Intersil CA3028A Differential/cascode amplifier for commercial and industrial equipment from dc to 120mhz Datasheet

Semiconductor
CT
T
ODU CEMEN 7
R
P
E
A
74
T
L
7
E
OL
REP 00-442OBS ENDED
8
1
m
s.co
MM
ions
ECO pplicat [email protected]
R
O
N
ral A centap
Cent
:
Call or email
CA3028A
January 1999
File Number 382.5
Differential/Cascode Amplifier for
Commercial and Industrial Equipment
from DC to 120MHz
Features
The CA3028A is a differential/cascode amplifier designed for
use in communications and industrial equipment operating
at frequencies from DC to 120MHz.
• Balanced Differential Amplifier Configuration with Controlled Constant Current Source
[ /Title
(CA30
28A)
Part Number Information
/SubPART NUMBER
TEMP.
ject
(BRAND)
RANGE (oC)
PACKAGE
(DifCA3028A
-55 to 125 8 Pin Metal Can
ferenCA3028AE
-55 to 125 8 Ld PDIP
tial/Ca
CA3028AM96
-55 to 125 8 Ld SOIC Tape
scode
(3028A)
and Reel
Amplifier for Pinouts
ComCA3028A
(PDIP, SOIC)
merTOP VIEW
cial
and
1
8
Indus2
7
trial
3
6
Equipment
4
5
from
DC to
120M
CA3028A
(METAL CAN)
Hz)
TOP VIEW
/Autho
r ()
8
/Key1
7
words
2
6
(Harris
5
3
Semi4
• Controlled for Input Offset Voltage, Input Offset
Current and Input Bias Current
• Single-Ended and Dual-Ended Operation
Applications
PKG.
NO.
• RF and IF Amplifiers (Differential or Cascode)
T8.C
• DC, Audio and Sense Amplifiers
E8.3
• Converter in the Commercial FM Band
M8.15
• Oscillator
• Mixer
• Limiter
• Related Literature
- Application Note AN5337 “Application of the CA3028
Integrated Circuit Amplifier in the HF and VHF Ranges.”
This note covers characteristics of different operating
modes, noise performance, mixer, limiter, and amplifier
design considerations
Schematic Diagram
(Terminal Numbers Apply to All Packages)
8
1
R1
6
Q1
Q2
5
7
5kΩ
2
Q3
4
R2
2.8kΩ
R3
500Ω
3
SUBSTRATE
AND CASE
1
CAUTION: These devices are sensitive to electrostatic discharge; follow proper IC Handling Procedures.
Copyright © Harris Corporation 1999
CA3028A
Operating Conditions
Thermal Information
Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -55oC to 125oC
Thermal Resistance (Typical, Note 1)
θJA (oC/W) θJC (oC/W)
Metal Can Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
225
140
PDIP Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
155
N/A
SOIC Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
185
N/A
Maximum Junction Temperature (Metal Can Package). . . . . . . .175oC
Maximum Junction Temperature (Plastic Package) . . . . . . . .150oC
Maximum Storage Temperature Range . . . . . . . . . . -65oC to 150oC
Maximum Lead Temperature (Soldering 10s) . . . . . . . . . . . . 300oC
(SOIC - Lead Tips Only)
CAUTION: Stresses above those listed in “Absolute Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device. This is a stress only rating and operation of the
device at these or any other conditions above those indicated in the operational sections of this specification is not implied.
NOTE:
1. θJA is measured with the component mounted on an evaluation PC board in free air.
Absolute Maximum Voltage Ratings
TA = 25oC
The following chart gives the range of voltages which can be applied to the terminals listed horizontally with
respect to the terminals listed vertically. For example, the voltage range of the horizontal Terminal 4 with
respect to Terminal 2 is -1V to +5V.
TERM
NO.
1
1
Absolute Maximum
Current Ratings
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
TERM
NO.
IIN
mA
IOUT
mA
0 to -15
0 to -15
0 to -15
+5 to -5
Note 3
Note 3
+20 to 0
1
0.6
0.1
+5 to -11
+5 to -1
+15 to 0
Note 3
+15 to 0
Note 3
2
4
0.1
+10 to 0
+15 to 0
+24 to 0
+15 to 0
+24 to 0
3
0.1
23
+15 to 0
Note 3
Note 3
Note 3
4
20
0.1
+20 to 0
Note 3
Note 3
5
0.6
0.1
Note 3
Note 3
6
20
0.1
Note 3
7
4
0.1
8
20
0.1
2
3 (Note 2)
4
5
6
7
8
NOTES:
2. Terminal No. 3 is connected to the substrate and case.
3. Voltages are not normally applied between these terminals. Voltages appearing between these terminals
will be safe, if the specified voltage limits between all other terminals are not exceeded.
