF1/AN6/CPS6/C2OUT/SRNQ/
SEG19
RF2/AN7/CPS7/C1OUT/SRQ/
SEG20
Function
Input
Type
Output
Type
RE1
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
CMOS PWM output.
Description
P2C
—
VLCD2
AN
RE2
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
P2B
—
CMOS PWM output.
—
LCD analog input.
VLCD3
AN
—
LCD analog input.
RE3
TTL
—
General purpose input.
P3C
—
COM0
—
RE4
TTL
P3B
—
CMOS PWM output.
AN
LCD Analog output.
—
General purpose input.
CMOS PWM output.
COM1
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RE5
TTL
—
General purpose input.
P1C
—
COM2
—
CMOS PWM output.
AN
LCD Analog output.
RE6
TTL
—
General purpose input.
P1B
—
CMOS PWM output.
COM3
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RE7
TTL
—
General purpose input.
CCP2
ST
CMOS Capture/Compare/PWM2.
P2A
—
CMOS PWM output.
SEG31
—
RF0
TTL
AN
LCD analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN16
AN
—
A/D Channel 16 input.
CPS16
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 16.
C1IN0-
AN
—
Comparator C1 negative input.
C2IN0-
AN
—
Comparator C2 negative input.
SEG41
—
AN
VCAP
Power
Power
LCD Analog output.
Filter capacitor for Voltage Regulator.
RF1
TTL
AN6
AN
—
A/D Channel 6 input.
CPS6
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 6.
C2OUT
—
CMOS Comparator C2 output.
CMOS SR Latch inverting output.
SRNQ
—
SEG19
—
RF2
TTL
AN7
AN
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
—
A/D Channel 7 input.
—
Capacitive sensing input 7.
CPS7
AN
C1OUT
—
CMOS Comparator C1 output.
SRQ
—
CMOS SR Latch non-inverting output.
SEG20
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
Legend: AN = Analog input or output CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
OD = Open Drain
TTL = TTL compatible input ST
= Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I2C™ = Schmitt Trigger input with I2C
HV = High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
levels
Note 1: Pin function is selectable via the APFCON register.
DS41414C-page 16
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Name
RF3/AN8/CPS8/C123IN2-/
SEG21
RF4/AN9/CPS9/C2IN+/SEG22
RF5/AN10/CPS10/C12IN1-/
DACOUT/SEG23
RF6/AN11/CPS11/C1IN+/SEG24
RF7/AN5/CPS5/C123IN3-/SS1/
SEG25
RG0/CCP3/P3A/SEG42
RG1/AN15/CPS15/TX2/CK2/
C3OUT/SEG43
Function
Input
Type
RF3
TTL
Output
Type
Description
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN8
AN
—
CPS8
AN
—
A/D Channel 8 input.
Capacitive sensing input 8.
C1IN2-
AN
—
Comparator C1 negative input.
C2IN2-
AN
—
Comparator C2 negative input.
C3IN2-
AN
—
Comparator C3 negative input.
SEG21
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RF4
TTL
AN9
AN
—
CPS9
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 9.
C2IN+
AN
—
Comparator C2 positive input.
AN
LCD Analog output.
SEG22
—
RF5
TTL
CMOS General purpose I/O.
A/D Channel 9 input.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN10
AN
—
A/D Channel 10 input.
CPS10
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 10.
C1IN1-
AN
—
Comparator C1 negative input.
C2IN1-
AN
—
Comparator C2 negative input.
DACOUT
—
AN
Voltage Reference output.
SEG23
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RF6
TTL
AN11
AN
—
CPS11
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 11.
C1IN+
AN
—
Comparator C1 positive input.
AN
LCD Analog output.
SEG24
—
RF7
TTL
CMOS General purpose I/O.
A/D Channel 11 input.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN5
AN
—
CPS5
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 5.
C1IN3-
AN
—
Comparator C1negative input.
C2IN3-
AN
—
Comparator C2 negative input.
C3IN3-
AN
—
Comparator C3 negative input.
SS1
ST
—
Slave Select input.
SEG25
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RG0
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
CCP3
ST
CMOS Capture/Compare/PWM3.
P3A
—
CMOS PWM output.
SEG42
—
RG1
ST
AN15
AN
—
A/D Channel 15 input.
CPS15
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 15.
AN
A/D Channel 5 input.
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
TX2
—
CMOS USART2 asynchronous transmit.
CK2
ST
CMOS USART2 synchronous clock.
C3OUT
—
CMOS Comparator C3 output.
SEG43
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
Legend: AN = Analog input or output CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
OD = Open Drain
TTL = TTL compatible input ST
= Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I2C™ = Schmitt Trigger input with I2C
HV = High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
levels
Note 1: Pin function is selectable via the APFCON register.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 17
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 1-2:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947 PINOUT DESCRIPTION (CONTINUED)
Name
RG2/AN14/CPS14/RX2/DT2/
C3IN+/SEG44
RG3/AN13/CPS13/C3IN0-/
CCP4/P3D/SEG45
RG4/AN12/CPS12/C3IN1-/
CCP5/P1D/SEG26
Function
Input
Type
RG2
ST
AN14
AN
—
A/D Channel 14 input.
CPS14
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 14.
—
USART2 asynchronous input.
RX2
ST
DT2
ST
Output
Type
Description
CMOS General purpose I/O.
CMOS USART2 synchronous data.
C3IN+
AN
—
Comparator C3 positive input.
SEG44
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
RG3
ST
AN13
AN
—
CPS13
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 13.
C3IN0-
AN
—
Comparator C3 negative input.
CCP4
ST
CMOS Capture/Compare/PWM4.
P3D
—
CMOS PWM output.
SEG45
—
RG4
ST
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN
A/D Channel 13 input.
LCD Analog output.
CMOS General purpose I/O.
AN12
AN
—
A/D Channel 12 input.
CPS12
AN
—
Capacitive sensing input 12.
C3IN1-
AN
—
Comparator C3 negative input.
CCP5
ST
CMOS Capture/Compare/PWM5.
CMOS PWM output.
P1D
—
SEG26
—
AN
LCD Analog output.
General purpose input.
RG5
TTL
—
MCLR
ST
—
Master Clear with internal pull-up.
VPP
HV
—
Programming voltage.
VDD
VDD
Power
—
Positive supply.
VSS
VSS
Power
—
Ground reference.
RG5/MCLR/VPP
Legend: AN = Analog input or output CMOS = CMOS compatible input or output
OD = Open Drain
TTL = TTL compatible input ST
= Schmitt Trigger input with CMOS levels I2C™ = Schmitt Trigger input with I2C
HV = High Voltage
XTAL = Crystal
levels
Note 1: Pin function is selectable via the APFCON register.
DS41414C-page 18
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
2.0
ENHANCED MID-RANGE CPU
This family of devices contain an enhanced mid-range
8-bit CPU core. The CPU has 49 instructions. Interrupt
capability includes automatic context saving. The
hardware stack is 16 levels deep and has Overflow and
Underflow Reset capability. Direct, Indirect, and
Relative addressing modes are available. Two File
Select Registers (FSRs) provide the ability to read
program and data memory.
•
•
•
•
Automatic Interrupt Context Saving
16-level Stack with Overflow and Underflow
File Select Registers
Instruction Set
2.1
Automatic Interrupt Context
Saving
During interrupts, certain registers are automatically
saved in shadow registers and restored when returning
from the interrupt. This saves stack space and user
code. See Section 7.5 “Automatic Context Saving”,
for more information.
2.2
16-level Stack with Overflow and
Underflow
These devices have an external stack memory 15 bits
wide and 16 words deep. A Stack Overflow or Underflow will set the appropriate bit (STKOVF or STKUNF)
in the PCON register, and if enabled will cause a software Reset. See section Section 3.4 “Stack” for more
details.
2.3
File Select Registers
There are two 16-bit File Select Registers (FSR). FSRs
can access all file registers and program memory,
which allows one data pointer for all memory. When an
FSR points to program memory, there is 1 additional
instruction cycle in instructions using INDF to allow the
data to be fetched. General purpose memory can now
also be addressed linearly, providing the ability to
access contiguous data larger than 80 bytes. There are
also new instructions to support the FSRs. See
Section 3.5 “Indirect Addressing” for more details.
2.4
Instruction Set
There are 49 instructions for the enhanced mid-range
CPU to support the features of the CPU. See
Section 29.0 “Instruction Set Summary” for more
details.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 19
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 2-1:
CORE BLOCK DIAGRAM
15
Configuration
15
MUX
Flash
Program
Memory
Program
Bus
16-Level
8 Level Stack
Stack
(13-bit)
(15-bit)
14
Instruction
Instruction Reg
reg
8
Data Bus
Program Counter
RAM
Program Memory
Read (PMR)
12
RAM Addr
Addr MUX
Indirect
Addr
12
12
Direct Addr 7
5
BSR
FSR Reg
reg
15
FSR0reg
Reg
FSR
FSR1
Reg
FSR reg
15
STATUS Reg
reg
STATUS
8
3
Power-up
Timer
OSC1/CLKIN
OSC2/CLKOUT
Instruction
Decodeand
&
Decode
Control
Timing
Generation
Oscillator
Start-up Timer
Power-on
Reset
Watchdog
Timer
Brown-out
Reset
MUX
ALU
8
W Reg
Internal
Oscillator
Block
VDD
DS41414C-page 20
VSS
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.0
MEMORY ORGANIZATION
There are three types of memory in PIC16F/LF1946/47
devices: Data Memory, Program Memory and Data
EEPROM Memory(1).
• Program Memory
• Data Memory
- Core Registers
- Special Function Registers
- General Purpose RAM
- Common RAM
- Device Memory Maps
- Special Function Registers Summary
• Data EEPROM memory(1)
The following features are associated with access and
control of program memory and data memory:
• PCL and PCLATH
• Stack
• Indirect Addressing
3.1
Program Memory Organization
The enhanced mid-range core has a 15-bit program
counter capable of addressing 32K x 14 program
memory space. Table 3-1 shows the memory sizes
implemented for the PIC16F/LF1946/47 family.
Accessing a location above these boundaries will cause
a wrap-around within the implemented memory space.
The Reset vector is at 0000h and the interrupt vector is
at 0004h (see Figures 3-1 and 3-2).
Note 1: The data EEPROM memory and the
method to access Flash memory through
the EECON registers is described in
Section 11.0 “Data EEPROM and Flash
Program Memory Control”.
TABLE 3-1:
DEVICE SIZES AND ADDRESSES
Device
Program Memory Space (Words)
Last Program Memory Address
PIC16F/LF1946
8,192
1FFFh
PIC16F/LF1947
16,384
3FFFh
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 21
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 3-1:
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK FOR
PIC16F/LF1946
FIGURE 3-2:
PC<14:0>
CALL, CALLW
RETURN, RETLW
Interrupt, RETFIE
PC<14:0>
15
Stack Level 0
Stack Level 1
CALL, CALLW
15
RETURN, RETLW
Interrupt, RETFIE
Stack Level 0
Stack Level 1
Stack Level 15
Stack Level 15
Reset Vector
0000h
Reset Vector
0000h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
Interrupt Vector
0004h
0005h
Page 0
07FFh
0800h
On-chip
Program
Memory
PROGRAM MEMORY MAP
AND STACK FOR
PIC16F/LF1947
Page 1
On-chip
Program
Memory
0FFFh
1000h
Page 2
Page 3
Rollover to Page 0
17FFh
1800h
Page 0
07FFh
0800h
Page 1
0FFFh
1000h
Page 2
Page 3
1FFFh
2000h
Page 4
Page 7
Rollover to Page 0
Rollover to Page 3
DS41414C-page 22
7FFFh
Preliminary
Rollover to Page 7
17FFh
1800h
1FFFh
2000h
3FFFh
4000h
7FFFh
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.1.1
READING PROGRAM MEMORY AS
DATA
There are two methods of accessing constants in program memory. The first method is to use tables of
RETLW instructions. The second method is to set an
FSR to point to the program memory.
3.1.1.1
RETLW Instruction
The RETLW instruction can be used to provide access
to tables of constants. The recommended way to create
such a table is shown in Example 3-1.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
constants
BRW
RETLW
RETLW
RETLW
RETLW
DATA0
DATA1
DATA2
DATA3
RETLW INSTRUCTION
;Add Index in W to
;program counter to
;select data
;Index0 data
;Index1 data
my_function
;… LOTS OF CODE…
MOVLW
DATA_INDEX
CALL constants
;… THE CONSTANT IS IN W
The BRW instruction makes this type of table very
simple to implement. If your code must remain portable
with previous generations of microcontrollers, then the
BRW instruction is not available so the older table read
method must be used.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 23
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.1.1.2
Indirect Read with FSR
3.2.1
The program memory can be accessed as data by setting bit 7 of the FSRxH register and reading the matching INDFx register. The MOVIW instruction will place the
lower 8 bits of the addressed word in the W register.
Writes to the program memory cannot be performed via
the INDF registers. Instructions that access the program memory via the FSR require one extra instruction
cycle to complete. Example 3-2 demonstrates accessing the program memory via an FSR.
The HIGH directive will set bit<7> if a label points to a
location in program memory.
EXAMPLE 3-2:
ACCESSING PROGRAM
MEMORY VIA FSR
constants
RETLW DATA0
;Index0 data
RETLW DATA1
;Index1 data
RETLW DATA2
RETLW DATA3
my_function
;… LOTS OF CODE…
MOVLW
LOW constants
MOVWF
FSR1L
MOVLW
HIGH constants
MOVWF
FSR1H
MOVIW 0[FSR1]
;THE PROGRAM MEMORY IS IN W
3.2
CORE REGISTERS
The core registers contain the registers that directly
affect the basic operation of the PIC16F/LF1946/47.
These registers are listed below:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0 Low
FSR0 High
FSR1 Low
FSR1 High
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
Note:
The core registers are the first 12
addresses of every data memory bank.
Data Memory Organization
The data memory is partitioned in 32 memory banks
with 128 bytes in a bank. Each bank consists of
(Figure 3-3):
•
•
•
•
12 core registers
20 Special Function Registers (SFR)
Up to 80 bytes of General Purpose RAM (GPR)
16 bytes of common RAM
The active bank is selected by writing the bank number
into the Bank Select Register (BSR). Unimplemented
memory will read as ‘0’. All data memory can be
accessed either directly (via instructions that use the
file registers) or indirectly via the two File Select
Registers (FSR). See Section 3.5 “Indirect
Addressing” for more information.
DS41414C-page 24
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.2.1.1
STATUS Register
The STATUS register, shown in Register 3-1, contains:
• the arithmetic status of the ALU
• the Reset status
The STATUS register can be the destination for any
instruction, like any other register. If the STATUS
register is the destination for an instruction that affects
the Z, DC or C bits, then the write to these three bits is
disabled. These bits are set or cleared according to the
device logic. Furthermore, the TO and PD bits are not
writable. Therefore, the result of an instruction with the
STATUS register as destination may be different than
intended.
REGISTER 3-1:
For example, CLRF STATUS will clear the upper three
bits and set the Z bit. This leaves the STATUS register
as ‘000u u1uu’ (where u = unchanged).
It is recommended, therefore, that only BCF, BSF,
SWAPF and MOVWF instructions are used to alter the
STATUS register, because these instructions do not
affect any Status bits. For other instructions not
affecting any Status bits (Refer to Section 29.0
“Instruction Set Summary”).
Note 1: The C and DC bits operate as Borrow
and Digit Borrow out bits, respectively, in
subtraction.
STATUS: STATUS REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-1/q
R-1/q
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
—
—
—
TO
PD
Z
DC(1)
C(1)
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
q = Value depends on condition
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
TO: Time-out bit
1 = After power-up, CLRWDT instruction or SLEEP instruction
0 = A WDT time-out occurred
bit 3
PD: Power-down bit
1 = After power-up or by the CLRWDT instruction
0 = By execution of the SLEEP instruction
bit 2
Z: Zero bit
1 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is zero
0 = The result of an arithmetic or logic operation is not zero
bit 1
DC: Digit Carry/Digit Borrow bit (ADDWF, ADDLW,SUBLW,SUBWF instructions)(1)
1 = A carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the 4th low-order bit of the result
bit 0
C: Carry/Borrow bit(1) (ADDWF, ADDLW, SUBLW, SUBWF instructions)(1)
1 = A carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
0 = No carry-out from the Most Significant bit of the result occurred
Note 1:
For Borrow, the polarity is reversed. A subtraction is executed by adding the two’s complement of the
second operand. For rotate (RRF, RLF) instructions, this bit is loaded with either the high-order or low-order
bit of the source register.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 25
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.2.2
3.2.5
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER
The Special Function Registers are registers used by
the application to control the desired operation of
peripheral functions in the device. The registers associated with the operation of the peripherals are
described in the appropriate peripheral chapter of this
data sheet.
3.2.3
The memory maps for the device family are as shown
in Table 3-2.
TABLE 3-2:
Device
PIC16F/LF1946/47
GENERAL PURPOSE RAM
There are up to 80 bytes of GPR in each data memory
bank.
3.2.3.1
DEVICE MEMORY MAPS
MEMORY MAP TABLES
Banks
Table No.
0-7
Table 3-3
8-15
Table 3-4, Table 3-7
16-23
Table 3-5
23-31
Table 3-6, Table 3-8
Linear Access to GPR
The general purpose RAM can be accessed in a
non-banked method via the FSRs. This can simplify
access to large memory structures. See Section 3.5.2
“Linear Data Memory” for more information.
3.2.4
COMMON RAM
There are 16 bytes of common RAM accessible from all
banks.
FIGURE 3-3:
7-bit Bank Offset
BANKED MEMORY
PARTITIONING
Memory Region
00h
0Bh
0Ch
Core Registers
(12 bytes)
Special Function Registers
(20 bytes maximum)
1Fh
20h
General Purpose RAM
(80 bytes maximum)
6Fh
70h
Common RAM
(16 bytes)
7Fh
DS41414C-page 26
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F/LF1946/1947 MEMORY MAP, BANKS 0-7
BANK 0
BANK 1
BANK 2
BANK 3
BANK 4
BANK 5
BANK 6
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
PORTA
PORTB
PORTC
PORTD
PORTE
PIR1
PIR2
PIR3
PIR4
TMR0
TMR1L
TMR1H
T1CON
T1GCON
TMR2
PR2
T2CON
—
CPSCON0
080h
081h
082h
083h
084h
085h
086h
087h
088h
089h
08Ah
08Bh
08Ch
08Dh
08Eh
08Fh
090h
091h
092h
093h
094h
095h
096h
097h
098h
099h
09Ah
09Bh
09Ch
09Dh
09Eh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
TRISA
TRISB
TRISC
TRISD
TRISE
PIE1
PIE2
PIE3
PIE4
OPTION
PCON
WDTCON
OSCTUNE
OSCCON
OSCSTAT
ADRESL
ADRESH
ADCON0
ADCON1
100h
101h
102h
103h
104h
105h
106h
107h
108h
109h
10Ah
10Bh
10Ch
10Dh
10Eh
10Fh
110h
111h
112h
113h
114h
115h
116h
117h
118h
119h
11Ah
11Bh
11Ch
11Dh
11Eh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
LATA
LATB
LATC
LATD
LATE
CM1CON0
CM1CON1
CM2CON0
CM2CON1
CMOUT
BORCON
FVRCON
DACCON0
DACCON1
SRCON0
SRCON1
—
APFCON
CM3CON0
180h
181h
182h
183h
184h
185h
186h
187h
188h
189h
18Ah
18Bh
18Ch
18Dh
18Eh
18Fh
190h
191h
192h
193h
194h
195h
196h
197h
198h
199h
19Ah
19Bh
19Ch
19Dh
19Eh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
ANSELA
—
—
—
ANSELE
EEADRL
EEADRH
EEDATL
EEDATH
EECON1
EECON2
—
—
RC1REG
TX1REG
SP1BRGL
SP1BRGH
RC1STA
TX1STA
200h
201h
202h
203h
204h
205h
206h
207h
208h
209h
20Ah
20Bh
20Ch
20Dh
20Eh
20Fh
210h
211h
212h
213h
214h
215h
216h
217h
218h
219h
21Ah
21Bh
21Ch
21Dh
21Eh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
WPUB
—
—
—
SSP1BUF
SSP1ADD
SSP1MSK
SSP1STAT
SSP1CON1
SSP1CON2
SSP1CON3
—
SSP2BUF
SSP2ADD
SSP2MSK
SSP2STAT
SSP2CON1
SSP2CON2
280h
281h
282h
283h
284h
285h
286h
287h
288h
289h
28Ah
28Bh
28Ch
28Dh
28Eh
28Fh
290h
291h
292h
293h
294h
295h
296h
297h
298h
299h
29Ah
29Bh
29Ch
29Dh
29Eh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
PORTF
PORTG
—
—
—
CCPR1L
CCPR1H
CCP1CON
PWM1CON
CCP1AS
PSTR1CON
—
CCPR2L
CCPR2H
CCP2CON
PWM2CON
CCP2AS
PSTR2CON
CCPTMRS0
300h
301h
302h
303h
304h
305h
306h
307h
308h
309h
30Ah
30Bh
30Ch
30Dh
30Eh
30Fh
310h
311h
312h
313h
314h
315h
316h
317h
318h
319h
31Ah
31Bh
31Ch
31Dh
31Eh
01Fh
020h
CPSCON1
09Fh
0A0h
—
11Fh
120h
CM3CON1
19Fh
1A0h
BAUD1CON
21Fh
220h
SSP2CON3
29Fh
2A0h
CCPTMRS1
31Fh
—
39Fh
320h General Purpose 3A0h
Register
16 Bytes
32Fh
06Fh
070h
General
Purpose
Register
96 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
0EFh
0F0h
16Fh
170h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
07Fh
Legend:
Note 1:
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
1EFh
1F0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
0FFh
17Fh
= Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
Not available on PIC16F1946.
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
26Fh
270h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
1FFh
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes
2EFh
2F0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
27Fh
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
2FFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
TRISF
TRISG
—
—
—
CCPR3L
CCPR3H
CCP3CON
PWM3CON
CCP3AS
PSTR3CON
—
CCPR4L
CCPR4H
CCP4CON
—
CCPR5L
CCPR5H
CCP5CON
BANK 7
000h
001h
002h
003h
004h
005h
006h
007h
008h
009h
00Ah
00Bh
00Ch
00Dh
00Eh
00Fh
010h
011h
012h
013h
014h
015h
016h
017h
018h
019h
01Ah
01Bh
01Ch
01Dh
01Eh
380h
381h
382h
383h
384h
385h
386h
387h
388h
389h
38Ah
38Bh
38Ch
38Dh
38Eh
38Fh
390h
391h
392h
393h
394h
395h
396h
397h
398h
399h
39Ah
39Bh
39Ch
39Dh
39Eh
330h General Purpose
Register
64 Bytes(1)
36Fh
3EFh
370h
3F0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
37Fh
3FFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
LATF
LATG
—
—
—
—
—
—
IOCBP
IOCBN
IOCBF
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes(1)
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
DS41414C-page 27
TABLE 3-3:
PIC16F/LF1946/1947 MEMORY MAP, BANKS 8-15
BANK 8
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
400h
401h
402h
403h
404h
405h
406h
407h
408h
409h
40Ah
40Bh
40Ch
40Dh
40Eh
40Fh
410h
411h
412h
413h
414h
415h
416h
417h
418h
419h
41Ah
41Bh
41Ch
41Dh
41Eh
41Fh
420h
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
ANSELF
ANSELG
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
TMR4
PR4
T4CON
—
—
—
—
TMR6
PR6
T6CON
—
BANK 9
480h
481h
482h
483h
484h
485h
486h
487h
488h
489h
48Ah
48Bh
48Ch
48Dh
48Eh
48Fh
490h
491h
492h
493h
494h
495h
496h
497h
498h
499h
49Ah
49Bh
49Ch
49Dh
49Eh
49Fh
4A0h
4EFh
4F0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
47Fh
Legend:
Note 1:
BANK 10
500h
501h
502h
503h
504h
505h
506h
507h
508h
509h
50Ah
50Bh
50Ch
50Dh
50Eh
50Fh
510h
511h
512h
513h
514h
515h
516h
517h
518h
519h
51Ah
51Bh
51Ch
51Dh
51Eh
51Fh
520h
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes(1)
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes(1)
46Fh
470h
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
WPUG
—
—
—
RC2REG
TX2REG
SP2BRG
SP2BRGH
RC2STA
TX2STA
BAUDCON2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 11
580h
581h
582h
583h
584h
585h
586h
587h
588h
589h
58Ah
58Bh
58Ch
58Dh
58Eh
58Fh
590h
591h
592h
593h
594h
595h
596h
597h
598h
599h
59Ah
59Bh
59Ch
59Dh
59Eh
59Fh
5A0h
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes(1)
56Fh
570h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
4FFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
General
Purpose
Register
80 Bytes(1)
5EFh
5F0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
57Fh
= Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’
Not available on PIC16F1946.
BANK 12
INDF0
600h
INDF1
601h
PCL
602h
STATUS
603h
FSR0L
604h
FSR0H
605h
FSR1L
606h
FSR1H
607h
BSR
608h
WREG
609h
PCLATH
60Ah
INTCON
60Bh
—
60Ch
—
60Dh
—
60Eh
—
60Fh
—
610h
—
611h
—
612h
—
613h
—
614h
—
615h
—
616h
—
617h
—
618h
—
619h
—
61Ah
—
61Bh
—
61Ch
—
61Dh
—
61Eh
—
61Fh
620h General Purpose
Register
48 Bytes(1)
66Fh
670h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
5FFh
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
BANK 13
680h
681h
682h
683h
684h
685h
686h
687h
688h
689h
68Ah
68Bh
68Ch
68Dh
68Eh
68Fh
690h
691h
692h
693h
694h
695h
696h
697h
698h
699h
69Ah
69Bh
69Ch
69Dh
69Eh
69Fh
6A0h
BANK 14
700h
701h
702h
703h
704h
705h
706h
707h
708h
709h
70Ah
70Bh
70Ch
70Dh
70Eh
70Fh
710h
711h
712h
713h
714h
715h
716h
717h
718h
719h
71Ah
71Bh
71Ch
71Dh
71Eh
71Fh
720h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
6EFh
6F0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
67Fh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 15
780h
781h
782h
783h
784h
785h
786h
787h
788h
789h
78Ah
78Bh
78Ch
78Dh
78Eh
78Fh
790h
791h
792h
793h
794h
795h
796h
797h
798h
799h
79Ah
79Bh
79Ch
79Dh
79Eh
79Fh
7A0h
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
See Table 3-7
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
76Fh
770h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
6FFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
7EFh
7F0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
77Fh
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
7FFh
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
DS41414C-page 28
TABLE 3-4:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 MEMORY MAP, BANKS 16-23
BANK 16
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
800h
801h
802h
803h
804h
805h
806h
807h
808h
809h
80Ah
80Bh
80Ch
80Dh
80Eh
80Fh
810h
811h
812h
813h
814h
815h
816h
817h
818h
819h
81Ah
81Bh
81Ch
81Dh
81Eh
81Fh
820h
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 17
880h
881h
882h
883h
884h
885h
886h
887h
888h
889h
88Ah
88Bh
88Ch
88Dh
88Eh
88Fh
890h
891h
892h
893h
894h
895h
896h
897h
898h
899h
89Ah
89Bh
89Ch
89Dh
89Eh
89Fh
8A0h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
86Fh
870h
Legend:
BANK 18
900h
901h
902h
903h
904h
905h
906h
907h
908h
909h
90Ah
90Bh
90Ch
90Dh
90Eh
90Fh
910h
911h
912h
913h
914h
915h
916h
917h
918h
919h
91Ah
91Bh
91Ch
91Dh
91Eh
91Fh
920h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
8EFh
8F0h
8FFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 19
980h
981h
982h
983h
984h
985h
986h
987h
988h
989h
98Ah
98Bh
98Ch
98Dh
98Eh
98Fh
990h
991h
992h
993h
994h
995h
996h
997h
998h
999h
99Ah
99Bh
99Ch
99Dh
99Eh
99Fh
9A0h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
97Fh
= Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
BANK 20
A00h
A01h
A02h
A03h
A04h
A05h
A06h
A07h
A08h
A09h
A0Ah
A0Bh
A0Ch
A0Dh
A0Eh
A0Fh
A10h
A11h
A12h
A13h
A14h
A15h
A16h
A17h
A18h
A19h
A1Ah
A1Bh
A1Ch
A1Dh
A1Eh
A1Fh
A20h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
9EFh
9F0h
96Fh
970h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
87Fh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 21
A80h
A81h
A82h
A83h
A84h
A85h
A86h
A87h
A88h
A89h
A8Ah
A8Bh
A8Ch
A8Dh
A8Eh
A8Fh
A90h
A91h
A92h
A93h
A94h
A95h
A96h
A97h
A98h
A99h
A9Ah
A9Bh
A9Ch
A9Dh
A9Eh
A9Fh
AA0h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
BANK 22
B00h
B01h
B02h
B03h
B04h
B05h
B06h
B07h
B08h
B09h
B0Ah
B0Bh
B0Ch
B0Dh
B0Eh
B0Fh
B10h
B11h
B12h
B13h
B14h
B15h
B16h
B17h
B18h
B19h
B1Ah
B1Bh
B1Ch
B1Dh
B1Eh
B1Fh
B20h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
A7Fh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
AEFh
AF0h
A6Fh
A70h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
9FFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 23
B80h
B81h
B82h
B83h
B84h
B85h
B86h
B87h
B88h
B89h
B8Ah
B8Bh
B8Ch
B8Dh
B8Eh
B8Fh
B90h
B91h
B92h
B93h
B94h
B95h
B96h
B97h
B98h
B99h
B9Ah
B9Bh
B9Ch
B9Dh
B9Eh
B9Fh
BA0h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
B7Fh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BEFh
BF0h
B6Fh
B70h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
AFFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
BFFh
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
DS41414C-page 29
TABLE 3-5:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 MEMORY MAP, BANKS 24-31
BANK 24
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
C00h
C01h
C02h
C03h
C04h
C05h
C06h
C07h
C08h
C09h
C0Ah
C0Bh
C0Ch
C0Dh
C0Eh
C0Fh
C10h
C11h
C12h
C13h
C14h
C15h
C16h
C17h
C18h
C19h
C1Ah
C1Bh
C1Ch
C1Dh
C1Eh
C1Fh
C20h
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 25
C80h
C81h
C82h
C83h
C84h
C85h
C86h
C87h
C88h
C89h
C8Ah
C8Bh
C8Ch
C8Dh
C8Eh
C8Fh
C90h
C91h
C92h
C93h
C94h
C95h
C96h
C97h
C98h
C99h
C9Ah
C9Bh
C9Ch
C9Dh
C9Eh
C9Fh
CA0h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
C6Fh
C70h
Legend:
BANK 26
D00h
D01h
D02h
D03h
D04h
D05h
D06h
D07h
D08h
D09h
D0Ah
D0Bh
D0Ch
D0Dh
D0Eh
D0Fh
D10h
D11h
D12h
D13h
D14h
D15h
D16h
D17h
D18h
D19h
D1Ah
D1Bh
D1Ch
D1Dh
D1Eh
D1Fh
D20h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
CEFh
CF0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
CFFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 27
D80h
D81h
D82h
D83h
D84h
D85h
D86h
D87h
D88h
D89h
D8Ah
D8Bh
D8Ch
D8Dh
D8Eh
D8Fh
D90h
D91h
D92h
D93h
D94h
D95h
D96h
D97h
D98h
D99h
D9Ah
D9Bh
D9Ch
D9Dh
D9Eh
D9Fh
DA0h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
D6Fh
D70h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
CFFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
DEFh
DF0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
D7Fh
= Unimplemented data memory locations, read as ‘0’.
BANK 28
E00h
E01h
E02h
E03h
E04h
E05h
E06h
E07h
E08h
E09h
E0Ah
E0Bh
E0Ch
E0Dh
E0Eh
E0Fh
E10h
E11h
E12h
E13h
E14h
E15h
E16h
E17h
E18h
E19h
E1Ah
E1Bh
E1Ch
E1Dh
E1Eh
E1Fh
E20h
BANK 29
E80h
E81h
E82h
E83h
E84h
E85h
E86h
E87h
E88h
E89h
E8Ah
E8Bh
E8Ch
E8Dh
E8Eh
E8Fh
E90h
E91h
E92h
E93h
E94h
E95h
E96h
E97h
E98h
E99h
E9Ah
E9Bh
E9Ch
E9Dh
E9Eh
E9Fh
EA0h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
E6Fh
E70h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
DFFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 30
F00h
F01h
F02h
F03h
F04h
F05h
F06h
F07h
F08h
F09h
F0Ah
F0Bh
F0Ch
F0Dh
F0Eh
F0Fh
F10h
F11h
F12h
F13h
F14h
F15h
F16h
F17h
F18h
F19h
F1Ah
F1Bh
F1Ch
F1Dh
F1Eh
F1Fh
F20h
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
EEFh
EF0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
E7Fh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
BANK 31
F80h
F81h
F82h
F83h
F84h
F85h
F86h
F87h
F88h
F89h
F8Ah
F8Bh
F8Ch
F8Dh
F8Eh
F8Fh
F90h
F91h
F92h
F93h
F94h
F95h
F96h
F97h
F98h
F99h
F9Ah
F9Bh
F9Ch
F9Dh
F9Eh
F9Fh
FA0h
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
See Table 3-8
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
F6Fh
F70h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
EFFh
INDF0
INDF1
PCL
STATUS
FSR0L
FSR0H
FSR1L
FSR1H
BSR
WREG
PCLATH
INTCON
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
FEFh
FF0h
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
F7Fh
Accesses
70h – 7Fh
FFFh
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
DS41414C-page 30
TABLE 3-6:
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-7:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 MEMORY
MAP, BANK 15
TABLE 3-8:
Bank 15
791h
792h
793h
794h
795h
796h
797h
798h
799h
79Ah
79Bh
79Ch
79Dh
79Eh
79Fh
7A0h
7A1h
7A2h
7A3h
7A4h
7A5h
7A6h
7A7h
7A8h
7A9h
7AAh
7ABh
7ACh
7ADh
7AEh
7AFh
7B0h
7B1h
7B2h
7B3h
7B4h
7B5h
7B6h
7B7h
7B8h
Bank 31
LCDCON
LCDPS
LCDREF
LCDCST
LCDRL
—
—
LCDSE0
LCDSE1
LCDSE2
LCDSE3
LCDSE4
LCDSE5
—
—
LCDDATA0
LCDDATA1
LCDDATA2
LCDDATA3
LCDDATA4
LCDDATA5
LCDDATA6
LCDDATA7
LCDDATA8
LCDDATA9
LCDDATA10
LCDDATA11
LCDDATA12
LCDDATA13
LCDDATA14
LCDDATA15
LCDDATA16
LCDDATA17
LCDDATA18
LCDDATA19
LCDDATA20
LCDDATA21
LCDDATA22
LCDDATA23
F8Ch
F8Dh
F8Eh
F8Fh
F90h
F91h
F92h
F93h
F94h
F95h
F96h
F97h
F98h
F99h
F9Ah
F9Bh
F9Ch
F9Dh
F9Eh
F9Fh
FA0h
FA1h
FA2h
FA3h
FA4h
FA5h
FA6h
FA7h
FA8h
FA9h
FAAh
FABh
FDFh
FC0h
FDFh
FE0h
FE1h
FE2h
FE3h
FE4h
FE5h
FE6h
FE7h
FE8h
FE9h
FEAh
FEBh
FECh
FEDh
FEEh
FEFh
Unimplemented
Read as ‘0’
7EFh
Legend:
= Unimplemented data memory locations, read
as ‘0’.
Legend:
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16F/LF1946/47 MEMORY
MAP, BANK 31
Preliminary
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
STATUS_SHAD
WREG_SHAD
BSR_SHAD
PCLATH_SHAD
FSR0L_SHAD
FSR0H_SHAD
FSR1L_SHAD
FSR1H_SHAD
—
STKPTR
TOSL
TOSH
= Unimplemented data memory locations, read
as ‘0’.
DS41414C-page 31
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.2.6
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTERS
SUMMARY
The Special Function Register Summary for the device
family are as follows:
Device
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
DS41414C-page 32
Bank(s)
Page No.
0
33
1
34
2
35
3
36
4
37
5
38
6
39
7
40
8
41
9-14
43
15
44
16-30
46
31
47
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
Name
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 0
000h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
001h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
002h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
003h(2)
STATUS
004h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
005h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
006h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
007h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
008h(2)
BSR
009h(2)
WREG
00Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
00Bh(2)
INTCON
00Ch
PORTA
PORTA Data Latch when written: PORTA pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
00Dh
PORTB
PORTB Data Latch when written: PORTB pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
00Eh
PORTC
PORTC Data Latch when written: PORTC pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
00Fh
PORTD
PORTD Data Latch when written: PORTD pins when read
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
010h
PORTE
PORTE Data Latch when written: PORTE pins when read
011h
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
012h
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
0000 0000 0000 0000
013h
PIR3
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
-000 0-0- -000 0-0-
014h
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
--00 --00 --00 --00
015h
TMR0
Timer0 Module Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
016h
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
017h
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
018h
T1CON
019h
T1GCON
TMR1GE
01Ah
TMR2
Timer 2 Module Register
01Bh
PR2
Timer 2 Period Register
01Ch
T2CON
GIE
PEIE
TMR1CS<1:0>
T1GPOL
—
TMR0IE
INTE
T1CKPS<1:0>
T1GTM
T1GSPM
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
xxxx xxxx xxxx uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
T1GGO/
DONE
T1GVAL
T1GSS<1:0>
TMR1ON 0000 00-0 uuuu uu-u
0000 0x00 uuuu uxuu
0000 0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
T2OUTPS<3:0>
TMR2ON
T2CKPS<1:0>
-000 0000 -000 0000
01Dh
—
01Eh
CPSCON0
CPSON
CPSRM
—
01Fh
CPSCON1
—
—
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
Unimplemented
—
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
—
CPSRNG1 CPSRNG0 CPSOUT
CPSCH<4:0>
Preliminary
T0XCS
—
00-- 0000 00-- 0000
---0 0000 ---0 0000
DS41414C-page 33
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 1
080h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
081h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
082h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
083h(2)
STATUS
084h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
085h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
086h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
087h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
088h(2)
BSR
089h(2)
WREG
08Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
08Bh(2)
INTCON
08Ch
TRISA
PORTA Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
08Dh
TRISB
PORTB Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
08Eh
TRISC
PORTC Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
08Fh
TRISD
PORTD Data Direction Register
1111 1111 1111 1111
090h
TRISE
PORTE Data Direction Register
091h
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
092h
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
0000 0000 0000 0000
093h
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
-000 0-0- -000 0-0-
094h
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
095h
OPTION_REG
WPUEN
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
096h
PCON
STKOVF
STKUNF
—
—
097h
WDTCON
—
—
098h
OSCTUNE
—
—
099h
OSCCON
SPLLEN
09Ah
OSCSTAT
T1OSCR
09Bh
ADRESL
A/D Result Register Low
09Ch
ADRESH
A/D Result Register High
09Dh
ADCON0
—
09Eh
ADCON1
ADFM
09Fh
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
DS41414C-page 34
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
1111 1111 1111 1111
PS<2:0>
RMCLR
RI
POR
WDTPS<4:0>
OSTS
HFIOFR
BOR
00-- 11qq qq-- qquu
SWDTEN --01 0110 --01 0110
--00 0000 --00 0000
—
HFIOFL
--00 --00 --00 --00
1111 1111 1111 1111
TUN<5:0>
IRCF<3:0>
PLLR
TMR0IF
MFIOFR
SCS<1:0>
LFIOFR
HFIOFS
0011 1-00 0011 1-00
00q0 0q0- qqqq qq0xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CHS<4:0>
ADCS<2:0>
GO/DONE
—
Unimplemented
ADNREF
ADON
-000 0000 -000 0000
ADPREF1 ADPREF0 0000 -000 0000 -000
—
Preliminary
—
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
Name
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 2
100h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
101h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
102h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
103h(2)
STATUS
104h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
105h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
106h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
107h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
108h(2)
BSR
109h(2)
WREG
10Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
10Bh(2)
INTCON
10Ch
LATA
PORTA Data Latch
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10Dh
LATB
PORTB Data Latch
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10Eh
LATC
PORTC Data Latch
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
10Fh
LATD
PORTD Data Latch
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
110h
LATE
PORTE Data Latch
111h
CM1CON0
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
—
112h
CM1CON1
C1INTP
C1INTN
C1PCH1
C1PCH0
—
—
113h
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
C2OE
C2POL
—
C2SP
114h
CM2CON1
C2INTP
C2INTN
C2PCH1
C2PCH0
—
—
115h
CMOUT
—
—
—
—
—
MC3OUT
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
C1SP
116h
BORCON
SBOREN
—
—
—
—
—
117h
FVRCON
FVREN
FVRRDY
TSEN
TSRNG
CDAFVR1
CDAFVR0
118h
DACCON0
DACEN
DACLPS
DACOE
—
DACPSS<1:0>
C1HYS
C1SYNC 0000 -100 0000 -100
C1NCH<1:0>
C2HYS
0000 --00 0000 --00
C2SYNC 0000 -100 0000 -100
C2NCH<1:0>
0000 --00 0000 --00
MC2OUT MC1OUT ---- -000 ---- -000
—
BORRDY 1--- ---q u--- ---u
ADFVR<1:0>
—
0q00 0000 0q00 0000
DACNSS 000- 00-0 000- 00-0
119h
DACCON1
—
—
—
11Ah
SRCON0
SRLEN
SRCLK2
SRCLK1
SRCLK0
SRQEN
SRNQEN
SRPS
11Bh
SRCON1
SRSPE
SRSCKE
SRSC2E
SRSC1E
SRRPE
SRRCKE
SRRC2E
SRRC1E 0000 0000 0000 0000
P2DSEL
P2CSEL
P2BSEL
CCP2SEL
P1CSEL
P1BSEL
C3HYS
C3SYNC 0000 -100 0000 -100
DACR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
SRPR
0000 0000 0000 0000
11Ch
—
11Dh
APFCON
11Eh
CM3CON0
C3ON
C3OUT
C3OE
C3POL
—
C3SP
11Fh
CM3CON1
C3INTP
C3INTN
C3PCH1
C3PCH0
—
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
Unimplemented
P3CSEL
P3BSEL
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
—
Preliminary
C3NCH<1:0>
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 --00 0000 --00
DS41414C-page 35
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 3
180h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
181h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
182h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
183h(2)
STATUS
184h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
185h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
186h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
187h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
188h(2)
BSR
189h(2)
WREG
18Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
18Bh(2)
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
18Ch
ANSELA
—
—
ANSA5
—
ANSA3
ANSA2
ANSA1
ANSA0
--1- 1111 --1- 1111
18Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
18Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
18Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
190h
ANSELE
191h
EEADRL
192h
EEADRH
—
—
—
—
—
ANSE2
ANSE1
ANSE0
EEPROM / Program Memory Address Register Low Byte
—
---- -111 ---- -111
0000 0000 0000 0000
EEPROM / Program Memory Address Register High Byte
-000 0000 -000 0000
193h
EEDATL
194h
EEDATH
—
—
195h
EECON1
EEPGD
CFGS
196h
EECON2
EEPROM control register 2
197h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
198h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
199h
RCREG
USART Receive Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
19Ah
TXREG
USART Transmit Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
19Bh
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
19Ch
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
19Dh
RCSTA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x 0000 000x
19Eh
TXSTA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 0010 0000 0010
19Fh
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
01-0 0-00 01-0 0-00
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
DS41414C-page 36
EEPROM / Program Memory Read Data Register Low Byte
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
EEPROM / Program Memory Read Data Register High Byte
LWLO
FREE
WRERR
WREN
WR
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
RD
0000 x000 0000 q000
0000 0000 0000 0000
Preliminary
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 4
200h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
201h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
202h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
203h(2)
STATUS
204h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
205h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
206h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
207h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
208h(2)
BSR
209h(2)
WREG
20Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
20Bh(2)
INTCON
20Ch
—
20Dh
WPUB
20Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
20Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
210h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
211h
SSP1BUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
212h
SSP1ADD
213h
SSP1MSK
214h
SSP1STAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
215h
SSP1CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
216h
SSP1CON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
0000 0000 0000 0000
217h
SSP1CON3
ACKTIM
PCIE
SCIE
BOEN
SDAHT
SBCDE
AHEN
DHEN
0000 0000 0000 0000
218h
—
Unimplemented
219h
SSP2BUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
21Ah
SSP2ADD
ADD<7:0>
0000 0000 0000 0000
21Bh
SSP2MSK
MSK<7:0>
1111 1111 1111 1111
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
WPUB5
WPUB4
WPUB3
WPUB2
WPUB1
WPUB0
1111 1111 1111 1111
Unimplemented
WPUB7
WPUB6
—
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
ADD<7:0>
0000 0000 0000 0000
MSK<7:0>
1111 1111 1111 1111
S
R/W
UA
BF
SSPM<3:0>
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
21Ch
SSP2STAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
21Dh
SSP2CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
21Eh
SSP2CON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
0000 0000 0000 0000
21Fh
SSP2CON3
ACKTIM
PCIE
SCIE
BOEN
SDAHT
SBCDE
AHEN
DHEN
0000 0000 0000 0000
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
S
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
R/W
UA
BF
SSPM<3:0>
Preliminary
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000
DS41414C-page 37
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 5
280h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
281h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
282h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
283h(2)
STATUS
284h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
285h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
286h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
287h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
288h(2)
BSR
289h(2)
WREG
28Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
28Bh(2)
INTCON
28Ch
PORTF
28Dh
PORTG
28Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
28Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
290h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
291h
CCPR1L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (LSB)
292h
CCPR1H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 1 (MSB)
293h
CCP1CON
294h
PWM1CON
295h
CCP1AS
296h
PSTR1CON
297h
—
Unimplemented
298h
CCPR2L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (LSB)
299h
CCPR2H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 2 (MSB)
29Ah
CCP2CON
29Bh
PWM2CON
29Ch
CCP2AS
29Dh
PSTR2CON
—
—
—
STR2SYNC
STR2D
29Eh
CCPTMRS0
C4TSEL1
C4TSEL0
C3TSEL1
C3TSEL0
C2TSEL1
29Fh
CCPTMRS1
—
—
—
—
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
DS41414C-page 38
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
RG2
RG1
RG0
PORTF Data Latch when written: PORTF pins when read
—
—
P1M<1:0>
RG5
RG4
RG3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
DC1B<1:0>
CCP1M<3:0>
0000 0000 0000 0000
P1DC<6:0>
CCP1AS<2:0>
—
—
—
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
P1RSEN
CCP1ASE
0000 000x 0000 000u
0000 0000 0000 0000
PSS1AC<1:0>
STR1SYNC
STR1D
STR1C
PSS1BD<1:0>
STR1B
STR1A
0000 0000 0000 0000
---0 0001 ---0 0001
—
P2M<1:0>
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
DC2B<1:0>
P2RSEN
CCP2M<3:0>
0000 0000 0000 0000
P2DC<6:0>
CCP2ASE
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP2AS<2:0>
0000 0000 0000 0000
PSS2AC<1:0>
Preliminary
STR2C
PSS2BD<1:0>
STR2B
STR2A
0000 0000 0000 0000
---0 0001 ---0 0001
C2TSEL0 C1TSEL1 C1TSEL0 0000 0000 0000 0000
—
C5TSEL<1:0>
---- --00 ---- --00
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 6
300h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
301h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
302h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
303h(2)
STATUS
304h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
305h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
306h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
307h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
308h(2)
BSR
309h(2)
WREG
30Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
30Bh(2)
INTCON
30Ch
TRISF
30Dh
TRISG
30Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
30Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
310h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
311h
CCPR3L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (LSB)
312h
CCPR3H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 3 (MSB)
313h
CCP3CON
314h
PWM3CON
315h
CCP3AS
316h
PSTR3CON
317h
—
Unimplemented
318h
CCPR4L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 (LSB)
319h
CCPR4H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 4 (MSB)
31Ah
CCP4CON
31Bh
—
Unimplemented
31Ch
CCPR5L
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 (LSB)
31Dh
CCPR5H
Capture/Compare/PWM Register 5 (MSB)
31Eh
CCP5CON
31Fh
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
TRISG4
TRISG3
TRISG2
TRISG1
TRISG0
--11 1111 --11 1111
PORTF Data Direction Register
—
—
P3M<1:0>
1111 1111 1111 1111
TRISG5
—
CCP3M<1:0>
0000 0000 0000 0000
P3DC<6:0>
CCP3ASE
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
DC3B<1:0>
P3RSEN
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP3AS<2:0>
—
—
STR3SYNC
0000 0000 0000 0000
PSS3AC<1:0>
STR3D
STR3C
PSS3BD<1:0>
STR3B
STR3A
0000 0000 0000 0000
---0 0001 ---0 0001
—
—
DC4B<1:0>
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP4M<3:0>
--00 0000 --00 0000
—
—
DC5B<1:0>
Unimplemented
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
CCP5M<3:0>
--00 0000 --00 0000
—
Preliminary
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
—
DS41414C-page 39
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
Name
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 7
380h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
381h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
382h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
383h(2)
STATUS
384h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
385h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
386h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
387h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
388h(2)
BSR
389h(2)
WREG
38Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
38Bh(2)
INTCON
38Ch
LATF
38Dh
LATG
38Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
38Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
390h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
391h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
392h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
393h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
394h
IOCBP
IOCBP7
IOCBP6
IOCBP5
IOCBP4
IOCBP3
IOCBP2
IOCBP1
IOCBP0
0000 0000 0000 0000
395h
IOCBN
IOCBN7
IOCBN6
IOCBN5
IOCBN4
IOCBN3
IOCBN2
IOCBN1
IOCBN0
0000 0000 0000 0000
396h
IOCBF
IOCBF7
IOCBF6
IOCBF5
IOCBF4
IOCBF3
IOCBF2
IOCBF1
IOCBF0
0000 0000 0000 0000
397h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
398h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
399h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
39Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
39Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
39Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
39Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
39Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
39Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
DS41414C-page 40
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
LATG5
LATG4
LATG3
LATG2
LATG1
LATG0
PORTF Data Latch
—
—
0000 000x 0000 000u
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Preliminary
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
Name
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 8
400h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
401h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
402h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
403h(2)
STATUS
404h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
405h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
406h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
407h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
408h(2)
BSR
409h(2)
WREG
40Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
40Bh(2)
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
40Ch
ANSELF
ANSELF7
ANSELF6
ANSELF5
ANSELF4
ANSELF3
ANSELF2 ANSELF1 ANSELF0 1111 1111 1111 1111
—
—
—
ANSELG4
ANSELG3
ANSELG2 ANSELG1
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
40Dh
ANSELG
40Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
40Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
410h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
411h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
412h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
413h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
414h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
415h
TMR4
Timer 4 Module Register
416h
PR4
Timer 4 Period Register
417h
T4CON
418h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
419h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
41Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
41Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
41Ch
TMR6
Timer 6 Module Register
41Dh
PR6
Timer 6 Period Register
41Eh
T6CON
41Fh
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
—
—
---1 111- ---1 111-
0000 0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
T4OUTPS<3:0>
TMR4ON
T4CKPS<1:0>
-000 0000 -000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000
1111 1111 1111 1111
T6OUTPS<3:0>
Unimplemented
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
—
TMR6ON
T6CKPS<1:0>
-000 0000 -000 0000
—
Preliminary
—
DS41414C-page 41
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 9
480h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
481h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
482h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
483h(2)
STATUS
404h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
485h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
486h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
487h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
488h(2)
BSR
489h(2)
WREG
48Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
48Bh(2)
INTCON
48Ch
—
48Dh
WPUG
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
GIE
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
PEIE
-000 0000 -000 0000
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
WPUG5
—
—
—
—
—
--1- ---- --1- ----
Unimplemented
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
—
—
—
48Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
48Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
490h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
491h
RC2REG
USART Receive Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
492h
TX2REG
USART Transmit Data Register
0000 0000 0000 0000
493h
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
494h
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
495h
RC2STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
0000 000x 0000 000x
496h
TX2STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
0000 0010 0000 0010
497h
BAUDCON2
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
01-0 0-00 01-0 0-00
498h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
499h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
49Ah
—
Unimplemented
—
—
49Bh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
49Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
49Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
49Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
49Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
DS41414C-page 42
Preliminary
0000 0000 0000 0000
0000 0000 0000 0000
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
Name
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Banks 10-14
x00h/
x80h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
x00h/
x81h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
x02h/
x82h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000 0000 0000
x03h/
x83h(2)
STATUS
x04h/
x84h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
x05h/
x85h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
x06h/
x86h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
x07h/
x87h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
x08h/
x88h(2)
BSR
x09h/
x89h(2)
WREG
x0Ah/
PCLATH
x8Ah(1),(2)
—
—
—
—
—
TO
PD
—
Z
DC
C
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
x0Bh/
x8Bh(2)
INTCON
x0Ch/
x8Ch
—
x1Fh/
x9Fh
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
Unimplemented
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
Preliminary
—
DS41414C-page 43
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 15
780h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
781h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
782h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
783h(2)
STATUS
784h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
785h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
786h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
787h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
788h(2)
BSR
789h(2)
WREG
78Ah(1, 2) PCLATH
—
—
—
—
—
0000 0000 0000 0000
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
78Bh(2)
INTCON
78Ch
—
Unimplemented
—
—
78Dh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
78Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
78Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
790h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
791h
LCDCON
792h
LCDPS
793h
LCDREF
794h
LCDCST
—
795h
LCDRL
796h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
797h
—
Unimplemented
—
—
798h
LCDSE0
GIE
PEIE
LCDEN
SLPEN
WFT
LCDIRE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
WERR
—
BIASMD
LCDA
WA
LCDIRS
LCDIRI
—
VLCD3PE
—
—
—
—
LCDCST<2:0>
---- -000 ---- -000
—
LRLAT<2:0>
0000 -000 0000 -000
LRLAP<1:0>
CS<1:0>
LMUX<1:0>
LP<3:0>
LRLBP<1:0>
VLCD2PE VLCD1PE
000- 0011 000- 0011
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
000- 000- 000- 000-
SE<7:0>
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
799h
LCDSE1
SE<15:8>
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
79Ah
LCDSE2
SE<23:16>
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
79Bh
LCDSE3
SE<31:24>
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
79Ch
LCDSE4
SE<39:32>
79Dh
LCDSE5
79Eh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
79Fh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
7A0h
LCDDATA0
SEG7
COM0
SEG6
COM0
SEG5
COM0
SEG4
COM0
SEG3
COM0
SEG2
COM0
SEG1
COM0
SEG0
COM0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A1h
LCDDATA1
SEG15
COM0
SEG14
COM0
SEG13
COM0
SEG12
COM0
SEG11
COM0
SEG10
COM0
SEG9
COM0
SEG8
COM0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A2h
LCDDATA2
SEG23
COM0
SEG22
COM0
SEG21
COM0
SEG20
COM0
SEG19
COM0
SEG18
COM0
SEG17
COM0
SEG16
COM0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A3h
LCDDATA3
SEG7
COM1
SEG6
COM1
SEG5
COM1
SEG4
COM1
SEG3
COM1
SEG2
COM1
SEG1
COM1
SEG0
COM1
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A4h
LCDDATA4
SEG15
COM1
SEG14
COM1
SEG13
COM1
SEG12
COM1
SEG11
COM1
SEG10
COM1
SEG9
COM1
SEG8
COM1
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A5h
LCDDATA5
SEG23
COM1
SEG22
COM1
SEG21
COM1
SEG20
COM1
SEG19
COM1
SEG18
COM1
SEG17
COM1
SEG16
COM1
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
DS41414C-page 44
—
—
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
SE<45:40>
Preliminary
--00 0000 --uu uuuu
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 15 (Continued)
7A6h
LCDDATA6
SEG7
COM2
SEG6
COM2
SEG5
COM2
SEG4
COM2
SEG3
COM2
SEG2
COM2
SEG1
COM2
SEG0
COM2
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A7h
LCDDATA7
SEG15
COM2
SEG14
COM2
SEG13
COM2
SEG12
COM2
SEG11
COM2
SEG10
COM2
SEG9
COM2
SEG8
COM2
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A8h
LCDDATA8
SEG23
COM2
SEG22
COM2
SEG21
COM2
SEG20
COM2
SEG19
COM2
SEG18
COM2
SEG17
COM2
SEG16
COM2
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7A9h
LCDDATA9
SEG7
COM3
SEG6
COM3
SEG5
COM3
SEG4
COM3
SEG3
COM3
SEG2
COM3
SEG1
COM3
SEG0
COM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7AAh
LCDDATA10
SEG15
COM3
SEG14
COM3
SEG13
COM3
SEG12
COM3
SEG11
COM3
SEG10
COM3
SEG9
COM3
SEG8
COM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7ABh
LCDDATA11
SEG23
COM3
SEG22
COM3
SEG21
COM3
SEG20
COM3
SEG19
COM3
SEG18
COM3
SEG17
COM3
SEG16
COM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7ACh
LCDDATA12
SEG31
COM0
SEG30
COM0
SEG29
COM0
SEG28
COM0
SEG27
COM0
SEG26
COM0
SEG25
COM0
SEG24
COM0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7ADh
LCDDATA13
SEG39
COM0
SEG38
COM0
SEG37
COM0
SEG36
COM0
SEG35
COM0
SEG34
COM0
SEG33
COM0
SEG32
COM0
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7AEh
LCDDATA14
—
—
SEG45
COM0
SEG44
COM0
SEG43
COM0
SEG42
COM0
SEG41
COM0
SEG40
COM0
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
7AFh
LCDDATA15
SEG31
COM1
SEG30
COM1
SEG29
COM1
SEG28
COM1
SEG27
COM1
SEG26
COM1
SEG25
COM1
SEG24
COM1
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7B0h
LCDDATA16
SEG39
COM1
SEG38
COM1
SEG37
COM1
SEG36
COM1
SEG35
COM1
SEG34
COM1
SEG33
COM1
SEG32
COM1
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7B1h
LCDDATA17
—
—
SEG45
COM1
SEG44
COM1
SEG43
COM1
SEG42
COM1
SEG41
COM1
SEG40
COM1
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
7B2h
LCDDATA18
SEG31
COM2
SEG30
COM2
SEG29
COM2
SEG28
COM2
SEG27
COM2
SEG26
COM2
SEG25
COM2
SEG24
COM2
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7B3h
LCDDATA19
SEG39
COM2
SEG38
COM2
SEG37
COM2
SEG36
COM2
SEG35
COM2
SEG34
COM2
SEG33
COM2
SEG32
COM2
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7B4h
LCDDATA20
—
—
SEG45
COM2
SEG44
COM2
SEG43
COM2
SEG42
COM2
SEG41
COM2
SEG40
COM2
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
7B5h
LCDDATA21
SEG31
COM3
SEG30
COM3
SEG29
COM3
SEG28
COM3
SEG27
COM3
SEG26
COM3
SEG25
COM3
SEG24
COM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7B6h
LCDDATA22
SEG39
COM3
SEG38
COM3
SEG37
COM3
SEG36
COM3
SEG35
COM3
SEG34
COM3
SEG33
COM3
SEG32
COM3
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
7B7h
LCDDATA23
—
—
SEG45
COM3
SEG44
COM3
SEG43
COM3
SEG42
COM3
SEG41
COM3
SEG40
COM3
--xx xxxx --uu uuuu
7B8h
—
7EFh
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
Unimplemented
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
—
Preliminary
—
DS41414C-page 45
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
Name
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Banks 16-30
x00h/
x80h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
x00h/
x81h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
x02h/
x82h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
0000 0000 0000 0000
x03h/
x83h(2)
STATUS
x04h/
x84h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
x05h/
x85h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
x06h/
x86h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
x07h/
x87h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
x08h/
x88h(2)
BSR
x09h/
x89h(2)
WREG
x0Ah/
PCLATH
x8Ah(1),(2)
—
—
—
—
—
TO
PD
—
Z
DC
C
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
---1 1000 ---q quuu
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
-000 0000 -000 0000
x0Bh/
x8Bh(2)
INTCON
x0Ch/
x8Ch
—
x1Fh/
x9Fh
—
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
DS41414C-page 46
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
Unimplemented
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
Preliminary
—
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 3-9:
Address
SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER SUMMARY (CONTINUED)
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Value on
POR, BOR
Value on all
other
Resets
Bank 31
F80h(2)
INDF0
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR0H/FSR0L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
F81h(2)
INDF1
Addressing this location uses contents of FSR1H/FSR1L to address data memory
(not a physical register)
xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
F82h(2)
PCL
Program Counter (PC) Least Significant Byte
F83h(2)
STATUS
F84h(2)
FSR0L
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
F85h(2)
FSR0H
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer
0000 0000 0000 0000
F86h(2)
FSR1L
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
F87h(2)
FSR1H
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer
F88h(2)
BSR
F89h(2)
WREG
F8Ah(1),(2 PCLATH
)
F8Bh(2)
INTCON
F8Ch
—
FE3h
—
FE4h
—
—
—
—
—
TO
0000 0000 0000 0000
PD
Z
DC
C
0000 0000 0000 0000
—
BSR<4:0>
---0 0000 ---0 0000
Working Register
—
GIE
0000 0000 uuuu uuuu
Write Buffer for the upper 7 bits of the Program Counter
PEIE
---1 1000 ---q quuu
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
-000 0000 -000 0000
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
Unimplemented
0000 000x 0000 000u
—
Z
STATUS_
DC
C
—
---- -xxx ---- -uuu
SHAD
FE5h
WREG_
Working Register Normal (Non-ICD) Shadow
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SHAD
FE6h
BSR_
Bank Select Register Normal (Non-ICD) Shadow
---x xxxx ---u uuuu
SHAD
FE7h
PCLATH_
Program Counter Latch High Register Normal (Non-ICD) Shadow
-xxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SHAD
FE8h
FSR0L_
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 Low Pointer Normal (Non-ICD) Shadow
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Indirect Data Memory Address 0 High Pointer Normal (Non-ICD) Shadow
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 Low Pointer Normal (Non-ICD) Shadow
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Indirect Data Memory Address 1 High Pointer Normal (Non-ICD) Shadow
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
SHAD
FE9h
FSR0H_
SHAD
FEAh
FSR1L_
SHAD
FEBh
FSR1H_
SHAD
FECh
—
Unimplemented
—
—
FEDh
STKPTR
FEEh
TOSL
FEFh
TOSH
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, q = value depends on condition, - = unimplemented, read as ‘0’, r = reserved.
Shaded locations are unimplemented, read as ‘0’.
The upper byte of the program counter is not directly accessible. PCLATH is a holding register for the PC<14:8>, whose contents are transferred
to the upper byte of the program counter.
These registers can be addressed from any bank.
Note 1:
2:
—
—
—
Current Stack pointer
Top of Stack Low byte
—
xxxx xxxx uuuu uuuu
Top of Stack High byte
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
---1 1111 ---1 1111
-xxx xxxx -uuu uuuu
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 47
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.3
3.3.3
PCL and PCLATH
COMPUTED FUNCTION CALLS
The Program Counter (PC) is 15 bits wide. The low byte
comes from the PCL register, which is a readable and
writable register. The high byte (PC<14:8>) is not directly
readable or writable and comes from PCLATH. On any
Reset, the PC is cleared. Figure 3-4 shows the five
situations for the loading of the PC.
A computed function CALL allows programs to maintain
tables of functions and provide another way to execute
state machines or look-up tables. When performing a
table read using a computed function CALL, care
should be exercised if the table location crosses a PCL
memory boundary (each 256-byte block).
FIGURE 3-4:
If using the CALL instruction, the PCH<2:0> and PCL
registers are loaded with the operand of the CALL
instruction. PCH<6:3> is loaded with PCLATH<6:3>.
PC
LOADING OF PC IN
DIFFERENT SITUATIONS
14
PCH
6
7
14
PCH
PCL
0
PCLATH
PC
8
ALU Result
PCL
0
4
0
14
11
PCL
0
CALLW
6
PCLATH
PCH
14
7
0
PCH
8
W
PCL
BRW
PCH
BRANCHING
If using BRA, the entire PC will be loaded with PC + 1 +,
the signed value of the operand of the BRA instruction.
15
14
3.3.4
If using BRW, load the W register with the desired
unsigned address and execute BRW. The entire PC will
be loaded with the address PC + 1 + W.
0
PC + W
PC
The CALLW instruction enables computed calls by combining PCLATH and W to form the destination address.
A computed CALLW is accomplished by loading the W
register with the desired address and executing CALLW.
The PCL register is loaded with the value of W and
PCH is loaded with PCLATH.
The branching instructions add an offset to the PC.
This allows relocatable code and code that crosses
page boundaries. There are two forms of branching,
BRW and BRA. The PC will have incremented to fetch
the next instruction in both cases. When using either
branching instruction, a PCL memory boundary may be
crossed.
OPCODE <10:0>
PC
PC
Instruction with
PCL as
Destination
GOTO, CALL
6
PCLATH
0
PCL
0
BRA
15
PC + OPCODE <8:0>
3.3.1
MODIFYING PCL
Executing any instruction with the PCL register as the
destination simultaneously causes the Program Counter PC<14:8> bits (PCH) to be replaced by the contents
of the PCLATH register. This allows the entire contents
of the program counter to be changed by writing the
desired upper 7 bits to the PCLATH register. When the
lower 8 bits are written to the PCL register, all 15 bits of
the program counter will change to the values contained in the PCLATH register and those being written
to the PCL register.
3.3.2
COMPUTED GOTO
A computed GOTO is accomplished by adding an offset to
the program counter (ADDWF PCL). When performing a
table read using a computed GOTO method, care should
be exercised if the table location crosses a PCL memory
boundary (each 256-byte block). Refer to the Application
Note AN556, “Implementing a Table Read” (DS00556).
DS41414C-page 48
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.4
3.4.1
Stack
The stack is available through the TOSH, TOSL and
STKPTR registers. STKPTR is the current value of the
Stack Pointer. TOSH:TOSL register pair points to the
TOP of the stack. Both registers are read/writable. TOS
is split into TOSH and TOSL due to the 15-bit size of the
PC. To access the stack, adjust the value of STKPTR,
which will position TOSH:TOSL, then read/write to
TOSH:TOSL. STKPTR is 5 bits to allow detection of
overflow and underflow.
All devices have a 16-level x 15-bit wide hardware
stack (refer to Figures 3-3 and 3-4). The stack space is
not part of either program or data space. The PC is
PUSHed onto the stack when CALL or CALLW instructions are executed or an interrupt causes a branch. The
stack is POPed in the event of a RETURN, RETLW or a
RETFIE instruction execution. PCLATH is not affected
by a PUSH or POP operation.
The stack operates as a circular buffer if the STVREN
bit is programmed to ‘0‘ (Configuration Word 2). This
means that after the stack has been PUSHed sixteen
times, the seventeenth PUSH overwrites the value that
was stored from the first PUSH. The eighteenth PUSH
overwrites the second PUSH (and so on). The
STKOVF and STKUNF flag bits will be set on an Overflow/Underflow, regardless of whether the Reset is
enabled.
Note:
Care should be taken when modifying the
STKPTR while interrupts are enabled.
During normal program operation, CALL, CALLW and
Interrupts will increment STKPTR while RETLW,
RETURN, and RETFIE will decrement STKPTR. At any
time STKPTR can be inspected to see how much stack
is left. The STKPTR always points at the currently used
place on the stack. Therefore, a CALL or CALLW will
increment the STKPTR and then write the PC, and a
return will unload the PC and then decrement the STKPTR.
Note 1: There are no instructions/mnemonics
called PUSH or POP. These are actions
that occur from the execution of the
CALL, CALLW, RETURN, RETLW and
RETFIE instructions or the vectoring to
an interrupt address.
FIGURE 3-5:
ACCESSING THE STACK
Reference Figure through Figure for examples of
accessing the stack.
ACCESSING THE STACK EXAMPLE 1
TOSH:TOSL
0x0F
STKPTR = 0x1F
Stack Reset Disabled
(STVREN = 0)
0x0E
0x0D
0x0C
0x0B
0x0A
Initial Stack Configuration:
0x09
After Reset, the stack is empty. The
empty stack is initialized so the Stack
Pointer is pointing at 0x1F. If the Stack
Overflow/Underflow Reset is enabled, the
TOSH/TOSL registers will return ‘0’. If
the Stack Overflow/Underflow Reset is
disabled, the TOSH/TOSL registers will
return the contents of stack address 0x0F.
0x08
0x07
0x06
0x05
0x04
0x03
0x02
0x01
0x00
TOSH:TOSL
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
0x1F
0x0000
Preliminary
STKPTR = 0x1F
Stack Reset Enabled
(STVREN = 1)
DS41414C-page 49
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 3-6:
ACCESSING THE STACK EXAMPLE 2
0x0F
0x0E
0x0D
0x0C
0x0B
0x0A
0x09
This figure shows the stack configuration
after the first CALL or a single interrupt.
If a RETURN instruction is executed, the
return address will be placed in the
Program Counter and the Stack Pointer
decremented to the empty state (0x1F).
0x08
0x07
0x06
0x05
0x04
0x03
0x02
0x01
TOSH:TOSL
FIGURE 3-7:
0x00
Return Address
STKPTR = 0x00
ACCESSING THE STACK EXAMPLE 3
0x0F
0x0E
0x0D
0x0C
After seven CALLs or six CALLs and an
interrupt, the stack looks like the figure
on the left. A series of RETURN instructions
will repeatedly place the return addresses
into the Program Counter and pop the stack.
0x0B
0x0A
0x09
0x08
0x07
TOSH:TOSL
DS41414C-page 50
0x06
Return Address
0x05
Return Address
0x04
Return Address
0x03
Return Address
0x02
Return Address
0x01
Return Address
0x00
Return Address
Preliminary
STKPTR = 0x06
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 3-8:
ACCESSING THE STACK EXAMPLE 4
TOSH:TOSL
3.4.2
0x0F
Return Address
0x0E
Return Address
0x0D
Return Address
0x0C
Return Address
0x0B
Return Address
0x0A
Return Address
0x09
Return Address
0x08
Return Address
0x07
Return Address
0x06
Return Address
0x05
Return Address
0x04
Return Address
0x03
Return Address
0x02
Return Address
0x01
Return Address
0x00
Return Address
When the stack is full, the next CALL or
an interrupt will set the Stack Pointer to
0x10. This is identical to address 0x00
so the stack will wrap and overwrite the
return address at 0x00. If the Stack
Overflow/Underflow Reset is enabled, a
Reset will occur and location 0x00 will
not be overwritten.
STKPTR = 0x10
OVERFLOW/UNDERFLOW RESET
If the STVREN bit in Configuration Word 2 is
programmed to ‘1’, the device will be reset if the stack
is PUSHed beyond the sixteenth level or POPed
beyond the first level, setting the appropriate bits
(STKOVF or STKUNF, respectively) in the PCON
register.
3.5
Indirect Addressing
The INDFn registers are not physical registers. Any
instruction that accesses an INDFn register actually
accesses the register at the address specified by the
File Select Registers (FSR). If the FSRn address
specifies one of the two INDFn registers, the read will
return ‘0’ and the write will not occur (though Status bits
may be affected). The FSRn register value is created
by the pair FSRnH and FSRnL.
The FSR registers form a 16-bit address that allows an
addressing space with 65536 locations. These locations
are divided into three memory regions:
• Traditional Data Memory
• Linear Data Memory
• Program Flash Memory
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 51
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 3-9:
INDIRECT ADDRESSING
0x0000
0x0000
Traditional
Data Memory
0x0FFF
0x0FFF
0x1000
Reserved
0x1FFF
0x2000
Linear
Data Memory
0x29AF
0x29B0
FSR
Address
Range
Reserved
0x7FFF
0x8000
0x0000
Program
Flash Memory
0xFFFF
Note:
0x7FFF
Not all memory regions are completely implemented. Consult device memory tables for memory limits.
DS41414C-page 52
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.5.1
TRADITIONAL DATA MEMORY
The traditional data memory is a region from FSR
address 0x000 to FSR address 0xFFF. The addresses
correspond to the absolute addresses of all SFR, GPR
and common registers.
FIGURE 3-10:
TRADITIONAL DATA MEMORY MAP
Direct Addressing
4
BSR
0
6
Indirect Addressing
From Opcode
0
7
0
Bank Select
Location Select
FSRxH
0
0
0
7
FSRxL
0
0
Bank Select
00000 00001 00010
11111
Bank 0 Bank 1 Bank 2
Bank 31
Location Select
0x00
0x7F
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 53
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
3.5.2
3.5.3
LINEAR DATA MEMORY
The linear data memory is the region from FSR
address 0x2000 to FSR address 0x29AF. This region is
a virtual region that points back to the 80-byte blocks of
GPR memory in all the banks.
Unimplemented memory reads as 0x00. Use of the
linear data memory region allows buffers to be larger
than 80 bytes because incrementing the FSR beyond
one bank will go directly to the GPR memory of the next
bank.
The 16 bytes of common memory are not included in
the linear data memory region.
FIGURE 3-11:
7
FSRnH
0 0 1
LINEAR DATA MEMORY
MAP
0
7
FSRnL
To make constant data access easier, the entire
program Flash memory is mapped to the upper half of
the FSR address space. When the MSB of FSRnH is
set, the lower 15 bits are the address in program
memory which will be accessed through INDF. Only the
lower 8 bits of each memory location is accessible via
INDF. Writing to the program Flash memory cannot be
accomplished via the FSR/INDF interface. All
instructions that access program Flash memory via the
FSR/INDF interface will require one additional
instruction cycle to complete.
FIGURE 3-12:
7
1
0
PROGRAM FLASH MEMORY
FSRnH
PROGRAM FLASH
MEMORY MAP
0
Location Select
Location Select
0x2000
7
FSRnL
0x8000
0
0x0000
0x020
Bank 0
0x06F
0x0A0
Bank 1
0x0EF
0x120
Program
Flash
Memory
(low 8
bits)
Bank 2
0x16F
0xF20
Bank 30
0x29AF
DS41414C-page 54
0xF6F
Preliminary
0xFFFF
0x7FFF
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
4.0
DEVICE CONFIGURATION
Device Configuration consists of Configuration Word 1
and Configuration Word 2 registers, Code Protection
and Device ID.
4.1
Configuration Words
There are several Configuration Word bits that allow
different oscillator and memory protection options.
These are implemented as Configuration Word 1 at
8007h and Configuration Word 2 at 8008h.
Note:
The DEBUG bit in Configuration Word 2 is
managed
automatically
by
device
development tools including debuggers
and programmers. For normal device
operation, this bit should be maintained as
a '1'.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 55
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
4.2
Configuration Word Registers
REGISTER 4-1:
CONFIGURATION WORD 1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
FCMEN
IESO
CLKOUTEN
BOREN1
BOREN0
CPD
CP
bit 13
bit 7
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
MCLRE
PWRTE
WDTE1
WDTE0
FOSC2
FOSC1
FOSC0
bit 6
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘1’
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
P = Programmable bit
bit 13
FCMEN: Fail-Safe Clock Monitor Enable bit
1 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is enabled
0 = Fail-Safe Clock Monitor is disabled
bit 12
IESO: Internal External Switchover bit
1 = Internal/External Switchover mode is enabled
0 = Internal/External Switchover mode is disabled
bit 11
CLKOUTEN: Clock Out Enable bit
1 = CLKOUT function is disabled. I/O or oscillator function on RA6/CLKOUT
0 = CLKOUT function is enabled on RA6/CLKOUT
bit 10-9
BOREN<1:0>: Brown-out Reset Enable bits(1)
11 = BOR enabled
10 = BOR enabled during operation and disabled in Sleep
01 = BOR controlled by SBOREN bit of the BORCON register
00 = BOR disabled
bit 8
CPD: Data Code Protection bit(2)
1 = Data memory code protection is disabled
0 = Data memory code protection is enabled
bit 7
CP: Code Protection bit(3)
1 = Program memory code protection is disabled
0 = Program memory code protection is enabled
bit 6
MCLRE: RE3/MCLR/VPP Pin Function Select bit
If LVP bit = 1:
This bit is ignored.
If LVP bit = 0:
1 = RE3/MCLR/VPP pin function is MCLR; Weak pull-up enabled.
0 = RE3/MCLR/VPP pin function is digital input; MCLR internally disabled; Weak pull-up under control of WPUE3
bit.
bit 5
PWRTE: Power-up Timer Enable bit(1)
1 = PWRT disabled
0 = PWRT enabled
bit 4-3
WDTE<1:0>: Watchdog Timer Enable bit
11 = WDT enabled
10 = WDT enabled while running and disabled in Sleep
01 = WDT controlled by the SWDTEN bit in the WDTCON register
00 = WDT disabled
Note 1:
2:
3:
Enabling Brown-out Reset does not automatically enable Power-up Timer.
The entire data EEPROM will be erased when the code protection is turned off during an erase.
The entire program memory will be erased when the code protection is turned off.
DS41414C-page 56
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 4-1:
bit 2-0
Note 1:
2:
3:
CONFIGURATION WORD 1 (CONTINUED)
FOSC<2:0>: Oscillator Selection bits
111 = ECH: External Clock, High-Power mode: CLKIN on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
110 = ECM: External Clock, Medium-Power mode: CLKIN on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
101 = ECL: External Clock, Low-Power mode: CLKIN on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
100 = INTOSC oscillator: I/O function on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
011 = EXTRC oscillator: RC function on RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
010 = HS oscillator: High-speed crystal/resonator on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin and RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
001 = XT oscillator: Crystal/resonator on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin and RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
000 = LP oscillator: Low-power crystal on RA6/OSC2/CLKOUT pin and RA7/OSC1/CLKIN
Enabling Brown-out Reset does not automatically enable Power-up Timer.
The entire data EEPROM will be erased when the code protection is turned off during an erase.
The entire program memory will be erased when the code protection is turned off.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 57
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 4-2:
CONFIGURATION WORD 2
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
U-1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
U-1
LVP
DEBUG(2)
—
BORV
STVREN
PLLEN
—
bit 13
bit 7
U-1
U-1
R/P-1/1
U-1
U-1
R/P-1/1
R/P-1/1
—
—
VCAPEN
—
—
WRT1
WRT0
bit 6
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
P = Programmable bit
bit 13
LVP: Low-Voltage Programming Enable bit(1)
1 = Low-voltage programming enabled
0 = High-voltage on MCLR/VPP must be used for programming
bit 12
DEBUG: In-Circuit Debugger Mode bit
1 = In-Circuit Debugger disabled, RB6/ICSPCLK and RB7/ICSPDAT are general purpose I/O pins
0 = In-Circuit Debugger enabled, RB6/ICSPCLK and RB7/ICSPDAT are dedicated to the debugger
bit 11
Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 10
BORV: Brown-out Reset Voltage Selection bit
1 = Brown-out Reset voltage set to 1.9V
0 = Brown-out Reset voltage set to 2.5V
bit 9
STVREN: Stack Overflow/Underflow Reset Enable bit
1 = Stack Overflow or Underflow will cause a Reset
0 = Stack Overflow or Underflow will not cause a Reset
bit 8
PLLEN: PLL Enable bit
1 = 4xPLL enabled
0 = 4xPLL disabled
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 4
VCAPEN>: Voltage Regulator Capacitor Enable bits
0 = VCAP functionality is enabled on RF0
1 = No capacitor on VCAP pin
bit 2-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 1-0
WRT<1:0>: Flash Memory Self-Write Protection bits
8 kW Flash memory (PIC16F/LF1946 only):
11 = Write protection off
10 = 000h to 1FFh write-protected, 200h to 1FFFh may be modified by EECON control
01 = 000h to FFFh write-protected, 1000h to 1FFFh may be modified by EECON control
00 = 000h to 1FFFh write-protected, no addresses may be modified by EECON control
16 kW Flash memory (PIC16F/LF1947):
11 = Write protection off
10 = 000h to 1FFh write-protected, 200h to 3FFFh may be modified by EECON control
01 = 000h to 1FFFh write-protected, 2000h to 3FFFh may be modified by EECON control
00 = 000h to 3FFFh write-protected, no addresses may be modified by EECON control
Note 1:
2:
The LVP bit cannot be programmed to ‘0’ when Programming mode is entered via LVP.
The DEBUG bit in Configuration Word is managed automatically by device development tools including debuggers and
programmers. For normal device operation, this bit should be maintained as a '1'.
DS41414C-page 58
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
4.3
Code Protection
Code protection allows the device to be protected from
unauthorized access. Program memory protection and
data EEPROM protection are controlled independently.
Internal access to the program memory and data
EEPROM are unaffected by any code protection
setting.
4.3.1
PROGRAM MEMORY PROTECTION
The entire program memory space is protected from
external reads and writes by the CP bit in Configuration
Word 1. When CP = 0, external reads and writes of
program memory are inhibited and a read will return all
‘0’s. The CPU can continue to read program memory,
regardless of the protection bit settings. Writing the
program memory is dependent upon the write
protection
setting.
See
Section 4.4
“Write
Protection” for more information.
4.3.2
DATA EEPROM PROTECTION
The entire data EEPROM is protected from external
reads and writes by the CPD bit. When CPD = 0,
external reads and writes of data EEPROM are
inhibited. The CPU can continue to read and write data
EEPROM regardless of the protection bit settings.
4.4
Write Protection
Write protection allows the device to be protected from
unintended self-writes. Applications, such as
bootloader software, can be protected while allowing
other regions of the program memory to be modified.
The WRT<1:0> bits in Configuration Word 2 define the
size of the program memory block that is protected.
4.5
User ID
Four memory locations (8000h-8003h) are designated
as ID locations where the user can store checksum or
other code identification numbers. These locations are
readable and writable during normal execution. See
Section 4.6 “Device ID and Revision ID” for more
information on accessing these memory locations. For
more information on checksum calculation, see the
“PIC16F193X/LF193X/PIC16F194X/LF194X Memory
Programming Specification” (DS41397).
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 59
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
4.6
Device ID and Revision ID
The memory location 8006h is where the Device ID and
Revision ID are stored. The upper nine bits hold the
Device ID. The lower five bits hold the Revision ID. See
Section 11.5 “User ID, Device ID and Configuration
Word Access” for more information on accessing
these memory locations.
Development tools, such as device programmers and
debuggers, may be used to read the Device ID and
Revision ID.
REGISTER 4-3:
DEVICEID: DEVICE ID REGISTER(1)
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
DEV8
DEV7
DEV6
DEV5
DEV4
DEV3
DEV2
bit 13
bit 7
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
DEV1
DEV0
REV4
REV3
REV2
REV1
REV0
bit 6
bit 0
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
x = Bit is unknown
bit 13-5
DEV<8:0>: Device ID bits
100011001 = PIC16F1946
100011010 = PIC16F1947
100011011 = PIC16LF1946
100011100 = PIC16LF1947
bit 4-0
REV<4:0>: Revision ID bits
These bits are used to identify the revision.
Note 1:
This location cannot be written.
DS41414C-page 60
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.0
OSCILLATOR MODULE (WITH
FAIL-SAFE CLOCK MONITOR)
5.1
Overview
The oscillator module has a wide variety of clock
sources and selection features that allow it to be used
in a wide range of applications while maximizing performance and minimizing power consumption. Figure 5-1
illustrates a block diagram of the oscillator module.
Clock sources can be supplied from external oscillators,
quartz crystal resonators, ceramic resonators and
Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuits. In addition, the system
clock source can be supplied from one of two internal
oscillators and PLL circuits, with a choice of speeds
selectable via software. Additional clock features
include:
• Selectable system clock source between external
or internal sources via software.
• Two-Speed Start-up mode, which minimizes
latency between external oscillator start-up and
code execution.
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) designed to
detect a failure of the external clock source (LP,
XT, HS, EC or RC modes) and switch
automatically to the internal oscillator.
• Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) ensures stability
of crystal oscillator sources
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
The oscillator module can be configured in one of eight
clock modes.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
ECL – External Clock Low Power mode
(0 MHz to 0.5 MHz)
ECM – External Clock Medium Power mode
(0.5 MHz to 4 MHz)
ECH – External Clock High Power mode
(4 MHz to 32 MHz)
LP – 32 kHz Low-Power Crystal mode.
XT – Medium Gain Crystal or Ceramic Resonator
Oscillator mode (up to 4 MHz)
HS – High Gain Crystal or Ceramic Resonator
mode (4 MHz to 20 MHz)
RC – External Resistor-Capacitor (RC).
INTOSC – Internal oscillator (31 kHz to 32 MHz).
Clock Source modes are selected by the FOSC<2:0>
bits in the Configuration Word 1. The FOSC bits
determine the type of oscillator that will be used when
the device is first powered.
The EC clock mode relies on an external logic level
signal as the device clock source. The LP, XT, and HS
clock modes require an external crystal or resonator to
be connected to the device. Each mode is optimized for
a different frequency range. The RC clock mode
requires an external resistor and capacitor to set the
oscillator frequency.
The INTOSC internal oscillator block produces low,
medium, and high frequency clock sources, designated
LFINTOSC, MFINTOSC, and HFINTOSC. (see
Internal Oscillator Block, Figure 5-1). A wide selection
of device clock frequencies may be derived from these
three clock sources.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 61
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
SIMPLIFIED PIC® MCU CLOCK SOURCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
FIGURE 5-1:
External
Oscillator
LP, XT, HS, RC, EC
OSC2
Sleep
4 x PLL
Oscillator Timer1
FOSC<2:0> = 100
T1OSO
IRCF<3:0>
HFPLL
500 kHz
Source
16 MHz
(HFINTOSC)
Postscaler
Internal
Oscillator
Block
500 kHz
(MFINTOSC)
31 kHz
Source
16 MHz
8 MHz
4 MHz
2 MHz
1 MHz
500 kHz
250 kHz
125 kHz
62.5 kHz
31.25 kHz
MUX
T1OSI
T1OSCEN
Enable
Oscillator
31 kHz
31 kHz (LFINTOSC)
DS41414C-page 62
Sleep
T1OSC
MUX
OSC1
CPU and
Peripherals
Internal Oscillator
Clock
Control
FOSC<2:0> SCS<1:0>
Clock Source Option
for other modules
WDT, PWRT, Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
Two-Speed Start-up and other modules
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.2
Clock Source Types
Clock sources can be classified as external or internal.
External clock sources rely on external circuitry for the
clock source to function. Examples are: oscillator modules (EC mode), quartz crystal resonators or ceramic
resonators (LP, XT and HS modes) and Resistor-Capacitor (RC) mode circuits.
Internal clock sources are contained internally within
the oscillator module. The internal oscillator block has
two
internal
oscillators
and
a
dedicated
phase-locked-loop (HFPLL) that are used to generate
three internal system clock sources: the 16 MHz
High-Frequency Internal Oscillator (HFINTOSC), 500
kHz (MFINTOSC) and the 31 kHz Low-Frequency
Internal Oscillator (LFINTOSC).
The system clock can be selected between external or
internal clock sources via the System Clock Select
(SCS) bits in the OSCCON register. See Section 5.3
“Clock Switching” for additional information.
5.2.1
FIGURE 5-2:
OSC1/CLKIN
Clock from
Ext. System
PIC® MCU
FOSC/4 or I/O(1)
Note 1:
EXTERNAL CLOCK (EC)
MODE OPERATION
OSC2/CLKOUT
Output depends upon CLKOUTEN bit of the
Configuration Word 1.
EXTERNAL CLOCK SOURCES
An external clock source can be used as the device
system clock by performing one of the following
actions:
• Program the FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration
Word 1 to select an external clock source that will
be used as the default system clock upon a
device Reset.
• Write the SCS<1:0> bits in the OSCCON register
to switch the system clock source to:
- Timer1 Oscillator during run-time, or
- An external clock source determined by the
value of the FOSC bits.
See Section 5.3 “Clock Switching”for more information.
5.2.1.1
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) is disabled when
EC mode is selected. Therefore, there is no delay in
operation after a Power-on Reset (POR) or wake-up
from Sleep. Because the PIC® MCU design is fully
static, stopping the external clock input will have the
effect of halting the device while leaving all data intact.
Upon restarting the external clock, the device will
resume operation as if no time had elapsed.
EC Mode
The External Clock (EC) mode allows an externally
generated logic level signal to be the system clock
source. When operating in this mode, an external clock
source is connected to the OSC1 input.
OSC2/CLKOUT is available for general purpose I/O or
CLKOUT. Figure 5-2 shows the pin connections for EC
mode.
5.2.1.2
LP, XT, HS Modes
The LP, XT and HS modes support the use of quartz
crystal resonators or ceramic resonators connected to
OSC1 and OSC2 (Figure 5-3). The three modes select
a low, medium or high gain setting of the internal
inverter-amplifier to support various resonator types
and speed.
LP Oscillator mode selects the lowest gain setting of the
internal inverter-amplifier. LP mode current consumption
is the least of the three modes. This mode is designed to
drive only 32.768 kHz tuning-fork type crystals (watch
crystals).
XT Oscillator mode selects the intermediate gain
setting of the internal inverter-amplifier. XT mode
current consumption is the medium of the three modes.
This mode is best suited to drive resonators with a
medium drive level specification.
HS Oscillator mode selects the highest gain setting of the
internal inverter-amplifier. HS mode current consumption
is the highest of the three modes. This mode is best
suited for resonators that require a high drive setting.
Figure 5-3 and Figure 5-4 show typical circuits for
quartz crystal and ceramic resonators, respectively.
EC mode has 3 power modes to select from through
Configuration Word 1:
• High-power, 4-32 MHz (FOSC = 111)
• Medium power, 0.5-4 MHz (FOSC = 110)
• Low-power, 0-0.5 MHz (FOSC = 101)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 63
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 5-3:
QUARTZ CRYSTAL
OPERATION (LP, XT OR
HS MODE)
FIGURE 5-4:
CERAMIC RESONATOR
OPERATION
(XT OR HS MODE)
PIC® MCU
PIC® MCU
OSC1/CLKIN
C1
Note 1:
2:
C1
To Internal
Logic
Quartz
Crystal
C2
OSC1/CLKIN
RS(1)
RF(2)
Sleep
RP(3)
OSC2/CLKOUT
C2 Ceramic
RS(1)
Resonator
A series resistor (RS) may be required for
quartz crystals with low drive level.
Note 1:
The value of RF varies with the Oscillator mode
selected (typically between 2 M to 10 M.
Note 1: Quartz
crystal
characteristics
vary
according to type, package and
manufacturer. The user should consult the
manufacturer data sheets for specifications
and recommended application.
2: Always verify oscillator performance over
the VDD and temperature range that is
expected for the application.
3: For oscillator design assistance, reference
the following Microchip Applications Notes:
• AN826, “Crystal Oscillator Basics and
Crystal Selection for rfPIC® and PIC®
Devices” (DS00826)
• AN849, “Basic PIC® Oscillator Design”
(DS00849)
• AN943, “Practical PIC® Oscillator
Analysis and Design” (DS00943)
• AN949, “Making Your Oscillator Work”
(DS00949)
To Internal
Logic
RF(2)
Sleep
OSC2/CLKOUT
A series resistor (RS) may be required for
ceramic resonators with low drive level.
2: The value of RF varies with the Oscillator mode
selected (typically between 2 M to 10 M.
3: An additional parallel feedback resistor (RP)
may be required for proper ceramic resonator
operation.
5.2.1.3
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
If the oscillator module is configured for LP, XT or HS
modes, the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) counts
1024 oscillations from OSC1. This occurs following a
Power-on Reset (POR) and when the Power-up Timer
(PWRT) has expired (if configured), or a wake-up from
Sleep. During this time, the program counter does not
increment and program execution is suspended. The
OST ensures that the oscillator circuit, using a quartz
crystal resonator or ceramic resonator, has started and
is providing a stable system clock to the oscillator
module.
In order to minimize latency between external oscillator
start-up and code execution, the Two-Speed Clock
Start-up mode can be selected (see Section 5.4
“Two-Speed Clock Start-up Mode”).
5.2.1.4
4X PLL
The oscillator module contains a 4X PLL that can be
used with both external and internal clock sources to
provide a system clock source. The input frequency for
the 4X PLL must fall within specifications. See the PLL
Clock Timing Specifications in Section 30.0
“Electrical Specifications”.
The 4X PLL may be enabled for use by one of two
methods:
1.
2.
DS41414C-page 64
Preliminary
Program the PLLEN bit in Configuration Word 2
to a ‘1’.
Write the SPLLEN bit in the OSCCON register to
a ‘1’. If the PLLEN bit in Configuration Word 2 is
programmed to a ‘1’, then the value of SPLLEN
is ignored.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.2.1.5
5.2.1.6
TIMER1 Oscillator
External RC Mode
The Timer1 Oscillator is a separate crystal oscillator
that is associated with the Timer1 peripheral. It is optimized for timekeeping operations with a 32.768 kHz
crystal connected between the T1OSO and T1OSI
device pins.
The external Resistor-Capacitor (RC) modes support
the use of an external RC circuit. This allows the
designer maximum flexibility in frequency choice while
keeping costs to a minimum when clock accuracy is not
required.
The Timer1 Oscillator can be used as an alternate system clock source and can be selected during run-time
using clock switching. Refer to Section 5.3 “Clock
Switching” for more information.
The RC circuit connects to OSC1. OSC2/CLKOUT is
available for general purpose I/O or CLKOUT. The
function of the OSC2/CLKOUT pin is determined by the
state of the CLKOUTEN bit in Configuration Word 1.
FIGURE 5-5:
Figure 5-6 shows the external RC mode connections.
QUARTZ CRYSTAL
OPERATION (TIMER1
OSCILLATOR)
FIGURE 5-6:
VDD
PIC®
MCU
PIC® MCU
REXT
OSC1/CLKIN
T1OSI
C1
To Internal
Logic
Internal
Clock
CEXT
32.768 kHz
Quartz
Crystal
VSS
FOSC/4 or I/O(1)
C2
EXTERNAL RC MODES
OSC2/CLKOUT
T1OSO
Recommended values: 10 k  REXT  100 k, <3V
3 k  REXT  100 k, 3-5V
CEXT > 20 pF, 2-5V
Note 1: Quartz
crystal
characteristics
vary
according to type, package and
manufacturer. The user should consult the
manufacturer data sheets for specifications
and recommended application.
2: Always verify oscillator performance over
the VDD and temperature range that is
expected for the application.
3: For oscillator design assistance, reference
the following Microchip Applications Notes:
• AN826, “Crystal Oscillator Basics and
Crystal Selection for rfPIC® and PIC®
Devices” (DS00826)
• AN849, “Basic PIC® Oscillator Design”
(DS00849)
• AN943, “Practical PIC® Oscillator
Analysis and Design” (DS00943)
• AN949, “Making Your Oscillator Work”
(DS00949)
• TB097, “Interfacing a Micro Crystal
MS1V-T1K 32.768 kHz Tuning Fork
Crystal to a PIC16F690/SS” (DS91097)
• AN1288, “Design Practices for
Low-Power External Oscillators”
(DS01288)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Note 1:
Output depends upon CLKOUTEN bit of the
Configuration Word 1.
The RC oscillator frequency is a function of the supply
voltage, the resistor (REXT) and capacitor (CEXT) values
and the operating temperature. Other factors affecting
the oscillator frequency are:
• threshold voltage variation
• component tolerances
• packaging variations in capacitance
The user also needs to take into account variation due
to tolerance of external RC components used.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 65
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.2.2
INTERNAL CLOCK SOURCES
5.2.2.1
The device may be configured to use the internal oscillator block as the system clock by performing one of the
following actions:
• Program the FOSC<2:0> bits in Configuration
Word 1 to select the INTOSC clock source, which
will be used as the default system clock upon a
device Reset.
• Write the SCS<1:0> bits in the OSCCON register
to switch the system clock source to the internal
oscillator during run-time. See Section 5.3
“Clock Switching”for more information.
In INTOSC mode, OSC1/CLKIN is available for general
purpose I/O. OSC2/CLKOUT is available for general
purpose I/O or CLKOUT.
The function of the OSC2/CLKOUT pin is determined
by the state of the CLKOUTEN bit in Configuration
Word 1.
The internal oscillator block has two independent
oscillators and a dedicated Phase-Locked Loop,
HFPLL that can produce one of three internal system
clock sources.
1.
2.
3.
The HFINTOSC (High-Frequency Internal
Oscillator) is factory calibrated and operates at
16 MHz. The HFINTOSC source is generated
from the 500 kHz MFINTOSC source and the
dedicated Phase-Locked Loop, HFPLL. The
frequency of the HFINTOSC can be
user-adjusted via software using the OSCTUNE
register (Register 5-3).
The MFINTOSC (Medium-Frequency Internal
Oscillator) is factory calibrated and operates at
500 kHz. The frequency of the MFINTOSC can
be user-adjusted via software using the
OSCTUNE register (Register 5-3).
The LFINTOSC (Low-Frequency Internal
Oscillator) is uncalibrated and operates at
31 kHz.
HFINTOSC
The High-Frequency Internal Oscillator (HFINTOSC) is
a factory calibrated 16 MHz internal clock source. The
frequency of the HFINTOSC can be altered via
software using the OSCTUNE register (Register 5-3).
The output of the HFINTOSC connects to a postscaler
and multiplexer (see Figure 5-1). One of nine
frequencies derived from the HFINTOSC can be
selected via software using the IRCF<3:0> bits of the
OSCCON register. See Section 5.2.2.7 “Internal
Oscillator Clock Switch Timing” for more information.
The HFINTOSC is enabled by:
• Configure the IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON
register for the desired HF frequency, and
• FOSC<2:0> = 100, or
• Set the System Clock Source (SCS) bits of the
OSCCON register to ‘1x’.
The High Frequency Internal Oscillator Ready bit
(HFIOFR) of the OSCSTAT register indicates when the
HFINTOSC is running and can be utilized.
The High Frequency Internal Oscillator Status Locked
bit (HFIOFL) of the OSCSTAT register indicates when
the HFINTOSC is running within 2% of its final value.
The High Frequency Internal Oscillator Status Stable
bit (HFIOFS) of the OSCSTAT register indicates when
the HFINTOSC is running within 0.5% of its final value.
5.2.2.2
MFINTOSC
The
Medium-Frequency
Internal
Oscillator
(MFINTOSC) is a factory calibrated 500 kHz internal
clock source. The frequency of the MFINTOSC can be
altered via software using the OSCTUNE register
(Register 5-3).
The output of the MFINTOSC connects to a postscaler
and multiplexer (see Figure 5-1). One of nine
frequencies derived from the MFINTOSC can be
selected via software using the IRCF<3:0> bits of the
OSCCON register. See Section 5.2.2.7 “Internal
Oscillator Clock Switch Timing” for more information.
The MFINTOSC is enabled by:
• Configure the IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON
register for the desired HF frequency, and
• FOSC<2:0> = 100, or
• Set the System Clock Source (SCS) bits of the
OSCCON register to ‘1x’
The Medium Frequency Internal Oscillator Ready bit
(MFIOFR) of the OSCSTAT register indicates when the
MFINTOSC is running and can be utilized.
DS41414C-page 66
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.2.2.3
Internal Oscillator Frequency
Adjustment
5.2.2.5
The 500 kHz internal oscillator is factory calibrated.
This internal oscillator can be adjusted in software by
writing to the OSCTUNE register (Register 5-3). Since
the HFINTOSC and MFINTOSC clock sources are
derived from the 500 kHz internal oscillator a change in
the OSCTUNE register value will apply to both.
The default value of the OSCTUNE register is ‘0’. The
value is a 6-bit two’s complement number. A value of
1Fh will provide an adjustment to the maximum
frequency. A value of 20h will provide an adjustment to
the minimum frequency.
When the OSCTUNE register is modified, the oscillator
frequency will begin shifting to the new frequency. Code
execution continues during this shift. There is no
indication that the shift has occurred.
OSCTUNE does not affect the LFINTOSC frequency.
Operation of features that depend on the LFINTOSC
clock source frequency, such as the Power-up Timer
(PWRT), Watchdog Timer (WDT), Fail-Safe Clock
Monitor (FSCM) and peripherals, are not affected by the
change in frequency.
5.2.2.4
LFINTOSC
The Low-Frequency Internal Oscillator (LFINTOSC) is
an uncalibrated 31 kHz internal clock source.
The output of the LFINTOSC connects to a postscaler
and multiplexer (see Figure 5-1). Select 31 kHz, via
software, using the IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON
register. See Section 5.2.2.7 “Internal Oscillator
Clock Switch Timing” for more information. The
LFINTOSC is also the frequency for the Power-up Timer
(PWRT), Watchdog Timer (WDT) and Fail-Safe Clock
Monitor (FSCM).
The LFINTOSC is enabled by selecting 31 kHz
(IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON register = 000) as the
system clock source (SCS bits of the OSCCON
register = 1x), or when any of the following are
enabled:
Internal Oscillator Frequency
Selection
The system clock speed can be selected via software
using the Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits
IRCF<3:0> of the OSCCON register.
The output of the 16 MHz HFINTOSC and 31 kHz
LFINTOSC connects to a postscaler and multiplexer
(see Figure 5-1). The Internal Oscillator Frequency
Select bits IRCF<3:0> of the OSCCON register select
the frequency output of the internal oscillators. One of
the following frequencies can be selected via software:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
32 MHz (requires 4X PLL)
16 MHz
8 MHz
4 MHz
2 MHz
1 MHz
500 kHz (Default after Reset)
250 kHz
125 kHz
62.5 kHz
31.25 kHz
31 kHz (LFINTOSC)
Note:
Following any Reset, the IRCF<3:0> bits
of the OSCCON register are set to ‘0111’
and the frequency selection is set to
500 kHz. The user can modify the IRCF
bits to select a different frequency.
The IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON register allow
duplicate selections for some frequencies. These duplicate choices can offer system design trade-offs. Lower
power consumption can be obtained when changing
oscillator sources for a given frequency. Faster transition times can be obtained between frequency changes
that use the same oscillator source.
• Configure the IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON
register for the desired LF frequency, and
• FOSC<2:0> = 100, or
• Set the System Clock Source (SCS) bits of the
OSCCON register to ‘1x’
Peripherals that use the LFINTOSC are:
• Power-up Timer (PWRT)
• Watchdog Timer (WDT)
• Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM)
The Low Frequency Internal Oscillator Ready bit
(LFIOFR) of the OSCSTAT register indicates when the
LFINTOSC is running and can be utilized.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 67
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.2.2.6
32 MHz Internal Oscillator
Frequency Selection
5.2.2.7
The Internal Oscillator Block can be used with the 4X
PLL associated with the External Oscillator Block to
produce a 32 MHz internal system clock source. The
following settings are required to use the 32 MHz internal clock source:
• The FOSC bits in Configuration Word 1 must be
set to use the INTOSC source as the device system clock (FOSC<2:0> = 100).
• The SCS bits in the OSCCON register must be
cleared to use the clock determined by
FOSC<2:0> in Configuration Word 1
(SCS<1:0> = 00).
• The IRCF bits in the OSCCON register must be
set to the 8 MHz HFINTOSC set to use
(IRCF<3:0> = 1110).
• The SPLLEN bit in the OSCCON register must be
set to enable the 4xPLL, or the PLLEN bit of the
Configuration Word 2 must be programmed to a
‘1’.
Note:
When using the PLLEN bit of the
Configuration Word 2, the 4xPLL cannot
be disabled by software and the 8 MHz
HFINTOSC option will no longer be
available.
The 4xPLL is not available for use with the internal
oscillator when the SCS bits of the OSCCON register
are set to ‘1x’. The SCS bits must be set to ‘00’ to use
the 4xPLL with the internal oscillator.
DS41414C-page 68
Internal Oscillator Clock Switch
Timing
When switching between the HFINTOSC, MFINTOSC
and the LFINTOSC, the new oscillator may already be
shut down to save power (see Figure 5-7). If this is the
case, there is a delay after the IRCF<3:0> bits of the
OSCCON register are modified before the frequency
selection takes place. The OSCSTAT register will
reflect the current active status of the HFINTOSC,
MFINTOSC and LFINTOSC oscillators. The sequence
of a frequency selection is as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON register are
modified.
If the new clock is shut down, a clock start-up
delay is started.
Clock switch circuitry waits for a falling edge of
the current clock.
The current clock is held low and the clock
switch circuitry waits for a rising edge in the new
clock.
The new clock is now active.
The OSCSTAT register is updated as required.
Clock switch is complete.
See Figure 5-7 for more details.
If the internal oscillator speed is switched between two
clocks of the same source, there is no start-up delay
before the new frequency is selected. Clock switching
time delays are shown in Table 5-1.
Start-up delay specifications are located in the
oscillator tables of Section 30.0 “Electrical
Specifications”
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 5-7:
HFINTOSC/
MFINTOSC
INTERNAL OSCILLATOR SWITCH TIMING
LFINTOSC (FSCM and WDT disabled)
HFINTOSC/
MFINTOSC
Start-up Time
2-cycle Sync
Running
LFINTOSC
IRCF <3:0>
0
0
System Clock
HFINTOSC/
MFINTOSC
LFINTOSC (Either FSCM or WDT enabled)
HFINTOSC/
MFINTOSC
2-cycle Sync
Running
LFINTOSC
0
IRCF <3:0>
0
System Clock
LFINTOSC
HFINTOSC/MFINTOSC
LFINTOSC turns off unless WDT or FSCM is enabled
LFINTOSC
Start-up Time
2-cycle Sync
Running
HFINTOSC/
MFINTOSC
IRCF <3:0>
=0
0
System Clock
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 69
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.3
5.3.3
Clock Switching
TIMER1 OSCILLATOR
The system clock source can be switched between
external and internal clock sources via software using
the System Clock Select (SCS) bits of the OSCCON
register. The following clock sources can be selected
using the SCS bits:
The Timer1 Oscillator is a separate crystal oscillator
associated with the Timer1 peripheral. It is optimized
for timekeeping operations with a 32.768 kHz crystal
connected between the T1OSO and T1OSI device
pins.
• Default system oscillator determined by FOSC
bits in Configuration Word 1
• Timer1 32 kHz crystal oscillator
• Internal Oscillator Block (INTOSC)
The Timer1 oscillator is enabled using the T1OSCEN
control bit in the T1CON register. See Section 21.0
“Timer1 Module with Gate Control” for more
information about the Timer1 peripheral.
5.3.1
5.3.4
SYSTEM CLOCK SELECT (SCS)
BITS
The System Clock Select (SCS) bits of the OSCCON
register selects the system clock source that is used for
the CPU and peripherals.
• When the SCS bits of the OSCCON register = 00,
the system clock source is determined by value of
the FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration Word 1.
• When the SCS bits of the OSCCON register = 01,
the system clock source is the Timer1 oscillator.
• When the SCS bits of the OSCCON register = 1x,
the system clock source is chosen by the internal
oscillator frequency selected by the IRCF<3:0>
bits of the OSCCON register. After a Reset, the
SCS bits of the OSCCON register are always
cleared.
Note:
TIMER1 OSCILLATOR READY
(T1OSCR) BIT
The user must ensure that the Timer1 Oscillator is
ready to be used before it is selected as a system clock
source. The Timer1 Oscillator Ready (T1OSCR) bit of
the OSCSTAT register indicates whether the Timer1
oscillator is ready to be used. After the T1OSCR bit is
set, the SCS bits can be configured to select the Timer1
oscillator.
Any automatic clock switch, which may
occur from Two-Speed Start-up or
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor, does not update
the SCS bits of the OSCCON register. The
user can monitor the OSTS bit of the
OSCSTAT register to determine the current
system clock source.
When switching between clock sources, a delay is
required to allow the new clock to stabilize. These oscillator delays are shown in Table 5-1.
5.3.2
OSCILLATOR START-UP TIME-OUT
STATUS (OSTS) BIT
The Oscillator Start-up Time-out Status (OSTS) bit of
the OSCSTAT register indicates whether the system
clock is running from the external clock source, as
defined by the FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration
Word 1, or from the internal clock source. In particular,
OSTS indicates that the Oscillator Start-up Timer
(OST) has timed out for LP, XT or HS modes. The OST
does not reflect the status of the Timer1 Oscillator.
DS41414C-page 70
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.4
5.4.1
Two-Speed Clock Start-up Mode
Two-Speed Start-up mode provides additional power
savings by minimizing the latency between external
oscillator start-up and code execution. In applications
that make heavy use of the Sleep mode, Two-Speed
Start-up will remove the external oscillator start-up
time from the time spent awake and can reduce the
overall power consumption of the device. This mode
allows the application to wake-up from Sleep, perform
a few instructions using the INTOSC internal oscillator
block as the clock source and go back to Sleep without
waiting for the external oscillator to become stable.
Two-Speed Start-up provides benefits when the oscillator module is configured for LP, XT, or HS modes.
The Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) is enabled for
these modes and must count 1024 oscillations before
the oscillator can be used as the system clock source.
TWO-SPEED START-UP MODE
CONFIGURATION
Two-Speed Start-up mode is configured by the
following settings:
• IESO (of the Configuration Word 1) = 1; Internal/External Switchover bit (Two-Speed Start-up
mode enabled).
• SCS (of the OSCCON register) = 00.
• FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration Word 1
configured for LP, XT or HS mode.
Two-Speed Start-up mode is entered after:
• Power-on Reset (POR) and, if enabled, after
Power-up Timer (PWRT) has expired, or
• Wake-up from Sleep.
If the oscillator module is configured for any mode
other than LP, XT or HS mode, then Two-Speed
Start-up is disabled. This is because the external clock
oscillator does not require any stabilization time after
POR or an exit from Sleep.
If the OST count reaches 1024 before the device
enters Sleep mode, the OSTS bit of the OSCSTAT register is set and program execution switches to the
external oscillator. However, the system may never
operate from the external oscillator if the time spent
awake is very short.
Note:
Executing a SLEEP instruction will abort
the oscillator start-up time and will cause
the OSTS bit of the OSCSTAT register to
remain clear.
TABLE 5-1:
OSCILLATOR SWITCHING DELAYS
Switch From
Switch To
Frequency
Oscillator Delay
LFINTOSC(1)
Sleep/POR
MFINTOSC(1)
HFINTOSC(1)
31 kHz
31.25 kHz-500 kHz
31.25 kHz-16 MHz
Oscillator Warm-up Delay (TWARM)
Sleep/POR
EC, RC(1)
DC – 32 MHz
2 cycles
LFINTOSC
EC,
RC(1)
DC – 32 MHz
1 cycle of each
Sleep/POR
Timer1 Oscillator
LP, XT, HS(1)
32 kHz-20 MHz
1024 Clock Cycles (OST)
Any clock source
MFINTOSC(1)
HFINTOSC(1)
31.25 kHz-500 kHz
31.25 kHz-16 MHz
2 s (approx.)
Any clock source
LFINTOSC(1)
31 kHz
1 cycle of each
Any clock source
Timer1 Oscillator
32 kHz
1024 Clock Cycles (OST)
PLL inactive
PLL active
16-32 MHz
2 ms (approx.)
Note 1:
PLL inactive.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 71
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.4.2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
TWO-SPEED START-UP
SEQUENCE
5.4.3
Wake-up from Power-on Reset or Sleep.
Instructions begin execution by the internal
oscillator at the frequency set in the IRCF<3:0>
bits of the OSCCON register.
OST enabled to count 1024 clock cycles.
OST timed out, wait for falling edge of the
internal oscillator.
OSTS is set.
System clock held low until the next falling edge
of new clock (LP, XT or HS mode).
System clock is switched to external clock
source.
FIGURE 5-8:
CHECKING TWO-SPEED CLOCK
STATUS
Checking the state of the OSTS bit of the OSCSTAT
register will confirm if the microcontroller is running
from the external clock source, as defined by the
FOSC<2:0> bits in the Configuration Word 1, or the
internal oscillator.
TWO-SPEED START-UP
INTOSC
TOST
OSC1
0
1
1022 1023
OSC2
Program Counter
PC - N
PC + 1
PC
System Clock
DS41414C-page 72
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.5
5.5.3
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor
The Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) allows the device
to continue operating should the external oscillator fail.
The FSCM can detect oscillator failure any time after
the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) has expired. The
FSCM is enabled by setting the FCMEN bit in the
Configuration Word 1. The FSCM is applicable to all
external Oscillator modes (LP, XT, HS, EC, Timer1
Oscillator and RC).
FIGURE 5-9:
FSCM BLOCK DIAGRAM
External
Clock
LFINTOSC
Oscillator
÷ 64
31 kHz
(~32 s)
488 Hz
(~2 ms)
S
Q
R
Q
Sample Clock
5.5.1
The Fail-Safe condition is cleared after a Reset,
executing a SLEEP instruction or changing the SCS bits
of the OSCCON register. When the SCS bits are
changed, the OST is restarted. While the OST is
running, the device continues to operate from the
INTOSC selected in OSCCON. When the OST times
out, the Fail-Safe condition is cleared and the device
will be operating from the external clock source. The
Fail-Safe condition must be cleared before the OSFIF
flag can be cleared.
5.5.4
Clock Monitor
Latch
RESET OR WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP
The FSCM is designed to detect an oscillator failure
after the Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST) has expired.
The OST is used after waking up from Sleep and after
any type of Reset. The OST is not used with the EC or
RC Clock modes so that the FSCM will be active as
soon as the Reset or wake-up has completed. When
the FSCM is enabled, the Two-Speed Start-up is also
enabled. Therefore, the device will always be executing
code while the OST is operating.
Clock
Failure
Detected
Note:
FAIL-SAFE DETECTION
The FSCM module detects a failed oscillator by
comparing the external oscillator to the FSCM sample
clock. The sample clock is generated by dividing the
LFINTOSC by 64. See Figure 5-9. Inside the fail
detector block is a latch. The external clock sets the
latch on each falling edge of the external clock. The
sample clock clears the latch on each rising edge of the
sample clock. A failure is detected when an entire
half-cycle of the sample clock elapses before the
external clock goes low.
5.5.2
FAIL-SAFE CONDITION CLEARING
Due to the wide range of oscillator start-up
times, the Fail-Safe circuit is not active
during oscillator start-up (i.e., after exiting
Reset or Sleep). After an appropriate
amount of time, the user should check the
Status bits in the OSCSTAT register to
verify the oscillator start-up and that the
system clock switchover has successfully
completed.
FAIL-SAFE OPERATION
When the external clock fails, the FSCM switches the
device clock to an internal clock source and sets the bit
flag OSFIF of the PIR2 register. Setting this flag will
generate an interrupt if the OSFIE bit of the PIE2
register is also set. The device firmware can then take
steps to mitigate the problems that may arise from a
failed clock. The system clock will continue to be
sourced from the internal clock source until the device
firmware successfully restarts the external oscillator
and switches back to external operation.
The internal clock source chosen by the FSCM is
determined by the IRCF<3:0> bits of the OSCCON
register. This allows the internal oscillator to be
configured before a failure occurs.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 73
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 5-10:
FSCM TIMING DIAGRAM
Sample Clock
Oscillator
Failure
System
Clock
Output
Clock Monitor Output
(Q)
Failure
Detected
OSCFIF
Test
Note:
DS41414C-page 74
Test
Test
The system clock is normally at a much higher frequency than the sample clock. The relative frequencies in
this example have been chosen for clarity.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
5.6
Oscillator Control Registers
REGISTER 5-1:
R/W-0/0
OSCCON: OSCILLATOR CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-1/1
SPLLEN
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
IRCF<3:0>
U-0
R/W-0/0
—
R/W-0/0
SCS<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
SPLLEN: Software PLL Enable bit
If PLLEN in Configuration Word 1 = 1:
SPLLEN bit is ignored. 4x PLL is always enabled (subject to oscillator requirements)
If PLLEN in Configuration Word 1 = 0:
1 = 4x PLL Is enabled
0 = 4x PLL is disabled
bit 6-3
IRCF<3:0>: Internal Oscillator Frequency Select bits
000x = 31 kHz LF
0010 = 31.25 kHz MF
0011 = 31.25 kHz HF(1)
0100 = 62.5 kHz MF
0101 = 125 kHz MF
0110 = 250 kHz MF
0111 = 500 kHz MF (default upon Reset)
1000 = 125 kHz HF(1)
1001 = 250 kHz HF(1)
1010 = 500 kHz HF(1)
1011 = 1 MHz HF
1100 = 2 MHz HF
1101 = 4 MHz HF
1110 = 8 MHz or 32 MHz HF(see Section 5.2.2.1 “HFINTOSC”)
1111 = 16 MHz HF
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1-0
SCS<1:0>: System Clock Select bits
1x = Internal oscillator block
01 = Timer1 oscillator
00 = Clock determined by FOSC<2:0> in Configuration Word 1.
Note 1:
Duplicate frequency derived from HFINTOSC.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 75
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 5-2:
OSCSTAT: OSCILLATOR STATUS REGISTER
R-1/q
R-0/q
R-q/q
R-0/q
R-0/q
R-q/q
R-0/0
R-0/q
T1OSCR
PLLR
OSTS
HFIOFR
HFIOFL
MFIOFR
LFIOFR
HFIOFS
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
q = Conditional
bit 7
T1OSCR: Timer1 Oscillator Ready bit
If T1OSCEN = 1:
1 = Timer1 oscillator is ready
0 = Timer1 oscillator is not ready
If T1OSCEN = 0:
1 = Timer1 clock source is always ready
bit 6
PLLR 4x PLL Ready bit
1 = 4x PLL is ready
0 = 4x PLL is not ready
bit 5
OSTS: Oscillator Start-up Time-out Status bit
1 = Running from the clock defined by the FOSC<2:0> bits of the Configuration Word 1
0 = Running from an internal oscillator
bit 4
HFIOFR: High Frequency Internal Oscillator Ready bit
1 = HFINTOSC is ready
0 = HFINTOSC is not ready
bit 3
HFIOFL: High Frequency Internal Oscillator Locked bit
1 = HFINTOSC is at least 2% accurate
0 = HFINTOSC is not 2% accurate
bit 2
MFIOFR: Medium Frequency Internal Oscillator Ready bit
1 = MFINTOSC is ready
0 = MFINTOSC is not ready
bit 1
LFIOFR: Low Frequency Internal Oscillator Ready bit
1 = LFINTOSC is ready
0 = LFINTOSC is not ready
bit 0
HFIOFS: High Frequency Internal Oscillator Stable bit
1 = HFINTOSC is at least 0.5% accurate
0 = HFINTOSC is not 0.5% accurate
DS41414C-page 76
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 5-3:
OSCTUNE: OSCILLATOR TUNING REGISTER
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
TUN<5:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
TUN<4:0>: Frequency Tuning bits
011111 = Maximum frequency
011110 =
•
•
•
000001 =
000000 = Oscillator module is running at the factory-calibrated frequency.
111111 =
•
•
•
100000 = Minimum frequency
TABLE 5-2:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CLOCK SOURCES
Name
Bit 7
OSCCON
SPLLEN
OSCSTAT
T1OSCR
OSCTUNE
PIE2
CONFIG2
Legend:
Note 1:
OSTS
C1IE
—
OSFIF
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
HFIOFR
HFIOFL
MFIOFR
EEIE
BCLIE
IRCF<3:0>
C2IE
Bit 1
—
Register
on Page
Bit 0
SCS<1:0>
75
LFIOFR
HFIOFS
C3IE
CCP2IE(1)
(1)
TUN<5:0>
C2IF
TMR1CS<1:0>
C1IF
EEIF
T1CKPS<1:0>
76
77
LCDIE
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
95
CCP2IF
99
TMR1ON
205
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by clock sources.
PIC16F1947 only.
TABLE 5-3:
CONFIG1
PLLR
—
T1CON
Name
Bit 5
OSFIE
PIR2
Legend:
Note 1:
Bit 6
Bits
SUMMARY OF CONFIGURATION WORD WITH CLOCK SOURCES
Bit -/7
Bit -/6
Bit 13/5
Bit 12/4
Bit 11/3
IESO
CLKOUTEN
Bit 10/2
13:8
—
—
FCMEN
7:0
CP
MCLRE
PWRTE
13:8
—
—
LVP
DEBUG
—
BORV
7:0
—
—
—
VCAPEN
—
—
Bit 9/1
BOREN<1:0>
WDTE<1:0>
Bit 8/0
CPD
FOSC<2:0>
STVREN
PLLEN
WRT<1:0>
Register
on Page
56
58
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by clock sources.
PIC16F1946/47 only.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 77
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 78
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
6.0
RESETS
There are multiple ways to reset this device:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
MCLR Reset
WDT Reset
RESET instruction
Stack Overflow
Stack Underflow
Programming mode exit
To allow VDD to stabilize, an optional power-up timer
can be enabled to extend the Reset time after a BOR
or POR event.
A simplified block diagram of the On-Chip Reset Circuit
is shown in Figure 6-1.
FIGURE 6-1:
SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF ON-CHIP RESET CIRCUIT
Programming Mode Exit
RESET Instruction
Stack Stack Overflow/Underflow Reset
Pointer
External Reset
MCLRE
MCLR
Sleep
WDT
Time-out
Device
Reset
Power-on
Reset
VDD
Brown-out
Reset
BOR
Enable
PWRT
Zero
LFINTOSC
64 ms
PWRTEN
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DS41414C-page 79
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
6.1
Power-on Reset (POR)
6.2
Brown-Out Reset (BOR)
The POR circuit holds the device in Reset until VDD has
reached an acceptable level for minimum operation.
Slow rising VDD, fast operating speeds or analog
performance may require greater than minimum VDD.
The PWRT, BOR or MCLR features can be used to
extend the start-up period until all device operation
conditions have been met.
The BOR circuit holds the device in Reset when VDD
reaches a selectable minimum level. Between the
POR and BOR, complete voltage range coverage for
execution protection can be implemented.
6.1.1
•
•
•
•
POWER-UP TIMER (PWRT)
The Power-up Timer provides a nominal 64 ms timeout on POR or Brown-out Reset.
The device is held in Reset as long as PWRT is active.
The PWRT delay allows additional time for the VDD to
rise to an acceptable level. The Power-up Timer is
enabled by clearing the PWRTE bit in Configuration
Word 1.
The Power-up Timer starts after the release of the POR
and BOR.
For additional information, refer to Application Note
AN607, “Power-up Trouble Shooting” (DS00607).
TABLE 6-1:
The Brown-out Reset module has four operating
modes controlled by the BOREN<1:0> bits in Configuration Word 1. The four operating modes are:
BOR is always on
BOR is off when in Sleep
BOR is controlled by software
BOR is always off
Refer to Table 6-1 for more information.
The Brown-out Reset voltage level is selectable by
configuring the BORV bit in Configuration Word 2.
A VDD noise rejection filter prevents the BOR from triggering on small events. If VDD falls below VBOR for a
duration greater than parameter TBORDC, the device
will reset. See Figure 6-3 for more information.
BOR OPERATING MODES
SBOREN
Device Mode
BOR Mode
Device
Device
Operation upon
Operation upon
wake-up from
release of POR
Sleep
BOR_ON (11)
X
X
Active
Waits for BOR ready(1)
BOR_NSLEEP (10)
X
Awake
Active
BOR_NSLEEP (10)
X
Sleep
Disabled
BOR_SBOREN (01)
1
X
Active
Begins immediately
BOR_SBOREN (01)
0
X
Disabled
Begins immediately
BOR_OFF (00)
X
X
Disabled
Begins immediately
BOREN
Config bits
Waits for BOR ready
Note 1: Even though this case specifically waits for the BOR, the BOR is already operating, so there is no delay in
start-up.
6.2.1
BOR IS ALWAYS ON
6.2.3
BOR CONTROLLED BY SOFTWARE
When the BOREN bits of Configuration Word 1 are set
to ‘11’, the BOR is always on. The device start-up will
be delayed until the BOR is ready and VDD is higher
than the BOR threshold.
When the BOREN bits of Configuration Word 1 are set
to ‘01’, the BOR is controlled by the SBOREN bit of the
BORCON register. The device start-up is not delayed
by the BOR ready condition or the VDD level.
BOR protection is active during Sleep. The BOR does
not delay wake-up from Sleep.
BOR protection begins as soon as the BOR circuit is
ready. The status of the BOR circuit is reflected in the
BORRDY bit of the BORCON register.
6.2.2
BOR IS OFF IN SLEEP
BOR protection is unchanged by Sleep.
When the BOREN bits of Configuration Word 1 are set
to ‘10’, the BOR is on, except in Sleep. The device
start-up will be delayed until the BOR is ready and VDD
is higher than the BOR threshold.
BOR protection is not active during Sleep. The device
wake-up will be delayed until the BOR is ready.
DS41414C-page 80
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 6-2:
BROWN-OUT READY
SBOREN
TBORRDY
BORRDY
FIGURE 6-3:
BOR Protection Active
BROWN-OUT SITUATIONS
VDD
VBOR
Internal
Reset
TPWRT(1)
VDD
VBOR
Internal
Reset
< TPWRT
TPWRT(1)
VDD
VBOR
Internal
Reset
Note 1:
TPWRT(1)
TPWRT delay only if PWRTE bit is programmed to ‘0’.
REGISTER 6-1:
BORCON: BROWN-OUT RESET CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-1/u
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-q/u
SBOREN
—
—
—
—
—
—
BORRDY
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
q = Value depends on condition
bit 7
SBOREN: Software Brown-out Reset Enable bit
If BOREN <1:0> in Configuration Word 1  01:
SBOREN is read/write, but has no effect on the BOR.
If BOREN <1:0> in Configuration Word 1 = 01:
1 = BOR Enabled
0 = BOR Disabled
bit 6-1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
BORRDY: Brown-out Reset Circuit Ready Status bit
1 = The Brown-out Reset circuit is active
0 = The Brown-out Reset circuit is inactive
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Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
6.3
MCLR
6.7
The MCLR is an optional external input that can reset
the device. The MCLR function is controlled by the
MCLRE bit of Configuration Word 1 and the LVP bit of
Configuration Word 2 (Table 6-2).
TABLE 6-2:
LVP
MCLR
0
0
Disabled
1
0
Enabled
x
1
Enabled
6.3.1
6.9
MCLR ENABLED
The device has a noise filter in the MCLR Reset path.
The filter will detect and ignore small pulses.
6.3.2
A Reset does not drive the MCLR pin low.
MCLR DISABLED
When MCLR is disabled, the pin functions as a general
purpose input and the internal weak pull-up is under
software control. See Section 12.6 “PORTE
Registers” for more information.
6.4
Watchdog Timer (WDT) Reset
The Watchdog Timer generates a Reset if the firmware
does not issue a CLRWDT instruction within the time-out
period. The TO and PD bits in the STATUS register are
changed to indicate the WDT Reset. See Section 10.0
“Watchdog Timer” for more information.
6.5
6.8
Power-Up Timer
The Power-up Timer is controlled by the PWRTE bit of
Configuration Word 1.
When MCLR is enabled and the pin is held low, the
device is held in Reset. The MCLR pin is connected to
VDD through an internal weak pull-up.
Note:
Upon exit of Programming mode, the device will
behave as if a POR had just occurred.
The Power-up Timer optionally delays device execution
after a BOR or POR event. This timer is typically used to
allow VDD to stabilize before allowing the device to start
running.
MCLR CONFIGURATION
MCLRE
Programming Mode Exit
Start-up Sequence
Upon the release of a POR or BOR, the following must
occur before the device will begin executing:
1.
2.
3.
Power-up Timer runs to completion (if enabled).
Oscillator start-up timer runs to completion (if
required for oscillator source).
MCLR must be released (if enabled).
The total time-out will vary based on oscillator configuration and Power-up Timer configuration. See
Section 5.0 “Oscillator Module (With Fail-Safe
Clock Monitor)” for more information.
The Power-up Timer and oscillator start-up timer run
independently of MCLR Reset. If MCLR is kept low long
enough, the Power-up Timer and oscillator start-up
timer will expire. Upon bringing MCLR high, the device
will begin execution immediately (see Figure 6-4). This
is useful for testing purposes or to synchronize more
than one device operating in parallel.
RESET Instruction
A RESET instruction will cause a device Reset. The RI
bit in the PCON register will be set to ‘0’. See Table 6-4
for default conditions after a RESET instruction has
occurred.
6.6
Stack Overflow/Underflow Reset
The device can reset when the Stack Overflows or
Underflows. The STKOVF or STKUNF bits of the PCON
register indicate the Reset condition. These Resets are
enabled by setting the STVREN bit in Configuration Word
2. See Section 3.4.2 “Overflow/Underflow Reset” for
more information.
DS41414C-page 82
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 6-4:
RESET START-UP SEQUENCE
VDD
Internal POR
TPWRT
Power Up Timer
MCLR
TMCLR
Internal RESET
Oscillator Modes
External Crystal
TOST
Oscillator Start Up Timer
Oscillator
FOSC
Internal Oscillator
Oscillator
FOSC
External Clock (EC)
CLKIN
FOSC
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
6.10
Determining the Cause of a Reset
Upon any Reset, multiple bits in the STATUS and
PCON register are updated to indicate the cause of the
Reset. Table 6-3 and Table 6-4 show the Reset
conditions of these registers.
TABLE 6-3:
RESET STATUS BITS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE
STKOVF STKUNF
RMCLR
RI
POR
BOR
TO
PD
Condition
0
0
1
1
0
x
1
1
Power-on Reset
0
0
1
1
0
x
0
x
Illegal, TO is set on POR
0
0
1
1
0
x
x
0
Illegal, PD is set on POR
0
0
1
1
u
0
1
1
Brown-out Reset
u
u
u
u
u
u
0
u
WDT Reset
u
u
u
u
u
u
0
0
WDT Wake-up from Sleep
u
u
u
u
u
u
1
0
Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep
u
u
0
u
u
u
u
u
MCLR Reset during normal operation
u
u
0
u
u
u
1
0
MCLR Reset during Sleep
u
u
u
0
u
u
u
u
RESET Instruction Executed
1
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
Stack Overflow Reset (STVREN = 1)
u
1
u
u
u
u
u
u
Stack Underflow Reset (STVREN = 1)
TABLE 6-4:
RESET CONDITION FOR SPECIAL REGISTERS(2)
Program
Counter
STATUS
Register
PCON
Register
Power-on Reset
0000h
---1 1000
00-- 110x
MCLR Reset during normal operation
0000h
---u uuuu
uu-- 0uuu
MCLR Reset during Sleep
0000h
---1 0uuu
uu-- 0uuu
WDT Reset
0000h
---0 uuuu
uu-- uuuu
WDT Wake-up from Sleep
PC + 1
---0 0uuu
uu-- uuuu
Brown-out Reset
0000h
---1 1uuu
00-- 11u0
---1 0uuu
uu-- uuuu
---u uuuu
uu-- u0uu
Condition
Interrupt Wake-up from Sleep
RESET Instruction Executed
PC + 1
(1)
0000h
Stack Overflow Reset (STVREN = 1)
0000h
---u uuuu
1u-- uuuu
Stack Underflow Reset (STVREN = 1)
0000h
---u uuuu
u1-- uuuu
Legend: u = unchanged, x = unknown, - = unimplemented bit, reads as ‘0’.
Note 1: When the wake-up is due to an interrupt and Global Enable bit (GIE) is set, the return address is pushed on
the stack and PC is loaded with the interrupt vector (0004h) after execution of PC + 1.
2: If a Status bit is not implemented, that bit will be read as ‘0’.
DS41414C-page 84
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
6.11
Power Control (PCON) Register
The Power Control (PCON) register contains flag bits
to differentiate between a:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Power-on Reset (POR)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
Reset Instruction Reset (RI)
Stack Overflow Reset (STKOVF)
Stack Underflow Reset (STKUNF)
MCLR Reset (RMCLR)
The PCON register bits are shown in Register 6-2.
REGISTER 6-2:
PCON: POWER CONTROL REGISTER
R/W/HS-0/q
R/W/HS-0/q
U-0
U-0
R/W/HC-1/q
R/W/HC-1/q
R/W/HC-q/u
R/W/HC-q/u
STKOVF
STKUNF
—
—
RMCLR
RI
POR
BOR
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
HC = Bit is cleared by hardware
HS = Bit is set by hardware
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-m/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
q = Value depends on condition
bit 7
STKOVF: Stack Overflow Flag bit
1 = A Stack Overflow occurred
0 = A Stack Overflow has not occurred or set to ‘0’ by firmware
bit 6
STKUNF: Stack Underflow Flag bit
1 = A Stack Underflow occurred
0 = A Stack Underflow has not occurred or set to ‘0’ by firmware
bit 5-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
RMCLR: MCLR Reset Flag bit
1 = A MCLR Reset has not occurred or set to ‘1’ by firmware
0 = A MCLR Reset has occurred (set to ‘0’ in hardware when a MCLR Reset occurs)
bit 2
RI: RESET Instruction Flag bit
1 = A RESET instruction has not been executed or set to ‘1’ by firmware
0 = A RESET instruction has been executed (set to ‘0’ in hardware upon executing a RESET instruction)
bit 1
POR: Power-on Reset Status bit
1 = No Power-on Reset occurred
0 = A Power-on Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset occurs)
bit 0
BOR: Brown-out Reset Status bit
1 = No Brown-out Reset occurred
0 = A Brown-out Reset occurred (must be set in software after a Power-on Reset or Brown-out Reset
occurs)
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Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 6-5:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH RESETS
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
BORCON
SBOREN
—
—
—
—
—
—
BORRDY
81
PCON
STKOVF
STKUNF
—
—
RMCLR
RI
POR
BOR
85
STATUS
—
—
—
TO
PD
Z
DC
C
25
WDTCON
—
—
SWDTEN
109
WDTPS<4:0>
Legend: — = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Resets.
Note 1: Other (non Power-up) Resets include MCLR Reset and Watchdog Timer Reset during normal operation.
DS41414C-page 86
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.0
INTERRUPTS
The interrupt feature allows certain events to preempt
normal program flow. Firmware is used to determine
the source of the interrupt and act accordingly. Some
interrupts can be configured to wake the MCU from
Sleep mode.
This chapter contains the following information for
Interrupts:
•
•
•
•
•
Operation
Interrupt Latency
Interrupts During Sleep
INT Pin
Automatic Context Saving
Many peripherals produce Interrupts. Refer to the
corresponding chapters for details.
A block diagram of the interrupt logic is shown in
Figure 7-1 and Figure 7-2.
FIGURE 7-1:
INTERRUPT LOGIC
Wake-up (If in Sleep mode)
TMR0IF
TMR0IE
INTF
Interrupt to CPU
INTE
IOCIF
IOCIE
From Peripheral Interrupt
Logic (Figure 7-2)
PEIE
GIE
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DS41414C-page 87
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 7-2:
PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT LOGIC
TMR1GIF
TMR1GIE
ADIF
ADIE
RCIF
RCIE
TXIF
TXIE
SSPIF
SSPIE
CCP1IF
CCP1IE






