Renesas M30622F4-XXXFS 16-bit single-chip microcomputer m16c family Datasheet

To all our customers
Regarding the change of names mentioned in the document, such as Mitsubishi
Electric and Mitsubishi XX, to Renesas Technology Corp.
The semiconductor operations of Hitachi and Mitsubishi Electric were transferred to Renesas
Technology Corporation on April 1st 2003. These operations include microcomputer, logic, analog
and discrete devices, and memory chips other than DRAMs (flash memory, SRAMs etc.)
Accordingly, although Mitsubishi Electric, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mitsubishi
Semiconductors, and other Mitsubishi brand names are mentioned in the document, these names
have in fact all been changed to Renesas Technology Corp. Thank you for your understanding.
Except for our corporate trademark, logo and corporate statement, no changes whatsoever have been
made to the contents of the document, and these changes do not constitute any alteration to the
contents of the document itself.
Note : Mitsubishi Electric will continue the business operations of high frequency & optical devices
and power devices.
Renesas Technology Corp.
Customer Support Dept.
April 1, 2003
MITSUBISHI 16-BIT SINGLE-CHIP MICROCOMPUTER
M16C FAMILY
M16C/62
Group
User's manual
Keep safety first in your circuit designs!
●
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation puts the maximum effort into making semiconductor
products better and more reliable, but there is always the possibility that trouble may
occur with them. Trouble with semiconductors may lead to personal injury, fire or
property damage. Remember to give due consideration to safety when making your
circuit designs, with appropriate measures such as (i) placement of substitutive,
auxiliary circuits, (ii) use of non-flammable material or (iii) prevention against any
malfunction or mishap.
Notes regarding these materials
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
These materials are intended as a reference to assist our customers in the selection
of the Mitsubishi semiconductor product best suited to the customer's application;
they do not convey any license under any intellectual property rights, or any other
rights, belonging to Mitsubishi Electric Corporation or a third party.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation assumes no responsibility for any damage, or
infringement of any third-party's rights, originating in the use of any product data,
diagrams, charts, programs, algorithms, or circuit application examples contained in
these materials.
All information contained in these materials, including product data, diagrams, charts,
programs and algorithms represents information on products at the time of publication
of these materials, and are subject to change by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
without notice due to product improvements or other reasons. It is therefore
recommended that customers contact Mitsubishi Electric Corporation or an authorized
Mitsubishi Semiconductor product distributor for the latest product information before
purchasing a product listed herein.
The information described here may contain technical inaccuracies or typographical
errors. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation assumes no responsibility for any damage,
liability, or other loss rising from these inaccuracies or errors.
Please also pay attention to information published by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
by various means, including the Mitsubishi Semiconductor home page (http://
www.mitsubishichips.com).
When using any or all of the information contained in these materials, including
product data, diagrams, charts, programs, and algorithms, please be sure to evaluate
all information as a total system before making a final decision on the applicability of
the information and products. Mitsubishi Electric Corporation assumes no
responsibility for any damage, liability or other loss resulting from the information
contained herein.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation semiconductors are not designed or manufactured
for use in a device or system that is used under circumstances in which human life is
potentially at stake. Please contact Mitsubishi Electric Corporation or an authorized
Mitsubishi Semiconductor product distributor when considering the use of a product
contained herein for any specific purposes, such as apparatus or systems for
transportation, vehicular, medical, aerospace, nuclear, or undersea repeater use.
The prior written approval of Mitsubishi Electric Corporation is necessary to reprint
or reproduce in whole or in part these materials.
If these products or technologies are subject to the Japanese export control
restrictions, they must be exported under a license from the Japanese government
and cannot be imported into a country other than the approved destination.
Any diversion or reexport contrary to the export control laws and regulations of Japan
and/or the country of destination is prohibited.
Please contact Mitsubishi Electric Corporation or an authorized Mitsubishi Semicon
ductor product distributor for further details on these materials or the products con
tained therein.
How to Use This Manual
This user's manual is written for the M16C/62 group.
The reader of this manual is expected to have the basic knowledge of electric and logic
circuits and microcomputers.
This manual explains a function of the following kind.
• M30620M8-XXXFP/GP
• M30620MA-XXXFP/GP
• M30620MC-XXXFP/GP
• M30620EC-XXXFP/GP
• M30620ECFS
• M30620SFP/GP
• M30622M4-XXXFP/GP
• M30622M8-XXXFP/GP
• M30622MA-XXXFP/GP
• M30622MC-XXXFP/GP
• M30622SFP/GP
• M30624MG-XXXFP/GP
• M30624FGFP/GP
• M30624FGLFP/GP
These products have similar features except for the memories, which differ from one product to
another. This manual gives descriptions of M30622MC-XXXFP. An electric characteristic refer
to data sheet responded to. Memories built-in are as shown below. Be careful when writing a
program, as the memories have different capacities.
ROM Size
(Byte)
M30620SFP/GP
M30622SFP/GP
External
ROM
M30624FGFP/GP
M30624FGLFP/GP
256K
M30624MG-XXXFP/GP
128K
M30620MC-XXXFP/GP
M30622MC-XXXFP/GP M30620ECFP/GP
64K
M30620MA-XXXFP/GP
M30622MA-XXXFP/GP
M30620M8-XXXFP/GP
M30622M8-XXXFP/GP
32K
M30622M4-XXXFP/GP
96K
Mask ROM version
M30620ECFS
One-time PROM version
EPROM version
Flash memory version
External ROM version
The figure of each register configuration describes its functions, contents at reset, and attributes
as follows :
• Bit attribute
R.....Read
O.....Possible to read
X.....Impossible to read
W.....Write
O.....Possible to write
X.....Impossible to write
Bit attribute
Timer Ai mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TAiMR(i=0 to 4)
Bit symbol
TMOD0
TMOD1
MR0
MR1
Address
When reset
0016
039616 to 039A16
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
0 1 : Event counter mode
1 0 : One-shot timer mode
1 1 : Pulse width modulation
(PWM) mode
Function varies with each operation mode
MR2
MR3
TCK0
TCK1
Count source select bit
(Function varies with each operation mode)
AAAA
AAA
A
AA
AAAA
AA
RW
This manual comprises of eight chapters. Use the suggested chapters as a reference for the
following topics:
* To understand hardware specifications ................................................... Chapter 1 Hardware
* To understand the basic way of using peripheral
features and the operation timing ................................ Chapter 2 Peripheral Functions Usage
* To observe applications of
peripheral features ........................ Chapter 3 Examples of Peripheral Functions Applications
* To understand interrupt timing in detail .................................................... Chapter 4 Interrupts
* To understand how to use external buses ....................................... Chapter 5 External Buses
* To know the difference between
the mask ROM Version and external ROM Version ............ Chapter 6 External ROM Version
* To understand standard data............................................ Chapter 7 Standard Characteristics
This manual includes a quick reference immediately following the Table of Contents, indicate
the page of the topic to be pursued.
* To find a page describing a specific register
by the register address ............................... Quick Reference to Pages Classified by Address
Extra application note explains follows, and please refer to each application note in addition to
above.