TA = 25oC
Electrical Specifications
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
VCC = 6V, VEE = -6V
-
16.6
70
µA
VCC = 12V, VEE = -12V
-
36
106
µA
VCC = 6V, VEE = -6V
0.8
1.25
2.0
mA
VCC = 12V, VEE = -12V
2.0
3.3
5.0
mA
VCC = 12V, VAGC = 9V
-
1.28
-
mA
VCC = 12V, VAGC = 12V
-
1.65
-
mA
VCC = 6V, VEE = -6V
0.5
0.85
1.0
mA
VCC = 12V, VEE = -12V
1.0
1.65
2.1
mA
VCC = 6V, VEE = -6V
24
36
54
mW
VCC = 12V, VEE = -12V
120
175
260
mW
DC CHARACTERISTICS
Input Bias Current (Figures 1, 10)
Quiescent Operating Current (Figures 1,11, 12)
AGC Bias Current (Into Constant Current Source
Terminal 7) (Figures 2, 13)
Input Current (Terminal 7)
II
I6, I8
I7
I7
Power Dissipation (Figures 1, 14)
2
PT
CA3028A
TA = 25oC (Continued)
Electrical Specifications
PARAMETER
SYMBOL
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Power Gain (Figures 3, 4, 5, 15, 17, 19)
Noise Figure (Figures 3, 4, 5, 16, 18, 19)
Input Admittance (Figures 20, 21)
Reverse Transfer Admittance (Figures 22, 23)
Forward Transfer Admittance (Figures 24, 25)
Output Admittance (Figures 26, 27)
Output Power (Untuned) (Figures 6, 28)
AGC Range (Maximum Power Gain to Full Cutoff)
(Figures 7, 29)
Voltage Gain
(Figures 8, 9, 30, 31)
Peak-to-Peak Output Current
GP
NF
Y11
Y12
Y21
Y22
Cascode
16
20
-
dB
Diff. Amp.
14
17
-
dB
f = 10.7MHz
VCC = 9V
Cascode
35
39
-
dB
Diff. Amp.
28
32
-
dB
f = 100MHz, VCC = 9V
Cascode
-
7.2
9.0
dB
Diff. Amp.
-
6.7
9.0
dB
Cascode
-
0.6 +
j1.6
-
mS
Diff. Amp.
-
0.5 +
j0.5
-
mS
Cascode
-
0.0003
- j0
-
mS
Diff. Amp.
-
0.01 j0.0002
-
mS
Cascode
-
99 - j18
-
mS
Diff. Amp.
-
-37 +
j0.5
-
mS
Cascode
-
0+
j0.08
-
mS
Diff. Amp.
-
0.04 +
j0.23
-
mS
f = 10.7MHz, VCC = 9V
f = 10.7MHz, VCC = 9V
f = 10.7MHz, VCC = 9V
f = 10.7MHz, VCC = 9V
PO
f = 10.7MHz, VCC = 9V
Diff. Amp., 50Ω
Input-Output
-
5.7
-
µW
AGC
f = 10.7MHz, VCC = 9V
Diff. Amp.
-
62
-
dB
A
f = 10.7MHz, VCC = 9V,
RL = 1kΩ
Cascode
-
40
-
dB
Diff. Amp.
-
30
-
dB
f = 10.7MHz, eIN = 400mV,
Diff. Amp.
VCC = 9V
2.0
4.0
7.0
mA
VCC = 12V
3.5
6.0
10
mA
IP-P
3
f = 100MHz
VCC = 9V
CA3028A
Test Circuits
VCC
+
I6
3µF
+
-
-
I8
6
8
1kΩ
5
6
1
2kΩ
ICUT
ICUT
-
3
8
I1
7
3
+
5
-
7 +
-
I3
+
+
VCC
1
I7
I7
I5
3µF
5kΩ
VCC
VEE
NOTE: Power Dissipation = I 3 V EE + ( I 6 + I 8 )V CC .