CCP5IF
CCP5IE
OSFIF
OSFIE
TMR1IF
TMR1IE



To Interrupt Logic
(Figure 7-1)



TMR6IF
TMR6IE
C2IF
C2IE
C1IF
C1IE
EEIF
EEIE
BCLIF
BCLIE
LCDIF
LCDIE
DS41414C-page 88
Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.1
Operation
7.2
Interrupts are disabled upon any device Reset. They
are enabled by setting the following bits:
• GIE bit of the INTCON register
• Interrupt Enable bit(s) for the specific interrupt
event(s)
• PEIE bit of the INTCON register (if the Interrupt
Enable bit of the interrupt event is contained in the
PIE1, PIE2, PIE3 and PIE4 registers)
Interrupt Latency
Interrupt latency is defined as the time from when the
interrupt event occurs to the time code execution at the
interrupt vector begins. The latency for synchronous
interrupts is 3 or 4 instruction cycles. For asynchronous
interrupts, the latency is 3 to 5 instruction cycles,
depending on when the interrupt occurs. See Figure 7-3
and Figure 7-4 for more details.
The INTCON, PIR1, PIR2, PIR3 and PIR4 registers
record individual interrupts via interrupt flag bits. Interrupt flag bits will be set, regardless of the status of the
GIE, PEIE and individual interrupt enable bits.
The following events happen when an interrupt event
occurs while the GIE bit is set:
• Current prefetched instruction is flushed
• GIE bit is cleared
• Current Program Counter (PC) is pushed onto the
stack
• Critical registers are automatically saved to the
shadow registers (See “Section 7.5 “Automatic
Context Saving”.”)
• PC is loaded with the interrupt vector 0004h
The firmware within the Interrupt Service Routine (ISR)
should determine the source of the interrupt by polling
the interrupt flag bits. The interrupt flag bits must be
cleared before exiting the ISR to avoid repeated
interrupts. Because the GIE bit is cleared, any interrupt
that occurs while executing the ISR will be recorded
through its interrupt flag, but will not cause the
processor to redirect to the interrupt vector.
The RETFIE instruction exits the ISR by popping the
previous address from the stack, restoring the saved
context from the shadow registers and setting the GIE
bit.
For additional information on a specific interrupt’s
operation, refer to its peripheral chapter.
Note 1: Individual interrupt flag bits are set,
regardless of the state of any other
enable bits.
2: All interrupts will be ignored while the GIE
bit is cleared. Any interrupt occurring
while the GIE bit is clear will be serviced
when the GIE bit is set again.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
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DS41414C-page 89
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 7-3:
INTERRUPT LATENCY
OSC1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
CLKOUT
Interrupt Sampled
during Q1
Interrupt
GIE
PC
Execute
PC-1
PC
1 Cycle Instruction at PC
PC+1
0004h
0005h
Inst(PC)
NOP
NOP
Inst(0004h)
PC+1/FSR
ADDR
New PC/
PC+1
0004h
0005h
Inst(PC)
NOP
NOP
Inst(0004h)
FSR ADDR
PC+1
PC+2
0004h
0005h
INST(PC)
NOP
NOP
NOP
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
FSR ADDR
PC+1
0004h
0005h
INST(PC)
NOP
NOP
Inst(0004h)
Interrupt
GIE
PC
Execute
PC-1
PC
2 Cycle Instruction at PC
Interrupt
GIE
PC
Execute
PC-1
PC
3 Cycle Instruction at PC
Interrupt
GIE
PC
Execute
PC-1
PC
3 Cycle Instruction at PC
DS41414C-page 90
Preliminary
PC+2
NOP
NOP
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 7-4:
INT PIN INTERRUPT TIMING
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
OSC1
CLKOUT (3)
(4)
INT pin
(1)
(1)
INTF
Interrupt Latency (2)
(5)
GIE
INSTRUCTION FLOW
PC
Instruction
Fetched
Instruction
Executed
Note 1:
PC
Inst (PC)
Inst (PC – 1)
PC + 1
Inst (PC + 1)
PC + 1
—
Dummy Cycle
Inst (PC)
0004h
0005h
Inst (0004h)
Inst (0005h)
Dummy Cycle
Inst (0004h)
INTF flag is sampled here (every Q1).
2:
Asynchronous interrupt latency = 3-5 TCY. Synchronous latency = 3-4 TCY, where TCY = instruction cycle time.
Latency is the same whether Inst (PC) is a single cycle or a 2-cycle instruction.
3:
CLKOUT not available in all Oscillator modes.
4:
For minimum width of INT pulse, refer to AC specifications in Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications””.
5:
INTF is enabled to be set any time during the Q4-Q1 cycles.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.3
Interrupts During Sleep
Some interrupts can be used to wake from Sleep. To
wake from Sleep, the peripheral must be able to
operate without the system clock. The interrupt source
must have the appropriate Interrupt Enable bit(s) set
prior to entering Sleep.
On waking from Sleep, if the GIE bit is also set, the
processor will branch to the interrupt vector. Otherwise,
the processor will continue executing instructions after
the SLEEP instruction. The instruction directly after the
SLEEP instruction will always be executed before
branching to the ISR. Refer to the Section 9.0 “PowerDown Mode (Sleep)”for more details.
7.4
INT Pin
The INT pin can be used to generate an asynchronous
edge-triggered interrupt. This interrupt is enabled by
setting the INTE bit of the INTCON register. The
INTEDG bit of the OPTION register determines on which
edge the interrupt will occur. When the INTEDG bit is
set, the rising edge will cause the interrupt. When the
INTEDG bit is clear, the falling edge will cause the
interrupt. The INTF bit of the INTCON register will be set
when a valid edge appears on the INT pin. If the GIE and
INTE bits are also set, the processor will redirect
program execution to the interrupt vector.
7.5
Automatic Context Saving
Upon entering an interrupt, the return PC address is
saved on the stack. Additionally, the following registers
are automatically saved in the Shadow registers:
•
•
•
•
•
W register
STATUS register (except for TO and PD)
BSR register
FSR registers
PCLATH register
Upon exiting the Interrupt Service Routine, these registers are automatically restored. Any modifications to
these registers during the ISR will be lost. If modifications to any of these registers are desired, the corresponding Shadow register should be modified and the
value will be restored when exiting the ISR. The
Shadow registers are available in Bank 31 and are
readable and writable. Depending on the user’s application, other registers may also need to be saved.
DS41414C-page 92
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
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7.5.1
INTCON REGISTER
Note:
The INTCON register is a readable and writable
register, which contains the various enable and flag bits
for TMR0 register overflow, interrupt-on-change and
external INT pin interrupts.
REGISTER 7-1:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Enable bit, GIE, of the INTCON register.
User software should ensure the appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior to
enabling an interrupt.
INTCON: INTERRUPT CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R-0/0
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
GIE: Global Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all active interrupts
0 = Disables all interrupts
bit 6
PEIE: Peripheral Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables all active peripheral interrupts
0 = Disables all peripheral interrupts
bit 5
TMR0IE: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Timer0 interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer0 interrupt
bit 4
INTE: INT External Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the INT external interrupt
0 = Disables the INT external interrupt
bit 3
IOCIE: Interrupt-on-Change Enable bit
1 = Enables the interrupt-on-change
0 = Disables the interrupt-on-change
bit 2
TMR0IF: Timer0 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = TMR0 register has overflowed
0 = TMR0 register did not overflow
bit 1
INTF: INT External Interrupt Flag bit
1 = The INT external interrupt occurred
0 = The INT external interrupt did not occur
bit 0
IOCIF: Interrupt-on-Change Interrupt Flag bit
1 = When at least one of the interrupt-on-change pins changed state
0 = None of the interrupt-on-change pins have changed state
Note 1:
The IOCIF Flag bit is read-only and cleared when all the Interrupt-on-Change flags in the IOCBF register
have been cleared by software.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 93
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.2
PIE1 REGISTER
The PIE1 register contains the interrupt enable bits, as
shown in Register 7-2.
REGISTER 7-2:
Note:
Bit PEIE of the INTCON register must be
set to enable any peripheral interrupt.
PIE1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 1
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
TMR1GIE: Timer1 Gate Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Timer1 Gate Acquisition interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer1 Gate Acquisition interrupt
bit 6
ADIE: A/D Converter (ADC) Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the ADC interrupt
0 = Disables the ADC interrupt
bit 5
RCIE: USART1 Receive Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART1 receive interrupt
0 = Disables the USART1 receive interrupt
bit 4
TXIE: USART1 Transmit Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART1 transmit interrupt
0 = Disables the USART1 transmit interrupt
bit 3
SSPIE: Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP1) Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the MSSP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the MSSP1 interrupt
bit 2
CCP1IE: CCP1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP1 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP1 interrupt
bit 1
TMR2IE: TMR2 to PR2 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Timer2 to PR2 match interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer2 to PR2 match interrupt
bit 0
TMR1IE: Timer1 Overflow Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Timer1 overflow interrupt
0 = Disables the Timer1 overflow interrupt
DS41414C-page 94
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.3
PIE2 REGISTER
The PIE2 register contains the interrupt enable bits, as
shown in Register 7-3.
REGISTER 7-3:
Note:
Bit PEIE of the INTCON register must be
set to enable any peripheral interrupt.
PIE2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 2
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
OSFIE: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Oscillator Fail interrupt
0 = Disables the Oscillator Fail interrupt
bit 6
C2IE: Comparator C2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Comparator C2 interrupt
0 = Disables the Comparator C2 interrupt
bit 5
C1IE: Comparator C1 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Comparator C1 interrupt
0 = Disables the Comparator C1 interrupt
bit 4
EEIE: EEPROM Write Completion Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the EEPROM Write Completion interrupt
0 = Disables the EEPROM Write Completion interrupt
bit 3
BCLIE: MSSP1 Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the MSSP1 Bus Collision Interrupt
0 = Disables the MSSP1 Bus Collision Interrupt
bit 2
LCDIE: LCD Module Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the LCD module interrupt
0 = Disables the LCD module interrupt
bit 1
C3IE: Comparator C3 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the Comparator C3 interrupt
0 = Disables the Comparator C3 interrupt
bit 0
CCP2IE: CCP2 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP2 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP2 interrupt
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 95
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.4
PIE3 REGISTER
The PIE3 register contains the interrupt enable bits, as
shown in Register 7-4.
REGISTER 7-4:
Note:
Bit PEIE of the INTCON register must be
set to enable any peripheral interrupt.
PIE3: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 3
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
R/W-0/0
U-0
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
CCP5IE: CCP5 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP5 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP5 interrupt
bit 5
CCP4IE: CCP4 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP4 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP4 interrupt
bit 4
CCP3IE: CCP3 Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the CCP3 interrupt
0 = Disables the CCP3 interrupt
bit 3
TMR6IE: TMR6 to PR6 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR6 to PR6 Match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR6 to PR6 Match interrupt
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TMR4IE: TMR4 to PR4 Match Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the TMR4 to PR4 Match interrupt
0 = Disables the TMR4 to PR4 Match interrupt
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
DS41414C-page 96
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.5
PIE4 REGISTER
The PIE4 register contains the interrupt enable bits, as
shown in Register 7-5.
REGISTER 7-5:
Note:
Bit PEIE of the INTCON register must be
set to enable any peripheral interrupt.
PIE4: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTER 4
U-0
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
RC2IE: USART2 Receive Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART2 receive interrupt
0 = Disables the USART2 receive interrupt
bit 4
TX2IE: USART2 Transmit Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the USART2 transmit interrupt
0 = Disables the USART2 transmit interrupt
bit 3-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
BCL2IE: MSSP2 Bus Collision Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the MSSP2 Bus Collision Interrupt
0 = Disables the MSSP2 Bus Collision Interrupt
bit 0
SSP2IE: Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP2) Interrupt Enable bit
1 = Enables the MSSP2 interrupt
0 = Disables the MSSP2 interrupt
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 97
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.6
PIR1 REGISTER
The PIR1 register contains the interrupt flag bits, as
shown in Register 7-6.
REGISTER 7-6:
Note:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Enable bit, GIE, of the INTCON register.
User software should ensure the
appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior
to enabling an interrupt.
PIR1: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST REGISTER 1
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
TMR1GIF: Timer1 Gate Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 6
ADIF: A/D Converter Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 5
RCIF: USART1 Receive Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 4
TXIF: USART1 Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 3
SSPIF: Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP1) Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 2
CCP1IF: CCP1 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 1
TMR2IF: Timer2 to PR2 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 0
TMR1IF: Timer1 Overflow Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
DS41414C-page 98
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.7
PIR2 REGISTER
The PIR2 register contains the interrupt flag bits, as
shown in Register 7-7.
REGISTER 7-7:
Note:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Enable bit, GIE, of the INTCON register.
User software should ensure the
appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior
to enabling an interrupt.
PIR2: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST REGISTER 2
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
R/W-0/0
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
—
CCP2IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
OSFIF: Oscillator Fail Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 6
C2IF: Comparator C2 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 5
C1IF: Comparator C1 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 4
EEIF: EEPROM Write Completion Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 3
BCLIF: MSSP1 Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 2
LCDIF: LCD Module Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
CCP2IF: CCP2 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 99
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.8
PIR3 REGISTER
The PIR3 register contains the interrupt flag bits, as
shown in Register 7-8.
REGISTER 7-8:
Note:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Enable bit, GIE, of the INTCON register.
User software should ensure the
appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior
to enabling an interrupt.
PIR3: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST REGISTER 3
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6
CCP5IF: CCP5 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 5
CCP4IF: CCP4 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 4
CCP3IF: CCP3 Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 3
TMR6IF: TMR6 to PR6 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
TMR4IF: TMR4 to PR4 Match Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
DS41414C-page 100
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
7.5.9
PIR4 REGISTER
The PIR4 register contains the interrupt flag bits, as
shown in Register 7-9.
REGISTER 7-9:
Note:
Interrupt flag bits are set when an interrupt
condition occurs, regardless of the state of
its corresponding enable bit or the Global
Enable bit, GIE, of the INTCON register.
User software should ensure the
appropriate interrupt flag bits are clear prior
to enabling an interrupt.
PIR4: PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT REQUEST REGISTER 4
U-0
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
RC2IF: USART2 Receive Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 4
TX2IF: USART2 Transmit Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 3-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
BCL2IF: MSSP2 Bus Collision Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
bit 0
SSP2IF: Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP2) Interrupt Flag bit
1 = Interrupt is pending
0 = Interrupt is not pending
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 101
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 7-1:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH INTERRUPTS
Name
INTCON
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
INTEDG
T0CS
T0SE
PSA
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
OPTION_REG WPUEN
PIE1
TMR1GIE
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
PIR3
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
PS<2:0>
195
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
—
TMR4IE
—
96
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
100
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
101
Legend: — = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Interrupts.
DS41414C-page 102
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
8.0
LOW DROPOUT (LDO)
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
The PIC16F1946/47 has an internal Low Dropout
Regulator (LDO) which provides operation above 3.6V.
The LDO regulates a voltage for the internal device
logic while permitting the VDD and I/O pins to operate
at a higher voltage. There is no user enable/disable
control available for the LDO, it is always active. The
PIC16LF1946/47 operates at a maximum VDD of 3.6V
and does not incorporate an LDO.
On power-up, the external capacitor will load the LDO
voltage regulator. To prevent erroneous operation, the
device is held in Reset while a constant current source
charges the external capacitor. After the cap is fully
charged, the device is released from Reset. For more
information on recommended capacitor values and the
constant current rate, refer to the LDO Regulator
Characteristics Table in Section 30.0 “Electrical
Specifications”.
A device I/O pin may be configured as the LDO voltage
output, identified as the VCAP pin. Although not
required, an external low-ESR capacitor may be connected to the VCAP pin for additional regulator stability.
The VCAPEN bit of Configuration Word 2 determines
which pin is assigned as the VCAP pin. Refer to Table 8-1.
TABLE 8-1:
VCAPEN<1:0> SELECT BITS
VCAPEN<1:0>
00
RF0
11
No Vcap
TABLE 8-2:
Name
CONFIG2
Legend:
Pin
SUMMARY OF CONFIGURATION WORD WITH LDO
Bits
Bit -/7
Bit -/6
Bit 13/5
Bit 12/4
Bit 11/3
Bit 10/2
Bit 9/1
Bit 8/0
13:8
—
—
LVP
DEBUG
—
BORV
STVREN
PLLEN
7:0
—
—
—
VCAPEN
—
—
WRT1
WRT0
Register
on Page
58
— = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by LDO.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 103
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 104
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
9.0
POWER-DOWN MODE (SLEEP)
9.1
Wake-up from Sleep
The Power-Down mode is entered by executing a
SLEEP instruction.
The device can wake-up from Sleep through one of the
following events:
Upon entering Sleep mode, the following conditions
exist:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
WDT will be cleared but keeps running, if
enabled for operation during Sleep.
2. PD bit of the STATUS register is cleared.
3. TO bit of the STATUS register is set.
4. CPU clock is disabled.
5. 31 kHz LFINTOSC is unaffected and peripherals
that operate from it may continue operation in
Sleep.
6. Timer1 oscillator is unaffected and peripherals
that operate from it may continue operation in
Sleep.
7. ADC is unaffected, if the dedicated FRC clock is
selected.
8. Capacitive Sensing oscillator is unaffected.
9. I/O ports maintain the status they had before
SLEEP was executed (driving high, low or highimpedance).
10. Resets other than WDT are not affected by
Sleep mode.
Refer to individual chapters for more details on
peripheral operation during Sleep.
To minimize current consumption, the following conditions should be considered:
•
•
•
•
•
•
I/O pins should not be floating
External circuitry sinking current from I/O pins
Internal circuitry sourcing current from I/O pins
Current draw from pins with internal weak pull-ups
Modules using 31 kHz LFINTOSC
Modules using Timer1 oscillator
External Reset input on MCLR pin, if enabled
BOR Reset, if enabled
POR Reset
Watchdog Timer, if enabled
Any external interrupt
Interrupts by peripherals capable of running during Sleep (see individual peripheral for more
information)
The first three events will cause a device Reset. The
last three events are considered a continuation of program execution. To determine whether a device Reset
or wake-up event occurred, refer to Section 6.10
“Determining the Cause of a Reset”.
When the SLEEP instruction is being executed, the next
instruction (PC + 1) is prefetched. For the device to
wake-up through an interrupt event, the corresponding
interrupt enable bit must be enabled. Wake-up will
occur regardless of the state of the GIE bit. If the GIE
bit is disabled, the device continues execution at the
instruction after the SLEEP instruction. If the GIE bit is
enabled, the device executes the instruction after the
SLEEP instruction, the device will call the Interrupt
Service Routine. In cases where the execution of the
instruction following SLEEP is not desirable, the user
should have a NOP after the SLEEP instruction.
The WDT is cleared when the device wakes up from
Sleep, regardless of the source of wake-up.
I/O pins that are high-impedance inputs should be
pulled to VDD or VSS externally to avoid switching
currents caused by floating inputs.
Examples of internal circuitry that might be sourcing
current include modules such as the DAC and FVR
modules. See Section 17.0 “Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) Module” and Section 14.0 “Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR)” for more information on these
modules.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 105
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
9.1.1
WAKE-UP USING INTERRUPTS
• If the interrupt occurs during or after the execution of a SLEEP instruction
- SLEEP instruction will be completely executed
- Device will immediately wake-up from Sleep
- WDT and WDT prescaler will be cleared
- TO bit of the STATUS register will be set
- PD bit of the STATUS register will be cleared.
When global interrupts are disabled (GIE cleared) and
any interrupt source has both its interrupt enable bit
and interrupt flag bit set, one of the following will occur:
• If the interrupt occurs before the execution of a
SLEEP instruction
- SLEEP instruction will execute as a NOP.
- WDT and WDT prescaler will not be cleared
- TO bit of the STATUS register will not be set
- PD bit of the STATUS register will not be
cleared.
FIGURE 9-1:
Even if the flag bits were checked before executing a
SLEEP instruction, it may be possible for flag bits to
become set before the SLEEP instruction completes. To
determine whether a SLEEP instruction executed, test
the PD bit. If the PD bit is set, the SLEEP instruction
was executed as a NOP.
WAKE-UP FROM SLEEP THROUGH INTERRUPT
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1(1)
TOST(3)
CLKOUT(2)
Interrupt flag
Interrupt Latency (4)
GIE bit
(INTCON reg.)
Processor in
Sleep
Instruction Flow
PC
PC
Instruction
Fetched
Instruction
Executed
Note
1:
2:
3:
4:
Inst(PC) = Sleep
Inst(PC - 1)
INTCON
PC + 2
PC + 2
PC + 2
Inst(PC + 1)
Inst(PC + 2)
Sleep
Inst(PC + 1)
Dummy Cycle
0004h
0005h
Inst(0004h)
Inst(0005h)
Dummy Cycle
Inst(0004h)
XT, HS or LP Oscillator mode assumed.
CLKOUT is not available in XT, HS or LP Oscillator modes, but shown here for timing reference.
TOST = 1024 TOSC (drawing not to scale). This delay applies only to XT, HS or LP Oscillator modes.
GIE = 1 assumed. In this case after wake-up, the processor calls the ISR at 0004h. If GIE = 0, execution will continue in-line.
TABLE 9-1:
Name
PC + 1
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH POWER-DOWN MODE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register on
Page
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
IOCBF
IOCBF7
IOCBF6
IOCBF5
IOCBF4
IOCBF3
IOCBF2
IOCBF1
IOCBF0
153
IOCBN
IOCBN7
IOCBN6
IOCBN5
IOCBN4
IOCBN3
IOCBN2
IOCBN1
IOCBN0
153
IOCBP
IOCBP7
IOCBP6
IOCBP5
IOCBP4
IOCBP3
IOCBP2
IOCBP1
IOCBP0
152
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
96
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
PIR3
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
100
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
101
STATUS
—
—
—
TO
PD
Z
DC
WDTCON
—
—
Legend:
WDTPS<4:0>
C
25
SWDTEN
109
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used in Power-down mode.
DS41414C-page 106
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
10.0
WATCHDOG TIMER
The Watchdog Timer is a system timer that generates
a Reset if the firmware does not issue a CLRWDT
instruction within the time-out period. The Watchdog
Timer is typically used to recover the system from
unexpected events.
The WDT has the following features:
• Independent clock source
• Multiple operating modes
- WDT is always on
- WDT is off when in Sleep
- WDT is controlled by software
- WDT is always off
• Configurable time-out period is from 1 ms to 256
seconds (typical)
• Multiple Reset conditions
• Operation during Sleep
FIGURE 10-1:
WATCHDOG TIMER BLOCK DIAGRAM
WDTE<1:0> = 01
SWDTEN
WDTE<1:0> = 11
LFINTOSC
23-bit Programmable
Prescaler WDT
WDT Time-out
WDTE<1:0> = 10
Sleep
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
WDTPS<4:0>
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 107
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
10.1
Independent Clock Source
10.3
The WDT derives its time base from the 31 kHz
LFINTOSC internal oscillator.
10.2
Time-Out Period
The WDTPS bits of the WDTCON register set the
time-out period from 1 ms to 256 seconds. After a
Reset, the default time-out period is 2 seconds.
WDT Operating Modes
The Watchdog Timer module has four operating modes
controlled by the WDTE<1:0> bits in Configuration
Word 1. See Table 10-1.
10.2.1
WDT IS ALWAYS ON
When the WDTE bits of Configuration Word 1 are set to
‘11’, the WDT is always on.
WDT protection is active during Sleep.
10.2.2
WDT IS OFF IN SLEEP
When the WDTE bits of Configuration Word 1 are set to
‘10’, the WDT is on, except in Sleep.
WDT protection is not active during Sleep.
10.2.3
When the WDTE bits of Configuration Word 1 are set to
‘01’, the WDT is controlled by the SWDTEN bit of the
WDTCON register.
TABLE 10-1:
by
Sleep.
See
WDT OPERATING MODES
WDTE
Config bits
SWDTEN
Device
Mode
WDT
Mode
WDT_ON (11)
X
X
Active
WDT_NSLEEP (10)
X
Awake
Active
WDT_NSLEEP (10)
X
Sleep
Disabled
WDT_SWDTEN (01)
1
X
Active
WDT_SWDTEN (01)
0
X
Disabled
WDT_OFF (00)
X
X
Disabled
TABLE 10-2:
Clearing the WDT
The WDT is cleared when any of the following conditions occur:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Any Reset
CLRWDT instruction is executed
Device enters Sleep
Device wakes up from Sleep
Oscillator fail event
WDT is disabled
Oscillator Start-up TImer (OST) is running
See Table 10-2 for more information.
10.5
WDT CONTROLLED BY SOFTWARE
WDT protection is unchanged
Table 10-1 for more details.
10.4
Operation During Sleep
When the device enters Sleep, the WDT is cleared. If
the WDT is enabled during Sleep, the WDT resumes
counting.
When the device exits Sleep, the WDT is cleared
again. The WDT remains clear until the OST, if
enabled, completes. See Section 5.0 “Oscillator
Module (With Fail-Safe Clock Monitor)” for more
information on the OST.
When a WDT time-out occurs while the device is in
Sleep, no Reset is generated. Instead, the device wakes
up and resumes operation. The TO and PD bits in the
STATUS register are changed to indicate the event. See
Section 3.0 “Memory Organization” and STATUS
register (Register 3-1) for more information.
WDT CLEARING CONDITIONS
Conditions
WDT
WDTE<1:0> = 00
WDTE<1:0> = 01 and SWDTEN = 0
WDTE<1:0> = 10 and enter Sleep
Cleared
CLRWDT Command
Oscillator Fail Detected
Exit Sleep + System Clock = T1OSC, EXTRC, INTOSC, EXTCLK
Exit Sleep + System Clock = XT, HS, LP
Cleared until the end of OST
Change INTOSC divider (IRCF bits)
DS41414C-page 108
Unaffected
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 10-1:
WDTCON: WATCHDOG TIMER CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-1/1
R/W-0/0
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
WDTPS<4:0>
bit 7
R/W-0/0
SWDTEN
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-m/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-1
WDTPS<4:0>: Watchdog Timer Period Select bits
Bit Value = Prescale Rate
00000 = 1:32 (Interval 1 ms typ)
00001 = 1:64 (Interval 2 ms typ)
00010 = 1:128 (Interval 4 ms typ)
00011 = 1:256 (Interval 8 ms typ)
00100 = 1:512 (Interval 16 ms typ)
00101 = 1:1024 (Interval 32 ms typ)
00110 = 1:2048 (Interval 64 ms typ)
00111 = 1:4096 (Interval 128 ms typ)
01000 = 1:8192 (Interval 256 ms typ)
01001 = 1:16384 (Interval 512 ms typ)
01010 = 1:32768 (Interval 1s typ)
01011 = 1:65536 (Interval 2s typ) (Reset value)
01100 = 1:131072 (217) (Interval 4s typ)
01101 = 1:262144 (218) (Interval 8s typ)
01110 = 1:524288 (219) (Interval 16s typ)
01111 = 1:1048576 (220) (Interval 32s typ)
10000 = 1:2097152 (221) (Interval 64s typ)
10001 = 1:4194304 (222) (Interval 128s typ)
10010 = 1:8388608 (223) (Interval 256s typ)
10011 = Reserved. Results in minimum interval (1:32)
•
•
•
11111 = Reserved. Results in minimum interval (1:32)
bit 0
SWDTEN: Software Enable/Disable for Watchdog Timer bit
If WDTE<1:0> = 00:
This bit is ignored.
If WDTE<1:0> = 01:
1 = WDT is turned on
0 = WDT is turned off
If WDTE<1:0> = 1x:
This bit is ignored.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 109
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 110
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
11.0
DATA EEPROM AND FLASH
PROGRAM MEMORY
CONTROL
11.1
The Data EEPROM and Flash program memory are
readable and writable during normal operation (full VDD
range). These memories are not directly mapped in the
register file space. Instead, they are indirectly
addressed through the Special Function Registers
(SFRs). There are six SFRs used to access these
memories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
EECON1
EECON2
EEDATL
EEDATH
EEADRL
EEADRH
EEADRL and EEADRH Registers
The EEADRH:EEADRL register pair can address up to
a maximum of 256 bytes of data EEPROM or up to a
maximum of 32K words of program memory.
When selecting a program address value, the MSB of
the address is written to the EEADRH register and the
LSB is written to the EEADRL register. When selecting
a EEPROM address value, only the LSB of the address
is written to the EEADRL register.
11.1.1
EECON1 AND EECON2 REGISTERS
EECON1 is the control register for EE memory
accesses.
When interfacing the data memory block, EEDATL
holds the 8-bit data for read/write, and EEADRL holds
the address of the EEDATL location being accessed.
These devices have 256 bytes of data EEPROM with
an address range from 0h to 0FFh.
When accessing the program memory block, the EEDATH:EEDATL register pair forms a 2-byte word that
holds the 14-bit data for read/write, and the EEADRL
and EEADRH registers form a 2-byte word that holds
the 15-bit address of the program memory location
being read.
The EEPROM data memory allows byte read and write.
An EEPROM byte write automatically erases the location and writes the new data (erase before write).
The write time is controlled by an on-chip timer. The
write/erase voltages are generated by an on-chip
charge pump rated to operate over the voltage range of
the device for byte or word operations.
Depending on the setting of the Flash Program
Memory Self Write Enable bits WRT<1:0> of the
Configuration Word 2, the device may or may not be
able to write certain blocks of the program memory.
However, reads from the program memory are always
allowed.
Control bit EEPGD determines if the access will be a
program or data memory access. When clear, any
subsequent operations will operate on the EEPROM
memory. When set, any subsequent operations will
operate on the program memory. On Reset, EEPROM is
selected by default.
Control bits RD and WR initiate read and write,
respectively. These bits cannot be cleared, only set, in
software. They are cleared in hardware at completion
of the read or write operation. The inability to clear the
WR bit in software prevents the accidental, premature
termination of a write operation.
The WREN bit, when set, will allow a write operation to
occur. On power-up, the WREN bit is clear. The
WRERR bit is set when a write operation is interrupted
by a Reset during normal operation. In these situations,
following Reset, the user can check the WRERR bit
and execute the appropriate error handling routine.
Interrupt flag bit EEIF of the PIR2 register is set when
write is complete. It must be cleared in the software.
Reading EECON2 will read all ‘0’s. The EECON2 register is used exclusively in the data EEPROM write
sequence. To enable writes, a specific pattern must be
written to EECON2.
When the device is code-protected, the device
programmer can no longer access data or program
memory. When code-protected, the CPU may continue
to read and write the data EEPROM memory and Flash
program memory.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 111
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
11.2
11.2.2
Using the Data EEPROM
The data EEPROM is a high-endurance, byte addressable array that has been optimized for the storage of
frequently changing information (e.g., program variables or other data that are updated often). When variables in one section change frequently, while variables
in another section do not change, it is possible to
exceed the total number of write cycles to the
EEPROM without exceeding the total number of write
cycles to a single byte. Refer to Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications”. If this is the case, then a refresh
of the array must be performed. For this reason, variables that change infrequently (such as constants, IDs,
calibration, etc.) should be stored in Flash program
memory.
11.2.1
READING THE DATA EEPROM
MEMORY
To read a data memory location, the user must write the
address to the EEADRL register, clear the EEPGD and
CFGS control bits of the EECON1 register, and then
set control bit RD. The data is available at the very next
cycle, in the EEDATL register; therefore, it can be read
in the next instruction. EEDATL will hold this value until
another read or until it is written to by the user (during
a write operation).
EXAMPLE 11-1:
BANKSEL EEADRL
;
MOVLW
DATA_EE_ADDR ;
MOVWF
EEADRL
;Data Memory
;Address to read
BCF
EECON1, CFGS ;Deselect Config space
BCF
EECON1, EEPGD;Point to DATA memory
BSF
EECON1, RD
;EE Read
MOVF
EEDATL, W
;W = EEDATL
Note:
To write an EEPROM data location, the user must first
write the address to the EEADRL register and the data
to the EEDATL register. Then the user must follow a
specific sequence to initiate the write for each byte.
The write will not initiate if the above sequence is not
followed exactly (write 55h to EECON2, write AAh to
EECON2, then set the WR bit) for each byte. Interrupts
should be disabled during this code segment.
Additionally, the WREN bit in EECON1 must be set to
enable write. This mechanism prevents accidental
writes to data EEPROM due to errant (unexpected)
code execution (i.e., lost programs). The user should
keep the WREN bit clear at all times, except when
updating EEPROM. The WREN bit is not cleared
by hardware.
After a write sequence has been initiated, clearing the
WREN bit will not affect this write cycle. The WR bit will
be inhibited from being set unless the WREN bit is set.
At the completion of the write cycle, the WR bit is
cleared in hardware and the EE Write Complete
Interrupt Flag bit (EEIF) is set. The user can either
enable this interrupt or poll this bit. EEIF must be
cleared by software.
11.2.3
DATA EEPROM READ
Data EEPROM can be read regardless of
the setting of the CPD bit.
WRITING TO THE DATA EEPROM
MEMORY
PROTECTION AGAINST SPURIOUS
WRITE
There are conditions when the user may not want to
write to the data EEPROM memory. To protect against
spurious EEPROM writes, various mechanisms have
been built-in. On power-up, WREN is cleared. Also, the
Power-up Timer (64 ms duration) prevents EEPROM
write.
The write initiate sequence and the WREN bit together
help prevent an accidental write during:
• Brown-out
• Power Glitch
• Software Malfunction
11.2.4
DATA EEPROM OPERATION
DURING CODE-PROTECT
Data memory can be code-protected by programming
the CPD bit in the Configuration Word 1 (Register 4-1)
to ‘0’.
When the data memory is code-protected, only the
CPU is able to read and write data to the data
EEPROM. It is recommended to code-protect the program memory when code-protecting data memory.
This prevents anyone from replacing your program with
a program that will access the contents of the data
EEPROM.
DS41414C-page 112
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Required
Sequence
EXAMPLE 11-2:
DATA EEPROM WRITE
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BCF
BCF
BSF
EEADRL
DATA_EE_ADDR
EEADRL
DATA_EE_DATA
EEDATL
EECON1, CFGS
EECON1, EEPGD
EECON1, WREN
;
;
;Data Memory Address to write
;
;Data Memory Value to write
;Deselect Configuration space
;Point to DATA memory
;Enable writes
BCF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BSF
BCF
BTFSC
GOTO
INTCON,
55h
EECON2
0AAh
EECON2
EECON1,
INTCON,
EECON1,
EECON1,
$-2
;Disable INTs.
;
;Write 55h
;
;Write AAh
;Set WR bit to begin write
;Enable Interrupts
;Disable writes
;Wait for write to complete
;Done
FIGURE 11-1:
GIE
WR
GIE
WREN
WR
FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY READ CYCLE EXECUTION
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Flash ADDR
Flash Data
PC
PC + 1
INSTR (PC)
INSTR(PC - 1)
executed here
EEADRH,EEADRL
INSTR (PC + 1)
BSF EECON1,RD
executed here
PC
+3
PC+3
EEDATH,EEDATL
INSTR(PC + 1)
executed here
PC + 5
PC + 4
INSTR (PC + 3)
Forced NOP
executed here
INSTR (PC + 4)
INSTR(PC + 3)
executed here
INSTR(PC + 4)
executed here
RD bit
EEDATH
EEDATL
Register
EERHLT
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 113
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
11.3
Flash Program Memory Overview
It is important to understand the Flash program memory structure for erase and programming operations.
Flash Program memory is arranged in rows. A row consists of a fixed number of 14-bit program memory
words. A row is the minimum block size that can be
erased by user software.
Flash program memory may only be written or erased
if the destination address is in a segment of memory
that is not write-protected, as defined in bits WRT<1:0>
of Configuration Word 2.
After a row has been erased, the user can reprogram
all or a portion of this row. Data to be written into the
program memory row is written to 14-bit wide data write
latches. These write latches are not directly accessible
to the user, but may be loaded via sequential writes to
the EEDATH:EEDATL register pair.
Note:
If the user wants to modify only a portion
of a previously programmed row, then the
contents of the entire row must be read
and saved in RAM prior to the erase.
The number of data write latches may not be equivalent
to the number of row locations. During programming,
user software may need to fill the set of write latches
and initiate a programming operation multiple times in
order to fully reprogram an erased row. For example, a
device with a row size of 32 words and eight write
latches will need to load the write latches with data and
initiate a programming operation four times.
11.3.1
READING THE FLASH PROGRAM
MEMORY
To read a program memory location, the user must:
1.
Write the Least and Most Significant address
bits to the EEADRH:EEADRL register pair.
Clear the CFGS bit of the EECON1 register.
Set the EEPGD control bit of the EECON1
register.
Then, set control bit RD of the EECON1 register.
2.
3.
4.
Once the read control bit is set, the program memory
Flash controller will use the second instruction cycle to
read the data. This causes the second instruction
immediately following the “BSF EECON1,RD” instruction
to be ignored. The data is available in the very next cycle,
in the EEDATH:EEDATL register pair; therefore, it can
be read as two bytes in the following instructions.
EEDATH:EEDATL register pair will hold this value until
another read or until it is written to by the user.
Note 1: The two instructions following a program
memory read are required to be NOPs.
This prevents the user from executing a
two-cycle instruction on the next
instruction after the RD bit is set.
2: Flash program memory can be read
regardless of the setting of the CP bit.
The size of a program memory row and the number of
program memory write latches may vary by device.
See Table 11-1 for details.
TABLE 11-1:
FLASH MEMORY ORGANIZATION BY DEVICE
Device
Erase Block (Row) Size/Boundary
Number of Write Latches/Boundary
PIC16F/LF1946/47
32 words, EEADRL<4:0> = 00000
8 words, EEADRL<2:0> = 000
DS41414C-page 114
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
EXAMPLE 11-3:
FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY READ
* This code block will read 1 word of program
* memory at the memory address:
PROG_ADDR_HI: PROG_ADDR_LO
*
data will be returned in the variables;
*
PROG_DATA_HI, PROG_DATA_LO
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWL
EEADRL
PROG_ADDR_LO
EEADRL
PROG_ADDR_HI
EEADRH
; Select Bank for EEPROM registers
;
; Store LSB of address
;
; Store MSB of address
BCF
BSF
BCF
BSF
NOP
NOP
BSF
EECON1,CFGS
EECON1,EEPGD
INTCON,GIE
EECON1,RD
INTCON,GIE
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Do not select Configuration Space
Select Program Memory
Disable interrupts
Initiate read
Executed (Figure 11-1)
Ignored (Figure 11-1)
Restore interrupts
MOVF
MOVWF
MOVF
MOVWF
EEDATL,W
PROG_DATA_LO
EEDATH,W
PROG_DATA_HI
;
;
;
;
Get LSB of word
Store in user location
Get MSB of word
Store in user location
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 115
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
11.3.2
ERASING FLASH PROGRAM
MEMORY
While executing code, program memory can only be
erased by rows. To erase a row:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Load the EEADRH:EEADRL register pair with
the address of new row to be erased.
Clear the CFGS bit of the EECON1 register.
Set the EEPGD, FREE, and WREN bits of the
EECON1 register.
Write 55h, then AAh, to EECON2 (Flash
programming unlock sequence).
Set control bit WR of the EECON1 register to
begin the erase operation.
Poll the FREE bit in the EECON1 register to
determine when the row erase has completed.
See Example 11-4.
After the “BSF EECON1,WR” instruction, the processor
requires two cycles to set up the erase operation. The
user must place two NOP instructions after the WR bit is
set. The processor will halt internal operations for the
typical 2 ms erase time. This is not Sleep mode as the
clocks and peripherals will continue to run. After the
erase cycle, the processor will resume operation with
the third instruction after the EECON1 write instruction.
11.3.3
WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM
MEMORY
Program memory is programmed using the following
steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Load the starting address of the word(s) to be
programmed.
Load the write latches with data.
Initiate a programming operation.
Repeat steps 1 through 3 until all data is written.
Before writing to program memory, the word(s) to be
written must be erased or previously unwritten. Program memory can only be erased one row at a time. No
automatic erase occurs upon the initiation of the write.
Program memory can be written one or more words at
a time. The maximum number of words written at one
time is equal to the number of write latches. See
Figure 11-2 (block writes to program memory with 16
write latches) for more details. The write latches are
aligned to the address boundary defined by EEADRL
as shown in Table 11-1. Write operations do not cross
these boundaries. At the completion of a program
memory write operation, the write latches are reset to
contain 0x3FFF.
The following steps should be completed to load the
write latches and program a block of program memory.
These steps are divided into two parts. First, all write
latches are loaded with data except for the last program
memory location. Then, the last write latch is loaded
and the programming sequence is initiated. A special
unlock sequence is required to load a write latch with
data or initiate a Flash programming operation. This
unlock sequence should not be interrupted.
1.
Set the EEPGD and WREN bits of the EECON1
register.
2. Clear the CFGS bit of the EECON1 register.
3. Set the LWLO bit of the EECON1 register. When
the LWLO bit of the EECON1 register is ‘1’, the
write sequence will only load the write latches
and will not initiate the write to Flash program
memory.
4. Load the EEADRH:EEADRL register pair with
the address of the location to be written.
5. Load the EEDATH:EEDATL register pair with
the program memory data to be written.
6. Write 55h, then AAh, to EECON2, then set the
WR bit of the EECON1 register (Flash
programming unlock sequence). The write latch
is now loaded.
7. Increment the EEADRH:EEADRL register pair
to point to the next location.
8. Repeat steps 5 through 7 until all but the last
write latch has been loaded.
9. Clear the LWLO bit of the EECON1 register.
When the LWLO bit of the EECON1 register is
‘0’, the write sequence will initiate the write to
Flash program memory.
10. Load the EEDATH:EEDATL register pair with
the program memory data to be written.
11. Write 55h, then AAh, to EECON2, then set the
WR bit of the EECON1 register (Flash
programming unlock sequence). The entire
latch block is now written to Flash program
memory.
It is not necessary to load the entire write latch block
with user program data. However, the entire write latch
block will be written to program memory.
An example of the complete write sequence for eight
words is shown in Example 11-5. The initial address is
loaded into the EEADRH:EEADRL register pair; the
eight words of data are loaded using indirect
addressing.
Note:
DS41414C-page 116
Preliminary
The code sequence provided in
Example 11-5 must be repeated multiple
times to fully program an erased program
memory row.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
After the “BSF EECON1,WR” instruction, the processor
requires two cycles to set up the write operation. The
user must place two NOP instructions after the WR bit is
set. The processor will halt internal operations for the
typical 2 ms, only during the cycle in which the write
takes place (i.e., the last word of the block write). This
is not Sleep mode as the clocks and peripherals will
FIGURE 11-2:
continue to run. The processor does not stall when
LWLO = 1, loading the write latches. After the write
cycle, the processor will resume operation with the third
instruction after the EECON1 write instruction.
BLOCK WRITES TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY WITH 16 WRITE LATCHES
7
5
0
0 7
EEDATA
EEDATH
8
6
Last word of block
to be written
First word of block
to be written
14
EEADRL<3:0> = 0000
14
EEADRL<3:0> = 0010
EEADRL<3:0> = 0001
Buffer Register
14
Buffer Register
14
EEADRL<3:0> = 1111
Buffer Register
Buffer Register
Program Memory
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 117
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
EXAMPLE 11-4:
ERASING ONE ROW OF PROGRAM MEMORY
Required
Sequence
; This row erase routine assumes the following:
; 1. A valid address within the erase block is loaded in ADDRH:ADDRL
; 2. ADDRH and ADDRL are located in shared data memory 0x70 - 0x7F
BCF
BANKSEL
MOVF
MOVWF
MOVF
MOVWF
BSF
BCF
BSF
BSF
INTCON,GIE
EEADRL
ADDRL,W
EEADRL
ADDRH,W
EEADRH
EECON1,EEPGD
EECON1,CFGS
EECON1,FREE
EECON1,WREN
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
NOP
55h
EECON2
0AAh
EECON2
EECON1,WR
NOP
; Disable ints so required sequences will execute properly
; Load lower 8 bits of erase address boundary
; Load upper 6 bits of erase address boundary
;
;
;
;
Point to program memory
Not configuration space
Specify an erase operation
Enable writes
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Start of required sequence to initiate erase
Write 55h
Write AAh
Set WR bit to begin erase
Any instructions here are ignored as processor
halts to begin erase sequence
Processor will stop here and wait for erase complete.
; after erase processor continues with 3rd instruction
BCF
BSF
DS41414C-page 118
EECON1,WREN
INTCON,GIE
; Disable writes
; Enable interrupts
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
EXAMPLE 11-5:
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
WRITING TO FLASH PROGRAM MEMORY
This write routine assumes the following:
1. The 16 bytes of data are loaded, starting at the address in DATA_ADDR
2. Each word of data to be written is made up of two adjacent bytes in DATA_ADDR,
stored in little endian format
3. A valid starting address (the least significant bits = 000) is loaded in ADDRH:ADDRL
4. ADDRH and ADDRL are located in shared data memory 0x70 - 0x7F
BCF
BANKSEL
MOVF
MOVWF
MOVF
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
BCF
BSF
BSF
INTCON,GIE
EEADRH
ADDRH,W
EEADRH
ADDRL,W
EEADRL
LOW DATA_ADDR
FSR0L
HIGH DATA_ADDR
FSR0H
EECON1,EEPGD
EECON1,CFGS
EECON1,WREN
EECON1,LWLO
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Disable ints so required sequences will execute properly
Bank 3
Load initial address
MOVIW
MOVWF
MOVIW
MOVWF
FSR0++
EEDATL
FSR0++
EEDATH
; Load first data byte into lower
;
; Load second data byte into upper
;
MOVF
XORLW
ANDLW
BTFSC
GOTO
EEADRL,W
0x07
0x07
STATUS,Z
START_WRITE
; Check if lower bits of address are '000'
; Check if we're on the last of 8 addresses
;
; Exit if last of eight words,
;
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
NOP
55h
EECON2
0AAh
EECON2
EECON1,WR
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
Load initial data address
Load initial data address
Point to program memory
Not configuration space
Enable writes
Only Load Write Latches
Required
Sequence
LOOP
NOP
Start of required write sequence:
Write 55h
Write AAh
Set WR bit to begin write
Any instructions here are ignored as processor
halts to begin write sequence
Processor will stop here and wait for write to complete.
; After write processor continues with 3rd instruction.
INCF
GOTO
Required
Sequence
START_WRITE
BCF
MOVLW
MOVWF
MOVLW
MOVWF
BSF
NOP
EEADRL,F
LOOP
; Still loading latches Increment address
; Write next latches
EECON1,LWLO
; No more loading latches - Actually start Flash program
; memory write
55h
EECON2
0AAh
EECON2
EECON1,WR
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
;
NOP
BCF
BSF
EECON1,WREN
INTCON,GIE
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Start of required write sequence:
Write 55h
Write AAh
Set WR bit to begin write
Any instructions here are ignored as processor
halts to begin write sequence
Processor will stop here and wait for write complete.
; after write processor continues with 3rd instruction
; Disable writes
; Enable interrupts
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 119
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
11.4
Modifying Flash Program Memory
When modifying existing data in a program memory
row, and data within that row must be preserved, it must
first be read and saved in a RAM image. Program
memory is modified using the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Load the starting address of the row to be
modified.
Read the existing data from the row into a RAM
image.
Modify the RAM image to contain the new data
to be written into program memory.
Load the starting address of the row to be
rewritten.
Erase the program memory row.
Load the write latches with data from the RAM
image.
Initiate a programming operation.
Repeat steps 6 and 7 as many times as required
to reprogram the erased row.
TABLE 11-2:
11.5
User ID, Device ID and
Configuration Word Access
Instead of accessing program memory or EEPROM
data memory, the User ID’s, Device ID/Revision ID and
Configuration Words can be accessed when CFGS = 1
in the EECON1 register. This is the region that would
be pointed to by PC<15> = 1, but not all addresses are
accessible. Different access may exist for reads and
writes. Refer to Table 11-2.
When read access is initiated on an address outside the
parameters listed in Table 11-2, the EEDATH:EEDATL
register pair is cleared.
USER ID, DEVICE ID AND CONFIGURATION WORD ACCESS (CFGS = 1)
Address
Function
Read Access
Write Access
8000h-8003h
8006h
8007h-8008h
User IDs
Device ID/Revision ID
Configuration Words 1 and 2
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
EXAMPLE 11-3:
CONFIGURATION WORD AND DEVICE ID ACCESS
* This code block will read 1 word of program memory at the memory address:
*
PROG_ADDR_LO (must be 00h-08h) data will be returned in the variables;
*
PROG_DATA_HI, PROG_DATA_LO
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
CLRF
EEADRL
PROG_ADDR_LO
EEADRL
EEADRH
; Select correct Bank
;
; Store LSB of address
; Clear MSB of address
BSF
BCF
BSF
NOP
NOP
BSF
EECON1,CFGS
INTCON,GIE
EECON1,RD
INTCON,GIE
;
;
;
;
;
;
Select Configuration Space
Disable interrupts
Initiate read
Executed (See Figure 11-1)
Ignored (See Figure 11-1)
Restore interrupts
MOVF
MOVWF
MOVF
MOVWF
EEDATL,W
PROG_DATA_LO
EEDATH,W
PROG_DATA_HI
;
;
;
;
Get LSB of word
Store in user location
Get MSB of word
Store in user location
DS41414C-page 120
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
11.6
Write Verify
Depending on the application, good programming
practice may dictate that the value written to the data
EEPROM or program memory should be verified (see
Example 11-6) to the desired value to be written.
Example 11-6 shows how to verify a write to EEPROM.
EXAMPLE 11-6:
EEPROM WRITE VERIFY
BANKSEL EEDATL
MOVF
EEDATL, W
BSF
XORWF
BTFSS
GOTO
:
;
;EEDATL not changed
;from previous write
EECON1, RD ;YES, Read the
;value written
EEDATL, W ;
STATUS, Z ;Is data the same
WRITE_ERR ;No, handle error
;Yes, continue
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 121
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
11.7
EEPROM Control Registers
REGISTER 11-1:
R/W-x/u
EEDATL: EEPROM DATA REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
EEDAT<7:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
EEDAT<7:0>: Read/write value for EEPROM data byte or Least Significant bits of program memory
REGISTER 11-2:
EEDATH: EEPROM DATA HIGH BYTE REGISTER
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
EEDAT<13:8>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5-0
EEDAT<13:8>: Read/write value for Most Significant bits of program memory
REGISTER 11-3:
R/W-0/0
EEADRL: EEPROM ADDRESS REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
EEADR<7:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
EEADR<7:0>: Specifies the Least Significant bits for program memory address or EEPROM address
DS41414C-page 122
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 11-4:
U-1
EEADRH: EEPROM ADDRESS HIGH BYTE REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
EEADR<14:8>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘1’
bit 6-0
EEADR<14:8>: Specifies the Most Significant bits for program memory address or EEPROM address
REGISTER 11-5:
EECON1: EEPROM CONTROL 1 REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W/HC-0/0
R/W-x/q
R/W-0/0
R/S/HC-0/0
R/S/HC-0/0
EEPGD
CFGS
LWLO
FREE
WRERR
WREN
WR
RD
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
S = Bit can only be set
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
HC = Bit is cleared by hardware
bit 7
EEPGD: Flash Program/Data EEPROM Memory Select bit
1 = Accesses program space Flash memory
0 = Accesses data EEPROM memory
bit 6
CFGS: Flash Program/Data EEPROM or Configuration Select bit
1 = Accesses Configuration, User ID and Device ID Registers
0 = Accesses Flash Program or data EEPROM Memory
bit 5
LWLO: Load Write Latches Only bit
If CFGS = 1 (Configuration space) OR CFGS = 0 and EEPGD = 1 (program Flash):
1 = The next WR command does not initiate a write; only the program memory latches are
updated.
0 = The next WR command writes a value from EEDATH:EEDATL into program memory latches
and initiates a write of all the data stored in the program memory latches.
If CFGS = 0 and EEPGD = 0: (Accessing data EEPROM)
LWLO is ignored. The next WR command initiates a write to the data EEPROM.
bit 4
FREE: Program Flash Erase Enable bit
If CFGS = 1 (Configuration space) OR CFGS = 0 and EEPGD = 1 (program Flash):
1 = Performs an erase operation on the next WR command (cleared by hardware after
completion of erase).
0 = Performs a write operation on the next WR command.
If EEPGD = 0 and CFGS = 0: (Accessing data EEPROM)
FREE is ignored. The next WR command will initiate both a erase cycle and a write cycle.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 123
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 11-5:
EECON1: EEPROM CONTROL 1 REGISTER (CONTINUED)
bit 3
WRERR: EEPROM Error Flag bit
1 = Condition indicates an improper program or erase sequence attempt or termination (bit is set
automatically on any set attempt (write ‘1’) of the WR bit).
0 = The program or erase operation completed normally.
bit 2
WREN: Program/Erase Enable bit
1 = Allows program/erase cycles
0 = Inhibits programming/erasing of program Flash and data EEPROM
bit 1
WR: Write Control bit
1 = Initiates a program Flash or data EEPROM program/erase operation.
The operation is self-timed and the bit is cleared by hardware once operation is complete.
The WR bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.
0 = Program/erase operation to the Flash or data EEPROM is complete and inactive.
bit 0
RD: Read Control bit
1 = Initiates an program Flash or data EEPROM read. Read takes one cycle. RD is cleared in
hardware. The RD bit can only be set (not cleared) in software.
0 = Does not initiate a program Flash or data EEPROM data read.
REGISTER 11-6:
W-0/0
EECON2: EEPROM CONTROL 2 REGISTER
W-0/0
W-0/0
W-0/0
W-0/0
W-0/0
W-0/0
W-0/0
EEPROM Control Register 2
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
S = Bit can only be set
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Data EEPROM Unlock Pattern bits
To unlock writes, a 55h must be written first, followed by an AAh, before setting the WR bit of the
EECON1 register. The value written to this register is used to unlock the writes. There are specific
timing requirements on these writes. Refer to Section 11.2.2 “Writing to the Data EEPROM
Memory” for more information.
TABLE 11-3:
Name
EECON1
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH DATA EEPROM
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
EEPGD
CFGS
LWLO
FREE
WRERR
WREN
WR
RD
EECON2
EEPROM Control Register 2 (not a physical register)
EEADRL
EEADRL<7:0>
EEADRH
—
123
111*
122
EEADRH<6:0>
EEDATL
Register on
Page
123
EEDATL<7:0>
122
EEDATH
—
—
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
Legend:
*
EEDATH<5:0>
122
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Data EEPROM module.
Page provides register information.
DS41414C-page 124
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.0
I/O PORTS
12.1
Depending on the device selected and peripherals
enabled, there are up to five ports available. In general,
when a peripheral is enabled, that pin may not be used
as a general purpose I/O pin.
Each port has three registers for its operation. These
registers are:
• TRISx registers (data direction register)
• PORTx registers (reads the levels on the pins of
the device)
• LATx registers (output latch)
The Data Latch (LATx registers) is useful for
read-modify-write operations on the value that the I/O
pins are driving.
A write operation to the LATx register has the same
affect as a write to the corresponding PORTx register.
A read of the LATx register reads of the values held in
the I/O PORT latches, while a read of the PORTx
register reads the actual I/O pin value.
Alternate Pin Function
The Alternate Pin Function Control (APFCON) register
is used to steer specific peripheral input and output
functions between different pins. The APFCON register
is shown in Register 12-1. For this device family, the
following functions can be moved between different
pins.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
CCP3/P3C output
CCP3/P3B output
CCP2/P2D output
CCP2/P2C output
CCP2/P2B output
CCP2/P2A output
CCP1/P1C output
CCP1/P1B output
These bits have no effect on the values of any TRIS
register. PORT and TRIS overrides will be routed to the
correct pin. The unselected pin will be unaffected.
Ports with analog functions also have an ANSELx
register which can disable the digital input and save
power. A simplified model of a generic I/O port, without
the interfaces to other peripherals, is shown in
Figure 12-1.
FIGURE 12-1:
GENERIC I/O PORT
OPERATION
Read LATx
D
Write LATx
Write PORTx
TRISx
Q
CK
VDD
Data Register
Data Bus
I/O pin
Read PORTx
To peripherals
ANSELx
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
VSS
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 125
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-1:
APFCON: ALTERNATE PIN FUNCTION CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
P3CSEL
P3BSEL
P2DSEL
P2CSEL
P2BSEL
CCP2SEL
P1CSEL
P1BSEL
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
P3CSEL: CCP3 PWM C Output Pin Selection bit
0 = P3C function is on RE3/P3C/COM0
1 = P3C function is on RD3/P3C/SEG3
bit 6
P3BSEL: CCP3 PWM B Output Pin Selection bit
0 = P3B function is on RE4/P3B/COM1
1 = P3B function is on RD4/P3B/SEG4
bit 5
P2DSEL: CCP2 PWM D Output Pin Selection bit
0 = P2D function is on RE0/P2D/VLCD1
1 = P2D function is on RD0/P2D/SEG0
bit 4
P2CSEL: CCP2 PWM C Output Pin Selection bit
0 = P2C function is on RE1/P2C/VLCD2
1 = P2C function is on RD1/P2C/SEG1
bit 3
P2BSEL: CCP2 PWM B Output Pin Selection bit
0 = P2B function is on RE2/P2B/VLCD3
1 = P2B function is on RD2/P2B/SEG2
bit 2
CCP2SEL: CCP2 Input/Output Pin Selection bit
0 = CCP2/P2A function is on RC1/CCP2/P2A/T1OSI/SEG32
1 = CCP2/P2A function is on RE7/CCP2/P2A/SEG31
bit 1
P1CSEL: CCP1 PWM C Output Pin Selection bit
0 = P1C function is on RE5/P1C/COM2
1 = P1C function is on RD5/P1C/SEG5
bit 0
P1BSEL: CCP1 PWM B Output Pin Selection bit
0 = P1B function is on RE6/P1B/COM3
1 = P1B function is on RD6/P1B/SEG6
DS41414C-page 126
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.2
12.2.2
PORTA Registers
PORTA is a 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISA
(Register 12-3). Setting a TRISA bit (= 1) will make the
corresponding PORTA pin an input (i.e., disable the
output driver). Clearing a TRISA bit (= 0) will make the
corresponding PORTA pin an output (i.e., enables
output driver and puts the contents of the output latch
on the selected pin). Example 12-1 shows how to
initialize PORTA.
Reading the PORTA register (Register 12-2) reads the
status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the
PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write
operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the
port pins are read, this value is modified and then
written to the PORT data latch (LATA).
The TRISA register (Register 12-3) controls the
PORTA pin output drivers, even when they are being
used as analog inputs. The user should ensure the bits
in the TRISA register are maintained set when using
them as analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog
input always read ‘0’.
12.2.1
ANSELA REGISTER
The ANSELA register (Register 12-5) is used to
configure the Input mode of an I/O pin to analog.
Setting the appropriate ANSELA bit high will cause all
digital reads on the pin to be read as ‘0’ and allow
analog functions on the pin to operate correctly.
The state of the ANSELA bits has no affect on digital
output functions. A pin with TRIS clear and ANSEL set
will still operate as a digital output, but the Input mode
will be analog. This can cause unexpected behavior
when executing read-modify-write instructions on the
affected port.
Note:
The ANSELA register must be initialized
to configure an analog channel as a digital
input. Pins configured as analog inputs
will read ‘0’.
EXAMPLE 12-1:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
INITIALIZING PORTA
PORTA
PORTA
LATA
LATA
ANSELA
ANSELA
TRISA
B'11110000'
TRISA
;
;Init PORTA
;Data Latch
;
;
;digital I/O
;
;Set RA<7:4> as inputs
;and set RA<3:0> as
;outputs
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PORTA FUNCTIONS AND OUTPUT
PRIORITIES
Each PORTA pin is multiplexed with other functions. The
pins, their combined functions and their output priorities
are briefly described here. For additional information,
refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
When multiple outputs are enabled, the actual pin
control goes to the peripheral with the lowest number in
the following lists.
Analog input functions, such as ADC, comparator and
CapSense inputs, are not shown in the priority lists.
These inputs are active when the I/O pin is set for
Analog mode using the ANSELx registers. Digital
output functions may control the pin when it is in Analog
mode with the priority shown below.
RA0
1. AN0 (ADC)
2. SEG33 (LCD)
3. CPS0 (CSM)
RA1
1. SEG18
2. CPS1 (CSM)
RA2
1. SEG34 (LCD)
2. VREF- (DAC)
3. AN2 (ADC)
4. CPS2 (CSM)
RA3
1. VREF+ (DAC)
2. SEG35 (LCD)
3. AN3 (ADC)
4. CPS3 (CSM)
RA4
1. SEG14 (LCD)
2. T0CKI (TMR0)
RA5
1. AN4 (ADC)
2. SEG15 (LCD)
3. CPS4 (CSM)
RA6
1. OSC2 (enabled by Configuration Word)
2. CLKOUT (enabled by Configuration Word)
3. SEG36 (LCD)
RA7
1. OSC1/CLKIN (enabled by Configuration Word)
2. SEG37 (LCD)
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 127
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-2:
PORTA: PORTA REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
RA7
RA6
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
RA<7:0>: PORTA I/O Value bits(1)
1 = Port pin is > VIH
0 = Port pin is < VIL
bit 7-0
Note 1:
Writes to PORTA are actually written to corresponding LATA register. Reads from PORTA register is return
of actual I/O pin values.
REGISTER 12-3:
TRISA: PORTA TRI-STATE REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
TRISA<7:0>: PORTA Tri-State Control bit
1 = PORTA pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTA pin configured as an output
REGISTER 12-4:
LATA: PORTA DATA LATCH REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
LATA7
LATA6
LATA5
LATA4
LATA3
LATA2
LATA1
LATA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
LATA<7:0>: PORTA Output Latch Value bits(1)
Writes to PORTA are actually written to corresponding LATA register. Reads from PORTA register is return
of actual I/O pin values.
DS41414C-page 128
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-5:
ANSELA: PORTA ANALOG SELECT REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-1/1
U-0
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
—
—
ANSA5
—
ANSA3
ANSA2
ANSA1
ANSA0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 5
ANSA5: Analog Select between Analog or Digital Function on pins RA<5>, respectively
0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or digital special function.
1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1). Digital input buffer disabled.
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-0
ANSA<3:0>: Analog Select between Analog or Digital Function on pins RA<3:0>, respectively
0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or digital special function.
1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1). Digital input buffer disabled.
Note 1:
When setting a pin to an analog input, the corresponding TRIS bit must be set to Input mode in order to
allow external control of the voltage on the pin.
TABLE 12-1:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTA
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
GO/DONE
ADON
166
ADCON0
—
ADCON1
ADFM
ANSELA
—
—
ANSA5
—
CPSCON0
CPSON
CPSRM
—
—
CPSCON1
—
—
—
DACCON0
DACEN
DACLPS
DACOE
---
LATA
LATA7
LATA6
LATA5
LATA4
LATA3
LCDSE1
SE15
SE14
SE13
SE12
SE11
LCDSE2
SE23
SE22
SE21
SE20
LCDSE4
SE39
SE38
SE37
SE36
WPUEN
INTEDG
TMR0CS
TMR0SE
PSA
RA7
RA6
RA5
RA4
RA3
RA2
RA1
RA0
128
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
OPTION_REG
PORTA
TRISA
Legend:
CONFIG1
Legend:
ADCS<2:0>
—
—
ADPREF<1:0>
ANSA3
ANSA2
167
ANSA1
ANSA0
129
CPSOUT
T0XCS
332
---
DACNSS
176
LATA2
LATA1
LATA0
128
SE10
SE9
SE8
341
SE19
SE18
SE17
SE16
341
SE35
SE34
SE33
SE32
341
CPSRNG1 CPSRNG0
CPSCH<4:0>
DACPSS<1:0>
333
PS<2:0>
195
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
TABLE 12-2:
Name
CHS<4:0>
SUMMARY OF CONFIGURATION WORD WITH PORTA
Bits
Bit -/7
Bit -/6
Bit 13/5
Bit 12/4
Bit 11/3
13:8
—
—
FCMEN
IESO
CLKOUTEN
7:0
CP
MCLRE
PWRTE
Bit 10/2
WDTE<1:0>
Bit 9/1
BOREN<1:0>
FOSC<2:0>
Bit 8/0
CPD
Register
on Page
56
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTA.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 129
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.3
12.3.3
PORTB Registers
PORTB is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISB
(Register 12-7). Setting a TRISB bit (= 1) will make the
corresponding PORTB pin an input (i.e., put the
corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).
Clearing a TRISB bit (= 0) will make the corresponding
PORTB pin an output (i.e., enable the output driver and
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Example 12-2 shows how to initialize PORTB.
Reading the PORTB register (Register 12-6) reads the
status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the
PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write
operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the
port pins are read, this value is modified and then written
to the PORT data latch (LATB).
Each PORTB pin is multiplexed with other functions. The
pins, their combined functions and their output priorities
are briefly described here. For additional information,
refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
When multiple outputs are enabled, the actual pin
control goes to the peripheral with the lowest number in
the following lists.
Analog input and some digital input functions are not
included in the list below. These input functions can
remain active when the pin is configured as an output.
Certain digital input functions, such as the EUSART RX
signal, override other port functions and are included in
the priority list.
RB0
The TRISB register (Register 12-7) controls the PORTB
pin output drivers, even when they are being used as
analog inputs. The user should ensure the bits in the
TRISB register are maintained set when using them as
analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog input always
read ‘0’.
1.
2.
3.
4.
12.3.1
1.
WEAK PULL-UPS
Each of the PORTB pins has an individually configurable
internal weak pull-up. Control bits WPUB<7:0> enable or
disable each pull-up (see Register 12-9). Each weak
pull-up is automatically turned off when the port pin is
configured as an output. All pull-ups are disabled on a
Power-on Reset by the WPUEN bit of the OPTION
register.
12.3.2
All of the PORTB pins are individually configurable as
an interrupt-on-change pin. Control bits IOCB<7:0>
enable or disable the interrupt function for each pin.
The interrupt-on-change feature is disabled on a
Power-on
Reset.
Reference
Section 13.0
“Interrupt-On-Change” for more information.
EXAMPLE 12-2:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
INITIALIZING PORTB
PORTDB;
PORTB
LATDB
LATB
TRISD
B'11110000'
TRISD
DS41414C-page 130
SEG30 (LCD)
FLT0 (CCP)
SRI (SR Latch)
INT
RB1
SEG8 (LCD)
RB2
1.
SEG9 (LCD)
RB3
1.
SEG10 (LCD)
RB4
1.
INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE
PORTB FUNCTIONS AND OUTPUT
PRIORITIES
SEG11 (LCD)
RB5
1.
2.
SEG29 (LCD)
T1G (TMR1)
RB6
1.
2.
3.
ICSPCLK (Programming)
ICDCLK (enabled by Configuration Word)
SEG38 (LCD)
RB7
;Init PORTD
;Data Latch
;
;
;Set RD<7:4> as inputs
;and set RD<3:0> as
;outputs
1.
2.
3.
Preliminary
ICSPDAT (Programming)
ICDDAT (enabled by Configuration Word)
SEG39 (LCD)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-6:
PORTB: PORTB REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
RB1
RB0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
RB<7:0>: PORTB I/O Pin bit
1 = Port pin is > VIH
0 = Port pin is < VIL
REGISTER 12-7:
TRISB: PORTB TRI-STATE REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
TRISB<7:0>: PORTB Tri-State Control bit
1 = PORTB pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTB pin configured as an output
REGISTER 12-8:
LATB: PORTB DATA LATCH REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
LATB7
LATB6
LATB5
LATB4
LATB3
LATB2
LATB1
LATB0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
LATB<7:0>: PORTB Output Latch Value bits(1)
Writes to PORTB are actually written to corresponding LATB register. Reads from PORTB register is
return of actual I/O pin values.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 131
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-9:
WPUB: WEAK PULL-UP PORTB REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
WPUB7
WPUB6
WPUB5
WPUB4
WPUB3
WPUB2
WPUB1
WPUB0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
2:
WPUB<7:0>: Weak Pull-up Register bits
1 = Pull-up enabled
0 = Pull-up disabled
Global WPUEN bit of the OPTION register must be cleared for individual pull-ups to be enabled.
The weak pull-up device is automatically disabled if the pin is in configured as an output.
TABLE 12-3:
Name
INTCON
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTB
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
IOCBP
IOCBP7
IOCBP6
IOCBP5
IOCBP4
IOCBP3
IOCBP2
IOCBP1
IOCBP0
152
IOCBN
IOCBN7
IOCBN6
IOCBN5
IOCBN4
IOCBN3
IOCBN2
IOCBN1
IOCBN0
153
IOCBF
IOCBF7
IOCBF6
IOCBF5
IOCBF4
IOCBF3
IOCBF2
IOCBF1
IOCBF0
153
LATB
LATB7
LATB6
LATB5
LATB4
LATB3
LATB2
LATB1
LATB0
131
LCDSE1
SE15
SE14
SE13
SE12
SE11
SE10
SE9
SE8
341
LCDSE3
SE31
SE30
SE29
SE28
SE27
SE26
SE25
SE24
341
LCDSE4
SE39
SE38
SE37
SE36
SE35
SE34
SE33
SE32
341
WPUEN
INTEDG
TMR0CS
TMR0SE
PSA
OPTION_REG
PORTB
T1GCON
PS<2:0>
RB7
RB6
RB5
RB4
RB3
RB2
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1GTM
T1GSPM
T1GGO/DONE
T1GVAL
RB1
195
RB0
T1GSS<1:0>
131
206
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
WPUB
WPUB7
WPUB6
WPUB5
WPUB4
WPUB3
WPUB2
WPUB1
WPUB0
132
Legend:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTB.
DS41414C-page 132
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.4
12.4.1
PORTC Registers
PORTC is a 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISC
(Register 12-11). Setting a TRISC bit (= 1) will make the
corresponding PORTC pin an input (i.e., put the
corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).
Clearing a TRISC bit (= 0) will make the corresponding
PORTC pin an output (i.e., enable the output driver and
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Example 12-3 shows how to initialize PORTC.
Reading the PORTC register (Register 12-10) reads the
status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the
PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write
operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the
port pins are read, this value is modified and then written
to the PORT data latch (LATC).
The TRISC register (Register 12-11) controls the
PORTC pin output drivers, even when they are being
used as analog inputs. The user should ensure the bits in
the TRISC register are maintained set when using them
as analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog input
always read ‘0’.
EXAMPLE 12-3:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
INITIALIZING PORTC
PORTC
PORTC
LATC
LATC
TRISC
B'11110000'
TRISC
;
;Init PORTC
;Data Latch
;
;
;Set RC<7:4> as inputs
;and set RC<3:0> as
;outputs
PORTC FUNCTIONS AND OUTPUT
PRIORITIES
Each PORTC pin is multiplexed with other functions. The
pins, their combined functions and their output priorities
are briefly described here. For additional information,
refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
When multiple outputs are enabled, the actual pin
control goes to the peripheral with the lowest number in
the following lists.
Analog input and some digital input functions are not
included in the list below. These input functions can
remain active when the pin is configured as an output.
Certain digital input functions override other port
functions and are included in the priority list.
RC0
1.
2.
3.
T1OSO (Timer1 Oscillator)
T1CKI (TMR1)
SEG40 (ICD)
RC1
1.
2.
3.
T1OSI (Timer1 Oscillator)
CCP2/P2A
SEG32 (ICD)
RC2
1.
2.
SEG13 (LCD)
CCP1/P1A
RC3
1.
2.
3.
SEG17 (LCD)
SCL1 (MSSP1)
SCK1 (MSSP1)
RC4
1.
2.
3.
SEG16 (LCD)
SDA1 (MSSP1)
SDI1 (MSSP1)
RC5
1.
2.
SEG12 (LCD)
SDO1 (MSSP1)
RC6
1.
2.
3.
SEG27 (LCD)
TX1 (EUSART1)
CK2 (EUSART1)
RC7
1.
2.
3.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
SEG28 (LCD)
DT1 (EUSART1)
RX1 (EUSART1)
DS41414C-page 133
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-10: PORTC: PORTC REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
RC<7:0>: PORTC General Purpose I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is > VIH
0 = Port pin is < VIL
REGISTER 12-11: TRISC: PORTC TRI-STATE REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
TRISC<7:0>: PORTC Tri-State Control bits
1 = PORTC pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTC pin configured as an output
REGISTER 12-12: LATC: PORTC DATA LATCH REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
LATC7
LATC6
LATC5
LATC4
LATC3
LATC2
LATC1
LATC0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
LATC<7:0>: PORTC Output Latch Value bits(1)
Writes to PORTC are actually written to corresponding LATC register. Reads from PORTC register is
return of actual I/O pin values.
DS41414C-page 134
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 12-4:
Name
APFCON
LATC
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTC
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
P3CSEL
P3BSEL
P2DSEL
P2CSEL
P2BSEL
CCP2SEL
P1CSEL
P1BSEL
126
LATC7
LATC6
LATC5
LATC4
LATC3
LATC2
LATC1
LATC0
134
LCDSE1
SE15
SE14
SE13
SE12
SE11
SE10
SE9
SE8
341
LCDSE2
SE23
SE22
SE21
SE20
SE19
SE18
SE17
SE16
341
LCDSE3
SE31
SE30
SE29
SE28
SE27
SE26
SE25
SE24
341
LCDSE4
SE39
SE38
SE37
SE36
SE35
SE34
SE33
SE32
341
LCDSE5
—
—
SE45
SE44
SE43
SE42
SE41
SE40
341
PORTC
RC7
RC6
RC5
RC4
RC3
RC2
RC1
RC0
134
RC1STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
RC2STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
SSP1CON1
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSP2STAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
T1CON
TX1STA
TX2STA
TRISC
Legend:
TMR1CS<1:0>
CSRC
TX9
T1CKPS<1:0>
TXEN
SYNC
SSPM<3:0>
S
R/W
T1OSCEN
—
291
UA
BF
289
T1SYNC
—
TMR1ON
205
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
—
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
134
x = unknown, u = unchanged, - = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTC.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 135
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.5
12.5.1
PORTD Registers
PORTD is a 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISD
(Register 12-13). Setting a TRISD bit (= 1) will make the
corresponding PORTD pin an input (i.e., put the
corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).
Clearing a TRISD bit (= 0) will make the corresponding
PORTD pin an output (i.e., enable the output driver and
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Example 12-4 shows how to initialize PORTD.
Reading the PORTD register (Register 12-13) reads the
status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the
PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write
operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the
port pins are read, this value is modified and then written
to the PORT data latch (LATD).
The TRISD register (Register 12-14) controls the
PORTD pin output drivers, even when they are being
used as analog inputs. The user should ensure the bits
in the TRISD register are maintained set when using
them as analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog
input always read ‘0’.
EXAMPLE 12-4:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
Each PORTD pin is multiplexed with other functions. The
pins, their combined functions and their output priorities
are briefly described here. For additional information,
refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
When multiple outputs are enabled, the actual pin
control goes to the peripheral with the lowest number in
the following lists.
Analog input and some digital input functions are not
included in the list below. These input functions can
remain active when the pin is configured as an output.
Certain digital input functions override other port
functions and are included in the priority list.
RD0
1.
2.
SEG0 (LCD)
P2D (CCP)
RD1
1.
2.
SEG1 (LCD)
P2C (CCP)
RD2
INITIALIZING PORTD
PORTD
PORTD
LATD
LATD
TRISD
B'11110000'
TRISD
PORTD FUNCTIONS AND OUTPUT
PRIORITIES
;
;Init PORTD
;Data Latch
;
;
;Set RD<7:4> as inputs
;and set RD<3:0> as
;outputs
1.
2.
P2B (CCP)
SEG2 (LCD)
RD3
1.
2.
SEG3 (LCD)
P3C (CCP)
RD4
1.
2.
3.
SEG4 (LCD)
P3D (CCP)
SDO2 (SSP2)
RD5
1.
2.
3.
SEG5 (LCD)
P1C (CCP)
SDI2/SDA2 (SSP2)
RD6
1.
2.
3.
SEG5 (LCD)
P1B (CCP)
SCK2/SCL2 (SSP2)
RD7
1.
2.
DS41414C-page 136
Preliminary
SEG7 (LCD)
SS2 (SSP2)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-13: PORTD: PORTD REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
RD<7:0>: PORTD General Purpose I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is > VIH
0 = Port pin is < VIL
REGISTER 12-14: TRISD: PORTD TRI-STATE REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
TRISD<7:0>: PORTD Tri-State Control bits
1 = PORTD pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTD pin configured as an output
REGISTER 12-15: LATD: PORTD DATA LATCH REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
LATD7
LATD6
LATD5
LATD4
LATD3
LATD2
LATD1
LATD0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
LATD<7:0>: PORTD Output Latch Value bits(1)
Writes to PORTD are actually written to corresponding LATD register. Reads from PORTD register is
return of actual I/O pin values.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 137
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 12-5:
Name
APFCON
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTD
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
P3CSEL
P3BSEL
P2DSEL
P2CSEL
P2BSEL
CCP2SEL
P1CSEL
P1BSEL
PxM<1:0>(1)
CCPxCON
DCxB<1:0>
LATD
LATD7
LATD6
LATD5
LATD4
LCDCON
LCDEN
SLPEN
WERR
—
LCDSE0
SE7
SE6
SE5
SE4
Register on
Page
CCPxM<3:0>
LATD3
LATD2
CS<1:0>
SE3
SE2
LATD1
LATD0
LMUX<1:0>
SE1
126
236
137
337
SE0
341
PORTD
RD7
RD6
RD5
RD4
RD3
RD2
RD1
RD0
137
TRISD
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
137
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTD.
Applies to ECCP modules only.
DS41414C-page 138
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.6
12.6.2
PORTE Registers
PORTE is an 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISE. Setting a
TRISE bit (= 1) will make the corresponding PORTE pin
an input (i.e., put the corresponding output driver in a
High-Impedance mode). Clearing a TRISE bit (= 0) will
make the corresponding PORTE pin an output (i.e.,
enable the output driver and put the contents of the
output latch on the selected pin). The exception is RE3,
which is input only and its TRIS bit will always read as
‘1’. Example 12-5 shows how to initialize PORTE.
Reading the PORTE register (Register 12-16) reads
the status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to
the PORT latch. All write operations are
read-modify-write operations. Therefore, a write to a
port implies that the port pins are read, this value is
modified and then written to the PORT data latch
(LATE). RE3 reads ‘0’ when MCLRE = 1.
12.6.1
ANSELE REGISTER
The ANSELE register (Register 12-19) is used to
configure the Input mode of an I/O pin to analog.
Setting the appropriate ANSELE bit high will cause all
digital reads on the pin to be read as ‘0’ and allow
analog functions on the pin to operate correctly.
The state of the ANSELE bits has no affect on digital
output functions. A pin with TRIS clear and ANSEL set
will still operate as a digital output, but the Input mode
will be analog. This can cause unexpected behavior
when executing read-modify-write instructions on the
affected port.
The TRISE register (Register 12-17) controls the PORTE
pin output drivers, even when they are being used as
analog inputs. The user should ensure the bits in the
TRISE register are maintained set when using them as
analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog input always
read ‘0’.
Note:
The ANSELE register must be initialized
to configure an analog channel as a digital
input. Pins configured as analog inputs
will read ‘0’.
EXAMPLE 12-5:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
;
;Init PORTE
;Data Latch
;
;
;digital I/O
;
;Set RE<3:2> as inputs
;and set RE<1:0>
;as outputs
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Each PORTE pin is multiplexed with other functions. The
pins, their combined functions and their output priorities
are briefly described here. For additional information,
refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
When multiple outputs are enabled, the actual pin
control goes to the peripheral with the lowest number in
the following lists.
Analog input and some digital input functions are not
included in the list below. These input functions can
remain active when the pin is configured as an output.
Certain digital input functions, such as the EUSART RX
signal, override other port functions and are included in
the priority list.
RE0
1.
2.
P2D (CCP)
VLCD1 (LCD)
RE1
1.
2.
P2C (CCP)
VLCD2 (LCD)
RE2
1.
2.
P2B (CCP)
VLCD3 (LCD)
RE3
1.
2.
P3C (CCP)
COM0 (LCD)
RE4
1.
2.
P3B (CCP)
COM1 (LCD)
RE5
1.
2.
P1C (CCP)
COM32(LCD)
RE6
1.
2.
P1B (CCP)
COM3 (LCD)
RE7
INITIALIZING PORTE
PORTE
PORTE
LATE
LATE
ANSELE
ANSELE
TRISE
B‘00001100’
TRISE
PORTE FUNCTIONS AND OUTPUT
PRIORITIES
1.
2.
Preliminary
CCP2/P2A (CCP)
SEG31 (LCD)
DS41414C-page 139
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-16: PORTE: PORTE REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
RE7
RE6
RE5
RE4
RE3
RE2
RE1
RE0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
RE<7:0>: PORTE I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is > VIH
0 = Port pin is < VIL
REGISTER 12-17: TRISE: PORTE TRI-STATE REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
TRISE7
TRISE6
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
TRISE<7:0>: RE<7:0> Tri-State Control bits
1 = PORTE pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTE pin configured as an output
DS41414C-page 140
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-18: LATE: PORTE DATA LATCH REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
LATE7
LATE6
LATE5
LATE4
LATE3
LATE2
LATE1
LATE0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
LATE<7:0>: PORTE Output Latch Value bits(1)
bit 7-0
Note 1:
Writes to PORTE are actually written to corresponding LATE register. Reads from PORTE register is return of
actual I/O pin values.
REGISTER 12-19: ANSELE: PORTE ANALOG SELECT REGISTER
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
R/W-1
—
—
—
—
—
ANSE2
ANSE1
ANSE0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
ANSE<7:0>: Analog Select between Analog or Digital Function on Pins RE<7:0>, respectively
0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or digital special function.
1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1). Digital input buffer disabled.
When setting a pin to an analog input, the corresponding TRIS bit must be set to Input mode in order to allow
external control of the voltage on the pin.
TABLE 12-6:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
APFCON
P3CSEL
P3BSEL
P2DSEL
P2CSEL
P2BSEL
CCP2SEL
P1CSEL
P1BSEL
126
ANSELE
—
—
—
—
—
ANSE2
ANSE1
ANSE0
141
Name
CCPxCON
PxM<1:0>(1)
DCxB<1:0>
CCPxM<3:0>
LATE
LATE7
LATE6
LATE5
LATE4
LCDCON
LCDEN
SLPEN
WERR
—
LCDREF
LCDIRE
LCDIRS
LCDIRI
—
VLCD3PE
VLCD2PE
VLCD1PE
—
LCDSE2
SE31
SE30
SE29
SE28
SE27
SE26
SE25
SE24
341
PORTE
RE7
RE6
RE5
RE4
RE3
RE2
RE1
RE0
140
TRISE7
TRISE6
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
140
TRISE
Legend:
Note 1:
LATE3
LATE2
CS<1:0>
LATE1
236
LATE0
LMUX<1:0>
141
337
339
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTE.
Applies to ECCP modules only.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 141
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.7
PORTF Registers
PORTF is a 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISF
(Register 12-21). Setting a TRISF bit (= 1) will make the
corresponding PORTF pin an input (i.e., put the
corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).
Clearing a TRISF bit (= 0) will make the corresponding
PORTF pin an output (i.e., enable the output driver and
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Example 12-4 shows how to initialize PORTF.
Reading the PORTF register (Register 12-13) reads the
status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the
PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write
operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the
port pins are read, this value is modified and then written
to the PORT data latch (LATF).
The TRISF register (Register 12-14) controls the
PORTF pin output drivers, even when they are being
used as analog inputs. The user should ensure the bits
in the TRISF register are maintained set when using
them as analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog
input always read ‘0’.
12.7.1
ANSELF REGISTER
The ANSELF register (Register 12-23) is used to
configure the Input mode of an I/O pin to analog.
Setting the appropriate ANSELF bit high will cause all
digital reads on the pin to be read as ‘0’ and allow
analog functions on the pin to operate correctly.
The state of the ANSELF bits has no affect on digital
output functions. A pin with TRIS clear and ANSEL set
will still operate as a digital output, but the Input mode
will be analog. This can cause unexpected behavior
when executing read-modify-write instructions on the
affected port.
Note:
The ANSELF register must be initialized
to configure an analog channel as a digital
input. Pins configured as analog inputs
will read ‘0’.
EXAMPLE 12-6:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
INITIALIZING PORTF
PORTF
PORTF
LATF
LATF
ANSELF
ANSELF
TRISF
B'11110000'
TRISF
DS41414C-page 142
;
;Init PORTF
;Data Latch
;
;
;digital I/O
;
;Set RF<7:4> as inputs
;and set RF<3:0> as
;outputs
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.7.2
PORTF FUNCTIONS AND OUTPUT
PRIORITIES
Each PORTF pin is multiplexed with other functions. The
pins, their combined functions and their output priorities
are briefly described here. For additional information,
refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
When multiple outputs are enabled, the actual pin
control goes to the peripheral with the lowest number in
the following lists.
Analog input and some digital input functions are not
included in the list below. These input functions can
remain active when the pin is configured as an output.
Certain digital input functions override other port
functions and are included in the priority list.
RF0
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AN16 (ADC)
CPS16 (CSM)
C12IN0- (Comparator)
SEG41 (LCD)
VCAP (LDO)
RF5
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AN10 (ADC)
CPS10 (CSM)
C12IN1- (Comparator)
DACOUT (DAC)
SEG23 (LCD)
RF6
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AN11 (ADC)
CPS11 (CSM)
C1IN+ (Comparator)
DACOUT (DAC)
SEG24 (LCD)
RF7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AN5 (ADC)
CPS5 (CSM)
C123IN3- (Comparator)
SS1 (MSSP1)
SEG25 (LCD)
RF1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AN6 (ADC)
CPS6 (CSM)
C2OUT (Comparator)
SRNQ (SR Latch)
SEG19 (LCD)
RF2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AN7 (ADC)
CPS7 (CSM)
C1OUT (Comparator)
SEG20 (LCD)
SRQ (SR Latch)
RF3
1.
2.
3.
4.
AN8 (ADC)
CPS8 (CSM)
C123IN2- (Comparator)
SEG21 (LCD)
RF4
1.
2.
3.
4.
AN9 (ADC)
CPS9 (CSM)
C2IN+ (Comparator)
SEG22 (LCD)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 143
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-20: PORTF: PORTF REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
RF7
RF6
RF5
RF4
RF3
RF2
RF1
RF0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
RF<7:0>: PORTF General Purpose I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is > VIH
0 = Port pin is < VIL
REGISTER 12-21: TRISF: PORTF TRI-STATE REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
TRISF7
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
TRISF0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
TRISF<7:0>: PORTF Tri-State Control bits
1 = PORTF pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTF pin configured as an output
REGISTER 12-22: LATF: PORTF DATA LATCH REGISTER
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
LATF7
LATF6
LATF5
LATF4
LATF3
LATF2
LATF1
LATF0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
LATF<7:0>: PORTF Output Latch Value bits(1)
Writes to PORTF are actually written to corresponding LATF register. Reads from PORTF register is return
of actual I/O pin values.
DS41414C-page 144
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-23: ANSELF: PORTF ANALOG SELECT REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
ANSF7
ANSF6
ANSF5
ANSDF4
ANSF3
ANSF2
ANSDF1
ANSF0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
Note 1:
ANSF<7:0>: Analog Select between Analog or Digital Function on Pins RF<7:0>, respectively
0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or digital special function.
1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1). Digital input buffer disabled.
When setting a pin to an analog input, the corresponding TRIS bit must be set to Input mode in order to
allow external control of the voltage on the pin.
TABLE 12-7:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTF
Bit 7
ADCON0
—
ANSELF
ANSF7
Bit 6
Bit 5
ANSF6
ANSF5
CCPxCON
CM1CON1
Bit 3
Bit 2
ANSF3
ANSF2
CHS<4:0>
PxM<1:0>(1)
CMOUT
Bit 4
ANSF4
DCxB<1:0>
Bit 0
Register on
Page
GO/DONE
ADON
166
ANSF1
ANSF0
145
Bit 1
CCPxM<3:0>
—
—
—
—
—
MC3OUT
C1INTP
C1INTN
C1PCH1
C1PCH0
—
—
—
—
CM2CON1
C2INTP
C2INTN
C2PCH1
C2PCH0
CPSCON0
CPSON
CPSRM
—
—
CPSRNG<1:0>
CPSCON1
—
—
—
—
DACCON0
DACEN
DACLPS
DACOE
—
LATF
LATF7
LATF6
LATF5
LATF4
236
MC2OUT
MC1OUT
184
C1NCH<1:0>
184
C2NCH<1:0>
184
CPSOUT
T0XCS
332
CPSCH<3:0>
DACPSS<1:0>
LATF3
LATF2
CS<1:0>
333
—
DACNSS
176
LATF1
LATF0
137
LCDCON
LCDEN
SLPEN
WERR
—
LCDSE2
SE23
SE22
SE21
SE20
SE19
SE18
SE17
LMUX<1:0>
SE16
341
LCDSE3
SE31
SE30
SE29
SE28
SE27
SE26
SE25
SE24
341
337
LCDSE5
—
—
SE45
SE44
SE43
SE42
SE41
SE40
341
PORTF
RF7
RF6
RF5
RF4
RF3
RF2
RF1
RF0
144
SRCON0
SRLEN
SRCLK2
SRCLK1
SRCLK0
SRQEN
SRNQEN
SRPS
SRPR
190
TRISF
TRISF7
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
TRISF0
144
Legend:
Note 1:
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTF.
Applies to ECCP modules only.
TABLE 12-8:
Name
CONFIG2
Legend:
SUMMARY OF CONFIGURATION WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTF
Bits
Bit -/7
Bit -/6
Bit 13/5
Bit 12/4
Bit 11/3
Bit 10/2
Bit 9/1
Bit 8/0
13:8
—
7:0
—
—
LVP
DEBUG
—
BORV
STVREN
PLLEN
—
VCAPEN
—
—
—
WRT<1:0>
Register
on Page
58
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by clock sources.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 145
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
12.8
12.8.2
PORTG Registers
PORTG is a 8-bit wide, bidirectional port. The
corresponding data direction register is TRISG
(Register 12-25). Setting a TRISG bit (= 1) will make the
corresponding PORTG pin an input (i.e., put the
corresponding output driver in a High-Impedance mode).
Clearing a TRISG bit (= 0) will make the corresponding
PORTG pin an output (i.e., enable the output driver and
put the contents of the output latch on the selected pin).
Example 12-4 shows how to initialize PORTG.
Reading the PORTG register (Register 12-24) reads the
status of the pins, whereas writing to it will write to the
PORT latch. All write operations are read-modify-write
operations. Therefore, a write to a port implies that the
port pins are read, this value is modified and then written
to the PORT data latch (LATG).
The TRISG register (Register 12-25) controls the
PORTG pin output drivers, even when they are being
used as analog inputs. The user should ensure the bits
in the TRISG register are maintained set when using
them as analog inputs. I/O pins configured as analog
input always read ‘0’.
12.8.1
ANSELG REGISTER
The ANSELG register (Register 12-27) is used to
configure the Input mode of an I/O pin to analog.
Setting the appropriate ANSELG bit high will cause all
digital reads on the pin to be read as ‘0’ and allow
analog functions on the pin to operate correctly.
The state of the ANSELG bits has no affect on digital
output functions. A pin with TRIS clear and ANSEL set
will still operate as a digital output, but the Input mode
will be analog. This can cause unexpected behavior
when executing read-modify-write instructions on the
affected port.
Note:
The ANSELG register must be initialized
to configure an analog channel as a digital
input. Pins configured as analog inputs
will read ‘0’.
EXAMPLE 12-7:
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
CLRF
BANKSEL
MOVLW
MOVWF
INITIALIZING PORTG
PORTG
PORTG
LATG
LATG
ANSELG
ANSELG
TRISG
B'11110000'
TRISG
;
;Init PORTG
;Data Latch
;
;
;digital I/O
;
;Set RG<7:4> as inputs
;and set RG<3:0> as
;outputs
PORTG FUNCTIONS AND OUTPUT
PRIORITIES
Each PORTG pin is multiplexed with other functions. The
pins, their combined functions and their output priorities
are briefly described here. For additional information,
refer to the appropriate section in this data sheet.
When multiple outputs are enabled, the actual pin
control goes to the peripheral with the lowest number in
the following lists.
Analog input and some digital input functions are not
included in the list below. These input functions can
remain active when the pin is configured as an output.
Certain digital input functions override other port
functions and are included in the priority list.
RG0
1.
2.
3.
CCP3 (CCP)
P3A (CCP)
SEG42 (LCD)
RG1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
AN15 (ADC)
CPS15 (CSM)
TX2 (EUSART)
CK2 (EUSART)
C3OUT (Comparator)
SEG43 (LCD)
RG2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
AN14 (ADC)
CPS14 (CSM)
DT2/RX2 (EUSART)
C3IN+ (Comparator)
SEG44 (LCD)
RG3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
AN13 (ADC)
CPS13 (CSM)
C3IN0- (Comparator)
CCP4 (CCP)
P3D (CCP)
SEG45 (LCD)
RG4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
AN12 (ADC)
CPS12 (CSM)
C3IN1- (Comparator)
CCP5 (CCP)
P1D (CCP)
SEG26 (LCD)
RG5
1.
DS41414C-page 146
Preliminary
VPP/MCLR (Basic)SEG18 (LCD)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-24: PORTG: PORTG REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
—
—
RG5
RG4
RG3
RG2
RG1
RG0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
bit 5-0
RG<5:0>: PORTG General Purpose I/O Pin bits
1 = Port pin is > VIH
0 = Port pin is < VIL
REGISTER 12-25: TRISG: PORTG TRI-STATE REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
—
—
TRISG5
TRISG4
TRISG3
TRISG2
TRISG1
TRISG0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
bit 5
TRISG5: PORTG Tri-State Control bit
This bit (RG5 pin) is an input only and always read as ‘1’.
bit 4-0
TRISG<4:0>: PORTG Tri-State Control bits
1 = PORTG pin configured as an input (tri-stated)
0 = PORTG pin configured as an output
REGISTER 12-26: LATG: PORTG DATA LATCH REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
—
—
LATG5
LATG4
LATG3
LATG2
LATG1
LATG0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
bit 5-0
LATG<5:0>: PORTG Output Latch Value bits
Note 1:
Writes to PORTG are actually written to corresponding LATG register. Reads from PORTG register is return of actual
I/O pin values.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 147
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 12-27: ANSELG: PORTG ANALOG SELECT REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
U-0
—
—
—
ANSG4
ANSG3
ANSG2
ANSG1
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
bit 4-1
ANSG<4:1>: Analog Select between Analog or Digital Function on Pins RG<4:0>, respectively
0 = Digital I/O. Pin is assigned to port or digital special function.
1 = Analog input. Pin is assigned as analog input(1). Digital input buffer disabled.
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
Note 1:
When setting a pin to an analog input, the corresponding TRIS bit must be set to Input mode in order to
allow external control of the voltage on the pin.
REGISTER 12-28: WPUG: WEAK PULL-UP PORTG REGISTER
U-0
U-0
R/W-1/1
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
WPUG5
—
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
bit 5
WPUG5: Weak Pull-up Register bits
1 = Pull-up enabled
0 = Pull-up disabled
bit 4-0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’.
Note 1:
2:
Global WPUEN bit of the OPTION register must be cleared for individual pull-ups to be enabled.
The weak pull-up device is automatically disabled if the pin is in configured as an output.
DS41414C-page 148
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 12-9:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH PORTG
Bit 7
ADCON0
—
ANSELG
—
CCPxCON
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
CHS<4:0>
—
PxM<1:0>(1)
—
ANSG4
ANSG3
ANSG2
DCxB<1:0>
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register on
Page
GO/DONE
ADON
166
ANSG1
—
CCPxM<3:0>
—
—
—
—
—
MC3OUT
CM1CON1
C1INTP
C1INTN
C1PCH1
C1PCH0
—
—
C1NCH<1:0>
184
CM2CON1
C2INTP
C2INTN
C2PCH1
C2PCH0
—
—
C2NCH<1:0>
184
CPSCON0
CPSON
CPSRM
—
—
CPSCON1
—
—
—
—
LATG
—
—
—
LATG4
LCDCON
LCDEN
SLPEN
WERR
—
LCDSE5
—
—
SE45
SE44
SE43
SE42
SE41
SE40
341
PORTG
—
—
RG5
RG4
RG3
RG2
RG1
RG0
147
TRISG
—
—
TRISG5
TRISG4
TRISG3
TRISG2
TRISG1
TRISG0
147
WPUG
—
—
WPUG5
—
—
—
—
—
148
CMOUT
Legend:
Note 1:
CPSRNG<1:0>
MC2OUT
148
236
CPSOUT
MC1OUT
T0XCS
CPSCH<3:0>
LATG3
LATG2
CS<1:0>
LATG1
184
332
333
LATG0
LMUX<1:0>
147
337
x = unknown, u = unchanged, – = unimplemented locations read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by PORTG.
Applies to ECCP modules only.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 149
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 150
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
13.0
INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE
13.3
The PORTB pins can be configured to operate as
Interrupt-On-Change (IOC) pins. An interrupt can be
generated by detecting a signal that has either a rising
edge or a falling edge. Any individual PORTB pin, or
combination of PORTB pins, can be configured to
generate an interrupt. The interrupt-on-change module
has the following features:
•
•
•
•
Interrupt-on-Change enable (Master Switch)
Individual pin configuration
Rising and falling edge detection
Individual pin interrupt flags
The IOCBFx bits located in the IOCBF register are
status flags that correspond to the Interrupt-on-change
pins of PORTB. If an expected edge is detected on an
appropriately enabled pin, then the status flag for that pin
will be set, and an interrupt will be generated if the IOCIE
bit is set. The IOCIF bit of the INTCON register reflects
the status of all IOCBFx bits.
13.4
Clearing Interrupt Flags
The individual status flags, (IOCBFx bits), can be
cleared by resetting them to zero. If another edge is
detected during this clearing operation, the associated
status flag will be set at the end of the sequence,
regardless of the value actually being written.
Figure 13-1 is a block diagram of the IOC module.
13.1
Interrupt Flags
Enabling the Module
To allow individual PORTB pins to generate an interrupt,
the IOCIE bit of the INTCON register must be set. If the
IOCIE bit is disabled, the edge detection on the pin will
still occur, but an interrupt will not be generated.
In order to ensure that no detected edge is lost while
clearing flags, only AND operations masking out known
changed bits should be performed. The following
sequence is an example of what should be performed.
EXAMPLE 13-1:
13.2
Individual Pin Configuration
For each PORTB pin, a rising edge detector and a falling
edge detector are present. To enable a pin to detect a
rising edge, the associated IOCBPx bit of the IOCBP
register is set. To enable a pin to detect a falling edge,
the associated IOCBNx bit of the IOCBN register is set.
A pin can be configured to detect rising and falling
edges simultaneously by setting both the IOCBPx bit
and the IOCBNx bit of the IOCBP and IOCBN registers,
respectively.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
MOVLW
XORWF
ANDWF
13.5
0xff
IOCBF, W
IOCBF, F
Operation in Sleep
The interrupt-on-change interrupt sequence will wake
the device from Sleep mode, if the IOCIE bit is set.
If an edge is detected while in Sleep mode, the IOCBF
register will be updated prior to the first instruction
executed out of Sleep.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 151
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 13-1:
INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE BLOCK DIAGRAM
IOCBNx
D
Q4Q1
Q
CK
Edge
Detect
R
IOCBPx
D
Data Bus =
0 or 1
Q
Write IOCBFx
CK
D
S
Q
To Data Bus
IOCBFx
CK
IOCIE
R
Q2
From all other
IOCBFx individual
Pin Detectors
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q2
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q4Q1
13.6
Q1
Q1
Q3
Q4
Q4Q1
Q4
Q4Q1
Q4Q1
Interrupt-on-Change Registers
REGISTER 13-1:
IOCBP: INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE POSITIVE EDGE REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
IOCBP7
IOCBP6
IOCBP5
IOCBP4
IOCBP3
IOCBP2
IOCBP1
IOCBP0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
IOCBP<7:0>: Interrupt-on-Change Positive Edge Enable bits
1 = Interrupt-on-Change enabled on the pin for a positive going edge. Associated Status bit and
interrupt flag will be set upon detecting an edge.
0 = Interrupt-on-Change disabled for the associated pin.
DS41414C-page 152
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 13-2:
IOCBN: INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE NEGATIVE EDGE REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
IOCBN7
IOCBN6
IOCBN5
IOCBN4
IOCBN3
IOCBN2
IOCBN1
IOCBN0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
IOCBN<7:0>: Interrupt-on-Change Negative Edge Enable bits
1 = Interrupt-on-Change enabled on the pin for a negative going edge. Associated Status bit and
interrupt flag will be set upon detecting an edge.
0 = Interrupt-on-Change disabled for the associated pin.
REGISTER 13-3:
IOCBF: INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE FLAG REGISTER
R/W/HS-0/0
R/W/HS-0/0
IOCBF7
IOCBF6
R/W/HS-0/0 R/W/HS-0/0 R/W/HS-0/0
IOCBF5
IOCBF4
IOCBF3
R/W/HS-0/0
R/W/HS-0/0
R/W/HS-0/0
IOCBF2
IOCBF1
IOCBF0
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
HS - Bit is set in hardware
bit 7-0
TABLE 13-1:
Name
IOCBF<7:0>: Interrupt-on-Change Flag bits
1 = An enabled change was detected on the associated pin.
Set when IOCBPx = 1 and a rising edge was detected on RBx, or when IOCBNx = 1 and a falling
edge was detected on RBx.
0 = No change was detected, or the user cleared the detected change.
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH INTERRUPT-ON-CHANGE
Register
on Page
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
IOCBF
IOCBF7
IOCBF6
IOCBF5
IOCBF4
IOCBF3
IOCBF2
IOCBF1
IOCBF0
153
IOCBN
IOCBN7
IOCBN6
IOCBN5
IOCBN4
IOCBN3
IOCBN2
IOCBN1
IOCBN0
153
IOCBP
IOCBP7
IOCBP6
IOCBP5
IOCBP4
IOCBP3
IOCBP2
IOCBP1
IOCBP0
152
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
INTCON
Legend: — = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Interrupt-on-Change.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 153
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 154
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
14.0
FIXED VOLTAGE REFERENCE
(FVR)
14.1
The Fixed Voltage Reference, or FVR, is a stable
voltage reference, independent of VDD, with 1.024V,
2.048V or 4.096V selectable output levels. The output
of the FVR can be configured to supply a reference
voltage to the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Independent Gain Amplifiers
The output of the FVR supplied to the ADC,
Comparators, DAC and CPS module is routed through
two independent programmable gain amplifiers. Each
amplifier can be configured to amplify the reference
voltage by 1x, 2x or 4x, to produce the three possible
voltage levels.
The ADFVR<1:0> bits of the FVRCON register are
used to enable and configure the gain amplifier settings
for the reference supplied to the ADC module. Reference Section 16.0 “Analog-to-Digital Converter
(ADC) Module” for additional information.
ADC input channel
ADC positive reference
Comparator positive input
Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)
Capacitive Sensing (CPS) module
LCD bias generator
The FVR can be enabled by setting the FVREN bit of
the FVRCON register.
The CDAFVR<1:0> bits of the FVRCON register are
used to enable and configure the gain amplifier settings
for the reference supplied to the Comparators, DAC
and CPS module. Reference Section 17.0 “Digital-toAnalog Converter (DAC) Module”, Section 18.0
“Comparator Module” and Section 26.0 “Capacitive
Sensing (CPS) Module” for additional information.
14.2
FVR Stabilization Period
When the Fixed Voltage Reference module is enabled, it
requires time for the reference and amplifier circuits to
stabilize. Once the circuits stabilize and are ready for use,
the FVRRDY bit of the FVRCON register will be set. See
Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications” for the
minimum delay requirement.
FIGURE 14-1:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE BLOCK DIAGRAM
ADFVR<1:0>
CDAFVR<1:0>
2
X1
X2
X4
FVR BUFFER1
(To ADC Module)
X1
X2
X4
FVR BUFFER2
(To Comparators, DAC)
2
FVR VREF
(To LCD Bias Generator)
FVREN
FVRRDY
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
+
_
1.024V Fixed
Reference
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 155
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
14.3
FVR Control Registers
REGISTER 14-1:
FVRCON: FIXED VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R-q/q
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
FVREN
FVRRDY(1)
TSEN
TSRNG
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CDAFVR<1:0>
R/W-0/0
ADFVR<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
q = Value depends on condition
bit 7
FVREN: Fixed Voltage Reference Enable bit
0 = Fixed Voltage Reference is disabled
1 = Fixed Voltage Reference is enabled
bit 6
FVRRDY: Fixed Voltage Reference Ready Flag bit(1)
0 = Fixed Voltage Reference output is not ready or not enabled
1 = Fixed Voltage Reference output is ready for use
bit 5
TSEN: Temperature Indicator Enable bit(3)
0 = Temperature Indicator is disabled
1 = Temperature Indicator is enabled
bit 4
TSRNG: Temperature Indicator Range Selection bit(3)
0 = VOUT = VDD - 4VT (High Range)
1 = VOUT = VDD - 2VT (Low Range)
bit 3-2
CDAFVR<1:0>: Comparator and DAC Fixed Voltage Reference Selection bit
00 = Comparator, DAC and CPS module Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is off
01 = Comparator, DAC and CPS module Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is 1x (1.024V)
10 = Comparator, DAC and CPS module Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is 2x (2.048V)(2)
11 = Comparator, DAC and CPS module Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is 4x (4.096V)(2)
bit 1-0
ADFVR<1:0>: ADC Fixed Voltage Reference Selection bit
00 = ADC Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is off
01 = ADC Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is 1x (1.024V)
10 = ADC Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is 2x (2.048V)(2)
11 = ADC Fixed Voltage Reference Peripheral output is 4x (4.096V)(2)
Note 1:
2:
3:
FVRRDY is always ‘1’ on PIC16F1946/47 only.
Fixed Voltage Reference output cannot exceed VDD.
See Section 15.0 “Temperature Indicator Module” for additional information.
TABLE 14-1:
Name
FVRCON
Legend:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH FIXED VOLTAGE REFERENCE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
FVREN
FVRRDY
TSEN
TSRNG
Bit 3
Bit 2
CDAFVR<1:0>
Bit 1
Bit 0
ADFVR<1:0>
Register
on page
156
Shaded cells are not used with the Fixed Voltage Reference.
DS41414C-page 156
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
15.0
TEMPERATURE INDICATOR
MODULE
FIGURE 15-1:
This family of devices is equipped with a temperature
circuit designed to measure the operating temperature
of the silicon die. The circuit’s range of operating
temperature falls between -40°C and +85°C. The
output is a voltage that is proportional to the device
temperature. The output of the temperature indicator is
internally connected to the device ADC.
VDD
TSEN
TSRNG
The circuit may be used as a temperature threshold
detector or a more accurate temperature indicator,
depending on the level of calibration performed. A onepoint calibration allows the circuit to indicate a
temperature closely surrounding that point. A two-point
calibration allows the circuit to sense the entire range
of temperature more accurately. Reference Application
Note AN1333, “Use and Calibration of the Internal
Temperature Indicator” (DS01333) for more details
regarding the calibration process.
15.1
TEMPERATURE CIRCUIT
DIAGRAM
VOUT
ADC
MUX
ADC
n
CHS bits
(ADCON0 register)
Circuit Operation
Figure 15-1 shows a simplified block diagram of the
temperature circuit. The proportional voltage output is
achieved by measuring the forward voltage drop across
multiple silicon junctions.
Equation 15-1 describes the output characteristics of
the temperature indicator.
EQUATION 15-1:
VOUT RANGES
High Range: VOUT = VDD - 4VT
15.2
Minimum Operating VDD vs.
Minimum Sensing Temperature
When the temperature circuit is operated in low range,
the device may be operated at any operating voltage
that is within specifications.
When the temperature circuit is operated in high range,
the device operating voltage, VDD, must be high
enough to ensure that the temperature circuit is
correctly biased.
Table 15-1 shows the recommended minimum VDD vs.
range setting.
Low Range: VOUT = VDD - 2VT
TABLE 15-1:
The temperature sense circuit is integrated with the
Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR) module. See
Section 14.0 “Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR)” for
more information.
The circuit is enabled by setting the TSEN bit of the
FVRCON register. When disabled, the circuit draws no
current.
The circuit operates in either high or low range. The high
range, selected by setting the TSRNG bit of the
FVRCON register, provides a wider output voltage. This
provides more resolution over the temperature range,
but may be less consistent from part to part. This range
requires a higher bias voltage to operate and thus, a
higher VDD is needed.
Min. VDD, TSRNG = 1
Min. VDD, TSRNG = 0
3.6V
1.8V
15.3
Temperature Output
The output of the circuit is measured using the internal
Analog-to-Digital converter. Channel 29 is reserved for
the temperature circuit output. Refer to Section 16.0
“Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) Module” for
detailed information.
Note:
The low range is selected by clearing the TSRNG bit of
the FVRCON register. The low range generates a lower
voltage drop and thus, a lower bias voltage is needed to
operate the circuit. The low range is provided for low
voltage operation.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
RECOMMENDED VDD VS.
RANGE
Preliminary
Every time the ADC MUX is changed to
the temperature indicator output selection
(CHS bit in the ADCCON0 register), wait
500 usec for the sampling capacitor to
fully charge before sampling the temperature indicator output.
DS41414C-page 157
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 158
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
16.0
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL
CONVERTER (ADC) MODULE
The Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) allows
conversion of an analog input signal to a 10-bit binary
representation of that signal. This device uses analog
inputs, which are multiplexed into a single sample and
hold circuit. The output of the sample and hold is
connected to the input of the converter. The converter
generates a 10-bit binary result via successive
approximation and stores the conversion result into the
ADC result registers (ADRESH:ADRESL register pair).
Figure 16-1 shows the block diagram of the ADC.
The ADC voltage reference is software selectable to be
either internally generated or externally supplied.
The ADC can generate an interrupt upon completion of
a conversion. This interrupt can be used to wake-up the
device from Sleep.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 159
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 16-1:
ADC BLOCK DIAGRAM
ADNREF = 1
VREF-
ADNREF = 0
VDD
VSS
ADPREF = 00
ADPREF = 11
VREF+
AN0
00000
AN1
00001
AN2
00010
AN3
00011
AN4
00100
AN5
00101
AN6
00110
AN7
00111
AN8
01000
AN9
01001
AN10
01010
AN11
01011
AN12
01100
AN13
01101
AN14
01110
AN15
01111
AN16
10000
Temp Indicator
DAC
11101
11110
FVR Buffer1
11111
ADPREF = 10
ADC
10
GO/DONE
ADFM
0 = Left Justify
1 = Right Justify
16
ADON
VSS
ADRESH
ADRESL
CHS<4:0>
Note:
DS41414C-page 160
When ADON = 0, all multiplexer inputs are disconnected.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
16.1
16.1.4
ADC Configuration
When configuring and using the ADC the following
functions must be considered:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Port configuration
Channel selection
ADC voltage reference selection
ADC conversion clock source
Interrupt control
Result formatting
16.1.1
The ADC can be used to convert both analog and
digital signals. When converting analog signals, the I/O
pin should be configured for analog by setting the
associated TRIS and ANSEL bits. Refer to
Section 12.0 “I/O Ports” for more information.
Note:
16.1.2
The source of the conversion clock is software selectable via the ADCS bits of the ADCON1 register. There
are seven possible clock options:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PORT CONFIGURATION
Analog voltages on any pin that is defined
as a digital input may cause the input buffer to conduct excess current.
FOSC/2
FOSC/4
FOSC/8
FOSC/16
FOSC/32
FOSC/64
FRC (dedicated internal oscillator)
The time to complete one bit conversion is defined as
TAD. One full 10-bit conversion requires 11.5 TAD periods as shown in Figure 16-2.
For correct conversion, the appropriate TAD specification must be met. Refer to the A/D conversion requirements in Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications” for
more information. Table 16-1 gives examples of appropriate ADC clock selections.
Note:
CHANNEL SELECTION
There are 20 selections available:
•
•
•
•
CONVERSION CLOCK
AN<16:0> pins
Temperature Indicator
DAC Output
FVR (Fixed Voltage Reference) Output
Unless using the FRC, any changes in the
system clock frequency will change the
ADC clock frequency, which may
adversely affect the ADC result.
Refer to Section 15.0 “Temperature Indicator Module”, Section 17.0 “Digital-to-Analog Converter
(DAC) Module” and Section 14.0 “Fixed Voltage
Reference (FVR)” for more information on these channel selections.
The CHS bits of the ADCON0 register determine which
channel is connected to the sample and hold circuit.
When changing channels, a delay is required before
starting the next conversion. Refer to Section 16.2
“ADC Operation” for more information.
16.1.3
ADC VOLTAGE REFERENCE
The ADPREF bits of the ADCON1 register provides
control of the positive voltage reference. The positive
voltage reference can be:
•
•
•
•
VREF+ pin
VDD
FVR 2.048V
FVR 4.096V (Not available on LF devices)
The ADNREF bit of the ADCON1 register provides
control of the negative voltage reference. The negative
voltage reference can be:
• VREF- pin
• VSS
See Section 14.0 “Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR)”
for more details on the fixed voltage reference.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 161
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 16-1:
ADC CLOCK PERIOD (TAD) VS. DEVICE OPERATING FREQUENCIES
ADC Clock Period (TAD)
Device Frequency (FOSC)
ADC
Clock Source
ADCS<2:0>
32 MHz
20 MHz
16 MHz
8 MHz
4 MHz
1 MHz
Fosc/2
000
62.5ns(2)
100 ns(2)
125 ns(2)
250 ns(2)
500 ns(2)
2.0 s
Fosc/4
100
125 ns
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Fosc/8
001
0.5 s(2)
400 ns(2)
0.5 s(2)
Fosc/16
101
800 ns
800 ns
010
1.0 s
Fosc/64
110
FRC
x11
Fosc/32
Legend:
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
1.0 s
4.0 s
1.0 s
2.0 s
8.0 s(3)
1.0 s
2.0 s
4.0 s
16.0 s(3)
1.6 s
2.0 s
4.0 s
2.0 s
3.2 s
4.0 s
1.0-6.0 s(1,4)
1.0-6.0 s(1,4)
1.0-6.0 s(1,4)
200 ns
250 ns
500 ns
8.0 s
(3)
8.0 s
16.0 s
(3)
1.0-6.0 s(1,4)
(3)
1.0-6.0 s(1,4)
32.0 s(3)
64.0 s(3)
1.0-6.0 s(1,4)
Shaded cells are outside of recommended range.
The FRC source has a typical TAD time of 1.6 s for VDD.
These values violate the minimum required TAD time.
For faster conversion times, the selection of another clock source is recommended.
The ADC clock period (TAD) and total ADC conversion time can be minimized when the ADC clock is derived from the
system clock FOSC. However, the FRC clock source must be used when conversions are to be performed with the
device in Sleep mode.
FIGURE 16-2:
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION TAD CYCLES
TCY - TAD TAD1 TAD2 TAD3 TAD4 TAD5 TAD6 TAD7 TAD8 TAD9 TAD10 TAD11
b4
b1
b0
b6
b7
b2
b9
b8
b3
b5
Conversion starts
Holding capacitor is disconnected from analog input (typically 100 ns)
Set GO bit
On the following cycle:
ADRESH:ADRESL is loaded, GO bit is cleared,
ADIF bit is set, holding capacitor is connected to analog input.
DS41414C-page 162
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
16.1.5
INTERRUPTS
16.1.6
The ADC module allows for the ability to generate an
interrupt upon completion of an Analog-to-Digital
conversion. The ADC Interrupt Flag is the ADIF bit in
the PIR1 register. The ADC Interrupt Enable is the
ADIE bit in the PIE1 register. The ADIF bit must be
cleared in software.
RESULT FORMATTING
The 10-bit A/D conversion result can be supplied in two
formats, left justified or right justified. The ADFM bit of
the ADCON1 register controls the output format.
Figure 16-3 shows the two output formats.
Note 1: The ADIF bit is set at the completion of
every conversion, regardless of whether
or not the ADC interrupt is enabled.
2: The ADC operates during Sleep only
when the FRC oscillator is selected.
This interrupt can be generated while the device is
operating or while in Sleep. If the device is in Sleep, the
interrupt will wake-up the device. Upon waking from
Sleep, the next instruction following the SLEEP instruction is always executed. If the user is attempting to
wake-up from Sleep and resume in-line code execution, the GIE and PEIE bits of the INTCON register
must be disabled. If the GIE and PEIE bits of the
INTCON register are enabled, execution will switch to
the Interrupt Service Routine.
FIGURE 16-3:
10-BIT A/D CONVERSION RESULT FORMAT
ADRESH
(ADFM = 0)
ADRESL
MSB
LSB
bit 7
bit 0
bit 7
10-bit A/D Result
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
MSB
(ADFM = 1)
bit 7
LSB
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
bit 7
bit 0
10-bit A/D Result
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 163
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
16.2
16.2.1
ADC Operation
16.3
STARTING A CONVERSION
To enable the ADC module, the ADON bit of the
ADCON0 register must be set to a ‘1’. Setting the GO/
DONE bit of the ADCON0 register to a ‘1’ will start the
Analog-to-Digital conversion.
Note:
16.2.2
The GO/DONE bit should not be set in the
same instruction that turns on the ADC.
Refer to Section 16.3.2 “A/D Conversion Procedure”.
COMPLETION OF A CONVERSION
When the conversion is complete, the ADC module will:
• Clear the GO/DONE bit
• Set the ADIF Interrupt Flag bit
• Update the ADRESH and ADRESL registers with
new conversion result
16.2.3
TERMINATING A CONVERSION
If a conversion must be terminated before completion,
the GO/DONE bit can be cleared in software. The
ADRESH and ADRESL registers will be updated with
the partially complete Analog-to-Digital conversion
sample. Incomplete bits will match the last bit
converted.
Note:
A device Reset forces all registers to their
Reset state. Thus, the ADC module is
turned off and any pending conversion is
terminated.
DS41414C-page 164
ADC Operation During Sleep
The ADC module can operate during Sleep. This
requires the ADC clock source to be set to the FRC
option. When the FRC clock source is selected, the
ADC waits one additional instruction before starting the
conversion. This allows the SLEEP instruction to be
executed, which can reduce system noise during the
conversion. If the ADC interrupt is enabled, the device
will wake-up from Sleep when the conversion
completes. If the ADC interrupt is disabled, the ADC
module is turned off after the conversion completes,
although the ADON bit remains set.
When the ADC clock source is something other than
FRC, a SLEEP instruction causes the present conversion to be aborted and the ADC module is turned off,
although the ADON bit remains set.
16.3.1
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
The Special Event Trigger of the CCPx/ECCPX module
allows periodic ADC measurements without software
intervention. When this trigger occurs, the GO/DONE
bit is set by hardware and the Timer1 counter resets to
zero.
TABLE 16-2:
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
Device
CCPx/ECCPx
PIC16F/LF1946/47
CCP5
Using the Special Event Trigger does not assure proper
ADC timing. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that
the ADC timing requirements are met.
Refer to Section 23.0 “Capture/Compare/PWM
Modules” for more information.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
16.3.2
A/D CONVERSION PROCEDURE
EXAMPLE 16-1:
This is an example procedure for using the ADC to
perform an Analog-to-Digital conversion:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Configure Port:
• Disable pin output driver (Refer to the TRIS
register)
• Configure pin as analog (Refer to the ANSEL
register)
Configure the ADC module:
• Select ADC conversion clock
• Configure voltage reference
• Select ADC input channel
• Turn on ADC module
Configure ADC interrupt (optional):
• Clear ADC interrupt flag
• Enable ADC interrupt
• Enable peripheral interrupt
• Enable global interrupt(1)
Wait the required acquisition time(2).
Start conversion by setting the GO/DONE bit.
Wait for ADC conversion to complete by one of
the following:
• Polling the GO/DONE bit
• Waiting for the ADC interrupt (interrupts
enabled)
Read ADC Result.
Clear the ADC interrupt flag (required if interrupt
is enabled).
A/D CONVERSION
;This code block configures the ADC
;for polling, Vdd and Vss references, Frc
;clock and AN0 input.
;
;Conversion start & polling for completion
; are included.
;
BANKSEL
ADCON1
;
MOVLW
B’11110000’ ;Right justify, Frc
;clock
MOVWF
ADCON1
;Vdd and Vss Vref
BANKSEL
TRISA
;
BSF
TRISA,0
;Set RA0 to input
BANKSEL
ANSEL
;
BSF
ANSEL,0
;Set RA0 to analog
BANKSEL
ADCON0
;
MOVLW
B’00000001’ ;Select channel AN0
MOVWF
ADCON0
;Turn ADC On
CALL
SampleTime
;Acquisiton delay
BSF
ADCON0,ADGO ;Start conversion
BTFSC
ADCON0,ADGO ;Is conversion done?
GOTO
$-1
;No, test again
BANKSEL
ADRESH
;
MOVF
ADRESH,W
;Read upper 2 bits
MOVWF
RESULTHI
;store in GPR space
BANKSEL
ADRESL
;
MOVF
ADRESL,W
;Read lower 8 bits
MOVWF
RESULTLO
;Store in GPR space
Note 1: The global interrupt can be disabled if the
user is attempting to wake-up from Sleep
and resume in-line code execution.
2: Refer to Section 16.5 “A/D Acquisition
Requirements”.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 165
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
16.4
ADC Register Definitions
The following registers are used to control the
operation of the ADC.
REGISTER 16-1:
U-0
ADCON0: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CHS<4:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
GO/DONE
ADON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-2
CHS<4:0>: Analog Channel Select bits
00000 = AN0
00001 = AN1
00010 = AN2
00011 = AN3
00100 = AN4
00101 = AN5
00110 = AN6
00111 = AN7
01000 = AN8
01001 = AN9
01010 = AN10
01011 = AN11
01100 = AN12
01101 = AN13
01110 = AN14
01111 = AN15
10000 = AN16
10001 = Reserved. No channel connected.
•
•
•
11100 = Reserved. No channel connected.
11101 = Temperature Indicator(3)
11110 = DAC output(1)
11111 = FVR (Fixed Voltage Reference) Buffer 1 Output(2)
bit 1
GO/DONE: A/D Conversion Status bit
1 = A/D conversion cycle in progress. Setting this bit starts an A/D conversion cycle.
This bit is automatically cleared by hardware when the A/D conversion has completed.
0 = A/D conversion completed/not in progress
bit 0
ADON: ADC Enable bit
1 = ADC is enabled
0 = ADC is disabled and consumes no operating current
Note 1:
2:
3:
See Section 17.0 “Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) Module” for more information.
See Section 14.0 “Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR)” for more information.
See Section 15.0 “Temperature Indicator Module” for more information.
DS41414C-page 166
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 16-2:
R/W-0/0
ADCON1: A/D CONTROL REGISTER 1
R/W-0/0
ADFM
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
ADCS<2:0>
U-0
R/W-0/0
—
ADNREF
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
ADPREF<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
ADFM: A/D Result Format Select bit
1 = Right justified. Six Most Significant bits of ADRESH are set to ‘0’ when the conversion result is
loaded.
0 = Left justified. Six Least Significant bits of ADRESL are set to ‘0’ when the conversion result is
loaded.
bit 6-4
ADCS<2:0>: A/D Conversion Clock Select bits
000 = FOSC/2
001 = FOSC/8
010 = FOSC/32
011 = FRC (clock supplied from a dedicated RC oscillator)
100 = FOSC/4
101 = FOSC/16
110 = FOSC/64
111 = FRC (clock supplied from a dedicated RC oscillator)
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
ADNREF: A/D Negative Voltage Reference Configuration bit
0 = VREF- is connected to VSS
1 = VREF- is connected to external VREF-
bit 1-0
ADPREF<1:0>: A/D Positive Voltage Reference Configuration bits
00 = VREF+ is connected to VDD
01 = Reserved
10 = VREF+ is connected to external VREF+(1)
11 = VREF+ is connected to internal Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR) module(1)
Note 1:
When selecting the FVR or the VREF+ pin as the source of the positive reference, be aware that a
minimum voltage specification exists. See Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications” for details.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 167
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 16-3:
R/W-x/u
ADRESH: ADC RESULT REGISTER HIGH (ADRESH) ADFM = 0
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
ADRES<9:2>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
ADRES<9:2>: ADC Result Register bits
Upper 8 bits of 10-bit conversion result
REGISTER 16-4:
R/W-x/u
ADRESL: ADC RESULT REGISTER LOW (ADRESL) ADFM = 0
R/W-x/u
ADRES<1:0>
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
—
—
—
—
—
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
ADRES<1:0>: ADC Result Register bits
Lower 2 bits of 10-bit conversion result
bit 5-0
Reserved: Do not use.
DS41414C-page 168
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 16-5:
ADRESH: ADC RESULT REGISTER HIGH (ADRESH) ADFM = 1
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
—
—
—
—
—
—
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
ADRES<9:8>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-2
Reserved: Do not use.
bit 1-0
ADRES<9:8>: ADC Result Register bits
Upper 2 bits of 10-bit conversion result
REGISTER 16-6:
R/W-x/u
ADRESL: ADC RESULT REGISTER LOW (ADRESL) ADFM = 1
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
ADRES<7:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
ADRES<7:0>: ADC Result Register bits
Lower 8 bits of 10-bit conversion result
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 169
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
16.5
A/D Acquisition Requirements
For the ADC to meet its specified accuracy, the charge
holding capacitor (CHOLD) must be allowed to fully
charge to the input channel voltage level. The Analog
Input model is shown in Figure 16-4. The source
impedance (RS) and the internal sampling switch (RSS)
impedance directly affect the time required to charge
the capacitor CHOLD. The sampling switch (RSS)
impedance varies over the device voltage (VDD), refer
to Figure 16-4. The maximum recommended
impedance for analog sources is 10 k. As the
EQUATION 16-1:
Assumptions:
source impedance is decreased, the acquisition time
may be decreased. After the analog input channel is
selected (or changed), an A/D acquisition must be
done before the conversion can be started. To calculate
the minimum acquisition time, Equation 16-1 may be
used. This equation assumes that 1/2 LSb error is used
(1,024 steps for the ADC). The 1/2 LSb error is the
maximum error allowed for the ADC to meet its
specified resolution.
ACQUISITION TIME EXAMPLE
Temperature = 50°C and external impedance of 10k  5.0V V DD
T ACQ = Amplifier Settling Time + Hold Capacitor Charging Time + Temperature Coefficient
= T AMP + T C + T COFF
= 2µs + T C +   Temperature - 25°C   0.05µs/°C  
The value for TC can be approximated with the following equations:
1
 = V CHOLD
V AP PLIE D  1 – -------------------------n+1

2
–1
;[1] VCHOLD charged to within 1/2 lsb
–TC
----------

RC
V AP PLIE D  1 – e  = V CHOLD


;[2] VCHOLD charge response to VAPPLIED
– Tc
---------

1
RC
 ;combining [1] and [2]
V AP PLIE D  1 – e  = V A PP LIED  1 – -------------------------n+1



2
–1
Note: Where n = number of bits of the ADC.
Solving for TC:
T C = – C HOLD  R IC + R SS + R S  ln(1/2047)
= – 10pF  1k + 7k + 10k  ln  4.88  10
–4

= 1.37µs
Therefore:
T AC Q = 2µs + 1.37µs +   50°C- 25°C   0.05 µs/°C  
= 4.62µs
DS41414C-page 170
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Note 1: The reference voltage (VREF) has no effect on the equation, since it cancels itself out.
2: The charge holding capacitor (CHOLD) is not discharged after each conversion.
3: The maximum recommended impedance for analog sources is 10 k. This is required to meet the pin
leakage specification.
FIGURE 16-4:
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
Analog
Input
pin
Rs
VT  0.6V
CPIN
5 pF
VA
RIC  1k
Sampling
Switch
SS Rss
I LEAKAGE(1)
VT  0.6V
CHOLD = 10 pF
VSS/VREF-
Legend: CHOLD
CPIN
6V
5V
VDD 4V
3V
2V
= Sample/Hold Capacitance
= Input Capacitance
RSS
I LEAKAGE = Leakage current at the pin due to
various junctions
RIC
= Interconnect Resistance
RSS
= Resistance of Sampling Switch
SS
= Sampling Switch
VT
= Threshold Voltage
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Sampling Switch
(k)
Note 1: Refer to Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications”.
FIGURE 16-5:
ADC TRANSFER FUNCTION
Full-Scale Range
3FFh
3FEh
ADC Output Code
3FDh
3FCh
3FBh
03h
02h
01h
00h
Analog Input Voltage
0.5 LSB
VREF-
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
1.5 LSB
Zero-Scale
Transition
Full-Scale
Transition
Preliminary
VREF+
DS41414C-page 171
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 16-3:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ADC
Bit 7
Bit 5
—
ADCON0
ADCON1
Bit 6
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
CHS<4:0>
ADFM
—
ADCS<2:0>
ADRESH
A/D Result Register High
ADRESL
A/D Result Register Low
ADNREF
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
GO/DONE
ADON
166
ADPREF<1:0>
167
168
168
ANSELA
—
—
ANSA5
ANSELF
ANSELF7
ANSELF6
ANSELF5
ANSELF4
ANSELF3
ANSELG
—
—
—
ANSELG4
ANSELG3
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
P1M<1:0>
CCP1CON
INTCON
—
ANSA3
DC1B<1:0>
ANSA2
ANSA1
ANSA0
ANSELF2
ANSELF1
ANSELF0
145
ANSELG2
ANSELG1
—
148
CCP1M<3:0>
129
236
93
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
TRISE
TRISE7
TRISE6
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
FVRCON
FVREN
FVRRDY
TSEN
TSRNG
CDAFVR<1:0>
DACCON0
DACEN
DACLPS
DACOE
—
DACPSS<1:0>
DACCON1
—
—
—
Legend:
ADFVR<1:0>
—
DACR<4:0>
DACNSS
140
156
176
176
x = unknown, u = unchanged, — = unimplemented read as ‘0’, q = value depends on condition. Shaded cells are not
used for ADC module.
DS41414C-page 172
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
17.0
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG
CONVERTER (DAC) MODULE
The Digital-to-Analog Converter supplies a variable
voltage reference, ratiometric with the input source,
with 32 selectable output levels.
The input of the DAC can be connected to:
17.1
Output Voltage Selection
The DAC has 32 voltage level ranges. The 32 levels
are set with the DACR<4:0> bits of the DACCON1
register.
The DAC output voltage is determined by the following
equations:
• External VREF pins
• VDD supply voltage
• FVR (Fixed Voltage Reference)
The output of the DAC can be configured to supply a
reference voltage to the following:
• Comparator positive input
• ADC input channel
• DACOUT pin
The Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) can be enabled
by setting the DACEN bit of the DACCON0 register.
EQUATION 17-1:
DAC OUTPUT VOLTAGE
IF DACEN = 1
DACR  4:0 
VOUT =   VSOURCE+ – VSOURCE-   ----------------------------+ VSOURCE5