* I2C BUS ............................................................................... M16C/62 Group SIMPLE I2C BUS
* Three-phase motor control timer function ... M16C/62 Group THREE-PHASE MOTOR CONTROL
M16C Family-related document list
Usages
(Microcomputer development flow)
Type of document
Outline design
of system
Hardware
Selection of
microcomputer
Data sheet and
data book
Hardware specifications (pin assignment,
memory map, specifications of peripheral functions, electrical characteristics, timing charts)
User’s manual
Detailed description about hardware specifications, operation, and application examples
(connection with peripherals, relationship with
software)
Programming
manual
Method for creating programs using assembly
and C languages
Software manual
Detailed description about operation of each
instruction (assembly language)
Software
development
Software
Detail design
of system
Hardware
development
Contents
System
evaluation
M16C Family Line-up
M16C Family
M16C/80 Series
M16C/80 Group
M16C/60 Series
M16C/60 Group
M16C/61 Group
M16C/62 Group
M16C/20 Series
M16C/20 Group
M16C/21 Group
M16C/22 Group
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Hardware ________________________________________
Description ............................................................................................................................................2
Memory ............................................................................................................................................... 11
Central Processing Unit (CPU) ........................................................................................................... 12
Reset ................................................................................................................................................... 15
Memory Space Expansion Features ................................................................................................... 22
Processor Mode .................................................................................................................................. 28
Bus Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 32
Bus Control ......................................................................................................................................... 34
Clock Generating Circuit ..................................................................................................................... 41
Protection ............................................................................................................................................ 50
Overview of Interrupt ........................................................................................................................... 51
______
NMI Interrupt ....................................................................................................................................... 67
Watchdog Timer .................................................................................................................................. 71
DMAC ................................................................................................................................................. 73
Timer ................................................................................................................................................... 83
Timer A ............................................................................................................................................... 85
Timer B ............................................................................................................................................... 95
Timers' function for three-phase motor control ................................................................................. 101
Serial I/O ...........................................................................................................................................113
Clock synchronous serial I/O mode .................................................................................................. 122
Clock asynchronous serial I/O mode ................................................................................................ 129
UART2 Special Mode Register ......................................................................................................... 141
SI/O3,4 .............................................................................................................................................. 149
A-D Converter ................................................................................................................................... 153
D-A Converter ................................................................................................................................... 163
CRC Calculation Circuit .................................................................................................................... 165
Programmable I/O Ports ................................................................................................................... 167
Flash .................................................................................................................................................235
Chapter 2 Peripheral Functions Usage ________________________
2.1 Protect ........................................................................................................................................276
2.1.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 276
2.1.2 Protect Operation ................................................................................................................. 278
2.2 Timer A ....................................................................................................................................... 280
2.2.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 280
2.2.2 Operation of Timer A (timer mode) ...................................................................................... 286
2.2.3 Operation of Timer A (timer mode, gate function selected) ................................................. 288
2.2.4 Operation of Timer A (timer mode, pulse output function selected) .................................... 290
2.2.5 Operation of Timer A (event counter mode, reload type selected) ...................................... 292
2.2.6 Operation of Timer A (event counter mode, free run type selected) .................................... 294
2.2.7 Operation of timer A (2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode, nomal mode) ............ 296
2.2.8 Operation of timer A (2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode, multiply by-4
mode selected ..................................................................................................................... 298
2.2.9 Operation of Timer A (one-shot timer mode) ....................................................................... 300
2.2.10 Operation of Timer A (one-shot timer mode, external trigger selected) ............................. 302
2.2.11 Operation of Timer A (pulse width modulation mode, 16-bit PWM mode selected) .......... 304
2.2.12 Operation of Timer A (pulse width modulation mode, 8-bit PWM mode selected) ............ 306
2.2.13 Precautions for Timer A (timer mode) ................................................................................ 308
2.2.14 Precautions for Timer A (event counter mode) .................................................................. 309
2.2.15 Precautions for Timer A (one-shot timer mode) ................................................................. 310
2.2.16 Precautions for Timer A (pulse width modulation mode) ................................................... 311
2.3 Timer B ....................................................................................................................................... 312
2.3.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 312
2.3.2 Operation of Timer B (timer mode) ...................................................................................... 316
2.3.3 Operation of Timer B (event counter mode) ........................................................................ 318
2.3.4 Operation of Timer B (pulse period measurement mode) ................................................... 320
2.3.5 Operation of Timer B (pulse width measurement mode) ..................................................... 322
2.3.6 Precautions for Timer B (timer mode, event counter mode) ................................................ 324
2.3.7 Precautions for Timer B (pulse period/pulse width measurement mode) ........................... 325
2.4 Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O ..................................................................................................... 326
2.4.1 Overview .............................................................................................................................. 326
2.4.2 Operation of Serial I/O (transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode) ..................... 334
2.4.3 Operation of the Serial I/O (transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode,
transfer clock output from multiple pins function selected) .................................................... 338
2.4.4 Operation of Serial I/O (reception in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode) ........................... 342
2.4.5 Precautions for Serial I/O (in clock-synchronous serial I/O) ................................................ 346
2.5 Clock-Asynchronous Serial I/O (UART) ...................................................................................... 348
2.5.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................348
2.5.2 Operation of Serial I/O (transmission in UART mode) ......................................................... 358
2.5.3 Operation of Serial I/O (reception in UART mode) .............................................................. 362
2.5.4 Operation of Serial I/O (transmission compliant with SIM interface) ................................... 366
2.5.5 Operation of Serial I/O (reception compliant with SIM interface) ......................................... 370
2.5.6 Clock Signals in compliance with the SIM Interface ............................................................ 374
2.6 SI/O3,4 ........................................................................................................................................378
2.6.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................378
2.6.2 Operationof SI/O3,4 .............................................................................................................380
2.7 A-D Converter ............................................................................................................................. 382
2.7.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................382
2.7.2 Operation of A-D converter (one-shot mode) ...................................................................... 388
2.7.3 Operation of A-D Converter (in one-shot mode, an external trigger selected) .................... 390
2.7.4 Operation of A-D Converter (in one-shot mode, expanded analog input pin selected) ....... 392
2.7.5 Operation of A-D Converter (in one-shot mode,
external op-amp connection mode selected) .................................................................. 394
2.7.6 Operation of A-D Converter (in repeat mode) ...................................................................... 396
2.7.7 Operation of A-D Converter (in single sweep mode) ........................................................... 398
2.7.8 Operation of A-D Converter (in repeat sweep mode 0) ....................................................... 400
2.7.9 Operation of A-D Converter (in repeat sweep mode 1) ....................................................... 402
2.7.10 Precautions for A-D Converter ........................................................................................... 404
2.7.11 Method of A-D Conversion (10-bit mode) .......................................................................... 405
2.7.12 Method of A-D Conversion (8-bit mode) ............................................................................ 407
2.7.13 Absolute Accuracy and Differential Non-Linearity Error .................................................... 409
2.7.14 Internal Equivalent Circuit of Analog Input ......................................................................... 411
2.7.15 Sensor’s Output Impedance under A-D Conversion .......................................................... 412
2.8 D-A Converter ............................................................................................................................. 414
2.8.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................414
2.8.2 D-A Converter Operation .....................................................................................................415
2.9 DMAC ......................................................................................................................................... 416
2.9.1 Overview ..............................................................................................................................416
2.9.2 Operation of DMAC (one-shot transfer mode) ..................................................................... 420
2.9.3 Operation of DMAC (repeated transfer mode) ..................................................................... 422
2.10 CRC Calculation Circuit ............................................................................................................ 424