FIGURE 1. INPUT OFFSET CURRENT, INPUT BIAS CURRENT,
POWER DISSIPATION, AND QUIESCENT
OPERATING CURRENT TEST CIRCUIT
FIGURE 2. AGC BIAS CURRENT TEST CIRCUIT (DIFFERENTIAL
AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION)
VCC
7
1kΩ
470pF
L2
8
2
ICUT
1
C2
8
L1
50Ω RF
VOLTMETER
(NOTE 4) OR
NOISE AMP
(NOTE 5)
1
4
50Ω SIGNAL
SOURCE
(NOTE 4) OR
NOISE DIODE
(NOTE 5)
0.001µF
0.001µF
C1
(pF)
C2
(pF)
10.7
20 - 60 20 - 60
100
3 - 30
2kΩ
6
3
50Ω SIGNAL
SOURCE
(NOTE 6) OR
NOISE DIODE
(NOTE 7)
5
0.001µF
C1
(pF)
50Ω RF
VOLTMETER
(NOTE 6) OR
NOISE AMP
(NOTE 7)
2kΩ
L1
(µH)
L2
(µH)
f
(MHz)
3-5
3-5
10.7
30 - 60 20 - 50
100
2 - 15
NOTES:
C2
ICUT
L1
3 - 30 0.1 - 0.25 0.15 - 0.3
L2
7
6
3
1kΩ
C1
5
C1
f
(MHz)
VCC
0.001
µF
C2
(pF)
2 - 15
L1
(µH)
L2
(µH)
3-6
3-6
0.2 - 0.5
0.2 - 0.5
NOTES:
4. For Power Gain Test.
6. For Power Gain Test.
5. For Noise Figure Test.
7. For Noise Figure Test.
FIGURE 3. POWER GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE TEST CIRCUIT
(CASCODE CONFIGURATION)
FIGURE 4. POWER GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE TEST CIRCUIT
(DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
AND TERMINAL 7 CONNECTED TO VCC)
4
CA3028A
Test Circuits
(Continued)
5kΩ
VCC
1kΩ
7
L2
8
C1
1
6
C2
ICUT
L1
3
50Ω SIGNAL
SOURCE
(NOTE 8) OR
NOISE DIODE
(NOTE 9)
5
50Ω RF
VOLTMETER
(NOTE 8) OR
NOISE AMP
(NOTE 9)
VCC
0.001µF
2kΩ
VCC
1kΩ
f
(MHz)
C1
(pF)
C2
(pF)
L1
(µH)
10.7
30 - 60 20 - 50
100
2 - 15
2 - 15
7
5
L2
(µH)
0.01
µF
3-6
3-6
0.2 - 0.5
0.2 - 0.5
2kΩ
8
50Ω
ICUT
1
6
0.01
µF
3
INPUT
0.01µF
50Ω
NOTES:
OUTPUT
8. For Power Gain Test.
0.01µF
9. For Noise Figure Test.
FIGURE 5. POWER GAIN AND NOISE FIGURE TEST CIRCUIT
(DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION)
FIGURE 6. OUTPUT POWER TEST CIRCUIT
5kΩ
VCC
1kΩ
7
10Ω
L2
8
C1
C2
1
50Ω
SIGNAL
SOURCE
VCC
6
1kΩ LOAD
50Ω RF
VOLTMETER
ICUT
L1
3
8
5
7
OUTPUT
6
1
0.001µF
2kΩ
INPUT
2
50Ω
f
(MHz)
C1
(pF)
C2
(pF)
10.7
30 - 60 20 - 50
100
2 - 15
2 - 15
L1
(µH)
L2
(µH)
3-6
3-6
0.2 - 0.5
0.2 - 0.5
FIGURE 7. AGC RANGE TEST CIRCUIT (DIFFERENTIAL
AMPLIFIER)
5
0.01µF
5
ICUT
1kΩ
3
4
0.01µF
0.01µF
2kΩ
0.01µF
FIGURE 8. TRANSFER CHARACTERISTIC (VOLTAGE GAIN) TEST
CIRCUIT (10.7MHz) CASCODE CONFIGURATION
CA3028A
Test Circuits
(Continued)
VCC
10Ω
1kΩ LOAD
8
7
INPUT
0.01µF
OUTPUT
6
1
50Ω
5
ICUT
1kΩ
3
0.01µF
10µH
2kΩ
0.001µF
FIGURE 9. TRANSFER CHARACTERISTIC (VOLTAGE GAIN) TEST CIRCUIT (10.7MHz) DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
Typical Performance Curves
QUIESCENT OPERATING CURRENT (mA)
INPUT BIAS CURRENT (µA)
75.0
POSITIVE DC SUPPLY VOLTS (VCC)
NEGATIVE DC SUPPLY VOLTS (VEE)
62.5
50.0
VCC = +12V
VEE = -12V
37.5
25.0
12.5
0
-75
VCC = +6V
VEE = -6V
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
TEMPERATURE (oC)
100
125
FIGURE 10. INPUT BIAS CURRENT vs TEMPERATURE
6
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
3.5
VEE = -12V
2.5
VEE = -9V
1.5
-75
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
TEMPERATURE (oC)
100
FIGURE 11. QUIESCENT OPERATING CURRENT vs
TEMPERATURE
125
CA3028A
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
3.5
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC
2.5
AGC BIAS CURRENT (mA)
2
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0
0
-5
-10
-15
DC EMITTER SUPPLY (V)
0
40
180
VCC = +12V
VEE = -12V
35
170
VCC = +6V
VEE = -6V
30
160
-50
-25
0
25
50
75
100
2
4
10
6
8
AGC BIAS, TERMINAL NO. 7 (V)
12
FIGURE 13. AGC BIAS CURRENT vs BIAS VOLTAGE
(TERMINAL 7)
TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION, ±6V (mW)
TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION, ±12V (mW)
FIGURE 12. OPERATING CURRENT vs VEE VOLTAGE
150