2
IF DACEN = 0 & DACLPS = 1 & DACR[4:0] = 11111
V OUT = V SOURCE +
IF DACEN = 0 & DACLPS = 0 & DACR[4:0] = 00000
V OUT = V SOURCE –
VSOURCE+ = VDD, VREF, or FVR BUFFER 2
VSOURCE- = VSS
17.2
Ratiometric Output Level
17.3
The DAC output value is derived using a resistor ladder
with each end of the ladder tied to a positive and
negative voltage reference input source. If the voltage
of either input source fluctuates, a similar fluctuation will
result in the DAC output value.
The value of the individual resistors within the ladder
can be found in Section 30.0 “Electrical
Specifications”.
DAC Voltage Reference Output
The DAC can be output to the DACOUT pin by setting
the DACOE bit of the DACCON0 register to ‘1’.
Selecting the DAC reference voltage for output on the
DACOUT pin automatically overrides the digital output
buffer and digital input threshold detector functions of
that pin. Reading the DACOUT pin when it has been
configured for DAC reference voltage output will
always return a ‘0’.
Due to the limited current drive capability, a buffer must
be used on the DAC voltage reference output for
external connections to DACOUT. Figure 17-2 shows
an example buffering technique.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 173
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 17-1:
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER BLOCK DIAGRAM
Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC)
FVR BUFFER2
VSOURCE+
VDD
VREF+
R
R
2
R
DACEN
DACLPS
R
R
32
Steps
R
32-to-1 MUX
DACPSS<1:0>
DACR<4:0>
5
DAC
(To Comparator and
ADC Modules)
R
DACOUT
R
DACOE
DACNSS
VSOURCE-
VREFVSS
FIGURE 17-2:
VOLTAGE REFERENCE OUTPUT BUFFER EXAMPLE
PIC® MCU
DAC
Module
R
Voltage
Reference
Output
Impedance
DS41414C-page 174
DACOUT
Preliminary
+
–
Buffered DAC Output
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
17.4
Low-Power Voltage State
In order for the DAC module to consume the least
amount of power, one of the two voltage reference input
sources to the resistor ladder must be disconnected.
Either the positive voltage source, (VSOURCE+), or the
negative voltage source, (VSOURCE-) can be disabled.
The negative voltage source is disabled by setting the
DACLPS bit in the DACCON0 register. Clearing the
DACLPS bit in the DACCON0 register disables the
positive voltage source.
17.4.1
OUTPUT CLAMPED TO POSITIVE
VOLTAGE SOURCE
The DAC output voltage can be set to VSOURCE+ with
the least amount of power consumption by performing
the following:
• Clearing the DACEN bit in the DACCON0 register.
• Setting the DACLPS bit in the DACCON0 register.
• Configuring the DACPSS bits to the proper
positive source.
• Configuring the DACR<4:0> bits to ‘11111’ in the
DACCON1 register.
FIGURE 17-3:
This is also the method used to output the voltage level
from the FVR to an output pin. See Section 17.5
“Operation During Sleep” for more information.
Reference Figure 17-3 for output clamping examples.
17.4.2
OUTPUT CLAMPED TO NEGATIVE
VOLTAGE SOURCE
The DAC output voltage can be set to VSOURCE- with
the least amount of power consumption by performing
the following:
• Clearing the DACEN bit in the DACCON0 register.
• Clearing the DACLPS bit in the DACCON0 register.
• Configuring the DACNSS bits to the proper
negative source.
• Configuring the DACR<4:0> bits to ‘00000’ in the
DACCON1 register.
This allows the comparator to detect a zero-crossing
while not consuming additional current through the DAC
module.
Reference Figure 17-3 for output clamping examples.
OUTPUT VOLTAGE CLAMPING EXAMPLES
Output Clamped to Positive Voltage Source
Output Clamped to Negative Voltage Source
VSOURCE+
VSOURCE+
R
R
DACR<4:0> = 11111
R
DACEN = 0
DACLPS = 1
R
DAC Voltage Ladder
(see Figure 17-1)
DACEN = 0
DACLPS = 0
R
R
VSOURCE-
17.5
DAC Voltage Ladder
(see Figure 17-1)
DACR<4:0> = 00000
VSOURCE-
Operation During Sleep
When the device wakes up from Sleep through an
interrupt or a Watchdog Timer time-out, the contents of
the DACCON0 register are not affected. To minimize
current consumption in Sleep mode, the voltage
reference should be disabled.
17.6
Effects of a Reset
A device Reset affects the following:
• DAC is disabled.
• DAC output voltage is removed from the
DACOUT pin.
• The DACR<4:0> range select bits are cleared.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 175
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
17.7
Voltage Reference Control Registers
REGISTER 17-1:
DACCON0: VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
DACEN
DACLPS
DACOE
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
DACPSS<1:0>
U-0
R/W-0/0
—
DACNSS
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
DACEN: DAC Enable bit
1 = DAC is enabled
0 = DAC is disabled
bit 6
DACLPS: DAC Low-Power Voltage State Select bit
1 = DAC Positive reference source selected
0 = DAC Negative reference source selected
bit 5
DACOE: DAC Voltage Output Enable bit
1 = DAC voltage level is also an output on the DACOUT pin
0 = DAC voltage level is disconnected from the DACOUT pin
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-2
DACPSS<1:0>: DAC Positive Source Select bits
VDD
VREF+ pin
FVR Buffer2 output
Reserved, do not use
00 =
01 =
10 =
11 =
bit 1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
DACNSS: DAC Negative Source Select bits
1 = VREF0 = VSS
REGISTER 17-2:
DACCON1: VOLTAGE REFERENCE CONTROL REGISTER 1
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
DACR<4:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4-0
DACR<4:0>: DAC Voltage Output Select bits
TABLE 17-1:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DAC MODULE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
FVRCON
FVREN
FVRRDY
TSEN
TSRNG
DACCON0
DACEN
DACLPS
DACOE
—
DACCON1
—
—
—
Legend:
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on page
CDAFVR<1:0>
ADFVR1
ADFVR0
156
DACPSS<1:0>
—
DACNSS
176
Bit 3
Bit 2
DACR<4:0>
176
— = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used with the DAC module.
DS41414C-page 176
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
18.0
COMPARATOR MODULE
FIGURE 18-1:
Comparators are used to interface analog circuits to a
digital circuit by comparing two analog voltages and
providing a digital indication of their relative magnitudes.
Comparators are very useful mixed signal building
blocks because they provide analog functionality
independent of program execution. The analog
comparator module includes the following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Independent comparator control
Programmable input selection
Comparator output is available internally/externally
Programmable output polarity
Interrupt-on-change
Wake-up from Sleep
Programmable Speed/Power optimization
PWM shutdown
Programmable and fixed voltage reference
18.1
SINGLE COMPARATOR
VIN+
+
VIN-
–
Output
VINVIN+
Output
Note:
Comparator Overview
The black areas of the output of the
comparator represents the uncertainty
due to input offsets and response time.
A single comparator is shown in Figure 18-1 along with
the relationship between the analog input levels and
the digital output. When the analog voltage at VIN+ is
less than the analog voltage at VIN-, the output of the
comparator is a digital low level. When the analog
voltage at VIN+ is greater than the analog voltage at
VIN-, the output of the comparator is a digital high level.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 177
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 18-2:
COMPARATOR MODULE SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM
CxNCH<1:0>
CxON(1)
2
CxINTP
Interrupt
det
CXIN0-
0
CXIN1-
1
MUX
2 (2)
CXIN2CXIN3-
3
Set CxIF
det
CXPOL
CxVN
D
Cx(3)
CxVP
0
MUX
1 (2)
CXIN+
DAC
CxINTN
Interrupt
CXOUT
MCXOUT
Q
To Data Bus
+
EN
Q1
CxHYS
CxSP
To ECCP PWM Logic
2
FVR Buffer2
3
CXSYNC
CxON
VSS
CXPCH<1:0>
0
CXOE
TRIS bit
CXOUT
2
D
(from Timer1)
T1CLK
Note
1:
2:
3:
Q
1
To Timer1 or SR Latch
SYNCCXOUT
When CxON = 0, the Comparator will produce a ‘0’ at the output.
When CxON = 0, all multiplexer inputs are disconnected.
Output of comparator can be frozen during debugging.
DS41414C-page 178
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
18.2
18.2.3
Comparator Control
Each comparator has 2 control registers: CMxCON0 and
CMxCON1.
The CMxCON0 registers (see Register 18-1) contain
Control and Status bits for the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Enable
Output selection
Output polarity
Speed/Power selection
Hysteresis enable
Output synchronization
Inverting the output of the comparator is functionally
equivalent to swapping the comparator inputs. The
polarity of the comparator output can be inverted by
setting the CxPOL bit of the CMxCON0 register.
Clearing the CxPOL bit results in a non-inverted output.
Table 18-1 shows the output state versus input
conditions, including polarity control.
TABLE 18-1:
Interrupt enable
Interrupt edge polarity
Positive input channel selection
Negative input channel selection
18.2.1
CxPOL
CxOUT
CxVN > CxVP
0
0
CxVN < CxVP
0
1
CxVN > CxVP
1
1
CxVN < CxVP
1
0
18.2.4
COMPARATOR ENABLE
Setting the CxON bit of the CMxCON0 register enables
the comparator for operation. Clearing the CxON bit
disables the comparator resulting in minimum current
consumption.
18.2.2
COMPARATOR OUTPUT
SELECTION
COMPARATOR OUTPUT
STATE VS. INPUT
CONDITIONS
Input Condition
The CMxCON1 registers (see Register 18-2) contain
Control bits for the following:
•
•
•
•
COMPARATOR OUTPUT POLARITY
COMPARATOR SPEED/POWER
SELECTION
The trade-off between speed or power can be optimized during program execution with the CxSP control
bit. The default state for this bit is ‘1’ which selects the
normal speed mode. Device power consumption can
be optimized at the cost of slower comparator propagation delay by clearing the CxSP bit to ‘0’.
The output of the comparator can be monitored by
reading either the CxOUT bit of the CMxCON0 register
or the MCxOUT bit of the CMOUT register. In order to
make the output available for an external connection,
the following conditions must be true:
• CxOE bit of the CMxCON0 register must be set
• Corresponding TRIS bit must be cleared
• CxON bit of the CMxCON0 register must be set
Note 1: The CxOE bit of the CMxCON0 register
overrides the PORT data latch. Setting
the CxON bit of the CMxCON0 register
has no impact on the port override.
2: The internal output of the comparator is
latched with each instruction cycle.
Unless otherwise specified, external
outputs are not latched.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 179
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
18.3
Comparator Hysteresis
18.5
A selectable amount of separation voltage can be
added to the input pins of each comparator to provide a
hysteresis function to the overall operation. Hysteresis
is enabled by setting the CxHYS bit of the CM2CON1
register.
Comparator Interrupt
An interrupt can be generated upon a change in the
output value of the comparator for each comparator, a
rising edge detector and a Falling edge detector are
present.
See Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications” for
more information.
When either edge detector is triggered and its associated enable bit is set (CxINTP and/or CxINTN bits of
the CMxCON1 register), the Corresponding Interrupt
Flag bit (CxIF bit of the PIR2 register) will be set.
18.4
To enable the interrupt, you must set the following bits:
Timer1 Gate Operation
The output resulting from a comparator operation can
be used as a source for gate control of Timer1. See
Section 21.6 “Timer1 Gate” for more information.
This feature is useful for timing the duration or interval
of an analog event.
It is recommended that the comparator output be synchronized to Timer1. This ensures that Timer1 does not
increment while a change in the comparator is occurring.
18.4.1
COMPARATOR OUTPUT
SYNCHRONIZATION
The output from a comparator can be synchronized
with Timer1 by setting the CxSYNC bit of the
CMxCON0 register.
Once enabled, the comparator output is latched on the
falling edge of the Timer1 source clock. If a prescaler is
used with Timer1, the comparator output is latched after
the prescaling function. To prevent a race condition, the
comparator output is latched on the falling edge of the
Timer1 clock source and Timer1 increments on the
rising edge of its clock source. See the Comparator
Block Diagram (Figure 18-2) and the Timer1 Block
Diagram (Figure 21-1) for more information.
• CxON, CxPOL and CxSP bits of the CMxCON0
register
• CxIE bit of the PIE2 register
• CxINTP bit of the CMxCON1 register (for a rising
edge detection)
• CxINTN bit of the CMxCON1 register (for a falling
edge detection)
• PEIE and GIE bits of the INTCON register
The associated interrupt flag bit, CxIF bit of the PIR2
register, must be cleared in software. If another edge is
detected while this flag is being cleared, the flag will still
be set at the end of the sequence.
Note:
18.6
Although a comparator is disabled, an
interrupt can be generated by changing
the output polarity with the CxPOL bit of
the CMxCON0 register, or by switching
the comparator on or off with the CxON bit
of the CMxCON0 register.
Comparator Positive Input
Selection
Configuring the CxPCH<1:0> bits of the CMxCON1
register directs an internal voltage reference or an
analog pin to the non-inverting input of the comparator:
•
•
•
•
CxIN+ analog pin
DAC
FVR (Fixed Voltage Reference)
VSS (Ground)
See Section 14.0 “Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR)”
for more information on the Fixed Voltage Reference
module.
See Section 17.0 “Digital-to-Analog Converter
(DAC) Module” for more information on the DAC input
signal.
Any time the comparator is disabled (CxON = 0), all
comparator inputs are disabled.
DS41414C-page 180
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
18.7
Comparator Negative Input
Selection
18.10 Analog Input Connection
Considerations
The CxNCH<1:0> bits of the CMxCON0 register direct
one of four analog pins to the comparator inverting
input.
Note:
18.8
To use CxIN+ and CxINx- pins as analog
input, the appropriate bits must be set in
the ANSEL register and the corresponding TRIS bits must also be set to disable
the output drivers.
Comparator Response Time
The comparator output is indeterminate for a period of
time after the change of an input source or the selection
of a new reference voltage. This period is referred to as
the response time. The response time of the comparator
differs from the settling time of the voltage reference.
Therefore, both of these times must be considered when
determining the total response time to a comparator
input change. See the Comparator and Voltage Reference Specifications in Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications” for more details.
18.9
A simplified circuit for an analog input is shown in
Figure 18-3. Since the analog input pins share their
connection with a digital input, they have reverse
biased ESD protection diodes to VDD and VSS. The
analog input, therefore, must be between VSS and VDD.
If the input voltage deviates from this range by more
than 0.6V in either direction, one of the diodes is forward biased and a latch-up may occur.
A maximum source impedance of 10 k is recommended
for the analog sources. Also, any external component
connected to an analog input pin, such as a capacitor or
a Zener diode, should have very little leakage current to
minimize inaccuracies introduced.
Note 1: When reading a PORT register, all pins
configured as analog inputs will read as a
‘0’. Pins configured as digital inputs will
convert as an analog input, according to
the input specification.
Interaction with ECCP Logic
2: Analog levels on any pin defined as a
digital input, may cause the input buffer to
consume more current than is specified.
The comparators can be used as general purpose
comparators. Their outputs can be brought out to the
CxOUT pins. When the ECCP Auto-Shutdown is
active it can use one or both comparator signals. If
auto-restart is also enabled, the comparators can be
configured as a closed loop analog feedback to the
ECCP, thereby, creating an analog controlled PWM.
Note:
When the Comparator module is first
initialized the output state is unknown.
Upon initialization, the user should verify
the output state of the comparator prior to
relying on the result, primarily when using
the result in connection with other
peripheral features, such as the ECCP
Auto-Shutdown mode.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 181
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 18-3:
ANALOG INPUT MODEL
VDD
Rs < 10K
Analog
Input
pin
VT  0.6V
RIC
To Comparator
VA
CPIN
5 pF
VT  0.6V
ILEAKAGE(1)
Vss
Legend: CPIN
= Input Capacitance
ILEAKAGE = Leakage Current at the pin due to various junctions
= Interconnect Resistance
RIC
= Source Impedance
RS
VA
= Analog Voltage
= Threshold Voltage
VT
Note 1: See Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications”
DS41414C-page 182
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
18.11 Comparator Control Registers
REGISTER 18-1:
CMxCON0: COMPARATOR Cx CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0/0
R-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CxON
CxOUT
CxOE
CxPOL
U-0
R/W-1/1
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
—
CxSP
CxHYS
CxSYNC
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
CxON: Comparator Enable bit
1 = Comparator is enabled and consumes no active power
0 = Comparator is disabled
bit 6
CxOUT: Comparator Output bit
If CxPOL = 1 (inverted polarity):
1 = CxVP < CxVN
0 = CxVP > CxVN
If CxPOL = 0 (non-inverted polarity):
1 = CxVP > CxVN
0 = CxVP < CxVN
bit 5
CxOE: Comparator Output Enable bit
1 = CxOUT is present on the CxOUT pin. Requires that the associated TRIS bit be cleared to actually
drive the pin. Not affected by CxON.
0 = CxOUT is internal only
bit 4
CxPOL: Comparator Output Polarity Select bit
1 = Comparator output is inverted
0 = Comparator output is not inverted
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
CxSP: Comparator Speed/Power Select bit
1 = Comparator operates in normal power, higher speed mode
0 = Comparator operates in low-power, low-speed mode
bit 1
CxHYS: Comparator Hysteresis Enable bit
1 = Comparator hysteresis enabled
0 = Comparator hysteresis disabled
bit 0
CxSYNC: Comparator Output Synchronous Mode bit
1 = Comparator output to Timer1 and I/O pin is synchronous to changes on Timer1 clock source.
Output updated on the falling edge of Timer1 clock source.
0 = Comparator output to Timer1 and I/O pin is asynchronous.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 183
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 18-2:
CMxCON1: COMPARATOR Cx CONTROL REGISTER 1
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CxINTP
CxINTN
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CxPCH<1:0>
U-0
U-0
—
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CxNCH<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
CxINTP: Comparator Interrupt on Positive Going Edge Enable bits
1 = The CxIF interrupt flag will be set upon a positive going edge of the CxOUT bit
0 = No interrupt flag will be set on a positive going edge of the CxOUT bit
bit 6
CxINTN: Comparator Interrupt on Negative Going Edge Enable bits
1 = The CxIF interrupt flag will be set upon a negative going edge of the CxOUT bit
0 = No interrupt flag will be set on a negative going edge of the CxOUT bit
bit 5-4
CxPCH<1:0>: Comparator Positive Input Channel Select bits
00 = CxVP connects to CxIN+ pin
01 = CxVP connects to DAC Voltage Reference
10 = CxVP connects to FVR Voltage Reference
11 = CxVP connects to VSS
bit 3-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1-0
CxNCH<1:0>: Comparator Negative Input Channel Select bits
00 = CxVN connects to CXIN0- pin
01 = CxVN connects to CXIN1- pin
10 = CxVN connects to CXIN2- pin
11 = CxVN connects to CXIN3- pin
REGISTER 18-3:
CMOUT: COMPARATOR OUTPUT REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
R-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
—
—
—
—
—
MC3OUT
MC2OUT
MC1OUT
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2
MC3OUT: Mirror Copy of C3OUT bit
bit 1
MC2OUT: Mirror Copy of C2OUT bit
bit 0
MC1OUT: Mirror Copy of C1OUT bit
DS41414C-page 184
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 18-2:
Name
ANSELF
ANSELG
CM1CON0
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARATOR MODULE
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
ANSF7
ANSF6
ANSF5
ANSF4
ANSF3
ANSF2
ANSF1
ANSF0
145
—
—
—
ANSG4
ANSG3
ANSG2
ANSG1
—
148
C1ON
C1OUT
C1OE
C1POL
—
C1SP
C1HYS
C1SYNC
183
C2OE
C2POL
C2HYS
C2SYNC
—
C2SP
C1PCH<1:0>
—
—
C2PCH<1:0>
—
—
—
C3SP
C3PCH0
—
—
—
—
—
MC3OUT
FVRRDY
TSEN
TSRNG
CDAFVR<1:0>
DACLPS
DACOE
—
DACPSS<1:0>
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
TRISF
TRISF7
TRISF6
TRISF5
TRISF4
TRISF3
TRISF2
TRISF1
TRISF0
144
TRISG
—
—
TRISG5
TRISG4
TRISG3
TRISG2
TRISG1
TRISG0
147
CM2CON0
C2ON
C2OUT
CM1CON1
C1NTP
C1INTN
CM2CON1
C2NTP
C2INTN
CM3CON0
C3ON
C3OUT
C3OE
C3POL
CM3CON1
C3INTP
C3INTN
C3PCH1
—
—
FVRCON
FVREN
DACCON0
DACEN
DACCON1
CMOUT
INTCON
Legend:
183
C1NCH<1:0>
184
C2NCH<1:0>
184
C3HYS
C3SYNC
C3NCH<1:0>
MC2OUT
MC1OUT
ADFVR<1:0>
—
DACNSS
DACR<4:0>
183
184
184
156
176
176
93
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are unused by the Comparator module.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 185
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 186
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
19.0
SR LATCH
19.2
The module consists of a single SR Latch with multiple
Set and Reset inputs as well as separate latch outputs.
The SR Latch module includes the following features:
•
•
•
•
Programmable input selection
SR Latch output is available externally
Separate Q and Q outputs
Firmware Set and Reset
The SRQEN and SRNQEN bits of the SRCON0 register control the Q and Q latch outputs. Both of the SR
Latch outputs may be directly output to an I/O pin at the
same time.
The applicable TRIS bit of the corresponding port must
be cleared to enable the port pin output driver.
The SR Latch can be used in a variety of analog applications, including oscillator circuits, one-shot circuit,
hysteretic controllers, and analog timing applications.
19.1
Latch Output
Latch Operation
19.3
Effects of a Reset
Upon any device Reset, the SR Latch output is not initialized to a known state. The user’s firmware is
responsible for initializing the latch output before
enabling the output pins.
The latch is a Set-Reset Latch that does not depend on
a clock source. Each of the Set and Reset inputs are
active-high. The latch can be Set or Reset by:
•
•
•
•
•
Software control (SRPS and SRPR bits)
Comparator C1 output (SYNCC1OUT)
Comparator C2 output (SYNCC2OUT)
SRI pin
Programmable clock (SRCLK)
The SRPS and the SRPR bits of the SRCON0 register
may be used to Set or Reset the SR Latch, respectively. The latch is Reset-dominant. Therefore, if both
Set and Reset inputs are high, the latch will go to the
Reset state. Both the SRPS and SRPR bits are self
resetting which means that a single write to either of the
bits is all that is necessary to complete a latch Set or
Reset operation.
The output from Comparator C1 or C2 can be used as
the Set or Reset inputs of the SR Latch. The output of
either Comparator can be synchronized to the Timer1
clock source. See Section 18.0 “Comparator Module” and Section 21.0 “Timer1 Module with Gate
Control” for more information.
An external source on the SRI pin can be used as the
Set or Reset inputs of the SR Latch.
An internal clock source is available that can periodically
set or reset the SR Latch. The SRCLK<2:0> bits in the
SRCON0 register are used to select the clock source
period. The SRSCKE and SRRCKE bits of the SRCON1
register enable the clock source to Set or Reset the SR
Latch, respectively.
Note:
Enabling both the Set and Reset inputs
from any one source at the same time
may result in indeterminate operation, as
the Reset dominance cannot be assured.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 187
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 19-1:
SR LATCH SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM
SRPS
SRLEN
SRQEN
Pulse
Gen(2)
SRI
S
SRSPE
SRCLK
Q
SRQ
SRSCKE
SYNCC2OUT(3)
SRSC2E
SYNCC1OUT(3)
SRSC1E
SRPR
SR
Latch(1)
Pulse
Gen(2)
SRI
R
SRRPE
SRCLK
Q
SRNQ
SRRCKE
SYNCC2OUT(3)
SRRC2E
SRLEN
SRNQEN
SYNCC1OUT(3)
SRRC1E
Note 1:
2:
3:
DS41414C-page 188
If R = 1 and S = 1 simultaneously, Q = 0, Q = 1.
Pulse generator causes a 1 Q-state pulse width.
Name denotes the connection point at the comparator output.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 19-1:
SRCLK FREQUENCY TABLE
SRCLK
Divider
FOSC = 32 MHz
FOSC = 20 MHz
FOSC = 16 MHz
FOSC = 4 MHz
FOSC = 1 MHz
111
512
110
256
62.5 kHz
39.0 kHz
31.3 kHz
7.81 kHz
1.95 kHz
125 kHz
78.1 kHz
62.5 kHz
15.6 kHz
3.90 kHz
101
100
128
250 kHz
156 kHz
125 kHz
31.25 kHz
7.81 kHz
64
500 kHz
313 kHz
250 kHz
62.5 kHz
15.6 kHz
011
32
1 MHz
625 kHz
500 kHz
125 kHz
31.3 kHz
010
16
2 MHz
1.25 MHz
1 MHz
250 kHz
62.5 kHz
001
8
4 MHz
2.5 MHz
2 MHz
500 kHz
125 kHz
000
4
8 MHz
5 MHz
4 MHz
1 MHz
250 kHz
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 189
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
19.4
SR Latch Control Registers
REGISTER 19-1:
R/W-0/0
SRCON0: SR LATCH CONTROL 0 REGISTER
R/W-0/0
SRLEN
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
SRCLK<2:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/S-0/0
R/S-0/0
SRQEN
SRNQEN
SRPS
SRPR
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
S = Bit is set only
bit 7
SRLEN: SR Latch Enable bit
1 = SR Latch is enabled
0 = SR Latch is disabled
bit 6-4
SRCLK<2:0>: SR Latch Clock Divider bits
000 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 4th FOSC cycle clock
001 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 8th FOSC cycle clock
010 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 16th FOSC cycle clock
011 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 32nd FOSC cycle clock
100 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 64th FOSC cycle clock
101 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 128th FOSC cycle clock
110 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 256th FOSC cycle clock
111 = Generates a 1 FOSC wide pulse every 512th FOSC cycle clock
bit 3
SRQEN: SR Latch Q Output Enable bit
If SRLEN = 1:
1 = Q is present on the SRQ pin
0 = External Q output is disabled
If SRLEN = 0:
SR Latch is disabled
bit 2
SRNQEN: SR Latch Q Output Enable bit
If SRLEN = 1:
1 = Q is present on the SRnQ pin
0 = External Q output is disabled
If SRLEN = 0:
SR Latch is disabled
bit 1
SRPS: Pulse Set Input of the SR Latch bit(1)
1 = Pulse set input for 1 Q-clock period
0 = No effect on set input
bit 0
SRPR: Pulse Reset Input of the SR Latch bit(1)
1 = Pulse reset input for 1 Q-clock period
0 = No effect on reset input
Note 1:
Set only, always reads back ‘0’.
DS41414C-page 190
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 19-2:
SRCON1: SR LATCH CONTROL 1 REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
SRSPE
SRSCKE
SRSC2E
SRSC1E
SRRPE
SRRCKE
SRRC2E
SRRC1E
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
SRSPE: SR Latch Peripheral Set Enable bit
1 = SR Latch is set when the SRI pin is high
0 = SRI pin has no effect on the set input of the SR Latch
bit 6
SRSCKE: SR Latch Set Clock Enable bit
1 = Set input of SR Latch is pulsed with SRCLK
0 = SRCLK has no effect on the set input of the SR Latch
bit 5
SRSC2E: SR Latch C2 Set Enable bit
1 = SR Latch is set when the C2 Comparator output is high
0 = C2 Comparator output has no effect on the set input of the SR Latch
bit 4
SRSC1E: SR Latch C1 Set Enable bit
1 = SR Latch is set when the C1 Comparator output is high
0 = C1 Comparator output has no effect on the set input of the SR Latch
bit 3
SRRPE: SR Latch Peripheral Reset Enable bit
1 = SR Latch is reset when the SRI pin is high
0 = SRI pin has no effect on the reset input of the SR Latch
bit 2
SRRCKE: SR Latch Reset Clock Enable bit
1 = Reset input of SR Latch is pulsed with SRCLK
0 = SRCLK has no effect on the reset input of the SR Latch
bit 1
SRRC2E: SR Latch C2 Reset Enable bit
1 = SR Latch is reset when the C2 Comparator output is high
0 = C2 Comparator output has no effect on the reset input of the SR Latch
bit 0
SRRC1E: SR Latch C1 Reset Enable bit
1 = SR Latch is reset when the C1 Comparator output is high
0 = C1 Comparator output has no effect on the reset input of the SR Latch
TABLE 19-2:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SR LATCH MODULE
Bit 7
Bit 6
ANSELA
—
—
SRCON0
SRLEN
Bit 5
Bit 4
ANSA5
—
SRCLK<2:0>
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
ANSA3
ANSA2
ANSA1
ANSA0
129
SRQEN
SRNQEN
SRPS
SRPR
190
SRRCKE SRRC2E
SRRC1E
191
TRISA0
128
SRCON1
SRSPE
SRSCKE
SRSC2E
SRSC1E
SRRPE
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
Legend: — = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are unused by the SR Latch module.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 191
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 192
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
20.0
When TMR0 is written, the increment is inhibited for
two instruction cycles immediately following the write.
TIMER0 MODULE
The Timer0 module is an 8-bit timer/counter with the
following features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Note:
8-bit timer/counter register (TMR0)
8-bit prescaler (independent of Watchdog Timer)
Programmable internal or external clock source
Programmable external clock edge selection
Interrupt on overflow
TMR0 can be used to gate Timer1
20.1.2
8-Bit Counter mode using the T0CKI pin is selected by
setting the TMR0CS bit in the OPTION register to ‘1’
and resetting the T0XCS bit in the CPSCON0 register to
‘0’.
Timer0 Operation
The Timer0 module can be used as either an 8-bit timer
or an 8-bit counter.
20.1.1
8-Bit Counter mode using the Capacitive Sensing
Oscillator (CPSCLK) signal is selected by setting the
TMR0CS bit in the OPTION register to ‘1’ and setting
the T0XCS bit in the CPSCON0 register to ‘1’.
8-BIT TIMER MODE
The Timer0 module will increment every instruction
cycle, if used without a prescaler. 8-Bit Timer mode is
selected by clearing the TMR0CS bit of the OPTION
register.
FIGURE 20-1:
8-BIT COUNTER MODE
In 8-Bit Counter mode, the Timer0 module will increment
on every rising or falling edge of the T0CKI pin or the
Capacitive Sensing Oscillator (CPSCLK) signal.
Figure 20-1 is a block diagram of the Timer0 module.
20.1
The value written to the TMR0 register
can be adjusted, in order to account for
the two instruction cycle delay when
TMR0 is written.
The rising or falling transition of the incrementing edge
for either input source is determined by the TMR0SE bit
in the OPTION register.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE TIMER0
FOSC/4
Data Bus
0
8
T0CKI
1
0
From CPSCLK
Sync
2 TCY
1
0
1
TMR0SE
TMR0CS
8-bit
Prescaler
PSA
T0XCS
TMR0
Set Flag bit TMR0IF
on Overflow
Overflow to Timer1
8
PS<2:0>
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 193
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
20.1.3
SOFTWARE PROGRAMMABLE
PRESCALER
A software programmable prescaler is available for
exclusive use with Timer0. The prescaler is enabled by
clearing the PSA bit of the OPTION register.
Note:
The Watchdog Timer (WDT) uses its own
independent prescaler.
There are 8 prescaler options for the Timer0 module
ranging from 1:2 to 1:256. The prescale values are
selectable via the PS<2:0> bits of the OPTION register.
In order to have a 1:1 prescaler value for the Timer0
module, the prescaler must be disabled by setting the
PSA bit of the OPTION register.
The prescaler is not readable or writable. All instructions
writing to the TMR0 register will clear the prescaler.
20.1.4
TIMER0 INTERRUPT
Timer0 will generate an interrupt when the TMR0
register overflows from FFh to 00h. The TMR0IF
interrupt flag bit of the INTCON register is set every
time the TMR0 register overflows, regardless of
whether or not the Timer0 interrupt is enabled. The
TMR0IF bit can only be cleared in software. The Timer0
interrupt enable is the TMR0IE bit of the INTCON
register.
Note:
20.1.5
The Timer0 interrupt cannot wake the
processor from Sleep since the timer is
frozen during Sleep.
8-BIT COUNTER MODE
SYNCHRONIZATION
When in 8-Bit Counter mode, the incrementing edge on
the T0CKI pin must be synchronized to the instruction
clock. Synchronization can be accomplished by
sampling the prescaler output on the Q2 and Q4 cycles
of the instruction clock. The high and low periods of the
external clocking source must meet the timing
requirements as shown in Section 30.0 “Electrical
Specifications”.
20.1.6
OPERATION DURING SLEEP
Timer0 cannot operate while the processor is in Sleep
mode. The contents of the TMR0 register will remain
unchanged while the processor is in Sleep mode.
DS41414C-page 194
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 20-1:
OPTION_REG: OPTION REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
WPUEN
INTEDG
TMR0CS
TMR0SE
PSA
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
PS<2:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
WPUEN: Weak Pull-up Enable bit
1 = All weak pull-ups are disabled (except MCLR, if it is enabled)
0 = Weak pull-ups are enabled by individual WPUx latch values
bit 6
INTEDG: Interrupt Edge Select bit
1 = Interrupt on rising edge of RB0/INT pin
0 = Interrupt on falling edge of RB0/INT pin
bit 5
TMR0CS: Timer0 Clock Source Select bit
1 = Transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Internal instruction cycle clock (FOSC/4)
bit 4
TMR0SE: Timer0 Source Edge Select bit
1 = Increment on high-to-low transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
0 = Increment on low-to-high transition on RA4/T0CKI pin
bit 3
PSA: Prescaler Assignment bit
1 = Prescaler is not assigned to the Timer0 module
0 = Prescaler is assigned to the Timer0 module
bit 2-0
PS<2:0>: Prescaler Rate Select bits
TABLE 20-1:
Name
CPSCON0
INTCON
TRISA
Timer0 Rate
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
1:2
1:4
1:8
1 : 16
1 : 32
1 : 64
1 : 128
1 : 256
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER0
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
CPSON
CPSRM
—
—
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
GIE
OPTION_REG WPUEN
TMR0
Bit Value
INTEDG TMR0CS TMR0SE
Bit 3
Bit 2
CPSRNG<1:0>
IOCIE
TMR0IF
PSA
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
CPSOUT
T0XCS
332
INTF
IOCIF
PS<2:0>
Timer0 Module Register
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
93
195
193*
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
Legend: — = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer0 module.
* Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 195
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 196
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
21.0
•
•
•
•
TIMER1 MODULE WITH GATE
CONTROL
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter with the
following features:
Figure 21-1 is a block diagram of the Timer1 module.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
16-bit timer/counter register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L)
Programmable internal or external clock source
2-bit prescaler
Dedicated 32 kHz oscillator circuit
Optionally synchronized comparator out
Multiple Timer1 gate (count enable) sources
Interrupt on overflow
Wake-up on overflow (external clock,
Asynchronous mode only)
• Time base for the Capture/Compare function
• Special Event Trigger (with CCP/ECCP)
• Selectable Gate Source Polarity
FIGURE 21-1:
Gate Toggle Mode
Gate Single-pulse Mode
Gate Value Status
Gate Event Interrupt
TIMER1 BLOCK DIAGRAM
T1GSS<1:0>
T1G
T1GSPM
00
From Timer0
Overflow
01
Comparator 1
SYNCC1OUT
10
Comparator 2
SYNCC2OUT
11
0
T1G_IN
T1GVAL
0
Single Pulse
TMR1ON
T1GPOL
T1GTM
D
Q
CK
R
Q
1
Acq. Control
1
Q1
Data Bus
D
Q
RD
T1GCON
EN
Interrupt
T1GGO/DONE
Set
TMR1GIF
det
TMR1GE
Set flag bit
TMR1IF on
Overflow
TMR1ON
To Comparator Module
TMR1(2)
TMR1H
EN
TMR1L
Q
D
T1CLK
Synchronized
clock input
0
1
TMR1CS<1:0>
T1OSO
OUT
T1OSC
T1OSI
Cap. Sensing
Oscillator
T1SYNC
11
1
Synchronize(3)
Prescaler
1, 2, 4, 8
det
10
EN
0
T1OSCEN
(1)
FOSC
Internal
Clock
01
FOSC/4
Internal
Clock
00
2
T1CKPS<1:0>
FOSC/2
Internal
Clock
Sleep input
T1CKI
To LCD and Clock Switching Modules
Note 1: ST Buffer is high speed type when using T1CKI.
2: Timer1 register increments on rising edge.
3: Synchronize does not operate while in Sleep.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 197
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
21.1
Timer1 Operation
21.2
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit incrementing counter
which is accessed through the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair. Writes to TMR1H or TMR1L directly update the
counter.
The TMR1CS<1:0> and T1OSCEN bits of the T1CON
register are used to select the clock source for Timer1.
Table 21-2 displays the clock source selections.
21.2.1
When used with an internal clock source, the module is
a timer and increments on every instruction cycle.
When used with an external clock source, the module
can be used as either a timer or counter and increments on every selected edge of the external source.
INTERNAL CLOCK SOURCE
When the internal clock source is selected, the
TMR1H:TMR1L register pair will increment on multiples
of FOSC as determined by the Timer1 prescaler.
When the FOSC internal clock source is selected, the
Timer1 register value will increment by four counts every
instruction clock cycle. Due to this condition, a 2 LSB
error in resolution will occur when reading the Timer1
value. To utilize the full resolution of Timer1, an
asynchronous input signal must be used to gate the
Timer1 clock input.
Timer1 is enabled by configuring the TMR1ON and
TMR1GE bits in the T1CON and T1GCON registers,
respectively. Table 21-1 displays the Timer1 enable
selections.
TABLE 21-1:
Clock Source Selection
TIMER1 ENABLE
SELECTIONS
The following asynchronous sources may be used:
• Asynchronous event on the T1G pin to Timer1
Gate
• C1 or C2 comparator input to Timer1 Gate
Timer1
Operation
TMR1ON
TMR1GE
0
0
Off
0
1
Off
21.2.2
1
0
Always On
1
1
Count Enabled
When the external clock source is selected, the Timer1
module may work as a timer or a counter.
EXTERNAL CLOCK SOURCE
When enabled to count, Timer1 is incremented on the
rising edge of the external clock input T1CKI or the
capacitive sensing oscillator signal. Either of these
external clock sources can be synchronized to the
microcontroller system clock or they can run
asynchronously.
When used as a timer with a clock oscillator, an
external 32.768 kHz crystal can be used in conjunction
with the dedicated internal oscillator circuit.
Note:
In Counter mode, a falling edge must be
registered by the counter prior to the first
incrementing rising edge after any one or
more of the following conditions:
•
•
•
•
TABLE 21-2:
Timer1 enabled after POR
Write to TMR1H or TMR1L
Timer1 is disabled
Timer1 is disabled (TMR1ON = 0)
when T1CKI is high then Timer1 is
enabled (TMR1ON=1) when T1CKI is
low.
CLOCK SOURCE SELECTIONS
TMR1CS1
TMR1CS0
T1OSCEN
0
1
x
System Clock (FOSC)
0
0
x
Instruction Clock (FOSC/4)
1
1
x
Capacitive Sensing Oscillator
1
0
0
External Clocking on T1CKI Pin
1
0
1
Osc.Circuit On T1OSI/T1OSO Pins
DS41414C-page 198
Clock Source
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
21.3
21.5.1
Timer1 Prescaler
Timer1 has four prescaler options allowing 1, 2, 4 or 8
divisions of the clock input. The T1CKPS bits of the
T1CON register control the prescale counter. The
prescale counter is not directly readable or writable;
however, the prescaler counter is cleared upon a write to
TMR1H or TMR1L.
21.4
Timer1 Oscillator
READING AND WRITING TIMER1 IN
ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER
MODE
Reading TMR1H or TMR1L while the timer is running
from an external asynchronous clock will ensure a valid
read (taken care of in hardware). However, the user
should keep in mind that reading the 16-bit timer in two
8-bit values itself, poses certain problems, since the
timer may overflow between the reads.
A dedicated low-power 32.768 kHz oscillator circuit is
built-in between pins T1OSI (input) and T1OSO
(amplifier output). This internal circuit is to be used in
conjunction with an external 32.768 kHz crystal.
For writes, it is recommended that the user simply stop
the timer and write the desired values. A write
contention may occur by writing to the timer registers,
while the register is incrementing. This may produce an
unpredictable value in the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair.
The oscillator circuit is enabled by setting the
T1OSCEN bit of the T1CON register. The oscillator will
continue to run during Sleep.
21.6
Note:
21.5
The oscillator requires a start-up and
stabilization time before use. Thus,
T1OSCEN should be set and a suitable
delay observed prior to using Timer1. A
suitable delay, similar to the OST delay
can be implemented in software by
clearing the TMR1IF bit, then presetting
the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair to
FC00h. The TMR1IF flag will be set when
1024 clock cycles have elapsed, thereby
indicating that the oscillator is running and
is reasonably stable.
Timer1 Operation in
Asynchronous Counter Mode
If control bit T1SYNC of the T1CON register is set, the
external clock input is not synchronized. The timer
increments asynchronously to the internal phase
clocks. If the external clock source is selected then the
timer will continue to run during Sleep and can
generate an interrupt on overflow, which will wake-up
the processor. However, special precautions in
software are needed to read/write the timer (see
Section 21.5.1 “Reading and Writing Timer1 in
Asynchronous Counter Mode”).
Note:
Timer1 can be configured to count freely or the count
can be enabled and disabled using Timer1 Gate
circuitry. This is also referred to as Timer1 Gate Enable.
Timer1 Gate can also be driven by multiple selectable
sources.
21.6.1
TIMER1 GATE ENABLE
The Timer1 Gate Enable mode is enabled by setting
the TMR1GE bit of the T1GCON register. The polarity
of the Timer1 Gate Enable mode is configured using
the T1GPOL bit of the T1GCON register.
When Timer1 Gate Enable mode is enabled, Timer1
will increment on the rising edge of the Timer1 clock
source. When Timer1 Gate Enable mode is disabled,
no incrementing will occur and Timer1 will hold the
current count. See Figure 21-3 for timing details.
TABLE 21-3:
TIMER1 GATE ENABLE
SELECTIONS
T1CLK
T1GPOL
T1G