2.10.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 424
2.10.2 Operation of CRC Calculation Circuit ................................................................................ 425
2.11 Watchdog Timer ....................................................................................................................... 426
2.11.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 426
2.11.2 Operation of Watchdog Timer ............................................................................................ 428
2.12 Address Match Interrupt ........................................................................................................... 430
2.12.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 430
2.12.2 Operation of Address Match Interrupt ................................................................................ 432
2.13 Key-Input Interrupt .................................................................................................................... 434
2.13.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 434
2.13.2 Operation of Key-Input Interrupt ........................................................................................ 436
2.14 Power Control ........................................................................................................................... 438
2.14.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 438
2.14.2 Stop Mode Set-Up ............................................................................................................. 443
2.14.3 Wait Mode Set-Up ............................................................................................................. 444
2.14.4 Precautions in Saving Power ............................................................................................. 445
2.15 Programmable I/O Ports ........................................................................................................... 446
2.15.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................ 446
Chapter 3 Examples of Peripheral functions Applications ________
3.1 Long-Period Timers .................................................................................................................... 456
3.2 Variable-Period Variable-Duty PWM Output ............................................................................... 460
3.3 Delayed One-Shot Output .......................................................................................................... 464
3.4 Buzzer Output ............................................................................................................................. 468
3.5 Solution for External Interrupt Pins Shortage ............................................................................. 470
3.6 Memory to Memory DMA Transfer .............................................................................................. 472
3.7 Controlling Power Using Stop Mode ........................................................................................... 476
3.8 Controling Power Using Wait Mode ............................................................................................ 480
Chapter 4 Interrupt_________________________________________
4.1 Overview of Interrupt .................................................................................................................. 486
4.1.1 Type of Interrupts ................................................................................................................. 486
4.1.2 Software Interrupts .............................................................................................................. 487
4.1.3 Hardware Interrupts ............................................................................................................. 488
4.1.4 Interrupts and Interrupt Vector Tables ................................................................................. 489
4.2 Interrupt Control .......................................................................................................................... 491
4.2.1 Interrupt Enable Flag ...........................................................................................................493
4.2.2 Interrupt Request Bit ............................................................................................................ 493
4.2.3 Changing the Interrupt Control Register .............................................................................. 494
4.2.4 Interrupt Priority Level Select Bit and Processor Interrupt Priority Level (IPL) .................... 495
4.3 Interrupt Sequence ..................................................................................................................... 496
4.3.1 Interrupt Response Time .....................................................................................................496
4.3.2 Variation of IPL when Interrupt Request is Accepted .......................................................... 497
4.3.3 Saving Registers ..................................................................................................................498
4.4 Returning from an Interrupt Routine ........................................................................................... 500
4.5 Interrupt Priority .......................................................................................................................... 500
4.6 Multiple Interrupts .......................................................................................................................502
4.7 Precautions for Interrupts ...........................................................................................................504
Chapter 5 External Buses __________________________________
5.1 Overview of External Buses ........................................................................................................ 508
5.2 Data Access ................................................................................................................................509
5.2.1 Data Bus Width .................................................................................................................... 509
5.2.2 Chip Selects and Address Bus ............................................................................................ 510
5.2.3 Bus Types ........................................................................................................................... 511
5.2.4 R/W Modes .........................................................................................................................511
5.3 Memory Space Expansion Features ........................................................................................... 512
5.3.1 Normal Mode .......................................................................................................................513
5.3.2 Memory Space Expansion Mode 1 ...................................................................................... 514
5.3.3 Memory Space Expansion Mode 2 ..................................................................................... 515
5.4 Connection Examples .................................................................................................................521
5.4.1 16-bit Memory to 16-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example ............................................ 521
5.4.2 8-bit Memory to 16-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example .............................................. 522
5.4.3 8-bit Memory to 8-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example ............................................... 524
5.4.4 Two 8-bit and 16-Bit Memory to 16-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example .................... 525
5.4.5 16-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 1 ............ 526
5.4.6 8-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 1 ............. 527
5.4.7 8-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 2 ............. 528
5.4.8 Chip Selects and Address Bus ............................................................................................ 529
5.5 Connectable Memories ............................................................................................................... 530
5.5.1 Operation Frequency and Access Time .............................................................................. 530
5.5.2 Connecting Low-Speed Memory ......................................................................................... 534
5.5.3 Connectable Memories ........................................................................................................ 538
__________
_________
5.6 Releasing an External Bus (HOLD input and HLDA output) ....................................................... 540
5.7 Precautions for External Bus ...................................................................................................... 541
Chapter 6 External ROM Version_____________________________
6.1 Pin Configuration ........................................................................................................................ 545
6.2 Pin Description ............................................................................................................................ 547
6.3 Memory Map ............................................................................................................................... 549
6.4 Processor Mode .......................................................................................................................... 553
Chapter 7 Standard Characteristics __________________________
7.1 Standard DC Characteristics ...................................................................................................... 556
7.1.1 Standard Ports Characteristics ............................................................................................ 556
7.1.2 Standard Characteristics of ICC-f(XIN) ................................................................................... 559
7.2 Standard Characteristics of A-D Converter ................................................................................ 561
7.3 Standard Characteristics of D-A Converter ................................................................................ 563
7.4 Standard Characteristics of Pull-Up Resistor ............................................................................. 566
Quick Reference to Pages Classified by Address
Address
Register
Page
Address
000016
004016
000116
004116
000216
004216
000316
000416
000516
000616
000716
000816
000916
000A16
000B16
Register
004316
Processor mode register 0 (PM0)
Processor mode register 1(PM1)
System clock control register 0 (CM0)
System clock control register 1 (CM1)
Chip select control register (CSR)
Address match interrupt enable register (AIER)
Protect register (PRCR)
Data bank register (DBR)
29
43
35
68
49
25
004416
004516
004616
004716
004816
004916
INT3 interrupt control register (INT3IC)
Timer B5 interrupt control register (TB5IC)
Timer B4 interrupt control register (TB4IC)
Timer B3 interrupt control register (TB3IC)
SI/O4 interrupt control register (S4IC)
INT5 interrupt control register (INT5IC)
SI/O3 interrupt control register (S3IC)
INT4 interrupt control register (INT4IC)
000C16
004A16
Bus collision detection interrupt control register (BCNIC)
000D16
004B16
DMA0 interrupt control register (DM0IC)
DMA1 interrupt control register (DM1IC)
Key input interrupt control register (KUPIC)
A-D conversion interrupt control register (ADIC)
000E16
000F16
Watchdog timer start register (WDTS)
Watchdog timer control register (WDC)
72
Address match interrupt register 0 (RMAD0)
68
001016
001116
004C16
004D16
004E16
004F16
001216
005016
001316
005116
001416
001516
Address match interrupt register 1 (RMAD1)
68
005216
005316
001616
005416
001716
005516
001816
005616
001916
005716
001A16
005816
001B16
005916
001C16
005A16
001D16
005B16
001E16
005C16
001F16
005D16
002016
002116
DMA0 source pointer (SAR0)
77
005E16
005F16
002216
006016
002316
006116
DMA0 destination pointer (DAR0)
77
Timer A0 interrupt control register (TA0IC)
Timer A1 interrupt control register (TA1IC)
Timer A2 interrupt control register (TA2IC)
Timer A3 interrupt control register (TA3IC)
Timer A4 interrupt control register (TA4IC)
Timer B0 interrupt control register (TB0IC)
Timer B1 interrupt control register (TB1IC)
Timer B2 interrupt control register (TB2IC)
INT0 interrupt control register (INT0IC)
INT1 interrupt control register (INT1IC)
INT2 interrupt control register (INT2IC)
006316
006516
002716
002916
57
006416
002616
002816
UART2 transmit interrupt control register (S2TIC)
UART2 receive interrupt control register (S2RIC)
UART0 transmit interrupt control register (S0TIC)
UART0 receive interrupt control register (S0RIC)
UART1 transmit interrupt control register (S1TIC)
UART1 receive interrupt control register (S1RIC)
006216
002416
002516
Page
DMA0 transfer counter (TCR0)
77
DMA0 control register (DM0CON)
76
002A16
002B16
002C16
032A16
002D16
032B16
002E16
032C16
002F16
032D16
032E16
003016
003116
DMA1 source pointer (SAR1)
77
032F16
003216
033016
003316
033116
033216
003416
003516
DMA1 destination pointer (DAR1)
77
033316
003616
033416
003716
033516
003816
003916
DMA1 transfer counter (TCR1)
77
033716
033816
003A16
033916
003B16
003C16
033616
DMA1 control register (DM1CON)
76
033A16
003D16
033B16
003E16
033C16
003F16
033D16
033E16
033F16
Note 1: Locations in the SFR area where nothing is allocated are reserved areas. Do not access these areas for read or write.