1
0
-20
CASCODE CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC
45
40
VCC = +12V
35
POWER GAIN (dB)
OPERATING CURRENT, I6 OR I8 (mA)
VCC = 6V
3.0
30
25
VCC = +9V
20
15
10
5
0
10
25
125
20
TEMPERATURE (oC)
FIGURE 14. POWER DISSIPATION vs TEMPERATURE
30
40
50
FREQUENCY (MHz)
60 70 80 90 100
FIGURE 15. POWER GAIN vs FREQUENCY (CASCODE
CONFIGURATION)
CASCODE CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, f = 100MHz
40
DIFFERENTIAL
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC
POWER GAIN (dB)
35
NOISE FIGURE (dB)
9
8
7
6
VCC = +12V
30
25
20
VCC = +9V
15
10
5
5
9
12
10
11
DC COLLECTOR SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
FIGURE 16. 100MHz NOISE FIGURE vs COLLECTOR SUPPLY
VOLTAGE (CASCODE CONFIGURATION)
7
0
10
20
30
40
50 60 70 80 90 100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 17. POWER GAIN vs FREQUENCY (DIFFERENTIAL
AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION)
CA3028A
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
NOISE FIGURE (dB) OR POWER GAIN (dB)
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, f = 100MHz
NOISE FIGURE (dB)
9
8
7
6
5
9
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, VCC = +9V, f = 100MHz
20
POWER GAIN
15
10
NOISE FIGURE
5
0
9
12
10
11
DC COLLECTOR SUPPLY VOLTAGE (V)
FIGURE 18. 100MHz NOISE FIGURE vs COLLECTOR SUPPLY
VOLTAGE (DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
CONFIGURATION)
8
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, VCC = +9V
3
INPUT CONDUCTANCE (g11) OR
SUSCEPTANCE (b11) (mS)
INPUT CONDUCTANCE (g11) OR
SUSCEPTANCE (b11) (mS)
7
6
5
4
b11
2
g11
1
2
3
FIGURE 19. 100MHz NOISE FIGURE AND POWER GAIN vs
BASE-TO-EMITTER BIAS VOLTAGE (TERMINAL 7)
CASCODE CONFIGURATION, TA = 25oC
IC(STAGE) = 4.5mA, VCC = +9V
3
7
6
5
4
POSITIVE DC BIAS VOLTAGE (V)
0
IC OF EACH TRANSISTOR = 2.2mA
2
b11
1
g11
0
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
1
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
100
FIGURE 20. INPUT ADMITTANCE (Y11) vs FREQUENCY
(CASCODE CONFIGURATION)
FIGURE 21. INPUT ADMITTANCE (Y11) vs FREQUENCY
(DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION)
REVERSE TRANSFER CONDUCTANCE (g12)
OR SUSCEPTANCE (b12) (mS)
100
REVERSE TRANSFER CONDUCTANCE (g12)
OR SUSCEPTANCE (b12) (µS)
1
CASCODE CONFIGURATION, TA = 25oC
IC(STAGE) = 4.5mA, VCC = +9V
20
15
10
g12
5
0
b12
-5
-10
-15
-20
1
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 22. REVERSE TRANSADMITTANCE (Y12) vs
FREQUENCY (CASCODE CONFIGURATION)
8
100
0.3
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, VCC = +9V
IC OF EACH TRANSISTOR = 2.2mA
0.2
g12
0.1
0
b12
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
10
20
30
40 50 60
80 100
200
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 23. REVERSE TRANSADMITTANCE (Y12) vs
FREQUENCY (DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
CONFIGURATION)
300
CA3028A
(Continued)
FORWARD TRANSFER CONDUCTANCE (g21)
OR SUSCEPTANCE (b21) (mS)
CASCODE CONFIGURATION, TA = 25oC
IC(STAGE) = 4.5mA, VCC = +9V
100
80
g21
60
40
20
0
-20
b21
-40
-60
-80
1
2
3
4 5 6 7 8 910
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, VCC = +9V
IC OF EACH TRANSISTOR = 2.2mA
30
20
b21
10
0
-10
-20
g21
-30
-40
100
1
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FREQUENCY (MHz)
CASCODE CONFIGURATION, TA = 25oC
IC(STAGE) = 4.5mA, VCC = +9V
3
b22
2
1
0
0
-0.02
g22
-0.04
-0.06
-0.08
1
OUTPUT CONDUCTANCE (g22) (mS)
FIGURE 25. FORWARD TRANSADMITTANCE (Y21) vs
FREQUENCY (DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
CONFIGURATION)
OUTPUT SUSCEPTANCE (b22) (mS)
OUTPUT CONDUCTANCE (g22) (mS)