0
0
Counts

0
1
Holds Count

1
0
Holds Count

1
1
Counts
When switching from synchronous to
asynchronous operation, it is possible to
skip an increment. When switching from
asynchronous to synchronous operation,
it is possible to produce an additional
increment.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Timer1 Gate
Preliminary
Timer1 Operation
DS41414C-page 199
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
21.6.2
TIMER1 GATE SOURCE
SELECTION
21.6.3
The Timer1 Gate source can be selected from one of
four different sources. Source selection is controlled by
the T1GSS bits of the T1GCON register. The polarity
for each available source is also selectable. Polarity
selection is controlled by the T1GPOL bit of the
T1GCON register.
TABLE 21-4:
Timer1 Gate Source
00
Timer1 Gate Pin
01
Overflow of Timer0
(TMR0 increments from FFh to 00h)
10
Comparator 1 Output SYNCC1OUT
(optionally Timer1 synchronized output)
11
Comparator 2 Output SYNCC2OUT
(optionally Timer1 synchronized output)
21.6.2.1
21.6.4
T1G Pin Gate Operation
Timer0 Overflow Gate Operation
When Timer0 increments from FFh to 00h, a
low-to-high pulse will automatically be generated and
internally supplied to the Timer1 Gate circuitry.
21.6.2.3
Comparator C1 Gate Operation
The output resulting from a Comparator 1 operation can
be selected as a source for Timer1 Gate Control. The
Comparator 1 output (SYNCC1OUT) can be
synchronized to the Timer1 clock or left asynchronous.
For more information see Section 18.4.1 “Comparator
Output Synchronization”.
21.6.2.4
The Timer1 Gate source is routed through a flip-flop
that changes state on every incrementing edge of the
signal. See Figure 21-4 for timing details.
Note:
The T1G pin is one source for Timer1 Gate Control. It
can be used to supply an external source to the Timer1
Gate circuitry.
21.6.2.2
When Timer1 Gate Toggle mode is enabled, it is possible to measure the full-cycle length of a Timer1 gate
signal, as opposed to the duration of a single level
pulse.
Timer1 Gate Toggle mode is enabled by setting the
T1GTM bit of the T1GCON register. When the T1GTM
bit is cleared, the flip-flop is cleared and held clear. This
is necessary in order to control which edge is
measured.
TIMER1 GATE SOURCES
T1GSS
TIMER1 GATE TOGGLE MODE
Comparator C2 Gate Operation
The output resulting from a Comparator 2 operation
can be selected as a source for Timer1 Gate Control.
The Comparator 2 output (SYNCC2OUT) can be
synchronized to the Timer1 clock or left asynchronous.
For more information see Section 18.4.1 “Comparator
Output Synchronization”.
Enabling Toggle mode at the same time
as changing the gate polarity may result in
indeterminate operation.
TIMER1 GATE SINGLE-PULSE
MODE
When Timer1 Gate Single-Pulse mode is enabled, it is
possible to capture a single pulse gate event. Timer1
Gate Single-Pulse mode is first enabled by setting the
T1GSPM bit in the T1GCON register. Next, the
T1GGO/DONE bit in the T1GCON register must be set.
The Timer1 will be fully enabled on the next incrementing
edge. On the next trailing edge of the pulse, the
T1GGO/DONE bit will automatically be cleared. No other
gate events will be allowed to increment Timer1 until the
T1GGO/DONE bit is once again set in software. See
Figure 21-5 for timing details.
If the Single Pulse Gate mode is disabled by clearing the
T1GSPM bit in the T1GCON register, the T1GGO/DONE
bit should also be cleared.
Enabling the Toggle mode and the Single-Pulse mode
simultaneously will permit both sections to work
together. This allows the cycle times on the Timer1
Gate source to be measured. See Figure 21-6 for
timing details.
21.6.5
TIMER1 GATE VALUE STATUS
When Timer1 Gate Value Status is utilized, it is possible
to read the most current level of the gate control value.
The value is stored in the T1GVAL bit in the T1GCON
register. The T1GVAL bit is valid even when the Timer1
Gate is not enabled (TMR1GE bit is cleared).
21.6.6
TIMER1 GATE EVENT INTERRUPT
When Timer1 Gate Event Interrupt is enabled, it is possible to generate an interrupt upon the completion of a
gate event. When the falling edge of T1GVAL occurs,
the TMR1GIF flag bit in the PIR1 register will be set. If
the TMR1GIE bit in the PIE1 register is set, then an
interrupt will be recognized.
The TMR1GIF flag bit operates even when the Timer1
Gate is not enabled (TMR1GE bit is cleared).
DS41414C-page 200
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
21.7
Timer1 Interrupt
21.9
The Timer1 register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L) increments
to FFFFh and rolls over to 0000h. When Timer1 rolls
over, the Timer1 interrupt flag bit of the PIR1 register is
set. To enable the interrupt on rollover, you must set
these bits:
•
•
•
•
TMR1ON bit of the T1CON register
TMR1IE bit of the PIE1 register
PEIE bit of the INTCON register
GIE bit of the INTCON register
The interrupt is cleared by clearing the TMR1IF bit in
the Interrupt Service Routine.
The TMR1H:TMR1L register pair and the
TMR1IF bit should be cleared before
enabling interrupts.
Note:
21.8
Timer1 Operation During Sleep
Timer1 can only operate during Sleep when setup in
Asynchronous Counter mode. In this mode, an external
crystal or clock source can be used to increment the
counter. To set up the timer to wake the device:
•
•
•
•
•
TMR1ON bit of the T1CON register must be set
TMR1IE bit of the PIE1 register must be set
PEIE bit of the INTCON register must be set
T1SYNC bit of the T1CON register must be set
TMR1CS bits of the T1CON register must be
configured
• T1OSCEN bit of the T1CON register must be
configured
ECCP/CCP Capture/Compare Time
Base
The CCP modules use the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair as the time base when operating in Capture or
Compare mode.
In Capture mode, the value in the TMR1H:TMR1L
register pair is copied into the CCPR1H:CCPR1L
register pair on a configured event.
In Compare mode, an event is triggered when the value
CCPR1H:CCPR1L register pair matches the value in
the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair. This event can be a
Special Event Trigger.
For
more
information,
see
“Capture/Compare/PWM Modules”.
Section 23.0
21.10 ECCP/CCP Special Event Trigger
When any of the CCP’s are configured to trigger a special event, the trigger will clear the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair. This special event does not cause a Timer1
interrupt. The CCP module may still be configured to
generate a CCP interrupt.
In this mode of operation, the CCPR1H:CCPR1L
register pair becomes the period register for Timer1.
Timer1 should be synchronized and FOSC/4 should be
selected as the clock source in order to utilize the Special Event Trigger. Asynchronous operation of Timer1
can cause a Special Event Trigger to be missed.
In the event that a write to TMR1H or TMR1L coincides
with a Special Event Trigger from the CCP, the write will
take precedence.
The device will wake-up on an overflow and execute
the next instructions. If the GIE bit of the INTCON
register is set, the device will call the Interrupt Service
Routine.
For more information, see Section 16.3.1 “Special
Event Trigger”.
Timer1 oscillator will continue to operate in Sleep
regardless of the T1SYNC bit setting.
FIGURE 21-2:
TIMER1 INCREMENTING EDGE
T1CKI = 1
when TMR1
Enabled
T1CKI = 0
when TMR1
Enabled
Note 1:
2:
Arrows indicate counter increments.
In Counter mode, a falling edge must be registered by the counter prior to the first incrementing rising edge of the clock.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 201
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 21-3:
TIMER1 GATE ENABLE MODE
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1G_IN
T1CKI
T1GVAL
TIMER1
N
FIGURE 21-4:
N+1
N+2
N+3
N+4
TIMER1 GATE TOGGLE MODE
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1GTM
T1G_IN
T1CKI
T1GVAL
TIMER1
DS41414C-page 202
N
N+1 N+2 N+3
N+4
Preliminary
N+5 N+6 N+7
N+8
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 21-5:
TIMER1 GATE SINGLE-PULSE MODE
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1GSPM
T1GGO/
Cleared by hardware on
falling edge of T1GVAL
Set by software
DONE
Counting enabled on
rising edge of T1G
T1G_IN
T1CKI
T1GVAL
TIMER1
TMR1GIF
N
N+1
Set by hardware on
falling edge of T1GVAL
Cleared by software
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
N+2
Preliminary
Cleared by
software
DS41414C-page 203
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 21-6:
TIMER1 GATE SINGLE-PULSE AND TOGGLE COMBINED MODE
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1GSPM
T1GTM
T1GGO/
Cleared by hardware on
falling edge of T1GVAL
Set by software
DONE
Counting enabled on
rising edge of T1G
T1G_IN
T1CKI
T1GVAL
TIMER1
TMR1GIF
DS41414C-page 204
N
Cleared by software
N+1
N+2
N+3
Set by hardware on
falling edge of T1GVAL
Preliminary
N+4
Cleared by
software
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
21.11 Timer1 Control Register
The Timer1 Control register (T1CON), shown in
Register 21-1, is used to control Timer1 and select the
various features of the Timer1 module.
REGISTER 21-1:
R/W-0/u
T1CON: TIMER1 CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
TMR1CS<1:0>
R/W-0/u
T1CKPS<1:0>
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
U-0
R/W-0/u
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
TMR1ON
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
TMR1CS<1:0>: Timer1 Clock Source Select bits
11 = Timer1 clock source is Capacitive Sensing Oscillator (CAPOSC)
10 = Timer1 clock source is pin or oscillator:
If T1OSCEN = 0:
External clock from T1CKI pin (on the rising edge)
If T1OSCEN = 1:
Crystal oscillator on T1OSI/T1OSO pins
01 = Timer1 clock source is system clock (FOSC)
00 = Timer1 clock source is instruction clock (FOSC/4)
bit 5-4
T1CKPS<1:0>: Timer1 Input Clock Prescale Select bits
11 = 1:8 Prescale value
10 = 1:4 Prescale value
01 = 1:2 Prescale value
00 = 1:1 Prescale value
bit 3
T1OSCEN: LP Oscillator Enable Control bit
1 = Dedicated Timer1 oscillator circuit enabled
0 = Dedicated Timer1 oscillator circuit disabled
bit 2
T1SYNC: Timer1 External Clock Input Synchronization Control bit
TMR1CS<1:0> = 1X
1 = Do not synchronize external clock input
0 = Synchronize external clock input with system clock (FOSC)
TMR1CS<1:0> = 0X
This bit is ignored. Timer1 uses the internal clock when TMR1CS<1:0> = 1X.
bit 1
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 0
TMR1ON: Timer1 On bit
1 = Enables Timer1
0 = Stops Timer1
Clears Timer1 Gate flip-flop
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 205
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
21.12 Timer1 Gate Control Register
The Timer1 Gate Control register (T1GCON), shown in
Register 21-2, is used to control Timer1 Gate.
REGISTER 21-2:
T1GCON: TIMER1 GATE CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
R/W/HC-0/u
R-x/x
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1GTM
T1GSPM
T1GGO/
DONE
T1GVAL
R/W-0/u
R/W-0/u
T1GSS<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
HC = Bit is cleared by hardware
bit 7
TMR1GE: Timer1 Gate Enable bit
If TMR1ON = 0:
This bit is ignored
If TMR1ON = 1:
1 = Timer1 counting is controlled by the Timer1 gate function
0 = Timer1 counts regardless of Timer1 gate function
bit 6
T1GPOL: Timer1 Gate Polarity bit
1 = Timer1 gate is active-high (Timer1 counts when gate is high)
0 = Timer1 gate is active-low (Timer1 counts when gate is low)
bit 5
T1GTM: Timer1 Gate Toggle Mode bit
1 = Timer1 Gate Toggle mode is enabled
0 = Timer1 Gate Toggle mode is disabled and toggle flip flop is cleared
Timer1 gate flip-flop toggles on every rising edge.
bit 4
T1GSPM: Timer1 Gate Single-Pulse Mode bit
1 = Timer1 gate Single-Pulse mode is enabled and is controlling Timer1 gate
0 = Timer1 gate Single-Pulse mode is disabled
bit 3
T1GGO/DONE: Timer1 Gate Single-Pulse Acquisition Status bit
1 = Timer1 gate single-pulse acquisition is ready, waiting for an edge
0 = Timer1 gate single-pulse acquisition has completed or has not been started
bit 2
T1GVAL: Timer1 Gate Current State bit
Indicates the current state of the Timer1 gate that could be provided to TMR1H:TMR1L.
Unaffected by Timer1 Gate Enable (TMR1GE).
bit 1-0
T1GSS<1:0>: Timer1 Gate Source Select bits
00 = Timer1 Gate pin
01 = Timer0 overflow output
10 = Comparator 1 optionally synchronized output (SYNCC1OUT)
11 = Comparator 2 optionally synchronized output (SYNCC2OUT)
DS41414C-page 206
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 21-5:
Name
CCP1CON
CCP2CON
INTCON
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER1
Bit 7
Bit 6
P1M<1:0>
P2M<1:0>
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
DC1B<1:0>
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CCP1M<3:0>
DC2B<1:0>
Register
on Page
236
CCP2M<3:0>
236
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
201*
201*
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
134
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
TMR1ON
205
T1GGO/
DONE
T1GVAL
T1CON
T1GCON
Legend:
*
TMR1CS<1:0>
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1CKPS<1:0>
T1GTM
T1GSPM
T1GSS<1:0>
206
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the Timer1 module.
Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 207
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 208
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
22.0
TIMER2/4/6 MODULES
There are up to three identical Timer2-type modules
available. To maintain pre-existing naming conventions,
the Timers are called Timer2, Timer4 and Timer6 (also
Timer2/4/6).
Note:
The ‘x’ variable used in this section is
used to designate Timer2, Timer4, or
Timer6. For example, TxCON references
T2CON, T4CON or T6CON. PRx references PR2, PR4 or PR6.
The Timer2/4/6 modules incorporate the following
features:
• 8-bit Timer and Period registers (TMRx and PRx,
respectively)
• Readable and writable (both registers)
• Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4, 1:16
and 1:64)
• Software programmable postscaler (1:1 to 1:16)
• Interrupt on TMRx match with PRx, respectively
• Optional use as the shift clock for the MSSPx
modules (Timer2 only)
See Figure 22-1 for a block diagram of Timer2/4/6.
FIGURE 22-1:
TIMER2/4/6 BLOCK DIAGRAM
TMRx
Output
FOSC/4
Prescaler
1:1, 1:4, 1:16, 1:64
2
TMRx
Comparator
Sets Flag
bit TMRxIF
Reset
Postscaler
1:1 to 1:16
EQ
TxCKPS<1:0>
4
PRx
TxOUTPS<3:0>
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 209
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
22.1
Timer2/4/6 Operation
22.3
The clock input to the Timer2/4/6 modules is the
system instruction clock (FOSC/4).
TMRx increments from 00h on each clock edge.
A 4-bit counter/prescaler on the clock input allows direct
input, divide-by-4 and divide-by-16 prescale options.
These options are selected by the prescaler control bits,
TxCKPS<1:0> of the TxCON register. The value of
TMRx is compared to that of the Period register, PRx, on
each clock cycle. When the two values match, the
comparator generates a match signal as the timer
output. This signal also resets the value of TMRx to 00h
on the next cycle and drives the output
counter/postscaler (see Section 22.2 “Timer2/4/6
Interrupt”).
Timer2/4/6 Output
The unscaled output of TMRx is available primarily to
the CCP modules, where it is used as a time base for
operations in PWM mode.
Timer2 can be optionally used as the shift clock source
for the MSSPx modules operating in SPI mode.
Additional information is provided in Section 24.0
“Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP1 and
MSSP2) Module”.
22.4
Timer2/4/6 Operation During Sleep
The Timer2/4/6 timers cannot be operated while the
processor is in Sleep mode. The contents of the TMRx
and PRx registers will remain unchanged while the
processor is in Sleep mode.
The TMRx and PRx registers are both directly readable
and writable. The TMRx register is cleared on any
device Reset, whereas the PRx register initializes to
FFh. Both the prescaler and postscaler counters are
cleared on the following events:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a write to the TMRx register
a write to the TxCON register
Power-on Reset (POR)
Brown-out Reset (BOR)
MCLR Reset
Watchdog Timer (WDT) Reset
Stack Overflow Reset
Stack Underflow Reset
RESET Instruction
Note:
22.2
TMRx is not cleared when TxCON is
written.
Timer2/4/6 Interrupt
Timer2/4/6 can also generate an optional device
interrupt. The Timer2/4/6 output signal (TMRx-to-PRx
match)
provides
the
input
for
the
4-bit
counter/postscaler. This counter generates the TMRx
match interrupt flag which is latched in TMRxIF of the
PIRx register. The interrupt is enabled by setting the
TMRx Match Interrupt Enable bit, TMRxIE of the PIEx
register.
A range of 16 postscale options (from 1:1 through 1:16
inclusive) can be selected with the postscaler control
bits, TxOUTPS<3:0>, of the TxCON register.
DS41414C-page 210
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 22-1:
U-0
TXCON: TIMER2/TIMER4/TIMER6 CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
TxOUTPS<3:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
TMRxON
bit 7
R/W-0/0
TxCKPS<1:0>
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 6-3
TxOUTPS<3:0>: Timerx Output Postscaler Select bits
0000 = 1:1 Postscaler
0001 = 1:2 Postscaler
0010 = 1:3 Postscaler
0011 = 1:4 Postscaler
0100 = 1:5 Postscaler
0101 = 1:6 Postscaler
0110 = 1:7 Postscaler
0111 = 1:8 Postscaler
1000 = 1:9 Postscaler
1001 = 1:10 Postscaler
1010 = 1:11 Postscaler
1011 = 1:12 Postscaler
1100 = 1:13 Postscaler
1101 = 1:14 Postscaler
1110 = 1:15 Postscaler
1111 = 1:16 Postscaler
bit 2
TMRxON: Timerx On bit
1 = Timerx is on
0 = Timerx is off
bit 1-0
TxCKPS<1:0>: Timer2-type Clock Prescale Select bits
00 = Prescaler is 1
01 = Prescaler is 4
10 = Prescaler is 16
11 = Prescaler is 64
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 211
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 22-1:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH TIMER2/4/6
Bit 7
CCP2CON
INTCON
PIE1
Bit 6
P2M<1:0>
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
DC2B<1:0>
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CCP2M<3:0>
Register
on Page
236
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
96
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR3
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
100
PR2
Timer2 Module Period Register
209*
PR4
Timer4 Module Period Register
209*
PR6
Timer6 Module Period Register
209*
T2CON
—
T2OUTPS<3:0>
TMR2ON
T2CKPS<1:0>
211
T4CON
—
T4OUTPS<3:0>
TMR4ON
T4CKPS<1:0>
211
T6CON
—
T6OUTPS<3:0>
TMR6ON
T6CKPS<1:0>
211
TMR2
Holding Register for the 8-bit TMR2 Register
209*
TMR4
Holding Register for the 8-bit TMR4 Register(1)
209*
TMR6
Holding Register for the 8-bit TMR6 Register(1)
209*
Legend: — = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used for Timer2 module.
* Page provides register information.
DS41414C-page 212
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.0
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM
MODULES
The Capture/Compare/PWM module is a peripheral
which allows the user to time and control different
events, and to generate Pulse-Width Modulation
(PWM) signals. In Capture mode, the peripheral allows
the timing of the duration of an event. The Compare
mode allows the user to trigger an external event when
a predetermined amount of time has expired. The
PWM mode can generate Pulse-Width Modulated
signals of varying frequency and duty cycle.
Note 1: In devices with more than one CCP
module, it is very important to pay close
attention to the register names used. A
number placed after the module acronym
is used to distinguish between separate
modules. For example, the CCP1CON
and CCP2CON control the same
operational aspects of two completely
different CCP modules.
2: Throughout
this
section,
generic
references to a CCP module in any of its
operating modes may be interpreted as
being equally applicable to ECCP1,
ECCP2, ECCP3, CCP4 and CCP5.
Register names, module signals, I/O pins,
and bit names may use the generic
designator 'x' to indicate the use of a
numeral to distinguish a particular module,
when required.
This family of devices contains three Enhanced
Capture/Compare/PWM modules (ECCP1, ECCP2,
and ECCP3) and two standard Capture/Compare/PWM
modules (CCP4 and CCP5).
The Capture and Compare functions are identical for all
five CCP modules (ECCP1, ECCP2, ECCP3, CCP4,
and CCP5). The only differences between CCP
modules are in the Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM)
function. The standard PWM function is identical in
modules, CCP4 and CCP5. In CCP modules ECCP1,
ECCP2, and ECCP3, the Enhanced PWM function has
slight variations from one another. Full-Bridge ECCP
modules have four available I/O pins while Half-Bridge
ECCP modules only have two available I/O pins. See
Table 23-1 for more information.
TABLE 23-1:
PWM RESOURCES
Device Name
ECCP1
ECCP2
ECCP3
CCP4
CCP5
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Enhanced PWM
Full-Bridge
Enhanced PWM
Full-Bridge
Enhanced PWM
Full-Bridge
Standard PWM
Standard PWM
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 213
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.1
23.1.2
Capture Mode
The Capture mode function described in this section is
available and identical for CCP modules ECCP1,
ECCP2, ECCP3, CCP4 and CCP5.
Capture mode makes use of the 16-bit Timer1
resource. When an event occurs on the CCPx pin, the
16-bit CCPRxH:CCPRxL register pair captures and
stores the 16-bit value of the TMR1H:TMR1L register
pair, respectively. An event is defined as one of the
following and is configured by the CCPxM<3:0> bits of
the CCPxCON register:
•
•
•
•
Every falling edge
Every rising edge
Every 4th rising edge
Every 16th rising edge
When a capture is made, the Interrupt Request Flag bit
CCPxIF of the PIRx register is set. The interrupt flag
must be cleared in software. If another capture occurs
before the value in the CCPRxH, CCPRxL register pair
is read, the old captured value is overwritten by the new
captured value.
Figure 23-1 shows a simplified diagram of the Capture
operation.
23.1.1
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
In Capture mode, the CCPx pin should be configured
as an input by setting the associated TRIS control bit.
Also, the CCPx pin function can be moved to
alternative pins using the APFCON register. Refer to
Section 12.1 “Alternate Pin Function” for more
details.
Note:
If the CCPx pin is configured as an output,
a write to the port can cause a capture
condition.
FIGURE 23-1:
Prescaler
 1, 4, 16
See Section 21.0 “Timer1 Module with Gate Control”
for more information on configuring Timer1.
23.1.3
When the Capture mode is changed, a false capture
interrupt may be generated. The user should keep the
CCPxIE interrupt enable bit of the PIEx register clear to
avoid false interrupts. Additionally, the user should
clear the CCPxIF interrupt flag bit of the PIRx register
following any change in Operating mode.
Note:
23.1.4
CCP PRESCALER
Switching from one capture prescaler to another does not
clear the prescaler and may generate a false interrupt. To
avoid this unexpected operation, turn the module off by
clearing the CCPxCON register before changing the
prescaler. Example 23-1 demonstrates the code to
perform this function.
CLRF
MOVLW
CCPRxL
Capture
Enable
TMR1H
Clocking Timer1 from the system clock
(FOSC) should not be used in Capture
mode. In order for Capture mode to
recognize the trigger event on the CCPx
pin, Timer1 must be clocked from the
instruction clock (FOSC/4) or from an
external clock source.
There are four prescaler settings specified by the
CCPxM<3:0> bits of the CCPxCON register. Whenever
the CCP module is turned off, or the CCP module is not
in Capture mode, the prescaler counter is cleared. Any
Reset will clear the prescaler counter.
MOVWF
and
Edge Detect
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
CHANGING BETWEEN
CAPTURE PRESCALERS
BANKSEL CCPxCON
Set Flag bit CCPxIF
(PIRx register)
CCPRxH
Timer1 must be running in Timer mode or Synchronized
Counter mode for the CCP module to use the capture
feature. In Asynchronous Counter mode, the capture
operation may not work.
EXAMPLE 23-1:
CAPTURE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCPx
pin
TIMER1 MODE RESOURCE
;Set Bank bits to point
;to CCPxCON
CCPxCON
;Turn CCP module off
NEW_CAPT_PS ;Load the W reg with
;the new prescaler
;move value and CCP ON
CCPxCON
;Load CCPxCON with this
;value
TMR1L
CCPxM<3:0>
System Clock (FOSC)
DS41414C-page 214
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.1.5
CAPTURE DURING SLEEP
23.1.6
Capture mode depends upon the Timer1 module for
proper operation. There are two options for driving the
Timer1 module in Capture mode. It can be driven by the
instruction clock (FOSC/4), or by an external clock source.
ALTERNATE PIN LOCATIONS
This module incorporates I/O pins that can be moved to
other locations with the use of the alternate pin function
register, APFCON. To determine which pins can be
moved and what their default locations are upon a
reset, see Section 12.1 “Alternate Pin Function” for
more information.
When Timer1 is clocked by FOSC/4, Timer1 will not
increment during Sleep. When the device wakes from
Sleep, Timer1 will continue from its previous state.
Capture mode will operate during Sleep when Timer1
is clocked by an external clock source.
TABLE 23-2:
Name
CCPxCON
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPTURE
Bit 7
Bit 6
PxM<1:0>(1)
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
DCxB<1:0>
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CCPxM<3:0>
CCPRxL
Capture/Compare/PWM Register x Low Byte (LSB)
CCPRxH
Capture/Compare/PWM Register x High Byte (MSB)
Register
on Page
236
214*
214*
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
INTCON
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
96
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
PIR3
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
100
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
TMR1ON
205
T1GGO/DONE
T1GVAL
T1CON
T1GCON
TMR1CS<1:0>
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1CKPS<1:0>
T1GTM
T1GSPM
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
T1GSS<1:0>
206
201*
201*
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
134
TRISD
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
137
TRISE
—
—
—
—
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
140
Legend: — = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Capture mode.
Note 1: Applies to ECCP modules only.
* Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 215
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.2
23.2.2
Compare Mode
The Compare mode function described in this section
is available and identical for CCP modules ECCP1,
ECCP2, ECCP3, CCP4 and CCP5.
Compare mode makes use of the 16-bit Timer1
resource. The 16-bit value of the CCPRxH:CCPRxL
register pair is constantly compared against the 16-bit
value of the TMR1H:TMR1L register pair. When a
match occurs, one of the following events can occur:
•
•
•
•
•
In Compare mode, Timer1 must be running in either
Timer mode or Synchronized Counter mode. The
compare operation may not work in Asynchronous
Counter mode.
See Section 21.0 “Timer1 Module with Gate Control”
for more information on configuring Timer1.
Note:
Toggle the CCPx output
Set the CCPx output
Clear the CCPx output
Generate a Special Event Trigger
Generate a Software Interrupt
The action on the pin is based on the value of the
CCPxM<3:0> control bits of the CCPxCON register. At
the same time, the interrupt flag CCPxIF bit is set.
All Compare modes can generate an interrupt.
Figure 23-2 shows a simplified diagram of the
Compare operation.
FIGURE 23-2:
Set CCPxIF Interrupt Flag
(PIRx)
4
CCPRxH CCPRxL
S
R
Output
Logic
Match
TRIS
Output Enable
Comparator
TMR1H
TMR1L
Special Event Trigger
23.2.1
When Generate Software Interrupt mode is chosen
(CCPxM<3:0> = 1010), the CCPx module does not
assert control of the CCPx pin (see the CCPxCON
register).
23.2.4
The Special Event Trigger output of the CCP occurs
immediately upon a match between the TMR1H,
TMR1L register pair and the CCPRxH, CCPRxL register pair. The TMR1H, TMR1L register pair is not reset
until the next rising edge of the Timer1 clock. The Special Event Trigger output starts an A/D conversion (if
the A/D module is enabled). This allows the CCPRxH,
CCPRxL register pair to effectively provide a 16-bit programmable period register for Timer1.
TABLE 23-3:
CCP PIN CONFIGURATION
Also, the CCPx pin function can be moved to
alternative pins using the APFCON register. Refer to
Section 12.1 “Alternate Pin Function” for more
details.
Clearing the CCPxCON register will force
the CCPx compare output latch to the
default low level. This is not the PORT I/O
data latch.
DS41414C-page 216
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
The CCPx module does not assert control of the CCPx
pin in this mode.
The user must configure the CCPx pin as an output by
clearing the associated TRIS bit.
Note:
SOFTWARE INTERRUPT MODE
• Resets Timer1
• Starts an ADC conversion if ADC is enabled
CCPxM<3:0>
Mode Select
Q
23.2.3
Clocking Timer1 from the system clock
(FOSC) should not be used in Capture
mode. In order for Capture mode to
recognize the trigger event on the CCPx
pin, TImer1 must be clocked from the
instruction clock (FOSC/4) or from an
external clock source.
When Special Event Trigger mode is chosen
(CCPxM<3:0> = 1011), the CCPx module does the
following:
COMPARE MODE
OPERATION BLOCK
DIAGRAM
CCPx
Pin
TIMER1 MODE RESOURCE
SPECIAL EVENT TRIGGER
Device
CCPx/ECCPx
PIC16F/LF1946/47
CCP5
Refer to Section 16.0 “Analog-to-Digital Converter
(ADC) Module” for more information.
Note 1: The Special Event Trigger from the CCP
module does not set interrupt flag bit
TMR1IF of the PIR1 register.
Preliminary
2: Removing the match condition by
changing the contents of the CCPRxH
and CCPRxL register pair, between the
clock edge that generates the Special
Event Trigger and the clock edge that
generates the Timer1 Reset, will
preclude the Reset from occurring.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.2.5
COMPARE DURING SLEEP
23.2.6
The Compare mode is dependent upon the system
clock (FOSC) for proper operation. Since FOSC is shut
down during Sleep mode, the Compare mode will not
function properly during Sleep.
TABLE 23-4:
Name
CCPxCON
ALTERNATE PIN LOCATIONS
This module incorporates I/O pins that can be moved to
other locations with the use of the alternate pin function
register, APFCON. To determine which pins can be
moved and what their default locations are upon a
reset, see Section 12.1 “Alternate Pin Function” for
more information.
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPARE
Bit 7
Bit 6
PxM<1:0>(1)
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
DCxB<1:0>
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CCPxM<3:0>
CCPRxL
Capture/Compare/PWM Register x Low Byte (LSB)
CCPRxH
Capture/Compare/PWM Register x High Byte (MSB)
Register
on Page
236
214*
214*
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
96
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C31F
CCP2IF
99
PIR3
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
T1CON
TMR1CS<1:0>
INTCON
T1GCON
TMR1GE
T1GPOL
T1CKPS<1:0>
T1GTM
T1GSPM
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
100
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
TMR1ON
205
T1GGO/DONE
T1GVAL
TMR1L
Holding Register for the Least Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
TMR1H
Holding Register for the Most Significant Byte of the 16-bit TMR1 Register
T1GSS<1:0>
206
201*
201*
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
134
TRISD
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
137
TRISE
TRISE7
TRISE6
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
140
Legend: — = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by Compare mode.
Note 1: Applies to ECCP modules only.
* Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 217
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.3
FIGURE 23-3:
PWM Overview
Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) is a scheme that
provides power to a load by switching quickly between
fully on and fully off states. The PWM signal resembles
a square wave where the high portion of the signal is
considered the on state and the low portion of the signal
is considered the off state. The high portion, also known
as the pulse width, can vary in time and is defined in
steps. A larger number of steps applied, which
lengthens the pulse width, also supplies more power to
the load. Lowering the number of steps applied, which
shortens the pulse width, supplies less power. The
PWM period is defined as the duration of one complete
cycle or the total amount of on and off time combined.
Period
Pulse Width
TMRx = 0
FIGURE 23-4:
CCPxCON<5:4>
CCPRxL
CCPRxH(2) (Slave)
CCPx
R
Comparator
TMRx
(1)
Q
S
TRIS
Figure 23-3 shows a typical waveform of the PWM
signal.
Comparator
STANDARD PWM OPERATION
PRx
Note 1:
The standard PWM mode generates a Pulse-Width
modulation (PWM) signal on the CCPx pin with up to 10
bits of resolution. The period, duty cycle, and resolution
are controlled by the following registers:
•
•
•
•
SIMPLIFIED PWM BLOCK
DIAGRAM
Duty Cycle Registers
The term duty cycle describes the proportion of the on
time to the off time and is expressed in percentages,
where 0% is fully off and 100% is fully on. A lower duty
cycle corresponds to less power applied and a higher
duty cycle corresponds to more power applied.
The standard PWM function described in this section is
available and identical for CCP modules ECCP1,
ECCP2, ECCP3, CCP4 and CCP5.
TMRx = PRx
TMRx = CCPRxH:CCPxCON<5:4>
PWM resolution defines the maximum number of steps
that can be present in a single PWM period. A higher
resolution allows for more precise control of the pulse
width time and in turn the power that is applied to the
load.
23.3.1
CCP PWM OUTPUT SIGNAL
2:
Clear Timer,
toggle CCPx pin and
latch duty cycle
The 8-bit timer TMRx register is concatenated
with the 2-bit internal system clock (FOSC), or
2 bits of the prescaler, to create the 10-bit time
base.
In PWM mode, CCPRxH is a read-only register.
PRx registers
TxCON registers
CCPRxL registers
CCPxCON registers
Figure 23-4 shows a simplified block diagram of PWM
operation.
Note 1: The corresponding TRIS bit must be
cleared to enable the PWM output on the
CCPx pin.
2: Clearing the CCPxCON register will
relinquish control of the CCPx pin.
DS41414C-page 218
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.3.2
SETUP FOR PWM OPERATION
The following steps should be taken when configuring
the CCP module for standard PWM operation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Disable the CCPx pin output driver by setting the
associated TRIS bit.
Load the PRx register with the PWM period
value.
Configure the CCP module for the PWM mode
by loading the CCPxCON register with the
appropriate values.
Load the CCPRxL register and the DCxBx bits
of the CCPxCON register, with the PWM duty
cycle value.
Configure and start Timer2/4/6:
• Select the Timer2/4/6 resource to be used
for PWM generation by setting the
CxTSEL<1:0> bits in the CCPTMRSx
register.
• Clear the TMRxIF interrupt flag bit of the
PIRx register. See Note below.
• Configure the TxCKPS bits of the TxCON
register with the Timer prescale value.
• Enable the Timer by setting the TMRxON
bit of the TxCON register.
Enable PWM output pin:
• Wait until the Timer overflows and the
TMRxIF bit of the PIRx register is set. See
Note below.
• Enable the CCPx pin output driver by clearing the associated TRIS bit.
Note:
23.3.3
In order to send a complete duty cycle and
period on the first PWM output, the above
steps must be included in the setup
sequence. If it is not critical to start with a
complete PWM signal on the first output,
then step 6 may be ignored.
TIMER2/4/6 TIMER RESOURCE
The PWM standard mode makes use of one of the 8-bit
Timer2/4/6 timer resources to specify the PWM period.
When TMRx is equal to PRx, the following three events
occur on the next increment cycle:
• TMRx is cleared
• The CCPx pin is set. (Exception: If the PWM duty
cycle = 0%, the pin will not be set.)
• The PWM duty cycle is latched from CCPRxL into
CCPRxH.
Note:
23.3.5
The Timer postscaler (see Section 22.1
“Timer2/4/6 Operation”) is not used in the
determination of the PWM frequency.
PWM DUTY CYCLE
The PWM duty cycle is specified by writing a 10-bit
value to multiple registers: CCPRxL register and
DCxB<1:0> bits of the CCPxCON register. The
CCPRxL contains the eight MSbs and the DCxB<1:0>
bits of the CCPxCON register contain the two LSbs.
CCPRxL and DCxB<1:0> bits of the CCPxCON
register can be written to at any time. The duty cycle
value is not latched into CCPRxH until after the period
completes (i.e., a match between PRx and TMRx
registers occurs). While using the PWM, the CCPRxH
register is read-only.
Equation 23-2 is used to calculate the PWM pulse
width.
Equation 23-3 is used to calculate the PWM duty cycle
ratio.
EQUATION 23-2:
PULSE WIDTH
Pulse Width =  CCPRxL:CCPxCON<5:4>  
T OSC  (TMRx Prescale Value)
EQUATION 23-3:
DUTY CYCLE RATIO
 CCPRxL:CCPxCON<5:4> 
Duty Cycle Ratio = ----------------------------------------------------------------------4  PRx + 1 
Configuring the CxTSEL<1:0> bits in the CCPTMRSx
register selects which Timer2/4/6 timer is used.
The CCPRxH register and a 2-bit internal latch are
used to double buffer the PWM duty cycle. This double
buffering is essential for glitchless PWM operation.
23.3.4
The 8-bit timer TMRx register is concatenated with either
the 2-bit internal system clock (FOSC), or 2 bits of the
prescaler, to create the 10-bit time base. The system
clock is used if the Timer2/4/6 prescaler is set to 1:1.
PWM PERIOD
The PWM period is specified by the PRx register of
Timer2/4/6. The PWM period can be calculated using
the formula of Equation 23-1.
EQUATION 23-1:
PWM PERIOD
PWM Period =   PRx  + 1   4  T OSC 
When the 10-bit time base matches the CCPRxH and
2-bit latch, then the CCPx pin is cleared (see
Figure 23-4).
(TMRx Prescale Value)
Note 1:
TOSC = 1/FOSC
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 219
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.3.6
PWM RESOLUTION
EQUATION 23-4:
The resolution determines the number of available duty
cycles for a given period. For example, a 10-bit resolution
will result in 1024 discrete duty cycles, whereas an 8-bit
resolution will result in 256 discrete duty cycles.
The maximum PWM resolution is 10 bits when PRx is
255. The resolution is a function of the PRx register
value as shown by Equation 23-4.
TABLE 23-5:
Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16)
PRx Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
Note:
If the pulse width value is greater than the
period the assigned PWM pin(s) will
remain unchanged.
1.95 kHz
7.81 kHz
31.25 kHz
125 kHz
250 kHz
333.3 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0x3F
0x1F
0x17
10
10
10
8
7
6.6
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 20 MHz)
PWM Frequency
Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16)
PRx Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
TABLE 23-7:
log  4  PRx + 1  
Resolution = ------------------------------------------ bits
log  2 
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 32 MHz)
PWM Frequency
TABLE 23-6:
PWM RESOLUTION
1.22 kHz
4.88 kHz
19.53 kHz
78.12 kHz
156.3 kHz
208.3 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
0xFF
0xFF
0xFF
0x3F
0x1F
0x17
10
10
10
8
7
6.6
EXAMPLE PWM FREQUENCIES AND RESOLUTIONS (FOSC = 8 MHz)
PWM Frequency
Timer Prescale (1, 4, 16)
PRx Value
Maximum Resolution (bits)
DS41414C-page 220
1.22 kHz
4.90 kHz
19.61 kHz
76.92 kHz
153.85 kHz
200.0 kHz
16
4
1
1
1
1
0x65
0x65
0x65
0x19
0x0C
0x09
8
8
8
6
5
5
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.3.7
OPERATION IN SLEEP MODE
23.3.10
In Sleep mode, the TMRx register will not increment
and the state of the module will not change. If the CCPx
pin is driving a value, it will continue to drive that value.
When the device wakes up, TMRx will continue from its
previous state.
23.3.8
CHANGES IN SYSTEM CLOCK
FREQUENCY
ALTERNATE PIN LOCATIONS
This module incorporates I/O pins that can be moved to
other locations with the use of the alternate pin function
register, APFCON. To determine which pins can be
moved and what their default locations are upon a
reset, see Section 12.1 “Alternate Pin Function” for
more information.
The PWM frequency is derived from the system clock
frequency. Any changes in the system clock frequency
will result in changes to the PWM frequency. See
Section 5.0 “Oscillator Module (With Fail-Safe
Clock Monitor)” for additional details.
23.3.9
EFFECTS OF RESET
Any Reset will force all ports to Input mode and the
CCP registers to their Reset states.
TABLE 23-8:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH STANDARD PWM
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
PxM<1:0>(1)
DCxB<1:0>
CCPTMRS0
C4TSEL<1:0>
C3TSEL<1:0>
C2TSEL<1:0>
C1TSEL<1:0>
237
CCPTMRS1
—
—
—
—
—
—
C5TSEL<1:0>
237
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
96
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
CCPxCON
INTCON
PIR3
PRx
TxCON
TMRx
CCPxM<3:0>
236
Timer2/4/6 Period Register
—
100
209*
TxOUTPS<3:0>
TMRxON
TxCKPS<:0>1
Timer2/4/6 Module Register
211
209*
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
134
TRISD
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
137
TRISE
TRISE7
TRISE6
TRISE5
TRISE4
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
140
Legend: — = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the PWM.
Note 1: Applies to ECCP modules only.
* Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 221
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4
To select an Enhanced PWM Output mode, the PxM bits
of the CCPxCON register must be configured
appropriately.
PWM (Enhanced Mode)
The enhanced PWM function described in this section is
available for CCP modules ECCP1, ECCP2 and
ECCP3, with any differences between modules noted.
The PWM outputs are multiplexed with I/O pins and are
designated PxA, PxB, PxC and PxD. The polarity of the
PWM pins is configurable and is selected by setting the
CCPxM bits in the CCPxCON register appropriately.
The enhanced PWM mode generates a Pulse-Width
Modulation (PWM) signal on up to four different output
pins with up to 10 bits of resolution. The period, duty
cycle, and resolution are controlled by the following
registers:
•
•
•
•
Figure 23-5 shows an example of a simplified block
diagram of the Enhanced PWM module.
Table 23-9 shows the pin assignments for various
Enhanced PWM modes.
PRx registers
TxCON registers
CCPRxL registers
CCPxCON registers
Note 1: The corresponding TRIS bit must be
cleared to enable the PWM output on the
CCPx pin.
The ECCP modules have the following additional PWM
registers which control Auto-shutdown, Auto-restart,
Dead-band Delay and PWM Steering modes:
2: Clearing the CCPxCON register will
relinquish control of the CCPx pin.
3: Any pin not used in the enhanced PWM
mode is available for alternate pin
functions, if applicable.
• CCPxAS registers
• PSTRxCON registers
• PWMxCON registers
4: To prevent the generation of an
incomplete waveform when the PWM is
first enabled, the ECCP module waits
until the start of a new PWM period
before generating a PWM signal.
The enhanced PWM module can generate the following
five PWM Output modes:
•
•
•
•
•
Single PWM
Half-Bridge PWM
Full-Bridge PWM, Forward Mode
Full-Bridge PWM, Reverse Mode
Single PWM with PWM Steering Mode
FIGURE 23-5:
EXAMPLE SIMPLIFIED BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE ENHANCED PWM MODE
Duty Cycle Registers
DCxB<1:0>
CCPxM<3:0>
4
PxM<1:0>
2
CCPRxL
CCPx/PxA
CCPx/PxA
TRISx
CCPRxH (Slave)
PxB
Comparator
R
Q
Output
Controller
PxB
TRISx
PxC
TMRx
Comparator
PRx
Note
1:
(1)
PxC
TRISx
S
PxD
Clear Timer,
toggle PWM pin and
latch duty cycle
PxD
TRISx
PWMxCON
The 8-bit timer TMRx register is concatenated with the 2-bit internal Q clock, or 2 bits of the prescaler to create the 10-bit time
base.
DS41414C-page 222
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 23-9:
EXAMPLE PIN ASSIGNMENTS FOR VARIOUS PWM ENHANCED MODES
ECCP Mode
PxM<1:0>
CCPx/PxA
PxB
PxC
PxD
Single
00
Yes(1)
Yes(1)
Yes(1)
Yes(1)
Half-Bridge
10
Yes
Yes
No
No
Full-Bridge, Forward
01
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Full-Bridge, Reverse
11
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Note 1:
PWM Steering enables outputs in Single mode.
FIGURE 23-6:
EXAMPLE PWM (ENHANCED MODE) OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-HIGH
STATE)
PxM<1:0>
Signal
PRX+1
Pulse
Width
0
Period
00
(Single Output)
PxA Modulated
Delay
Delay
PxA Modulated
10
(Half-Bridge)
PxB Modulated
PxA Active
01
(Full-Bridge,
Forward)
PxB Inactive
PxC Inactive
PxD Modulated
PxA Inactive
11
(Full-Bridge,
Reverse)
PxB Modulated
PxC Active
PxD Inactive
Relationships:
• Period = 4 * TOSC * (PRx + 1) * (TMRx Prescale Value)
• Pulse Width = TOSC * (CCPRxL<7:0>:CCPxCON<5:4>) * (TMRx Prescale Value)
• Delay = 4 * TOSC * (PWMxCON<6:0>)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 223
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 23-7:
EXAMPLE ENHANCED PWM OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS (ACTIVE-LOW STATE)
PxM<1:0>
Signal
PRx+1
Pulse
Width
0
Period
00
(Single Output)
PxA Modulated
PxA Modulated
10
(Half-Bridge)
Delay
Delay
PxB Modulated
PxA Active
01
(Full-Bridge,
Forward)
PxB Inactive
PxC Inactive
PxD Modulated
PxA Inactive
11
(Full-Bridge,
Reverse)
PxB Modulated
PxC Active
PxD Inactive
Relationships:
• Period = 4 * TOSC * (PRx + 1) * (TMRx Prescale Value)
• Pulse Width = TOSC * (CCPRxL<7:0>:CCPxCON<5:4>) * (TMRx Prescale Value)
• Delay = 4 * TOSC * (PWMxCON<6:0>)
DS41414C-page 224
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.1
HALF-BRIDGE MODE
In Half-Bridge mode, two pins are used as outputs to
drive push-pull loads. The PWM output signal is output
on the CCPx/PxA pin, while the complementary PWM
output signal is output on the PxB pin (see
Figure 23-9). This mode can be used for Half-Bridge
applications, as shown in Figure 23-9, or for Full-Bridge
applications, where four power switches are being
modulated with two PWM signals.
In Half-Bridge mode, the programmable dead-band delay
can be used to prevent shoot-through current in
Half-Bridge power devices. The value of the PDC<6:0>
bits of the PWMxCON register sets the number of
instruction cycles before the output is driven active. If the
value is greater than the duty cycle, the corresponding
output remains inactive during the entire cycle. See
Section 23.4.5 “Programmable Dead-Band Delay
Mode” for more details of the dead-band delay
operations.
Since the PxA and PxB outputs are multiplexed with the
PORT data latches, the associated TRIS bits must be
cleared to configure PxA and PxB as outputs.
FIGURE 23-8:
Period
Period
Pulse Width
PxA(2)
td
td
PxB(2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
td = Dead-Band Delay
Note 1:
2:
FIGURE 23-9:
EXAMPLE OF
HALF-BRIDGE PWM
OUTPUT
At this time, the TMRx register is equal to the
PRx register.
Output signals are shown as active-high.
EXAMPLE OF HALF-BRIDGE APPLICATIONS
Standard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”)
FET
Driver
+
PxA
Load
FET
Driver
+
PxB
-
Half-Bridge Output Driving a Full-Bridge Circuit
V+
FET
Driver
FET
Driver
PxA
FET
Driver
Load
FET
Driver
PxB
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 225
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.2
FULL-BRIDGE MODE
In Full-Bridge mode, all four pins are used as outputs.
An example of Full-Bridge application is shown in
Figure 23-10.
In the Forward mode, pin CCPx/PxA is driven to its active
state, pin PxD is modulated, while PxB and PxC will be
driven to their inactive state as shown in Figure 23-11.
In the Reverse mode, PxC is driven to its active state, pin
PxB is modulated, while PxA and PxD will be driven to
their inactive state as shown Figure 23-11.
PxA, PxB, PxC and PxD outputs are multiplexed with
the PORT data latches. The associated TRIS bits must
be cleared to configure the PxA, PxB, PxC and PxD
pins as outputs.
FIGURE 23-10:
EXAMPLE OF FULL-BRIDGE APPLICATION
V+
FET
Driver
QC
QA
FET
Driver
PxA
Load
PxB
FET
Driver
PxC
FET
Driver
QD
QB
VPxD
DS41414C-page 226
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 23-11:
EXAMPLE OF FULL-BRIDGE PWM OUTPUT
Forward Mode
Period
PxA
(2)
Pulse Width
PxB(2)
PxC(2)
PxD(2)
(1)
(1)
Reverse Mode
Period
Pulse Width
PxA(2)
PxB(2)
PxC(2)
PxD(2)
(1)
Note 1:
2:
(1)
At this time, the TMRx register is equal to the PRx register.
Output signal is shown as active-high.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 227
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.2.1
Direction Change in Full-Bridge
Mode
In the Full-Bridge mode, the PxM1 bit in the CCPxCON
register allows users to control the forward/reverse
direction. When the application firmware changes this
direction control bit, the module will change to the new
direction on the next PWM cycle.
A direction change is initiated in software by changing
the PxM1 bit of the CCPxCON register. The following
sequence occurs four Timer cycles prior to the end of
the current PWM period:
• The modulated outputs (PxB and PxD) are placed
in their inactive state.
• The associated unmodulated outputs (PxA and
PxC) are switched to drive in the opposite
direction.
• PWM modulation resumes at the beginning of the
next period.
See Figure 23-12 for an illustration of this sequence.
The Full-Bridge mode does not provide dead-band
delay. As one output is modulated at a time, dead-band
delay is generally not required. There is a situation
where dead-band delay is required. This situation
occurs when both of the following conditions are true:
1.
2.
The direction of the PWM output changes when
the duty cycle of the output is at or near 100%.
The turn off time of the power switch, including
the power device and driver circuit, is greater
than the turn on time.
Figure 23-13 shows an example of the PWM direction
changing from forward to reverse, at a near 100% duty
cycle. In this example, at time t1, the output PxA and
PxD become inactive, while output PxC becomes
active. Since the turn off time of the power devices is
longer than the turn on time, a shoot-through current
will flow through power devices QC and QD (see
Figure 23-10) for the duration of ‘t’. The same
phenomenon will occur to power devices QA and QB
for PWM direction change from reverse to forward.
If changing PWM direction at high duty cycle is required
for an application, two possible solutions for eliminating
the shoot-through current are:
1.
2.
Reduce PWM duty cycle for one PWM period
before changing directions.
Use switch drivers that can drive the switches off
faster than they can drive them on.
Other options to prevent shoot-through current may
exist.
FIGURE 23-12:
EXAMPLE OF PWM DIRECTION CHANGE
Period(1)
Signal
Period
PxA (Active-High)
PxB (Active-High)
Pulse Width
PxC (Active-High)
(2)
PxD (Active-High)
Pulse Width
Note 1:
2:
The direction bit PxM1 of the CCPxCON register is written any time during the PWM cycle.
When changing directions, the PxA and PxC signals switch before the end of the current PWM cycle. The
modulated PxB and PxD signals are inactive at this time. The length of this time is four Timer counts.
DS41414C-page 228
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 23-13:
EXAMPLE OF PWM DIRECTION CHANGE AT NEAR 100% DUTY CYCLE
Forward Period
t1
Reverse Period
PxA
PxB
PW
PxC
PxD
PW
TON
External Switch C
TOFF
External Switch D
Potential
Shoot-Through Current
Note 1:
T = TOFF – TON
All signals are shown as active-high.
2:
TON is the turn on delay of power switch QC and its driver.
3:
TOFF is the turn off delay of power switch QD and its driver.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 229
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.3
ENHANCED PWM
AUTO-SHUTDOWN MODE
The PWM mode supports an Auto-Shutdown mode that
will disable the PWM outputs when an external
shutdown event occurs. Auto-Shutdown mode places
the PWM output pins into a predetermined state. This
mode is used to help prevent the PWM from damaging
the application.
Note 1: The auto-shutdown condition is a
level-based signal, not an edge-based
signal. As long as the level is present, the
auto-shutdown will persist.
The auto-shutdown sources are selected using the
CCPxAS<2:0> bits of the CCPxAS register. A shutdown
event may be generated by:
• A logic ‘0’ on the INT pin
• A logic ‘1’ on a Comparator (Cx) output
A shutdown condition is indicated by the CCPxASE
(Auto-Shutdown Event Status) bit of the CCPxAS
register. If the bit is a ‘0’, the PWM pins are operating
normally. If the bit is a ‘1’, the PWM outputs are in the
shutdown state.
When a shutdown event occurs, two things happen:
The CCPxASE bit is set to ‘1’. The CCPxASE will
remain set until cleared in firmware or an auto-restart
occurs (see Section 23.4.4 “Auto-Restart Mode”).
The enabled PWM pins are asynchronously placed in
their shutdown states. The PWM output pins are
grouped into pairs [PxA/PxC] and [PxB/PxD]. The state
of each pin pair is determined by the PSSxAC and
PSSxBD bits of the CCPxAS register. Each pin pair may
be placed into one of three states:
2: Writing to the CCPxASE bit of the
CCPxAS register is disabled while an
auto-shutdown condition persists.
3: Once the auto-shutdown condition has
been removed and the PWM restarted
(either through firmware or auto-restart)
the PWM signal will always restart at the
beginning of the next PWM period.
4: Prior to an auto-shutdown event caused
by a comparator output or INT pin event,
a software shutdown can be triggered in
firmware by setting the CCPxASE bit of
the CCPxAS register to ‘1’. The
Auto-Restart feature tracks the active
status of a shutdown caused by a
comparator output or INT pin event only.
If it is enabled at this time, it will
immediately clear this bit and restart the
ECCP module at the beginning of the
next PWM period.
• Drive logic ‘1’
• Drive logic ‘0’
• Tri-state (high-impedance)
DS41414C-page 230
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 23-14:
PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN WITH FIRMWARE RESTART (PXRSEN = 0)
Missing Pulse
(Auto-Shutdown)
Timer
Overflow
Timer
Overflow
Missing Pulse
(CCPxASE not clear)
Timer
Overflow
Timer
Overflow
Timer
Overflow
PWM Period
PWM Activity
Start of
PWM Period
Shutdown Event
CCPxASE bit
Shutdown
Event Occurs
23.4.4
AUTO-RESTART MODE
The Enhanced PWM can be configured to automatically restart the PWM signal once the auto-shutdown
condition has been removed. Auto-restart is enabled by
setting the PxRSEN bit in the PWMxCON register.
FIGURE 23-15:
Shutdown
Event Clears
PWM
Resumes
CCPxASE
Cleared by
Firmware
If auto-restart is enabled, the CCPxASE bit will remain
set as long as the auto-shutdown condition is active.
When the auto-shutdown condition is removed, the
CCPxASE bit will be cleared via hardware and normal
operation will resume.
PWM AUTO-SHUTDOWN WITH AUTO-RESTART (PXRSEN = 1)
Missing Pulse
(Auto-Shutdown)
Timer
Overflow
Timer
Overflow
Missing Pulse
(CCPxASE not clear)
Timer
Overflow
Timer
Overflow
Timer
Overflow
PWM Period
PWM Activity
Start of
PWM Period
Shutdown Event
CCPxASE bit
PWM
Resumes
Shutdown
Event Occurs
Shutdown
Event Clears
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
CCPxASE
Cleared by
Hardware
DS41414C-page 231
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.5
PROGRAMMABLE DEAD-BAND
DELAY MODE
FIGURE 23-16:
In Half-Bridge applications where all power switches
are modulated at the PWM frequency, the power
switches normally require more time to turn off than to
turn on. If both the upper and lower power switches are
switched at the same time (one turned on, and the
other turned off), both switches may be on for a short
period of time until one switch completely turns off.
During this brief interval, a very high current
(shoot-through current) will flow through both power
switches, shorting the bridge supply. To avoid this
potentially destructive shoot-through current from
flowing during switching, turning on either of the power
switches is normally delayed to allow the other switch
to completely turn off.
Period
Period
Pulse Width
PxA(2)
td
td
PxB(2)
(1)
(1)
(1)
td = Dead-Band Delay
Note 1:
In Half-Bridge mode, a digitally programmable
dead-band delay is available to avoid shoot-through
current from destroying the bridge power switches. The
delay occurs at the signal transition from the non-active
state to the active state. See Figure 23-16 for
illustration. The lower seven bits of the associated
PWMxCON register (Register 23-5) sets the delay
period in terms of microcontroller instruction cycles
(TCY or 4 TOSC).
FIGURE 23-17:
EXAMPLE OF
HALF-BRIDGE PWM
OUTPUT
2:
At this time, the TMRx register is equal to the
PRx register.
Output signals are shown as active-high.
EXAMPLE OF HALF-BRIDGE APPLICATIONS
V+
Standard Half-Bridge Circuit (“Push-Pull”)
FET
Driver
+
V
-
PxA
Load
FET
Driver
+
V
-
PxB
V-
DS41414C-page 232
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.6
PWM STEERING MODE
In Single Output mode, PWM steering allows any of the
PWM pins to be the modulated signal. Additionally, the
same PWM signal can be simultaneously available on
multiple pins.
Once the Single Output mode is selected
(CCPxM<3:2> = 11 and PxM<1:0> = 00 of the
CCPxCON register), the user firmware can bring out
the same PWM signal to one, two, three or four output
pins by setting the appropriate STRx<D:A> bits of the
PSTRxCON register, as shown in Table 23-9.
The associated TRIS bits must be set to
output (‘0’) to enable the pin output driver
in order to see the PWM signal on the pin.
Note:
While the PWM Steering mode is active, CCPxM<1:0>
bits of the CCPxCON register select the PWM output
polarity for the Px<D:A> pins.
The PWM auto-shutdown operation also applies to
PWM Steering mode as described in Section 23.4.3
“Enhanced PWM Auto-shutdown mode”. An
auto-shutdown event will only affect pins that have
PWM outputs enabled.
FIGURE 23-18:
SIMPLIFIED STEERING
BLOCK DIAGRAM
STRxA
PxA Signal
CCPxM1
1
PORT Data
0
PxA pin
STRxB
CCPxM0
1
PORT Data
0
STRxC
CCPxM1
1
PORT Data
0
PORT Data
PxB pin
TRIS
PxC pin
TRIS
STRxD
CCPxM0
TRIS
PxD pin
1
0
TRIS
Note 1:
Port outputs are configured as shown when
the CCPxCON register bits PxM<1:0> = 00
and CCPxM<3:2> = 11.
2:
Single PWM output requires setting at least
one of the STRx bits.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 233
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.6.1
Steering Synchronization
The STRxSYNC bit of the PSTRxCON register gives
the user two selections of when the steering event will
happen. When the STRxSYNC bit is ‘0’, the steering
event will happen at the end of the instruction that
writes to the PSTRxCON register. In this case, the
output signal at the Px<D:A> pins may be an
incomplete PWM waveform. This operation is useful
when the user firmware needs to immediately remove
a PWM signal from the pin.
When the STRxSYNC bit is ‘1’, the effective steering
update will happen at the beginning of the next PWM
period. In this case, steering on/off the PWM output will
always produce a complete PWM waveform.
Figures 23-19 and 23-20 illustrate the timing diagrams
of the PWM steering depending on the STRxSYNC
setting.
23.4.7
drivers are enabled. Changing the polarity
configuration while the PWM pin output drivers are
enable is not recommended since it may result in
damage to the application circuits.
The PxA, PxB, PxC and PxD output latches may not be
in the proper states when the PWM module is
initialized. Enabling the PWM pin output drivers at the
same time as the Enhanced PWM modes may cause
damage to the application circuit. The Enhanced PWM
modes must be enabled in the proper Output mode and
complete a full PWM cycle before enabling the PWM
pin output drivers. The completion of a full PWM cycle
is indicated by the TMRxIF bit of the PIRx register
being set as the second PWM period begins.
Note:
START-UP CONSIDERATIONS
When any PWM mode is used, the application
hardware must use the proper external pull-up and/or
pull-down resistors on the PWM output pins.
When the microcontroller is released from
Reset, all of the I/O pins are in the
high-impedance state. The external circuits must keep the power switch devices
in the Off state until the microcontroller
drives the I/O pins with the proper signal
levels or activates the PWM output(s).
The CCPxM<1:0> bits of the CCPxCON register allow
the user to choose whether the PWM output signals are
active-high or active-low for each pair of PWM output
pins (PxA/PxC and PxB/PxD). The PWM output
polarities must be selected before the PWM pin output
FIGURE 23-19:
EXAMPLE OF STEERING EVENT AT END OF INSTRUCTION (STRxSYNC = 0)
PWM Period
PWM
STRx
P1<D:A>
PORT Data
PORT Data
P1n = PWM
FIGURE 23-20:
EXAMPLE OF STEERING EVENT AT BEGINNING OF INSTRUCTION
(STRxSYNC = 1)
PWM
STRx
P1<D:A>
PORT Data
PORT Data
P1n = PWM
DS41414C-page 234
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.4.8
ALTERNATE PIN LOCATIONS
This module incorporates I/O pins that can be moved to
other locations with the use of the alternate pin function
register, APFCON. To determine which pins can be
moved and what their default locations are upon a
reset, see Section 12.1 “Alternate Pin Function” for
more information.
TABLE 23-10: SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ENHANCED PWM
Name
CCPxCON
CCPxAS
CCPTMRS0
CCPTMRS1
INTCON
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
PxM<1:0>(1)
CCPxASE
Bit 4
Bit 3
DCxB<1:0>
CCPxAS<2:0>
C4TSEL<1:0>
C3TSEL<1:0>
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
CCPxM<3:0>
Register
on Page
236
PSSxAC<1:0>
PSSxBD<1:0>
238
C2TSEL<1:0>
C1TSEL<1:0>
237
C5TSEL<1:0>
237
—
—
—
—
—
—
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
94
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
PIE3
—
CCP5IE
CCP4IE
CCP3IE
TMR6IE
—
TMR4IE
—
96
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
PIR3
—
CCP5IF
CCP4IF
CCP3IF
TMR6IF
—
TMR4IF
—
PRx
Timer2/4/6 Period Register
PSTRxCON
—
PWMxCON
PxRSEN
TxCON
TMRx
—
—
STRxSYNC
STRxD
STRxC
STRxB
STRxA
PxDC<6:0>
—
100
209*
TxOUTPS<3:0>
240
239
TMRxON
TxCKPS<:0>1
Timer2/4/6 Module Register
211
209*
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
216
216
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
216
TRISD
TRISD7
TRISD6
TRISD5
TRISD4
TRISD3
TRISD2
TRISD1
TRISD0
216
TRISE
—
—
—
—
TRISE3
TRISE2
TRISE1
TRISE0
216
Legend: — = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the PWM.
Note 1: Applies to ECCP modules only.
* Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 235
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
23.5
CCP Control Registers
REGISTER 23-1:
R/W-00
CCPxCON: CCPx CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
PxM<1:0>(1)
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
DCxB<1:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CCPxM<3:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Reset
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
PxM<1:0>: Enhanced PWM Output Configuration bits(1)
Capture mode:
Unused
Compare mode:
Unused
If CCPxM<3:2> = 00, 01, 10:
xx = PxA assigned as Capture/Compare input; PxB, PxC, PxD assigned as port pins
If CCPxM<3:2> = 11:
00 = Single output; PxA modulated; PxB, PxC, PxD assigned as port pins
01 = Full-Bridge output forward; PxD modulated; PxA active; PxB, PxC inactive
10 = Half-Bridge output; PxA, PxB modulated with dead-band control; PxC, PxD assigned as port pins
11 = Full-Bridge output reverse; PxB modulated; PxC active; PxA, PxD inactive
bit 5-4
DCxB<1:0>: PWM Duty Cycle Least Significant bits
Capture mode:
Unused
Compare mode:
Unused
PWM mode:
These bits are the two LSbs of the PWM duty cycle. The eight MSbs are found in CCPRxL.
bit 3-0
CCPxM<3:0>: ECCPx Mode Select bits
0000 =
0001 =
0010 =
0011 =
Capture/Compare/PWM off (resets ECCPx module)
Reserved
Compare mode: toggle output on match
Reserved
0100 =
0101 =
0110 =
0111 =
Capture mode: every falling edge
Capture mode: every rising edge
Capture mode: every 4th rising edge
Capture mode: every 16th rising edge
1000 =
1001 =
1010 =
1011 =
Compare mode: initialize ECCPx pin low; set output on compare match (set CCPxIF)
Compare mode: initialize ECCPx pin high; clear output on compare match (set CCPxIF)
Compare mode: generate software interrupt only; ECCPx pin reverts to I/O state
Compare mode: Special Event Trigger (ECCPx resets TMR1 or TMR3, sets CCPxIF bit, ECCP2 trigger
also starts A/D conversion if A/D module is enabled)(1)
CCP4/CCP5 only:
11xx = PWM mode
ECCP1/ECCP2/ECCP3 only:
1100 = PWM mode: PxA, PxC active-high; PxB, PxD active-high
1101 = PWM mode: PxA, PxC active-high; PxB, PxD active-low
1110 = PWM mode: PxA, PxC active-low; PxB, PxD active-high
1111 = PWM mode: PxA, PxC active-low; PxB, PxD active-low
Note 1:
These bits are not implemented on CCP<5:4>.
DS41414C-page 236
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 23-2:
R/W-0/0
CCPTMRS0: PWM TIMER SELECTION CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
C4TSEL<1:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
C3TSEL<1:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
C2TSEL<1:0>
R/W-0/0
C1TSEL<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
C4TSEL<1:0>: CCP4 Timer Selection
00 = CCP4 is based off Timer 2 in PWM Mode
01 = CCP4 is based off Timer 4 in PWM Mode
10 = CCP4 is based off Timer 6 in PWM Mode
11 = Reserved
bit 5-4
C3TSEL<1:0>: CCP3 Timer Selection
00 = CCP3 is based off Timer 2 in PWM Mode
01 = CCP3 is based off Timer 4 in PWM Mode
10 = CCP3 is based off Timer 6 in PWM Mode
11 = Reserved
bit 3-2
C2TSEL<1:0>: CCP2 Timer Selection
00 = CCP2 is based off Timer 2 in PWM Mode
01 = CCP2 is based off Timer 4 in PWM Mode
10 = CCP2 is based off Timer 6 in PWM Mode
11 = Reserved
bit 1-0
C1TSEL<1:0>: CCP1 Timer Selection
00 = CCP1 is based off Timer 2 in PWM Mode
01 = CCP1 is based off Timer 4 in PWM Mode
10 = CCP1 is based off Timer 6 in PWM Mode
11 = Reserved
REGISTER 23-3:
CCPTMRS1: PWM TIMER SELECTION CONTROL REGISTER 1
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
—
—
—
—
R/W-0/0
bit 7
R/W-0/0
C5TSEL<1:0>
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1-0
C5TSEL<1:0>: CCP5 Timer Selection
00 = CCP5 is based off Timer 2 in PWM Mode
01 = CCP5 is based off Timer 4 in PWM Mode
10 = CCP5 is based off Timer 6 in PWM Mode
11 = Reserved
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 237
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 23-4:
R/W-0/0
CCPxAS: CCPX AUTO-SHUTDOWN CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
CCPxASE
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CCPxAS<2:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
PSSxAC<1:0>
R/W-0/0
PSSxBD<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
CCPxASE: CCPx Auto-Shutdown Event Status bit
1 = A shutdown event has occurred; CCPx outputs are in shutdown state
0 = CCPx outputs are operating
bit 6-4
CCPxAS<2:0>: CCPx Auto-Shutdown Source Select bits
000 = Auto-shutdown is disabled
001 = Comparator C1 output high(1)
010 = Comparator C2 output high(1, 2)
011 = Either Comparator C1 or C2 high(1, 2)
100 = VIL on INT pin
101 = VIL on INT pin or Comparator C1 high(1)
110 = VIL on INT pin or Comparator C2 high(1, 2)
111 = VIL on INT pin or Comparator C1 or Comparator C2 high(1, 2)
bit 3-2
PSSxAC<1:0>: Pins PxA and PxC Shutdown State Control bits
00 = Drive pins PxA and PxC to ‘0’
01 = Drive pins PxA and PxC to ‘1’
1x = Pins PxA and PxC tri-state
bit 1-0
PSSxBD<1:0>: Pins PxB and PxD Shutdown State Control bits
00 = Drive pins PxB and PxD to ‘0’
01 = Drive pins PxB and PxD to ‘1’
1x = Pins PxB and PxD tri-state
Note 1:
2:
If CxSYNC is enabled, the shutdown will be delayed by Timer1.
For PIC16F1946/47 devices in ECCP3 mode, CCPxAS uses C3 instead of C2.
DS41414C-page 238
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 23-5:
R/W-0/0
PWMxCON: ENHANCED PWM CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
PxRSEN
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
PxDC<6:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
PxRSEN: PWM Restart Enable bit
1 = Upon auto-shutdown, the CCPxASE bit clears automatically once the shutdown event goes away;
the PWM restarts automatically
0 = Upon auto-shutdown, CCPxASE must be cleared in software to restart the PWM
bit 6-0
PxDC<6:0>: PWM Delay Count bits
PxDCx = Number of FOSC/4 (4 * TOSC) cycles between the scheduled time when a PWM signal
should transition active and the actual time it transitions active
Note 1:
Bit resets to ‘0’ with Two-Speed Start-up and LP, XT or HS selected as the Oscillator mode or Fail-Safe
mode is enabled.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 239
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
PSTRxCON: PWM STEERING CONTROL REGISTER(1)
REGISTER 23-6:
U-0
U-0
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-1/1
—
—
—
STRxSYNC
STRxD
STRxC
STRxB
STRxA
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
STRxSYNC: Steering Sync bit
1 = Output steering update occurs on next PWM period
0 = Output steering update occurs at the beginning of the instruction cycle boundary
bit 3
STRxD: Steering Enable bit D
1 = PxD pin has the PWM waveform with polarity control from CCPxM<1:0>
0 = PxD pin is assigned to port pin
bit 2
STRxC: Steering Enable bit C
1 = PxC pin has the PWM waveform with polarity control from CCPxM<1:0>
0 = PxC pin is assigned to port pin
bit 1
STRxB: Steering Enable bit B
1 = PxB pin has the PWM waveform with polarity control from CCPxM<1:0>
0 = PxB pin is assigned to port pin
bit 0
STRxA: Steering Enable bit A
1 = PxA pin has the PWM waveform with polarity control from CCPxM<1:0>
0 = PxA pin is assigned to port pin
Note 1:
The PWM Steering mode is available only when the CCPxCON register bits CCPxM<3:2> = 11 and
PxM<1:0> = 00.
DS41414C-page 240
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.0
MASTER SYNCHRONOUS
SERIAL PORT (MSSP1 AND
MSSP2) MODULE
24.1
Master SSPx (MSSPx) Module
Overview
The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSPx) module
is a serial interface useful for communicating with other
peripheral or microcontroller devices. These peripheral
devices may be Serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers, A/D converters, etc. The MSSPx module
can operate in one of two modes:
• Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
• Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C™)
The SPI interface supports the following modes and
features:
•
•
•
•
•
Master mode
Slave mode
Clock Parity
Slave Select Synchronization (Slave mode only)
Daisy-chain connection of slave devices
Figure 24-1 is a block diagram of the SPI interface
module.
FIGURE 24-1:
MSSPX BLOCK DIAGRAM (SPI MODE)
Data Bus
Read
Write
SSPxBUF Reg
SDIx
SSPxSR Reg
SDOx
bit 0
SSx
SSx Control
Enable
Shift
Clock
2 (CKP, CKE)
Clock Select
Edge
Select
SSPxM<3:0>
4
SCKx
Edge
Select
TRIS bit
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
( TMR22Output )
Prescaler TOSC
4, 16, 64
Baud rate
generator
(SSPxADD)
DS41414C-page 241
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
The I2C interface supports the following modes and
features:
Master mode
Slave mode
Byte NACKing (Slave mode)
Limited Multi-master support
7-bit and 10-bit addressing
Start and Stop interrupts
Interrupt masking
Clock stretching
Bus collision detection
General call address matching
Address masking
Address Hold and Data Hold modes
Selectable SDAx hold times
Note 1: In devices with more than one MSSP
module, it is very important to pay close
attention to SSPxCONx register names.
SSP1CON1 and SSP1CON2 registers
control different operational aspects of
the same module, while SSP1CON1 and
SSP2CON1 control the same features for
two different modules.
2: Throughout this section, generic references to an MSSP module in any of its
operating modes may be interpreted as
being equally applicable to MSSP1 or
MSSP2. Register names, module I/O signals, and bit names may use the generic
designator ‘x’ to indicate the use of a
numeral to distinguish a particular module
when required.
Figure 24-2 is a block diagram of the I2C interface module in Master mode. Figure 24-3 is a diagram of the I2C
interface module in Slave mode.
MSSPX BLOCK DIAGRAM (I2C™ MASTER MODE)
Internal
data bus
Read
[SSPxM 3:0]
Write
SSPxBUF
SDAx
Baud rate
generator
(SSPxADD)
Shift
Clock
SDAx in
Receive Enable (RCEN)
SCLx
SCLx in
Bus Collision
DS41414C-page 242
LSb
Start bit, Stop bit,
Acknowledge
Generate (SSPxCON2)
Start bit detect,
Stop bit detect
Write collision detect
Clock arbitration
State counter for
end of XMIT/RCV
Address Match detect
Preliminary
Clock Cntl
SSPxSR
MSb
(Hold off clock source)
FIGURE 24-2:
Clock arbitrate/BCOL detect
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The PIC16F1947 has two MSSP modules, MSSP1 and
MSSP2, each module operating independently from
the other.
Set/Reset: S, P, SSPxSTAT, WCOL, SSPxOV
Reset SEN, PEN (SSPxCON2)
Set SSPxIF, BCLxIF
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 24-3:
MSSPx BLOCK DIAGRAM (I2C™ SLAVE MODE)
Internal
Data Bus
Read
Write
SSPxBUF Reg
SCLx
Shift
Clock
SSPxSR Reg
SDAx
MSb
LSb
SSPxMSK Reg
Match Detect
Addr Match
SSPxADD Reg
Start and
Stop bit Detect
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
Set, Reset
S, P bits
(SSPxSTAT Reg)
DS41414C-page 243
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.2
SPI Mode Overview
The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus is a
synchronous serial data communication bus that
operates in Full Duplex mode. Devices communicate in
a master/slave environment where the master device
initiates the communication. A slave device is
controlled through a chip select known as Slave Select.
The SPI bus specifies four signal connections:
•
•
•
•
its SDOx pin) and the slave device is reading this bit
and saving it as the LSb of its shift register, that the
slave device is also sending out the MSb from its shift
register (on its SDOx pin) and the master device is
reading this bit and saving it as the LSb of its shift
register.
After 8 bits have been shifted out, the master and slave
have exchanged register values.
If there is more data to exchange, the shift registers are
loaded with new data and the process repeats itself.
Serial Clock (SCKx)
Serial Data Out (SDOx)
Serial Data In (SDIx)
Slave Select (SSx)
Whether the data is meaningful or not (dummy data),
depends on the application software. This leads to
three scenarios for data transmission:
Figure 24-1 shows the block diagram of the MSSPx
module when operating in SPI Mode.
The SPI bus operates with a single master device and
one or more slave devices. When multiple slave
devices are used, an independent Slave Select connection is required from the master device to each
slave device.
Figure 24-4 shows a typical connection between a
master device and multiple slave devices.
The master selects only one slave at a time. Most slave
devices have tri-state outputs so their output signal
appears disconnected from the bus when they are not
selected.
Transmissions involve two shift registers, eight bits in
size, one in the master and one in the slave. With either
the master or the slave device, data is always shifted
out one bit at a time, with the Most Significant bit (MSb)
shifted out first. At the same time, a new Least
Significant bit (LSb) is shifted into the same register.
• Master sends useful data and slave sends dummy
data.
• Master sends useful data and slave sends useful
data.
• Master sends dummy data and slave sends useful
data.
Transmissions may involve any number of clock
cycles. When there is no more data to be transmitted,
the master stops sending the clock signal and it
deselects the slave.
Every slave device connected to the bus that has not
been selected through its slave select line must disregard the clock and transmission signals and must not
transmit out any data of its own.
Figure 24-5 shows a typical connection between two
processors configured as master and slave devices.
Data is shifted out of both shift registers on the programmed clock edge and latched on the opposite edge
of the clock.
The master device transmits information out on its
SDOx output pin which is connected to, and received
by, the slave’s SDIx input pin. The slave device transmits information out on its SDOx output pin, which is
connected to, and received by, the master’s SDIx input
pin.
To begin communication, the master device first sends
out the clock signal. Both the master and the slave
devices should be configured for the same clock polarity.
The master device starts a transmission by sending out
the MSb from its shift register. The slave device reads
this bit from that same line and saves it into the LSb
position of its shift register.
During each SPI clock cycle, a full duplex data
transmission occurs. This means that while the master
device is sending out the MSb from its shift register (on
DS41414C-page 244
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 24-4:
SPI MASTER AND MULTIPLE SLAVE CONNECTION
SPI Master
SCKx
SCKx
SDOx
SDIx
SDIx
SDOx
General I/O
General I/O
SSx
General I/O
SCKx
SDIx
SDOx
SPI Slave
#1
SPI Slave
#2
SSx
SCKx
SDIx
SDOx
SPI Slave
#3
SSx
24.2.1 SPI MODE REGISTERS
The MSSPx module has five registers for SPI mode
operation. These are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
MSSPx STATUS register (SSPxSTAT)
MSSPx Control Register 1 (SSPxCON1)
MSSPx Control Register 3 (SSPxCON3)
MSSPx Data Buffer register (SSPxBUF)
MSSPx Address register (SSPxADD)
MSSPx Shift register (SSPxSR)
(Not directly accessible)
SSPxCON1 and SSPxSTAT are the control and
STATUS registers in SPI mode operation. The
SSPxCON1 register is readable and writable. The
lower 6 bits of the SSPxSTAT are read-only. The upper
two bits of the SSPxSTAT are read/write.
In one SPI master mode, SSPxADD can be loaded
with a value used in the Baud Rate Generator. More
information on the Baud Rate Generator is available in
Section 24.7 “Baud Rate Generator”.
SSPxSR is the shift register used for shifting data in
and out. SSPxBUF provides indirect access to the
SSPxSR register. SSPxBUF is the buffer register to
which data bytes are written, and from which data
bytes are read.
In receive operations, SSPxSR and SSPxBUF
together create a buffered receiver. When SSPxSR
receives a complete byte, it is transferred to SSPxBUF
and the SSPxIF interrupt is set.
During transmission, the SSPxBUF is not buffered. A
write to SSPxBUF will write to both SSPxBUF and
SSPxSR.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 245
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.2.2 SPI MODE OPERATION
When initializing the SPI, several options need to be
specified. This is done by programming the appropriate
control bits (SSPxCON1<5:0> and SSPxSTAT<7:6>).
These control bits allow the following to be specified:
•
•
•
•
Master mode (SCKx is the clock output)
Slave mode (SCKx is the clock input)
Clock Polarity (Idle state of SCKx)
Data Input Sample Phase (middle or end of data
output time)
• Clock Edge (output data on rising/falling edge of
SCKx)
• Clock Rate (Master mode only)
• Slave Select mode (Slave mode only)
To enable the serial port, SSPx Enable bit, SSPxEN of
the SSPxCON1 register, must be set. To reset or reconfigure SPI mode, clear the SSPxEN bit, re-initialize the
SSPxCONx registers and then set the SSPxEN bit.
This configures the SDIx, SDOx, SCKx and SSx pins
as serial port pins. For the pins to behave as the serial
port function, some must have their data direction bits
(in the TRIS register) appropriately programmed as
follows:
• SDIx must have corresponding TRIS bit set
• SDOx must have corresponding TRIS bit cleared
• SCKx (Master mode) must have corresponding
TRIS bit cleared
• SCKx (Slave mode) must have corresponding
TRIS bit set
• SSx must have corresponding TRIS bit set
FIGURE 24-5:
Any serial port function that is not desired may be
overridden by programming the corresponding data
direction (TRIS) register to the opposite value.
The MSSPx consists of a transmit/receive shift register
(SSPxSR) and a buffer register (SSPxBUF). The
SSPxSR shifts the data in and out of the device, MSb
first. The SSPxBUF holds the data that was written to
the SSPxSR until the received data is ready. Once the
8 bits of data have been received, that byte is moved to
the SSPxBUF register. Then, the Buffer Full Detect bit,
BF of the SSPxSTAT register, and the interrupt flag bit,
SSPxIF, are set. This double-buffering of the received
data (SSPxBUF) allows the next byte to start reception
before reading the data that was just received. Any
write
to
the
SSPxBUF
register
during
transmission/reception of data will be ignored and the
write collision detect bit WCOL of the SSPxCON1
register, will be set. User software must clear the
WCOL bit to allow the following write(s) to the
SSPxBUF register to complete successfully.
When the application software is expecting to receive
valid data, the SSPxBUF should be read before the
next byte of data to transfer is written to the SSPxBUF.
The Buffer Full bit, BF of the SSPxSTAT register,
indicates when SSPxBUF has been loaded with the
received data (transmission is complete). When the
SSPxBUF is read, the BF bit is cleared. This data may
be irrelevant if the SPI is only a transmitter. Generally,
the MSSPx interrupt is used to determine when the
transmission/reception has completed. If the interrupt
method is not going to be used, then software polling
can be done to ensure that a write collision does not
occur.
SPI MASTER/SLAVE CONNECTION
SPI Slave SSPxM<3:0> = 010x
SPI Master SSPxM<3:0> = 00xx
= 1010
SDOx
SDIx
Serial Input Buffer
(BUF)
SDIx
Shift Register
(SSPxSR)
MSb
Serial Input Buffer
(SSPxBUF)
LSb
SCKx
General I/O
Processor 1
DS41414C-page 246
SDOx
Serial Clock
Slave Select
(optional)
Preliminary
Shift Register
(SSPxSR)
MSb
LSb
SCKx
SSx
Processor 2
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.2.3
SPI MASTER MODE
The master can initiate the data transfer at any time
because it controls the SCKx line. The master
determines when the slave (Processor 2, Figure 24-5)
is to broadcast data by the software protocol.
In Master mode, the data is transmitted/received as
soon as the SSPxBUF register is written to. If the SPI
is only going to receive, the SDOx output could be disabled (programmed as an input). The SSPxSR register
will continue to shift in the signal present on the SDIx
pin at the programmed clock rate. As each byte is
received, it will be loaded into the SSPxBUF register as
if a normal received byte (interrupts and Status bits
appropriately set).
The clock polarity is selected by appropriately
programming the CKP bit of the SSPxCON1 register
and the CKE bit of the SSPxSTAT register. This then,
would give waveforms for SPI communication as
shown in Figure 24-6, Figure 24-8 and Figure 24-9,
where the MSB is transmitted first. In Master mode, the
SPI clock rate (bit rate) is user programmable to be one
of the following:
•
•
•
•
•
FOSC/4 (or TCY)
FOSC/16 (or 4 * TCY)
FOSC/64 (or 16 * TCY)
Timer2 output/2
Fosc/(4 * (SSPxADD + 1))
Figure 24-6 shows the waveforms for Master mode.
When the CKE bit is set, the SDOx data is valid before
there is a clock edge on SCKx. The change of the input
sample is shown based on the state of the SMP bit. The
time when the SSPxBUF is loaded with the received
data is shown.
FIGURE 24-6:
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (MASTER MODE)
Write to
SSPxBUF
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
4 Clock
Modes
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 1)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 1)
SDOx
(CKE = 0)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDOx
(CKE = 1)
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDIx
(SMP = 0)
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 0)
SDIx
(SMP = 1)
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
(SMP = 1)
SSPxIF
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 247
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.2.4
SPI SLAVE MODE
24.2.5
In Slave mode, the data is transmitted and received as
external clock pulses appear on SCKx. When the last
bit is latched, the SSPxIF interrupt flag bit is set.
Before enabling the module in SPI Slave mode, the clock
line must match the proper Idle state. The clock line can
be observed by reading the SCKx pin. The Idle state is
determined by the CKP bit of the SSPxCON1 register.
While in Slave mode, the external clock is supplied by
the external clock source on the SCKx pin. This external clock must meet the minimum high and low times
as specified in the electrical specifications.
While in Sleep mode, the slave can transmit/receive
data. The shift register is clocked from the SCKx pin
input and when a byte is received, the device will generate an interrupt. If enabled, the device will wake-up
from Sleep.
24.2.4.1
Daisy-Chain Configuration
The SPI bus can sometimes be connected in a
daisy-chain configuration. The first slave output is connected to the second slave input, the second slave
output is connected to the third slave input, and so on.
The final slave output is connected to the master input.
Each slave sends out, during a second group of clock
pulses, an exact copy of what was received during the
first group of clock pulses. The whole chain acts as
one large communication shift register. The
daisy-chain feature only requires a single Slave Select
line from the master device.
Figure 24-7 shows the block diagram of a typical
daisy-chain connection when operating in SPI Mode.
SLAVE SELECT
SYNCHRONIZATION
The Slave Select can also be used to synchronize communication. The Slave Select line is held high until the
master device is ready to communicate. When the
Slave Select line is pulled low, the slave knows that a
new transmission is starting.
If the slave fails to receive the communication properly,
it will be reset at the end of the transmission, when the
Slave Select line returns to a high state. The slave is
then ready to receive a new transmission when the
Slave Select line is pulled low again. If the Slave Select
line is not used, there is a risk that the slave will eventually become out of sync with the master. If the slave
misses a bit, it will always be one bit off in future transmissions. Use of the Slave Select line allows the slave
and master to align themselves at the beginning of
each transmission.
The SSx pin allows a Synchronous Slave mode. The
SPI must be in Slave mode with SSx pin control
enabled (SSPxCON1<3:0> = 0100).
When the SSx pin is low, transmission and reception
are enabled and the SDOx pin is driven.
When the SSx pin goes high, the SDOx pin is no longer
driven, even if in the middle of a transmitted byte and
becomes a floating output. External pull-up/pull-down
resistors may be desirable depending on the application.
Note 1: When the SPI is in Slave mode with SSx
pin control enabled (SSPxCON1<3:0> =
0100), the SPI module will reset if the SSx
pin is set to VDD.
In a daisy-chain configuration, only the most recent
byte on the bus is required by the slave. Setting the
BOEN bit of the SSPxCON3 register will enable writes
to the SSPxBUF register, even if the previous byte has
not been read. This allows the software to ignore data
that may not apply to it.
2: When the SPI is used in Slave mode with
CKE set; the user must enable SSx pin
control.
3: While operated in SPI Slave mode the
SMP bit of the SSPxSTAT register must
remain clear.
When the SPI module resets, the bit counter is forced
to ‘0’. This can be done by either forcing the SSx pin to
a high level or clearing the SSPxEN bit.
DS41414C-page 248
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 24-7:
SPI DAISY-CHAIN CONNECTION
SPI Master
SCK
SCK
SDOx
SDIx
SDIx
SDOx
General I/O
SPI Slave
#1
SSx
SCK
SDIx
SDOx
SPI Slave
#2
SSx
SCK
SDIx
SDOx
SPI Slave
#3
SSx
FIGURE 24-8:
SLAVE SELECT SYNCHRONOUS WAVEFORM
SSx
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
Write to
SSPxBUF
Shift register SSPxSR
and bit count are reset
SSPxBUF to
SSPxSR
SDOx
bit 7
bit 6
bit 7
SDIx
bit 6
bit 0
bit 0
bit 7
bit 7
Input
Sample
SSPxIF
Interrupt
Flag
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 249
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 24-9:
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 0)
SSx
Optional
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 0)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 0)
Write to
SSPxBUF
Valid
SDOx
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDIx
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
SSPxIF
Interrupt
Flag
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
Write Collision
detection active
FIGURE 24-10:
SPI MODE WAVEFORM (SLAVE MODE WITH CKE = 1)
SSx
Not Optional
SCKx
(CKP = 0
CKE = 1)
SCKx
(CKP = 1
CKE = 1)
Write to
SSPxBUF
Valid
SDOx
bit 7
bit 6
bit 5
bit 4
bit 3
bit 2
bit 1
bit 0
SDIx
bit 0
bit 7
Input
Sample
SSPxIF
Interrupt
Flag
SSPxSR to
SSPxBUF
Write Collision
detection active
DS41414C-page 250
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.2.6 SPI OPERATION IN SLEEP MODE
In SPI Master mode, module clocks may be operating
at a different speed than when in full power mode; in
the case of the Sleep mode, all clocks are halted.
Special care must be taken by the user when the
MSSPx clock is much faster than the system clock.
In Slave mode, when MSSPx interrupts are enabled,
after the master completes sending data, an MSSPx
interrupt will wake the controller from Sleep.
If an exit from Sleep mode is not desired, MSSPx interrupts should be disabled.
TABLE 24-1:
In SPI Master mode, when the Sleep mode is selected,
all module clocks are halted and the transmission/reception will remain in that state until the device
wakes. After the device returns to Run mode, the module will resume transmitting and receiving data.
In SPI Slave mode, the SPI Transmit/Receive Shift
register operates asynchronously to the device. This
allows the device to be placed in Sleep mode and data
to be shifted into the SPI Transmit/Receive Shift
register. When all 8 bits have been received, the
MSSPx interrupt flag bit will be set and if enabled, will
wake the device.
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPI OPERATION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
ANSELA
ANSA7
ANSA6
ANSA5
ANSA4
ANSA3
ANSA2
ANSA1
ANSA0
129
APFCON
P3CSEL
P3BSEL
P2DSEL
P2CSEL
P2BSEL
CCP2SEL
P1CSEL
P1BSEL
126
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
101
Name
SSPxBUF
Synchronous Serial Port Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
245*
SSPxCON1
WCOL
SSPxOV
SSPxEN
CKP
SSPxCON3
ACKTIM
PCIE
SCIE
BOEN
SDAHT
SBCDE
AHEN
DHEN
294
SSPxSTAT
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
289
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
Legend:
*
SSPxM<3:0>
291
— = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the MSSPx in SPI mode.
Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 251
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.3
I2C MODE OVERVIEW
The Inter-Integrated Circuit Bus (I²C™) is a
multi-master serial data communication bus. Devices
communicate in a master/slave environment where the
master devices initiate the communication. A Slave
device is controlled through addressing.
VDD
SCLx
The I2C bus specifies two signal connections:
• Serial Clock (SCLx)
• Serial Data (SDAx)
Both the SCLx and SDAx connections are bidirectional
open-drain lines, each requiring pull-up resistors for the
supply voltage. Pulling the line to ground is considered
a logical zero and letting the line float is considered a
logical one.
Figure 24-11 shows a typical connection between two
processors configured as master and slave devices.
The I2C bus can operate with one or more master
devices and one or more slave devices.
There are four potential modes of operation for a given
device:
• Master Transmit mode
(master is transmitting data to a slave)
• Master Receive mode
(master is receiving data from a slave)
• Slave Transmit mode
(slave is transmitting data to a master)
• Slave Receive mode
(slave is receiving data from the master)
SCLx
VDD
Master
Slave
SDAx
Figure 24-11 shows the block diagram of the MSSPx
module when operating in I2C Mode.
SDAx
The Acknowledge bit (ACK) is an active-low signal,
which holds the SDAx line low to indicate to the transmitter that the slave device has received the transmitted data and is ready to receive more.
The transition of a data bit is always performed while
the SCLx line is held low. Transitions that occur while
the SCLx line is held high are used to indicate Start and
Stop bits.
If the master intends to write to the slave, then it repeatedly sends out a byte of data, with the slave responding
after each byte with an ACK bit. In this example, the
master device is in Master Transmit mode and the
slave is in Slave Receive mode.
If the master intends to read from the slave, then it
repeatedly receives a byte of data from the slave, and