Quick Reference to Pages Classified by Address
Address
034016
Register
Timer B3, 4, 5 count start flag (TBSR)
Page
96
034316
034416
034516
034616
034716
Timer A2-1 register (TA21)
034D16
Timer B2 interrupt occurrence frequency set counter(ICTB2)
034A16
034B16
038316
103
038416
038716
101
038816
038916
038A16
102
038B16
038C16
038D16
034E16
038E16
034F16
038F16
035016
035116
035216
035316
035416
035516
039016
Timer B3 register (TB3)
Timer B4 register (TB4)
039116
96
039216
039316
039416
Timer B5 register (TB5)
039516
035616
039616
035716
039716
035816
039816
035916
039916
039A16
035A16
035B16
035C16
035D16
Timer B3 mode register (TB3MR)
Timer B4 mode register (TB4MR)
Timer B5 mode register (TB5MR)
039B16
95
036016
036316
036416
65
SI/O3 control register (S3C)
SI/O3 bit rate generator (S3BRG)
SI/O4 transmit/receive register (S4TRR)
87
86
Timer A0 (TA0)
Timer A1 (TA1)
Timer A2 (TA2)
86
Timer A3 (TA3)
Timer A4 (TA4)
Timer B0 (TB0)
Timer B1 (TB1)
96
Timer B2 (TB2)
Timer A0 mode register (TA0MR)
Timer A1 mode register (TA1MR)
Timer A2 mode register (TA2MR)
Timer A3 mode register (TA3MR)
Timer A4 mode register (TA4MR)
Timer B0 mode register (TB0MR)
Timer B1 mode register (TB1MR)
Timer B2 mode register (TB2MR)
85
95
039F16
03A016
UART0 transmit/receive mode register (U0MR)
03A116
UART0 bit rate generator (U0BRG)
03A216
03A316
150
03A416
03A516
036516
036616
Page
86
039E16
Interrupt cause select register (IFSR)
SI/O3 transmit/receive register (S3TRR)
036116
036216
039C16
039D16
035E16
035F16
Register
Count start flag (TABSR)
Clock prescaler reset flag (CPSRF)
One-shot start flag (ONSF)
Trigger select register (TRGSR)
Up-down flag (UDF)
038516
038616
Timer A4-1 register (TA41)
034C16
034916
038216
Timer A1-1 register (TA11)
Three-phase PWM control register 0(INVC0)
Three-phase PWM control register 1(INVC1)
Three-phase output buffer register 0(IDB0)
Three-phase output buffer register 1(IDB1)
Dead time timer(DTT)
034816
038016
038116
034116
034216
Address
SI/O4 control register (S4C)
SI/O4 bit rate generator (S4BRG)
03A616
UART0 transmit buffer register (U0TB)
118
117
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0 (U0C0)
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1 (U0C1)
119
120
UART0 receive buffer register (U0RB)
117
036816
03A816
UART1 transmit/receive mode register (U1MR)
118
036916
03A916
UART1 bit rate generator (U1BRG)
036A16
03AA16
036B16
03AB16
036C16
03AC16
036D16
03AD16
036E16
03AE16
036F16
03AF16
037016
03B016
037116
03B116
037216
03B216
037316
03B316
037416
03B416
036716
03A716
037716
037816
037916
037A16
037B16
037C16
037D16
037E16
037F16
117
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0 (U1C0)
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1 (U1C1)
119
120
UART1 receive buffer register (U1RB)
117
UART transmit/receive control register 2 (UCON)
121
Flash memory control register 1 (FMR1) (Note 1)
Flash memory control register 0 (FMR0) (Note 1)
DMA0 request cause select register (DM0SL)
240
DMA1 request cause select register (DM1SL)
76
CRC data register (CRCD)
165
03B516
037516
037616
UART1 transmit buffer register (U1TB)
UART2 special mode register 2(U2SMR2)
UART2 special mode register (U2SMR)
UART2 transmit/receive mode register (U2MR)
UART2 bit rate generator (U2BRG)
UART2 transmit buffer register (U2TB)
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0 (U2C0)
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 (U2C1)
UART2 receive buffer register (U2RB)
141
121
118
03B616
03B716
03B816
75
03B916
117
03BA16
03BB16
119
120
117
03BC16
03BD16
03BE16
CRC input register (CRCIN)
03BF16
Note 1 : This register is only exist in flash memory version.
Note 2 : Locations in the SFR area where nothing is allocated are reserved areas. Do not access these areas for read or write.
Quick Reference to Pages Classified by Address
Address
03C016
03C116
03C216
03C316
03C416
03C516
03C616
03C716
03C816
03C916
03CA16
03CB16
03CC16
03CD16
03CE16
03CF16
Register
Page
A-D register 0 (AD0)
A-D register 1 (AD1)
A-D register 2 (AD2)
A-D register 3 (AD3)
A-D register 4 (AD4)
156
A-D register 5 (AD5)
A-D register 6 (AD6)
A-D register 7 (AD7)
03D016
03D116
03D216
03D316
03D416
A-D control register 2 (ADCON2)
156
A-D control register 0 (ADCON0)
A-D control register 1 (ADCON1)
D-A register 0 (DA0)
155
D-A register 1 (DA1)
164
03D516
03D616
03D716
03D816
03D916
03DA16
03DB16
03DC16
D-A control register (DACON)
03DD16
03DE16
03DF16
03E016
03E116
03E216
03E316
03E416
03E516
03E616
03E716
03E816
03E916
03EA16
03EB16
03EC16
03ED16
03EE16
03EF16
03F016
03F116
03F216
03F316
03F416
Port P0 (P0)
Port P1 (P1)
Port P0 direction register (PD0)
Port P1 direction register (PD1)
Port P2 (P2)
Port P3 (P3)
Port P2 direction register (PD2)
Port P3 direction register (PD3)
Port P4 (P4)
Port P5 (P5)
Port P4 direction register (PD4)
Port P5 direction register (PD5)
Port P6 (P6)
Port P7 (P7)
Port P6 direction register (PD6)
Port P7 direction register (PD7)
Port P8 (P8)
Port P9 (P9)
Port P8 direction register (PD8)
Port P9 direction register (PD9)
Port P10 (P10)
173
172
173
172
173
172
173
172
173
172
173
03F516
03F616
Port P10 direction register (PD10)
172
03F716
03F816
03F916
03FA16
03FB16
03FC16
03FD16
03FE16
03FF16
Pull-up control register 0 (PUR0)
Pull-up control register 1 (PUR1)
Pull-up control register 2 (PUR2)
Port control register (PCR)
174
175
Note : Locations in the SFR area where nothing is allocated are reserved
areas. Do not access these areas for read or write.
Chapter 1
Hardware
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description
Description
The M16C/62 group of single-chip microcomputers are built using the high-performance silicon gate CMOS
process using a M16C/60 Series CPU core and are packaged in a 100-pin plastic molded QFP. These
single-chip microcomputers operate using sophisticated instructions featuring a high level of instruction
efficiency. With 1M bytes of address space, they are capable of executing instructions at high speed. They
also feature a built-in multiplier and DMAC, making them ideal for controlling office, communications, industrial equipment, and other high-speed processing applications.
The M16C/62 group includes a wide range of products with different internal memory types and sizes and
various package types.