FIGURE 24. FORWARD TRANSADMITTANCE (Y21) vs
FREQUENCY (CASCODE CONFIGURATION)
100
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 26. OUTPUT ADMITTANCE (Y22) vs FREQUENCY
(CASCODE CONFIGURATION)
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION,
TA = 25oC
IC OF EACH TRANSISTOR = 2.2mA, VCC = +9V
OUTPUT POWER (µW)
2
1.5
0.6
b22
0.5
1.0
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.5
g22
0.1
0
100
0
10
FREQUENCY (MHz)
1
FIGURE 27. OUTPUT ADMITTANCE (Y22) vs FREQUENCY
(DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION)
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, CONSTANT POWER INPUT = 2µW
10
100
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, VCC = +9V
40
VCC = +12V
POWER GAIN (dB)
f = 10.7MHz
VCC = +9V
20
100MHz
0
-20
-40
1
10
100
FREQUENCY (MHz)
FIGURE 28. OUTPUT POWER vs FREQUENCY - 50Ω INPUT
AND 50Ω OUTPUT (DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
CONFIGURATION)
9
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
DC BIAS VOLTAGE ON TERMINAL NO. 7 (V)
FIGURE 29. AGC CHARACTERISTICS
OUTPUT SUSCEPTANCE (b22) (mS)
FORWARD TRANSFER CONDUCTANCE (g21)
OR SUSCEPTANCE (b21) (mS)
Typical Performance Curves
CA3028A
Typical Performance Curves
(Continued)
3.0
CASCODE CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, f = 10.7MHz
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION
TA = 25oC, f = 10.7MHz
4
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
OUTPUT VOLTAGE (V)
5
VCC = +12V
VCC = +9V
3
2
1
2.5
VCC = +12V
2.0
1.5
VCC = +9V
1.0
0.5
0
0
0.05
0.1
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0.15
FIGURE 30. TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS (CASCODE
CONFIGURATION)
0
0.05
0.1
INPUT VOLTAGE (V)
0.15
FIGURE 31. TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS (DIFFERENTIAL
AMPLIFIER CONFIGURATION)
Glossary of Terms
AGC Bias Current - The current drawn by the device from
the AGC voltage source, at maximum AGC voltage.
AGC Range - The total change in voltage gain (from
maximum gain to complete cutoff) which may be achieved by
application of the specified range of dc voltage to the AGC
input terminal of the device.
Common Mode Rejection Ratio - The ratio of the full
differential voltage gain to the common mode voltage gain.
Power Dissipation - The total power drain of the device with
no signal applied and no external load current.
Input Bias Current - The average value (one half the sum)
of the currents at the two input terminals when the quiescent
operating voltages at the two output terminals are equal.
Input Offset Current - The difference in the currents at the
two input terminals when the quiescent operating voltages at
the two output terminals are equal.
Input Offset Voltage - The difference in the DC voltages
which must be applied to the input terminals to obtain equal
quiescent operating voltages (zero output offset voltage) at
the output terminals.
10
Noise Figure - The ratio of the total noise power of the
device and a resistive signal source to the noise power of the
signal source alone, the signal source representing a
generator of zero impedance in series with the source
resistance.
Power Gain - The ratio of the signal power developed at
the output of the device to the signal power applied to the
input, expressed in dB.
Quiescent Operating Current - The average (DC) value of
the current in either output terminal.
Voltage Gain - The ratio of the change in output voltage at
either output terminal with respect to ground, to a change in
input voltage at either input terminal with respect to ground,
with the other input terminal at AC ground.
Similar pages