responds after each byte with an ACK bit. In this example, the master device is in Master Receive mode and
the slave is Slave Transmit mode.
To begin communication, a master device starts out in
Master Transmit mode. The master device sends out a
Start bit followed by the address byte of the slave it
intends to communicate with. This is followed by a single Read/Write bit, which determines whether the master intends to transmit to or receive data from the slave
device.
If the requested slave exists on the bus, it will respond
with an Acknowledge bit, otherwise known as an ACK.
The master then continues in either Transmit mode or
Receive mode and the slave continues in the complement, either in Receive mode or Transmit mode,
respectively.
A Start bit is indicated by a high-to-low transition of the
SDAx line while the SCLx line is held high. Address and
data bytes are sent out, Most Significant bit (MSb) first.
The Read/Write bit is sent out as a logical one when the
master intends to read data from the slave, and is sent
out as a logical zero when it intends to write data to the
slave.
DS41414C-page 252
I2C MASTER/
SLAVE CONNECTION
FIGURE 24-11:
On the last byte of data communicated, the master
device may end the transmission by sending a Stop bit.
If the master device is in Receive mode, it sends the
Stop bit in place of the last ACK bit. A Stop bit is indicated by a low-to-high transition of the SDAx line while
the SCLx line is held high.
In some cases, the master may want to maintain control of the bus and re-initiate another transmission. If
so, the master device may send another Start bit in
place of the Stop bit or last ACK bit when it is in receive
mode.
The I2C bus specifies three message protocols;
• Single message where a master writes data to a
slave.
• Single message where a master reads data from
a slave.
• Combined message where a master initiates a
minimum of two writes, or two reads, or a
combination of writes and reads, to one or more
slaves.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
When one device is transmitting a logical one, or letting
the line float, and a second device is transmitting a logical zero, or holding the line low, the first device can
detect that the line is not a logical one. This detection,
when used on the SCLx line, is called clock stretching.
Clock stretching gives slave devices a mechanism to
control the flow of data. When this detection is used on
the SDAx line, it is called arbitration. Arbitration
ensures that there is only one master device communicating at any single time.
Slave Transmit mode can also be arbitrated, when a
master addresses multiple slaves, but this is less common.
24.3.1
Arbitration usually occurs very rarely, but it is a necessary process for proper multi-master support.
CLOCK STRETCHING
When a slave device has not completed processing
data, it can delay the transfer of more data through the
process of Clock Stretching. An addressed slave
device may hold the SCLx clock line low after receiving
or sending a bit, indicating that it is not yet ready to continue. The master that is communicating with the slave
will attempt to raise the SCLx line in order to transfer
the next bit, but will detect that the clock line has not yet
been released. Because the SCLx connection is
open-drain, the slave has the ability to hold that line low
until it is ready to continue communicating.
Clock stretching allows receivers that cannot keep up
with a transmitter to control the flow of incoming data.
24.3.2
ARBITRATION
Each master device must monitor the bus for Start and
Stop bits. If the device detects that the bus is busy, it
cannot begin a new message until the bus returns to an
Idle state.
However, two master devices may try to initiate a transmission on or about the same time. When this occurs,
the process of arbitration begins. Each transmitter
checks the level of the SDAx data line and compares it
to the level that it expects to find. The first transmitter to
observe that the two levels don’t match, loses arbitration, and must stop transmitting on the SDAx line.
For example, if one transmitter holds the SDAx line to
a logical one (lets it float) and a second transmitter
holds it to a logical zero (pulls it low), the result is that
the SDAx line will be low. The first transmitter then
observes that the level of the line is different than
expected and concludes that another transmitter is
communicating.
The first transmitter to notice this difference is the one
that loses arbitration and must stop driving the SDAx
line. If this transmitter is also a master device, it also
must stop driving the SCLx line. It then can monitor the
lines for a Stop condition before trying to reissue its
transmission. In the meantime, the other device that
has not noticed any difference between the expected
and actual levels on the SDAx line continues with its
original transmission. It can do so without any complications, because so far, the transmission appears
exactly as expected with no other transmitter disturbing
the message.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
If two master devices are sending a message to two different slave devices at the address stage, the master
sending the lower slave address always wins arbitration. When two master devices send messages to the
same slave address, and addresses can sometimes
refer to multiple slaves, the arbitration process must
continue into the data stage.
24.4
I2C Mode Operation
All MSSPx I2C communication is byte oriented and
shifted out MSb first. Six SFR registers and 2 interrupt
flags interface the module with the PIC® microcontroller and user software. Two pins, SDAx and SCLx,
are exercised by the module to communicate with
other external I2C devices.
24.4.1 BYTE FORMAT
All communication in I2C is done in 9-bit segments. A
byte is sent from a Master to a Slave or vice-versa, followed by an Acknowledge bit sent back. After the 8th
falling edge of the SCLx line, the device outputting data
on the SDAx changes that pin to an input and reads in
an acknowledge value on the next clock pulse.
The clock signal, SCLx, is provided by the master.
Data is valid to change while the SCLx signal is low,
and sampled on the rising edge of the clock. Changes
on the SDAx line while the SCLx line is high define
special conditions on the bus, explained below.
24.4.2 DEFINITION OF I2C TERMINOLOGY
There is language and terminology in the description of
I2C communication that have definitions specific to I2C.
That word usage is defined below and may be used in
the rest of this document without explanation. This table
was adapted from the Philips I2C specification.
24.4.3 SDAX AND SCLX PINS
Selection of any I2C mode with the SSPxEN bit set,
forces the SCLx and SDAx pins to be open-drain.
These pins should be set by the user to inputs by setting the appropriate TRIS bits.
Note: Data is tied to output zero when an I2C
mode is enabled.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 253
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.4.4 SDAX HOLD TIME
The hold time of the SDAx pin is selected by the
SDAHT bit of the SSPxCON3 register. Hold time is the
time SDAx is held valid after the falling edge of SCLx.
Setting the SDAHT bit selects a longer 300 ns minimum hold time and may help on buses with large
capacitance.
TABLE 24-2:
I2C BUS TERMS
TERM
Description
Transmitter
The device which shifts data out
onto the bus.
Receiver
The device which shifts data in
from the bus.
Master
The device that initiates a transfer,
generates clock signals and terminates a transfer.
Slave
The device addressed by the master.
Multi-master
A bus with more than one device
that can initiate data transfers.
Arbitration
Procedure to ensure that only one
master at a time controls the bus.
Winning arbitration ensures that
the message is not corrupted.
Synchronization Procedure to synchronize the
clocks of two or more devices on
the bus.
Idle
No master is controlling the bus,
and both SDAx and SCLx lines are
high.
Active
Any time one or more master
devices are controlling the bus.
Slave device that has received a
Addressed
Slave
matching address and is actively
being clocked by a master.
Matching
Address byte that is clocked into a
Address
slave that matches the value
stored in SSPxADD.
Write Request
Slave receives a matching
address with R/W bit clear, and is
ready to clock in data.
Read Request
Master sends an address byte with
the R/W bit set, indicating that it
wishes to clock data out of the
Slave. This data is the next and all
following bytes until a Restart or
Stop.
Clock Stretching When a device on the bus holds
SCLx low to stall communication.
Bus Collision
Any time the SDAx line is sampled
low by the module while it is outputting and expected high state.
DS41414C-page 254
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.4.5 START CONDITION
has the same effect on the slave that a Start would,
resetting all slave logic and preparing it to clock in an
address. The master may want to address the same or
another slave.
The I2C specification defines a Start condition as a
transition of SDAx from a high to a low state while
SCLx line is high. A Start condition is always generated by the master and signifies the transition of the
bus from an Idle to an Active state. Figure 24-10
shows wave forms for Start and Stop conditions.
In 10-bit Addressing Slave mode a Restart is required
for the master to clock data out of the addressed
slave. Once a slave has been fully addressed, matching both high and low address bytes, the master can
issue a Restart and the high address byte with the
R/W bit set. The slave logic will then hold the clock
and prepare to clock out data.
A bus collision can occur on a Start condition if the
module samples the SDAx line low before asserting it
low. This does not conform to the I2C Specification that
states no bus collision can occur on a Start.
After a full match with R/W clear in 10-bit mode, a prior
match flag is set and maintained. Until a Stop condition, a high address with R/W clear, or high address
match fails.
24.4.6 STOP CONDITION
A Stop condition is a transition of the SDAx line from
low-to-high state while the SCLx line is high.
24.4.8 START/STOP CONDITION INTERRUPT
MASKING
Note: At least one SCLx low time must appear
before a Stop is valid, therefore, if the SDAx
line goes low then high again while the SCLx
line stays high, only the Start condition is
detected.
24.4.7
The SCIE and PCIE bits of the SSPxCON3 register
can enable the generation of an interrupt in Slave
modes that do not typically support this function. Slave
modes where interrupt on Start and Stop detect are
already enabled, these bits will have no effect.
RESTART CONDITION
A Restart is valid any time that a Stop would be valid.
A master can issue a Restart if it wishes to hold the
bus after terminating the current transfer. A Restart
FIGURE 24-12:
I2C START AND STOP CONDITIONS
SDAx
SCLx
S
Start
P
Change of
Change of
Data Allowed
Data Allowed
Condition
FIGURE 24-13:
Stop
Condition
I2C RESTART CONDITION
Sr
Change of
Change of
Data Allowed
Restart
Data Allowed
Condition
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 255
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE MODE OPERATION
24.4.9 ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE
24.5
The 9th SCLx pulse for any transferred byte in I2C is
dedicated as an Acknowledge. It allows receiving
devices to respond back to the transmitter by pulling
the SDAx line low. The transmitter must release control of the line during this time to shift in the response.
The Acknowledge (ACK) is an active-low signal, pulling the SDAx line low indicated to the transmitter that
the device has received the transmitted data and is
ready to receive more.
The MSSPx Slave mode operates in one of four
modes selected in the SSPxM bits of SSPxCON1 register. The modes can be divided into 7-bit and 10-bit
Addressing mode. 10-bit Addressing modes operate
the same as 7-bit with some additional overhead for
handling the larger addresses.
The result of an ACK is placed in the ACKSTAT bit of
the SSPxCON2 register.
Slave software, when the AHEN and DHEN bits are
set, allow the user to set the ACK value sent back to
the transmitter. The ACKDT bit of the SSPxCON2 register is set/cleared to determine the response.
Slave hardware will generate an ACK response if the
AHEN and DHEN bits of the SSPxCON3 register are
clear.
There are certain conditions where an ACK will not be
sent by the slave. If the BF bit of the SSPxSTAT register or the SSPxOV bit of the SSPxCON1 register are
set when a byte is received.
When the module is addressed, after the 8th falling
edge of SCLx on the bus, the ACKTIM bit of the
SSPxCON3 register is set. The ACKTIM bit indicates
the acknowledge time of the active bus. The ACKTIM
Status bit is only active when the AHEN bit or DHEN
bit is enabled.
Modes with Start and Stop bit interrupts operated the
same as the other modes with SSPxIF additionally
getting set upon detection of a Start, Restart, or Stop
condition.
24.5.1 SLAVE MODE ADDRESSES
The SSPxADD register (Register 24-6) contains the
Slave mode address. The first byte received after a
Start or Restart condition is compared against the
value stored in this register. If the byte matches, the
value is loaded into the SSPxBUF register and an
interrupt is generated. If the value does not match, the
module goes idle and no indication is given to the software that anything happened.
The SSPx Mask register (Register 24-5) affects the
address matching process. See Section 24.5.9
“SSPx Mask Register” for more information.
24.5.1.1 I2C Slave 7-bit Addressing Mode
In 7-bit Addressing mode, the LSb of the received data
byte is ignored when determining if there is an address
match.
24.5.1.2 I2C Slave 10-bit Addressing Mode
In 10-bit Addressing mode, the first received byte is
compared to the binary value of ‘1 1 1 1 0 A9 A8 0’. A9
and A8 are the two MSb of the 10-bit address and
stored in bits 2 and 1 of the SSPxADD register.
After the acknowledge of the high byte, the UA bit is
set and SCLx is held low until the user updates
SSPxADD with the low address. The low address byte
is clocked in and all 8 bits are compared to the low
address value in SSPxADD. Even if there is not an
address match; SSPxIF and UA are set, and SCLx is
held low until SSPxADD is updated to receive a high
byte again. When SSPxADD is updated, the UA bit is
cleared. This ensures the module is ready to receive
the high address byte on the next communication.
A high and low address match as a write request is
required at the start of all 10-bit addressing communication. A transmission can be initiated by issuing a
Restart once the slave is addressed, and clocking in
the high address with the R/W bit set. The slave hardware will then acknowledge the read request and prepare to clock out data. This is only valid for a slave
after it has received a complete high and low address
byte match.
DS41414C-page 256
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.5.2 SLAVE RECEPTION
24.5.2.2 7-bit Reception with AHEN and DHEN
When the R/W bit of a matching received address byte
is clear, the R/W bit of the SSPxSTAT register is
cleared. The received address is loaded into the
SSPxBUF register and acknowledged.
Slave device reception with AHEN and DHEN set
operate the same as without these options with extra
interrupts and clock stretching added after the 8th falling edge of SCLx. These additional interrupts allow the
slave software to decide whether it wants to ACK the
receive address or data byte, rather than the hardware. This functionality adds support for PMBus™ that
was not present on previous versions of this module.
When the overflow condition exists for a received
address, then not Acknowledge is given. An overflow
condition is defined as either bit BF bit of the
SSPxSTAT register is set, or bit SSPxOV bit of the
SSPxCON1 register is set. The BOEN bit of the
SSPxCON3 register modifies this operation. For more
information see Register 24-4.
An MSSPx interrupt is generated for each transferred
data byte. Flag bit, SSPxIF, must be cleared by
software.
When the SEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register is set,
SCLx will be held low (clock stretch) following each
received byte. The clock must be released by setting
the CKP bit of the SSPxCON1 register, except
sometimes in 10-bit mode. See Section 24.2.3 “SPI
Master Mode” for more detail.
24.5.2.1 7-bit Addressing Reception
This section describes a standard sequence of events
for the MSSPx module configured as an I2C Slave in
7-bit Addressing mode. All decisions made by hardware or software and their effect on reception.
Figure 24-13 and Figure 24-14 is used as a visual
reference for this description.
This is a step by step process of what typically must
be done to accomplish I2C communication.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Start bit detected.
S bit of SSPxSTAT is set; SSPxIF is set if interrupt on Start detect is enabled.
Matching address with R/W bit clear is received.
The slave pulls SDAx low sending an ACK to the
master, and sets SSPxIF bit.
Software clears the SSPxIF bit.
Software reads received address from
SSPxBUF clearing the BF flag.
If SEN = 1; Slave software sets CKP bit to
release the SCLx line.
The master clocks out a data byte.
Slave drives SDAx low sending an ACK to the
master, and sets SSPxIF bit.
Software clears SSPxIF.
Software reads the received byte from
SSPxBUF clearing BF.
Steps 8-12 are repeated for all received bytes
from the Master.
Master sends Stop condition, setting P bit of
SSPxSTAT, and the bus goes idle.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
This list describes the steps that need to be taken by
slave software to use these options for I2C communication. Figure 24-15 displays a module using both
address and data holding. Figure 24-16 includes the
operation with the SEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register
set.
1.
S bit of SSPxSTAT is set; SSPxIF is set if interrupt on Start detect is enabled.
2. Matching address with R/W bit clear is clocked
in. SSPxIF is set and CKP cleared after the 8th
falling edge of SCLx.
3. Slave clears the SSPxIF.
4. Slave can look at the ACKTIM bit of the
SSPxCON3 register to determine if the SSPxIF
was after or before the ACK.
5. Slave reads the address value from SSPxBUF,
clearing the BF flag.
6. Slave sets ACK value clocked out to the master
by setting ACKDT.
7. Slave releases the clock by setting CKP.
8. SSPxIF is set after an ACK, not after a NACK.
9. If SEN = 1 the slave hardware will stretch the
clock after the ACK.
10. Slave clears SSPxIF.
Note: SSPxIF is still set after the 9th falling edge of
SCLx even if there is no clock stretching and
BF has been cleared. Only if NACK is sent
to Master is SSPxIF not set
11. SSPxIF set and CKP cleared after 8th falling
edge of SCLx for a received data byte.
12. Slave looks at ACKTIM bit of SSPxCON3 to
determine the source of the interrupt.
13. Slave reads the received data from SSPxBUF
clearing BF.
14. Steps 7-14 are the same for each received data
byte.
15. Communication is ended by either the slave
sending an ACK = 1, or the master sending a
Stop condition. If a Stop is sent and Interrupt on
Stop Detect is disabled, the slave will only know
by polling the P bit of the SSTSTAT register.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 257
DS41414C-page 258
Preliminary
SSPxOV
BF
SSPxIF
S
1
A7
2
A6
3
A5
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
7
A1
8
9
ACK
1
D7
2
D6
4
D4
5
D3
6
D2
7
D1
SSPxBUF is read
Cleared by software
3
D5
Receiving Data
8
9
2
D6
First byte
of data is
available
in SSPxBUF
1
D0 ACK D7
4
D4
5
D3
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
SSPxOV set because
SSPxBUF is still full.
ACK is not sent.
Cleared by software
3
D5
Receiving Data
From Slave to Master
9
P
SSPxIF set on 9th
falling edge of
SCLx
ACK = 1
FIGURE 24-14:
SCLx
SDAx
Receiving Address
Bus Master sends
Stop condition
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 7-BIT ADDRESS, RECEPTION (SEN = 0, AHEN = 0, DHEN = 0)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
CKP
SSPxOV
BF
SSPxIF
1
SCLx
S
A7
2
A6
3
A5
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
7
A1
8
9
R/W=0 ACK
SEN
2
D6
3
D5
4
D4
5
D3
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
CKP is written to ‘1’ in software,
releasing SCLx
SSPxBUF is read
Cleared by software
Clock is held low until CKP is set to ‘1’
1
D7
Receive Data
9
ACK
SEN
3
D5
4
D4
5
D3
First byte
of data is
available
in SSPxBUF
6
D2
7
D1
SSPxOV set because
SSPxBUF is still full.
ACK is not sent.
Cleared by software
2
D6
CKP is written to 1 in software,
releasing SCLx
1
D7
Receive Data
8
D0
9
ACK
SCLx is not held
low because
ACK= 1
SSPxIF set on 9th
falling edge of SCLx
P
FIGURE 24-15:
SDAx
Receive Address
Bus Master sends
Stop condition
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 7-BIT ADDRESS, RECEPTION (SEN = 1, AHEN = 0, DHEN = 0)
DS41414C-page 259
DS41414C-page 260
Preliminary
P
S
ACKTIM
CKP
ACKDT
BF
SSPxIF
S
Receiving Address
1
3
5
6
7
8
ACK the received
byte
Slave software
clears ACKDT to
Address is
read from
SSBUF
If AHEN = 1:
SSPxIF is set
4
ACKTIM set by hardware
on 8th falling edge of SCLx
When AHEN=1:
CKP is cleared by hardware
and SCLx is stretched
2
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
Receiving Data
9
2
3
4
5
6
7
ACKTIM cleared by
hardware in 9th
rising edge of SCLx
When DHEN=1:
CKP is cleared by
hardware on 8th falling
edge of SCLx
SSPxIF is set on
9th falling edge of
SCLx, after ACK
1
8
ACK D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
Received Data
1
2
4
5
6
ACKTIM set by hardware
on 8th falling edge of SCLx
CKP set by software,
SCLx is released
8
Slave software
sets ACKDT to
not ACK
7
Cleared by software
3
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
Data is read from SSPxBUF
9
ACK
9
P
No interrupt
after not ACK
from Slave
ACK=1
Master sends
Stop condition
FIGURE 24-16:
SCLx
SDAx
Master Releases SDAx
to slave for ACK sequence
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 7-BIT ADDRESS, RECEPTION (SEN = 0, AHEN = 1, DHEN = 1)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
P
S
ACKTIM
CKP
ACKDT
BF
SSPxIF
S
Receiving Address
4
5
6 7
8
When AHEN = 1;
on the 8th falling edge
of SCLx of an address
byte, CKP is cleared
Slave software clears
ACKDT to ACK
the received byte
Received
address is loaded into
SSPxBUF
2 3
ACKTIM is set by hardware
on 8th falling edge of SCLx
1
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
9
ACK
Receive Data
2 3
4
5
6 7
8
ACKTIM is cleared by hardware
on 9th rising edge of SCLx
When DHEN = 1;
on the 8th falling edge
of SCLx of a received
data byte, CKP is cleared
Received data is
available on SSPxBUF
Cleared by software
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
9
ACK
Receive Data
1
3 4
5
6 7
8
Set by software,
release SCLx
Slave sends
not ACK
SSPxBUF can be
read any time before
next byte is loaded
2
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
9
ACK
CKP is not cleared
if not ACK
No interrupt after
if not ACK
from Slave
P
Master sends
Stop condition
FIGURE 24-17:
SCLx
SDAx
R/W = 0
Master releases
SDAx to slave for ACK sequence
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 7-BIT ADDRESS, RECEPTION (SEN = 1, AHEN = 1, DHEN = 1)
DS41414C-page 261
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.5.3
SLAVE TRANSMISSION
24.5.3.2
7-bit Transmission
When the R/W bit of the incoming address byte is set
and an address match occurs, the R/W bit of the
SSPxSTAT register is set. The received address is
loaded into the SSPxBUF register, and an ACK pulse is
sent by the slave on the ninth bit.
A master device can transmit a read request to a
slave, and then clock data out of the slave. The list
below outlines what software for a slave will need to
do to accomplish a standard transmission.
Figure 24-17 can be used as a reference to this list.
Following the ACK, slave hardware clears the CKP bit
and the SCLx pin is held low (see Section 24.5.6
“Clock Stretching” for more detail). By stretching the
clock, the master will be unable to assert another clock
pulse until the slave is done preparing the transmit
data.
1.
The transmit data must be loaded into the SSPxBUF
register which also loads the SSPxSR register. Then
the SCLx pin should be released by setting the CKP bit
of the SSPxCON1 register. The eight data bits are
shifted out on the falling edge of the SCLx input. This
ensures that the SDAx signal is valid during the SCLx
high time.
The ACK pulse from the master-receiver is latched on
the rising edge of the ninth SCLx input pulse. This ACK
value is copied to the ACKSTAT bit of the SSPxCON2
register. If ACKSTAT is set (not ACK), then the data
transfer is complete. In this case, when the not ACK is
latched by the slave, the slave goes idle and waits for
another occurrence of the Start bit. If the SDAx line was
low (ACK), the next transmit data must be loaded into
the SSPxBUF register. Again, the SCLx pin must be
released by setting bit CKP.
An MSSPx interrupt is generated for each data transfer
byte. The SSPxIF bit must be cleared by software and
the SSPxSTAT register is used to determine the status
of the byte. The SSPxIF bit is set on the falling edge of
the ninth clock pulse.
24.5.3.1
Slave Mode Bus Collision
A slave receives a Read request and begins shifting
data out on the SDAx line. If a bus collision is detected
and the SBCDE bit of the SSPxCON3 register is set,
the BCLxIF bit of the PIRx register is set. Once a bus
collision is detected, the slave goes Idle and waits to be
addressed again. User software can use the BCLxIF bit
to handle a slave bus collision.
DS41414C-page 262
Master sends a Start condition on SDAx and
SCLx.
2. S bit of SSPxSTAT is set; SSPxIF is set if interrupt on Start detect is enabled.
3. Matching address with R/W bit set is received by
the Slave setting SSPxIF bit.
4. Slave hardware generates an ACK and sets
SSPxIF.
5. SSPxIF bit is cleared by user.
6. Software reads the received address from
SSPxBUF, clearing BF.
7. R/W is set so CKP was automatically cleared
after the ACK.
8. The slave software loads the transmit data into
SSPxBUF.
9. CKP bit is set releasing SCLx, allowing the
master to clock the data out of the slave.
10. SSPxIF is set after the ACK response from the
master is loaded into the ACKSTAT register.
11. SSPxIF bit is cleared.
12. The slave software checks the ACKSTAT bit to
see if the master wants to clock out more data.
Note 1: If the master ACKs the clock will be
stretched.
2: ACKSTAT is the only bit updated on the
rising edge of SCLx (9th) rather than the
falling.
13. Steps 9-13 are repeated for each transmitted
byte.
14. If the master sends a not ACK; the clock is not
held, but SSPxIF is still set.
15. The master sends a Restart condition or a Stop.
16. The slave is no longer addressed.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
P
S
D/A
R/W
ACKSTAT
CKP
BF
SSPxIF
S
Receiving Address
1
2
5
6
7
8
Indicates an address
has been received
R/W is copied from the
matching address byte
9
R/W = 1 Automatic
ACK
Received address
is read from SSPxBUF
4
When R/W is set
SCLx is always
held low after 9th SCLx
falling edge
3
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
Transmitting Data
Automatic
2
3
4
5
Set by software
Data to transmit is
loaded into SSPxBUF
Cleared by software
1
6
7
8
9
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 ACK
Transmitting Data
2
3
4
5
7
8
CKP is not
held for not
ACK
6
Masters not ACK
is copied to
ACKSTAT
BF is automatically
cleared after 8th falling
edge of SCLx
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
9
ACK
P
FIGURE 24-18:
SCLx
SDAx
Master sends
Stop condition
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 7-BIT ADDRESS, TRANSMISSION (AHEN = 0)
DS41414C-page 263
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.5.3.3
7-bit Transmission with Address
Hold Enabled
Setting the AHEN bit of the SSPxCON3 register
enables additional clock stretching and interrupt generation after the 8th falling edge of a received matching address. Once a matching address has been
clocked in, CKP is cleared and the SSPxIF interrupt is
set.
Figure 24-18 displays a standard waveform of a 7-bit
Address Slave Transmission with AHEN enabled.
1.
2.
Bus starts Idle.
Master sends Start condition; the S bit of
SSPxSTAT is set; SSPxIF is set if interrupt on
Start detect is enabled.
3. Master sends matching address with R/W bit
set. After the 8th falling edge of the SCLx line the
CKP bit is cleared and SSPxIF interrupt is
generated.
4. Slave software clears SSPxIF.
5. Slave software reads ACKTIM bit of SSPxCON3
register, and R/W and D/A of the SSPxSTAT
register to determine the source of the interrupt.
6. Slave reads the address value from the
SSPxBUF register clearing the BF bit.
7. Slave software decides from this information if it
wishes to ACK or not ACK and sets ACKDT bit
of the SSPxCON2 register accordingly.
8. Slave sets the CKP bit releasing SCLx.
9. Master clocks in the ACK value from the slave.
10. Slave hardware automatically clears the CKP bit
and sets SSPxIF after the ACK if the R/W bit is
set.
11. Slave software clears SSPxIF.
12. Slave loads value to transmit to the master into
SSPxBUF setting the BF bit.
Note: SSPxBUF cannot be loaded until after the
ACK.
13. Slave sets CKP bit releasing the clock.
14. Master clocks out the data from the slave and
sends an ACK value on the 9th SCLx pulse.
15. Slave hardware copies the ACK value into the
ACKSTAT bit of the SSPxCON2 register.
16. Steps 10-15 are repeated for each byte transmitted to the master from the slave.
17. If the master sends a not ACK the slave
releases the bus allowing the master to send a
Stop and end the communication.
Note: Master must send a not ACK on the last byte
to ensure that the slave releases the SCLx
line to receive a Stop.
DS41414C-page 264
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
D/A
R/W
ACKTIM
CKP
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
BF
SSPxIF
S
Receiving Address
2
4
5
6
7
8
Slave clears
ACKDT to ACK
address
ACKTIM is set on 8th falling
edge of SCLx
9
ACK
When R/W = 1;
CKP is always
cleared after ACK
R/W = 1
Received address
is read from SSPxBUF
3
When AHEN = 1;
CKP is cleared by hardware
after receiving matching
address.
1
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1
3
4
5
6
Cleared by software
2
Set by software,
releases SCLx
Data to transmit is
loaded into SSPxBUF
1
7
8
9
Transmitting Data
Automatic
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 ACK
ACKTIM is cleared
on 9th rising edge of SCLx
Automatic
Transmitting Data
1
3
4
5
6
7
after not ACK
CKP not cleared
Master’s ACK
response is copied
to SSPxSTAT
BF is automatically
cleared after 8th falling
edge of SCLx
2
8
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
9
ACK
P
Master sends
Stop condition
FIGURE 24-19:
SCLx
SDAx
Master releases SDAx
to slave for ACK sequence
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 7-BIT ADDRESS, TRANSMISSION (AHEN = 1)
DS41414C-page 265
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.5.4 SLAVE MODE 10-BIT ADDRESS
RECEPTION
24.5.5 10-BIT ADDRESSING WITH ADDRESS
OR DATA HOLD
This section describes a standard sequence of events
for the MSSPx module configured as an I2C Slave in
10-bit Addressing mode.
Reception using 10-bit addressing with AHEN or
DHEN set is the same as with 7-bit modes. The only
difference is the need to update the SSPxADD register
using the UA bit. All functionality, specifically when the
CKP bit is cleared and SCLx line is held low are the
same. Figure 24-20 can be used as a reference of a
slave in 10-bit addressing with AHEN set.
Figure 24-19 is used as a visual reference for this
description.
This is a step by step process of what must be done by
slave software to accomplish I2C communication.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Bus starts Idle.
Master sends Start condition; S bit of SSPxSTAT
is set; SSPxIF is set if interrupt on Start detect is
enabled.
Master sends matching high address with R/W
bit clear; UA bit of the SSPxSTAT register is set.
Slave sends ACK and SSPxIF is set.
Software clears the SSPxIF bit.
Software reads received address from
SSPxBUF clearing the BF flag.
Slave loads low address into SSPxADD,
releasing SCLx.
Master sends matching low address byte to the
Slave; UA bit is set.
Figure 24-21 shows a standard waveform for a slave
transmitter in 10-bit Addressing mode.
Note: Updates to the SSPxADD register are not
allowed until after the ACK sequence.
9.
Slave sends ACK and SSPxIF is set.
Note: If the low address does not match, SSPxIF
and UA are still set so that the slave software can set SSPxADD back to the high
address. BF is not set because there is no
match. CKP is unaffected.
10. Slave clears SSPxIF.
11. Slave reads the received matching address
from SSPxBUF clearing BF.
12. Slave loads high address into SSPxADD.
13. Master clocks a data byte to the slave and
clocks out the slaves ACK on the 9th SCLx
pulse; SSPxIF is set.
14. If SEN bit of SSPxCON2 is set, CKP is cleared
by hardware and the clock is stretched.
15. Slave clears SSPxIF.
16. Slave reads the received byte from SSPxBUF
clearing BF.
17. If SEN is set the slave sets CKP to release the
SCLx.
18. Steps 13-17 repeat for each received byte.
19. Master sends Stop to end the transmission.
DS41414C-page 266
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
CKP
UA
BF
SSPxIF
S
1
1
2
1
5
6
7
0 A9 A8
8
Set by hardware
on 9th falling edge
4
1
When UA = 1;
SCLx is held low
9
ACK
If address matches
SSPxADD it is loaded into
SSPxBUF
3
1
Receive First Address Byte
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
Software updates SSPxADD
and releases SCLx
2
9
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 ACK
Receive Second Address Byte
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
3
4
5
6
7
Data is read
from SSPxBUF
SCLx is held low
while CKP = 0
2
8
9
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 ACK
Receive Data
Set by software,
When SEN = 1;
releasing SCLx
CKP is cleared after
9th falling edge of received byte
Receive address is
read from SSPxBUF
Cleared by software
2
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 ACK
Receive Data
P
FIGURE 24-20:
SCLx
SDAx
Master sends
Stop condition
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 10-BIT ADDRESS, RECEPTION (SEN = 1, AHEN = 0, DHEN = 0)
DS41414C-page 267
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Preliminary
ACKTIM
CKP
UA
ACKDT
BF
2
1
5
0
6
A9
7
A8
Set by hardware
on 9th falling edge
4
1
ACKTIM is set by hardware
on 8th falling edge of SCLx
If when AHEN = 1;
on the 8th falling edge
of SCLx of an address
byte, CKP is cleared
Slave software clears
ACKDT to ACK
the received byte
3
1
8
R/W = 0
9
ACK
UA
2
A6
3
A5
4
A4
5
A3
6
A2
7
A1
Update to SSPxADD is
not allowed until 9th
falling edge of SCLx
SSPxBUF can be
read anytime before
the next received byte
Cleared by software
1
A7
Receive Second Address Byte
8
A0
9
ACK
UA
2
D6
3
D5
4
D4
6
D2
Set CKP with software
releases SCLx
7
D1
Update of SSPxADD,
clears UA and releases
SCLx
5
D3
Receive Data
Cleared by software
1
D7
8
9
2
Received data
is read from
SSPxBUF
1
D6 D5
Receive Data
D0 ACK D7
FIGURE 24-21:
SSPxIF
1
SCLx
S
1
SDAx
Receive First Address Byte
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 10-BIT ADDRESS, RECEPTION (SEN = 0, AHEN = 1, DHEN = 0)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
D/A
R/W
ACKSTAT
CKP
UA
BF
SSPxIF
4
5
6
7
Set by hardware
3
Indicates an address
has been received
UA indicates SSPxADD
must be updated
SSPxBUF loaded
with received address
2
8
9
1
SCLx
S
Receiving Address R/W = 0
1 1 1 1 0 A9 A8
ACK
1
3
4
5
6
7 8
After SSPxADD is
updated, UA is cleared
and SCLx is released
Cleared by software
2
9
A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 ACK
Receiving Second Address Byte
1
4
5
6
7 8
Set by hardware
2 3
R/W is copied from the
matching address byte
When R/W = 1;
CKP is cleared on
9th falling edge of SCLx
High address is loaded
back into SSPxADD
Received address is
read from SSPxBUF
Sr
1 1 1 1 0 A9 A8
Receive First Address Byte
9
ACK
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Masters not ACK
is copied
Set by software
releases SCLx
Data to transmit is
loaded into SSPxBUF
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
Transmitting Data Byte
9
P
Master sends
Stop condition
ACK = 1
Master sends
not ACK
FIGURE 24-22:
SDAx
Master sends
Restart event
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C SLAVE, 10-BIT ADDRESS, TRANSMISSION (SEN = 0, AHEN = 0, DHEN = 0)
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.5.6 CLOCK STRETCHING
24.5.6.2 10-bit Addressing Mode
Clock stretching occurs when a device on the bus
holds the SCLx line low effectively pausing communication. The slave may stretch the clock to allow more
time to handle data or prepare a response for the master device. A master device is not concerned with
stretching as anytime it is active on the bus and not
transferring data it is stretching. Any stretching done
by a slave is invisible to the master software and handled by the hardware that generates SCLx.
In 10-bit Addressing mode, when the UA bit is set, the
clock is always stretched. This is the only time the
SCLx is stretched without CKP being cleared. SCLx is
released immediately after a write to SSPxADD.
The CKP bit of the SSPxCON1 register is used to control stretching in software. Any time the CKP bit is
cleared, the module will wait for the SCLx line to go
low and then hold it. Setting CKP will release SCLx
and allow more communication.
24.5.6.1 Normal Clock Stretching
Following an ACK if the R/W bit of SSPxSTAT is set, a
read request, the slave hardware will clear CKP. This
allows the slave time to update SSPxBUF with data to
transfer to the master. If the SEN bit of SSPxCON2 is
set, the slave hardware will always stretch the clock
after the ACK sequence. Once the slave is ready; CKP
is set by software and communication resumes.
Note 1: The BF bit has no effect on if the clock will
be stretched or not. This is different than
previous versions of the module that
would not stretch the clock, clear CKP, if
SSPxBUF was read before the 9th falling
edge of SCLx.
2: Previous versions of the module did not
stretch the clock for a transmission if
SSPxBUF was loaded before the 9th falling edge of SCLx. It is now always cleared
for read requests.
FIGURE 24-23:
Note: Previous versions of the module did not
stretch the clock if the second address byte
did not match.
24.5.6.3 Byte NACKing
When AHEN bit of SSPxCON3 is set; CKP is cleared
by hardware after the 8th falling edge of SCLx for a
received matching address byte. When DHEN bit of
SSPxCON3 is set; CKP is cleared after the 8th falling
edge of SCLx for received data.
Stretching after the 8th falling edge of SCLx allows the
slave to look at the received address or data and
decide if it wants to ACK the received data.
24.5.7 CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION AND
THE CKP BIT
Any time the CKP bit is cleared, the module will wait
for the SCLx line to go low and then hold it. However,
clearing the CKP bit will not assert the SCLx output
low until the SCLx output is already sampled low.
Therefore, the CKP bit will not assert the SCLx line
until an external I2C master device has already
asserted the SCLx line. The SCLx output will remain
low until the CKP bit is set and all other devices on the
I2C bus have released SCLx. This ensures that a write
to the CKP bit will not violate the minimum high time
requirement for SCLx (see Figure 24-22).
CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION TIMING
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
SDAx
DX ‚ – 1
DX
SCLx
CKP
Master device
asserts clock
Master device
releases clock
WR
SSPxCON1
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Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.5.8 GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SUPPORT
In 10-bit Address mode, the UA bit will not be set on
the reception of the general call address. The slave
will prepare to receive the second byte as data, just as
it would in 7-bit mode.
The addressing procedure for the I2C bus is such that
the first byte after the Start condition usually determines which device will be the slave addressed by the
master device. The exception is the general call
address which can address all devices. When this
address is used, all devices should, in theory, respond
with an acknowledge.
If the AHEN bit of the SSPxCON3 register is set, just
as with any other address reception, the slave hardware will stretch the clock after the 8th falling edge of
SCLx. The slave must then set its ACKDT value and
release the clock with communication progressing as it
would normally.
The general call address is a reserved address in the
I2C protocol, defined as address 0x00. When the
GCEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register is set, the slave
module will automatically ACK the reception of this
address regardless of the value stored in SSPxADD.
After the slave clocks in an address of all zeros with
the R/W bit clear, an interrupt is generated and slave
software can read SSPxBUF and respond.
Figure 24-23 shows a general call reception
sequence.
FIGURE 24-24:
SLAVE MODE GENERAL CALL ADDRESS SEQUENCE
Address is compared to General Call Address
after ACK, set interrupt
R/W = 0
ACK D7
General Call Address
SDAx
SCLx
S
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
Receiving Data
ACK
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
SSPxIF
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
Cleared by software
SSPxBUF is read
GCEN (SSPxCON2<7>)
’1’
24.5.9 SSPX MASK REGISTER
An SSPx Mask (SSPxMSK) register (Register 24-5) is
available in I2C Slave mode as a mask for the value
held in the SSPxSR register during an address
comparison operation. A zero (‘0’) bit in the SSPxMSK
register has the effect of making the corresponding bit
of the received address a “don’t care”.
This register is reset to all ‘1’s upon any Reset
condition and, therefore, has no effect on standard
SSPx operation until written with a mask value.
The SSPx Mask register is active during:
• 7-bit Address mode: address compare of A<7:1>.
• 10-bit Address mode: address compare of A<7:0>
only. The SSPx mask has no effect during the
reception of the first (high) byte of the address.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6
24.6.1 I2C MASTER MODE OPERATION
I2C MASTER MODE
Master mode is enabled by setting and clearing the
appropriate SSPxM bits in the SSPxCON1 register and
by setting the SSPxEN bit. The SDA and SCK pins
must be configured as inputs. The MSSP peripheral
hardware will override the output driver TRIS controls
when necessary to drive the pins low.
The master device generates all of the serial clock
pulses and the Start and Stop conditions. A transfer is
ended with a Stop condition or with a Repeated Start
condition. Since the Repeated Start condition is also
the beginning of the next serial transfer, the I2C bus will
not be released.
Master mode of operation is supported by interrupt
generation on the detection of the Start and Stop conditions. The Stop (P) and Start (S) bits are cleared from
a Reset or when the MSSPx module is disabled. Control of the I 2C bus may be taken when the P bit is set,
or the bus is Idle.
In Master Transmitter mode, serial data is output
through SDAx, while SCLx outputs the serial clock. The
first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the
receiving device (7 bits) and the Read/Write (R/W) bit.
In this case, the R/W bit will be logic ‘0’. Serial data is
transmitted 8 bits at a time. After each byte is transmitted, an Acknowledge bit is received. Start and Stop
conditions are output to indicate the beginning and the
end of a serial transfer.
In Firmware Controlled Master mode, user code
conducts all I 2C bus operations based on Start and
Stop bit condition detection. Start and Stop condition
detection is the only active circuitry in this mode. All
other communication is done by the user software
directly manipulating the SDAx and SCLx lines.
The following events will cause the SSPx Interrupt Flag
bit, SSPxIF, to be set (SSPx interrupt, if enabled):
•
•
•
•
•
Start condition detected
Stop condition detected
Data transfer byte transmitted/received
Acknowledge transmitted/received
Repeated Start generated
Note 1: The MSSPx module, when configured in
I2C Master mode, does not allow queueing of events. For instance, the user is not
allowed to initiate a Start condition and
immediately write the SSPxBUF register
to initiate transmission before the Start
condition is complete. In this case, the
SSPxBUF will not be written to and the
WCOL bit will be set, indicating that a
write to the SSPxBUF did not occur
In Master Receive mode, the first byte transmitted contains the slave address of the transmitting device
(7 bits) and the R/W bit. In this case, the R/W bit will be
logic ‘1’. Thus, the first byte transmitted is a 7-bit slave
address followed by a ‘1’ to indicate the receive bit.
Serial data is received via SDAx, while SCLx outputs
the serial clock. Serial data is received 8 bits at a time.
After each byte is received, an Acknowledge bit is
transmitted. Start and Stop conditions indicate the
beginning and end of transmission.
A Baud Rate Generator is used to set the clock
frequency output on SCLx. See Section 24.7 “Baud
Rate Generator” for more detail.
2: When in Master mode, Start/Stop detection is masked and an interrupt is generated when the SEN/PEN bit is cleared and
the generation is complete.
DS41414C-page 272
Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.2 CLOCK ARBITRATION
Clock arbitration occurs when the master, during any
receive, transmit or Repeated Start/Stop condition,
releases the SCLx pin (SCLx allowed to float high).
When the SCLx pin is allowed to float high, the Baud
Rate Generator (BRG) is suspended from counting
until the SCLx pin is actually sampled high. When the
SCLx pin is sampled high, the Baud Rate Generator is
reloaded with the contents of SSPxADD<7:0> and
begins counting. This ensures that the SCLx high time
will always be at least one BRG rollover count in the
event that the clock is held low by an external device
(Figure 24-25).
FIGURE 24-25:
BAUD RATE GENERATOR TIMING WITH CLOCK ARBITRATION
SDAx
DX ‚ – 1
DX
SCLx deasserted but slave holds
SCLx low (clock arbitration)
SCLx allowed to transition high
SCLx
BRG decrements on
Q2 and Q4 cycles
BRG
Value
03h
02h
01h
00h (hold off)
03h
02h
SCLx is sampled high, reload takes
place and BRG starts its count
BRG
Reload
24.6.3 WCOL STATUS FLAG
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a Start, Restart,
Stop, Receive or Transmit sequence is in progress, the
WCOL is set and the contents of the buffer are
unchanged (the write does not occur). Any time the
WCOL bit is set it indicates that an action on SSPxBUF
was attempted while the module was not Idle.
Note:
Because queueing of events is not
allowed, writing to the lower 5 bits of
SSPxCON2 is disabled until the Start
condition is complete.
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Preliminary
DS41414C-page 273
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.4 I2C MASTER MODE START
CONDITION TIMING
by hardware; the Baud Rate Generator is suspended,
leaving the SDAx line held low and the Start condition
is complete.
To initiate a Start condition, the user sets the Start
Enable bit, SEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register. If the
SDAx and SCLx pins are sampled high, the Baud Rate
Generator is reloaded with the contents of
SSPxADD<7:0> and starts its count. If SCLx and
SDAx are both sampled high when the Baud Rate
Generator times out (TBRG), the SDAx pin is driven
low. The action of the SDAx being driven low while
SCLx is high is the Start condition and causes the S bit
of the SSPxSTAT1 register to be set. Following this,
the Baud Rate Generator is reloaded with the contents
of SSPxADD<7:0> and resumes its count. When the
Baud Rate Generator times out (TBRG), the SEN bit of
the SSPxCON2 register will be automatically cleared
FIGURE 24-26:
Note 1: If at the beginning of the Start condition,
the SDAx and SCLx pins are already sampled low, or if during the Start condition,
the SCLx line is sampled low before the
SDAx line is driven low, a bus collision
occurs, the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag,
BCLxIF, is set, the Start condition is
aborted and the I2C module is reset into
its Idle state.
2: The Philips I2C Specification states that a
bus collision cannot occur on a Start.
FIRST START BIT TIMING
Set S bit (SSPxSTAT<3>)
Write to SEN bit occurs here
At completion of Start bit,
hardware clears SEN bit
and sets SSPxIF bit
SDAx = 1,
SCLx = 1
TBRG
TBRG
Write to SSPxBUF occurs here
SDAx
2nd bit
1st bit
TBRG
SCLx
S
DS41414C-page 274
Preliminary
TBRG
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.5 I2C MASTER MODE REPEATED
START CONDITION TIMING
SSPxCON2 register will be automatically cleared and
the Baud Rate Generator will not be reloaded, leaving
the SDAx pin held low. As soon as a Start condition is
detected on the SDAx and SCLx pins, the S bit of the
SSPxSTAT register will be set. The SSPxIF bit will not
be set until the Baud Rate Generator has timed out.
A Repeated Start condition occurs when the RSEN bit
of the SSPxCON2 register is programmed high and the
Master state machine is no longer active. When the
RSEN bit is set, the SCLx pin is asserted low. When the
SCLx pin is sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is
loaded and begins counting. The SDAx pin is released
(brought high) for one Baud Rate Generator count
(TBRG). When the Baud Rate Generator times out, if
SDAx is sampled high, the SCLx pin will be deasserted
(brought high). When SCLx is sampled high, the Baud
Rate Generator is reloaded and begins counting. SDAx
and SCLx must be sampled high for one TBRG. This
action is then followed by assertion of the SDAx pin
(SDAx = 0) for one TBRG while SCLx is high. SCLx is
asserted low. Following this, the RSEN bit of the
FIGURE 24-27:
Note 1: If RSEN is programmed while any other
event is in progress, it will not take effect.
2: A bus collision during the Repeated Start
condition occurs if:
• SDAx is sampled low when SCLx
goes from low-to-high.
• SCLx goes low before SDAx is
asserted low. This may indicate
that another master is attempting to
transmit a data ‘1’.
REPEAT START CONDITION WAVEFORM
S bit set by hardware
Write to SSPxCON2
occurs here
SDAx = 1,
SCLx (no change)
At completion of Start bit,
hardware clears RSEN bit
and sets SSPxIF
SDAx = 1,
SCLx = 1
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
1st bit
SDAx
Write to SSPxBUF occurs here
TBRG
SCLx
Sr
TBRG
Repeated Start
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 275
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.6 I2C MASTER MODE TRANSMISSION
24.6.6.3
Transmission of a data byte, a 7-bit address or the
other half of a 10-bit address is accomplished by simply
writing a value to the SSPxBUF register. This action will
set the Buffer Full flag bit, BF, and allow the Baud Rate
Generator to begin counting and start the next transmission. Each bit of address/data will be shifted out
onto the SDAx pin after the falling edge of SCLx is
asserted. SCLx is held low for one Baud Rate Generator rollover count (TBRG). Data should be valid before
SCLx is released high. When the SCLx pin is released
high, it is held that way for TBRG. The data on the SDAx
pin must remain stable for that duration and some hold
time after the next falling edge of SCLx. After the eighth
bit is shifted out (the falling edge of the eighth clock),
the BF flag is cleared and the master releases SDAx.
This allows the slave device being addressed to
respond with an ACK bit during the ninth bit time if an
address match occurred, or if data was received properly. The status of ACK is written into the ACKSTAT bit
on the rising edge of the ninth clock. If the master
receives an Acknowledge, the Acknowledge Status bit,
ACKSTAT, is cleared. If not, the bit is set. After the ninth
clock, the SSPxIF bit is set and the master clock (Baud
Rate Generator) is suspended until the next data byte
is loaded into the SSPxBUF, leaving SCLx low and
SDAx unchanged (Figure 24-27).
In Transmit mode, the ACKSTAT bit of the SSPxCON2
register is cleared when the slave has sent an Acknowledge (ACK = 0) and is set when the slave does not
Acknowledge (ACK = 1). A slave sends an Acknowledge when it has recognized its address (including a
general call), or when the slave has properly received
its data.
After the write to the SSPxBUF, each bit of the address
will be shifted out on the falling edge of SCLx until all
seven address bits and the R/W bit are completed. On
the falling edge of the eighth clock, the master will
release the SDAx pin, allowing the slave to respond
with an Acknowledge. On the falling edge of the ninth
clock, the master will sample the SDAx pin to see if the
address was recognized by a slave. The status of the
ACK bit is loaded into the ACKSTAT Status bit of the
SSPxCON2 register. Following the falling edge of the
ninth clock transmission of the address, the SSPxIF is
set, the BF flag is cleared and the Baud Rate Generator
is turned off until another write to the SSPxBUF takes
place, holding SCLx low and allowing SDAx to float.
24.6.6.1
ACKSTAT Status Flag
24.6.6.4 Typical transmit sequence:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
BF Status Flag
The user generates a Start condition by setting
the SEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register.
SSPxIF is set by hardware on completion of the
Start.
SSPxIF is cleared by software.
The MSSPx module will wait the required start
time before any other operation takes place.
The user loads the SSPxBUF with the slave
address to transmit.
Address is shifted out the SDAx pin until all 8 bits
are transmitted. Transmission begins as soon
as SSPxBUF is written to.
The MSSPx module shifts in the ACK bit from
the slave device and writes its value into the
ACKSTAT bit of the SSPxCON2 register.
The MSSPx module generates an interrupt at
the end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the
SSPxIF bit.
The user loads the SSPxBUF with eight bits of
data.
Data is shifted out the SDAx pin until all 8 bits
are transmitted.
The MSSPx module shifts in the ACK bit from
the slave device and writes its value into the
ACKSTAT bit of the SSPxCON2 register.
Steps 8-11 are repeated for all transmitted data
bytes.
The user generates a Stop or Restart condition
by setting the PEN or RSEN bits of the
SSPxCON2 register. Interrupt is generated once
the Stop/Restart condition is complete.
In Transmit mode, the BF bit of the SSPxSTAT register
is set when the CPU writes to SSPxBUF and is cleared
when all 8 bits are shifted out.
24.6.6.2
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a transmit is
already in progress (i.e., SSPxSR is still shifting out a
data byte), the WCOL is set and the contents of the
buffer are unchanged (the write does not occur).
WCOL must be cleared by software before the next
transmission.
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Preliminary
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 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
S
Preliminary
R/W
PEN
SEN
BF (SSPxSTAT<0>)
SSPxIF
SCLx
SDAx
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
3
4
5
Cleared by software
2
6
7
8
9
After Start condition, SEN cleared by hardware
SSPxBUF written
1
D7
1
SCLx held low
while CPU
responds to SSPxIF
ACK = 0
R/W = 0
SSPxBUF written with 7-bit address and R/W
start transmit
A7
Transmit Address to Slave
3
D5
4
D4
5
D3
6
D2
7
D1
8
D0
SSPxBUF is written by software
Cleared by software service routine
from SSPx interrupt
2
D6
Transmitting Data or Second Half
of 10-bit Address
P
ACKSTAT in
SSPxCON2 = 1
Cleared by software
9
ACK
From slave, clear ACKSTAT bit SSPxCON2<6>
FIGURE 24-28:
SEN = 0
Write SSPxCON2<0> SEN = 1
Start condition begins
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (TRANSMISSION, 7 OR 10-BIT ADDRESS)
DS41414C-page 277
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.7
I2C MASTER MODE RECEPTION
24.6.7.4 Typical Receive Sequence:
Master mode reception is enabled by programming the
Receive Enable bit, RCEN bit of the SSPxCON2
register.
Note:
The MSSPx module must be in an Idle
state before the RCEN bit is set or the
RCEN bit will be disregarded.
The Baud Rate Generator begins counting and on each
rollover, the state of the SCLx pin changes
(high-to-low/low-to-high) and data is shifted into the
SSPxSR. After the falling edge of the eighth clock, the
receive enable flag is automatically cleared, the contents of the SSPxSR are loaded into the SSPxBUF, the
BF flag bit is set, the SSPxIF flag bit is set and the Baud
Rate Generator is suspended from counting, holding
SCLx low. The MSSPx is now in Idle state awaiting the
next command. When the buffer is read by the CPU,
the BF flag bit is automatically cleared. The user can
then send an Acknowledge bit at the end of reception
by setting the Acknowledge Sequence Enable, ACKEN
bit of the SSPxCON2 register.
24.6.7.1
BF Status Flag
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
In receive operation, the BF bit is set when an address
or data byte is loaded into SSPxBUF from SSPxSR. It
is cleared when the SSPxBUF register is read.
11.
24.6.7.2
12.
SSPxOV Status Flag
In receive operation, the SSPxOV bit is set when 8 bits
are received into the SSPxSR and the BF flag bit is
already set from a previous reception.
24.6.7.3
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a receive is
already in progress (i.e., SSPxSR is still shifting in a
data byte), the WCOL bit is set and the contents of the
buffer are unchanged (the write does not occur).
DS41414C-page 278
13.
14.
15.
Preliminary
The user generates a Start condition by setting
the SEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register.
SSPxIF is set by hardware on completion of the
Start.
SSPxIF is cleared by software.
User writes SSPxBUF with the slave address to
transmit and the R/W bit set.
Address is shifted out the SDAx pin until all 8 bits
are transmitted. Transmission begins as soon
as SSPxBUF is written to.
The MSSPx module shifts in the ACK bit from
the slave device and writes its value into the
ACKSTAT bit of the SSPxCON2 register.
The MSSPx module generates an interrupt at
the end of the ninth clock cycle by setting the
SSPxIF bit.
User sets the RCEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register and the Master clocks in a byte from the slave.
After the 8th falling edge of SCLx, SSPxIF and
BF are set.
Master clears SSPxIF and reads the received
byte from SSPxUF, clears BF.
Master sets ACK value sent to slave in ACKDT
bit of the SSPxCON2 register and initiates the
ACK by setting the ACKEN bit.
Masters ACK is clocked out to the Slave and
SSPxIF is set.
User clears SSPxIF.
Steps 8-13 are repeated for each received byte
from the slave.
Master sends a not ACK or Stop to end
communication.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
S
Preliminary
RCEN
ACKEN
SSPxOV
BF
(SSPxSTAT<0>)
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1
while CPU
responds to SSPxIF
SSPxIF
SCLx
SDAx
1
A7
2
4
5
6
Cleared by software
3
A6 A5 A4 A3 A2
Transmit Address to Slave
7
8
9
ACK
Receiving Data from Slave
2
3
5
6
7
8
D0
9
ACK
Receiving Data from Slave
2
3
4
RCEN cleared
automatically
5
6
7
Cleared by software
Set SSPxIF interrupt
at end of Acknowledge
sequence
Data shifted in on falling edge of CLK
1
ACK from Master
SDAx = ACKDT = 0
Cleared in
software
Set SSPxIF at end
of receive
9
ACK is not sent
ACK
RCEN cleared
automatically
P
Set SSPxIF interrupt
at end of Acknowledge sequence
Bus master
terminates
transfer
Set P bit
(SSPxSTAT<4>)
and SSPxIF
PEN bit = 1
written here
SSPxOV is set because
SSPxBUF is still full
8
D0
RCEN cleared
automatically
Set ACKEN, start Acknowledge sequence
SDAx = ACKDT = 1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
Last bit is shifted into SSPxSR and
contents are unloaded into SSPxBUF
Cleared by software
Set SSPxIF interrupt
at end of receive
4
Cleared by software
1
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1
Master configured as a receiver
by programming SSPxCON2<3> (RCEN = 1)
A1 R/W
RCEN = 1, start
next receive
ACK from Master
SDAx = ACKDT = 0
FIGURE 24-29:
RCEN cleared
automatically
Master configured as a receiver
by programming SSPxCON2<3> (RCEN = 1)
SEN = 0
Write to SSPxBUF occurs here,
ACK from Slave
start XMIT
Write to SSPxCON2<0>(SEN = 1),
begin Start condition
Write to SSPxCON2<4>
to start Acknowledge sequence
SDAx = ACKDT (SSPxCON2<5>) = 0
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
I2C MASTER MODE WAVEFORM (RECEPTION, 7-BIT ADDRESS)
DS41414C-page 279
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.8
ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE
TIMING
24.6.9
A Stop bit is asserted on the SDAx pin at the end of a
receive/transmit by setting the Stop Sequence Enable
bit, PEN bit of the SSPxCON2 register. At the end of a
receive/transmit, the SCLx line is held low after the
falling edge of the ninth clock. When the PEN bit is set,
the master will assert the SDAx line low. When the
SDAx line is sampled low, the Baud Rate Generator is
reloaded and counts down to ‘0’. When the Baud Rate
Generator times out, the SCLx pin will be brought high
and one TBRG (Baud Rate Generator rollover count)
later, the SDAx pin will be deasserted. When the SDAx
pin is sampled high while SCLx is high, the P bit of the
SSPxSTAT register is set. A TBRG later, the PEN bit is
cleared and the SSPxIF bit is set (Figure 24-30).
An Acknowledge sequence is enabled by setting the
Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit, ACKEN bit of the
SSPxCON2 register. When this bit is set, the SCLx pin is
pulled low and the contents of the Acknowledge data bit
are presented on the SDAx pin. If the user wishes to
generate an Acknowledge, then the ACKDT bit should
be cleared. If not, the user should set the ACKDT bit
before starting an Acknowledge sequence. The Baud
Rate Generator then counts for one rollover period
(TBRG) and the SCLx pin is deasserted (pulled high).
When the SCLx pin is sampled high (clock arbitration),
the Baud Rate Generator counts for TBRG. The SCLx pin
is then pulled low. Following this, the ACKEN bit is automatically cleared, the Baud Rate Generator is turned off
and the MSSPx module then goes into Idle mode
(Figure 24-29).
24.6.8.1
24.6.9.1
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when a Stop sequence
is in progress, then the WCOL bit is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write does
not occur).
WCOL Status Flag
If the user writes the SSPxBUF when an Acknowledge
sequence is in progress, then WCOL is set and the
contents of the buffer are unchanged (the write does
not occur).
FIGURE 24-30:
STOP CONDITION TIMING
ACKNOWLEDGE SEQUENCE WAVEFORM
Acknowledge sequence starts here,
write to SSPxCON2
ACKEN = 1, ACKDT = 0
ACKEN automatically cleared
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
SCLx
ACK
D0
8
9
SSPxIF
SSPxIF set at
the end of receive
Cleared in
software
Cleared in
software
SSPxIF set at the end
of Acknowledge sequence
Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period.
DS41414C-page 280
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 24-31:
STOP CONDITION RECEIVE OR TRANSMIT MODE
SCLx = 1 for TBRG, followed by SDAx = 1 for TBRG
after SDAx sampled high. P bit (SSPxSTAT<4>) is set.
Write to SSPxCON2,
set PEN
PEN bit (SSPxCON2<2>) is cleared by
hardware and the SSPxIF bit is set
Falling edge of
9th clock
TBRG
SCLx
SDAx
ACK
P
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
SCLx brought high after TBRG
SDAx asserted low before rising edge of clock
to setup Stop condition
Note: TBRG = one Baud Rate Generator period.
24.6.10
SLEEP OPERATION
24.6.13
2
While in Sleep mode, the I C slave module can receive
addresses or data and when an address match or
complete byte transfer occurs, wake the processor
from Sleep (if the MSSPx interrupt is enabled).
24.6.11
EFFECTS OF A RESET
A Reset disables the MSSPx module and terminates
the current transfer.
24.6.12
MULTI-MASTER MODE
In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the
detection of the Start and Stop conditions allows the
determination of when the bus is free. The Stop (P) and
Start (S) bits are cleared from a Reset or when the
MSSPx module is disabled. Control of the I 2C bus may
be taken when the P bit of the SSPxSTAT register is
set, or the bus is Idle, with both the S and P bits clear.
When the bus is busy, enabling the SSPx interrupt will
generate the interrupt when the Stop condition occurs.
In multi-master operation, the SDAx line must be
monitored for arbitration to see if the signal level is the
expected output level. This check is performed by
hardware with the result placed in the BCLxIF bit.
The states where arbitration can be lost are:
•
•
•
•
•
Address Transfer
Data Transfer
A Start Condition
A Repeated Start Condition
An Acknowledge Condition
MULTI -MASTER COMMUNICATION,
BUS COLLISION AND BUS
ARBITRATION
Multi-Master mode support is achieved by bus arbitration. When the master outputs address/data bits onto
the SDAx pin, arbitration takes place when the master
outputs a ‘1’ on SDAx, by letting SDAx float high and
another master asserts a ‘0’. When the SCLx pin floats
high, data should be stable. If the expected data on
SDAx is a ‘1’ and the data sampled on the SDAx pin is
‘0’, then a bus collision has taken place. The master will
set the Bus Collision Interrupt Flag, BCLxIF, and reset
the I2C port to its Idle state (Figure 24-31).
If a transmit was in progress when the bus collision
occurred, the transmission is halted, the BF flag is
cleared, the SDAx and SCLx lines are deasserted and
the SSPxBUF can be written to. When the user services the bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and if
the I2C bus is free, the user can resume communication by asserting a Start condition.
If a Start, Repeated Start, Stop or Acknowledge condition was in progress when the bus collision occurred, the
condition is aborted, the SDAx and SCLx lines are deasserted and the respective control bits in the SSPxCON2
register are cleared. When the user services the bus collision Interrupt Service Routine and if the I2C bus is free,
the user can resume communication by asserting a Start
condition.
The master will continue to monitor the SDAx and SCLx
pins. If a Stop condition occurs, the SSPxIF bit will be set.
A write to the SSPxBUF will start the transmission of
data at the first data bit, regardless of where the
transmitter left off when the bus collision occurred.
In Multi-Master mode, the interrupt generation on the
detection of Start and Stop conditions allows the determination of when the bus is free. Control of the I2C bus
can be taken when the P bit is set in the SSPxSTAT
register, or the bus is Idle and the S and P bits are
cleared.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 281
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 24-32:
BUS COLLISION TIMING FOR TRANSMIT AND ACKNOWLEDGE
Data changes
while SCLx = 0
SDAx line pulled low
by another source
SDAx released
by master
Sample SDAx. While SCLx is high,
data does not match what is driven
by the master.
Bus collision has occurred.
SDAx
SCLx
Set bus collision
interrupt (BCLxIF)
BCLxIF
DS41414C-page 282
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.13.1
Bus Collision During a Start
Condition
During a Start condition, a bus collision occurs if:
a)
b)
SDAx or SCLx are sampled low at the beginning
of the Start condition (Figure 24-32).
SCLx is sampled low before SDAx is asserted
low (Figure 24-33).
During a Start condition, both the SDAx and the SCLx
pins are monitored.
If the SDAx pin is sampled low during this count, the
BRG is reset and the SDAx line is asserted early
(Figure 24-34). If, however, a ‘1’ is sampled on the
SDAx pin, the SDAx pin is asserted low at the end of
the BRG count. The Baud Rate Generator is then
reloaded and counts down to zero; if the SCLx pin is
sampled as ‘0’ during this time, a bus collision does not
occur. At the end of the BRG count, the SCLx pin is
asserted low.
Note:
If the SDAx pin is already low, or the SCLx pin is
already low, then all of the following occur:
• the Start condition is aborted,
• the BCLxIF flag is set and
• the MSSPx module is reset to its Idle state
(Figure 24-32).
The Start condition begins with the SDAx and SCLx
pins deasserted. When the SDAx pin is sampled high,
the Baud Rate Generator is loaded and counts down. If
the SCLx pin is sampled low while SDAx is high, a bus
collision occurs because it is assumed that another
master is attempting to drive a data ‘1’ during the Start
condition.
FIGURE 24-33:
The reason that bus collision is not a factor during a Start condition is that no two
bus masters can assert a Start condition
at the exact same time. Therefore, one
master will always assert SDAx before the
other. This condition does not cause a bus
collision because the two masters must be
allowed to arbitrate the first address following the Start condition. If the address is
the same, arbitration must be allowed to
continue into the data portion, Repeated
Start or Stop conditions.
BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SDAX ONLY)
SDAx goes low before the SEN bit is set.
Set BCLxIF,
S bit and SSPxIF set because
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1.
SDAx
SCLx
Set SEN, enable Start
condition if SDAx = 1, SCLx = 1
SEN cleared automatically because of bus collision.
SSPx module reset into Idle state.
SEN
BCLxIF
SDAx sampled low before
Start condition. Set BCLxIF.
S bit and SSPxIF set because
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1.
SSPxIF and BCLxIF are
cleared by software
S
SSPxIF
SSPxIF and BCLxIF are
cleared by software
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 283
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 24-34:
BUS COLLISION DURING START CONDITION (SCLX = 0)
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
Set SEN, enable Start
sequence if SDAx = 1, SCLx = 1
SCLx
SCLx = 0 before SDAx = 0,
bus collision occurs. Set BCLxIF.
SEN
SCLx = 0 before BRG time-out,
bus collision occurs. Set BCLxIF.
BCLxIF
Interrupt cleared
by software
S
’0’
’0’
SSPxIF
’0’
’0’
FIGURE 24-35:
BRG RESET DUE TO SDA ARBITRATION DURING START CONDITION
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1
Set S
Less than TBRG
SDAx
SCLx
TBRG
SDAx pulled low by other master.
Reset BRG and assert SDAx.
S
SCLx pulled low after BRG
time-out
SEN
BCLxIF
Set SSPxIF
Set SEN, enable Start
sequence if SDAx = 1, SCLx = 1
’0’
S
SSPxIF
SDAx = 0, SCLx = 1,
set SSPxIF
DS41414C-page 284
Preliminary
Interrupts cleared
by software
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.13.2
Bus Collision During a Repeated
Start Condition
If SDAx is low, a bus collision has occurred (i.e., another
master is attempting to transmit a data ‘0’, Figure 24-35).
If SDAx is sampled high, the BRG is reloaded and
begins counting. If SDAx goes from high-to-low before
the BRG times out, no bus collision occurs because no
two masters can assert SDAx at exactly the same time.
During a Repeated Start condition, a bus collision
occurs if:
a)
b)
A low level is sampled on SDAx when SCLx
goes from low level to high level.
SCLx goes low before SDAx is asserted low,
indicating that another master is attempting to
transmit a data ‘1’.
If SCLx goes from high-to-low before the BRG times
out and SDAx has not already been asserted, a bus
collision occurs. In this case, another master is
attempting to transmit a data ‘1’ during the Repeated
Start condition, see Figure 24-36.
When the user releases SDAx and the pin is allowed to
float high, the BRG is loaded with SSPxADD and
counts down to zero. The SCLx pin is then deasserted
and when sampled high, the SDAx pin is sampled.
FIGURE 24-36:
If, at the end of the BRG time-out, both SCLx and SDAx
are still high, the SDAx pin is driven low and the BRG
is reloaded and begins counting. At the end of the
count, regardless of the status of the SCLx pin, the
SCLx pin is driven low and the Repeated Start
condition is complete.
BUS COLLISION DURING A REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 1)
SDAx
SCLx
Sample SDAx when SCLx goes high.
If SDAx = 0, set BCLxIF and release SDAx and SCLx.
RSEN
BCLxIF
Cleared by software
S
’0’
SSPxIF
’0’
FIGURE 24-37:
BUS COLLISION DURING REPEATED START CONDITION (CASE 2)
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
SCLx
BCLxIF
SCLx goes low before SDAx,
set BCLxIF. Release SDAx and SCLx.
Interrupt cleared
by software
RSEN
’0’
S
SSPxIF
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 285
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.6.13.3
Bus Collision During a Stop
Condition
The Stop condition begins with SDAx asserted low.
When SDAx is sampled low, the SCLx pin is allowed to
float. When the pin is sampled high (clock arbitration),
the Baud Rate Generator is loaded with SSPxADD and
counts down to 0. After the BRG times out, SDAx is
sampled. If SDAx is sampled low, a bus collision has
occurred. This is due to another master attempting to
drive a data ‘0’ (Figure 24-37). If the SCLx pin is
sampled low before SDAx is allowed to float high, a bus
collision occurs. This is another case of another master
attempting to drive a data ‘0’ (Figure 24-38).
Bus collision occurs during a Stop condition if:
a)
b)
After the SDAx pin has been deasserted and
allowed to float high, SDAx is sampled low after
the BRG has timed out.
After the SCLx pin is deasserted, SCLx is
sampled low before SDAx goes high.
FIGURE 24-38:
BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 1)
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
SDAx sampled
low after TBRG,
set BCLxIF
SDAx asserted low
SCLx
PEN
BCLxIF
P
’0’
SSPxIF
’0’
FIGURE 24-39:
BUS COLLISION DURING A STOP CONDITION (CASE 2)
TBRG
TBRG
TBRG
SDAx
SCLx goes low before SDAx goes high,
set BCLxIF
Assert SDAx
SCLx
PEN
BCLxIF
P
’0’
SSPxIF
’0’
DS41414C-page 286
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 24-3:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH I2C™ OPERATION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values on
Page
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE(1)
95
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF(1)
99
PIR4(1)
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
101
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
Name
INTCON
PIE4(1)
SSPxADD
SSPxBUF
SSPxCON1
ADD<7:0>
131
295
MSSPx Receive Buffer/Transmit Register
245*
WCOL
SSPOV
SSPEN
CKP
SSPxCON2
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
293
SSPxCON3
ACKTIM
PCIE
SCIE
BOEN
SDAHT
SBCDE
AHEN
DHEN
294
SSPxMSK
SSPxSTAT
Legend:
*
Note 1:
SSPM<3:0>
291
MSK<7:0>
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
295
S
R/W
UA
BF
289
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the MSSP module in I2C™ mode.
Page provides register information.
PIC16F1947 only.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 287
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.7
BAUD RATE GENERATOR
The MSSPx module has a Baud Rate Generator available for clock generation in both I2C and SPI Master
modes. The Baud Rate Generator (BRG) reload value
is placed in the SSPxADD register (Register 24-6).
When a write occurs to SSPxBUF, the Baud Rate Generator will automatically begin counting down.
Once the given operation is complete, the internal clock
will automatically stop counting and the clock pin will
remain in its last state.
module clock line. The logic dictating when the reload
signal is asserted depends on the mode the MSSPx is
being operated in.
Table 24-4 demonstrates clock rates based on
instruction cycles and the BRG value loaded into
SSPxADD.
EQUATION 24-1:
FOSC
FCLOCK = ------------------------------------------------ SSPxADD + 1   4 
An internal signal “Reload” in Figure 24-39 triggers the
value from SSPxADD to be loaded into the BRG
counter. This occurs twice for each oscillation of the
FIGURE 24-40:
BAUD RATE GENERATOR BLOCK DIAGRAM
SSPxM<3:0>
SSPxM<3:0>
Reload
SSPxADD<7:0>
Reload
Control
SCLx
SSPxCLK
BRG Down Counter
FOSC/2
Note: Values of 0x00, 0x01 and 0x02 are not valid
for SSPxADD when used as a Baud Rate
Generator for I2C. This is an implementation
limitation.
TABLE 24-4:
Note 1:
MSSPx CLOCK RATE W/BRG
FOSC
FCY
BRG Value
FCLOCK
(2 Rollovers of BRG)
32 MHz
8 MHz
13h
400 kHz(1)
32 MHz
8 MHz
19h
308 kHz
32 MHz
8 MHz
4Fh
100 kHz
16 MHz
4 MHz
09h
400 kHz(1)
16 MHz
4 MHz
0Ch
308 kHz
16 MHz
4 MHz
27h
100 kHz
4 MHz
1 MHz
09h
100 kHz
2C
I2C
specification (which applies to rates greater than
The I interface does not conform to the 400 kHz
100 kHz) in all details, but may be used with care where higher rates are required by the application.
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
24.8
MSSP Control Registers
REGISTER 24-1:
SSPxSTAT: SSPx STATUS REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
SMP
CKE
D/A
P
S
R/W
UA
BF
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
SMP: SPI Data Input Sample bit
SPI Master mode:
1 = Input data sampled at end of data output time
0 = Input data sampled at middle of data output time
SPI Slave mode:
SMP must be cleared when SPI is used in Slave mode
In I2 C Master or Slave mode:
1 = Slew rate control disabled for standard speed mode (100 kHz and 1 MHz)
0 = Slew rate control enabled for high speed mode (400 kHz)
bit 6
CKE: SPI Clock Edge Select bit (SPI mode only)
In SPI Master or Slave mode:
1 = Transmit occurs on transition from active to Idle clock state
0 = Transmit occurs on transition from Idle to active clock state
In I2 C™ mode only:
1 = Enable input logic so that thresholds are compliant with SMBus specification
0 = Disable SMBus specific inputs
bit 5
D/A: Data/Address bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was data
0 = Indicates that the last byte received or transmitted was address
bit 4
P: Stop bit
(I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSPx module is disabled, SSPxEN is cleared.)
1 = Indicates that a Stop bit has been detected last (this bit is ‘0’ on Reset)
0 = Stop bit was not detected last
bit 3
S: Start bit
(I2C mode only. This bit is cleared when the MSSPx module is disabled, SSPxEN is cleared.)
1 = Indicates that a Start bit has been detected last (this bit is ‘0’ on Reset)
0 = Start bit was not detected last
bit 2
R/W: Read/Write bit information (I2C mode only)
This bit holds the R/W bit information following the last address match. This bit is only valid from the address match
to the next Start bit, Stop bit, or not ACK bit.
In I2 C Slave mode:
1 = Read
0 = Write
In I2 C Master mode:
1 = Transmit is in progress
0 = Transmit is not in progress
OR-ing this bit with SEN, RSEN, PEN, RCEN or ACKEN will indicate if the MSSPx is in Idle mode.
bit 1
UA: Update Address bit (10-bit I2C mode only)
1 = Indicates that the user needs to update the address in the SSPxADD register
0 = Address does not need to be updated
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 24-1:
bit 0
SSPxSTAT: SSPx STATUS REGISTER (CONTINUED)
BF: Buffer Full Status bit
Receive (SPI and I2 C modes):
1 = Receive complete, SSPxBUF is full
0 = Receive not complete, SSPxBUF is empty
Transmit (I2 C mode only):
1 = Data transmit in progress (does not include the ACK and Stop bits), SSPxBUF is full
0 = Data transmit complete (does not include the ACK and Stop bits), SSPxBUF is empty
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 24-2:
SSPxCON1: SSPx CONTROL REGISTER 1
R/C/HS-0/0
R/C/HS-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
WCOL
SSPxOV
SSPxEN
CKP
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
SSPxM<3:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
HS = Bit is set by hardware
C = User cleared
bit 7
WCOL: Write Collision Detect bit
Master mode:
1 = A write to the SSPxBUF register was attempted while the I2C conditions were not valid for a transmission to
be started
0 = No collision
Slave mode:
1 = The SSPxBUF register is written while it is still transmitting the previous word (must be cleared in software)
0 = No collision
bit 6
SSPxOV: Receive Overflow Indicator bit(1)
In SPI mode:
1 = A new byte is received while the SSPxBUF register is still holding the previous data. In case of overflow, the data
in SSPxSR is lost. Overflow can only occur in Slave mode. In Slave mode, the user must read the SSPxBUF, even
if only transmitting data, to avoid setting overflow. In Master mode, the overflow bit is not set since each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the SSPxBUF register (must be cleared in software).
0 = No overflow
In I2 C mode:
1 = A byte is received while the SSPxBUF register is still holding the previous byte. SSPxOV is a “don’t care” in
Transmit mode (must be cleared in software).
0 = No overflow
bit 5
SSPxEN: Synchronous Serial Port Enable bit
In both modes, when enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output
In SPI mode:
1 = Enables serial port and configures SCKx, SDOx, SDIx and SSx as the source of the serial port pins(2)
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
In I2 C mode:
1 = Enables the serial port and configures the SDAx and SCLx pins as the source of the serial port pins(3)
0 = Disables serial port and configures these pins as I/O port pins
bit 4
CKP: Clock Polarity Select bit
In SPI mode:
1 = Idle state for clock is a high level
0 = Idle state for clock is a low level
In I2 C Slave mode:
SCLx release control
1 = Enable clock
0 = Holds clock low (clock stretch). (Used to ensure data setup time.)
In I2 C Master mode:
Unused in this mode
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 24-2:
bit 3-0
SSPxCON1: SSPx CONTROL REGISTER 1 (CONTINUED)
SSPxM<3:0>: Synchronous Serial Port Mode Select bits
0000 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/4
0001 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/16
0010 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/64
0011 = SPI Master mode, clock = TMR2 output/2
0100 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCKx pin, SSx pin control enabled
0101 = SPI Slave mode, clock = SCKx pin, SSx pin control disabled, SSx can be used as I/O pin
0110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit address
0111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit address
1000 = I2C Master mode, clock = FOSC / (4 * (SSPxADD+1))(4)
1001 = Reserved
1010 = SPI Master mode, clock = FOSC/(4 * (SSPxADD+1))(5)
1011 = I2C firmware controlled Master mode (Slave idle)
1100 = Reserved
1101 = Reserved
1110 = I2C Slave mode, 7-bit address with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled
1111 = I2C Slave mode, 10-bit address with Start and Stop bit interrupts enabled
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
In Master mode, the overflow bit is not set since each new reception (and transmission) is initiated by writing to the
SSPxBUF register.
When enabled, these pins must be properly configured as input or output.
When enabled, the SDAx and SCLx pins must be configured as inputs.
SSPxADD values of 0, 1 or 2 are not supported for I2C Mode.
SSPxADD value of ‘0’ is not supported. Use SSPxM = 0000 instead.
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 24-3:
SSPxCON2: SSPx CONTROL REGISTER 2
R/W-0/0
R-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/S/HS-0/0
R/S/HS-0/0
R/S/HS-0/0
R/S/HS-0/0
R/W/HS-0/0
GCEN
ACKSTAT
ACKDT
ACKEN
RCEN
PEN
RSEN
SEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
HC = Cleared by hardware
S = User set
bit 7
GCEN: General Call Enable bit (in I2C Slave mode only)
1 = Enable interrupt when a general call address (0x00 or 00h) is received in the SSPxSR
0 = General call address disabled
bit 6
ACKSTAT: Acknowledge Status bit (in I2C mode only)
1 = Acknowledge was not received
0 = Acknowledge was received
bit 5
ACKDT: Acknowledge Data bit (in I2C mode only)
In Receive mode:
Value transmitted when the user initiates an Acknowledge sequence at the end of a receive
1 = Not Acknowledge
0 = Acknowledge
bit 4
ACKEN: Acknowledge Sequence Enable bit (in I2C Master mode only)
In Master Receive mode:
1 = Initiate Acknowledge sequence on SDAx and SCLx pins, and transmit ACKDT data bit.
Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Acknowledge sequence idle
bit 3
RCEN: Receive Enable bit (in I2C Master mode only)
1 = Enables Receive mode for I2C
0 = Receive idle
bit 2
PEN: Stop Condition Enable bit (in I2C Master mode only)
SCKx Release Control:
1 = Initiate Stop condition on SDAx and SCLx pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Stop condition Idle
bit 1
RSEN: Repeated Start Condition Enabled bit (in I2C Master mode only)
1 = Initiate Repeated Start condition on SDAx and SCLx pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Repeated Start condition Idle
bit 0
SEN: Start Condition Enabled bit (in I2C Master mode only)
In Master mode:
1 = Initiate Start condition on SDAx and SCLx pins. Automatically cleared by hardware.
0 = Start condition Idle
In Slave mode:
1 = Clock stretching is enabled for both slave transmit and slave receive (stretch enabled)
0 = Clock stretching is disabled
Note 1:
For bits ACKEN, RCEN, PEN, RSEN, SEN: If the I2C module is not in the Idle mode, this bit may not be
set (no spooling) and the SSPxBUF may not be written (or writes to the SSPxBUF are disabled).
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 24-4:
SSPxCON3: SSPx CONTROL REGISTER 3
R-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
ACKTIM
PCIE
SCIE
BOEN
SDAHT
SBCDE
AHEN
DHEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
ACKTIM: Acknowledge Time Status bit (I2C mode only)(3)
1 = Indicates the I2C bus is in an Acknowledge sequence, set on 8TH falling edge of SCLx clock
0 = Not an Acknowledge sequence, cleared on 9TH rising edge of SCLx clock
bit 6
PCIE: Stop Condition Interrupt Enable bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Enable interrupt on detection of Stop condition
0 = Stop detection interrupts are disabled(2)
bit 5
SCIE: Start Condition Interrupt Enable bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Enable interrupt on detection of Start or Restart conditions
0 = Start detection interrupts are disabled(2)
bit 4
BOEN: Buffer Overwrite Enable bit
In SPI Slave mode:(1)
1 = SSPxBUF updates every time that a new data byte is shifted in ignoring the BF bit
0 = If new byte is received with BF bit of the SSPxSTAT register already set, SSPxOV bit of the
SSPxCON1 register is set, and the buffer is not updated
In I2C Master mode and SPI Master mode:
This bit is ignored.
In I2C Slave mode:
1 = SSPxBUF is updated and ACK is generated for a received address/data byte, ignoring the
state of the SSPxOV bit only if the BF bit = 0.
0 = SSPxBUF is only updated when SSPxOV is clear
bit 3
SDAHT: SDAx Hold Time Selection bit (I2C mode only)
1 = Minimum of 300 ns hold time on SDAx after the falling edge of SCLx
0 = Minimum of 100 ns hold time on SDAx after the falling edge of SCLx
bit 2
SBCDE: Slave Mode Bus Collision Detect Enable bit (I2C Slave mode only)
If on the rising edge of SCLx, SDAx is sampled low when the module is outputting a high state, the
BCLxIF bit of the PIR2 register is set, and bus goes idle
1 = Enable slave bus collision interrupts
0 = Slave bus collision interrupts are disabled
bit 1
AHEN: Address Hold Enable bit (I2C Slave mode only)
1 = Following the 8th falling edge of SCLx for a matching received address byte; CKP bit of the
SSPxCON1 register will be cleared and the SCLx will be held low.
0 = Address holding is disabled
bit 0
DHEN: Data Hold Enable bit (I2C Slave mode only)
1 = Following the 8th falling edge of SCLx for a received data byte; slave hardware clears the CKP bit
of the SSPxCON1 register and SCLx is held low.
0 = Data holding is disabled
Note 1:
2:
3:
For daisy-chained SPI operation; allows the user to ignore all but the last received byte. SSPxOV is still set
when a new byte is received and BF = 1, but hardware continues to write the most recent byte to SSPxBUF.
This bit has no effect in Slave modes that Start and Stop condition detection is explicitly listed as enabled.
The ACKTIM Status bit is only active when the AHEN bit or DHEN bit is set.
DS41414C-page 294
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 24-5:
R/W-1/1
SSPxMSK: SSPx MASK REGISTER
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
MSK<7:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-1
MSK<7:1>: Mask bits
1 = The received address bit n is compared to SSPxADD<n> to detect I2C address match
0 = The received address bit n is not used to detect I2C address match
bit 0
MSK<0>: Mask bit for I2C Slave mode, 10-bit Address
I2C Slave mode, 10-bit address (SSPxM<3:0> = 0111 or 1111):
1 = The received address bit 0 is compared to SSPxADD<0> to detect I2C address match
0 = The received address bit 0 is not used to detect I2C address match
I2C Slave mode, 7-bit address, the bit is ignored
REGISTER 24-6:
R/W-0/0
SSPxADD: MSSPx ADDRESS AND BAUD RATE REGISTER (I2C MODE)
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
ADD<7:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
Master mode:
bit 7-0
ADD<7:0>: Baud Rate Clock Divider bits
SCLx pin clock period = ((ADD<7:0> + 1) *4)/FOSC
10-Bit Slave mode – Most Significant Address byte:
bit 7-3
Not used: Unused for Most Significant Address byte. Bit state of this register is a “don’t care”. Bit
pattern sent by master is fixed by I2C specification and must be equal to ‘11110’. However, those bits
are compared by hardware and are not affected by the value in this register.
bit 2-1
ADD<2:1>: Two Most Significant bits of 10-bit address
bit 0
Not used: Unused in this mode. Bit state is a “don’t care”.
10-Bit Slave mode – Least Significant Address byte:
bit 7-0
ADD<7:0>: Eight Least Significant bits of 10-bit address
7-Bit Slave mode:
bit 7-1
ADD<7:1>: 7-bit address
bit 0
Not used: Unused in this mode. Bit state is a “don’t care”.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 296
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.0
Note:
These devices typically do not have internal clocks for
baud rate generation and require the external clock
signal provided by a master synchronous device.
ENHANCED UNIVERSAL
SYNCHRONOUS
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER
TRANSMITTER (EUSART)
The EUSART module includes the following capabilities:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The PIC16F/LF/1946/47 devices have
two EUSARTs. Therefore, all information
in this section refers to both EUSART 1
and EUSART 2.
The Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) module is a serial I/O
communications peripheral. It contains all the clock
generators, shift registers and data buffers necessary
to perform an input or output serial data transfer
independent of device program execution. The
EUSART, also known as a Serial Communications
Interface (SCI), can be configured as a full-duplex
asynchronous system or half-duplex synchronous
system.
Full-Duplex
mode
is
useful
for
communications with peripheral systems, such as CRT
terminals and personal computers. Half-Duplex
Synchronous mode is intended for communications
with peripheral devices, such as A/D or D/A integrated
circuits, serial EEPROMs or other microcontrollers.
FIGURE 25-1:
Full-duplex asynchronous transmit and receive
Two-character input buffer
One-character output buffer
Programmable 8-bit or 9-bit character length
Address detection in 9-bit mode
Input buffer overrun error detection
Received character framing error detection
Half-duplex synchronous master
Half-duplex synchronous slave
Programmable clock and data polarity
The EUSART module implements the following
additional features, making it ideally suited for use in
Local Interconnect Network (LIN) bus systems:
• Automatic detection and calibration of the baud rate
• Wake-up on Break reception
• 13-bit Break character transmit
Block diagrams of the EUSART transmitter and
receiver are shown in Figure 25-1 and Figure 25-2.
EUSART TRANSMIT BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
TXxIE
Interrupt
TXxIF
TXxREG Register
8
MSb
LSb
(8)
0
• • •
TXx/CKx pin
Pin Buffer
and Control
Transmit Shift Register (TSR)
TXEN
TRMT
Baud Rate Generator
FOSC
÷n
TX9
n
BRG16
+1
SPxBRGH SPxBRGL
Multiplier
x4
x16 x64
SYNC
1 X 0 0
0
BRGH
X 1 1 0
0
BRG16
X 1 0 1
0
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
TX9D
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 297
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 25-2:
EUSART RECEIVE BLOCK DIAGRAM
CREN
RXx/DTx pin
Baud Rate Generator
Data
Recovery
FOSC
SPxBRGH SPxBRGL
x4
x16 x64
SYNC
1 X 0 0
0
BRGH
X 1 1 0
0
BRG16
X 1 0 1
0
(8)
•••
7
1
LSb
0 START
RX9
÷n
BRG16
Multiplier
Stop
RCIDL
RSR Register
MSb
Pin Buffer
and Control
+1
OERR
n
FERR
RX9D
RCxREG Register
8
FIFO
Data Bus
RCxIF
RCxIE
Interrupt