Features
• Memory capacity .................................. ROM (See Figure 1.1.4. ROM Expansion)
RAM 3K to 20K bytes
• Shortest instruction execution time ...... 62.5ns (f(XIN)=16MHZ, VCC=5V)
100ns (f(XIN)=10MHZ, VCC=3V, with software one-wait) : Mask ROM, flash memory 5V version
142.9ns (f(XIN)=7MHZ, VCC=3V, with software one-wait) : One-time PROM version
• Supply voltage ..................................... 4.2 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=16MHZ, without software wait) : Mask ROM, flash memory 5V version
4.5 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=16MHZ, without software wait) : One-time PROM version
2.7 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=10MHZ with software one-wait) : Mask ROM, flash memory 5V version
2.7 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=7MHZ with software one-wait) : One-time PROM version
• Low power consumption ...................... 25.5mW ( f(XIN)=10MHZ, with software one-wait, VCC = 3V)
• Interrupts .............................................. 25 internal and 8 external interrupt sources, 4 software
interrupt sources; 7 levels (including key input interrupt)
• Multifunction 16-bit timer ...................... 5 output timers + 6 input timers
• Serial I/O .............................................. 5 channels (3 for UART or clock synchronous, 2 for clock synchronous)
• DMAC .................................................. 2 channels (trigger: 24 sources)
• A-D converter ....................................... 10 bits X 8 channels (Expandable up to 10 channels)
• D-A converter ....................................... 8 bits X 2 channels
• CRC calculation circuit ......................... 1 circuit
• Watchdog timer .................................... 1 line
• Programmable I/O ............................... 87 lines
_______
• Input port .............................................. 1 line (P85 shared with NMI pin)
• Memory expansion .............................. Available (to 1.2M bytes or 4M bytes)
• Chip select output ................................ 4 lines
• Clock generating circuit ....................... 2 built-in clock generation circuits
(built-in feedback resistor, and external ceramic or quartz oscillator)
Applications
Audio, cameras, office equipment, communications equipment, portable equipment
------Table of Contents-----Central Processing Unit (CPU) ..................... 12
Reset ............................................................. 15
Processor Mode ............................................ 28
Clock Generating Circuit ............................... 41
Protection ...................................................... 49
Interrupts ....................................................... 51
Watchdog Timer ............................................ 71
DMAC ........................................................... 73
2
Timer ............................................................. 83
Serial I/O ..................................................... 113
A-D Converter ............................................. 153
D-A Converter ............................................. 163
CRC Calculation Circuit .............................. 165
Programmable I/O Ports ............................. 167
Electrical characteristic ............................... 182
Flash memory version ................................. 235
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description
Pin Configuration
Figures 1.1.1 and 1.1.2 show the pin configurations (top view).
P10/D8
P11/D9
P12/D10
P13/D11
P14/D12
P15/D13/INT3
P16/D14/INT4
P17/D15/INT5
P20/A0(/D0/-)
P21/A1(/D1/D0)
P22/A2(/D2/D1)
P23/A3(/D3/D2)
P24/A4(/D4/D3)
P25/A5(/D5/D4)
P26/A6(/D6/D5)
P27/A7(/D7/D6)
Vss
P30/A8(/-/D7)
Vcc
P31/A9
P32/A10
P33/A11
P34/A12
P35/A13
P36/A14
P37/A15
P40/A16
P41/A17
P42/A18
P43/A19
PIN CONFIGURATION (top view)
80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51
P07/D7
P06/D6
P05/D5
P04/D4
P03/D3
P02/D2
P01/D1
P00/D0
P107/AN7/KI3
P106/AN6/KI2
P105/AN5/KI1
P104/AN4/KI0
P103/AN3
P102/AN2
P101/AN1
AVSS
P100/AN0
VREF
AVcc
P97/ADTRG/SIN4
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
M16C/62 Group
100
2 3
4 5
P44/CS0
P45/CS1
P46/CS2
P47/CS3
P50/WRL/WR
P51/WRH/BHE
P52/RD
P53/BCLK
P54/HLDA
P55/HOLD
P56/ALE
P57/RDY/CLKOUT
P60/CTS0/RTS0
P61/CLK0
P62/RxD0
P63/TXD0
P64/CTS1/RTS1/CTS0/CLKS1
P65/CLK1
P66/RxD1
P67/TXD1
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
P96/ANEX1/SOUT4
P95/ANEX0/CLK4
P94/DA1/TB4IN
P93/DA0/TB3IN
P92/TB2IN/SOUT3
P91/TB1IN/SIN3
P90/TB0IN/CLK3
BYTE
CNVss
P87/XCIN
P86/XCOUT
RESET
XOUT
VSS
XIN
VCC
P85/NMI
P84/INT2
P83/INT1
P82/INT0
P81/TA4IN/U
P80/TA4OUT/U
P77/TA3IN
P76/TA3OUT
P75/TA2IN/W
P74/TA2OUT/W
P73/CTS2/RTS2/TA1IN/V
P72/CLK2/TA1OUT/V
P71/RxD2/SCL/TA0IN/TB5IN
P70/TXD2/SDA/TA0OUT
1
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
Package: 100P6S-A
Figure 1.1.1. Pin configuration (top view)
3
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description
P13/D11
P14/D12
P15/D13/INT3
P16/D14/INT4
P17/D15/INT5
P20/A0(/D0/-)
P21/A1(/D1/D0)
P22/A2(/D2/D1)
P23/A3(/D3/D2)
P24/A4(/D4/D3)
P25/A5(/D5/D4)
P26/A6(/D6/D5)
P27/A7(/D7/D6)
Vss
P30/A8(/-/D7)
Vcc
P31/A9
P32/A10
P33/A11
P34/A12
P35/A13
P36/A14
P37/A15
P40/A16
P41/A17
PIN CONFIGURATION (top view)
75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51
P12/D10
P11/D9
P10/D8
P07/D7
P06/D6
P05/D5
P04/D4
P03/D3
P02/D2
P01/D1
P00/D0
P107/AN7/KI3
P106/AN6/KI2
P105/AN5/KI1
P104/AN4/KI0
P103/AN3
P102/AN2
P101/AN1
AVSS
P100/AN0
VREF
AVcc
P97/ADTRG/SIN4
P96/ANEX1/SOUT4
P95/ANEX0/CLK4
76
77
78
79
80
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
81
82
83
84
85
86
M16C/62 Group
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
P94/DA1/TB4IN
P93/DA0/TB3IN
P92/TB2IN/SOUT3
P91/TB1IN/SIN3
P90/TB0IN/CLK3
BYTE
CNVss
P87/XCIN
P86/XCOUT
RESET
XOUT
VSS
XIN
VCC
P85/NMI
P84/INT2
P83/INT1
P82/INT0
P81/TA4IN/U
P80/TA4OUT/U
P77/TA3IN
P76/TA3OUT
P75/TA2IN/W
P74/TA2OUT/W
P73/CTS2/RTS2/TA1IN/V
1 2
Figure 1.1.2. Pin configuration (top view)
4
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
P42/A18
P43/A19
P44/CS0
P45/CS1
P46/CS2
P47/CS3
P50/WRL/WR
P51/WRH/BHE
P52/RD
P53/BCLK
P54/HLDA
P55/HOLD
P56/ALE
P57/RDY/CLKOUT
P60/CTS0/RTS0
P61/CLK0
P62/RxD0
P63/TXD0
P64/CTS1/RTS1/CTS0/CLKS1
P65/CLK1
P66/RxD1
P67/TXD1
P70/TXD2/SDA/TA0OUT
P71/RxD2/SCL/TA0IN/TB5IN
P72/CLK2/TA1OUT/V
Package: 100P6Q-A
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description
Block Diagram
Figure 1.1.3 is a block diagram of the M16C/62 group.
Block diagram of the M16C/62 group
8
I/O ports
Port P0
8
8
Port P1
8
Port P2
8
Port P3
Port P4
8
Port P5
XIN-XOUT
XCIN-XCOUT
UART/clock synchronous SI/O
Clock synchronous SI/O
(8 bits X 3 channels)
(8 bits X 2 channels)
M16C/60 series16-bit CPU core
Registers
(15 bits)
(2 channels)
(8 bits X 2 channels)
Note 1: ROM size depends on MCU type.
Note 2: RAM size depends on MCU type.
ISP
USP
Flag register
FLG
Multiplier
8
SB
INTB
Stack pointer
RAM
(Note 2)
Port P10
D-A converter
PC
Vector table
ROM
(Note 1)
8
DMAC
Program counter
Memory
Port P9
Watchdog timer
R0H
R0L
R0H
R0L
R1H
R1L
R1H
R1L
R2
R2
R3
R3
A0
A0
A1
A1
FB
FB
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
Port P85
CRC arithmetic circuit (CCITT )
(Polynomial : X16+X12+X5+1)
7
Expandable up to 10 channels)
Timer TA0 (16 bits)
Timer TA1 (16 bits)
Timer TA2 (16 bits)
Timer TA3 (16 bits)
Timer TA4 (16 bits)
Timer TB0 (16 bits)
Timer TB1 (16 bits)
Timer TB2 (16 bits)
Timer TB3 (16 bits)
Timer TB4 (16 bits)
Timer TB5 (16 bits)
8
System clock generator
(10 bits X 8 channels
Port P8
A-D converter
Timer
Port P6
Port P7
Internal peripheral functions
8
Figure 1.1.3. Block diagram of M16C/62 group
5
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description
Performance Outline
Table 1.1.1 is a performance outline of M16C/62 group.
Table 1.1.1. Performance outline of M16C/62 group
Item
Number of basic instructions
Shortest instruction execution time
Memory
capacity
I/O port
Input port
Multifunction
timer
Serial I/O
ROM
RAM
P0 to P10 (except P85)
P85
TA0, TA1, TA2, TA3, TA4
Performance
91 instructions
62.5ns(f(XIN)=16MHZ, VCC=5V)
100ns (f(XIN)=10MHZ , VCC=3V, with software one-wait)
: Mask ROM, flash memory 5V version
142.9ns (f(XIN)=7MHZ, VCC=3V, with software one-wait)
: One-time PROM version
(See the figure 1.1.4. ROM Expansion)
3K to 20K bytes
8 bits x 10, 7 bits x 1
1 bit x 1
16 bits x 5
TB0, TB1, TB2, TB3, TB4, TB5 16 bits x 6
UART0, UART1, UART2
(UART or clock synchronous) x 3
SI/O3, SI/O4
(Clock synchronous) x 2
A-D converter
10 bits x (8 + 2) channels
D-A converter
8 bits x 2
DMAC
2 channels (trigger: 24 sources)
CRC calculation circuit
CRC-CCITT
Watchdog timer
15 bits x 1 (with prescaler)
Interrupt
25 internal and 8 external sources, 4 software sources, 7 levels
Clock generating circuit
2 built-in clock generation circuits
(built-in feedback resistor, and external ceramic or quartz oscillator)
Supply voltage
4.2 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=16MHZ, without software wait)
: Mask ROM, flash memory 5V version
4.5 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=16MHZ, without software wait)
: One-time PROM version
2.7 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=10MHZ with software one-wait)
: Mask ROM, flash memory 5V version
2.7 to 5.5V (f(XIN)=7MHZ with software one-wait)
: One-time PROM version
Power consumption
25.5mW (f(XIN) = 10MHZ, VCC=3V with software one-wait)
I/O
I/O withstand voltage
5V
characteristics Output current
5mA
Memory expansion
Available (to 1.2M bytes or 4M bytes)
Device configuration
CMOS high performance silicon gate
Package
100-pin plastic mold QFP
6
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description
Mitsubishi plans to release the following products in the M16C/62 group:
(1) Support for mask ROM version, external ROM version, one-time PROM version, EPROM version, and
Flash memory version
(2) ROM capacity
(3) Package
100P6S-A : Plastic molded QFP (mask ROM, one-time PROM, and flash memory versions)
100P6Q-A : Plastic molded QFP(mask ROM, one-time PROM, and flash memory versions)
100D0
: Ceramic LCC (EPROM version)
ROM Size
(Byte)
M30620SFP/GP
M30622SFP/GP
External
ROM
256K
128K
M30620MC-XXXFP/GP
M30622MC-XXXFP/GP M30620ECFP/GP
64K
M30620MA-XXXFP/GP
M30622MA-XXXFP/GP
M30620M8-XXXFP/GP
M30622M8-XXXFP/GP
32K
M30622M4-XXXFP/GP
96K
M30624FGFP/GP
M30624FGLFP/GP
M30624MG-XXXFP/GP
Mask ROM version
One-time PROM version
M30620ECFS
EPROM version
Flash memory version
External ROM version
Figure 1.1.4. ROM expansion
The M16C/62 group products currently supported are listed in Table 1.1.2.
Table 1.1.2. M16C/62 group
November. 1999
Type No
M30622M4-XXXFP
ROM capacity
32K byte
M30622M4-XXXGP
M30620M8-XXXFP
M30620M8-XXXGP
10K byte
M30622M8-XXXFP
4K byte
M30620MA-XXXFP
M30622MA-XXXFP
3K byte
64K byte
M30622M8-XXXGP
M30620MA-XXXGP
RAM capacity
10K byte
Package type
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
96K byte
5K byte
M30622MA-XXXGP
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
10K byte
128K byte
M30622MC-XXXFP
5K byte
M30622MC-XXXGP
M30624MG-XXXFP
M30624MG-XXXGP
256K byte
M30620ECFP
M30620ECGP
M30620ECFS
M30624FGFP
20K byte
128K byte
10K byte
128K byte
10K byte
256K byte
20K byte
256K byte
20K byte
M30624FGGP
M30624FGLFP
M30624FGLGP
M30620SFP
M30620SGP
M30622SFP
M30622SGP
mask ROM version
100P6S-A
M30620MC-XXXFP
M30620MC-XXXGP
Remarks
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
One-time PROM version
100D0
EPROM version (Note)
100P6S-A
Flash memory
5V version
100P6Q-A
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
Flash memory
3V version
100P6S-A
10K byte
3K byte
100P6Q-A
External ROM version
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
Note: Do not use the EPROM version for mass production, because it is a tool for program development
(for evaluation).
7
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description
Type No.
M30622 M 8 – XXX FP
Package type:
FP : Package
GP :
FS :
100P6S-A
100P6Q-A
100D0
ROM No.
Omitted for blank one-time PROM version,and
EPROM version, and flash memory version
ROM capacity:
4 : 32K bytes
8 : 64K bytes
A : 96K bytes
C : 128K bytes
G: 256K bytes
Memory type:
M : Mask ROM version
E : EPROM or one-time PROM version
S : External ROM version
F : Flash memory version
Shows RAM capacity, pin count, etc
(The value itself has no specific meaning)
M16C/62 Group
M16C Family
Figure 1.1.5. Type No., memory size, and package
8
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Pin Description
Pin Description
Pin name
Signal name
I/O type
Function
VCC, VSS
Power supply
input
CNVSS
CNVSS
Input
This pin switches between processor modes. Connect this pin to the
VSS pin when after a reset you want to start operation in single-chip
mode (memory expansion mode) or the VCC pin when starting
operation in microprocessor mode.
RESET
Reset input
Input
A “L” on this input resets the microcomputer.
XIN
Clock input
Input
XOUT
Clock output
Output
These pins are provided for the main clock generating circuit.Connect
a ceramic resonator or crystal between the XIN and the XOUT pins. To
use an externally derived clock, input it to the XIN pin and leave the
XOUT pin open.
BYTE
External data
bus width
select input
Input
AVCC
Analog power
supply input
This pin is a power supply input for the A-D converter. Connect this
pin to VCC.
AVSS
Analog power
supply input
This pin is a power supply input for the A-D converter. Connect this
pin to VSS.
VREF
Reference
voltage input
Input
This pin is a reference voltage input for the A-D converter.
P00 to P07
I/O port P0
Input/output
This is an 8-bit CMOS I/O port. It has an input/output port direction
register that allows the user to set each pin for input or output
individually. When used for input in single-chip mode, the port can be
set to have or not have a pull-up resistor in units of four bits by
software. In memory expansion and microprocessor modes, selection
of the internal pull-resistor is not available.
Input/output
When set as a separate bus, these pins input and output data (D0–D7).
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P0. Pins in this port also function
as external interrupt pins as selected by software.
Input/output
When set as a separate bus, these pins input and output data (D8–D15).