The operation of the EUSART module is controlled
through three registers:
• Transmit Status and Control (TXxSTA)
• Receive Status and Control (RCxSTA)
• Baud Rate Control (BAUDxCON)
These registers are detailed in Register 25-1,
Register 25-2 and Register 25-3, respectively.
For all modes of EUSART operation, the TRIS control
bits corresponding to the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx pins
should be set to ‘1’. The EUSART control will
automatically reconfigure the pin from input to output, as
needed.
When the receiver or transmitter section is not enabled
then the corresponding RXx/DTx or TXx/CKx pin may be
used for general purpose input and output.
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.1
25.1.1.2
EUSART Asynchronous Mode
The EUSART transmits and receives data using the
standard non-return-to-zero (NRZ) format. NRZ is
implemented with two levels: a VOH mark state which
represents a ‘1’ data bit, and a VOL space state which
represents a ‘0’ data bit. NRZ refers to the fact that
consecutively transmitted data bits of the same value
stay at the output level of that bit without returning to a
neutral level between each bit transmission. An NRZ
transmission port idles in the mark state. Each character
transmission consists of one Start bit followed by eight
or nine data bits and is always terminated by one or
more Stop bits. The Start bit is always a space and the
Stop bits are always marks. The most common data
format is 8 bits. Each transmitted bit persists for a period
of 1/(Baud Rate). An on-chip dedicated 8-bit/16-bit Baud
Rate Generator is used to derive standard baud rate
frequencies from the system oscillator. See Table 25-5
for examples of baud rate configurations.
Transmitting Data
A transmission is initiated by writing a character to the
TXxREG register. If this is the first character, or the
previous character has been completely flushed from
the TSR, the data in the TXxREG is immediately
transferred to the TSR register. If the TSR still contains
all or part of a previous character, the new character
data is held in the TXxREG until the Stop bit of the
previous character has been transmitted. The pending
character in the TXxREG is then transferred to the TSR
in one TCY immediately following the Stop bit
transmission. The transmission of the Start bit, data bits
and Stop bit sequence commences immediately
following the transfer of the data to the TSR from the
TXxREG.
25.1.1.3
Transmit Data Polarity
The EUSART transmits and receives the LSb first. The
EUSART’s transmitter and receiver are functionally
independent, but share the same data format and baud
rate. Parity is not supported by the hardware, but can
be implemented in software and stored as the ninth
data bit.
The polarity of the transmit data can be controlled with
the SCKP bit of the BAUDxCON register. The default
state of this bit is ‘0’ which selects high true transmit
Idle and data bits. Setting the SCKP bit to ‘1’ will invert
the transmit data resulting in low true Idle and data bits.
The SCKP bit controls transmit data polarity only in
Asynchronous mode. In Synchronous mode the SCKP
bit has a different function.
25.1.1
25.1.1.4
EUSART ASYNCHRONOUS
TRANSMITTER
The EUSART transmitter block diagram is shown in
Figure 25-1. The heart of the transmitter is the serial
Transmit Shift Register (TSR), which is not directly
accessible by software. The TSR obtains its data from
the transmit buffer, which is the TXxREG register.
25.1.1.1
Enabling the Transmitter
The EUSART transmitter is enabled for asynchronous
operations by configuring the following three control
bits:
• TXEN = 1
• SYNC = 0
• SPEN = 1
All other EUSART control bits are assumed to be in
their default state.
Setting the TXEN bit of the TXxSTA register enables the
transmitter circuitry of the EUSART. Clearing the SYNC
bit of the TXxSTA register configures the EUSART for
asynchronous operation. Setting the SPEN bit of the
RCSTA register enables the EUSART and automatically
configures the TXx/CKx I/O pin as an output. If the
TXx/CKx pin is shared with an analog peripheral, the
analog I/O function must be disabled by clearing the
corresponding ANSEL bit.
Note:
Transmit Interrupt Flag
The TXxIF interrupt flag bit of the PIR1/PIR3 register is
set whenever the EUSART transmitter is enabled and
no character is being held for transmission in the
TXxREG. In other words, the TXxIF bit is only clear
when the TSR is busy with a character and a new
character has been queued for transmission in the
TXxREG. The TXxIF flag bit is not cleared immediately
upon writing TXxREG. TXxIF becomes valid in the
second instruction cycle following the write execution.
Polling TXxIF immediately following the TXxREG write
will return invalid results. The TXxIF bit is read-only, it
cannot be set or cleared by software.
The TXxIF interrupt can be enabled by setting the
TXxIE interrupt enable bit of the PIE1/PIE3 register.
However, the TXxIF flag bit will be set whenever the
TXxREG is empty, regardless of the state of TXxIE
enable bit.
To use interrupts when transmitting data, set the TXxIE
bit only when there is more data to send. Clear the
TXxIE interrupt enable bit upon writing the last
character of the transmission to the TXxREG.
The TXxIF transmitter interrupt flag is set
when the TXEN enable bit is set.
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Preliminary
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PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.1.1.5
TSR Status
25.1.1.7
The TRMT bit of the TXxSTA register indicates the
status of the TSR register. This is a read-only bit. The
TRMT bit is set when the TSR register is empty and is
cleared when a character is transferred to the TSR
register from the TXxREG. The TRMT bit remains clear
until all bits have been shifted out of the TSR register.
No interrupt logic is tied to this bit, so the user needs to
poll this bit to determine the TSR status.
Note:
25.1.1.6
The TSR register is not mapped in data
memory, so it is not available to the user.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Transmitting 9-Bit Characters
The EUSART supports 9-bit character transmissions.
When the TX9 bit of the TXxSTA register is set the
EUSART will shift 9 bits out for each character transmitted. The TX9D bit of the TXxSTA register is the ninth,
and Most Significant, data bit. When transmitting 9-bit
data, the TX9D data bit must be written before writing
the 8 Least Significant bits into the TXxREG. All nine
bits of data will be transferred to the TSR shift register
immediately after the TXxREG is written.
5.
A special 9-bit Address mode is available for use with
multiple receivers. See Section 25.1.2.7 “Address
Detection” for more information on the Address mode.
8.
FIGURE 25-3:
Write to TXxREG
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
TXx/CKx pin
TXxIF bit
(Transmit Buffer
Reg. Empty Flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
DS41414C-page 300
6.
7.
9.
Asynchronous Transmission Set-up:
Initialize the SPxBRGH:SPxBRGL register pair
and the BRGH and BRG16 bits to achieve the
desired baud rate (see Section 25.4 “EUSART
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)”).
Set the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx TRIS controls to
‘1’.
Enable the asynchronous serial port by clearing
the SYNC bit and setting the SPEN bit.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, set the TX9
control bit. A set ninth data bit will indicate that
the 8 Least Significant data bits are an address
when the receiver is set for address detection.
Set the SCKP control bit if inverted transmit data
polarity is desired.
Enable the transmission by setting the TXEN
control bit. This will cause the TXxIF interrupt bit
to be set.
If interrupts are desired, set the TXxIE interrupt
enable bit. An interrupt will occur immediately
provided that the GIE and PEIE bits of the
INTCON register are also set.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded into the TX9D data bit.
Load 8-bit data into the TXxREG register. This
will start the transmission.
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Word 1
Start bit
bit 0
bit 1
bit 7/8
Stop bit
Word 1
1 TCY
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 25-4:
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (BACK-TO-BACK)
Write to TXxREG
Word 1
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
TXx/CKx pin
Word 2
Start bit
bit 0
bit 1
Word 1
1 TCY
TXxIF bit
(Interrupt Reg. Flag)
bit 7/8
Stop bit
Start bit
Word 2
bit 0
1 TCY
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
Word 1
Transmit Shift Reg
Word 2
Transmit Shift Reg
This timing diagram shows two consecutive transmissions.
Note:
TABLE 25-1:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on page
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
BAUD2CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
INTCON
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
97
RC1STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
RC2STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
EUSART1 Transmit Register
299*
TX1REG
TX1STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
TX2REG
TX2STA
Legend:
*
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
EUSART2 Transmit Register
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
306
299*
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
— = unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’. Shaded bits are not used for asynchronous transmission.
Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 301
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.1.2
EUSART ASYNCHRONOUS
RECEIVER
25.1.2.2
The Asynchronous mode would typically be used in
RS-232 systems. The receiver block diagram is shown
in Figure 25-2. The data is received on the RXx/DTx
pin and drives the data recovery block. The data
recovery block is actually a high-speed shifter
operating at 16 times the baud rate, whereas the serial
Receive Shift Register (RSR) operates at the bit rate.
When all 8 or 9 bits of the character have been shifted
in, they are immediately transferred to a two character
First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory. The FIFO buffering
allows reception of two complete characters and the
start of a third character before software must start
servicing the EUSART receiver. The FIFO and RSR
registers are not directly accessible by software.
Access to the received data is via the RCxREG
register.
25.1.2.1
Enabling the Receiver
The EUSART receiver is enabled for asynchronous
operation by configuring the following three control bits:
• CREN = 1
• SYNC = 0
• SPEN = 1
All other EUSART control bits are assumed to be in
their default state.
Setting the CREN bit of the RCxSTA register enables
the receiver circuitry of the EUSART. Clearing the SYNC
bit of the TXxSTA register configures the EUSART for
asynchronous operation. Setting the SPEN bit of the
RCxSTA register enables the EUSART. The
programmer must set the corresponding TRIS bit to
configure the RXx/DTx I/O pin as an input.
Receiving Data
The receiver data recovery circuit initiates character
reception on the falling edge of the first bit. The first bit,
also known as the Start bit, is always a zero. The data
recovery circuit counts one-half bit time to the center of
the Start bit and verifies that the bit is still a zero. If it is
not a zero then the data recovery circuit aborts
character reception, without generating an error, and
resumes looking for the falling edge of the Start bit. If
the Start bit zero verification succeeds then the data
recovery circuit counts a full bit time to the center of the
next bit. The bit is then sampled by a majority detect
circuit and the resulting ‘0’ or ‘1’ is shifted into the RSR.
This repeats until all data bits have been sampled and
shifted into the RSR. One final bit time is measured and
the level sampled. This is the Stop bit, which is always
a ‘1’. If the data recovery circuit samples a ‘0’ in the
Stop bit position then a framing error is set for this
character, otherwise the framing error is cleared for this
character. See Section 25.1.2.4 “Receive Framing
Error” for more information on framing errors.
Immediately after all data bits and the Stop bit have
been received, the character in the RSR is transferred
to the EUSART receive FIFO and the RCxIF interrupt
flag bit of the PIR1/PIR3 register is set. The top character in the FIFO is transferred out of the FIFO by reading
the RCxREG register.
Note:
If the receive FIFO is overrun, no additional
characters will be received until the overrun
condition is cleared. See Section 25.1.2.5
“Receive Overrun Error” for more
information on overrun errors.
Note 1: If the RX/DT function is on an analog pin,
the corresponding ANSEL bit must be
cleared for the receiver to function.
If the RXx/DTx pin is shared with an analog peripheral
the analog I/O function must be disabled by clearing the
corresponding ANSEL bit.
DS41414C-page 302
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.1.2.3
Receive Interrupts
25.1.2.6
The RCxIF interrupt flag bit of the PIR1/PIR3 register is
set whenever the EUSART receiver is enabled and
there is an unread character in the receive FIFO. The
RCxIF interrupt flag bit is read-only, it cannot be set or
cleared by software.
RCxIF interrupts are enabled by setting the following
bits:
• RCxIE interrupt enable bit of the PIE1/PIE3
register
• PEIE peripheral interrupt enable bit of the INTCON
register
• GIE global interrupt enable bit of the INTCON
register
The RCxIF interrupt flag bit will be set when there is an
unread character in the FIFO, regardless of the state of
interrupt enable bits.
25.1.2.4
Receive Framing Error
Each character in the receive FIFO buffer has a
corresponding framing error Status bit. A framing error
indicates that a Stop bit was not seen at the expected
time. The framing error status is accessed via the
FERR bit of the RCxSTA register. The FERR bit
represents the status of the top unread character in the
receive FIFO. Therefore, the FERR bit must be read
before reading the RCxREG.
The FERR bit is read-only and only applies to the top
unread character in the receive FIFO. A framing error
(FERR = 1) does not preclude reception of additional
characters. It is not necessary to clear the FERR bit.
Reading the next character from the FIFO buffer will
advance the FIFO to the next character and the next
corresponding framing error.
Receiving 9-bit Characters
The EUSART supports 9-bit character reception. When
the RX9 bit of the RCxSTA register is set, the EUSART
will shift 9 bits into the RSR for each character
received. The RX9D bit of the RCxSTA register is the
ninth and Most Significant data bit of the top unread
character in the receive FIFO. When reading 9-bit data
from the receive FIFO buffer, the RX9D data bit must
be read before reading the 8 Least Significant bits from
the RCxREG.
25.1.2.7
Address Detection
A special Address Detection mode is available for use
when multiple receivers share the same transmission
line, such as in RS-485 systems. Address detection is
enabled by setting the ADDEN bit of the RCxSTA
register.
Address detection requires 9-bit character reception.
When address detection is enabled, only characters
with the ninth data bit set will be transferred to the
receive FIFO buffer, thereby setting the RCxIF interrupt
bit. All other characters will be ignored.
Upon receiving an address character, user software
determines if the address matches its own. Upon
address match, user software must disable address
detection by clearing the ADDEN bit before the next
Stop bit occurs. When user software detects the end of
the message, determined by the message protocol
used, software places the receiver back into the
Address Detection mode by setting the ADDEN bit.
The FERR bit can be forced clear by clearing the SPEN
bit of the RCxSTA register which resets the EUSART.
Clearing the CREN bit of the RCxSTA register does not
affect the FERR bit. A framing error by itself does not
generate an interrupt.
Note:
25.1.2.5
If all receive characters in the receive
FIFO have framing errors, repeated reads
of the RCxREG will not clear the FERR
bit.
Receive Overrun Error
The receive FIFO buffer can hold two characters. An
overrun error will be generated If a third character, in its
entirety, is received before the FIFO is accessed. When
this happens the OERR bit of the RCxSTA register is
set. The characters already in the FIFO buffer can be
read but no additional characters will be received until
the error is cleared. The error must be cleared by either
clearing the CREN bit of the RCxSTA register or by
resetting the EUSART by clearing the SPEN bit of the
RCxSTA register.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 303
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.1.2.8
Asynchronous Reception Set-up:
25.1.2.9
1.
Initialize the SPxBRGH:SPxBRGL register pair
and the BRGH and BRG16 bits to achieve the
desired baud rate (see Section 25.4 “EUSART
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)”).
2. Set the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx TRIS controls to
‘1’.
3. Enable the serial port by setting the SPEN bit
and the RXx/DTx pin TRIS bit. The SYNC bit
must be clear for asynchronous operation.
4. If interrupts are desired, set the RCxIE interrupt
enable bit and set the GIE and PEIE bits of the
INTCON register.
5. If 9-bit reception is desired, set the RX9 bit.
6. Enable reception by setting the CREN bit.
7. The RCxIF interrupt flag bit will be set when a
character is transferred from the RSR to the
receive buffer. An interrupt will be generated if
the RCxIE interrupt enable bit was also set.
8. Read the RCxSTA register to get the error flags
and, if 9-bit data reception is enabled, the ninth
data bit.
9. Get the received 8 Least Significant data bits
from the receive buffer by reading the RCxREG
register.
10. If an overrun occurred, clear the OERR flag by
clearing the CREN receiver enable bit.
FIGURE 25-5:
RXx/DTx pin
Rcv Shift
Reg
Rcv Buffer Reg
RCIDL
9-bit Address Detection Mode Set-up
This mode would typically be used in RS-485 systems.
To set up an Asynchronous Reception with Address
Detect Enable:
1.
Initialize the SPxBRGH, SPxBRGL register pair
and the BRGH and BRG16 bits to achieve the
desired baud rate (see Section 25.4 “EUSART
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)”).
2. Set the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx TRIS controls to
‘1’.
3. Enable the serial port by setting the SPEN bit.
The SYNC bit must be clear for asynchronous
operation.
4. If interrupts are desired, set the RCxIE interrupt
enable bit and set the GIE and PEIE bits of the
INTCON register.
5. Enable 9-bit reception by setting the RX9 bit.
6. Enable address detection by setting the ADDEN
bit.
7. Enable reception by setting the CREN bit.
8. The RCxIF interrupt flag bit will be set when a
character with the ninth bit set is transferred
from the RSR to the receive buffer. An interrupt
will be generated if the RCxIE interrupt enable
bit was also set.
9. Read the RCxSTA register to get the error flags.
The ninth data bit will always be set.
10. Get the received 8 Least Significant data bits
from the receive buffer by reading the RCxREG
register. Software determines if this is the
device’s address.
11. If an overrun occurred, clear the OERR flag by
clearing the CREN receiver enable bit.
12. If the device has been addressed, clear the
ADDEN bit to allow all received data into the
receive buffer and generate interrupts.
ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Start
bit
bit 0
bit 1
bit 7/8 Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 0
Word 1
RCxREG
bit 7/8 Stop
bit
Start
bit
bit 7/8
Stop
bit
Word 2
RCxREG
Read Rcv
Buffer Reg
RCxREG
RCxIF
(Interrupt Flag)
OERR bit
CREN
Note:
This timing diagram shows three words appearing on the RXx/DTx input. The RCxREG (receive buffer) is read after the third
word, causing the OERR (overrun) bit to be set.
DS41414C-page 304
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 25-2:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH ASYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
BAUD2CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
INTCON
RC1REG
RC1STA
EUSART1 Receive Register
SPEN
RX9
RC2REG
RC2STA
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
EUSART2 Receive Register
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
97
302*
308
302*
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
TRISC4
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
134
TX1STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
TX2STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
Legend:
*
— = unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’. Shaded bits are not used for asynchronous reception.
Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 305
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.2
Clock Accuracy with
Asynchronous Operation
The factory calibrates the internal oscillator block
output (HFINTOSC). However, the HFINTOSC
frequency may drift as VDD or temperature changes,
and this directly affects the asynchronous baud rate.
Two methods may be used to adjust the baud rate
clock, but both require a reference clock source of
some kind.
The first (preferred) method uses the OSCTUNE
register to adjust the HFINTOSC output. Adjusting the
value in the OSCTUNE register allows for fine resolution
changes to the system clock source. See Section 5.2
“Clock Source Types” for more information.
The other method adjusts the value in the Baud Rate
Generator. This can be done automatically with the
Auto-Baud Detect feature (see Section 25.4.1
“Auto-Baud Detect”). There may not be fine enough
resolution when adjusting the Baud Rate Generator to
compensate for a gradual change in the peripheral
clock frequency.
25.3
EUSART Control Registers
REGISTER 25-1:
TXxSTA: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-1
R/W-0
CSRC
TX9
TXEN(1)
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
CSRC: Clock Source Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
Don’t care
Synchronous mode:
1 = Master mode (clock generated internally from BRG)
0 = Slave mode (clock from external source)
bit 6
TX9: 9-bit Transmit Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit transmission
0 = Selects 8-bit transmission
bit 5
TXEN: Transmit Enable bit(1)
1 = Transmit enabled
0 = Transmit disabled
bit 4
SYNC: EUSART Mode Select bit
1 = Synchronous mode
0 = Asynchronous mode
bit 3
SENDB: Send Break Character bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Send Sync Break on next transmission (cleared by hardware upon completion)
0 = Sync Break transmission completed
Synchronous mode:
Don’t care
DS41414C-page 306
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 25-1:
TXxSTA: TRANSMIT STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER (CONTINUED)
bit 2
BRGH: High Baud Rate Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = High speed
0 = Low speed
Synchronous mode:
Unused in this mode
bit 1
TRMT: Transmit Shift Register Status bit
1 = TSR empty
0 = TSR full
bit 0
TX9D: Ninth bit of Transmit Data
Can be address/data bit or a parity bit.
Note 1:
SREN/CREN overrides TXEN in Sync mode.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 307
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 25-2:
RCxSTA: RECEIVE STATUS AND CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R/W-0
R-0
R-0
R-x
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
-n = Value at POR
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
x = Bit is unknown
bit 7
SPEN: Serial Port Enable bit
1 = Serial port enabled (configures RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx pins as serial port pins)
0 = Serial port disabled (held in Reset)
bit 6
RX9: 9-bit Receive Enable bit
1 = Selects 9-bit reception
0 = Selects 8-bit reception
bit 5
SREN: Single Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
Don’t care
Synchronous mode – Master:
1 = Enables single receive
0 = Disables single receive
This bit is cleared after reception is complete.
Synchronous mode – Slave
Don’t care
bit 4
CREN: Continuous Receive Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Enables receiver
0 = Disables receiver
Synchronous mode:
1 = Enables continuous receive until enable bit CREN is cleared (CREN overrides SREN)
0 = Disables continuous receive
bit 3
ADDEN: Address Detect Enable bit
Asynchronous mode 9-bit (RX9 = 1):
1 = Enables address detection, enable interrupt and load the receive buffer when RSR<8> is set
0 = Disables address detection, all bytes are received and ninth bit can be used as parity bit
Asynchronous mode 8-bit (RX9 = 0):
Don’t care
bit 2
FERR: Framing Error bit
1 = Framing error (can be updated by reading RCxREG register and receive next valid byte)
0 = No framing error
bit 1
OERR: Overrun Error bit
1 = Overrun error (can be cleared by clearing bit CREN)
0 = No overrun error
bit 0
RX9D: Ninth bit of Received Data
This can be address/data bit or a parity bit and must be calculated by user firmware.
DS41414C-page 308
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 25-3:
BAUDxCON: BAUD RATE CONTROL REGISTER
R-0/0
R-1/1
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
ABDOVF: Auto-Baud Detect Overflow bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Auto-baud timer overflowed
0 = Auto-baud timer did not overflow
Synchronous mode:
Don’t care
bit 6
RCIDL: Receive Idle Flag bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Receiver is Idle
0 = Start bit has been received and the receiver is receiving
Synchronous mode:
Don’t care
bit 5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4
SCKP: Synchronous Clock Polarity Select bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Transmit inverted data to the TXx/CKx pin
0 = Transmit non-inverted data to the TXx/CKx pin
Synchronous mode:
1 = Data is clocked on rising edge of the clock
0 = Data is clocked on falling edge of the clock
bit 3
BRG16: 16-bit Baud Rate Generator bit
1 = 16-bit Baud Rate Generator is used
0 = 8-bit Baud Rate Generator is used
bit 2
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 1
WUE: Wake-up Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Receiver is waiting for a falling edge. No character will be received, byte RCIF will be set. WUE
will automatically clear after RCIF is set.
0 = Receiver is operating normally
Synchronous mode:
Don’t care
bit 0
ABDEN: Auto-Baud Detect Enable bit
Asynchronous mode:
1 = Auto-Baud Detect mode is enabled (clears when auto-baud is complete)
0 = Auto-Baud Detect mode is disabled
Synchronous mode:
Don’t care
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 309
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.4
EUSART Baud Rate Generator
(BRG)
The Baud Rate Generator (BRG) is an 8-bit or 16-bit
timer that is dedicated to the support of both the
asynchronous and synchronous EUSART operation.
By default, the BRG operates in 8-bit mode. Setting the
BRG16 bit of the BAUDxCON register selects 16-bit
mode.
The SPxBRGH:SPxBRGL register pair determines the
period of the free running baud rate timer. In
Asynchronous mode the multiplier of the baud rate
period is determined by both the BRGH bit of the
TXxSTA register and the BRG16 bit of the BAUDxCON
register. In Synchronous mode, the BRGH bit is ignored.
If the system clock is changed during an active receive
operation, a receive error or data loss may result. To
avoid this problem, check the status of the RCIDL bit to
make sure that the receive operation is Idle before
changing the system clock.
EXAMPLE 25-1:
For a device with FOSC of 16 MHz, desired baud rate
of 9600, Asynchronous mode, 8-bit BRG:
F OS C
Desired Baud Rate = -------------------------------------------------------------------------64  [SPxBRGH:SPxBRG] + 1 
Solving for SPxBRGH:SPxBRGL:
F OS C
--------------------------------------------Desired Baud Rate
SPxBRGH: SPxBRGL = --------------------------------------------- – 1
64
Example 25-1 provides a sample calculation for determining the desired baud rate, actual baud rate, and
baud rate% error.
Typical baud rates and error values for various
asynchronous modes have been computed for your
convenience and are shown in Table 25-5. It may be
advantageous to use the high baud rate (BRGH = 1),
or the 16-bit BRG (BRG16 = 1) to reduce the baud rate
error. The 16-bit BRG mode is used to achieve slow
baud rates for fast oscillator frequencies.
Writing a new value to the SPxBRGH, SPxBRGL
register pair causes the BRG timer to be reset (or
cleared). This ensures that the BRG does not wait for a
timer overflow before outputting the new baud rate.
TABLE 25-3:
CALCULATING BAUD
RATE ERROR
16000000
-----------------------9600
= ------------------------ – 1
64
=  25.042  = 25
16000000
64  25 + 1 
ActualBaudRate = --------------------------= 9615
Calc. Baud Rate – Desired Baud Rate
Baud Rate % Error = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Desired Baud Rate
 9615 – 9600 
= ---------------------------------- = 0.16%
9600
BAUD RATE FORMULAS
Configuration Bits
BRG/EUSART Mode
Baud Rate Formula
0
8-bit/Asynchronous
FOSC/[64 (n+1)]
0
1
8-bit/Asynchronous
1
0
16-bit/Asynchronous
SYNC
BRG16
BRGH
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
16-bit/Asynchronous
1
0
x
8-bit/Synchronous
1
x
16-bit/Synchronous
1
Legend:
FOSC/[16 (n+1)]
FOSC/[4 (n+1)]
x = Don’t care, n = value of SPxBRGH, SPxBRGL register pair
DS41414C-page 310
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 25-4:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH BAUD RATE GENERATOR
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Reset
Values on
page
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
BAUD2CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
RC1STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
RC2STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
TX1STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
TX2STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
Legend:
*
— = unimplemented, read as ‘0’. Shaded bits are not used by the BRG.
Page provides register information.
TABLE 25-5:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODES
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 0
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 32.000 MHz
FOSC = 18.432 MHz
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 16.000 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 11.0592 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
300
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1200
—
—
—
1200
0.00
239
1202
0.16
207
1200
0.00
143
2400
2404
0.16
207
2400
0.00
119
2404
0.16
103
2400
0.00
71
9600
9615
0.16
51
9600
0.00
29
9615
0.16
25
9600
0.00
17
10417
10417
0.00
47
10286
-1.26
27
10417
0.00
23
10165
-2.42
16
19.2k
19.23k
0.16
25
19.20k
0.00
14
19.23k
0.16
12
19.20k
0.00
8
57.6k
55.55k
-3.55
3
57.60k
0.00
7
—
—
—
57.60k
0.00
2
115.2k
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 0
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 8.000 MHz
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 4.000 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 3.6864 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 1.000 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
300
—
—
—
300
0.16
207
300
0.00
191
300
0.16
51
1200
1202
0.16
103
1202
0.16
51
1200
0.00
47
1202
0.16
12
2400
2404
0.16
51
2404
0.16
25
2400
0.00
23
—
—
—
9600
9615
0.16
12
—
—
—
9600
0.00
5
—
—
—
10417
10417
0.00
11
10417
0.00
5
—
—
—
—
—
—
19.2k
—
—
—
—
—
—
19.20k
0.00
2
—
—
—
57.6k
—
—
—
—
—
—
57.60k
0.00
0
—
—
—
115.2k
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 311
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 25-5:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODES (CONTINUED)
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 0
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 32.000 MHz
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 18.432 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 16.000 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 11.0592 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
300
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
1200
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
2400
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
9600
9615
0.16
207
9600
0.00
119
9615
0.16
103
9600
0.00
71
10417
10417
0.00
191
10378
-0.37
110
10417
0.00
95
10473
0.53
65
19.2k
19.23k
0.16
103
19.20k
0.00
59
19.23k
0.16
51
19.20k
0.00
35
57.6k
57.14k
-0.79
34
57.60k
0.00
19
58.82k
2.12
16
57.60k
0.00
11
115.2k
117.64k
2.12
16
115.2k
0.00
9
111.1k
-3.55
8
115.2k
0.00
5
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 0
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 8.000 MHz
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 4.000 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 3.6864 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 1.000 MHz
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGL
value
(decimal)
207
300
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
300
0.16
1200
—
—
—
1202
0.16
207
1200
0.00
191
1202
0.16
51
2400
2404
0.16
207
2404
0.16
103
2400
0.00
95
2404
0.16
25
—
9600
9615
0.16
51
9615
0.16
25
9600
0.00
23
—
—
10417
10417
0.00
47
10417
0.00
23
10473
0.53
21
10417
0.00
5
19.2k
19231
0.16
25
19.23k
0.16
12
19.2k
0.00
11
—
—
—
57.6k
55556
-3.55
8
—
—
—
57.60k
0.00
3
—
—
—
115.2k
—
—
—
—
—
—
115.2k
0.00
1
—
—
—
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 1
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 32.000 MHz
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 18.432 MHz
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 16.000 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 11.0592 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
2303
300
300.0
0.00
6666
300.0
0.00
3839
300.03
0.01
3332
300.0
0.00
1200
1200.1
0.02
3332
1200
0.00
959
1200.5
0.04
832
1200
0.00
575
2400
2401
-0.04
832
2400
0.00
479
2398
-0.08
416
2400
0.00
287
9600
9615
0.16
207
9600
0.00
119
9615
0.16
103
9600
0.00
71
10417
10417
0.00
191
10378
-0.37
110
10417
0.00
95
10473
0.53
65
19.2k
19.23k
0.16
103
19.20k
0.00
59
19.23k
0.16
51
19.20k
0.00
35
57.6k
57.14k
-0.79
34
57.60k
0.00
19
58.82k
2.12
16
57.60k
0.00
11
115.2k
117.6k
2.12
16
115.2k
0.00
9
111.11k
-3.55
8
115.2k
0.00
5
DS41414C-page 312
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 25-5:
BAUD RATES FOR ASYNCHRONOUS MODES (CONTINUED)
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 0, BRG16 = 1
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 8.000 MHz
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 4.000 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 3.6864 MHz
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 1.000 MHz
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
300
299.9
-0.02
1666
300.1
0.04
832
300.0
0.00
767
300.5
0.16
207
1200
1199
-0.08
416
1202
0.16
207
1200
0.00
191
1202
0.16
51
2400
2404
0.16
207
2404
0.16
103
2400
0.00
95
2404
0.16
25
9600
9615
0.16
51
9615
0.16
25
9600
0.00
23
—
—
—
10417
10417
0.00
47
10417
0.00
23
10473
0.53
21
10417
0.00
5
19.2k
19.23k
0.16
25
19.23k
0.16
12
19.20k
0.00
11
—
—
—
57.6k
55556
-3.55
8
—
—
—
57.60k
0.00
3
—
—
—
115.2k
—
—
—
—
—
—
115.2k
0.00
1
—
—
—
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 1 or SYNC = 1, BRG16 = 1
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 32.000 MHz
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 18.432 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 16.000 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 11.0592 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
300
300
0.00
26666
300.0
0.00
15359
300.0
0.00
13332
300.0
0.00
9215
1200
1200
0.00
6666
1200
0.00
3839
1200.1
0.01
3332
1200
0.00
2303
2400
2400
0.01
3332
2400
0.00
1919
2399.5
-0.02
1666
2400
0.00
1151
9600
9604
0.04
832
9600
0.00
479
9592
-0.08
416
9600
0.00
287
10417
10417
0.00
767
10425
0.08
441
10417
0.00
383
10433
0.16
264
19.2k
19.18k
-0.08
416
19.20k
0.00
239
19.23k
0.16
207
19.20k
0.00
143
57.6k
57.55k
-0.08
138
57.60k
0.00
79
57.97k
0.64
68
57.60k
0.00
47
115.2k
115.9
0.64
68
115.2k
0.00
39
114.29k
-0.79
34
115.2k
0.00
23
SYNC = 0, BRGH = 1, BRG16 = 1 or SYNC = 1, BRG16 = 1
BAUD
RATE
FOSC = 8.000 MHz
Actual
Rate
%
Error
FOSC = 4.000 MHz
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 3.6864 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
FOSC = 1.000 MHz
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
Actual
Rate
%
Error
SPxBRGH:
SPxBRGL
(decimal)
300
300.0
0.00
6666
300.0
0.01
3332
300.0
0.00
3071
300.1
0.04
832
1200
1200
-0.02
1666
1200
0.04
832
1200
0.00
767
1202
0.16
207
2400
2401
0.04
832
2398
0.08
416
2400
0.00
383
2404
0.16
103
9600
9615
0.16
207
9615
0.16
103
9600
0.00
95
9615
0.16
25
10417
10417
0.00
191
10417
0.00
95
10473
0.53
87
10417
0.00
23
19.2k
19.23k
0.16
103
19.23k
0.16
51
19.20k
0.00
47
19.23k
0.16
12
57.6k
57.14k
-0.79
34
58.82k
2.12
16
57.60k
0.00
15
—
—
—
115.2k
117.6k
2.12
16
111.1k
-3.55
8
115.2k
0.00
7
—
—
—
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 313
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.4.1
AUTO-BAUD DETECT
The EUSART module supports automatic detection
and calibration of the baud rate.
In the Auto-Baud Detect (ABD) mode, the clock to the
BRG is reversed. Rather than the BRG clocking the
incoming RXx signal, the RXx signal is timing the BRG.
The Baud Rate Generator is used to time the period of
a received 55h (ASCII “U”) which is the Sync character
for the LIN bus. The unique feature of this character is
that it has five rising edges including the Stop bit edge.
Setting the ABDEN bit of the BAUDxCON register
starts
the
auto-baud
calibration
sequence
(Figure 25.4.2). While the ABD sequence takes place,
the EUSART state machine is held in Idle. On the first
rising edge of the receive line, after the Start bit, the
SPxBRGL begins counting up using the BRG counter
clock as shown in Table 25-6. The fifth rising edge will
occur on the RXx/DTx pin at the end of the eighth bit
period. At that time, an accumulated value totaling the
proper BRG period is left in the SPxBRGH:SPxBRGL
register pair, the ABDEN bit is automatically cleared,
and the RCxIF interrupt flag is set. A read operation on
the RCxREG needs to be performed to clear the RCxIF
interrupt. RCxREG content should be discarded. When
calibrating for modes that do not use the SPxBRGH
register the user can verify that the SPxBRGL register
did not overflow by checking for 00h in the SPxBRGH
register.
The BRG auto-baud clock is determined by the BRG16
and BRGH bits as shown in Table 25-6. During ABD,
both the SPxBRGH and SPxBRGL registers are used
as a 16-bit counter, independent of the BRG16 bit
setting. While calibrating the baud rate period, the
SPxBRGH and SPxBRGL registers are clocked at
FIGURE 25-6:
Note 1: If the WUE bit is set with the ABDEN bit,
auto-baud detection will occur on the byte
following the Break character (see
Section 25.4.3 “Auto-Wake-up on
Break”).
2: It is up to the user to determine that the
incoming character baud rate is within the
range of the selected BRG clock source.
Some combinations of oscillator frequency
and EUSART baud rates are not possible.
3: During the auto-baud process, the
auto-baud counter starts counting at 1.
Upon completion of the auto-baud
sequence, to achieve maximum accuracy, subtract 1 from the SPxBRGH:SPxBRGL register pair.
TABLE 25-6:
BRG COUNTER CLOCK
RATES
BRG16
BRGH
BRG Base
Clock
BRG ABD
Clock
0
0
FOSC/64
FOSC/512
0
1
FOSC/16
FOSC/128
1
0
FOSC/16
FOSC/128
1
1
FOSC/4
FOSC/32
Note:
During the ABD sequence, SPxBRGL and
SPxBRGH registers are both used as a
16-bit counter, independent of BRG16
setting.
AUTOMATIC BAUD RATE CALIBRATION
XXXXh
BRG Value
1/8th the BRG base clock rate. The resulting byte
measurement is the average bit time when clocked at
full speed.
RXx/DTx pin
0000h
001Ch
Start
Edge #1
bit 1
bit 0
Edge #2
bit 3
bit 2
Edge #3
bit 5
bit 4
Edge #4
bit 7
bit 6
Edge #5
Stop bit
BRG Clock
Auto Cleared
Set by User
ABDEN bit
RCIDL
RCxIF bit
(Interrupt)
Read
RCxREG
SPxBRGL
XXh
1Ch
SPxBRGH
XXh
00h
Note 1:
The ABD sequence requires the EUSART module to be configured in Asynchronous mode.
DS41414C-page 314
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.4.2
AUTO-BAUD OVERFLOW
25.4.3.1
During the course of automatic baud detection, the
ABDOVF bit of the BAUDxCON register will be set if the
baud rate counter overflows before the fifth rising edge
is detected on the RX pin. The ABDOVF bit indicates
that the counter has exceeded the maximum count that
can fit in the 16 bits of the SPxBRGH:SPxBRGL
register pair. After the ABDOVF has been set, the counter continues to count until the fifth rising edge is
detected on the RXx/DTx pin. Upon detecting the fifth
RXx/DTx edge, the hardware will set the RCxIF interrupt flag and clear the ABDEN bit of the BAUDxCON
register. The RCxIF flag can be subsequently cleared
by reading the RCxREG. The ABDOVF flag can be
cleared by software directly.
To terminate the auto-baud process before the RCxIF
flag is set, clear the ABDEN bit then clear the ABDOVF
bit. The ABDOVF bit will remain set if the ABDEN bit is
not cleared first.
25.4.3
AUTO-WAKE-UP ON BREAK
During Sleep mode, all clocks to the EUSART are
suspended. Because of this, the Baud Rate Generator
is inactive and a proper character reception cannot be
performed. The Auto-Wake-up feature allows the
controller to wake-up due to activity on the RXx/DTx
line. This feature is available only in Asynchronous
mode.
The Auto-Wake-up feature is enabled by setting the
WUE bit of the BAUDxCON register. Once set, the
normal receive sequence on RXx/DTx is disabled, and
the EUSART remains in an Idle state, monitoring for a
wake-up event independent of the CPU mode. A
wake-up event consists of a high-to-low transition on the
RXx/DTx line. (This coincides with the start of a Sync
Break or a wake-up signal character for the LIN
protocol.)
The EUSART module generates an RCxIF interrupt
coincident with the wake-up event. The interrupt is
generated synchronously to the Q clocks in normal CPU
operating modes (Figure 25-7), and asynchronously if
the device is in Sleep mode (Figure 25-8). The interrupt
condition is cleared by reading the RCxREG register.
Special Considerations
Break Character
To avoid character errors or character fragments during
a wake-up event, the wake-up character must be all
zeros.
When the wake-up is enabled the function works
independent of the low time on the data stream. If the
WUE bit is set and a valid non-zero character is
received, the low time from the Start bit to the first rising
edge will be interpreted as the wake-up event. The
remaining bits in the character will be received as a
fragmented character and subsequent characters can
result in framing or overrun errors.
Therefore, the initial character in the transmission must
be all ‘0’s. This must be 10 or more bit times, 13-bit
times recommended for LIN bus, or any number of bit
times for standard RS-232 devices.
Oscillator Startup Time
Oscillator start-up time must be considered, especially
in applications using oscillators with longer start-up
intervals (i.e., LP, XT or HS/PLL mode). The Sync
Break (or wake-up signal) character must be of
sufficient length, and be followed by a sufficient
interval, to allow enough time for the selected oscillator
to start and provide proper initialization of the EUSART.
WUE Bit
The wake-up event causes a receive interrupt by
setting the RCxIF bit. The WUE bit is cleared by
hardware by a rising edge on RXx/DTx. The interrupt
condition is then cleared by software by reading the
RCxREG register and discarding its contents.
To ensure that no actual data is lost, check the RCIDL
bit to verify that a receive operation is not in process
before setting the WUE bit. If a receive operation is not
occurring, the WUE bit may then be set just prior to
entering the Sleep mode.
The WUE bit is automatically cleared by the low-to-high
transition on the RXx line at the end of the Break. This
signals to the user that the Break event is over. At this
point, the EUSART module is in Idle mode waiting to
receive the next character.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 315
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 25-7:
AUTO-WAKE-UP BIT (WUE) TIMING DURING NORMAL OPERATION
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1
Auto Cleared
Bit set by user
WUE bit
RXx/DTx Line
RCxIF
Note 1:
Cleared due to User Read of RCxREG
The EUSART remains in Idle while the WUE bit is set.
FIGURE 25-8:
AUTO-WAKE-UP BIT (WUE) TIMINGS DURING SLEEP
Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4
Q1
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q1Q2 Q3 Q4
OSC1
Auto Cleared
Bit Set by User
WUE bit
RXx/DTx Line
Note 1
RCxIF
Sleep Command Executed
Note 1:
2:
Sleep Ends
Cleared due to User Read of RCxREG
If the wake-up event requires long oscillator warm-up time, the automatic clearing of the WUE bit can occur while the stposc signal is
still active. This sequence should not depend on the presence of Q clocks.
The EUSART remains in Idle while the WUE bit is set.
DS41414C-page 316
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.4.4
BREAK CHARACTER SEQUENCE
The EUSART module has the capability of sending the
special Break character sequences that are required by
the LIN bus standard. A Break character consists of a
Start bit, followed by 12 ‘0’ bits and a Stop bit.
To send a Break character, set the SENDB and TXEN
bits of the TXxSTA register. The Break character transmission is then initiated by a write to the TXxREG. The
value of data written to TXxREG will be ignored and all
‘0’s will be transmitted.
The SENDB bit is automatically reset by hardware after
the corresponding Stop bit is sent. This allows the user
to preload the transmit FIFO with the next transmit byte
following the Break character (typically, the Sync
character in the LIN specification).
The TRMT bit of the TXxSTA register indicates when the
transmit operation is active or Idle, just as it does during
normal transmission. See Figure 25-9 for the timing of
the Break character sequence.
25.4.4.1
Break and Sync Transmit Sequence
The following sequence will start a message frame
header made up of a Break, followed by an auto-baud
Sync byte. This sequence is typical of a LIN bus
master.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Configure the EUSART for the desired mode.
Set the TXEN and SENDB bits to enable the
Break sequence.
Load the TXxREG with a dummy character to
initiate transmission (the value is ignored).
Write ‘55h’ to TXxREG to load the Sync character into the transmit FIFO buffer.
After the Break has been sent, the SENDB bit is
reset by hardware and the Sync character is
then transmitted.
FIGURE 25-9:
Write to TXxREG
When the TXxREG becomes empty, as indicated by
the TXxIF, the next data byte can be written to TXxREG.
25.4.5
RECEIVING A BREAK CHARACTER
The Enhanced EUSART module can receive a Break
character in two ways.
The first method to detect a Break character uses the
FERR bit of the RCxSTA register and the Received
data as indicated by RCxREG. The Baud Rate
Generator is assumed to have been initialized to the
expected baud rate.
A Break character has been received when;
• RCxIF bit is set
• FERR bit is set
• RCxREG = 00h
The second method uses the Auto-Wake-up feature
described in Section 25.4.3 “Auto-Wake-up on
Break”. By enabling this feature, the EUSART will
sample the next two transitions on RXx/DTx, cause an
RCxIF interrupt, and receive the next data byte
followed by another interrupt.
Note that following a Break character, the user will
typically want to enable the Auto-Baud Detect feature.
For both methods, the user can set the ABDEN bit of
the BAUDxCON register before placing the EUSART in
Sleep mode.
SEND BREAK CHARACTER SEQUENCE
Dummy Write
BRG Output
(Shift Clock)
TXx/CKx (pin)
Start bit
bit 0
bit 1
bit 11
Stop bit
Break
TXxIF bit
(Transmit
interrupt Flag)
TRMT bit
(Transmit Shift
Reg. Empty Flag)
SENDB
(send Break
control bit)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
SENDB Sampled Here
Preliminary
Auto Cleared
DS41414C-page 317
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.5
25.5.1.2
EUSART Synchronous Mode
Synchronous serial communications are typically used
in systems with a single master and one or more
slaves. The master device contains the necessary
circuitry for baud rate generation and supplies the clock
for all devices in the system. Slave devices can take
advantage of the master clock by eliminating the
internal clock generation circuitry.
There are two signal lines in Synchronous mode: a
bidirectional data line and a clock line. Slaves use the
external clock supplied by the master to shift the serial
data into and out of their respective receive and
transmit shift registers. Since the data line is
bidirectional, synchronous operation is half-duplex
only. Half-duplex refers to the fact that master and
slave devices can receive and transmit data but not
both simultaneously. The EUSART can operate as
either a master or slave device.
Start and Stop bits are not used in synchronous
transmissions.
25.5.1
SYNCHRONOUS MASTER MODE
The following bits are used to configure the EUSART
for Synchronous Master operation:
•
•
•
•
•
SYNC = 1
CSRC = 1
SREN = 0 (for transmit); SREN = 1 (for receive)
CREN = 0 (for transmit); CREN = 1 (for receive)
SPEN = 1
Clock Polarity
A clock polarity option is provided for Microwire
compatibility. Clock polarity is selected with the SCKP
bit of the BAUDxCON register. Setting the SCKP bit
sets the clock Idle state as high. When the SCKP bit is
set, the data changes on the falling edge of each clock
and is sampled on the rising edge of each clock.
Clearing the SCKP bit sets the Idle state as low. When
the SCKP bit is cleared, the data changes on the rising
edge of each clock and is sampled on the falling edge
of each clock.
25.5.1.3
Synchronous Master Transmission
Data is transferred out of the device on the RXx/DTx
pin. The RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx pin output drivers are
automatically enabled when the EUSART is configured
for synchronous master transmit operation.
A transmission is initiated by writing a character to the
TXxREG register. If the TSR still contains all or part of
a previous character the new character data is held in
the TXxREG until the last bit of the previous character
has been transmitted. If this is the first character, or the
previous character has been completely flushed from
the TSR, the data in the TXxREG is immediately transferred to the TSR. The transmission of the character
commences immediately following the transfer of the
data to the TSR from the TXxREG.
Each data bit changes on the leading edge of the
master clock and remains valid until the subsequent
leading clock edge.
Setting the SYNC bit of the TXxSTA register configures
the device for synchronous operation. Setting the CSRC
bit of the TXxSTA register configures the device as a
master. Clearing the SREN and CREN bits of the
RCxSTA register ensures that the device is in the
Transmit mode, otherwise the device will be configured
to receive. Setting the SPEN bit of the RCxSTA register
enables the EUSART. If the RXx/DTx or TXx/CKx pins
are shared with an analog peripheral the analog I/O
functions must be disabled by clearing the corresponding
ANSEL bits.
Note:
The TSR register is not mapped in data
memory, so it is not available to the user.
The TRIS bits corresponding to the RXx/DTx and
TXx/CKx pins should be set.
25.5.1.1
Master Clock
Synchronous data transfers use a separate clock line,
which is synchronous with the data. A device configured
as a master transmits the clock on the TXx/CKx line. The
TXx/CKx pin output driver is automatically enabled when
the EUSART is configured for synchronous transmit or
receive operation. Serial data bits change on the leading
edge to ensure they are valid at the trailing edge of each
clock. One clock cycle is generated for each data bit.
Only as many clock cycles are generated as there are
data bits.
DS41414C-page 318
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.5.1.4
1.
2.
3.
Synchronous Master Transmission
Set-up:
4.
Initialize the SPxBRGH, SPxBRGL register pair
and the BRGH and BRG16 bits to achieve the
desired baud rate (see Section 25.4 “EUSART
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)”).
Set the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx TRIS controls to
‘1’.
Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC. Set the
TRIS bits corresponding to the RXx/DTx and
TXx/CKx I/O pins.
5.
6.
7.
FIGURE 25-10:
8.
9.
Disable Receive mode by clearing bits SREN
and CREN.
Enable Transmit mode by setting the TXEN bit.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, set the TX9 bit.
If interrupts are desired, set the TXxIE, GIE and
PEIE interrupt enable bits.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, the ninth bit
should be loaded in the TX9D bit.
Start transmission by loading data to the
TXxREG register.
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION
RXx/DTx
pin
bit 0
bit 1
Word 1
bit 2
bit 7
bit 0
bit 1
Word 2
bit 7
TXx/CKx pin
(SCKP = 0)
TXx/CKx pin
(SCKP = 1)
Write to
TXxREG Reg
Write Word 1
Write Word 2
TXxIF bit
(Interrupt Flag)
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
Note:
‘1’
‘1’
Sync Master mode, SPxBRGL = 0, continuous transmission of two 8-bit words.
FIGURE 25-11:
SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (THROUGH TXEN)
RXx/DTx pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 6
bit 7
TXx/CKx pin
Write to
TXxREG reg
TXxIF bit
TRMT bit
TXEN bit
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 319
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 25-7:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER TRANSMISSION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
BAUD2CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
INTCON
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
97
RC1STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
RC2STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
PIR4
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
TX1REG
TX1STA
TX2STA
TRISC3
TRISC2
TRISC1
TRISC0
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
EUSART1 Transmit Register
TX2REG
Legend:
*
TRISC4
SYNC
SENDB
299*
EUSART2 Transmit Register
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
134
306
299*
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
— = unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’. Shaded bits are not used for synchronous master transmission.
Page provides register information.
DS41414C-page 320
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.5.1.5
Synchronous Master Reception
Data is received at the RXx/DTx pin. The RXx/DTx pin
output driver must be disabled by setting the
corresponding TRIS bits when the EUSART is
configured for synchronous master receive operation.
In Synchronous mode, reception is enabled by setting
either the Single Receive Enable bit (SREN of the
RCxSTA register) or the Continuous Receive Enable
bit (CREN of the RCxSTA register).
When SREN is set and CREN is clear, only as many
clock cycles are generated as there are data bits in a
single character. The SREN bit is automatically cleared
at the completion of one character. When CREN is set,
clocks are continuously generated until CREN is
cleared. If CREN is cleared in the middle of a character
the CK clock stops immediately and the partial character is discarded. If SREN and CREN are both set, then
SREN is cleared at the completion of the first character
and CREN takes precedence.
To initiate reception, set either SREN or CREN. Data is
sampled at the RXx/DTx pin on the trailing edge of the
TXx/CKx clock pin and is shifted into the Receive Shift
Register (RSR). When a complete character is
received into the RSR, the RCxIF bit is set and the
character is automatically transferred to the two
character receive FIFO. The Least Significant eight bits
of the top character in the receive FIFO are available in
RCxREG. The RCxIF bit remains set as long as there
are un-read characters in the receive FIFO.
25.5.1.6
Slave Clock
Synchronous data transfers use a separate clock line,
which is synchronous with the data. A device configured
as a slave receives the clock on the TXx/CKx line. The
TXx/CKx pin output driver must be disabled by setting
the associated TRIS bit when the device is configured
for synchronous slave transmit or receive operation.
Serial data bits change on the leading edge to ensure
they are valid at the trailing edge of each clock. One data
bit is transferred for each clock cycle. Only as many
clock cycles should be received as there are data bits.
25.5.1.7
Receive Overrun Error
The receive FIFO buffer can hold two characters. An
overrun error will be generated if a third character, in its
entirety, is received before RCxREG is read to access
the FIFO. When this happens the OERR bit of the
RCxSTA register is set. Previous data in the FIFO will
not be overwritten. The two characters in the FIFO
buffer can be read, however, no additional characters
will be received until the error is cleared. The OERR bit
can only be cleared by clearing the overrun condition.
If the overrun error occurred when the SREN bit is set
and CREN is clear then the error is cleared by reading
RCxREG.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
If the overrun occurred when the CREN bit is set then
the error condition is cleared by either clearing the
CREN bit of the RCxSTA register or by clearing the
SPEN bit which resets the EUSART.
25.5.1.8
Receiving 9-bit Characters
The EUSART supports 9-bit character reception. When
the RX9 bit of the RCxSTA register is set the EUSART
will shift 9-bits into the RSR for each character
received. The RX9D bit of the RCxSTA register is the
ninth, and Most Significant, data bit of the top unread
character in the receive FIFO. When reading 9-bit data
from the receive FIFO buffer, the RX9D data bit must
be read before reading the 8 Least Significant bits from
the RCxREG.
25.5.1.9
Synchronous Master Reception
Set-up:
1.
Initialize the SPxBRGH, SPxBRGL register pair
for the appropriate baud rate. Set or clear the
BRGH and BRG16 bits, as required, to achieve
the desired baud rate.
2. Set the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx TRIS controls to
‘1’.
3. Enable the synchronous master serial port by
setting bits SYNC, SPEN and CSRC. Disable
RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx output drivers by setting
the corresponding TRIS bits.
4. Ensure bits CREN and SREN are clear.
5. If using interrupts, set the GIE and PEIE bits of
the INTCON register and set RCxIE.
6. If 9-bit reception is desired, set bit RX9.
7. Start reception by setting the SREN bit or for
continuous reception, set the CREN bit.
8. Interrupt flag bit RCxIF will be set when reception of a character is complete. An interrupt will
be generated if the enable bit RCxIE was set.
9. Read the RCxSTA register to get the ninth bit (if
enabled) and determine if any error occurred
during reception.
10. Read the 8-bit received data by reading the
RCxREG register.
11. If an overrun error occurs, clear the error by
either clearing the CREN bit of the RCxSTA
register or by clearing the SPEN bit which resets
the EUSART.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 321
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 25-12:
SYNCHRONOUS RECEPTION (MASTER MODE, SREN)
RXx/DTx
pin
bit 0
bit 1
bit 2
bit 3
bit 4
bit 5
bit 6
bit 7
TXx/CKx pin
(SCKP = 0)
TXx/CKx pin
(SCKP = 1)
Write to
bit SREN
SREN bit
CREN bit ‘0’
‘0’
RCxIF bit
(Interrupt)
Read
RCxREG
Note:
Timing diagram demonstrates Sync Master mode with bit SREN = 1 and bit BRGH = 0.
TABLE 25-8:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS MASTER RECEPTION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
BAUD2CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
PIE1
INTCON
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
RC1REG
RC1STA
EUSART1 Receive Register
SPEN
RX9
SREN
RC2REG
RC2STA
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
EUSART2 Receive Register
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
97
302*
308
302*
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
TX1STA
TX2STA
Legend:
*
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
— = unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’. Shaded bits are not used for synchronous master reception.
Page provides register information.
DS41414C-page 322
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.5.2
SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE MODE
The following bits are used to configure the EUSART
for Synchronous slave operation:
•
•
•
•
•
SYNC = 1
CSRC = 0
SREN = 0 (for transmit); SREN = 1 (for receive)
CREN = 0 (for transmit); CREN = 1 (for receive)
SPEN = 1
If two words are written to the TXxREG and then the
SLEEP instruction is executed, the following will occur:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Setting the SYNC bit of the TXxSTA register configures
the device for synchronous operation. Clearing the
CSRC bit of the TXxSTA register configures the device as
a slave. Clearing the SREN and CREN bits of the
RCxSTA register ensures that the device is in the
Transmit mode, otherwise the device will be configured to
receive. Setting the SPEN bit of the RCxSTA register
enables the EUSART. If the RXx/DTx or TXx/CKx pins
are shared with an analog peripheral the analog I/O
functions must be disabled by clearing the corresponding
ANSEL bits.
5.
25.5.2.2
1.
RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx pin output drivers must be
disabled by setting the corresponding TRIS bits.
2.
25.5.2.1
3.
4.
EUSART Synchronous Slave
Transmit
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes
are
identical
(see
Section 25.5.1.3
“Synchronous Master Transmission”), except in the
case of the Sleep mode.
5.
6.
7.
8.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
The first character will immediately transfer to
the TSR register and transmit.
The second word will remain in TXxREG
register.
The TXxIF bit will not be set.
After the first character has been shifted out of
TSR, the TXxREG register will transfer the
second character to the TSR and the TXxIF bit
will now be set.
If the PEIE and TXxIE bits are set, the interrupt
will wake the device from Sleep and execute the
next instruction. If the GIE bit is also set, the
program will call the Interrupt Service Routine.
Preliminary
Synchronous Slave Transmission
Set-up:
Set the SYNC and SPEN bits and clear the
CSRC bit.
Set the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx TRIS controls to
‘1’.
Clear the CREN and SREN bits.
If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits of the INTCON register are set and set the
TXxIE bit.
If 9-bit transmission is desired, set the TX9 bit.
Enable transmission by setting the TXEN bit.
If 9-bit transmission is selected, insert the Most
Significant bit into the TX9D bit.
Start transmission by writing the Least
Significant 8 bits to the TXxREG register.
DS41414C-page 323
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 25-9:
REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE TRANSMISSION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
BAUD2CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
94
INTCON
PIE1
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
97
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
97
RC1STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
RC2STA
SPEN
RX9
SREN
CREN
ADDEN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
308
PIR4
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
TRISC
TRISC7
TRISC6
TRISC5
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
TX1REG
TX1STA
TX2STA
TRISC3
TRISC2
310*
TRISC1
TRISC0
TRMT
TX9D
EUSART1 Transmit Register
TX2REG
Legend:
*
TRISC4
SYNC
SENDB
299*
BRGH
EUSART2 Transmit Register
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
134
306
299*
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
— = unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’. Shaded bits are not used for synchronous slave transmission.
Page provides register information.
DS41414C-page 324
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
25.5.2.3
EUSART Synchronous Slave
Reception
25.5.2.4
The operation of the Synchronous Master and Slave
modes is identical (Section 25.5.1.5 “Synchronous
Master Reception”), with the following exceptions:
• Sleep
• CREN bit is always set, therefore the receiver is
never Idle
• SREN bit, which is a “don’t care” in Slave mode
1.
Set the SYNC and SPEN bits and clear the
CSRC bit.
Set the RXx/DTx and TXx/CKx TRIS controls to
‘1’.
If using interrupts, ensure that the GIE and PEIE
bits of the INTCON register are set and set the
RCxIE bit.
If 9-bit reception is desired, set the RX9 bit.
Set the CREN bit to enable reception.
The RCxIF bit will be set when reception is
complete. An interrupt will be generated if the
RCxIE bit was set.
If 9-bit mode is enabled, retrieve the Most
Significant bit from the RX9D bit of the RCxSTA
register.
Retrieve the 8 Least Significant bits from the
receive FIFO by reading the RCxREG register.
If an overrun error occurs, clear the error by
either clearing the CREN bit of the RCxSTA
register or by clearing the SPEN bit which resets
the EUSART.
2.
3.
A character may be received while in Sleep mode by
setting the CREN bit prior to entering Sleep. Once the
word is received, the RSR register will transfer the data
to the RCxREG register. If the RCxIE enable bit is set,
the interrupt generated will wake the device from Sleep
and execute the next instruction. If the GIE bit is also
set, the program will branch to the interrupt vector.
Synchronous Slave Reception
Set-up:
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
TABLE 25-10: REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH SYNCHRONOUS SLAVE RECEPTION
Name
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
BAUD1CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
BAUD2CON
ABDOVF
RCIDL
—
SCKP
BRG16
—
WUE
ABDEN
309
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
TMR1GIE
ADIE
RCIE
TXIE
SSPIE
CCP1IE
TMR2IE
TMR1IE
94
97
INTCON
PIE1
PIE4
—
—
RC2IE
TX2IE
—
—
BCL2IE
SSP2IE
PIR1
TMR1GIF
ADIF
RCIF
TXIF
SSPIF
CCP1IF
TMR2IF
TMR1IF
98
PIR4
—
—
RC2IF
TX2IF
—
—
BCL2IF
SSP2IF
97
SPEN
RX9
SREN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
SPEN
RX9
SREN
FERR
OERR
RX9D
RC1REG
RC1STA
EUSART1 Receive Register
RC2REG
RC2STA
CREN
ADDEN
302*
EUSART2 Receive Register
CREN
ADDEN
308
302*
308
SP1BRGL
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP1BRGH
EUSART1 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
SP2BRGL
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, Low Byte
310*
SP2BRGH
EUSART2 Baud Rate Generator, High Byte
310*
TX1STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
TX2STA
CSRC
TX9
TXEN
SYNC
SENDB
BRGH
TRMT
TX9D
306
Legend:
*
— = unimplemented locations, read as ‘0’. Shaded bits are not used for synchronous slave reception.
Page provides register information.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 325
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 326
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
26.0
CAPACITIVE SENSING (CPS)
MODULE
The Capacitive Sensing (CPS) module allows for an
interaction with an end user without a mechanical
interface. In a typical application, the CPS module is
attached to a pad on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB),
which is electrically isolated from the end user. When the
end user places their finger over the PCB pad, a
capacitive load is added, causing a frequency shift in the
CPS module. The CPS module requires software and at
least one timer resource to determine the change in
frequency. Key features of this module include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Analog MUX for monitoring multiple inputs
Capacitive sensing oscillator
Multiple Power modes
High power range with variable voltage references
Multiple timer resources
Software control
Operation during Sleep
FIGURE 26-1:
CAPACITIVE SENSING BLOCK DIAGRAM
Timer0 Module
CPSCH<3:0>
CPSON(1)
CPS0
FOSC/4
T0CKI
CPS1
CPSRNG<1:0>
CPS4
CPSON
CPS5
CPS6
CPS8
Capacitive
Sensing
Oscillator
CPS9
CPSOSC
CPS7
CPS11
CPS15
Overflow
Timer1 Module
T1CS<1:0>
CPS10
CPS14
TMR0
1
CPS3
CPS13
0
0
1
CPS2
CPS12
Set
TMR0IF
TMR0CS
T0XCS
Int.
Ref.
0
Ref-
CPSCLK
CPSOUT
1 DAC
T1OSC/
T1CKI
EN
TMR1H:TMR1L
T1GSEL<1:0>
0
Ref+
T1G
1 FVR
CPS16
FOSC
FOSC/4
SYNCC1OUT
SYNCC2OUT
Timer1 Gate
Control Logic
CPSRM
Note 1:
If CPSON = 0, disabling capacitive sensing, no channel is selected.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 327
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 26-2:
CAPACITIVE SENSING OSCILLATOR BLOCK DIAGRAM
Oscillator Module
VDD
(1)
+
(2)
-
S
CPSx
(1)
Analog Pin
-
Q
CPSCLK
R
(2)
+
Internal
References
Ref-
0
0
Ref+
1
DAC
1
FVR
CPSRM
Note 1:
2:
Module Enable and Power mode selections are not shown.
Comparators remain active in Noise Detection mode.
DS41414C-page 328
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
26.1
26.2.1
Analog MUX
VOLTAGE REFERENCES
The CPS module can monitor up to 16 inputs. The
capacitive sensing inputs are defined as CPS<15:0>.
To determine if a frequency change has occurred the
user must:
The capacitive sensing oscillator uses voltage references to provide two voltage thresholds for oscillation.
The upper voltage threshold is referred to as Ref+ and
the lower voltage threshold is referred to as Ref-.
• Select the appropriate CPS pin by setting the
CPSCH<4:0> bits of the CPSCON1 register.
• Set the corresponding ANSEL bit.
• Set the corresponding TRIS bit.
• Run the software algorithm.
The user can elect to use fixed voltage references,
which are internal to the capacitive sensing oscillator,
or variable voltage references, which are supplied by
the Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR) module and the
Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) module.
Selection of the CPSx pin while the module is enabled
will cause the capacitive sensing oscillator to be on the
CPSx pin. Failure to set the corresponding ANSEL and
TRIS bits can cause the capacitive sensing oscillator to
stop, leading to false frequency readings.
26.2
Capacitive Sensing Oscillator
The capacitive sensing oscillator consists of a constant
current source and a constant current sink, to produce
a triangle waveform. The CPSOUT bit of the
CPSCON0 register shows the status of the capacitive
sensing oscillator, whether it is a sinking or sourcing
current. The oscillator is designed to drive a capacitive
load (single PCB pad) and at the same time, be a clock
source to either Timer0 or Timer1. The oscillator has
three different current settings as defined by
CPSRNG<1:0> of the CPSCON0 register. The different
current settings for the oscillator serve two purposes:
• Maximize the number of counts in a timer for a
fixed time base.
• Maximize the count differential in the timer during
a change in frequency.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
When the fixed voltage references are used, the VSS
voltage determines the lower threshold level (Ref-) and
the VDD voltage determines the upper threshold level
(Ref+).
When the variable voltage references are used, the
DAC voltage determines the lower threshold level
(Ref-) and the FVR voltage determines the upper
threshold level (Ref+). An advantage of using these reference sources is that oscillation frequency remains
constant with changes in VDD.
Different oscillation frequencies can be obtained
through the use of these variable voltage references.
The more the upper voltage reference level is lowered
and the more the lower voltage reference level is
raised, the higher the capacitive sensing oscillator
frequency becomes.
Selection between the voltage references is controlled
by the CPSRM bit of the CPSCON0 register. Setting
this bit selects the variable voltage references and
clearing this bit selects the fixed voltage references.
Please see Section 14.0 “Fixed Voltage Reference
(FVR)” and Section 17.0 “Digital-to-Analog Converter
(DAC) Module” for more information on configuring the
variable voltage levels.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 329
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
26.2.2
POWER MODES
The remaining mode is a Noise Detection mode that
resides within the high range. The Noise Detection
mode is unique in that it disables the sinking and sourcing of current on the analog pin but leaves the rest of
the oscillator circuitry active. This reduces the oscillation frequency on the analog pin to zero and also
greatly reduces the current consumed by the oscillator
module.
The capacitive sensing oscillator can operate in one of
seven different power modes. The power modes are
separated into two ranges; the low range and the high
range.
When the oscillator’s low range is selected, the fixed
internal voltage references of the capacitive sensing
oscillator are being used. When the oscillator’s high
range is selected, the variable voltage references
supplied by the FVR and DAC modules are being used.
Selection between the voltage references is controlled
by the CPSRM bit of the CPSCON0 register. See
Section 26.2.1 “Voltage References” for more
information.
When noise is introduced onto the pin, the oscillator is
driven at the frequency determined by the noise. This
produces a detectable signal at the comparator output,
indicating the presence of activity on the pin.
Figure 26-2 shows a more detailed drawing of the
current sources and comparators associated with the
oscillator.
Within each range there are three distinct Power modes;
low, medium and high. Current consumption is dependent
upon the range and mode selected. Selecting Power
modes within each range is accomplished by configuring
the CPSRNG <1:0> bits in the CPSCON0 register. See
Table 26-1 for proper Power mode selection.
TABLE 26-1:
POWER MODE SELECTION
CPSRM
Range
Low
0
1
Note 1:
26.2.3
CPSRNG<1:0>
High
Nominal Current(1)
00
Off
0.0 A
01
Low
0.25 A
10
Medium
1.5 A
11
High
7.5 A
00
Noise Detection
0.0 A
01
Low
9 A
10
Medium
30 A
11
High
100 A
See Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications” for more information.
26.2.4.1
TIMER RESOURCES
To measure the change in frequency of the capacitive
sensing oscillator, a fixed time base is required. For the
period of the fixed time base, the capacitive sensing
oscillator is used to clock either Timer0 or Timer1. The
frequency of the capacitive sensing oscillator is equal
to the number of counts in the timer divided by the
period of the fixed time base.
26.2.4
Mode
FIXED TIME BASE
Timer0
To select Timer0 as the timer resource for the CPS
module:
• Set the T0XCS bit of the CPSCON0 register.
• Clear the TMR0CS bit of the OPTION register.
When Timer0 is chosen as the timer resource, the
capacitive sensing oscillator will be the clock source for
Timer0. Refer to Section 20.0 “Timer0 Module” for
additional information.
To measure the frequency of the capacitive sensing
oscillator, a fixed time base is required. Any timer
resource or software loop can be used to establish the
fixed time base. It is up to the end user to determine the
method in which the fixed time base is generated.
Note:
The fixed time base can not be generated
by the timer resource that the capacitive
sensing oscillator is clocking.
DS41414C-page 330
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
26.2.4.2
Timer1
26.2.5.2
To select Timer1 as the timer resource for the CPS
module, set the TMR1CS<1:0> of the T1CON register
to ‘11’. When Timer1 is chosen as the timer resource,
the capacitive sensing oscillator will be the clock
source for Timer1. Because the Timer1 module has a
gate control, developing a time base for the frequency
measurement can be simplified by using the Timer0
overflow flag.
It is recommend that the Timer0 overflow flag, in
conjunction with the Toggle mode of the Timer1 Gate, be
used to develop the fixed time base required by the software portion of the CPS module. Refer to Section 21.12
“Timer1 Gate Control Register” for additional information.
TABLE 26-2:
TIMER1 ENABLE FUNCTION
TMR1ON
TMR1GE
Timer1 Operation
0
0
Off
0
1
Off
1
0
On
1
1
Count Enabled by input
26.2.5
SOFTWARE CONTROL
The software portion of the CPS module is required to
determine the change in frequency of the capacitive
sensing oscillator. This is accomplished by the
following:
• Setting a fixed time base to acquire counts on
Timer0 or Timer1.
• Establishing the nominal frequency for the
capacitive sensing oscillator.
• Establishing the reduced frequency for the capacitive sensing oscillator due to an additional capacitive load.
• Set the frequency threshold.
26.2.5.1
Reduced Frequency (additional
capacitive load)
The extra capacitive load will cause the frequency of the
capacitive sensing oscillator to decrease. To determine
the reduced frequency of the capacitive sensing
oscillator:
• Add a typical capacitive load on the selected
CPSx pin.
• Use the same fixed time base as the nominal
frequency measurement.
• At the start of the fixed time base, clear the timer
resource.
• At the end of the fixed time base save the value in
the timer resource.
The value of the timer resource is the number of oscillations of the capacitive sensing oscillator with an additional capacitive load. The frequency of the capacitive
sensing oscillator is equal to the number of counts on
in the timer divided by the period of the fixed time base.
This frequency should be less than the value obtained
during the nominal frequency measurement.
26.2.5.3
Frequency Threshold
The frequency threshold should be placed midway
between the value of nominal frequency and the
reduced frequency of the capacitive sensing oscillator.
Refer to Application Note AN1103, “Software Handling
for Capacitive Sensing” (DS01103) for more detailed
information on the software required for CPS module.
Note:
For more information on general capacitive
sensing refer to Application Notes:
• AN1101, “Introduction to Capacitive
Sensing” (DS01101)
• AN1102, “Layout and Physical
Design Guidelines for Capacitive
Sensing” (DS01102)
Nominal Frequency
(No Capacitive Load)
To determine the nominal frequency of the capacitive
sensing oscillator:
• Remove any extra capacitive load on the selected
CPSx pin.
• At the start of the fixed time base, clear the timer
resource.
• At the end of the fixed time base save the value in
the timer resource.
The value of the timer resource is the number of
oscillations of the capacitive sensing oscillator for the
given time base. The frequency of the capacitive
sensing oscillator is equal to the number of counts on
in the timer divided by the period of the fixed time base.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 331
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
26.3
Operation during Sleep
The capacitive sensing oscillator will continue to run as
long as the module is enabled, independent of the part
being in Sleep. In order for the software to determine if
a frequency change has occurred, the part must be
awake. However, the part does not have to be awake
when the timer resource is acquiring counts.
Timer0 does not operate when in Sleep,
and therefore cannot be used for
capacitive sense measurements in Sleep.
Note:
26.4
Capacitive Sensing Control Registers
REGISTER 26-1:
CPSCON0: CAPACITIVE SENSING CONTROL REGISTER 0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
U-0
CPSON
CPSRM
—
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CPSRNG<1:0>
R-0/0
R/W-0/0
CPSOUT
T0XCS
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7
CPSON: CPS Module Enable bit
1 = CPS module is enabled
0 = CPS module is disabled
bit 6
CPSRM: Capacitive Sensing Reference Mode bit
1 = CPS module is in high range. DAC and FVR provide oscillator voltage references.
0 = CPS module is in the low range. Internal oscillator voltage references are used.
bit 5-4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-2
CPSRNG<1:0>: Capacitive Sensing Current Range
If CPSRM = 0 (low range):
00 = Oscillator is off
01 = Oscillator is in Low Range. Charge/Discharge Current is nominally 0.1 µA
10 = Oscillator is in Medium Range. Charge/Discharge Current is nominally 1.2 µA
11 = Oscillator is in High Range. Charge/Discharge Current is nominally 18 µA
If CPSRM = 1 (high range):
00 = Oscillator is on. Noise Detection mode. No Charge/Discharge current is supplied.
01 = Oscillator is in Low Range. Charge/Discharge Current is nominally 9 µA
10 = Oscillator is in Medium Range. Charge/Discharge Current is nominally 30 µA
11 = Oscillator is in High Range. Charge/Discharge Current is nominally 100 µA
bit 1
CPSOUT: Capacitive Sensing Oscillator Status bit
1 = Oscillator is sourcing current (Current flowing out of the pin)
0 = Oscillator is sinking current (Current flowing into the pin)
bit 0
T0XCS: Timer0 External Clock Source Select bit
If TMR0CS = 1:
The T0XCS bit controls which clock external to the core/Timer0 module supplies Timer0:
1 = Timer0 clock source is the capacitive sensing oscillator
0 = Timer0 clock source is the T0CKI pin
If TMR0CS = 0:
Timer0 clock source is controlled by the core/Timer0 module and is FOSC/4
DS41414C-page 332
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 26-2:
CPSCON1: CAPACITIVE SENSING CONTROL REGISTER 1
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
CPSCH<4:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-5
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 4-0
CPSCH<4:0>: Capacitive Sensing Channel Select bits
If CPSON = 0:
These bits are ignored. No channel is selected.
If CPSON = 1:
00000 = channel 0, (CPS0)
00001 = channel 1, (CPS1)
00010 = channel 2, (CPS2)
00011 = channel 3, (CPS3)
00100 = channel 4, (CPS4)
00101 = channel 5, (CPS5)
00110 = channel 6, (CPS6)
00111 = channel 7, (CPS7)
01000 = channel 8, (CPS8)
01001 = channel 9, (CPS9)
01010 = channel 10, (CPS10)
01011 = channel 11, (CPS11)
01100 = channel 12, (CPS12)
01101 = channel 13, (CPS13)
01110 = channel 14, (CPS14)
01111 = channel 15, (CPS15)
10000 = channel 16, (CPS16)
10001 = Reserved. Do not use.
.
.
.
11111 = Reserved. Do not use.
TABLE 26-3:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH CAPACITIVE SENSING
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
—
—
ANSA5
ANSA4
ANSA3
ANSA2
ANSA1
ANSA0
129
CPSCON0
CPSON
CPSRM
—
—
CPSOUT
T0XCS
CPSCON1
—
—
—
WPUEN
INTEDG
TMR0CS
ANSELA
OPTION_REG
T1CON
TMR1CS<1:0>
CPSRNG<1:0>
CPSCH<4:0>
TMR0SE
T1CKPS<1:0>
332
333
PSA
PS2
PS1
PS0
195
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
TMR1ON
205
TRISA
TRISA7
TRISA6
TRISA5
TRISA4
TRISA3
TRISA2
TRISA1
TRISA0
128
TRISB
TRISB7
TRISB6
TRISB5
TRISB4
TRISB3
TRISB2
TRISB1
TRISB0
131
TRISD
TRISD<7:0>
137
Legend: — = Unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the CPS module.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 333
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 334
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.0
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY
(LCD) DRIVER MODULE
27.1
The module contains the following registers:
The Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) driver module
generates the timing control to drive a static or
multiplexed LCD panel. In the PIC16F/LF1946/47
device, the module drives the panels of up to four
commons and up to 46 segments. The LCD module
also provides control of the LCD pixel data.
The LCD driver module supports:
• Direct driving of LCD panel
• Three LCD clock sources with selectable prescaler
• Up to four common pins:
- Static (1 common)
- 1/2 multiplex (2 commons)
- 1/3 multiplex (3 commons)
- 1/4 multiplex (4 commons)
• Segment pins up to:
- 64 (PIC16(L)F1946/1947)
• Static, 1/2 or 1/3 LCD Bias
FIGURE 27-1:
LCD Registers
•
•
•
•
•
LCD Control register (LCDCON)
LCD Phase register (LCDPS)
LCD Reference Ladder register (LCDRL)
LCD Contrast Control register (LCDCST)
LCD Reference Voltage Control register
(LCDREF)
• Up to 6 LCD Segment Enable registers (LCDSEn)
• Up to 24 LCD data registers (LCDDATAn)
LCD DRIVER MODULE BLOCK DIAGRAM
Data Bus
SEG<23:0>
LCDDATAx
MUX
Registers
To I/O Pads(1)
Timing Control
LCDCON
COM<3:0>
LCDPS
To I/O Pads(1)
LCDSEn
FOSC/256
T1OSC
LFINTOSC
Note 1:
Clock Source
Select and
Prescaler
These are not directly connected to the I/O pads, but may be tri-stated, depending on the configuration of
the LCD module.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 335
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 27-1:
LCD SEGMENT AND DATA
REGISTERS
# of LCD Registers
Device
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Segment
Enable
Data
6
24
The LCDCON register (Register 27-1) controls the
operation of the LCD driver module. The LCDPS register (Register 27-2) configures the LCD clock source
prescaler and the type of waveform; Type-A or Type-B.
The LCDSEn registers (Register 27-5) configure the
functions of the port pins.
The following LCDSEn registers are available:
•
•
•
•
•
•
LCDSE0
LCDSE1
LCDSE2
LCDSE3
LCDSE4
LCDSE5
SE<7:0>
SE<15:8>
SE<23:16>(1)
SE<31:24>
SE<39:32>
SE<45:40>
Once the module is initialized for the LCD panel, the
individual bits of the LCDDATAn registers are
cleared/set to represent a clear/dark pixel, respectively:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
LCDDATA0
LCDDATA1
LCDDATA2
LCDDATA3
LCDDATA4
LCDDATA5
LCDDATA6
LCDDATA7
LCDDATA8
LCDDATA9
LCDDATA10
LCDDATA11
LCDDATA12
LCDDATA13
LCDDATA14
LCDDATA15
LCDDATA16
LCDDATA17
LCDDATA18
LCDDATA19
LCDDATA20
LCDDATA21
LCDDATA22
LCDDATA23
SEG<7:0>COM0
SEG<15:8>COM0
SEG<23:16>COM0
SEG<7:0>COM1
SEG<15:8>COM1
SEG<23:16>COM1
SEG<7:0>COM2
SEG<15:8>COM2
SEG<23:16>COM2
SEG<7:0>COM3
SEG<15:8>COM3
SEG<23:16>COM3
SEG<31:24>COM0
SEG<39:32>COM0
SEG<45:40>COM0
SEG<31:24>COM1
SEG<39:32>COM1
SEG<45:40>COM1
SEG<31:24>COM2
SEG<39:32>COM2
SEG<45:40>COM2
SEG<31:24>COM3
SEG<39:32>COM3
SEG<45:40>COM3
As an example,
Register 27-6.
LCDDATAn
is
detailed
in
Once the module is configured, the LCDEN bit of the
LCDCON register is used to enable or disable the LCD
module. The LCD panel can also operate during Sleep
by clearing the SLPEN bit of the LCDCON register.
DS41414C-page 336
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.2
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Control Registers
REGISTER 27-1:
LCDCON: LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/C-0/0
U-0
LCDEN
SLPEN
WERR
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-1/1
CS<1:0>
R/W-1/1
LMUX<1:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
C = Only clearable bit
bit 7
LCDEN: LCD Driver Enable bit
1 = LCD driver module is enabled
0 = LCD driver module is disabled
bit 6
SLPEN: LCD Driver Enable in Sleep Mode bit
1 = LCD driver module is disabled in Sleep mode
0 = LCD driver module is enabled in Sleep mode
bit 5
WERR: LCD Write Failed Error bit
1 = LCDDATAn register written while the WA bit of the LCDPS register = 0 (must be cleared in
software)
0 = No LCD write error
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3-2
CS<1:0>: Clock Source Select bits
00 = FOSC/256
01 = T1OSC (Timer1)
1x = LFINTOSC (31 kHz)
bit 1-0
LMUX<1:0>: Commons Select bits
Maximum Number of Pixels
LMUX<1:0>
Multiplex
PIC16F1946/47/
PIC16LF1946/47
00
Static (COM0)
46
Static
01
1/2 (COM<1:0>)
92
1/2 or 1/3
10
1/3 (COM<2:0>)
138
1/2 or 1/3
11
1/4 (COM<3:0>)
184
1/3
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
Bias
DS41414C-page 337
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 27-2:
LCDPS: LCD PHASE REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R-0/0
R-0/0
WFT
BIASMD
LCDA
WA
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-1/1
R/W-1/1
LP<3:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
C = Only clearable bit
bit 7
WFT: Waveform Type bit
1 = Type-B phase changes on each frame boundary
0 = Type-A phase changes within each common type
bit 6
BIASMD: Bias Mode Select bit
When LMUX<1:0> = 00:
0 = Static Bias mode (do not set this bit to ‘1’)
When LMUX<1:0> = 01:
1 = 1/2 Bias mode
0 = 1/3 Bias mode
When LMUX<1:0> = 10:
1 = 1/2 Bias mode
0 = 1/3 Bias mode
When LMUX<1:0> = 11:
0 = 1/3 Bias mode (do not set this bit to ‘1’)
bit 5
LCDA: LCD Active Status bit
1 = LCD driver module is active
0 = LCD driver module is inactive
bit 4
WA: LCD Write Allow Status bit
1 = Writing to the LCDDATAn registers is allowed
0 = Writing to the LCDDATAn registers is not allowed
bit 3-0
LP<3:0>: LCD Prescaler Selection bits
1111 = 1:16
1110 = 1:15
1101 = 1:14
1100 = 1:13
1011 = 1:12
1010 = 1:11
1001 = 1:10
1000 = 1:9
0111 = 1:8
0110 = 1:7
0101 = 1:6
0100 = 1:5
0011 = 1:4
0010 = 1:3
0001 = 1:2
0000 = 1:1
DS41414C-page 338
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 27-3:
LCDREF: LCD REFERENCE VOLTAGE CONTROL REGISTER
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
U-0
LCDIRE
LCDIRS
LCDIRI
—
VLCD3PE
VLCD2PE
VLCD1PE
—
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
C = Only clearable bit
bit 7
LCDIRE: LCD Internal Reference Enable bit
1 = Internal LCD Reference is enabled and connected to the Internal Contrast Control circuit
0 = Internal LCD Reference is disabled
bit 6
LCDIRS: LCD Internal Reference Source bit
If LCDIRE = 1:
0 = Internal LCD Contrast Control is powered by VDD
1 = Internal LCD Contrast Control is powered by a 3.072V output of the FVR.
If LCDIRE = 0:
Internal LCD Contrast Control is unconnected. LCD bandgap buffer is disabled.
bit 5
LCDIRI: LCD Internal Reference Ladder Idle Enable bit
Allows the Internal FVR buffer to shut down when the LCD Reference Ladder is in power mode ‘B’
1 = When the LCD Reference Ladder is in power mode ‘B’, the LCD Internal FVR buffer is disabled.
0 = The LCD Internal FVR Buffer ignores the LCD Reference Ladder Power mode.
bit 4
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 3
VLCD3PE: VLCD3 Pin Enable bit
1 = The VLCD3 pin is connected to the internal bias voltage LCDBIAS3(1)
0 = The VLCD3 pin is not connected
bit 2
VLCD2PE: VLCD2 Pin Enable bit
1 = The VLCD2 pin is connected to the internal bias voltage LCDBIAS2(1)
0 = The VLCD2 pin is not connected
bit 1
VLCD1PE: VLCD1 Pin Enable bit
1 = The VLCD1 pin is connected to the internal bias voltage LCDBIAS1(1)
0 = The VLCD1 pin is not connected
bit 0
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
Note 1:
Normal pin controls of TRISx and ANSELx are unaffected.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 339
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 27-4:
LCDCST: LCD CONTRAST CONTROL REGISTER
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
U-0
—
—
—
—
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
LCDCST<2:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
C = Only clearable bit
bit 7-3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2-0
LCDCST<2:0>: LCD Contrast Control bits
Selects the resistance of the LCD contrast control resistor ladder
Bit Value = Resistor ladder
000 = Minimum Resistance (Maximum contrast). Resistor ladder is shorted.
001 = Resistor ladder is at 1/7th of maximum resistance
010 = Resistor ladder is at 2/7th of maximum resistance
011 = Resistor ladder is at 3/7th of maximum resistance
100 = Resistor ladder is at 4/7th of maximum resistance
101 = Resistor ladder is at 5/7th of maximum resistance
110 = Resistor ladder is at 6/7th of maximum resistance
111 = Resistor ladder is at maximum resistance (Minimum contrast).
DS41414C-page 340
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 27-5:
LCDSEn: LCD SEGMENT ENABLE REGISTERS
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
SEn
SEn
SEn
SEn
SEn
SEn
SEn
SEn
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
SEn: Segment Enable bits
1 = Segment function of the pin is enabled
0 = I/O function of the pin is enabled
REGISTER 27-6:
R/W-x/u
LCDDATAn: LCD DATA REGISTERS
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
R/W-x/u
SEGx-COMy SEGx-COMy SEGx-COMy SEGx-COMy SEGx-COMy SEGx-COMy SEGx-COMy SEGx-COMy
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-0
SEGx-COMy: Pixel On bits
1 = Pixel on (dark)
0 = Pixel off (clear)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 341
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.3
Using bits CS<1:0> of the LCDCON register can select
any of these clock sources.
LCD Clock Source Selection
The LCD module has 3 possible clock sources:
27.3.1
• FOSC/256
• T1OSC
• LFINTOSC
The first clock source is the system clock divided by
256 (FOSC/256). This divider ratio is chosen to provide
about 1 kHz output when the system clock is 8 MHz.
The divider is not programmable. Instead, the LCD
prescaler bits LP<3:0> of the LCDPS register are used
to set the LCD frame clock rate.
LCD PRESCALER
A 4-bit counter is available as a prescaler for the LCD
clock. The prescaler is not directly readable or writable;
its value is set by the LP<3:0> bits of the LCDPS register,
which determine the prescaler assignment and prescale
ratio.
The prescale values are selectable from 1:1 through