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P0.
A0 to A7
Output
These pins output 8 low-order address bits (A0–A7).
A0/D0 to
A7/D7
Input/output
If the external bus is set as an 8-bit wide multiplexed bus, these pins
input and output data (D0–D7) and output 8 low-order address bits
(A0–A7) separated in time by multiplexing.
A0, A1/D0
to A7/D6
Output
Input/output
If the external bus is set as a 16-bit wide multiplexed bus, these pins
input and output data (D0–D6) and output address (A1–A7) separated
in time by multiplexing. They also output address (A0).
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P0.
A8 to A15
Output
These pins output 8 middle-order address bits (A8–A15).
A8/D7,
A9 to A15
Input/output
Output
If the external bus is set as a 16-bit wide multiplexed bus, these pins
input and output data (D7) and output address (A8) separated in time
by multiplexing. They also output address (A9–A15).
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P0.
Output
Output
These pins output CS0–CS3 signals and A16–A19. CS0–CS3 are chip
select signals used to specify an access space. A16–A19 are 4 highorder address bits.
D0 to D7
P10 to P17
I/O port P1
D8 to D15
P20 to P27
P30 to P37
P40 to P47
CS0 to CS3,
A16 to A19
I/O port P2
I/O port P3
I/O port P4
Supply 2.7 to 5.5 V to the VCC pin. Supply 0 V to the VSS pin.
This pin selects the width of an external data bus. A 16-bit width is
selected when this input is “L”; an 8-bit width is selected when this
input is “H”. This input must be fixed to either “H” or “L”. Connect this
pin to the VSS pin when not using external data bus.
9
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Pin Description
Pin Description
Pin name
I/O type
Function
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P0. In single-chip mode, P57 in
this port outputs a divide-by-8 or divide-by-32 clock of XIN or a clock of
the same frequency as XCIN as selected by software.
WRL / WR,
WRH / BHE,
RD,
BCLK,
HLDA,
HOLD,
Output
Output
Output
Output
Output
Input
ALE,
RDY
Output
Input
Output WRL, WRH (WR and BHE), RD, BCLK, HLDA, and ALE
signals. WRL and WRH, and BHE and WR can be switched using
software control.
WRL, WRH, and RD selected
With a 16-bit external data bus, data is written to even addresses
when the WRL signal is “L” and to the odd addresses when the WRH
signal is “L”. Data is read when RD is “L”.
WR, BHE, and RD selected
Data is written when WR is “L”. Data is read when RD is “L”. Odd
addresses are accessed when BHE is “L”. Use this mode when using
an 8-bit external data bus.
While the input level at the HOLD pin is “L”, the microcomputer is
placed in the hold state. While in the hold state, HLDA outputs a “L”
level. ALE is used to latch the address. While the input level of the
RDY pin is “L”, the microcomputer is in the ready state.
P50 to P57
Signal name
I/O port P5
P60 to P67
I/O port P6
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P0. When used for input in singlechip, memory expansion, and microprocessor modes, the port can be
set to have or not have a pull-up resistor in units of four bits by
software. Pins in this port also function as UART0 and UART1 I/O pins
as selected by software.
P70 to P77
I/O port P7
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P6 (P70 and P71 are N channel
open-drain output). Pins in this port also function as timer A0–A3,
timer B5 or UART2 I/O pins as selected by software.
P80 to P84,
P86,
I/O port P8
Input/output
Input/output
P80 to P84, P86, and P87 are I/O ports with the same functions as P6.
Using software, they can be made to function as the I/O pins for timer
A4 and the input pins for external interrupts. P86 and P87 can be set
using software to function as the I/O pins for a sub clock generation
circuit. In this case, connect a quartz oscillator between P86 (XCOUT
pin) and P87 (XCIN pin). P85 is an input-only port that also functions
for NMI. The NMI interrupt is generated when the input at this pin
changes from “H” to “L”. The NMI function cannot be cancelled using
software. The pull-up cannot be set for this pin.
Input/output
P87,
10
P85
I/O port P85
Input
P90 to P97
I/O port P9
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P6. Pins in this port also function
as SI/O3, 4 I/O pins, Timer B0–B4 input pins, D-A converter output pins,
A-D converter extended input pins, or A-D trigger input pins as selected
by software.
P100 to P107
I/O port P10
Input/output
This is an 8-bit I/O port equivalent to P6. Pins in this port also function
as A-D converter input pins. Furthermore, P104–P107 also function as
input pins for the key input interrupt function.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Memory
Operation of Functional Blocks
The M16C/62 group accommodates certain units in a single chip. These units include ROM and RAM to
store instructions and data and the central processing unit (CPU) to execute arithmetic/logic operations.
Also included are peripheral units such as timers, serial I/O, D-A converter, DMAC, CRC calculation circuit,
A-D converter, and I/O ports.
The following explains each unit.
Memory
Figure 1.4.1 is a memory map of the M16C/62 group. The address space extends the 1M bytes from
address 0000016 to FFFFF16. From FFFFF16 down is ROM. For example, in the M30622MC-XXXFP, there
is 128K bytes of internal ROM from E000016 to FFFFF16. The vector table for fixed interrupts such as the
_______
reset and NMI are mapped to FFFDC16 to FFFFF16. The starting address of the interrupt routine is stored
here. The address of the vector table for timer interrupts, etc., can be set as desired using the internal
register (INTB). See the section on interrupts for details.
From 0040016 up is RAM. For example, in the M30622MC-XXXFP, 5K bytes of internal RAM is mapped to
the space from 0040016 to 017FF16. In addition to storing data, the RAM also stores the stack used when
calling subroutines and when interrupts are generated.
The SFR area is mapped to 0000016 to 003FF16. This area accommodates the control registers for peripheral devices such as I/O ports, A-D converter, serial I/O, and timers, etc. Figures 1.7.1 to 1.7.3 are location
of peripheral unit control registers. Any part of the SFR area that is not occupied is reserved and cannot be
used for other purposes.
The special page vector table is mapped to FFE0016 to FFFDB16. If the starting addresses of subroutines
or the destination addresses of jumps are stored here, subroutine call instructions and jump instructions
can be used as 2-byte instructions, reducing the number of program steps.
In memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode, a part of the spaces are reserved and cannot be
used. For example, in the M30622MC-XXXFP, the following spaces cannot be used.
• The space between 0180016 and 03FFF16 (Memory expansion and microprocessor modes)
• The space between D000016 and D7FFF16 (Memory expansion mode)
0000016
SFR area
For details, see Figures
1.7.1 to 1.7.3
FFE0016
0040016
Internal RAM area
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
Special page
vector table
XXXXX16
Internal reserved
area (Note 1)
0400016
External area
D000016
Type No.
M30622M4
M30620M8
M30620MA
M30620MC/EC
M30622M8/E8
M30622MA
M30622MC
M30624MG/FG
Address XXXXX16
00FFF16
02BFF16
02BFF16
Address YYYYY16
F800016
F000016
E800016
02BFF16
013FF16
017FF16
017FF16
053FF16
E000016
F000016
E800016
E000016
C000016
FFFDC16
Undefined instruction
FFFFF16
BRK instruction
Address match
Single step
Watchdog timer
DBC
NMI
Reset
Overflow
Internal reserved
area (Note 2)
YYYYY16
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
Note 1: During memory expansion and microprocessor modes, can not be used.
Note 2: In memory expansion mode, can not be used.
Note 3: These memory maps show an instance in which PM13 is set to 0; but in the
case of M30624MG/FG, they show an instance in which PM13 is set to 1.
Figure 1.4.1. Memory map
11
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The CPU has a total of 13 registers shown in Figure 1.5.1. Seven of these registers (R0, R1, R2, R3, A0,
A1, and FB) come in two sets; therefore, these have two register banks.