1:16.
The second clock source is the T1OSC. This also gives
about 1 kHz when a 32.768 kHz crystal is used with the
Timer1 oscillator. To use the Timer1 oscillator as a
clock source, the T1OSCEN bit of the T1CON register
should be set.
The third clock source is the 31 kHz LFINTOSC, which
provides approximately 1 kHz output.
The second and third clock sources may be used to
continue running the LCD while the processor is in
Sleep.
FOSC
LCD CLOCK GENERATION
÷256
To Ladder
Power Control
T1OSC 32 kHz
Crystal Osc.
Static
÷2
1/2
4-bit Prog
Prescaler
÷ 32
Counter
Segment
Clock
÷1, 2, 3, 4
Ring Counter
1/3,
1/4
LFINTOSC
Nominal = 31 kHz
LP<3:0>
CS<1:0>
DS41414C-page 342
÷4
COM0
COM1
COM2
COM3
FIGURE 27-2:
LMUX<1:0>
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.4
TABLE 27-2:
LCD Bias Voltage Generation
The LCD module can be configured for one of three
bias types:
• Static Bias (2 voltage levels: VSS and VLCD)
• 1/2 Bias (3 voltage levels: VSS, 1/2 VLCD and
VLCD)
• 1/3 Bias (4 voltage levels: VSS, 1/3 VLCD,
2/3 VLCD and VLCD)
FIGURE 27-3:
LCD BIAS VOLTAGES
Static Bias
1/2 Bias
1/3 Bias
LCD Bias 0
VSS
VSS
VSS
LCD Bias 1
—
1/2 VDD
1/3 VDD
LCD Bias 2
—
1/2 VDD
2/3 VDD
LCD Bias 3
VLCD3
VLCD3
VLCD3
So that the user is not forced to place external components and use up to three pins for bias voltage generation,
internal contrast control and an internal reference ladder
are provided internally to the PIC16F/LF1946/47. Both of
these features may be used in conjunction with the external VLCD<3:1> pins, to provide maximum flexibility. Refer
to Figure 27-3.
LCD BIAS VOLTAGE GENERATION BLOCK DIAGRAM
LCDIRE
LCDIRS
LCDA
VDD
1.024V from
FVR
x3
3.072V
LCDIRE
LCDIRS
LCDA
Power Mode Switching
(LRLAP or LRLBP)
2
A
2
B
2
LCDCST<2:0>
VLCD3PE
LCDA
VLCD3
lcdbias3
VLCD2PE
VLCD2
lcdbias2
BIASMD
VLCD1PE
VLCD1
lcdbias1
lcdbias0
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 343
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.5
27.5.2
LCD Bias Internal Reference
Ladder
The internal reference ladder can be used to divide the
LCD bias voltage two or three equally spaced voltages
that will be supplied to the LCD segment pins. To create
this, the reference ladder consists of three matched
resistors. Refer to Figure 27-3.
POWER MODES
The internal reference ladder may be operated in one of
three power modes. This allows the user to trade off LCD
contrast for power in the specific application. The larger
the LCD glass, the more capacitance is present on a
physical LCD segment, requiring more current to
maintain the same contrast level.
When in 1/2 Bias mode (BIASMD = 1), then the middle
resistor of the ladder is shorted out so that only two
voltages are generated. The current consumption of the
ladder is higher in this mode, with the one resistor
removed.
Three different power modes are available, LP, MP and
HP. The internal reference ladder can also be turned off
for applications that wish to provide an external ladder
or to minimize power consumption. Disabling the
internal reference ladder results in all of the ladders
being disconnected, allowing external voltages to be
supplied.
TABLE 27-3:
Whenever the LCD module is inactive (LCDA = 0), the
internal reference ladder will be turned off.
27.5.1
Power
Mode
BIAS MODE INTERACTION
LCD INTERNAL LADDER
POWER MODES (1/3 BIAS)
Nominal Resistance of
Entire Ladder
Nominal
IDD
3 Mohm
300 kohm
30 kohm
1 µA
10 µA
100 µA
Low
Medium
High
DS41414C-page 344
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.5.3
AUTOMATIC POWER MODE
SWITCHING
The LCDRL register allows switching between two
power modes, designated ‘A’ and ‘B’. ‘A’ Power mode
is active for a programmable time, beginning at the
time when the LCD segments transition. ‘B’ Power
mode is the remaining time before the segments or
commons change again. The LRLAT<2:0> bits select
how long, if any, that the ‘A’ Power mode is active.
Refer to Figure 27-4.
As an LCD segment is electrically only a capacitor, current is drawn only during the interval where the voltage
is switching. To minimize total device current, the LCD
internal reference ladder can be operated in a different
power mode for the transition portion of the duration.
This is controlled by the LCDRL Register
(Register 27-7).
FIGURE 27-4:
To implement this, the 5-bit prescaler used to divide
the 32 kHz clock down to the LCD controller’s 1 kHz
base rate is used to select the power mode.
LCD INTERNAL REFERENCE LADDER POWER MODE SWITCHING DIAGRAM –
TYPE A
Single Segment Time
32 kHz Clock
Ladder Power
Control
‘H00
‘H01
‘H02
‘H03
‘H04
‘H05
‘H06
‘H07
‘H0E
‘H0F
‘H00
‘H01
Segment Clock
‘H3
LRLAT<2:0>
Segment Data
LRLAT<2:0>
Power Mode
Power Mode A
Power Mode B
Mode A
V1
COM0
V0
V1
SEG0
V0
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
-V1
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 345
LCD INTERNAL REFERENCE LADDER POWER MODE SWITCHING DIAGRAM – TYPE A WAVEFORM (1/2 MUX, 1/2 BIAS DRIVE)
Single Segment Time
Single Segment Time
32 kHz Clock
Ladder Power
Control
‘H00 ‘H01 ‘H02 ‘H03 ‘H04 ‘H05
‘H06 ‘H07
‘H0E ‘H0F ‘H00 ‘H01 ‘H02 ‘H03 ‘H04 ‘H05 ‘H06 ‘H07
‘H0E ‘H0F
Segment Clock
Segment Data
Power Mode
Power Mode A
LRLAT<2:0> = 011
Power Mode B
Power Mode A
Power Mode B
LRLAT<2:0> = 011
Preliminary
V2
V1
COM0-SEG0
V0
-V1
-V2
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
DS41414C-page 346
FIGURE 27-5:
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
FIGURE 27-6:
LCD INTERNAL REFERENCE LADDER POWER MODE SWITCHING DIAGRAM – TYPE B WAVEFORM (1/2 MUX, 1/2 BIAS DRIVE)
Single Segment Time
Single Segment Time
Single Segment Time
Single Segment Time
32 kHz Clock
Ladder Power
Control
‘H00 ‘H01 ‘H02 ‘H03
‘H0E ‘H0F ‘H10 ‘H11 ‘H12 ‘H13
‘H1E ‘H1F ‘H00 ‘H01 ‘H02 ‘H03
‘H0E ‘H0F ‘H10 ‘H11 ‘H12 ‘H13
‘H1E ‘H1F
Mode B
Mode B
Segment Clock
Segment Data
Power Mode
Power Mode A
LRLAT<2:0> = 011
Power
Mode B
Power Mode A
LRLAT<2:0> = 011
Power
Mode B
Power Mode A
LRLAT<2:0> = 011
Power
Power Mode A
Power
LRLAT<2:0> = 011
V1
COM0-SEG0
V0
-V1
-V2
DS41414C-page 347
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Preliminary
V2
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
REGISTER 27-7:
R/W-0/0
LCDRL: LCD REFERENCE LADDER CONTROL REGISTERS
R/W-0/0
LRLAP<1:0>
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
LRLBP<1:0>
U-0
R/W-0/0
—
R/W-0/0
R/W-0/0
LRLAT<2:0>
bit 7
bit 0
Legend:
R = Readable bit
W = Writable bit
U = Unimplemented bit, read as ‘0’
u = Bit is unchanged
x = Bit is unknown
-n/n = Value at POR and BOR/Value at all other Resets
‘1’ = Bit is set
‘0’ = Bit is cleared
bit 7-6
LRLAP<1:0>: LCD Reference Ladder A Time Power Control bits
During Time interval A (Refer to Figure 27-4):
00 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered down and unconnected
01 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered in low-power mode
10 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered in medium-power mode
11 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered in high-power mode
bit 5-4
LRLBP<1:0>: LCD Reference Ladder B Time Power Control bits
During Time interval B (Refer to Figure 27-4):
00 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered down and unconnected
01 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered in low-power mode
10 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered in medium-power mode
11 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is powered in high-power mode
bit 3
Unimplemented: Read as ‘0’
bit 2-0
LRLAT<2:0>: LCD Reference Ladder A Time interval control bits
Sets the number of 32 kHz clocks that the A Time interval power mode is active
For type A waveforms (WFT = 0):
000 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is always in ‘B’ power mode
001 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 1 clock and ‘B’ power mode for 15 clocks
010 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 2 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 14 clocks
011 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 3 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 13 clocks
100 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 4 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 12 clocks
101 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 5 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 11 clocks
110 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 6 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 10 clocks
111 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 7 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 9 clocks
For type B waveforms (WFT = 1):
000 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is always in ‘B’ power mode.
001 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 1 clock and ‘B’ power mode for 31 clocks
010 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 2 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 30 clocks
011 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 3 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 29 clocks
100 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 4 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 28 clocks
101 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 5 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 27 clocks
110 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 6 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 26 clocks
111 = Internal LCD Reference Ladder is in ‘A’ power mode for 7 clocks and ‘B’ power mode for 25 clocks
DS41414C-page 348
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.5.4
CONTRAST CONTROL
The LCD contrast control circuit consists of a
seven-tap resistor ladder, controlled by the LCDCST
bits. Refer to Figure 27-7.
FIGURE 27-7:
The contrast control circuit is used to decrease the
output voltage of the signal source by a total of
approximately 10%, when LCDCST = 111.
Whenever the LCD module is inactive (LCDA = 0), the
contrast control ladder will be turned off (open).
INTERNAL REFERENCE AND CONTRAST CONTROL BLOCK DIAGRAM
VDDIO
7 Stages
R
R
R
R
3.072V
Analog
MUX
From FVR
Buffer
7
To top of
Reference Ladder
0
LCDCST<2:0>
3
Internal Reference
27.5.5
Contrast control
27.5.6
INTERNAL REFERENCE
Under firmware control, an internal reference for the
LCD bias voltages can be enabled. When enabled, the
source of this voltage can be either VDDIO or a voltage
3 times the main fixed voltage reference (3.072V).
When no internal reference is selected, the LCD contrast control circuit is disabled and LCD bias must be
provided externally.
Whenever the LCD module is inactive (LCDA = 0), the
internal reference will be turned off.
When the internal reference is enabled and the Fixed
Voltage Reference is selected, the LCDIRI bit can be
used to minimize power consumption by tieing into the
LCD reference ladder automatic power mode switching.
When LCDIRI = 1 and the LCD reference ladder is in
Power mode ‘B’, the LCD internal FVR buffer is
disables.
VLCD<3:1> PINS
The VLCD<3:1> pins provide the ability for an external
LCD bias network to be used instead of the internal ladder. Use of the VLCD<3:1> pins does not prevent use
of the internal ladder. Each VLCD pin has an independent control in the LCDREF register (Register 27-3),
allowing access to any or all of the LCD Bias signals.
This architecture allows for maximum flexibility in
different applications
For example, the VLCD<3:1> pins may be used to add
capacitors to the internal reference ladder, increasing
the drive capacity.
For applications where the internal contrast control is
insufficient, the firmware can choose to only enable the
VLCD3 pin, allowing an external contrast control circuit
to use the internal reference divider.
.
Note:
The LCD module automatically turns on the
fixed voltage reference when needed.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 349
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.6
LCD Multiplex Types
27.8
Pixel Control
The LCD driver module can be configured into one of
four multiplex types:
The LCDDATAx registers contain bits which define the
state of each pixel. Each bit defines one unique pixel.
•
•
•
•
Register 27-6 shows the correlation of each bit in the
LCDDATAx registers to the respective common and
segment signals.
Static (only COM0 is used)
1/2 multiplex (COM<1:0> are used)
1/3 multiplex (COM<2:0> are used)
1/4 multiplex (COM<3:0> are used)
The LMUX<1:0> bit setting of the LCDCON register
decides which of the LCD common pins are used (see
Table 27-4 for details).
If the pin is a digital I/O, the corresponding TRIS bit
controls the data direction. If the pin is a COM drive,
then the TRIS setting of that pin is overridden.
Any LCD pixel location not being used for display can
be used as general purpose RAM.
27.9
LCD Frame Frequency
The rate at which the COM and SEG outputs change is
called the LCD frame frequency.
TABLE 27-5:
TABLE 27-4:
COMMON PIN USAGE
Multiplex
LMUX
<1:0>
COM3
COM2
COM1
COM0
Static
00
Unused
Unused
Unused
Active
1/2
01
Unused
Unused
Active
Active
1/3
10
Unused
Active
Active
Active
1/4
11
Active
Active
Active
Active
27.7
Segment Enables
The LCDSEn registers are used to select the pin
function for each segment pin. The selection allows
each pin to operate as either an LCD segment driver or
as one of the pin’s alternate functions. To configure the
pin as a segment pin, the corresponding bits in the
LCDSEn registers must be set to ‘1’.
If the pin is a digital I/O, the corresponding TRIS bit
controls the data direction. Any bit set in the LCDSEn
registers overrides any bit settings in the corresponding
TRIS register.
Note:
Multiplex
Frame Frequency(2) =
Static
Clock source/(4 x (LCD Prescaler) x 32 x 1))
1/2
Clock source/(2 x (LCD Prescaler) x 32 x 2))
1/3
Clock source/(1 x (LCD Prescaler) x 32 x 3))
1/4
Clock source/(1 x (LCD Prescaler) x 32 x 4))
Note 1: Clock source is FOSC/256, T1OSC or
LFINTOSC.
2: See Figure 27-2.
TABLE 27-6:
APPROXIMATE FRAME
FREQUENCY (IN Hz) USING
FOSC @ 8 MHz, TIMER1 @
32.768 kHz OR LFINTOSC
LP<3:0>
Static
1/2
1/3
1/4
2
122
122
162
122
3
81
81
108
81
4
61
61
81
61
5
49
49
65
49
6
41
41
54
41
7
35
35
47
35
On a Power-on Reset, these pins are
configured as normal I/O, not LCD pins.
DS41414C-page 350
FRAME FREQUENCY
FORMULAS
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 27-7:
LCD
Function
LCD SEGMENT MAPPING WORKSHEET
COM0
LCDDATAx
Address
COM1
LCD
Segment
LCDDATAx
Address
COM2
LCD
Segment
LCDDATAx
Address
COM3
LCD
Segment
LCDDATAx
Address
SEG0
LCDDATA0, 0
LCDDATA3, 0
LCDDATA6, 0
LCDDATA9, 0
SEG1
LCDDATA0, 1
LCDDATA3, 1
LCDDATA6, 1
LCDDATA9, 1
SEG2
LCDDATA0, 2
LCDDATA3, 2
LCDDATA6, 2
LCDDATA9, 2
SEG3
LCDDATA0, 3
LCDDATA3, 3
LCDDATA6, 3
LCDDATA9, 3
SEG4
LCDDATA0, 4
LCDDATA3, 4
LCDDATA6, 4
LCDDATA9, 4
SEG5
LCDDATA0, 5
LCDDATA3, 5
LCDDATA6, 5
LCDDATA9, 5
SEG6
LCDDATA0, 6
LCDDATA3, 6
LCDDATA6, 6
LCDDATA9, 6
SEG7
LCDDATA0, 7
LCDDATA3, 7
LCDDATA6, 7
LCDDATA9, 7
SEG8
LCDDATA1, 0
LCDDATA4, 0
LCDDATA7, 0
LCDDATA10, 0
SEG9
LCDDATA1, 1
LCDDATA4, 1
LCDDATA7, 1
LCDDATA10, 1
SEG10
LCDDATA1, 2
LCDDATA4, 2
LCDDATA7, 2
LCDDATA10, 2
SEG11
LCDDATA1, 3
LCDDATA4, 3
LCDDATA7, 3
LCDDATA10, 3
SEG12
LCDDATA1, 4
LCDDATA4, 4
LCDDATA7, 4
LCDDATA10, 4
SEG13
LCDDATA1, 5
LCDDATA4, 5
LCDDATA7, 5
LCDDATA10, 5
SEG14
LCDDATA1, 6
LCDDATA4, 6
LCDDATA7, 6
LCDDATA10, 6
SEG15
LCDDATA1, 7
LCDDATA4, 7
LCDDATA7, 7
LCDDATA10, 7
SEG16
LCDDATA2, 0
LCDDATA5, 0
LCDDATA8, 0
LCDDATA11, 0
SEG17
LCDDATA2, 1
LCDDATA5, 1
LCDDATA8, 1
LCDDATA11, 1
SEG18
LCDDATA2, 2
LCDDATA5, 2
LCDDATA8, 2
LCDDATA11, 2
SEG19
LCDDATA2, 3
LCDDATA5, 3
LCDDATA8, 3
LCDDATA11, 3
SEG20
LCDDATA2, 4
LCDDATA5, 4
LCDDATA8, 4
LCDDATA11, 4
SEG21
LCDDATA2, 5
LCDDATA5, 5
LCDDATA8, 5
LCDDATA11, 5
SEG22
LCDDATA2, 6
LCDDATA5, 6
LCDDATA8, 6
LCDDATA11, 6
SEG23
LCDDATA2, 7
LCDDATA5, 7
LCDDATA8, 7
LCDDATA11, 7
SEG24
LCDDATA12, 0
LCDDATA15, 0
LCDDATA18, 0
LCDDATA21, 0
SEG25
LCDDATA12, 1
LCDDATA15, 1
LCDDATA18, 1
LCDDATA21, 1
SEG26
LCDDATA12, 2
LCDDATA15, 2
LCDDATA18, 2
LCDDATA21, 2
SEG27
LCDDATA12, 3
LCDDATA15, 3
LCDDATA18, 3
LCDDATA21, 3
SEG28
LCDDATA12, 4
LCDDATA15, 4
LCDDATA18, 4
LCDDATA21, 4
SEG29
LCDDATA12, 5
LCDDATA15, 5
LCDDATA18, 5
LCDDATA21, 5
SEG30
LCDDATA12, 6
LCDDATA15, 6
LCDDATA18, 6
LCDDATA21, 6
SEG31
LCDDATA12, 7
LCDDATA15, 7
LCDDATA18, 7
LCDDATA21, 7
SEG32
LCDDATA13, 0
LCDDATA16, 0
LCDDATA19, 0
LCDDATA22, 0
SEG33
LCDDATA13, 1
LCDDATA16, 1
LCDDATA19, 1
LCDDATA22, 1
SEG34
LCDDATA13, 2
LCDDATA16, 2
LCDDATA19, 2
LCDDATA22, 2
SEG35
LCDDATA13, 3
LCDDATA16, 3
LCDDATA19, 3
LCDDATA22, 3
SEG36
LCDDATA13, 4
LCDDATA16, 4
LCDDATA19, 4
LCDDATA22, 4
SEG37
LCDDATA13, 5
LCDDATA16, 5
LCDDATA19, 5
LCDDATA22, 5
SEG38
LCDDATA13, 6
LCDDATA16, 6
LCDDATA19, 6
LCDDATA22, 6
SEG39
LCDDATA13, 7
LCDDATA16, 7
LCDDATA19, 7
LCDDATA22, 7
SEG40
LCDDATA14, 0
LCDDATA17, 0
LCDDATA20, 0
LCDDATA23, 0
SEG41
LCDDATA14, 1
LCDDATA17, 1
LCDDATA20, 1
LCDDATA23, 1
SEG42
LCDDATA14, 2
LCDDATA17, 2
LCDDATA20, 2
LCDDATA23, 2
SEG43
LCDDATA14, 3
LCDDATA17, 3
LCDDATA20, 3
LCDDATA23, 3
SEG44
LCDDATA14, 4
LCDDATA17, 4
LCDDATA20, 4
LCDDATA23, 4
SEG45
LCDDATA14, 5
LCDDATA17, 5
LCDDATA20, 5
LCDDATA23, 5
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
LCD
Segment
DS41414C-page 351
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.10 LCD Waveform Generation
LCD waveforms are generated so that the net AC
voltage across the dark pixel should be maximized and
the net AC voltage across the clear pixel should be
minimized. The net DC voltage across any pixel should
be zero.
The COM signal represents the time slice for each
common, while the SEG contains the pixel data.
The pixel signal (COM-SEG) will have no DC
component and it can take only one of the two RMS
values. The higher RMS value will create a dark pixel
and a lower RMS value will create a clear pixel.
The LCDs can be driven by two types of waveform:
Type-A and Type-B. In Type-A waveform, the phase
changes within each common type, whereas in Type-B
waveform, the phase changes on each frame
boundary. Thus, Type-A waveform maintains 0 VDC
over a single frame, whereas Type-B waveform takes
two frames.
Note 1: If Sleep has to be executed with LCD
Sleep disabled (LCDCON<SLPEN> is
‘1’), then care must be taken to execute
Sleep only when VDC on all the pixels is
‘0’.
2: When the LCD clock source is FOSC/256,
if Sleep is executed, irrespective of the
LCDCON<SLPEN> setting, the LCD
immediately goes into Sleep. Thus, take
care to see that VDC on all pixels is ‘0’
when Sleep is executed.
As the number of commons increases, the delta
between the two RMS values decreases. The delta
represents the maximum contrast that the display can
have.
Figure 27-8 through Figure 27-18 provide waveforms
for static, half-multiplex, 1/3-multiplex and 1/4-multiplex
drives for Type-A and Type-B waveforms.
FIGURE 27-8:
TYPE-A/TYPE-B WAVEFORMS IN STATIC DRIVE
V1
COM0 pin
V0
COM0
V1
SEG0 pin
V0
V1
SEG1 pin
V0
DS41414C-page 352
SEG1
SEG0
SEG2
SEG7
SEG6
SEG5
SEG4
SEG3
V1
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(active)
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(inactive)
V0
-V1
1 Frame
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-9:
TYPE-A WAVEFORMS IN 1/2 MUX, 1/2 BIAS DRIVE
V2
COM0 pin
COM1
V1
V0
V2
COM1 pin
COM0
V1
V0
V2
V1
SEG0 pin
V0
V2
V1
SEG1 pin
SEG1
V2
SEG0
SEG2
SEG3
V0
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
1 Frame
-V2
1 Segment Time
Note:
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 353
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-10:
TYPE-B WAVEFORMS IN 1/2 MUX, 1/2 BIAS DRIVE
V2
COM1
V1
COM0 pin
V0
COM0
V2
COM1 pin
V1
V0
V2
SEG0 pin
V1
SEG1
SEG0
SEG3
SEG2
V0
V2
SEG1 pin
V1
V0
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
2 Frames
-V2
1 Segment Time
Note:
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
DS41414C-page 354
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-11:
TYPE-A WAVEFORMS IN 1/2 MUX, 1/3 BIAS DRIVE
V3
COM1
V2
COM0 pin
V1
V0
V3
COM0
V2
COM1 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
SEG0 pin
V1
V0
SEG1
SEG0
SEG2
SEG3
V3
V2
SEG1 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
-V3
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
1 Frame
-V2
-V3
1 Segment Time
Note:
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 355
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-12:
TYPE-B WAVEFORMS IN 1/2 MUX, 1/3 BIAS DRIVE
V3
COM1
V2
COM0 pin
V1
V0
V3
COM0
V2
COM1 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
SEG0 pin
V1
V0
SEG1
SEG0
SEG2
SEG3
V3
V2
SEG1 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
-V3
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
2 Frames
-V2
-V3
1 Segment Time
Note:
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
DS41414C-page 356
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-13:
TYPE-A WAVEFORMS IN 1/3 MUX, 1/2 BIAS DRIVE
V2
COM0 pin
V1
V0
V2
COM2
COM1 pin
V1
V0
COM1
V2
COM0
COM2 pin
V1
V0
V2
SEG0 and
SEG2 pins
V1
V0
V2
V1
V0
SEG0
SEG1
SEG2
SEG1 pin
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
-V2
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
1 Frame
1 Segment Time
Note:
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 357
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-14:
TYPE-B WAVEFORMS IN 1/3 MUX, 1/2 BIAS DRIVE
V2
COM0 pin
V1
V0
COM2
V2
COM1 pin
V1
COM1
V0
COM0
V2
COM2 pin
V1
V0
V2
V1
V0
SEG0
SEG1
SEG2
SEG0 pin
V2
SEG1 pin
V1
V0
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
-V2
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
2 Frames
1 Segment Time
Note:
DS41414C-page 358
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-15:
TYPE-A WAVEFORMS IN 1/3 MUX, 1/3 BIAS DRIVE
V3
V2
COM0 pin
V1
V0
V3
COM2
V2
COM1 pin
V1
COM1
V0
COM0
V3
V2
COM2 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG0
SEG1
SEG2
SEG0 and
SEG2 pins
V3
V2
SEG1 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
-V2
-V3
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
-V3
1 Frame
1 Segment Time
Note:
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 359
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-16:
TYPE-B WAVEFORMS IN 1/3 MUX, 1/3 BIAS DRIVE
V3
V2
COM0 pin
V1
V0
V3
COM2
V2
COM1 pin
V1
COM1
V0
COM0
V3
V2
COM2 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG0
SEG1
SEG2
SEG0 pin
V3
V2
SEG1 pin
V1
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(inactive)
-V1
-V2
-V3
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(active)
-V1
-V2
-V3
2 Frames
1 Segment Time
Note:
DS41414C-page 360
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-17:
TYPE-A WAVEFORMS IN 1/4 MUX, 1/3 BIAS DRIVE
COM3
COM2
COM1
COM0 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM1 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM2 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM3 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG0 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG1 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG0
SEG1
COM0
V3
V2
V1
V0
-V1
-V2
-V3
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(active)
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(inactive)
1 Frame
V3
V2
V1
V0
-V1
-V2
-V3
1 Segment Time
Note:
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 361
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-18:
TYPE-B WAVEFORMS IN 1/4 MUX, 1/3 BIAS DRIVE
COM3
COM0 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM1 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM2 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM3 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG0 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG1 pin
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM2
COM1
SEG0
SEG1
COM0
V3
V2
V1
V0
-V1
-V2
-V3
COM0-SEG0
segment voltage
(active)
COM0-SEG1
segment voltage
(inactive)
V3
V2
V1
V0
-V1
-V2
-V3
2 Frames
1 Segment Time
Note:
DS41414C-page 362
1 Frame = 2 single segment times.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.11 LCD Interrupts
The LCD module provides an interrupt in two cases. An
interrupt when the LCD controller goes from active to
inactive controller. An interrupt also provides unframe
boundaries for Type B waveform. The LCD timing generation provides an interrupt that defines the LCD
frame timing.
27.11.1
LCD INTERRUPT ON MODULE
SHUTDOWN
An LCD interrupt is generated when the module
completes shutting down (LCDA goes from ‘1’ to ‘0’).
27.11.2
LCD FRAME INTERRUPTS
A new frame is defined to begin at the leading edge of
the COM0 common signal. The interrupt will be set
immediately after the LCD controller completes accessing all pixel data required for a frame. This will occur at
a fixed interval before the frame boundary (TFINT), as
shown in Figure 27-19. The LCD controller will begin to
access data for the next frame within the interval from
the interrupt to when the controller begins to access
data after the interrupt (TFWR). New data must be written within TFWR, as this is when the LCD controller will
begin to access the data for the next frame.
When the LCD driver is running with Type-B waveforms
and the LMUX<1:0> bits are not equal to ‘00’ (static
drive), there are some additional issues that must be
addressed. Since the DC voltage on the pixel takes two
frames to maintain zero volts, the pixel data must not
change between subsequent frames. If the pixel data
were allowed to change, the waveform for the odd
frames would not necessarily be the complement of the
waveform generated in the even frames and a DC
component would be introduced into the panel.
Therefore, when using Type-B waveforms, the user
must synchronize the LCD pixel updates to occur within
a subframe after the frame interrupt.
To correctly sequence writing while in Type-B, the
interrupt will only occur on complete phase intervals. If
the user attempts to write when the write is disabled,
the WERR bit of the LCDCON register is set and the
write does not occur.
Note:
The LCD frame interrupt is not generated
when the Type-A waveform is selected
and when the Type-B with no multiplex
(static) is selected.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 363
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-19:
WAVEFORMS AND INTERRUPT TIMING IN QUARTER-DUTY CYCLE DRIVE
(EXAMPLE – TYPE-B, NON-STATIC)
LCD
Interrupt
Occurs
Controller Accesses
Next Frame Data
COM0
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM1
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM2
V3
V2
V1
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM3
2 Frames
TFINT
Frame
Boundary
Frame
Boundary
TFWR
Frame
Boundary
TFWR = TFRAME/2*(LMUX<1:0> + 1) + TCY/2
TFINT = (TFWR/2 – (2 TCY + 40 ns))  minimum = 1.5(TFRAME/4) – (2 TCY + 40 ns)
(TFWR/2 – (1 TCY + 40 ns))  maximum = 1.5(TFRAME/4) – (1 TCY + 40 ns)
DS41414C-page 364
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.12 Operation During Sleep
The LCD module can operate during Sleep. The
selection is controlled by bit SLPEN of the LCDCON
register. Setting the SLPEN bit allows the LCD module
to go to Sleep. Clearing the SLPEN bit allows the
module to continue to operate during Sleep.
If a SLEEP instruction is executed and SLPEN = 1, the
LCD module will cease all functions and go into a very
low-current Consumption mode. The module will stop
operation immediately and drive the minimum LCD
voltage on both segment and common lines.
Figure 27-20 shows this operation.
The LCD module can be configured to operate during
Sleep. The selection is controlled by bit SLPEN of the
LCDCON register. Clearing SLPEN and correctly configuring the LCD module clock will allow the LCD module to operate during Sleep. Setting SLPEN and
correctly executing the LCD module shutdown will
disable the LCD module during Sleep and save power.
If a SLEEP instruction is executed and SLPEN = 1, the
LCD module will immediately cease all functions, drive
the outputs to Vss and go into a very low-current mode.
The SLEEP instruction should only be executed after
the LCD module has been disabled and the current
cycle completed, thus ensuring that there are no DC
voltages on the glass. To disable the LCD module,
clear the LCDEN bit. The LCD module will complete the
disabling process after the current frame, clear the
LCDA bit and optionally cause an interrupt.
The steps required to properly enter Sleep with the
LCD disabled are:
• Clear LCDEN
• Wait for LCDA = 0 either by polling or by interrupt
• Execute SLEEP
If SLPEN = 0 and SLEEP is executed while the LCD
module clock source is FOSC/4, then the LCD module
will halt with the pin driving the last LCD voltage pattern. Prolonged exposure to a fixed LCD voltage pattern will cause damage to the LCD glass. To prevent
LCD glass damage, either perform the proper LCD
module shutdown prior to Sleep, or change the LCD
module clock to allow the LCD module to continue
operation during Sleep.
If a SLEEP instruction is executed and SLPEN = 0 and
the LCD module clock is either T1OSC or LFINTOSC,
the module will continue to display the current contents
of the LCDDATA registers. While in Sleep, the LCD
data cannot be changed. If the LCDIE bit is set, the
device will wake from Sleep on the next LCD frame
boundary. The LCD module current consumption will
not decrease in this mode; however, the overall device
power consumption will be lower due to the shutdown
of the CPU and other peripherals.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Table 27-8 shows the status of the LCD module during
a Sleep while using each of the three available clock
sources.
Note:
When the LCDEN bit is cleared, the LCD
module will be disabled at the completion
of frame. At this time, the port pins will
revert to digital functionality. To minimize
power consumption due to floating digital
inputs, the LCD pins should be driven low
using the PORT and TRIS registers.
If a SLEEP instruction is executed and SLPEN = 0, the
module will continue to display the current contents of
the LCDDATA registers. To allow the module to
continue operation while in Sleep, the clock source
must be either the LFINTOSC or T1OSC external
oscillator. While in Sleep, the LCD data cannot be
changed. The LCD module current consumption will
not decrease in this mode; however, the overall
consumption of the device will be lower due to shut
down of the core and other peripheral functions.
Table 27-8 shows the status of the LCD module during
Sleep while using each of the three available clock
sources:
TABLE 27-8:
Clock Source
T1OSC
LCD MODULE STATUS
DURING SLEEP
SLPEN
Operational
During Sleep
0
Yes
1
No
LFINTOSC
0
Yes
1
No
FOSC/4
0
No
1
No
Note:
The LFINTOSC or external T1OSC
oscillator must be used to operate the
LCD module during Sleep.
If LCD interrupts are being generated (Type-B waveform with a multiplex mode not static) and LCDIE = 1,
the device will awaken from Sleep on the next frame
boundary.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 365
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 27-20:
SLEEP ENTRY/EXIT WHEN SLPEN = 1
V3
V2
V1
COM0
V0
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM1
V3
V2
V1
V0
COM2
V3
V2
V1
V0
SEG0
2 Frames
SLEEP Instruction Execution
DS41414C-page 366
Preliminary
Wake-up
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
27.13 Configuring the LCD Module
27.15 LCD Current Consumption
The following is the sequence of steps to configure the
LCD module.
When using the LCD module the current consumption
consists of the following three factors:
1.
• Oscillator Selection
• LCD Bias Source
• Capacitance of the LCD segments
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Select the frame clock prescale using bits
LP<3:0> of the LCDPS register.
Configure the appropriate pins to function as
segment drivers using the LCDSEn registers.
Configure the LCD module for the following
using the LCDCON register:
- Multiplex and Bias mode, bits LMUX<1:0>
- Timing source, bits CS<1:0>
- Sleep mode, bit SLPEN
Write initial values to pixel data registers,
LCDDATA0 through LCDDATA23.
Clear LCD Interrupt Flag, LCDIF bit of the PIR2
register and if desired, enable the interrupt by
setting bit LCDIE of the PIE2 register.
Configure bias voltages by setting the LCDRL,
LCDREF and the associated ANSELx
registers as needed.
Enable the LCD module by setting bit LCDEN of
the LCDCON register.
27.14 Disabling the LCD Module
To disable the LCD module, write all ‘0’s to the
LCDCON register.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
The current consumption of just the LCD module can
be considered negligible compared to these other
factors.
27.15.1
OSCILLATOR SELECTION
The current consumed by the clock source selected
must be considered when using the LCD module. See
Section 30.0 “Electrical Specifications” for oscillator
current consumption information.
27.15.2
LCD BIAS SOURCE
The LCD bias source, internal or external, can contribute significantly to the current consumption. Use the
highest possible resistor values while maintaining
contrast to minimize current.
27.15.3
CAPACITANCE OF THE LCD
SEGMENTS
The LCD segments which can be modeled as capacitors which must be both charged and discharged every
frame. The size of the LCD segment and its technology
determines the segment’s capacitance.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 367
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 27-9:
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH LCD OPERATION
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
Register
on Page
INTCON
GIE
PEIE
TMR0IE
INTE
IOCIE
TMR0IF
INTF
IOCIF
93
LCDCON
LCDEN
SLPEN
WERR
—
Name
LCDCST
CS<1:0>
LMUX<1:0>
—
—
—
—
—
LCDDATA0
SEG7
COM0
SEG6
COM0
SEG5
COM0
SEG4
COM0
SEG3
COM0
SEG2
COM0
SEG1
COM0
SEG0
COM0
341
LCDDATA1
SEG15
COM0
SEG14
COM0
SEG13
COM0
SEG12
COM0
SEG11
COM0
SEG10
COM0
SEG9
COM0
SEG8
COM0
341
LCDDATA2
SEG23
COM0
SEG22
COM0
SEG21
COM0
SEG20
COM0
SEG19
COM0
SEG18
COM0
SEG17
COM0
SEG16
COM0
341
LCDDATA3
SEG7
COM1
SEG6
COM1
SEG5
COM1
SEG4
COM1
SEG3
COM1
SEG2
COM1
SEG1
COM1
SEG0
COM1
341
LCDDATA4
SEG15
COM1
SEG14
COM1
SEG13
COM1
SEG12
COM1
SEG11
COM1
SEG10
COM1
SEG9
COM1
SEG8
COM1
341
LCDDATA5
SEG23
COM1
SEG22
COM1
SEG21
COM1
SEG20
COM1
SEG19
COM1
SEG18
COM1
SEG17
COM1
SEG16
COM1
341
LCDDATA6
SEG7
COM2
SEG6
COM2
SEG5
COM2
SEG4
COM2
SEG3
COM2
SEG2
COM2
SEG1
COM2
SEG0
COM2
341
LCDDATA7
SEG15
COM2
SEG14
COM2
SEG13
COM2
SEG12
COM2
SEG11
COM2
SEG10
COM2
SEG9
COM2
SEG8
COM2
341
LCDDATA8
SEG23
COM2
SEG22
COM2
SEG21
COM2
SEG20
COM2
SEG19
COM2
SEG18
COM2
SEG17
COM2
SEG16
COM2
341
LCDDATA9
SEG7
COM3
SEG6
COM3
SEG5
COM3
SEG4
COM3
SEG3
COM3
SEG2
COM3
SEG1
COM3
SEG0
COM3
341
LCDDATA10
SEG15
COM3
SEG14
COM3
SEG13
COM3
SEG12
COM3
SEG11
COM3
SEG10
COM3
SEG9
COM3
SEG8
COM3
341
LCDDATA11
SEG23
COM3
SEG22
COM3
SEG21
COM3
SEG20
COM3
SEG19
COM3
SEG18
COM3
SEG17
COM3
SEG16
COM3
341
LCDDATA12
SEG31
COM0
SEG30
COM0
SEG29
COM0
SEG28
COM0
SEG27
COM0
SEG26
COM0
SEG25
COM0
SEG24
COM0
341
LCDDATA13
SEG39
COM0
SEG38
COM0
SEG37
COM0
SEG36
COM0
SEG35
COM0
SEG34
COM0
SEG33
COM0
SEG32
COM0
341
LCDDATA14
—
—
SEG45
COM0
SEG44
COM0
SEG43
COM0
SEG42
COM0
SEG41
COM0
SEG40
COM0
341
LCDDATA15
SEG31
COM1
SEG30
COM1
SEG29
COM1
SEG28
COM1
SEG27
COM1
SEG26
COM1
SEG25
COM1
SEG24
COM1
341
LCDDATA16
SEG39
COM1
SEG38
COM1
SEG37
COM1
SEG36
COM1
SEG35
COM1
SEG34
COM1
SEG33
COM1
SEG32
COM1
341
LCDDATA17
—
—
SEG45
COM1
SEG44
COM1
SEG43
COM1
SEG42
COM1
SEG41
COM1
SEG40
COM1
341
LCDDATA18
SEG31
COM2
SEG30
COM2
SEG29
COM2
SEG28
COM2
SEG27
COM2
SEG26
COM2
SEG25
COM2
SEG24
COM2
341
LCDDATA19
SEG39
COM2
SEG38
COM2
SEG37
COM2
SEG36
COM2
SEG35
COM2
SEG34
COM2
SEG33
COM2
SEG32
COM2
341
LCDDATA20
—
—
SEG45
COM2
SEG44
COM2
SEG43
COM2
SEG42
COM2
SEG41
COM2
SEG40
COM2
341
LCDDATA21
SEG31
COM3
SEG30
COM3
SEG29
COM3
SEG28
COM3
SEG27
COM3
SEG26
COM3
SEG25
COM3
SEG24
COM3
341
Legend:
LCDCST<2:0>
337
340
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the LCD module.
DS41414C-page 368
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 27-9:
Name
SUMMARY OF REGISTERS ASSOCIATED WITH LCD OPERATION (CONTINUED)
Register
on Page
Bit 7
Bit 6
Bit 5
Bit 4
Bit 3
Bit 2
Bit 1
Bit 0
LCDDATA22
SEG39
COM3
SEG38
COM3
SEG37
COM3
SEG36
COM3
SEG35
COM3
SEG34
COM3
SEG33
COM3
SEG32
COM3
341
LCDDATA23
—
—
SEG45
COM3
SEG44
COM3
SEG43
COM3
SEG42
COM3
SEG41
COM3
SEG40
COM3
341
WFT
BIASMD
LCDA
WA
LCDIRE
LCDIRS
LCDIRI
—
VLCD3PE
VLCD2PE
LCDPS
LCDREF
LCDRL
LRLAP<1:0>
LP<3:0>
LRLBP<1:0>
—
LCDSE0
338
VLCD1PE
—
LRLAT<2:0>
339
348
SE<7:0>
341
LCDSE1
SE<15:8>
341
LCDSE2
SE<23:16>
341
LCDSE3
SE<31:24>
341
LCDSE4
SE<39:32>
341
LCDSE5
—
—
PIE2
OSFIE
C2IE
C1IE
EEIE
BCLIE
LCDIE
C3IE
CCP2IE
95
PIR2
OSFIF
C2IF
C1IF
EEIF
BCLIF
LCDIF
C3IF
CCP2IF
99
T1OSCEN
T1SYNC
—
TMR1ON
205
T1CON
Legend:
TMR1CS<1:0>
SE<45:40>
T1CKPS<1:0>
341
— = unimplemented location, read as ‘0’. Shaded cells are not used by the LCD module.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 369
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 370
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
28.0
IN-CIRCUIT SERIAL
PROGRAMMING™ (ICSP™)
ICSP™ programming allows customers to manufacture
circuit boards with unprogrammed devices. Programming
can be done after the assembly process allowing the
device to be programmed with the most recent firmware
or a custom firmware. Five pins are needed for ICSP™
programming:
• ICSPCLK
• ICSPDAT
• MCLR/VPP
• VDD
• VSS
In Program/Verify mode the Program Memory, User
IDs and the Configuration Words are programmed
through serial communications. The ICSPDAT pin is a
bidirectional I/O used for transferring the serial data
and the ICSPCLK pin is the clock input. For more
information
on
ICSP™
refer
to
the
“PIC16F193X/LF193X/PIC16F194X/LF194X Memory
Programming Specification” (DS41397).
28.1
High-Voltage Programming Entry
Mode
The device is placed into High-Voltage Programming
Entry mode by holding the ICSPCLK and ICSPDAT
pins low then raising the voltage on MCLR/VPP to VIHH.
Some programmers produce VPP greater than VIHH
(9.0V), an external circuit is required to limit the VPP
voltage. See Figure 28-1 for example circuit.
FIGURE 28-1:
VPP LIMITER EXAMPLE CIRCUIT
RJ11-6PIN
VPP
VDD
VSS
ICSP_DATA
ICSP_CLOCK
NC
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
RJ11-6PIN
To MPLAB® ICD 2
R1
To Target Board
270 Ohm
LM431BCMX
1
2 A
K
3 A U1
6 A
NC 4
7 A
NC 5
R2
VREF
8
10k 1%
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
R3
24k 1%
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 371
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
28.3
Note:
28.2
The ICD 2 produces a VPP voltage greater
than the maximum VPP specification of the
PIC16F/LF1946/47.
Common Programming Interfaces
Connection to a target device is typically done
through an ICSP™ header. A commonly found
connector on development tools is the RJ-11 in the
6P6C (6 pin, 6 connector) configuration. See
Figure 28-2.
Low-Voltage Programming Entry
Mode
FIGURE 28-2:
The Low-Voltage Programming Entry mode allows the
PIC16F/LF1946/47 devices to be programmed using
VDD only, without high voltage. When the LVP bit of
Configuration Word 2 is set to ‘1’, the low-voltage ICSP
programming entry is enabled. To disable the
Low-Voltage ICSP mode, the LVP bit must be
programmed to ‘0’.
Entry into the Low-Voltage Programming Entry mode
requires the following steps:
1.
2.
VDD
MCLR is brought to VIL.
A 32-bit key sequence is presented on
ICSPDAT, while clocking ICSPCLK.
ICD RJ-11 STYLE
CONNECTOR INTERFACE
ICSPDAT
NC
2 4 6
ICSPCLK
1 3 5
Target
VPP/MCLR
Once the key sequence is complete, MCLR must be
held at VIL for as long as Program/Verify mode is to be
maintained.
VSS
PC Board
Bottom Side
Pin Description*
1 = VPP/MCLR
If low-voltage programming is enabled (LVP = 1), the
MCLR Reset function is automatically enabled and
cannot be disabled. See Section 6.3 “MCLR” for more
information.
2 = VDD Target
3 = VSS (ground)
4 = ICSPDAT
5 = ICSPCLK
The LVP bit can only be reprogrammed to ‘0’ by using
the High-Voltage Programming mode.
6 = No Connect
Another connector often found in use with the PICkit™
programmers is a standard 6-pin header with 0.1 inch
spacing. Refer to Figure 28-3.
FIGURE 28-3:
PICkit™ STYLE CONNECTOR INTERFACE
Pin 1 Indicator
Pin Description*
1
2
3
4
5
6
1 = VPP/MCLR
2 = VDD Target
3 = VSS (ground)
4 = ICSPDAT
5 = ICSPCLK
6 = No Connect
*
DS41414C-page 372
The 6-pin header (0.100" spacing) accepts 0.025" square pins.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
For additional interface recommendations, refer to your
specific device programmer manual prior to PCB
design.
It is recommended that isolation devices be used to
separate the programming pins from other circuitry.
The type of isolation is highly dependent on the specific
application and may include devices such as resistors,
diodes, or even jumpers. See Figure 28-4 for more
information.
FIGURE 28-4:
TYPICAL CONNECTION FOR ICSP™ PROGRAMMING
External
Programming
Signals
Device to be
Programmed
VDD
VDD
VDD
VPP
MCLR/VPP
VSS
VSS
Data
ICSPDAT
Clock
ICSPCLK
*
*
*
To Normal Connections
* Isolation devices (as required).
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 373
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 374
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
29.0
INSTRUCTION SET SUMMARY
29.1
Read-Modify-Write Operations
• Byte Oriented
• Bit Oriented
• Literal and Control
Any instruction that specifies a file register as part of
the instruction performs a Read-Modify-Write (R-M-W)
operation. The register is read, the data is modified,
and the result is stored according to either the instruction, or the destination designator ‘d’. A read operation
is performed on a register even if the instruction writes
to that register.
The literal and control category contains the most varied instruction word format.
TABLE 29-1:
Each PIC16 instruction is a 14-bit word containing the
operation code (opcode) and all required operands.
The opcodes are broken into three broad categories.
Table 29-3 lists the instructions recognized by the
MPASMTM assembler.
All instructions are executed within a single instruction
cycle, with the following exceptions, which may take
two or three cycles:
• Subroutine takes two cycles (CALL, CALLW)
• Returns from interrupts or subroutines take two
cycles (RETURN, RETLW, RETFIE)
• Program branching takes two cycles (GOTO, BRA,
BRW, BTFSS, BTFSC, DECFSZ, INCSFZ)
• One additional instruction cycle will be used when
any instruction references an indirect file register
and the file select register is pointing to program
memory.
One instruction cycle consists of 4 oscillator cycles; for
an oscillator frequency of 4 MHz, this gives a nominal
instruction execution rate of 1 MHz.
All instruction examples use the format ‘0xhh’ to
represent a hexadecimal number, where ‘h’ signifies a
hexadecimal digit.
OPCODE FIELD
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
f
Description
Register file address (0x00 to 0x7F)
W
Working register (accumulator)
b
Bit address within an 8-bit file register
k
Literal field, constant data or label
x
Don’t care location (= 0 or 1).
The assembler will generate code with x = 0.
It is the recommended form of use for
compatibility with all Microchip software tools.
d
Destination select; d = 0: store result in W,
d = 1: store result in file register f.
Default is d = 1.
n
FSR or INDF number. (0-1)
mm
Pre-post increment-decrement mode
selection
TABLE 29-2:
ABBREVIATION
DESCRIPTIONS
Field
Program Counter
TO
Time-out bit
C
DC
Z
PD
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Description
PC
Preliminary
Carry bit
Digit carry bit
Zero bit
Power-down bit
DS41414C-page 375
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 29-1:
GENERAL FORMAT FOR
INSTRUCTIONS
Byte-oriented file register operations
13
8 7 6
OPCODE
d
f (FILE #)
0
d = 0 for destination W
d = 1 for destination f
f = 7-bit file register address
Bit-oriented file register operations
13
10 9
7 6
OPCODE
b (BIT #)
f (FILE #)
0
b = 3-bit bit address
f = 7-bit file register address
Literal and control operations
General
13
OPCODE
8
7
0
k (literal)
k = 8-bit immediate value
CALL and GOTO instructions only
13
11 10
OPCODE
0
k (literal)
k = 11-bit immediate value
MOVLP instruction only
13
OPCODE
7
6
0
k (literal)
k = 7-bit immediate value
MOVLB instruction only
13
OPCODE
5 4
0
k (literal)
k = 5-bit immediate value
BRA instruction only
13
OPCODE
9
8
0
k (literal)
k = 9-bit immediate value
FSR Offset instructions
13
OPCODE
7
6
n
5
0
k (literal)
n = appropriate FSR
k = 6-bit immediate value
FSR Increment instructions
13
OPCODE
3
2 1
0
n m (mode)
n = appropriate FSR
m = 2-bit mode value
OPCODE only
13
0
OPCODE
DS41414C-page 376
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 29-3:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 ENHANCED INSTRUCTION SET
14-Bit Opcode
Mnemonic,
Operands
Description
Cycles
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
BYTE-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
ADDWF
ADDWFC
ANDWF
ASRF
LSLF
LSRF
CLRF
CLRW
COMF
DECF
INCF
IORWF
MOVF
MOVWF
RLF
RRF
SUBWF
SUBWFB
SWAPF
XORWF
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
–
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
f, d
Add W and f
Add with Carry W and f
AND W with f
Arithmetic Right Shift
Logical Left Shift
Logical Right Shift
Clear f
Clear W
Complement f
Decrement f
Increment f
Inclusive OR W with f
Move f
Move W to f
Rotate Left f through Carry
Rotate Right f through Carry
Subtract W from f
Subtract with Borrow W from f
Swap nibbles in f
Exclusive OR W with f
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
00
11
00
11
11
11
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
11
00
00
0111
1101
0101
0111
0101
0110
0001
0001
1001
0011
1010
0100
1000
0000
1101
1100
0010
1011
1110
0110
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
lfff
0000
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
1fff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
dfff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
00xx
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
ffff
C, DC, Z
C, DC, Z
Z
C, Z
C, Z
C, Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
C
C
C, DC, Z
C, DC, Z
Z
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
BYTE ORIENTED SKIP OPERATIONS
DECFSZ
INCFSZ
f, d
f, d
Decrement f, Skip if 0
Increment f, Skip if 0
BCF
BSF
f, b
f, b
Bit Clear f
Bit Set f
1(2)
1(2)
00
00
1, 2
1, 2
1011 dfff ffff
1111 dfff ffff
BIT-ORIENTED FILE REGISTER OPERATIONS
1
1
01
01
00bb bfff ffff
01bb bfff ffff
2
2
1, 2
1, 2
BIT-ORIENTED SKIP OPERATIONS
BTFSC
BTFSS
f, b
f, b
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
1 (2)
1 (2)
01
01
10bb bfff ffff
11bb bfff ffff
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
11
11
11
00
11
11
11
11
1110
1001
1000
0000
0001
0000
1100
1010
LITERAL OPERATIONS
ADDLW
ANDLW
IORLW
MOVLB
MOVLP
MOVLW
SUBLW
XORLW
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
k
Add literal and W
AND literal with W
Inclusive OR literal with W
Move literal to BSR
Move literal to PCLATH
Move literal to W
Subtract W from literal
Exclusive OR literal with W
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
001k
1kkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
kkkk
C, DC, Z
Z
Z
C, DC, Z
Z
Note 1: If the Program Counter (PC) is modified, or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle
is executed as a NOP.
2: If this instruction addresses an INDF register and the MSb of the corresponding FSR is set, this instruction will require one
additional instruction cycle.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 377
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 29-3:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 ENHANCED INSTRUCTION SET (CONTINUED)
Mnemonic,
Operands
14-Bit Opcode
Description
Cycles
MSb
LSb
Status
Affected
Notes
CONTROL OPERATIONS
BRA
BRW
CALL
CALLW
GOTO
RETFIE
RETLW
RETURN
k
–
k
–
k
k
k
–
Relative Branch
Relative Branch with W
Call Subroutine
Call Subroutine with W
Go to address
Return from interrupt
Return with literal in W
Return from Subroutine
CLRWDT
NOP
OPTION
RESET
SLEEP
TRIS
–
–
–
–
–
f
Clear Watchdog Timer
No Operation
Load OPTION_REG register with W
Software device Reset
Go into Standby mode
Load TRIS register with W
ADDFSR
MOVIW
n, k
n mm
MOVWI
k[n]
n mm
Add Literal k to FSRn
Move Indirect FSRn to W with pre/post inc/dec
modifier, mm
Move INDFn to W, Indexed Indirect.
Move W to Indirect FSRn with pre/post inc/dec
modifier, mm
Move W to INDFn, Indexed Indirect.
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
11
00
10
00
10
00
11
00
001k
0000
0kkk
0000
1kkk
0000
0100
0000
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
kkkk
0000
kkkk
1011
kkkk
1010
kkkk
1001
kkkk
1000
00
00
00
00
00
00
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0110
0000
0110
0000
0110
0110
0100 TO, PD
0000
0010
0001
0011 TO, PD
0fff
INHERENT OPERATIONS
1
1
1
1
1
1
C-COMPILER OPTIMIZED
k[n]
1
1
11
00
1
1
11
00
0001 0nkk kkkk
0000 0001 0nmm Z
kkkk
1111 0nkk 1nmm Z
0000 0001 kkkk
1
11
1111 1nkk
2, 3
2
2, 3
2
Note 1: If the Program Counter (PC) is modified, or a conditional test is true, the instruction requires two cycles. The second cycle
is executed as a NOP.
2: If this instruction addresses an INDF register and the MSb of the corresponding FSR is set, this instruction will require
one additional instruction cycle.
3: See Table in the MOVIW and MOVWI instruction descriptions.
DS41414C-page 378
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
29.2
Instruction Descriptions
ADDFSR
Add Literal to FSRn
ANDLW
AND literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDFSR FSRn, k
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDLW
Operands:
-32  k  31
n  [ 0, 1]
Operands:
0  k  255
Operation:
(W) .AND. (k)  (W)
Operation:
FSR(n) + k  FSR(n)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
The signed 6-bit literal ‘k’ is added to
the contents of the FSRnH:FSRnL
register pair.
The contents of W register are
AND’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’.
The result is placed in the W register.
AND W with f
k
FSRn is limited to the range 0000h FFFFh. Moving beyond these bounds
will cause the FSR to wrap around.
ADDLW
Add literal and W
ANDWF
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDLW
Syntax:
[ label ] ANDWF
Operands:
0  f  127
d 0,1
Operation:
(W) .AND. (f)  (destination)
k
Operands:
0  k  255
Operation:
(W) + k  (W)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
The contents of the W register are
added to the eight-bit literal ‘k’ and the
result is placed in the W register.
ADDWF
Add W and f
f,d
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
AND the W register with register ‘f’. If
‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored
back in register ‘f’.
ASRF
Arithmetic Right Shift
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDWF
Syntax:
[ label ] ASRF
Operands:
0  f  127
d 0,1
Operands:
0  f  127
d [0,1]
Operation:
(W) + (f)  (destination)
Operation:
(f<7>) dest<7>
(f<7:1>)  dest<6:0>,
(f<0>)  C,
f,d
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
Add the contents of the W register
with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
stored in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register ‘f’.
ADDWFC
ADD W and CARRY bit to f
Syntax:
[ label ] ADDWFC
Operands:
0  f  127
d [0,1]
Operation:
(W) + (f) + (C)  dest
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
Add W, the Carry flag and data memory location ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed in data memory location ‘f’.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
f {,d}
Status Affected:
C, Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are shifted
one bit to the right through the Carry
flag. The MSb remains unchanged. If
‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’
is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’.
register f
C
f {,d}
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 379
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
BCF
Bit Clear f
Syntax:
[ label ] BCF
BTFSC
f,b
Bit Test f, Skip if Clear
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSC f,b
0  f  127
0b7
Operands:
0  f  127
0b7
Operands:
Operation:
0  (f<b>)
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is cleared.
Description:
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘1’, the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ‘b’, in register ‘f’, is ‘0’, the next
instruction is discarded, and a NOP is
executed instead, making this a
2-cycle instruction.
BRA
Relative Branch
BTFSS
Bit Test f, Skip if Set
Syntax:
[ label ] BRA label
[ label ] BRA $+k
Syntax:
[ label ] BTFSS f,b
Operands:
0  f  127
0b<7
Operands:
-256  label - PC + 1  255
-256  k  255
Operation:
skip if (f<b>) = 1
Operation:
(PC) + 1 + k  PC
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
Add the signed 9-bit literal ‘k’ to the
PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction,
the new address will be PC + 1 + k.
This instruction is a two-cycle instruction. This branch has a limited range.
If bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is ‘0’, the next
instruction is executed.
If bit ‘b’ is ‘1’, then the next
instruction is discarded and a NOP is
executed instead, making this a
2-cycle instruction.
BRW
Relative Branch with W
Syntax:
[ label ] BRW
Operands:
None
Operation:
(PC) + (W)  PC
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Add the contents of W (unsigned) to
the PC. Since the PC will have incremented to fetch the next instruction,
the new address will be PC + 1 + (W).
This instruction is a two-cycle instruction.
BSF
Bit Set f
Syntax:
[ label ] BSF
Operands:
0  f  127
0b7
Operation:
1  (f<b>)
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Bit ‘b’ in register ‘f’ is set.
DS41414C-page 380
f,b
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
CALL
Call Subroutine
CLRWDT
Clear Watchdog Timer
Syntax:
[ label ] CALL k
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRWDT
Operands:
0  k  2047
Operands:
None
Operation:
(PC)+ 1 TOS,
k  PC<10:0>,
(PCLATH<4:3>)  PC<12:11>
Operation:
Status Affected:
None
00h  WDT
0  WDT prescaler,
1  TO
1  PD
Description:
Call Subroutine. First, return address
(PC + 1) is pushed onto the stack.
The eleven-bit immediate address is
loaded into PC bits <10:0>. The upper
bits of the PC are loaded from
PCLATH. CALL is a two-cycle instruction.
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
CLRWDT instruction resets the Watchdog Timer. It also resets the prescaler
of the WDT.
Status bits TO and PD are set.
CALLW
Subroutine Call With W
COMF
Complement f
Syntax:
[ label ] CALLW
Syntax:
[ label ] COMF
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
(PC) +1  TOS,
(W)  PC<7:0>,
(PCLATH<6:0>) PC<14:8>
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f)  (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are complemented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
DECF
Decrement f
Syntax:
[ label ] DECF f,d
f,d
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Subroutine call with W. First, the
return address (PC + 1) is pushed
onto the return stack. Then, the contents of W is loaded into PC<7:0>,
and the contents of PCLATH into
PC<14:8>. CALLW is a two-cycle
instruction.
CLRF
Clear f
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRF
Operands:
0  f  127
Operands:
Operation:
00h  (f)
1Z
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1  (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are cleared
and the Z bit is set.
Description:
Decrement register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored
back in register ‘f’.
CLRW
Clear W
Syntax:
[ label ] CLRW
f
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h  (W)
1Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
W register is cleared. Zero bit (Z) is
set.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 381
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
DECFSZ
Decrement f, Skip if 0
INCFSZ
Increment f, Skip if 0
Syntax:
[ label ] DECFSZ f,d
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - 1  (destination);
skip if result = 0
Operation:
(f) + 1  (destination),
skip if result = 0
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are decremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed
in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result
is placed back in register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘1’, the next instruction is
executed. If the result is ‘0’, then a
NOP is executed instead, making it a
2-cycle instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed
in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result
is placed back in register ‘f’.
If the result is ‘1’, the next instruction is
executed. If the result is ‘0’, a NOP is
executed instead, making it a 2-cycle
instruction.
GOTO
Unconditional Branch
IORLW
Inclusive OR literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
GOTO k
INCFSZ f,d
IORLW k
Operands:
0  k  2047
Operands:
0  k  255
Operation:
k  PC<10:0>
PCLATH<4:3>  PC<12:11>
Operation:
(W) .OR. k  (W)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
GOTO is an unconditional branch. The
eleven-bit immediate value is loaded
into PC bits <10:0>. The upper bits of
PC are loaded from PCLATH<4:3>.
GOTO is a two-cycle instruction.
The contents of the W register are
OR’ed with the eight-bit literal ‘k’. The
result is placed in the W register.
INCF
Increment f
IORWF
Inclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) + 1  (destination)
Operation:
(W) .OR. (f)  (destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are incremented. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed
in the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result
is placed back in register ‘f’.
Description:
Inclusive OR the W register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in
the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’.
DS41414C-page 382
INCF f,d
Preliminary
IORWF
f,d
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
LSLF
Logical Left Shift
MOVF
Syntax:
[ label ] LSLF
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d [0,1]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f<7>)  C
(f<6:0>)  dest<7:1>
0  dest<0>
Operation:
(f)  (dest)
f {,d}
Status Affected:
C, Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are shifted
one bit to the left through the Carry flag.
A ‘0’ is shifted into the LSb. If ‘d’ is ‘0’,
the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the
result is stored back in register ‘f’.
C
register f
0
Z
Description:
The contents of register f is moved to
a destination dependent upon the
status of d. If d = 0,
destination is W register. If d = 1, the
destination is file register f itself. d = 1
is useful to test a file register since
status flag Z is affected.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Logical Right Shift
Syntax:
[ label ] LSLF
Operands:
0  f  127
d [0,1]
Operation:
0  dest<7>
(f<7:1>)  dest<6:0>,
(f<0>)  C,
Status Affected:
C, Z
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are shifted
one bit to the right through the Carry
flag. A ‘0’ is shifted into the MSb. If ‘d’ is
‘0’, the result is placed in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’,
the result is stored back in register ‘f’.
f {,d}
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
MOVF
FSR, 0
After Instruction
W = value in FSR register
Z = 1
LSRF
register f
MOVF f,d
Status Affected:
Example:
0
Move f
C
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 383
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
MOVIW
Move INDFn to W
MOVLP
Syntax:
[ label ] MOVIW ++FSRn
[ label ] MOVIW --FSRn
[ label ] MOVIW FSRn++
[ label ] MOVIW FSRn-[ label ] MOVIW k[FSRn]
Syntax:
[ label ] MOVLP k
Operands:
0  k  127
Operands:
n  [0,1]
mm  [00,01, 10, 11]
-32  k  31
Operation:
INDFn  W
Effective address is determined by
• FSR + 1 (preincrement)
• FSR - 1 (predecrement)
• FSR + k (relative offset)
After the Move, the FSR value will be
either:
• FSR + 1 (all increments)
• FSR - 1 (all decrements)
• Unchanged
Status Affected:
Operation:
k  PCLATH
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The seven-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into the
PCLATH register.
MOVLW
Move literal to W
Syntax:
[ label ]
0  k  255
Operation:
k  (W)
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The eight-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into W
register. The “don’t cares” will assemble as ‘0’s.
Words:
1
1
Mode
Syntax
mm
Cycles:
Preincrement
++FSRn
00
Example:
--FSRn
01
Postincrement
FSRn++
10
Postdecrement
FSRn--
11
Description:
Note: The INDFn registers are not
physical registers. Any instruction that
accesses an INDFn register actually
accesses the register at the address
specified by the FSRn.
Syntax:
[ label ] MOVLB k
Operands:
0  k  15
Operation:
k  BSR
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The five-bit literal ‘k’ is loaded into the
Bank Select Register (BSR).
DS41414C-page 384
0x5A
MOVWF
Move W to f
Syntax:
[ label ]
0x5A
MOVWF
Operands:
0  f  127
Operation:
(W)  (f)
f
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Move data from W register to register
‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example:
FSRn is limited to the range 0000h FFFFh. Incrementing/decrementing it
beyond these bounds will cause it to wrap
around.
Move literal to BSR
MOVLW
After Instruction
W =
This instruction is used to move data
between W and one of the indirect
registers (INDFn). Before/after this
move, the pointer (FSRn) is updated by
pre/post incrementing/decrementing it.
MOVLB
MOVLW k
Operands:
Z
Predecrement
Move literal to PCLATH
Preliminary
MOVWF
OPTION
Before Instruction
OPTION
W
After Instruction
OPTION
W
=
=
0xFF
0x4F
=
=
0x4F
0x4F
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
MOVWI
Move W to INDFn
NOP
No Operation
Syntax:
[ label ] MOVWI ++FSRn
[ label ] MOVWI --FSRn
[ label ] MOVWI FSRn++
[ label ] MOVWI FSRn-[ label ] MOVWI k[FSRn]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
None
n  [0,1]
mm  [00,01, 10, 11]
-32  k  31
Description:
No operation.
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Operands:
Operation:
Status Affected:
W  INDFn
Effective address is determined by
• FSR + 1 (preincrement)
• FSR - 1 (predecrement)
• FSR + k (relative offset)
After the Move, the FSR value will be
either:
• FSR + 1 (all increments)
• FSR - 1 (all decrements)
Unchanged
None
Mode
Syntax
mm
Preincrement
++FSRn
00
Predecrement
--FSRn
01
Postincrement
FSRn++
10
Postdecrement
FSRn--
11
Description:
This instruction is used to move data
between W and one of the indirect
registers (INDFn). Before/after this
move, the pointer (FSRn) is updated by
pre/post incrementing/decrementing it.
Note: The INDFn registers are not
physical registers. Any instruction that
accesses an INDFn register actually
accesses the register at the address
specified by the FSRn.
NOP
Operation:
No operation
Status Affected:
None
Example:
NOP
OPTION
Load OPTION_REG Register
with W
Syntax:
[ label ] OPTION
Operands:
None
Operation:
(W)  OPTION_REG
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Move data from W register to
OPTION_REG register.
RESET
Software Reset
Syntax:
[ label ] RESET
Operands:
None
Operation:
Execute a device Reset. Resets the
nRI flag of the PCON register.
Status Affected:
None
Description:
This instruction provides a way to
execute a hardware Reset by software.
FSRn is limited to the range 0000h FFFFh. Incrementing/decrementing it
beyond these bounds will cause it to wrap
around.
The increment/decrement operation on
FSRn WILL NOT affect any Status bits.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 385
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
RETFIE
Return from Interrupt
RETURN
Return from Subroutine
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
None
RETFIE
RETURN
Operands:
None
Operands:
Operation:
TOS  PC,
1  GIE
Operation:
TOS  PC
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
None
Description:
Description:
Return from Interrupt. Stack is POPed
and Top-of-Stack (TOS) is loaded in
the PC. Interrupts are enabled by
setting Global
Interrupt Enable bit, GIE
(INTCON<7>). This is a two-cycle
instruction.
Return from subroutine. The stack is
POPed and the top of the stack (TOS)
is loaded into the program counter.
This is a two-cycle instruction.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
Example:
RETFIE
After Interrupt
PC =
GIE =
TOS
1
Return with literal in W
RLF
Rotate Left f through Carry
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  k  255
Operands:
Operation:
k  (W);
TOS  PC
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
None
Status Affected:
C
Description:
The W register is loaded with the eight
bit literal ‘k’. The program counter is
loaded from the top of the stack (the
return address). This is a two-cycle
instruction.
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated
one bit to the left through the Carry
flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in
the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Words:
1
Cycles:
2
RETLW
Example:
TABLE
RETLW k
C
CALL TABLE;W contains table
;offset value
•
;W now has table value
•
•
ADDWF PC ;W = offset
RETLW k1 ;Begin table
RETLW k2 ;
•
•
•
RETLW kn ; End of table
Before Instruction
W =
After Instruction
W =
DS41414C-page 386
RLF
Words:
1
Cycles:
1
Example:
RLF
f,d
Register f
REG1,0
Before Instruction
REG1
C
After Instruction
REG1
W
C
=
=
1110 0110
0
=
=
=
1110 0110
1100 1100
1
0x07
value of k8
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
SUBLW
Subtract W from literal
Syntax:
[ label ]
RRF
Rotate Right f through Carry
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
See description below
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Status Affected:
C
Description:
Description:
The contents of register ‘f’ are rotated
one bit to the right through the Carry
flag. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is placed in
the W register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
placed back in register ‘f’.
The W register is subtracted (2’s complement method) from the eight-bit
literal ‘k’. The result is placed in the W
register.
RRF f,d
C
SUBLW k
Operands:
0 k 255
Operation:
k - (W) W)
Register f
C=0
Wk
C=1
Wk
DC = 0
W<3:0>  k<3:0>
DC = 1
W<3:0>  k<3:0>
SLEEP
Enter Sleep mode
SUBWF
Subtract W from f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0 f 127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) - (W) destination)
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
Subtract (2’s complement method) W
register from register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in the W
register. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is stored
back in register ‘f.
SLEEP
Operands:
None
Operation:
00h  WDT,
0  WDT prescaler,
1  TO,
0  PD
Status Affected:
TO, PD
Description:
The power-down Status bit, PD is
cleared. Time-out Status bit, TO is
set. Watchdog Timer and its prescaler are cleared.
The processor is put into Sleep mode
with the oscillator stopped.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
SUBWF f,d
C=0
Wf
C=1
Wf
DC = 0
W<3:0>  f<3:0>
DC = 1
W<3:0>  f<3:0>
SUBWFB
Subtract W from f with Borrow
Syntax:
SUBWFB
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operation:
(f) – (W) – (B) dest
f {,d}
Status Affected:
C, DC, Z
Description:
Subtract W and the BORROW flag
(CARRY) from register ‘f’ (2’s complement method). If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the result is
stored in W. If ‘d’ is ‘1’, the result is
stored back in register ‘f’.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 387
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
SWAPF
Swap Nibbles in f
XORLW
Exclusive OR literal with W
Syntax:
[ label ]
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Operands:
0 k 255
(f<3:0>)  (destination<7:4>),
(f<7:4>)  (destination<3:0>)
Operation:
(W) .XOR. k W)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
The contents of the W register are
XOR’ed with the eight-bit
literal ‘k’. The result is placed in the
W register.
Operation:
SWAPF f,d
XORLW k
Status Affected:
None
Description:
The upper and lower nibbles of register ‘f’ are exchanged. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is placed in the W register. If ‘d’
is ‘1’, the result is placed in register ‘f’.
TRIS
Load TRIS Register with W
XORWF
Exclusive OR W with f
Syntax:
[ label ] TRIS f
Syntax:
[ label ]
Operands:
5f7
Operands:
Operation:
(W)  TRIS register ‘f’
0  f  127
d  [0,1]
Status Affected:
None
Operation:
(W) .XOR. (f) destination)
Status Affected:
Z
Description:
Exclusive OR the contents of the W
register with register ‘f’. If ‘d’ is ‘0’, the
result is stored in the W register. If ‘d’
is ‘1’, the result is stored back in register ‘f’.
Description:
DS41414C-page 388
Move data from W register to TRIS
register.
When ‘f’ = 5, TRISA is loaded.
When ‘f’ = 6, TRISB is loaded.
When ‘f’ = 7, TRISC is loaded.
Preliminary
XORWF
f,d
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.0
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Absolute Maximum Ratings(†)
Ambient temperature under bias....................................................................................................... -40°C to +125°C
Storage temperature ........................................................................................................................ -65°C to +150°C
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS, PIC16F1946/47 ........................................................................ -0.3V to +6.5V
Voltage on VCAP pin with respect to VSS.............................................................................................. -0.3V to +4.0V
Voltage on VDD with respect to VSS, PIC16LF1946/47 ...................................................................... -0.3V to +4.0V
Voltage on MCLR with respect to Vss ................................................................................................. -0.3V to +9.0V
Voltage on all other pins with respect to VSS ........................................................................... -0.3V to (VDD + 0.3V)
Total power dissipation(1) ............................................................................................................................... 800 mW
Maximum current out of VSS pin, -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial............................................................... 425 mA
Maximum current out of VSS pin, -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended ............................................................ 175 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin, -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial.................................................................. 425 mA
Maximum current into VDD pin, -40°C  TA  +125°C for extended ............................................................... 175 mA
Clamp current, IK (VPIN < 0 or VPIN > VDD)20 mA
Maximum output current sunk by any I/O pin.................................................................................................... 25 mA
Maximum output current sourced by any I/O pin .............................................................................................. 25 mA
Note 1:
Power dissipation is calculated as follows: PDIS = VDD x {IDD –  IOH} +  {(VDD – VOH) x IOH} + (VOl x IOL).
† NOTICE: Stresses above those listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the
device. This is a stress rating only and functional operation of the device at those or any other conditions above those
indicated in the operation listings of this specification is not implied. Exposure above maximum rating conditions for
extended periods may affect device reliability.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 389
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
PIC16F1946/47 VOLTAGE FREQUENCY GRAPH, -40°C  TA +125°C
FIGURE 30-1:
VDD (V)
5.5
2.5
1.8
0
4
10
16
32
Frequency (MHz)
Note 1: The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency.
2: Refer to Table 30-1 for each Oscillator mode’s supported frequencies.
PIC16LF1946/47 VOLTAGE FREQUENCY GRAPH, -40°C  TA +125°C
VDD (V)
FIGURE 30-2:
3.6
2.5
1.8
0
4
10
16
32
Frequency (MHz)
Note 1: The shaded region indicates the permissible combinations of voltage and frequency.
2: Refer to Table 30-1 for each Oscillator mode’s supported frequencies.
DS41414C-page 390
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 30-3:
HFINTOSC FREQUENCY ACCURACY OVER DEVICE VDD AND TEMPERATURE
125
± 5%
Temperature (°C)
85
± 3%
60
25
± 2%
0
-20
-40
1.8
± 5%
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
VDD (V)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 391
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.1
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Industrial, Extended)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
PIC16F1946/47
Param.
No.
D001
Sym.
VDD
D001
D002*
VDR
D002*
Characteristic
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
PIC16LF1946/47
1.8
2.5
—
—
3.6
3.6
V
V
FOSC  16 MHz:
FOSC  32 MHz (NOTE 2)
PIC16F1946/47
1.8
2.5
—
—
5.5
5.5
V
V
FOSC  16 MHz:
FOSC  32 MHz (NOTE 2)
PIC16LF1946/47
1.5
—
—
V
Device in Sleep mode
PIC16F1946/47
1.7
—
—
V
Device in Sleep mode
—
1.6
—
V
PIC16LF1946/47
—
0.8
—
V
PIC16F1946/47
—
1.7
—
V
Device in Sleep mode
Supply Voltage
RAM Data Retention Voltage(1)
VPOR*
Power-on Reset Release Voltage
VPORR*
Power-on Reset Rearm Voltage
Device in Sleep mode
D003
VADFVR
Fixed Voltage Reference Voltage
for ADC
-8
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
6
4
—
—
4
4
%
1.024V, VDD  2.5V
2.048V, VDD  2.5V
4.096V, VDD  4.75V
D003A
VCDAFVR
Fixed Voltage Reference Voltage
for Comparator and DAC
-11
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
7
—
—
—
4
4
%
1.024V, VDD  2.5V
2.048V, VDD  2.5V
4.096V, VDD  4.75V
D003B
VLCDFVR
Fixed Voltage Reference Voltage
for LCD Bias, Initial Accuracy
-11
—
—
—
10
9
%
3.072V, VDD  3.6V
D004*
SVDD
VDD Rise Rate to ensure internal
Power-on Reset signal
0.05
—
—
V/ms
See Section 6.1 “Power-on Reset
(POR)” for details.
*
†
Note
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.3V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
1: This is the limit to which VDD can be lowered in Sleep mode without losing RAM data.
2: PLL required for 32 MHz operation.
DS41414C-page 392
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 30-4:
POR AND POR REARM WITH SLOW RISING VDD
VDD
VPOR
VPORR
VSS
NPOR
POR REARM
VSS
TVLOW(2)
Note 1:
2:
3:
TPOR(3)
When NPOR is low, the device is held in Reset.
TPOR 1 s typical.
TVLOW 2.7 s typical.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 393
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.2
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Industrial, Extended)
PIC16LF1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
PIC16F1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Characteristics
Conditions
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
VDD
Note
Supply Current (IDD)(1, 2)
LDO Regulator
D009
D010
D010
D010A
D010A
D011
D011
—
350
—
A
—
—
50
—
A
—
—
30
—
A
—
—
5
—
A
—
LP/LFINTOSC Clock mode or Sleep (requires
FVR and BOR to be disabled)
—
5.0
11
A
1.8
—
6.0
13
A
3.0
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator mode (Note 4),
-40°C  TA  +85°C
—
24
38
A
1.8
—
30
43
A
3.0
—
32
48
A
5.0
—
7.0
23
A
1.8
—
9.0
27
A
3.0
—
24
68
A
1.8
—
30
88
A
3.0
—
32
95
A
5.0
—
60
105
A
1.8
—
120
190
A
3.0
—
95
130
A
1.8
—
170
220
A
3.0
—
190
270
A
5.0
D012
—
160
300
A
1.8
—
300
500
A
3.0
D012
—
200
330
A
1.8
—
300
500
A
3.0
—
400
650
A
5.0
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
HS, EC OR HFINTOSC Clock modes with
VCAP pin disabled
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator mode (Note 4, 5),
-40°C  TA  +85°C
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator mode (Note 4)
-40°C  TA  +125°C
FOSC = 32 kHz
LP Oscillator mode (Note 4, 5)
-40°C  TA  +125°C
FOSC = 1 MHz
XT Oscillator mode
FOSC = 1 MHz
XT Oscillator mode (Note 5)
FOSC = 4 MHz
XT Oscillator mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
XT Oscillator mode (Note 5)
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from
rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD; MCLR = VDD; WDT disabled.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current
consumption.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be extended
by the formula IR = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k
FVR and BOR are disabled.
0.1 F capacitor on VCAP (RF0).
8 MHz crystal oscillator with 4x PLL enabled.
DS41414C-page 394
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.2
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Industrial, Extended) (Continued)
PIC16LF1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
PIC16F1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Characteristics
Conditions
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
VDD
Note
Supply Current (IDD)(1, 2)
D013
D013
—
15
40
A
1.8
—
30
75
A
3.0
—
30
60
A
1.8
—
45
85
A
3.0
—
50
90
A
5.0
—
140
250
A
1.8
—
270
400
A
3.0
—
160
270
A
1.8
—
270
430
A
3.0
—
320
500
A
5.0
D015
—
2.0
3.2
mA
3.0
—
2.3
3.9
mA
3.6
D015
—
2.0
3.2
mA
3.0
—
2.2
3.9
mA
5.0
D016
—
3.0
11
A
1.8
—
5.0
13
A
3.0
—
24
38
A
1.8
—
30
43
A
3.0
—
32
48
A
5.0
D014
D014
D016
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
FOSC = 500 kHz
EC Oscillator Low-Power mode
FOSC = 500 kHz
EC Oscillator Low-Power mode (Note 5)
FOSC = 4 MHz
EC Oscillator mode
Medium Power mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
EC Oscillator mode (Note 5)
Medium Power mode
FOSC = 32 MHz
EC Oscillator High-Power mode
FOSC = 32 MHz
EC Oscillator High-Power mode (Note 5)
FOSC = 32 kHz, LFINTOSC mode (Note 4)
-40°C  TA  +85°C
FOSC = 32 kHz, LFINTOSC mode (Note 4, 5)
-40°C  TA  +85°C
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from
rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD; MCLR = VDD; WDT disabled.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current
consumption.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be extended
by the formula IR = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k
FVR and BOR are disabled.
0.1 F capacitor on VCAP (RF0).
8 MHz crystal oscillator with 4x PLL enabled.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 395
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.2
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Industrial, Extended) (Continued)
PIC16LF1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
PIC16F1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device
Characteristics
Conditions
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
VDD
Note
Supply Current (IDD)(1, 2)
D017
D017
—
100
200
A
1.8
—
120
230
A
3.0
—
110
210
A
1.8
—
120
240
A
3.0
290
A
5.0
1.1
mA
1.8
—
160
D018
—
0.5
—
0.8
1.6
mA
3.0
D018
—
0.5
1.2
mA
1.8
—
0.8
1.7
mA
3.0
—
0.9
1.8
mA
5.0
D019
—
0.8
1.5
mA
1.8
—
1.2
2.3
mA
3.0
D019
—
0.8
1.6
mA
1.8
—
1.2
2.4
mA
3.0
—
1.4
2.5
mA
5.0
—
2.1
3.6
mA
3.0
—
2.3
4.3
mA
3.6
—
2.1
3.7
mA
3.0
—
2.2
4.1
mA
5.0
D020
—
150
260
A
1.8
—
270
425
A
3.0
D020
—
170
280
A
1.8
—
290
450
A
3.0
—
320
500
A
5.0
D021
—
2.1
3.6
mA
3.0
—
2.3
4.3
mA
3.6
D021
—
2.1
3.7
mA
3.0
—
2.2
4.1
mA
5.0
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
FOSC = 500 kHz
MFINTOSC mode
FOSC = 500 kHz
MFINTOSC mode (Note 5)
FOSC = 8 MHz
HFINTOSC mode
FOSC = 8 MHz
HFINTOSC mode (Note 5)
FOSC = 16 MHz
HFINTOSC mode
FOSC = 16 MHz
HFINTOSC mode (Note 5)
FOSC = 32 MHz
HFINTOSC mode
FOSC = 32 MHz
HFINTOSC mode
FOSC = 4 MHz
EXTRC mode (Note 3)
FOSC = 4 MHz
EXTRC mode (Note 3, Note 5)
FOSC = 32 MHz
HS Oscillator mode (Note 6)
FOSC = 32 MHz
HS Oscillator mode (Note 5, Note 6)
The test conditions for all IDD measurements in active operation mode are: OSC1 = external square wave, from
rail-to-rail; all I/O pins tri-stated, pulled to VDD; MCLR = VDD; WDT disabled.
The supply current is mainly a function of the operating voltage and frequency. Other factors, such as I/O pin loading
and switching rate, oscillator type, internal code execution pattern and temperature, also have an impact on the current
consumption.
For RC oscillator configurations, current through REXT is not included. The current through the resistor can be extended
by the formula IR = VDD/2REXT (mA) with REXT in k
FVR and BOR are disabled.
0.1 F capacitor on VCAP (RF0).
8 MHz crystal oscillator with 4x PLL enabled.
DS41414C-page 396
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.3
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Power-Down)
PIC16LF1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
PIC16F1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device Characteristics
Power-down Base Current
Min.
Typ†
Conditions
Max.
+85°C
Max.
+125°C
Units
A
VDD
D023
—
0.06
1.0
8.0
—
0.08
2.0
9.0
A
3.0
D023
—
21
55
63
A
1.8
—
25
58
78
A
3.0
—
27
60
88
A
5.0
—
0.5
6.0
9.0
A
1.8
—
0.8
7.0
10
A
3.0
—
23
57
65
A
1.8
—
26
59
80
A
3.0
D024
D024
Note
(IPD)(2)
1.8
WDT, BOR, FVR, and T1OSC
disabled, all Peripherals Inactive
WDT, BOR, FVR, and T1OSC
disabled, all Peripherals Inactive
LPWDT Current (Note 1)
LPWDT Current (Note 1)
—
28
61
90
A
5.0
—
15
28
30
A
1.8
—
15
30
33
A
3.0
—
38
96
100
A
1.8
—
45
110
120
A
3.0
—
90
140
155
A
5.0
D026
—
13
25
28
A
3.0
BOR Current (Note 1)
D026
—
40
110
120
A
3.0
BOR Current (Note 1, Note 4)
—
87
140
155
A
5.0
D027
—
0.6
5.0
9.0
A
1.8
—
1.8
6.0
12
A
3.0
—
22
57
60
A
1.8
—
29
62
70
A
3.0
—
35
66
85
A
5.0
D025
D025
D027
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
FVR current
FVR current (Note 4)
T1OSC Current (Note 1)
T1OSC Current (Note 1)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this peripheral is
enabled. The peripheral  current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD current from this limit. Max
values should be used when calculating total current consumption.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.
A/D oscillator source is FRC.
0.1 F capacitor on VCAP (RF0).
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 397
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.3
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Power-Down) (Continued)
PIC16LF1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
PIC16F1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device Characteristics
Min.
Power-down Base Current (IPD)
D028
D028
Typ†
Conditions
Max.
+85°C
Max.
+125°C
Units
VDD
Note
A/D Current (Note 1, Note 3), no
conversion in progress
(2)
—
0.1
5.0
8.0
A
1.8
—
0.1
6.0
9.0
A
3.0
—
22
56
63
A
1.8
—
26
58
78
A
3.0
A/D Current (Note 1, Note 3), no
conversion in progress
—
27
61
88
A
5.0
D029
—
250
—
—
A
1.8
—
250
—
—
A
3.0
D029
—
280
—
—
A
1.8
—
280
—
—
A
3.0
—
280
—
—
A
5.0
—
1
—
—
A
3.0
LCD Bias Ladder, Low-power
—
10
—
—
A
3.0
LCD Bias Ladder, Medium-power
—
75
—
—
A
3.0
LCD Bias Ladder, High-power
—
1
—
—
A
5.0
LCD Bias Ladder, Low-power
—
10
—
—
A
5.0
LCD Bias Ladder, Medium-power
—
75
—
—
A
5.0
LCD Bias Ladder, High-power
—
7.6
22
25
A
1.8
Comparator, Low Power mode
—
8.0
23
27
A
3.0
—
24
55
65
A
1.8
—
26
58
80
A
3.0
D030
D030
D031
D031
—
28
60
90
A
5.0
D032A*
—
2.0
—
—
A
1.8
—
3.0
—
—
A
3.0
D032A*
—
23
—
—
A
1.8
—
28
—
—
A
3.0
—
30
—
—
A
5.0
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
A/D Current (Note 1, Note 3),
conversion in progress
A/D Current (Note 1, Note 3,
Note 4), conversion in progress
Comparator, Low Power mode
Cap Sense, Low-Power mode
CPSRM=0
Cap Sense, Low-Power mode
CPSRM=0
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this peripheral is
enabled. The peripheral  current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD current from this limit. Max
values should be used when calculating total current consumption.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.
A/D oscillator source is FRC.
0.1 F capacitor on VCAP (RF0).
DS41414C-page 398
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.3
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Power-Down) (Continued)
PIC16LF1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
PIC16F1946/47
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Param
No.
Device Characteristics
Min.
Power-down Base Current (IPD)
D032B*
D032B*
D032C*
D032C*
D032D*
D032D*
Typ†
Conditions
Max.
+85°C
Max.
+125°C
Units
VDD
—
80
—
—
A
1.8
—
90
—
—
A
3.0
—
110
—
—
A
1.8
—
120
—
—
A
3.0
—
130
—
—
A
5.0
—
4
—
—
A
1.8
—
6
—
—
A
3.0
—
25
—
—
A
1.8
—
30
—
—
A
3.0
—
32
—
—
A
5.0
—
90
—
—
A
1.8
—
120
—
—
A
3.0
—
120
—
—
A
1.8
—
140
—
—
A
3.0
—
150
—
—
A
5.0
D032E*
—
12
—
—
A
1.8
—
31
—
—
A
3.0
D032E*
—
33
—
—
A
1.8
—
52
—
—
A
3.0
—
62
—
—
A
5.0
—
120
—
—
A
1.8
—
160
—
—
A
3.0
—
150
—
—
A
1.8
—
180
—
—
A
3.0
—
190
—
—
A
5.0
D032F*
D032F*
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
Note
(2)
Cap Sense, Low Power mode,
CPSRM = 1, includes FVR and
DAC current
Cap Sense, Low Power mode,
CPSRM = 1, includes FVR and
DAC current
Cap Sense, Medium Power mode,
CPSRM = 0
Cap Sense, Medium Power mode,
CPSRM = 0
Cap Sense, Medium Power mode,
CPSRM = 1, includes FVR and
DAC current
Cap Sense, Medium Power mode,
CPSRM = 1, includes FVR and
DAC current
Cap Sense, High Power mode,
CPSRM = 0
Cap Sense, High Power mode,
CPSRM = 0
Cap Sense, High Power mode,
CPSRM = 1, includes FVR and
DAC current
Cap Sense, High Power mode,
CPSRM = 1, includes FVR and
DAC current
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
The peripheral current is the sum of the base IDD or IPD and the additional current consumed when this peripheral is
enabled. The peripheral  current can be determined by subtracting the base IDD or IPD current from this limit. Max
values should be used when calculating total current consumption.
The power-down current in Sleep mode does not depend on the oscillator type. Power-down current is measured with
the part in Sleep mode, with all I/O pins in high-impedance state and tied to VDD.
A/D oscillator source is FRC.
0.1 F capacitor on VCAP (RF0).
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 399
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.4
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym.
VIL
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
—
—
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
with I2C™ levels
Conditions
—
0.8
V
4.5V  VDD  5.5V
—
0.15 VDD
V
1.8V  VDD  4.5V
—
—
0.2 VDD
V
2.0V  VDD  5.5V
—
—
0.3 VDD
V
Input Low Voltage
I/O PORT:
D032
with TTL buffer
D032A
D033
with SMBus levels
D034
D034A
VIL
2.7V  VDD  5.5V
—
—
0.8
V
MCLR, OSC1 (RC mode)(1)
—
—
0.2 VDD
V
OSC1 (HS mode)
—
—
0.3 VDD
V
—
—
0.8
V
4.5V  VDD  5.5V
—
—
0.15 VDD
V
1.8V  VDD  4.5V
Input Low Voltage
I/O PORT:
D032
with TTL buffer
D032A
VIH
Input High Voltage
I/O ports:
D040
2.0
—
—
V
4.5V  VDD 5.5V
0.25 VDD +
0.8
—
—
V
1.8V  VDD  4.5V
with Schmitt Trigger buffer
0.8 VDD
—
—
V
2.0V  VDD  5.5V
with I2C™ levels
0.7 VDD
—
—
V
with TTL buffer
D040A
D041
with SMBus levels
2.7V  VDD  5.5V
2.1
—
—
V
D042
MCLR
0.8 VDD
—
—
V
D043A
OSC1 (HS mode)
0.7 VDD
—
—
V
D043B
OSC1 (RC mode)
0.9 VDD
—
—
V
(Note 1) VDD  2.0V
IIL
Input Leakage Current(2)
D060
I/O ports
—
±5
± 125
nA
±5
± 1000
nA
VSS  VPIN  VDD, Pin at highimpedance @ 85°C
125°C
D061
MCLR(3)
—
± 50
± 200
nA
VSS  VPIN  VDD @ 85°C
25
25
100
140
200
300
A
VDD = 3.3V, VPIN = VSS
VDD = 5.0V, VPIN = VSS
—
—
0.6
V
IOL = 8mA, VDD = 5V
IOL = 6mA, VDD = 3.3V
IOL = 1.8mA, VDD = 1.8V
VDD - 0.7
—
—
V
IOH = 3.5mA, VDD = 5V
IOH = 3mA, VDD = 3.3V
IOH = 1mA, VDD = 1.8V
IPUR
Weak Pull-up Current
D070*
VOL
D080
I/O ports
VOH
D090
Output Low Voltage(4)
Output High Voltage(4)
I/O ports
Legend:
TBD = To Be Determined
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended to use an external
clock in RC mode.
2: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
3: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent
normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
4: Including OSC2 in CLKOUT mode.
DS41414C-page 400
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.4
DC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E (Continued)
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristic
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +85°C for industrial
-40°C  TA  +125°C for extended
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
—
—
15
pF
—
—
50
pF
Conditions
Capacitive Loading Specs on Output Pins
D101*
COSC2 OSC2 pin
D101A* CIO
All I/O pins
In XT, HS and LP modes when
external clock is used to drive
OSC1
VCAP Capacitor Charging
D102
Charging current
—
200
—
A
D102A
Source/sink capability when
charging complete
—
0.0
—
mA
Legend:
TBD = To Be Determined
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
Note 1: In RC oscillator configuration, the OSC1/CLKIN pin is a Schmitt Trigger input. It is not recommended to use an external
clock in RC mode.
2: Negative current is defined as current sourced by the pin.
3: The leakage current on the MCLR pin is strongly dependent on the applied voltage level. The specified levels represent
normal operating conditions. Higher leakage current may be measured at different input voltages.
4: Including OSC2 in CLKOUT mode.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 401
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.5
Memory Programming Requirements
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristic
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
Program Memory
Programming Specifications
D110
VIHH
Voltage on MCLR/VPP/RE3 pin
8.0
—
9.0
V
D111
IDDP
Supply Current during
Programming
—
—
10
mA
VDD for Bulk Erase
2.7
—
VDD
max.
V
D112
D113
VPEW
VDD for Write or Row Erase
VDD
min.
—
VDD
max.
V
D114
IPPPGM Current on MCLR/VPP during Erase/
Write
—
—
1.0
mA
D115
IDDPGM Current on VDD during Erase/Write
—
5.0
mA
D116
ED
Byte Endurance
D117
VDRW
VDD for Read/Write
D118
TDEW
(Note 3, Note 4)
Data EEPROM Memory
100K
—
—
E/W
VDD
min.
—
VDD
max.
V
Erase/Write Cycle Time
—
4.0
5.0
ms
D119
TRETD Characteristic Retention
—
40
—
Year
-40°C to +55°C
Provided no other
specifications are violated
D120
TREF
1M
10M
—
E/W
-40°C to +85°C
D121
EP
Cell Endurance
10K
—
—
E/W
-40C to +85C (Note 1)
D122
VPR
VDD for Read
VDD
min.
—
VDD
max.
V
D123
TIW
Self-timed Write Cycle Time
—
2
2.5
ms
D124
TRETD Characteristic Retention
—
40
—
Year
Number of Total Erase/Write
Cycles before Refresh(2)
-40C to +85C
Program Flash Memory
Provided no other
specifications are violated
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Note 1: Self-write and Block Erase.
2: Refer to Section 11.2 “Using the Data EEPROM” for a more detailed discussion on data EEPROM
endurance.
3: Required only if single-supply programming is disabled.
4: The MPLAB ICD 2 does not support variable VPP output. Circuitry to limit the ICD 2 VPP voltage must be
placed between the ICD 2 and target system when programming or debugging with the ICD 2.
DS41414C-page 402
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.6
Thermal Considerations
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C
Param
No.
TH01
Sym.
Characteristic
Typ.
Units
JA
Thermal Resistance Junction to Ambient
48.3
C/W
28
C/W
64-pin QFN package
26.1
C/W
64-pin TQFP package
0.24
C/W
64-pin QFN package
150
C
TH02
JC
TH03
TJMAX
TH04
TH05
PD
Thermal Resistance Junction to Case
Maximum Junction Temperature
Power Dissipation
PINTERNAL Internal Power Dissipation
Conditions
64-pin TQFP package
—
W
PD = PINTERNAL + PI/O
—
W
PINTERNAL = IDD x VDD(1)
TH06
PI/O
I/O Power Dissipation
—
W
PI/O =  (IOL * VOL) +  (IOH * (VDD - VOH))
TH07
PDER
Derated Power
—
W
PDER = PDMAX (TJ - TA)/JA(2)
Note 1: IDD is current to run the chip alone without driving any load on the output pins.
2: TA = Ambient Temperature
3: TJ = Junction Temperature
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 403
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.7
Timing Parameter Symbology
The timing parameter symbols have been created with
one of the following formats:
1. TppS2ppS
2. TppS
T
F
Frequency
Lowercase letters (pp) and their meanings:
pp
cc
CCP1
ck
CLKOUT
cs
CS
di
SDI
do
SDO
dt
Data in
io
I/O PORT
mc
MCLR
Uppercase letters and their meanings:
S
F
Fall
H
High
I
Invalid (High-impedance)
L
Low
FIGURE 30-5:
T
Time
osc
rd
rw
sc
ss
t0
t1
wr
OSC1
RD
RD or WR
SCK
SS
T0CKI
T1CKI
WR
P
R
V
Z
Period
Rise
Valid
High-impedance
LOAD CONDITIONS
Load Condition
Pin
CL
VSS
Legend: CL = 50 pF for all pins, 15 pF for
OSC2 output
DS41414C-page 404
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
30.8
AC Characteristics: PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E
FIGURE 30-6:
CLOCK TIMING
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
OSC1/CLKIN
OS02
OS04
OS04
OS03
OSC2/CLKOUT
(LP,XT,HS Modes)
OSC2/CLKOUT
(CLKOUT Mode)
TABLE 30-1:
CLOCK OSCILLATOR TIMING REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +125°C
Param
No.
OS01
Sym.
FOSC
Characteristic
External CLKIN Frequency(1)
Oscillator Frequency(1)
OS02
TOSC
External CLKIN Period(1)
Oscillator Period(1)
OS03
TCY
Instruction Cycle Time(1)
OS04*
TosH,
TosL
External CLKIN High,
External CLKIN Low
TosR,
TosF
External CLKIN Rise,
External CLKIN Fall
OS05*
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
DC
—
0.5
MHz
EC Oscillator mode (low)
DC
—
4
MHz
EC Oscillator mode (medium)
DC
—
20
MHz
EC Oscillator mode (high)
—
32.768
—
kHz
LP Oscillator mode
0.1
—
4
MHz
XT Oscillator mode
1
—
4
MHz
HS Oscillator mode
1
—
20
MHz
HS Oscillator mode, VDD > 2.7V
DC
—
4
MHz
27
—

s
LP Oscillator mode
250
—

ns
XT Oscillator mode
50
—

ns
HS Oscillator mode
50
—

ns
EC Oscillator mode
—
30.5
—
s
LP Oscillator mode
250
—
10,000
ns
XT Oscillator mode
RC Oscillator mode, VDD > 2.0V
50
—
1,000
ns
HS Oscillator mode
250
—
—
ns
RC Oscillator mode
200
TCY
DC
ns
TCY = 4/FOSC
2
—
—
s
LP oscillator
100
—
—
ns
XT oscillator
20
—
—
ns
HS oscillator
0
—

ns
LP oscillator
0
—

ns
XT oscillator
0
—

ns
HS oscillator
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing code.
Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external clock applied to OSC1 pin. When an external
clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 405
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-2:
OSCILLATOR PARAMETERS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature
-40°C TA +125°C
Param
No.
OS08
Sym.
HFOSC
OS08A MFOSC
Characteristic
Internal Calibrated HFINTOSC
Frequency(2)
Internal Calibrated MFINTOSC
Frequency(2)
Internal LFINTOSC Frequency
OS09
LFOSC
OS10*
TIOSC ST HFINTOSC
Wake-up from Sleep Start-up Time
MFINTOSC
Wake-up from Sleep Start-up Time
Freq.
Tolerance
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
2%
—
16.0
—
MHz
0°C  TA  +60°C, VDD  2.5V
3%
—
16.0
—
MHz
60°C  TA  +85°C, VDD  2.5V
5%
—
16.0
—
MHz
-40°C  TA  +125°C
2%
—
500
—
kHz
0°C  TA  +60°C, VDD  2.5V
3%
—
500
—
kHz
60°C  TA  +85°C, VDD  2.5V
5%
—
500
—
kHz
-40°C  TA  +125°C
-40°C  TA  +125°C
—
—
31
—
kHz
—
—
3.2
8
s
—
—
24
35
s
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are
not tested.
Note 1: Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are based on
characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the device executing
code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or higher than expected current
consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external clock applied to the OSC1 pin. When an
external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no clock) for all devices.
2: To ensure these oscillator frequency tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitively decoupled as close to the device as
possible. 0.1 F and 0.01 F values in parallel are recommended.
3: By design.
TABLE 30-3:
Param
No.
PLL CLOCK TIMING SPECIFICATIONS (VDD = 2.7V TO 5.5V)
Sym.
Characteristic
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
F10
FOSC Oscillator Frequency Range
4
—
8
MHz
F11
FSYS
On-Chip VCO System Frequency
16
—
32
MHz
F12
TRC
PLL Start-up Time (Lock Time)
—
—
2
ms
F13*
CLK
CLKOUT Stability (Jitter)
-0.25%
—
+0.25%
%
Conditions
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 5V, 25C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
DS41414C-page 406
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 30-7:
Cycle
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING
Write
Fetch
Read
Execute
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
FOSC
OS12
OS11
OS20
OS21
CLKOUT
OS19
OS16
OS13
OS18
OS17
I/O pin
(Input)
OS14
OS15
I/O pin
(Output)
New Value
Old Value
OS18, OS19
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 407
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-4:
CLKOUT AND I/O TIMING PARAMETERS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristic
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
—
—
70
ns
VDD = 3.3-5.0V
—
—
72
ns
VDD = 3.3-5.0V
FOSC to CLKOUT (1)
OS11
TosH2ckL
OS12
TosH2ckH FOSC to CLKOUT
(1)
(1)
OS13
TckL2ioV
CLKOUT to Port out valid
OS14
OS15
OS16
TioV2ckH
TosH2ioV
TosH2ioI
OS17
TioV2osH
OS18
TioR
Port input valid before CLKOUT(1)
Fosc (Q1 cycle) to Port out valid
Fosc (Q2 cycle) to Port input invalid
(I/O in hold time)
Port input valid to Fosc(Q2 cycle)
(I/O in setup time)
Port output rise time
OS19
TioF
Port output fall time
—
—
20
ns
TOSC + 200 ns
—
50
—
50
—
—
70*
—
ns
ns
ns
20
—
—
ns
—
—
—
—
25
25
40
15
28
15
—
—
72
32
55
30
—
—
ns
OS20* Tinp
OS21* Tioc
INT pin input high or low time
Interrupt-on-change new input level
time
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25C unless otherwise stated.
Note 1: Measurements are taken in RC mode where CLKOUT output is 4 x TOSC.
FIGURE 30-8:
ns
VDD = 3.3-5.0V
VDD = 3.3-5.0V
VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 3.3-5.0V
VDD = 1.8V
VDD = 3.3-5.0V
ns
ns
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER AND POWER-UP
TIMER TIMING
VDD
MCLR
30
Internal
POR
PWRT
Time-out
33
32
OSC
Start-Up Time
Internal Reset(1)
Watchdog Timer
Reset(1)
34
31
34
I/O pins
Note 1: Asserted low.
DS41414C-page 408
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 30-9:
BROWN-OUT RESET TIMING AND CHARACTERISTICS
VDD
VBOR and VHYST
VBOR
(Device in Brown-out Reset)
(Device not in Brown-out Reset)
37
Reset
33(1)
(due to BOR)
Note 1: 64 ms delay only if PWRTE bit in the Configuration Word register is programmed to ‘0’.
2 ms delay if PWRTE = 0 and VREGEN = 1.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 409
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-5:
RESET, WATCHDOG TIMER, OSCILLATOR START-UP TIMER, POWER-UP TIMER
AND BROWN-OUT RESET PARAMETERS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristic
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
30
TMCL
MCLR Pulse Width (low)
2
—
—
s
31
TWDTLP Watchdog Timer Time-out Period
10
16
27
ms
32
TOST
Oscillator Start-up Timer Period(1), (2)
—
1024
—
33*
TPWRT
Power-up Timer Period, PWRTE = 0
40
65
140
ms
34*
TIOZ
I/O high-impedance from MCLR Low
or Watchdog Timer Reset
—
—
2.0
s
35
VBOR
Brown-out Reset Voltage
2.38
1.80
2.5
1.9
2.73
2.11
V
36*
VHYST
Brown-out Reset Hysteresis
0
25
50
mV
-40°C to +85°C
37*
TBORDC
Brown-out Reset DC Response
Time
1
3
35
s
VDD  VBOR
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
VDD = 3.3V-5V,
1:16 Prescaler used
Tosc (Note 3)
BORV=2.5V
BORV=1.9V
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
Instruction cycle period (TCY) equals four times the input oscillator time base period. All specified values are
based on characterization data for that particular oscillator type under standard operating conditions with the
device executing code. Exceeding these specified limits may result in an unstable oscillator operation and/or
higher than expected current consumption. All devices are tested to operate at “min” values with an external
clock applied to the OSC1 pin. When an external clock input is used, the “max” cycle time limit is “DC” (no
clock) for all devices.
By design.
Period of the slower clock.
To ensure these voltage tolerances, VDD and VSS must be capacitively decoupled as close to the device as
possible. 0.1 F and 0.01 F values in parallel are recommended.
FIGURE 30-10:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK TIMINGS
T0CKI
40
41
42
T1CKI
45
46
47
49
TMR0 or
TMR1
DS41414C-page 410
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-6:
TIMER0 AND TIMER1 EXTERNAL CLOCK REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C TA +125°C
Param
No.
40*
Sym.
TT0H
Characteristic
T0CKI High Pulse Width
Min.
No Prescaler
TT0L
T0CKI Low Pulse Width
No Prescaler
TT0P
T0CKI Period
45*
TT1H
T1CKI High Synchronous, No Prescaler
Time
Synchronous,
with Prescaler
—
—
ns
—
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
10
—
—
ns
Greater of:
20 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
15
—
—
ns
Asynchronous
TT1L
46*
T1CKI Low
Time
30
—
—
ns
Synchronous, No Prescaler
0.5 TCY + 20
—
—
ns
Synchronous, with Prescaler
15
—
—
ns
Asynchronous
30
—
—
ns
Greater of:
30 or TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
47*
TT1P
T1CKI Input Synchronous
Period
48
FT1
Timer1 Oscillator Input Frequency Range
(oscillator enabled by setting bit T1OSCEN)
49*
TCKEZTMR1 Delay from External Clock Edge to Timer
Increment
Asynchronous
*
†
Units
10
With Prescaler
42*
Max.
0.5 TCY + 20
With Prescaler
41*
Typ†
60
—
—
ns
32.4
32.768
33.1
kHz
2 TOSC
—
7 TOSC
—
Conditions
N = prescale value
(2, 4, ..., 256)
N = prescale value
(1, 2, 4, 8)
Timers in Sync
mode
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
FIGURE 30-11:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM TIMINGS (CCP)
CCPx
(Capture mode)
CC01
CC02
CC03
Note:
Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
TABLE 30-7:
CAPTURE/COMPARE/PWM REQUIREMENTS (CCP)
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature -40°C  TA  +125°C
Param
Sym.
No.
CC01* TccL
CC02* TccH
CC03* TccP
*
†
Characteristic
CCPx Input Low Time
CCPx Input High Time
CCPx Input Period
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
No Prescaler
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
With Prescaler
20
—
—
ns
No Prescaler
0.5TCY + 20
—
—
ns
With Prescaler
20
—
—
ns
3TCY + 40
N
—
—
ns
Conditions
N = prescale value (1, 4 or 16)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 411
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-8:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 A/D CONVERTER (ADC) CHARACTERISTICS:
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature TA 25°C
Param
Sym.
No.
Characteristic
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
AD01
NR
Resolution
—
—
10
AD02
EIL
Integral Error
—
—
±1.7
AD03
EDL
Differential Error
—
—
±1
AD04
EOFF Offset Error
—
—
±2.5
LSb VREF = 3.0V
AD05
EGN
LSb VREF = 3.0V
AD06
VREF Reference Voltage(3)
AD07
VAIN
Full-Scale Range
AD08
ZAIN
Recommended Impedance of
Analog Voltage Source
*
†
Note 1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
Gain Error
bit
LSb VREF = 3.0V
LSb No missing codes
VREF = 3.0V
—
—
±2.0
1.8
—
VDD
V
VSS
—
VREF
V
—
—
10
k
VREF = (VREF+ minus VREF-) (Note 5)
Can go higher if external 0.01F capacitor is
present on input pin.
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Total Absolute Error includes integral, differential, offset and gain errors.
The A/D conversion result never decreases with an increase in the input voltage and has no missing codes.
ADC VREF is from external VREF, VDD pin or FVR, whichever is selected as reference input.
When ADC is off, it will not consume any current other than leakage current. The power-down current specification
includes any such leakage from the ADC module.
FVR voltage selected must be 2.048V or 4.096V.
TABLE 30-9:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 A/D CONVERSION REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating temperature
-40°C  TA  +125°C
Param
No.
Sym.
AD130* TAD
AD131
TCNV
AD132* TACQ
Characteristic
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
Conditions
A/D Clock Period
1.0
—
9.0
s
TOSC-based
A/D Internal RC Oscillator
Period
1.0
2.5
6.0
s
ADCS<1:0> = 11 (ADRC mode)
Conversion Time (not including
Acquisition Time)(1)
—
11
—
TAD
Set GO/DONE bit to conversion
complete
Acquisition Time
—
5.0
—
s
*
†
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance only and are not
tested.
Note 1: The ADRES register may be read on the following TCY cycle.
DS41414C-page 412
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 30-12:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 A/D CONVERSION TIMING (NORMAL MODE)
BSF ADCON0, GO
AD134
1 TCY
(TOSC/2(1))
AD131
Q4
AD130
A/D CLK
7
A/D Data
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
NEW_DATA
OLD_DATA
ADRES
1 TCY
ADIF
GO
Sample
DONE
Sampling Stopped
AD132
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
FIGURE 30-13:
PIC16F/LF1946/47 A/D CONVERSION TIMING (SLEEP MODE)
BSF ADCON0, GO
AD134
(TOSC/2 + TCY(1))
1 TCY
AD131
Q4
AD130
A/D CLK
7
A/D Data
6
5
4
OLD_DATA
ADRES
3
2
1
0
NEW_DATA
ADIF
1 TCY
GO
DONE
Sample
AD132
Sampling Stopped
Note 1: If the A/D clock source is selected as RC, a time of TCY is added before the A/D clock starts. This allows the
SLEEP instruction to be executed.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 413
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-10: COMPARATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 1.8V < VDD < 5.5V, -40°C < TA < +125°C (unless otherwise stated).
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristics
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
Comments
—
±7.5
±60
mV
High-Power mode
CM01
VIOFF
CM02
VICM
Input Common Mode Voltage
0
—
VDD
V
CM03
CMRR
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
—
50
—
dB
CM04
TRESP
Response Time
—
150
400
ns
(Note 1)
Response Time Rising Edge
—
400
800
ns
High-Power mode
Response Time Falling Edge
—
200
400
ns
High-Power mode
Response Time Rising Edge
—
1200
—
ns
Low-Power mode
Response Time Falling Edge
—
550
—
ns
Low-Power mode
Comparator Mode Change to
Output Valid*
—
—
10
s
—
45
—
mV
CM04A
CM04B
CM04C
TRESP
CM04D
Input Offset Voltage(3)
CM05
TMC2OV
CM06
CHYSTER Comparator Hysteresis
*
Note 1:
2:
3:
(Note 2)
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Response time measured with one comparator input at VDD/2, while the other input transitions
from VSS to VDD.
Comparator Hysteresis is available when the CxHYS bit of the CMxCON0 register is enabled.
High power only.
TABLE 30-11: DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC) SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Conditions: 2.5V < VDD < 5.5V, -40°C < TA < +85°C (unless otherwise stated).
Param
No.
Sym.
Characteristics
Min.
Typ.
Max.
Units
DAC01*
CLSB
Step Size
—
VDD/32
—
V
DAC02*
CACC
Absolute Accuracy
—
—
 1/2
LSb
DAC03*
CR
Unit Resistor Value (R)
—
5K
—

DAC04*
CST
Settling Time(1)
—
—
10
s
Comments
*
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
Legend: TBD = To Be Determined
Note 1: Settling time measured while DACR<4:0> transitions from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’.
FIGURE 30-14:
USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
CK
US121
US121
DT
US120
Note:
US122
Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
DS41414C-page 414
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-12: USART SYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSION REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature
-40°C TA +125°C
Param.
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
Min.
Max.
Units
—
80
ns
US120 TCKH2DTV SYNC XMIT (Master and Slave)
Clock high to data-out valid
3.0-5.5V
1.8-5.5V
—
100
ns
US121 TCKRF
Clock out rise time and fall time
(Master mode)
3.0-5.5V
—
45
ns
1.8-5.5V
—
50
ns
US122 TDTRF
Data-out rise time and fall time
3.0-5.5V
—
45
ns
1.8-5.5V
—
50
ns
FIGURE 30-15:
Conditions
USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE (MASTER/SLAVE) TIMING
CK
US125
DT
US126
Note: Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
TABLE 30-13: USART SYNCHRONOUS RECEIVE REQUIREMENTS
Standard Operating Conditions (unless otherwise stated)
Operating Temperature
-40°C TA +125°C
Param.
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
US125 TDTV2CKL SYNC RCV (Master and Slave)
Data-hold before CK  (DT hold time)
US126 TCKL2DTL
Data-hold after CK  (DT hold time)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
Min.
Max.
Units
10
—
ns
15
—
ns
Conditions
DS41414C-page 415
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 30-16:
SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 0, SMP = 0)
SS
SP70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
SP71
SP72
SP78
SP79
SP79
SP78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
SP80
bit 6 - - - - - -1
MSb
SDO
LSb
SP75, SP76
SDI
MSb In
bit 6 - - - -1
LSb In
SP74
SP73
Note: Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
FIGURE 30-17:
SPI MASTER MODE TIMING (CKE = 1, SMP = 1)
SS
SP81
SCK
(CKP = 0)
SP71
SP72
SP79
SP73
SCK
(CKP = 1)
SP80
SDO
MSb
SP78
bit 6 - - - - - -1
LSb
SP75, SP76
SDI
MSb In
bit 6 - - - -1
LSb In
SP74
Note: Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
DS41414C-page 416
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
FIGURE 30-18:
SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 0)
SS
SP70
SCK
(CKP = 0)
SP83
SP71
SP72
SP78
SP79
SP79
SP78
SCK
(CKP = 1)
SP80
MSb
SDO
LSb
bit 6 - - - - - -1
SP77
SP75, SP76
SDI
MSb In
bit 6 - - - -1
LSb In
SP74
SP73
Note: Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
FIGURE 30-19:
SS
SPI SLAVE MODE TIMING (CKE = 1)
SP82
SP70
SP83
SCK
(CKP = 0)
SP71
SP72
SCK
(CKP = 1)
SP80
SDO
MSb
bit 6 - - - - - -1
LSb
SP77
SP75, SP76
SDI
MSb In
bit 6 - - - -1
LSb In
SP74
Note: Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 417
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-14: SPI MODE REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
SP70* TSSL2SCH, SS to SCK or SCK input
TSSL2SCL
Min.
Typ†
Max. Units Conditions
TCY
—
—
ns
SP71* TSCH
SCK input high time (Slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
SP72* TSCL
SCK input low time (Slave mode)
TCY + 20
—
—
ns
SP73* TDIV2SCH, Setup time of SDI data input to SCK edge
TDIV2SCL
100
—
—
ns
SP74* TSCH2DIL,
TSCL2DIL
Hold time of SDI data input to SCK edge
100
—
—
ns
SP75* TDOR
SDO data output rise time
—
10
25
ns
SP76* TDOF
SDO data output fall time
3.0-5.5V
1.8-5.5V
—
25
50
ns
—
10
25
ns
SP77* TSSH2DOZ
SS to SDO output high-impedance
10
—
50
ns
SP78* TSCR
SCK output rise time
(Master mode)
3.0-5.5V
—
10
25
ns
1.8-5.5V
—
25
50
ns
SP79* TSCF
SCK output fall time (Master mode)
—
10
25
ns
3.0-5.5V
—
—
50
ns
1.8-5.5V
—
—
145
ns
SP81* TDOV2SCH, SDO data output setup to SCK edge
TDOV2SCL
Tcy
—
—
ns
SP82* TSSL2DOV
—
—
50
ns
1.5TCY + 40
—
—
ns
SP80* TSCH2DOV, SDO data output valid after
TSCL2DOV SCK edge
SDO data output valid after SS edge
SP83* TSCH2SSH, SS after SCK edge
TSCL2SSH
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
FIGURE 30-20:
I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS TIMING
SCL
SP93
SP91
SP90
SP92
SDA
Stop
Condition
Start
Condition
Note: Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
DS41414C-page 418
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-15: I2C™ BUS START/STOP BITS REQUIREMENTS
Param
No.
Symbol
Characteristic
SP90*
TSU:STA
SP91*
THD:STA
SP92*
TSU:STO
SP93
THD:STO Stop condition
Start condition
Typ
4700
—
Max. Units
—
Setup time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Start condition
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
Hold time
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Stop condition
100 kHz mode
4700
—
—
Setup time
Hold time
*
100 kHz mode
Min.
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
100 kHz mode
4000
—
—
400 kHz mode
600
—
—
Conditions
ns
Only relevant for Repeated
Start condition
ns
After this period, the first
clock pulse is generated
ns
ns
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
FIGURE 30-21:
I2C™ BUS DATA TIMING
SP103
SCL
SP100
SP90
SP102
SP101
SP106
SP107
SP91
SDA
In
SP92
SP110
SP109
SP109
SDA
Out
Note: Refer to Figure 30-5 for load conditions.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 419
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-16: I2C™ BUS DATA REQUIREMENTS
Param.
No.
Symbol
SP100* THIGH
Characteristic
Clock high time
Min.
Max.
Units
100 kHz mode
4.0
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
0.6
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 10 MHz
1.5TCY
—
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 1.5 MHz
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
s
Device must operate at a
minimum of 10 MHz
SSP module
SP101* TLOW
Clock low time
SSP module
SP102* TR
SP103* TF
SP106* THD:DAT
SP107* TSU:DAT
SP109* TAA
SP110*
SP111
*
Note 1:
2:
TBUF
CB
1.5TCY
—
SDA and SCL rise
time
100 kHz mode
—
1000
ns
400 kHz mode
0.1CB
300
ns
SDA and SCL fall
time
100 kHz mode
—
250
ns
400 kHz mode
20 + 0.1CB
250
ns
20 +
Data input hold time 100 kHz mode
0
—
ns
400 kHz mode
0
0.9
s
Data input setup
time
100 kHz mode
250
—
ns
400 kHz mode
100
—
ns
Output valid from
clock
100 kHz mode
—
3500
ns
400 kHz mode
—
—
ns
Bus free time
Conditions
100 kHz mode
4.7
—
s
400 kHz mode
1.3
—
s
—
400
pF
Bus capacitive loading
CB is specified to be from
10-400 pF
CB is specified to be from
10-400 pF
(Note 2)
(Note 1)
Time the bus must be free
before a new transmission
can start
These parameters are characterized but not tested.
As a transmitter, the device must provide this internal minimum delay time to bridge the undefined region
(min. 300 ns) of the falling edge of SCL to avoid unintended generation of Start or Stop conditions.
A Fast mode (400 kHz) I2C™ bus device can be used in a Standard mode (100 kHz) I2C bus system, but
the requirement TSU:DAT 250 ns must then be met. This will automatically be the case if the device does
not stretch the low period of the SCL signal. If such a device does stretch the low period of the SCL signal,
it must output the next data bit to the SDA line TR max. + TSU:DAT = 1000 + 250 = 1250 ns (according to
the Standard mode I2C bus specification), before the SCL line is released.
DS41414C-page 420
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
TABLE 30-17: CAP SENSE OSCILLATOR SPECIFICATIONS
Param.
No.
Symbol
CS01*
ISRC
CS02*
ISNK
Characteristic
Current Source
Current Sink
Min.
Typ†
Max.
Units
High
—
-8
—
A
Medium
—
-1.5
—
A
Low
—
-0.3
—
A
High
—
7.5
—
A
Medium
—
1.5
—
A
—
0.25
—
A
—
0.8
—
mV
—
0.4
—
mV
—
—
—
525
375
300
—
—
—
mV
mV
mV
Low
CS03*
VCTH
Cap Threshold
CS04*
VCTL
Cap Threshold
CS05*
VCHYST Cap Hysteresis
(VCTH-VCTL)
High
Medium
Low
Conditions
* These parameters are characterized but not tested.
† Data in “Typ” column is at 3.0V, 25°C unless otherwise stated. These parameters are for design guidance
only and are not tested.
FIGURE 30-22:
CAP SENSE OSCILLATOR
VCTH
VCTL
ISRC
Enabled
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
ISNK
Enabled
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 421
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 422
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
31.0
DC AND AC
CHARACTERISTICS GRAPHS
AND CHARTS
Graphs and charts are not available at this time.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 423
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 424
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
32.0
DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT
32.1
The PIC® microcontrollers and dsPIC® digital signal
controllers are supported with a full range of software
and hardware development tools:
• Integrated Development Environment
- MPLAB® IDE Software
• Compilers/Assemblers/Linkers
- MPLAB C Compiler for Various Device
Families
- HI-TECH C for Various Device Families
- MPASMTM Assembler
- MPLINKTM Object Linker/
MPLIBTM Object Librarian
- MPLAB Assembler/Linker/Librarian for
Various Device Families
• Simulators
- MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
• Emulators
- MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
• In-Circuit Debuggers
- MPLAB ICD 3
- PICkit™ 3 Debug Express
• Device Programmers
- PICkit™ 2 Programmer
- MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
• Low-Cost Demonstration/Development Boards,
Evaluation Kits, and Starter Kits
MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment Software
The MPLAB IDE software brings an ease of software
development previously unseen in the 8/16/32-bit
microcontroller market. The MPLAB IDE is a Windows®
operating system-based application that contains:
• A single graphical interface to all debugging tools
- Simulator
- Programmer (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Emulator (sold separately)
- In-Circuit Debugger (sold separately)
• A full-featured editor with color-coded context
• A multiple project manager
• Customizable data windows with direct edit of
contents
• High-level source code debugging
• Mouse over variable inspection
• Drag and drop variables from source to watch
windows
• Extensive on-line help
• Integration of select third party tools, such as
IAR C Compilers
The MPLAB IDE allows you to:
• Edit your source files (either C or assembly)
• One-touch compile or assemble, and download to
emulator and simulator tools (automatically
updates all project information)
• Debug using:
- Source files (C or assembly)
- Mixed C and assembly
- Machine code
MPLAB IDE supports multiple debugging tools in a
single development paradigm, from the cost-effective
simulators, through low-cost in-circuit debuggers, to
full-featured emulators. This eliminates the learning
curve when upgrading to tools with increased flexibility
and power.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 425
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
32.2
MPLAB C Compilers for Various
Device Families
The MPLAB C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC18,
PIC24 and PIC32 families of microcontrollers and the
dsPIC30 and dsPIC33 families of digital signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful integration
capabilities, superior code optimization and ease of
use.
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
32.3
HI-TECH C for Various Device
Families
For easy source level debugging, the compilers provide
symbol information that is optimized to the MPLAB IDE
debugger.
The compilers include a macro assembler, linker, preprocessor, and one-step driver, and can run on multiple
platforms.
MPASM Assembler
The MPASM Assembler is a full-featured, universal
macro assembler for PIC10/12/16/18 MCUs.
The MPASM Assembler generates relocatable object
files for the MPLINK Object Linker, Intel® standard HEX
files, MAP files to detail memory usage and symbol
reference, absolute LST files that contain source lines
and generated machine code and COFF files for
debugging.
The MPASM Assembler features include:
MPLINK Object Linker/
MPLIB Object Librarian
The MPLINK Object Linker combines relocatable
objects created by the MPASM Assembler and the
MPLAB C18 C Compiler. It can link relocatable objects
from precompiled libraries, using directives from a
linker script.
The MPLIB Object Librarian manages the creation and
modification of library files of precompiled code. When
a routine from a library is called from a source file, only
the modules that contain that routine will be linked in
with the application. This allows large libraries to be
used efficiently in many different applications.
The object linker/library features include:
The HI-TECH C Compiler code development systems
are complete ANSI C compilers for Microchip’s PIC
family of microcontrollers and the dsPIC family of digital
signal controllers. These compilers provide powerful
integration capabilities, omniscient code generation
and ease of use.
32.4
32.5
• Efficient linking of single libraries instead of many
smaller files
• Enhanced code maintainability by grouping
related modules together
• Flexible creation of libraries with easy module
listing, replacement, deletion and extraction
32.6
MPLAB Assembler, Linker and
Librarian for Various Device
Families
MPLAB Assembler produces relocatable machine
code from symbolic assembly language for PIC24,
PIC32 and dsPIC devices. MPLAB C Compiler uses
the assembler to produce its object file. The assembler
generates relocatable object files that can then be
archived or linked with other relocatable object files and
archives to create an executable file. Notable features
of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Support for the entire device instruction set
Support for fixed-point and floating-point data
Command line interface
Rich directive set
Flexible macro language
MPLAB IDE compatibility
• Integration into MPLAB IDE projects
• User-defined macros to streamline
assembly code
• Conditional assembly for multi-purpose
source files
• Directives that allow complete control over the
assembly process
DS41414C-page 426
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
32.7
MPLAB SIM Software Simulator
32.9
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator allows code
development in a PC-hosted environment by simulating the PIC MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs on an instruction
level. On any given instruction, the data areas can be
examined or modified and stimuli can be applied from
a comprehensive stimulus controller. Registers can be
logged to files for further run-time analysis. The trace
buffer and logic analyzer display extend the power of
the simulator to record and track program execution,
actions on I/O, most peripherals and internal registers.
The MPLAB SIM Software Simulator fully supports
symbolic debugging using the MPLAB C Compilers,
and the MPASM and MPLAB Assemblers. The software simulator offers the flexibility to develop and
debug code outside of the hardware laboratory environment, making it an excellent, economical software
development tool.
32.8
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit
Emulator System
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System is
Microchip’s next generation high-speed emulator for
Microchip Flash DSC and MCU devices. It debugs and
programs PIC® Flash MCUs and dsPIC® Flash DSCs
with the easy-to-use, powerful graphical user interface of
the MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE),
included with each kit.
The emulator is connected to the design engineer’s PC
using a high-speed USB 2.0 interface and is connected
to the target with either a connector compatible with incircuit debugger systems (RJ11) or with the new highspeed, noise tolerant, Low-Voltage Differential Signal
(LVDS) interconnection (CAT5).
The emulator is field upgradable through future firmware
downloads in MPLAB IDE. In upcoming releases of
MPLAB IDE, new devices will be supported, and new
features will be added. MPLAB REAL ICE offers
significant advantages over competitive emulators
including low-cost, full-speed emulation, run-time
variable watches, trace analysis, complex breakpoints, a
ruggedized probe interface and long (up to three meters)
interconnection cables.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger
System
MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger System is Microchip's most cost effective high-speed hardware
debugger/programmer for Microchip Flash Digital Signal Controller (DSC) and microcontroller (MCU)
devices. It debugs and programs PIC® Flash microcontrollers and dsPIC® DSCs with the powerful, yet easyto-use graphical user interface of MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE).
The MPLAB ICD 3 In-Circuit Debugger probe is connected to the design engineer's PC using a high-speed
USB 2.0 interface and is connected to the target with a
connector compatible with the MPLAB ICD 2 or MPLAB
REAL ICE systems (RJ-11). MPLAB ICD 3 supports all
MPLAB ICD 2 headers.
32.10 PICkit 3 In-Circuit Debugger/
Programmer and
PICkit 3 Debug Express
The MPLAB PICkit 3 allows debugging and programming of PIC® and dsPIC® Flash microcontrollers at a
most affordable price point using the powerful graphical
user interface of the MPLAB Integrated Development
Environment (IDE). The MPLAB PICkit 3 is connected
to the design engineer's PC using a full speed USB
interface and can be connected to the target via an
Microchip debug (RJ-11) connector (compatible with
MPLAB ICD 3 and MPLAB REAL ICE). The connector
uses two device I/O pins and the reset line to implement in-circuit debugging and In-Circuit Serial Programming™.
The PICkit 3 Debug Express include the PICkit 3, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 427
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
32.11 PICkit 2 Development
Programmer/Debugger and
PICkit 2 Debug Express
32.13 Demonstration/Development
Boards, Evaluation Kits, and
Starter Kits
The PICkit™ 2 Development Programmer/Debugger is
a low-cost development tool with an easy to use interface for programming and debugging Microchip’s Flash
families of microcontrollers. The full featured
Windows® programming interface supports baseline
(PIC10F,
PIC12F5xx,
PIC16F5xx),
midrange
(PIC12F6xx, PIC16F), PIC18F, PIC24, dsPIC30,
dsPIC33, and PIC32 families of 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit
microcontrollers, and many Microchip Serial EEPROM
products. With Microchip’s powerful MPLAB Integrated
Development Environment (IDE) the PICkit™ 2
enables in-circuit debugging on most PIC® microcontrollers. In-Circuit-Debugging runs, halts and single
steps the program while the PIC microcontroller is
embedded in the application. When halted at a breakpoint, the file registers can be examined and modified.
A wide variety of demonstration, development and
evaluation boards for various PIC MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs allows quick application development on fully functional systems. Most boards include prototyping areas for
adding custom circuitry and provide application firmware
and source code for examination and modification.
The PICkit 2 Debug Express include the PICkit 2, demo
board and microcontroller, hookup cables and CDROM
with user’s guide, lessons, tutorial, compiler and
MPLAB IDE software.
32.12 MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer
The MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer is a universal,
CE compliant device programmer with programmable
voltage verification at VDDMIN and VDDMAX for
maximum reliability. It features a large LCD display
(128 x 64) for menus and error messages and a modular, detachable socket assembly to support various
package types. The ICSP™ cable assembly is included
as a standard item. In Stand-Alone mode, the MPLAB
PM3 Device Programmer can read, verify and program
PIC devices without a PC connection. It can also set
code protection in this mode. The MPLAB PM3
connects to the host PC via an RS-232 or USB cable.
The MPLAB PM3 has high-speed communications and
optimized algorithms for quick programming of large
memory devices and incorporates an MMC card for file
storage and data applications.
DS41414C-page 428
The boards support a variety of features, including LEDs,
temperature sensors, switches, speakers, RS-232
interfaces, LCD displays, potentiometers and additional
EEPROM memory.
The demonstration and development boards can be
used in teaching environments, for prototyping custom
circuits and for learning about various microcontroller
applications.
In addition to the PICDEM™ and dsPICDEM™ demonstration/development board series of circuits, Microchip
has a line of evaluation kits and demonstration software
for analog filter design, KEELOQ® security ICs, CAN,
IrDA®, PowerSmart battery management, SEEVAL®
evaluation system, Sigma-Delta ADC, flow rate
sensing, plus many more.
Also available are starter kits that contain everything
needed to experience the specified device. This usually
includes a single application and debug capability, all
on one board.
Check the Microchip web page (www.microchip.com)
for the complete list of demonstration, development
and evaluation kits.
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
33.0
PACKAGING INFORMATION
33.1
Package Marking Information
Example
64-Lead QFN (9x9x1mm)
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
PIC16F1947
-I/PT
0610017
64-Lead TQFP (10x10x1mm)
Example
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
YYWWNNN
Legend: XX...X
Y
YY
WW
NNN
e3
*
Note:
*
PIC16F1946
-I/PT
0610017
Customer-specific information
Year code (last digit of calendar year)
Year code (last 2 digits of calendar year)
Week code (week of January 1 is week ‘01’)
Alphanumeric traceability code
Pb-free JEDEC designator for Matte Tin (Sn)
This package is Pb-free. The Pb-free JEDEC designator ( e3 )
can be found on the outer packaging for this package.
In the event the full Microchip part number cannot be marked on one line, it will
be carried over to the next line, thus limiting the number of available
characters for customer-specific information.
Standard PICmicro® device marking consists of Microchip part number, year code, week code and
traceability code. For PICmicro device marking beyond this, certain price adders apply. Please check
with your Microchip Sales Office. For QTP devices, any special marking adders are included in QTP
price.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 429
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
33.2
Package Details
The following sections give the technical details of the packages.
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
DS41414C-page 430
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Note:
For the most current package drawings, please see the Microchip Packaging Specification located at
http://www.microchip.com/packaging
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 431
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
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DS41414C-page 432
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
/HDG3ODVWLF7KLQ4XDG)ODWSDFN37±[[PP%RG\PP>74)[email protected]
1RWH
)RUWKHPRVWFXUUHQWSDFNDJHGUDZLQJVSOHDVHVHHWKH0LFURFKLS3DFNDJLQJ6SHFLILFDWLRQORFDWHGDW
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 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 433
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
NOTES:
DS41414C-page 434
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
APPENDIX A:
DATA SHEET
REVISION HISTORY
Revision A (3/2010)
APPENDIX B:
MIGRATING FROM
OTHER PIC®
DEVICES
This shows a comparison of features in the migration
from the PIC16F917 device to the PIC16F1946 family
of devices.
Original release.
Revision B (9/2010)
Updated with current electrical specifications; Added
Temperature Indicator Module section; Other minor
corrections.
Revision C (5/2011)
Updated the EUSART section; Updated the Electrical
Specifications section; Updated Table 3-8, Figure 13-1
and Equation 16-1.
B.1
PIC16F946 to PIC16F1946
TABLE B-1:
FEATURE COMPARISON
Feature
PIC16F917
PIC16F1946
Max. Operating Speed
20 MHz
32 MHz
8K
8K
Max. Program
Memory (Words)
Max. SRAM (Bytes)
368
512
10-bit
10-bit
Timers (8/16-bit)
2/1
4/1
Oscillator Modes
4
8
A/D Resolution
Brown-out Reset
Y
Y
Internal Pull-ups
RB<7:0>
RB<7:0>
Interrupt-on-change
RB<7:4>
RB<7:0>
2
2
Comparator
AUSART/EUSART
1/0
0/2
Extended WDT
Y
Y
Software Control
Option of WDT/BOR
N
Y
INTOSC Frequencies
30 kHz 8 MHz
31 kHz 16 MHz
Y
Y
Clock Switching
Capacitive Sensing
CCP/ECCP
Enhanced PIC16 CPU
MSSP/SSP
LCD
Note:
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
N
Y
2/0
2/3
N
Y
0/1
2/0
Y
Y
This device has been designed to perform
to the parameters of its data sheet. It has
been tested to an electrical specification
designed to determine its conformance
with these parameters. Due to process differences in the manufacture of this device,
this device may have different performance characteristics than its earlier version. These differences may cause this
device to perform differently in your application than the earlier version of this
device.
DS41414C-page 435
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Note:
The user should verify that the device
oscillator starts and performs as
expected. Adjusting the loading capacitor
values and/or the oscillator mode may be
required.
DS41414C-page 436
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
INDEX
A
A/D
Specifications............................................................ 412
Absolute Maximum Ratings (PIC16F/LF1946/47) ............ 389
AC Characteristics
Industrial and Extended ............................................ 405
Load Conditions ........................................................ 404
ACKSTAT ......................................................................... 278
ACKSTAT Status Flag ...................................................... 278
ADC .................................................................................. 159
Acquisition Requirements ......................................... 170
Associated registers.................................................. 172
Block Diagram........................................................... 160
Calculating Acquisition Time..................................... 170
Channel Selection..................................................... 161
Configuration............................................................. 161
Configuring Interrupt ................................................. 165
Conversion Clock...................................................... 161
Conversion Procedure .............................................. 165
Internal Sampling Switch (RSS) Impedance.............. 170
Interrupts................................................................... 163
Operation .................................................................. 164
Operation During Sleep ............................................ 164
Port Configuration ..................................................... 161
Reference Voltage (VREF)......................................... 161
Source Impedance.................................................... 170
Special Event Trigger................................................ 164
Starting an A/D Conversion ...................................... 163
ADCON0 Register....................................................... 34, 166
ADCON1 Register....................................................... 34, 167
ADDFSR ........................................................................... 379
ADDWFC .......................................................................... 379
ADRESH Register............................................................... 34
ADRESH Register (ADFM = 0) ......................................... 168
ADRESH Register (ADFM = 1) ......................................... 169
ADRESL Register (ADFM = 0).......................................... 168
ADRESL Register (ADFM = 1).......................................... 169
Alternate Pin Function....................................................... 125
Analog-to-Digital Converter. See ADC
ANSELA Register ............................................................. 129
ANSELE Register ............................................................. 141
ANSELF Register.............................................................. 145
APFCON Register............................................................. 126
Assembler
MPASM Assembler................................................... 426
Automatic Context Saving................................................... 92
B
BAUDCON Register.......................................................... 308
BF ............................................................................. 278, 280
BF Status Flag .......................................................... 278, 280
Block Diagram
Capacitive Sensing ........................................... 325, 326
Block Diagrams
(CCP) Capture Mode Operation ............................... 214
ADC .......................................................................... 160
ADC Transfer Function ............................................. 171
Analog Input Model ........................................... 171, 182
CCP PWM................................................................. 218
Clock Source............................................................... 62
Comparator ............................................................... 178
Compare ................................................................... 216
Crystal Operation .................................................. 64, 65
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) ........................... 174
EUSART Receive ..................................................... 298
EUSART Transmit .................................................... 297
External RC Mode ...................................................... 65
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM)................................. 73
Generic I/O Port........................................................ 125
Interrupt Logic............................................................. 87
LCD Bias Voltage Generation .................................. 343
LCD Clock Generation.............................................. 342
On-Chip Reset Circuit................................................. 79
Peripheral Interrupt Logic ........................................... 88
PIC16F/LF1946/47 ............................................... 12, 20
PWM (Enhanced) ..................................................... 222
Resonator Operation .................................................. 64
Timer0 ...................................................................... 193
Timer1 ...................................................................... 197
Timer1 Gate.............................................. 202, 203, 204
Timer2/4/6 ................................................................ 209
Voltage Reference.................................................... 155
Voltage Reference Output Buffer Example .............. 174
BORCON Register.............................................................. 81
BRA .................................................................................. 380
Break Character (12-bit) Transmit and Receive ............... 316
Brown-out Reset (BOR)...................................................... 81
Specifications ........................................................... 410
Timing and Characteristics ....................................... 409
C
C Compilers
MPLAB C18.............................................................. 426
CALL................................................................................. 381
CALLW ............................................................................. 381
Capacitive Sensing ........................................................... 325
Associated registers w/ Capacitive Sensing............. 333
Specifications ........................................................... 421
Capture Module. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/
PWM(ECCP)
Capture/Compare/PWM ................................................... 213
Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP)
Associated Registers w/ Capture ............................. 215
Associated Registers w/ Compare ........................... 217
Associated Registers w/ PWM ......................... 221, 235
Capture Mode........................................................... 214
CCPx Pin Configuration............................................ 214
Compare Mode......................................................... 216
CCPx Pin Configuration.................................... 216
Software Interrupt Mode ........................... 214, 216
Special Event Trigger ....................................... 216
Timer1 Mode Resource ............................ 214, 216
Prescaler .................................................................. 214
PWM Mode
Duty Cycle ........................................................ 219
Effects of Reset ................................................ 221
Example PWM Frequencies and
Resolutions, 20 MHZ ................................ 220
Example PWM Frequencies and
Resolutions, 32 MHZ ................................ 220
Example PWM Frequencies and
Resolutions, 8 MHz .................................. 220
Operation in Sleep Mode.................................. 221
Resolution ........................................................ 220
System Clock Frequency Changes .................. 221
PWM Operation ........................................................ 218
PWM Overview......................................................... 218
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 437
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
PWM Period .............................................................. 219
PWM Setup ............................................................... 219
CCP1CON Register ...................................................... 38, 39
CCPR1H Register ......................................................... 38, 39
CCPR1L Register.......................................................... 38, 39
CCPTMRS0 Register ........................................................ 237
CCPTMRS1 Register ........................................................ 238
CCPxAS Register.............................................................. 239
CCPxCON (ECCPx) Register ........................................... 236
Clock Accuracy with Asynchronous Operation ................. 306
Clock Sources
External Modes ........................................................... 63
EC ....................................................................... 63
HS ....................................................................... 63
LP........................................................................ 63
OST..................................................................... 64
RC....................................................................... 65
XT ....................................................................... 63
Internal Modes ............................................................ 66
HFINTOSC.......................................................... 66
Internal Oscillator Clock Switch Timing............... 68
LFINTOSC .......................................................... 67
MFINTOSC ......................................................... 66
Clock Switching................................................................... 70
CMOUT Register............................................................... 184
CMxCON0 Register .......................................................... 183
CMxCON1 Register .......................................................... 184
Code Examples
A/D Conversion ......................................................... 165
Changing Between Capture Prescalers .................... 214
Initializing PORTA ..................................................... 127
Initializing PORTB ..................................................... 130
Initializing PORTC..................................................... 133
Initializing PORTD..................................................... 136
Initializing PORTE ..................................................... 139
Initializing PORTF ..................................................... 142
Initializing PORTG .................................................... 146
Write Verify ............................................................... 121
Writing to Flash Program Memory ............................ 119
Comparator
Associated Registers ................................................ 185
Operation .................................................................. 177
Comparator Module .......................................................... 177
Cx Output State Versus Input Conditions ................. 179
Comparator Specifications ................................................ 414
Comparators
C2OUT as T1 Gate ................................................... 199
Compare Module. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/
PWM (ECCP)
CONFIG1 Register.............................................................. 56
CONFIG2 Register.............................................................. 58
Core Registers .................................................................... 33
CPSCON0 Register .......................................................... 331
CPSCON1 Register .......................................................... 332
Customer Change Notification Service ............................. 445
Customer Notification Service........................................... 445
Customer Support ............................................................. 445
D
DACCON0 (Digital-to-Analog Converter Control 0)
Register..................................................................... 176
DACCON1 (Digital-to-Analog Converter Control 1)
Register..................................................................... 176
Data EEPROM Memory .................................................... 111
Associated Registers ................................................ 124
Code Protection ........................................................ 112
DS41414C-page 438
Reading .................................................................... 112
Writing ...................................................................... 112
Data Memory ................................................................ 24, 27
DC and AC Characteristics............................................... 423
DC Characteristics
Extended and Industrial (PIC16F/LF1946/47-I/E)..... 400
Industrial and Extended (PIC16F/LF1946/47) .......... 392
Development Support ....................................................... 425
Device Configuration .......................................................... 55
Code Protection .......................................................... 59
Configuration Word..................................................... 55
User ID ................................................................. 59, 60
Device Overview......................................................... 11, 107
Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) ................................... 173
Associated Registers ................................................ 176
Effects of a Reset ..................................................... 174
Specifications ........................................................... 414
E
ECCP/CCP. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM
EEADR Registers ............................................................. 111
EEADRH Registers........................................................... 111
EEADRL Register ............................................................. 122
EEADRL Registers ........................................................... 111
EECON1 Register..................................................... 111, 123
EECON2 Register..................................................... 111, 124
EEDATH Register............................................................. 122
EEDATL Register ............................................................. 122
EEPROM Data Memory
Avoiding Spurious Write ........................................... 112
Write Verify ............................................................... 121
Effects of Reset
PWM mode ............................................................... 221
Electrical Specifications (PIC16F/LF1946/47) .................. 389
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP)..................... 213
Enhanced PWM Mode.............................................. 222
Auto-Restart ..................................................... 231
Auto-shutdown.................................................. 230
Direction Change in Full-Bridge Output Mode.. 228
Full-Bridge Application...................................... 226
Full-Bridge Mode .............................................. 226
Half-Bridge Application ..................................... 225
Half-Bridge Application Examples .................... 232
Half-Bridge Mode.............................................. 225
Output Relationships (Active-High and
Active-Low)............................................... 223
Output Relationships Diagram.......................... 224
Programmable Dead Band Delay..................... 232
Shoot-through Current ...................................... 232
Start-up Considerations .................................... 234
Specifications ........................................................... 411
Enhanced Mid-range CPU.................................................. 19
Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter (EUSART) .............................. 297
Errata .................................................................................... 9
EUSART ........................................................................... 297
Asynchronous Mode ................................................. 299
12-bit Break Transmit and Receive .................. 316
Associated Registers, Receive......................... 305
Associated Registers, Transmit ........................ 301
Auto-Wake-up on Break ................................... 314
Baud Rate Generator (BRG) ............................ 309
Clock Accuracy................................................. 306
Receiver ........................................................... 302
Setting up 9-bit Mode with Address Detect ...... 304
Transmitter ....................................................... 299
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Baud Rate Generator (BRG)
Associated Registers ........................................ 310
Auto Baud Rate Detect ..................................... 313
Baud Rate Error, Calculating ............................ 309
Baud Rates, Asynchronous Modes .................. 310
Formulas ........................................................... 309
High Baud Rate Select (BRGH Bit) .................. 309
Clock polarity
Synchronous Mode ........................................... 317
Data Polarity
Asynchronous Receive ..................................... 302
Data polarity
Asynchronous Transmit .................................... 299
Synchronous Mode ........................................... 317
Interrupts
Asynchronous Receive ..................................... 303
Asynchronous Transmit .................................... 299
Synchronous Master Mode ............................... 317, 322
Associated Registers, Receive ......................... 321
Associated Registers, Transmit ................ 318, 323
Reception.......................................................... 320
Transmission .................................................... 317
Synchronous Slave Mode
Associated Registers, Receive ......................... 324
Reception.......................................................... 324
Transmission .................................................... 322
Extended Instruction Set
ADDFSR ................................................................... 379
F
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor....................................................... 73
Fail-Safe Condition Clearing ....................................... 73
Fail-Safe Detection ..................................................... 73
Fail-Safe Operation..................................................... 73
Reset or Wake-up from Sleep..................................... 73
Firmware Instructions........................................................ 375
Fixed Voltage Reference (FVR)
Associated Registers ................................................ 156
Flash Program Memory .................................................... 111
Erasing...................................................................... 116
Modifying................................................................... 120
Writing....................................................................... 116
FSR Register
...... 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47
FVRCON (Fixed Voltage Reference Control) Register ..... 156
I
I2C Mode (MSSPx)
Acknowledge Sequence Timing................................ 282
Bus Collision
During a Repeated Start Condition ................... 287
During a Stop Condition.................................... 288
Effects of a Reset...................................................... 283
I2C Clock Rate w/BRG.............................................. 290
Master Mode
Operation .......................................................... 274
Reception.......................................................... 280
Start Condition Timing .............................. 276, 277
Transmission .................................................... 278
Multi-Master Communication, Bus Collision and
Arbitration ......................................................... 283
Multi-Master Mode .................................................... 283
Read/Write Bit Information (R/W Bit) ........................ 259
Slave Mode
Transmission .................................................... 264
Sleep Operation ........................................................ 283
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Stop Condition Timing .............................................. 282
INDF Register
...... 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47
Indirect Addressing ............................................................. 51
Instruction Format............................................................. 376
Instruction Set................................................................... 375
ADDLW..................................................................... 379
ADDWF .................................................................... 379
ADDWFC.................................................................. 379
ANDLW..................................................................... 379
ANDWF .................................................................... 379
BRA .......................................................................... 380
CALL......................................................................... 381
CALLW ..................................................................... 381
LSLF ......................................................................... 383
LSRF ........................................................................ 383
MOVF ....................................................................... 383
MOVIW ..................................................................... 384
MOVLB ..................................................................... 384
MOVWI ..................................................................... 385
OPTION.................................................................... 385
RESET...................................................................... 385
SUBWFB .................................................................. 387
TRIS ......................................................................... 388
BCF .......................................................................... 380
BSF........................................................................... 380
BTFSC...................................................................... 380
BTFSS ...................................................................... 380
CALL......................................................................... 381
CLRF ........................................................................ 381
CLRW ....................................................................... 381
CLRWDT .................................................................. 381
COMF ....................................................................... 381
DECF........................................................................ 381
DECFSZ ................................................................... 382
GOTO ....................................................................... 382
INCF ......................................................................... 382
INCFSZ..................................................................... 382
IORLW ...................................................................... 382
IORWF...................................................................... 382
MOVLW .................................................................... 384
MOVWF.................................................................... 384
NOP.......................................................................... 385
RETFIE..................................................................... 386
RETLW ..................................................................... 386
RETURN................................................................... 386
RLF........................................................................... 386
RRF .......................................................................... 387
SLEEP ...................................................................... 387
SUBLW..................................................................... 387
SUBWF..................................................................... 387
SWAPF..................................................................... 388
XORLW .................................................................... 388
XORWF .................................................................... 388
INTCON Register................................................................ 93
Internal Oscillator Block
INTOSC
Specifications ................................................... 406
Internal Sampling Switch (RSS) Impedance ..................... 170
Internet Address ............................................................... 445
Interrupt-On-Change......................................................... 151
Associated Registers................................................ 153
Interrupts ............................................................................ 87
ADC .......................................................................... 165
Associated registers w/ Interrupts ............................ 102
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 439
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Configuration Word Associated w/ PORTF............... 145
Configuration Word w/ Clock Sources ........................ 77
Configuration Word w/ LDO ...................................... 103
TMR1 ........................................................................ 201
INTOSC Specifications ..................................................... 406
IOCBF Register................................................................. 152
IOCBN Register ................................................................ 152
IOCBP Register................................................................. 152
L
LATA Register................................................................... 128
LATB Register................................................................... 131
LATC Register................................................................... 134
LATD Register................................................................... 137
LATE Register................................................................... 141
LATF Register ................................................................... 144
LATG Register .................................................................. 147
LCD
Associated Registers ................................................ 368
Bias Voltage Generation ................................... 343, 344
Clock Source Selection ............................................. 342
Configuring the Module ............................................. 367
Disabling the Module ................................................ 367
Frame Frequency...................................................... 350
Interrupts ................................................................... 363
LCDCON Register .................................................... 335
LCDPS Register........................................................ 335
Multiplex Types ......................................................... 350
Operation During Sleep ............................................ 365
Pixel Control.............................................................. 350
Prescaler ................................................................... 342
Segment Enables...................................................... 350
Waveform Generation ............................................... 352
LCDCON Register..................................................... 335, 337
LCDCST Register ............................................................. 340
LCDDATAx Registers ............................................... 341, 348
LCDPS Register........................................................ 335, 338
LP Bits....................................................................... 342
LCDREF Register ............................................................. 339
LCDRL Register ................................................................ 348
LCDSEn Registers ............................................................ 341
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Driver .................................. 335
Load Conditions ................................................................ 404
LSLF.................................................................................. 383
LSRF ................................................................................. 383
M
Master Synchronous Serial Port. See MSSPx
MCLR .................................................................................. 82
Internal ........................................................................ 82
Memory Organization
Data ...................................................................... 24, 27
Program ...................................................................... 21
Microchip Internet Web Site .............................................. 445
Migrating from other PIC Microcontroller Devices............. 435
MOVIW.............................................................................. 384
MOVLB.............................................................................. 384
MOVWI.............................................................................. 385
MPLAB ASM30 Assembler, Linker, Librarian ................... 426
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment Software .. 425
MPLAB PM3 Device Programmer..................................... 428
MPLAB REAL ICE In-Circuit Emulator System................. 427
MPLINK Object Linker/MPLIB Object Librarian ................ 426
MSSPx .............................................................................. 243
I2C Mode ................................................................... 254
I2C Mode Operation .................................................. 255
DS41414C-page 440
SPI Mode .................................................................. 246
SSPxBUF Register ................................................... 249
SSPxSR Register ..................................................... 249
O
OPCODE Field Descriptions............................................. 375
OPTION ............................................................................ 385
OPTION Register.............................................................. 195
OSCCON Register.............................................................. 75
Oscillator
Associated Registers .................................................. 77
Oscillator Module ................................................................ 61
ECH ............................................................................ 61
ECL............................................................................. 61
ECM............................................................................ 61
HS............................................................................... 61
INTOSC ...................................................................... 61
LP ............................................................................... 61
RC .............................................................................. 61
XT ............................................................................... 61
Oscillator Parameters ....................................................... 406
Oscillator Specifications.................................................... 405
Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
Specifications ........................................................... 410
Oscillator Switching
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor .............................................. 73
Two-Speed Clock Start-up.......................................... 71
OSCSTAT Register ............................................................ 76
OSCTUNE Register............................................................ 77
P
P1A/P1B/P1C/P1D.See Enhanced Capture/Compare/
PWM (ECCP)............................................................ 222
Packaging ......................................................................... 429
Marking ............................................................. 429, 430
PDIP Details ............................................................. 430
PCL and PCLATH............................................................... 20
PCL Register33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46,
47
PCLATH Register33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44,
46, 47
PCON Register ............................................................. 34, 85
PIE1 Register................................................................ 34, 94
PIE2 Register................................................................ 34, 95
PIE3 Register................................................................ 34, 96
PIE4 Register...................................................................... 34
Pin Diagram
PIC16F/LF1946/47, 64-pin TQFP/QFN ........................ 5
Pinout Descriptions
PIC16F/LF1946/47 ..................................................... 13
PIR1 Register ............................................................... 33, 98
PIR2 Register ............................................................... 33, 99
PIR3 Register ............................................................. 33, 100
PIR4 Register ....................................................... 33, 97, 101
PORTA ............................................................................. 127
ANSELA Register ..................................................... 127
Associated Registers ................................................ 129
Configuration Word w/ PORTA................................. 129
LATA Register ............................................................ 35
PORTA Register ......................................................... 33
Specifications ........................................................... 408
PORTA Register ............................................................... 128
PORTB ............................................................................. 130
Associated Registers ................................................ 132
Interrupt-on-Change ................................................. 130
LATB Register ............................................................ 35
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
P1B/P1C/P1D.See Enhanced Capture/Compare/
PWM+ (ECCP+) ............................................... 130
Pin Functions and Output Priorities .......................... 130
PORTB Register ......................................................... 33
PORTB Register ............................................................... 131
PORTC ............................................................................. 133
Associated Registers ................................................ 135
LATC Register ............................................................ 35
P1A.See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM+
(ECCP+) ........................................................... 133
Pin Functions and Output Priorities .......................... 133
PORTC Register ......................................................... 33
Specifications............................................................ 408
PORTC Register ............................................................... 134
PORTD ............................................................................. 136
Associated Registers ................................................ 138
LATD Register ............................................................ 35
P1B/P1C/P1D.See Enhanced Capture/Compare/
PWM+ (ECCP+) ............................................... 136
Pin Functions and Output Priorities .......................... 136
PORTD Register ......................................................... 33
PORTD Register ............................................................... 137
PORTE.............................................................................. 139
ANSELE Register ..................................................... 139
Associated Registers ................................................ 141
LATE Register............................................................. 35
Pin Functions and Output Priorities .......................... 139
PORTE Register ......................................................... 33
PORTE Register ............................................................... 140
PORTF .............................................................................. 142
ANSELF Register...................................................... 142
Associated Registers ................................................ 145
LATF Register............................................................. 40
Pin Functions and Output Priorities .......................... 143
PORTF Register ......................................................... 38
PORTF Register ............................................................... 144
PORTG ............................................................................. 146
ANSELG Register ..................................................... 146
Associated Registers ................................................ 149
LATG Register ............................................................ 40
Pin Descriptions and Output Priorities ...................... 146
PORTG Register......................................................... 38
PORTG Register ............................................................... 147
Power-Down Mode (Sleep) ............................................... 105
Associated Registers ................................................ 106
Power-on Reset .................................................................. 80
Power-up Timer (PWRT) .................................................... 80
Specifications............................................................ 410
PR2 Register................................................................. 33, 41
Precision Internal Oscillator Parameters........................... 406
Program Memory ................................................................ 21
Map and Stack ............................................................ 27
Map and Stack (PIC16F/LF1946/47) .................... 22, 27
Map and Stack (PIC16F1946) .................................... 22
Map and Stack (PIC16F1947) .................................... 22
Map and Stack PIC16F/LF1946/47) ........................... 21
Programming Mode Exit ..................................................... 82
Programming, Device Instructions .................................... 375
PSTRxCON Register ........................................................ 241
PWM (ECCP Module)
PWM Steering........................................................... 233
Steering Synchronization .......................................... 234
PWM Mode. See Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM ...... 222
PWM Steering ................................................................... 233
PWMxCON Register ......................................................... 240
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
R
RC2REG Register .............................................................. 42
RC2STA Register ............................................................... 42
RCREG............................................................................. 304
RCREG Register ................................................................ 36
RCSTA Register ......................................................... 36, 307
Reader Response............................................................. 446
Read-Modify-Write Operations ......................................... 375
Register
RCREG Register ...................................................... 313
Registers
ADCON0 (ADC Control 0) ........................................ 166
ADCON1 (ADC Control 1) ........................................ 167
ADRESH (ADC Result High) with ADFM = 0) .......... 168
ADRESH (ADC Result High) with ADFM = 1) .......... 169
ADRESL (ADC Result Low) with ADFM = 0)............ 168
ADRESL (ADC Result Low) with ADFM = 1)............ 169
ANSELA (PORTA Analog Select) ............................ 129
ANSELE (PORTE Analog Select) ............................ 141
ANSELF (PORTF Analog Select)............................. 145
APFCON (Alternate Pin Function Control) ............... 126
BAUDCON (Baud Rate Control)............................... 308
BORCON Brown-out Reset Control) .......................... 81
CCPTMRS0 (PWM Timer Selection Control 0) ........ 237
CCPTMRS1 (PWM Timer Selection Control 1) ........ 238
CCPxAS (CCPx Auto-Shutdown Control) ................ 239
CCPxCON (ECCPx Control) .................................... 236
CMOUT (Comparator Output) .................................. 184
CMxCON0 (Cx Control) ............................................ 183
CMxCON1 (Cx Control 1)......................................... 184
Configuration Word 1.................................................. 56
Configuration Word 2.................................................. 58
CPSCON0 (Capacitive Sensing Control Register 0) 331
CPSCON1 (Capacitive Sensing Control Register 1) 332
DACCON0 ................................................................ 176
DACCON1 ................................................................ 176
EEADRL (EEPROM Address) .................................. 122
EECON1 (EEPROM Control 1) ................................ 123
EECON2 (EEPROM Control 2) ................................ 124
EEDATH (EEPROM Data) ....................................... 122
EEDATL (EEPROM Data) ........................................ 122
FVRCON .................................................................. 156
INTCON (Interrupt Control) ........................................ 93
IOCBF (Interrupt-on-Change Flag)........................... 152
IOCBN (Interrupt-on-Change Negative Edge).......... 152
IOCBP (Interrupt-on-Change Positive Edge)............ 152
LATA (Data Latch PORTA) ...................................... 128
LATB (Data Latch PORTB) ...................................... 131
LATC (Data Latch PORTC) ...................................... 134
LATD (Data Latch PORTD) ...................................... 137
LATE (Data Latch PORTE) ...................................... 141
LATF (Data Latch PORTF)....................................... 144
LATG (Data Latch PORTG)...................................... 147
LCDCON (LCD Control) ........................................... 337
LCDCST (LCD Contrast Control) ............................. 340
LCDDATAx (LCD Data) .................................... 341, 348
LCDPS (LCD Phase)................................................ 338
LCDREF (LCD Reference Voltage Control) ............. 339
LCDRL (LCD Reference Voltage Control)................ 348
LCDSEn (LCD Segment Enable) ............................. 341
OPTION_REG (OPTION)......................................... 195
OSCCON (Oscillator Control)..................................... 75
OSCSTAT (Oscillator Status) ..................................... 76
OSCTUNE (Oscillator Tuning).................................... 77
PCON (Power Control Register)................................. 85
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 441
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
PCON (Power Control) ............................................... 85
PIE1 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 1) ........................... 94
PIE2 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 2) ........................... 95
PIE3 (Peripheral Interrupt Enable 3) ........................... 96
PIR1 (Peripheral Interrupt Register 1) ........................ 98
PIR2 (Peripheral Interrupt Request 2) ........................ 99
PIR3 (Peripheral Interrupt Request 3) ...................... 100
PIR4 (Peripheral Interrupt Request 4) ................ 97, 101
PORTA...................................................................... 128
PORTB...................................................................... 131
PORTC ..................................................................... 134
PORTD ..................................................................... 137
PORTE...................................................................... 140
PORTF ...................................................................... 144
PORTG ..................................................................... 147
PSTRxCON (PWM Steering Control) ....................... 241
PWMxCON (Enhanced PWM Control) ..................... 240
RCxSTA (Receive Status and Control) ..................... 307
Special Function, Summary ........................................ 33
SRCON0 (SR Latch Control 0) ................................. 189
SRCON1 (SR Latch Control 1) ................................. 190
SSPxADD (MSSPx Address and Baud Rate,
I2C Mode).......................................................... 295
SSPxCON1 (MSSPx Control 1) ................................ 292
SSPxCON2 (SSPx Control 2) ................................... 293
SSPxCON3 (SSPx Control 3) ................................... 294
SSPxMSK (SSPx Mask) ........................................... 295
SSPxSTAT (SSPx Status) ........................................ 291
STATUS ...................................................................... 25
T1CON (Timer1 Control)........................................... 205
T1GCON (Timer1 Gate Control) ............................... 206
TRISA (Tri-State PORTA) ......................................... 128
TRISB (Tri-State PORTB) ......................................... 131
TRISC (Tri-State PORTC) ........................................ 134
TRISD (Tri-State PORTD) ........................................ 137
TRISE (Tri-State PORTE) ......................................... 140
TRISF (Tri-State PORTF) ......................................... 144
TRISG (Tri-State PORTG) ........................................ 147
TXCON ..................................................................... 211
TXxSTA (Transmit Status and Control) .................... 306
WDTCON (Watchdog Timer Control)........................ 109
WPUB (Weak Pull-up PORTB) ................................. 132
WPUG (Weak Pull-up PORTG) ................................ 148
RESET .............................................................................. 385
Reset Instruction ................................................................. 82
Resets ................................................................................. 79
Associated Registers .................................................. 86
Revision History ................................................................ 435
S
Shoot-through Current ...................................................... 232
Software Simulator (MPLAB SIM)..................................... 427
SP2BRG Register ............................................................... 42
SPBRG.............................................................................. 309
SPBRG Register ........................................................... 35, 36
SPBRGH ........................................................................... 309
Special Event Trigger........................................................ 164
Special Function Registers (SFRs) ..................................... 33
SPI Mode (MSSPx)
Associated Registers ................................................ 253
SPI Clock .................................................................. 249
SR Latch ........................................................................... 187
Associated registers w/ SR Latch ............................. 191
SRCON0 Register............................................................. 189
SRCON1 Register............................................................. 190
SSP1ADD Register ............................................................. 37
DS41414C-page 442
SSP1BUF Register ............................................................. 37
SSP1CON1 Register .......................................................... 37
SSP1CON2 Register .......................................................... 37
SSP1CON3 Register .......................................................... 37
SSP1MSK Register ............................................................ 37
SSP1STAT Register ........................................................... 37
SSP2ADD Register............................................................. 37
SSP2BUF Register ............................................................. 37
SSP2CON1 Register .......................................................... 37
SSP2CON2 Register .......................................................... 37
SSP2CON3 Register .......................................................... 37
SSP2MSK Register ............................................................ 37
SSP2STAT Register ........................................................... 37
SSPxADD Register........................................................... 295
SSPxCON1 Register ........................................................ 292
SSPxCON2 Register ........................................................ 293
SSPxCON3 Register ........................................................ 294
SSPxMSK Register........................................................... 295
SSPxOV............................................................................ 280
SSPxOV Status Flag ........................................................ 280
SSPxSTAT Register ......................................................... 291
R/W Bit ..................................................................... 259
Stack................................................................................... 49
Accessing ................................................................... 49
Reset .......................................................................... 51
Stack Overflow/Underflow .................................................. 82
STATUS Register ............................................................... 25
SUBWFB .......................................................................... 387
T
T1CON Register ......................................................... 33, 205
T1GCON Register ............................................................ 206
T2CON Register ........................................................... 33, 41
Temperature Indicator Module.......................................... 157
Thermal Considerations (PIC16F/LF1946/47).................. 403
Timer0............................................................................... 193
Associated Registers ................................................ 195
Operation .................................................................. 193
Specifications ........................................................... 411
Timer1............................................................................... 197
Associated registers ................................................. 207
Asynchronous Counter Mode ................................... 199
Reading and Writing ......................................... 199
Clock Source Selection............................................. 198
Interrupt .................................................................... 201
Operation .................................................................. 198
Operation During Sleep ............................................ 201
Oscillator................................................................... 199
Prescaler .................................................................. 199
Specifications ........................................................... 411
Timer1 Gate
Selecting Source .............................................. 199
TMR1H Register ....................................................... 197
TMR1L Register........................................................ 197
Timer2
Associated registers ................................................. 212
Timer2/4/6......................................................................... 209
Associated registers ................................................. 212
Timers
Timer1
T1CON ............................................................. 205
T1GCON........................................................... 206
Timer2/4/6
TXCON ............................................................. 211
Timing Diagrams
A/D Conversion......................................................... 413
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
A/D Conversion (Sleep Mode) .................................. 413
Acknowledge Sequence ........................................... 282
Asynchronous Reception .......................................... 305
Asynchronous Transmission..................................... 300
Asynchronous Transmission (Back to Back) ............ 301
Auto Wake-up Bit (WUE) During Normal Operation . 315
Auto Wake-up Bit (WUE) During Sleep .................... 315
Automatic Baud Rate Calculator............................... 314
Baud Rate Generator with Clock Arbitration ............. 275
BRG Reset Due to SDA Arbitration During Start
Condition........................................................... 286
Brown-out Reset (BOR) ............................................ 409
Brown-out Reset Situations ........................................ 81
Bus Collision During a Repeated Start Condition
(Case 1) ............................................................ 287
Bus Collision During a Repeated Start Condition
(Case 2) ............................................................ 287
Bus Collision During a Start Condition (SCL = 0) ..... 286
Bus Collision During a Stop Condition (Case 1) ....... 288
Bus Collision During a Stop Condition (Case 2) ....... 288
Bus Collision During Start Condition (SDA only) ...... 285
Bus Collision for Transmit and Acknowledge............ 284
CLKOUT and I/O....................................................... 407
Clock Synchronization .............................................. 272
Clock Timing ............................................................. 405
Comparator Output ................................................... 177
Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) ............. 411
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) ................................. 74
First Start Bit Timing ................................................. 276
Full-Bridge PWM Output ........................................... 227
Half-Bridge PWM Output .................................. 225, 232
I2C Bus Data ............................................................. 419
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits.............................................. 418
I2C Master Mode (7 or 10-Bit Transmission) ............ 279
I2C Master Mode (7-Bit Reception)........................... 281
I2C Stop Condition Receive or Transmit Mode ......... 283
INT Pin Interrupt.......................................................... 91
Internal Oscillator Switch Timing................................. 69
LCD Interrupt Timing in Quarter-Duty Cycle Drive.... 364
LCD Sleep Entry/Exit when SLPEN = 1 or CS = 00 . 366
PWM Auto-shutdown ................................................ 231
Firmware Restart .............................................. 231
PWM Direction Change ............................................ 228
PWM Direction Change at Near 100% Duty Cycle ... 229
PWM Output (Active-High)........................................ 223
PWM Output (Active-Low) ........................................ 224
Repeat Start Condition.............................................. 277
Reset Start-up Sequence............................................ 83
Reset, WDT, OST and Power-up Timer ................... 408
Send Break Character Sequence ............................. 316
SPI Master Mode (CKE = 1, SMP = 1) ..................... 416
SPI Mode (Master Mode).......................................... 249
SPI Slave Mode (CKE = 0) ....................................... 417
SPI Slave Mode (CKE = 1) ....................................... 417
Synchronous Reception (Master Mode, SREN) ....... 321
Synchronous Transmission....................................... 318
Synchronous Transmission (Through TXEN) ........... 318
Timer0 and Timer1 External Clock ........................... 410
Timer1 Incrementing Edge........................................ 201
Two Speed Start-up .................................................... 72
Type-A in 1/2 Mux, 1/2 Bias Drive ............................ 353
Type-A in 1/2 Mux, 1/3 Bias Drive ............................ 355
Type-A in 1/3 Mux, 1/2 Bias Drive ............................ 357
Type-A in 1/3 Mux, 1/3 Bias Drive ............................ 359
Type-A in 1/4 Mux, 1/3 Bias Drive ............................ 361
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Type-A/Type-B in Static Drive .................................. 352
Type-B in 1/2 Mux, 1/2 Bias Drive ............................ 354
Type-B in 1/2 Mux, 1/3 Bias Drive ............................ 356
Type-B in 1/3 Mux, 1/2 Bias Drive ............................ 358
Type-B in 1/3 Mux, 1/3 Bias Drive ............................ 360
Type-B in 1/4 Mux, 1/3 Bias Drive ............................ 362
USART Synchronous Receive (Master/Slave) ......... 415
USART Synchronous Transmission (Master/Slave). 414
Wake-up from Interrupt............................................. 106
Timing Diagrams and Specifications
PLL Clock ................................................................. 406
Timing Parameter Symbology .......................................... 404
Timing Requirements
I2C Bus Data............................................................. 420
I2C Bus Start/Stop Bits............................................. 419
SPI Mode.................................................................. 418
TMR0 Register.................................................................... 33
TMR1H Register ................................................................. 33
TMR1L Register.................................................................. 33
TMR2 Register.............................................................. 33, 41
TRIS ................................................................................. 388
TRISA Register........................................................... 34, 128
TRISB ............................................................................... 130
TRISB Register........................................................... 34, 131
TRISC ............................................................................... 133
TRISC Register........................................................... 34, 134
TRISD ............................................................................... 136
TRISD Register........................................................... 34, 137
TRISE ............................................................................... 139
TRISE Register........................................................... 34, 140
TRISF ............................................................................... 142
TRISF Register ........................................................... 39, 144
TRISG............................................................................... 146
TRISG Register .......................................................... 39, 147
Two-Speed Clock Start-up Mode........................................ 71
TX2REG Register ............................................................... 42
TX2STA Register................................................................ 42
TXCON (Timer2/4/6) Register .......................................... 211
TXREG ............................................................................. 299
TXREG Register ................................................................. 36
TXSTA Register.......................................................... 36, 306
BRGH Bit .................................................................. 309
U
USART
Synchronous Master Mode
Requirements, Synchronous Receive .............. 415
Requirements, Synchronous Transmission...... 415
Timing Diagram, Synchronous Receive ........... 415
Timing Diagram, Synchronous Transmission... 414
V
VREF. SEE ADC Reference Voltage
W
Wake-up on Break ............................................................ 314
Wake-up Using Interrupts ................................................. 106
Watchdog Timer (WDT)...................................................... 82
Modes....................................................................... 108
Specifications ........................................................... 410
WCOL ....................................................... 275, 278, 280, 282
WCOL Status Flag.................................... 275, 278, 280, 282
WDTCON Register ........................................................... 109
WPUB Register................................................................. 132
WPUG Register ................................................................ 148
Write Protection .................................................................. 59
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 443
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
WWW Address.................................................................. 445
WWW, On-Line Support........................................................ 9
DS41414C-page 444
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Microchip provides online support via our WWW site at
www.microchip.com. This web site is used as a means
to make files and information easily available to
customers. Accessible by using your favorite Internet
browser, the web site contains the following
information:
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance
through several channels:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata,
application notes and sample programs, design
resources, user’s guides and hardware support
documents, latest software releases and archived
software
• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked
Questions (FAQ), technical support requests,
online discussion groups, Microchip consultant
program member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and
ordering guides, latest Microchip press releases,
listing of seminars and events, listings of
Microchip sales offices, distributors and factory
representatives
•
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Development Systems Information Line
Customers
should
contact
their
distributor,
representative or field application engineer (FAE) for
support. Local sales offices are also available to help
customers. A listing of sales offices and locations is
included in the back of this document.
Technical support is available through the web site
at: http://microchip.com/support
CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION
SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep
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changes, updates, revisions or errata related to a
specified product family or development tool of interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at
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“Customer Change Notification” and follow the
registration instructions.
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
DS41414C-page 445
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
READER RESPONSE
It is our intention to provide you with the best documentation possible to ensure successful use of your Microchip
product. If you wish to provide your comments on organization, clarity, subject matter, and ways in which our
documentation can better serve you, please FAX your comments to the Technical Publications Manager at
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Device: PIC16(L)F1946/1947
Literature Number: DS41414C
Questions:
1. What are the best features of this document?
2. How does this document meet your hardware and software development needs?
3. Do you find the organization of this document easy to follow? If not, why?
4. What additions to the document do you think would enhance the structure and subject?
5. What deletions from the document could be made without affecting the overall usefulness?
6. Is there any incorrect or misleading information (what and where)?
7. How would you improve this document?
DS41414C-page 446
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
PIC16(L)F1946/1947
PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
To order or obtain information, e.g., on pricing or delivery, refer to the factory or the listed sales office.
PART NO.
X
/XX
XXX
Device
Temperature
Range
Package
Pattern
Examples:
a)
b)
Device:
PIC16F1946, PIC16LF1946, PIC16F1946T, PIC16LF1946T(1)
PIC16F1947, PIC16LF1947, PIC16F1947T, PIC16LF1947T(1)
Temperature
Range:
I
E
=
=
-40C to +85C
-40C to +125C
Package:
MR
PT
=
=
Micro Lead Frame (QFN)
TQFP (Thin Quad Flatpack)
PIC16LF1946 - E/MR = Extended temp., QFN
package, low-voltage VDD limits.
PIC16F1947 - I/PT = Industrial temp., TQFP
package, standard VDD limits.
Note 1:
Pattern:
3-Digit Pattern Code for QTP (blank otherwise)
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.
Preliminary
2:
F = Standard Voltage Range
LF = Low Voltage Range
T = In tape and reel for QFN and TQFP
packages only.
DS41414C-page 447
Worldwide Sales and Service
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Denmark - Copenhagen
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Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
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Tel: 60-4-227-8870
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Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
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Tel: 86-532-8502-7355
Fax: 86-532-8502-7205
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Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
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Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
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Tel: 886-3-6578-300
Fax: 886-3-6578-370
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Tel: 86-24-2334-2829
Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
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Tel: 886-7-213-7830
Fax: 886-7-330-9305
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8203-2660
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2500-6610
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
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Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
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Fax: 66-2-694-1350
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Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
China - Xiamen
Tel: 86-592-2388138
Fax: 86-592-2388130
China - Zhuhai
Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
DS41414C-page 448
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Korea - Daegu
Tel: 82-53-744-4301
Fax: 82-53-744-4302
China - Chengdu
Tel: 86-28-8665-5511
Fax: 86-28-8665-7889
05/02/11
Preliminary
 2010-2011 Microchip Technology Inc.