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
b15
R0(Note)
b8 b7
b15
R1(Note)
b15
R3(Note)
b15
A0(Note)
b15
FB(Note)
b19
b0
L
Program counter
Data
registers
b0
b19
INTB
b0
Interrupt table
register
L
H
b15
b0
b0
User stack pointer
USP
b15
b0
b0
b0
PC
b0
Interrupt stack
pointer
ISP
Address
registers
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
b15
A1(Note)
b8 b7
H
b15
R2(Note)
b0
L
H
b15
b0
Static base
register
SB
b15
b0
Frame base
registers
b0
FLG
Flag register
A
AAAAAAA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAA
IPL
U
I O B S Z D C
Note: These registers consist of two register banks.
Figure 1.5.1. Central processing unit register
(1) Data registers (R0, R0H, R0L, R1, R1H, R1L, R2, and R3)
Data registers (R0, R1, R2, and R3) are configured with 16 bits, and are used primarily for transfer and
arithmetic/logic operations.
Registers R0 and R1 each can be used as separate 8-bit data registers, high-order bits as (R0H/R1H),
and low-order bits as (R0L/R1L). In some instructions, registers R2 and R0, as well as R3 and R1 can
use as 32-bit data registers (R2R0/R3R1).
(2) Address registers (A0 and A1)
Address registers (A0 and A1) are configured with 16 bits, and have functions equivalent to those of data
registers. These registers can also be used for address register indirect addressing and address register
relative addressing.
In some instructions, registers A1 and A0 can be combined for use as a 32-bit address register (A1A0).
12
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU
(3) Frame base register (FB)
Frame base register (FB) is configured with 16 bits, and is used for FB relative addressing.
(4) Program counter (PC)
Program counter (PC) is configured with 20 bits, indicating the address of an instruction to be executed.
(5) Interrupt table register (INTB)
Interrupt table register (INTB) is configured with 20 bits, indicating the start address of an interrupt vector
table.
(6) Stack pointer (USP/ISP)
Stack pointer comes in two types: user stack pointer (USP) and interrupt stack pointer (ISP), each configured with 16 bits.
Your desired type of stack pointer (USP or ISP) can be selected by a stack pointer select flag (U flag).
This flag is located at the position of bit 7 in the flag register (FLG).
(7) Static base register (SB)
Static base register (SB) is configured with 16 bits, and is used for SB relative addressing.
(8) Flag register (FLG)
Flag register (FLG) is configured with 11 bits, each bit is used as a flag. Figure 1.5.2 shows the flag
register (FLG). The following explains the function of each flag:
• Bit 0: Carry flag (C flag)
This flag retains a carry, borrow, or shift-out bit that has occurred in the arithmetic/logic unit.
• Bit 1: Debug flag (D flag)
This flag enables a single-step interrupt.
When this flag is “1”, a single-step interrupt is generated after instruction execution. This flag is
cleared to “0” when the interrupt is acknowledged.
• Bit 2: Zero flag (Z flag)
This flag is set to “1” when an arithmetic operation resulted in 0; otherwise, cleared to “0”.
• Bit 3: Sign flag (S flag)
This flag is set to “1” when an arithmetic operation resulted in a negative value; otherwise, cleared to “0”.
• Bit 4: Register bank select flag (B flag)
This flag chooses a register bank. Register bank 0 is selected when this flag is “0” ; register bank 1 is
selected when this flag is “1”.
• Bit 5: Overflow flag (O flag)
This flag is set to “1” when an arithmetic operation resulted in overflow; otherwise, cleared to “0”.
• Bit 6: Interrupt enable flag (I flag)
This flag enables a maskable interrupt.
An interrupt is disabled when this flag is “0”, and is enabled when this flag is “1”. This flag is cleared to
“0” when the interrupt is acknowledged.
13
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU
• Bit 7: Stack pointer select flag (U flag)
Interrupt stack pointer (ISP) is selected when this flag is “0” ; user stack pointer (USP) is selected
when this flag is “1”.
This flag is cleared to “0” when a hardware interrupt is acknowledged or an INT instruction of software
interrupt Nos. 0 to 31 is executed.
• Bits 8 to 11: Reserved area
• Bits 12 to 14: Processor interrupt priority level (IPL)
Processor interrupt priority level (IPL) is configured with three bits, for specification of up to eight
processor interrupt priority levels from level 0 to level 7.
If a requested interrupt has priority greater than the processor interrupt priority level (IPL), the interrupt
is enabled.
• Bit 15: Reserved area
The C, Z, S, and O flags are changed when instructions are executed. See the software manual for
details.
AA
AAAAAAA
AA
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
A
AA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AA
A
AA
b15
b0
IPL
U
I
O B S Z D C
Flag register (FLG)
Carry flag
Debug flag
Zero flag
Sign flag
Register bank select flag
Overflow flag
Interrupt enable flag
Stack pointer select flag
Reserved area
Processor interrupt priority level
Reserved area
Figure 1.5.2. Flag register (FLG)
14
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Reset
Reset
There are two kinds of resets; hardware and software. In both cases, operation is the same after the reset.
(See “Software Reset” for details of software resets.) This section explains on hardware resets.
When the supply voltage is in the range where operation is guaranteed, a reset is effected by holding the
reset pin level “L” (0.2VCC max.) for at least 20 cycles. When the reset pin level is then returned to the “H”
level while main clock is stable, the reset status is cancelled and program execution resumes from the
address in the reset vector table.
Figure 1.6.1 shows the example reset circuit. Figure 1.6.2 shows the reset sequence.
5V
4.0V
VCC
RESET
0V
5V
VCC
RESET
0.8V
0V
Example when VCC = 5V.
Figure 1.6.1. Example reset circuit
XIN
More than 20 cycles are needed
Microprocessor
mode BYTE = “H”
RESET
BCLK
24cycles
BCLK
Content of reset vector
Address
FFFFC16
FFFFD16
FFFFE16
RD
WR
CS0
Microprocessor
mode BYTE = “L”
Address
Content of reset vector
FFFFC16
FFFFE16
RD
WR
CS0
Single chip
mode
Address
FFFFC16
Content of reset vector
FFFFE16
Figure 1.6.2. Reset sequence
15
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Reset
____________
Table 1.6.1 shows the statuses of the other pins while the RESET pin level is “L”. Figures 1.6.3 and 1.6.4
show the internal status of the microcomputer immediately after the reset is cancelled.
____________
Table 1.6.1. Pin status when RESET pin level is “L”
Status
Pin name
CNVSS = VCC
CNVSS = VSS
BYTE = VSS
P0
Input port (floating)
Data input (floating)
Data input (floating)
P1
Input port (floating)
Data input (floating)
Input port (floating)
P2, P3, P40 to P43
Input port (floating)
Address output (undefined)
Address output (undefined)
P44
Input port (floating)
CS0 output (“H” level is output)
CS0 output (“H” level is output)
P45 to P47
Input port (floating)
Input port (floating)
(pull-up resistor is on)
Input port (floating)
(pull-up resistor is on)
P50
Input port (floating)
WR output (“H” level is output)
WR output (“H” level is output)
P51
Input port (floating)
BHE output (undefined)
BHE output (undefined)
P52
Input port (floating)
RD output (“H” level is output)
RD output (“H” level is output)
P53
Input port (floating)
BCLK output
BCLK output
P54
Input port (floating)
HLDA output (The output value HLDA output (The output value
depends on the input to the
depends on the input to the
HOLD pin)
HOLD pin)
P55
Input port (floating)
HOLD input (floating)
HOLD input (floating)
P56
Input port (floating)
ALE output (“L” level is output)
ALE output (“L” level is output)
P57
Input port (floating)
RDY input (floating)
RDY input (floating)
Input port (floating)
Input port (floating)
P6, P7, P80 to P84,
P86, P87, P9, P10 Input port (floating)
16
BYTE = VCC
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Reset
(1) Processor mode register 0 (Note)
(000416)···
0016
(29) UART1 transmit interrupt control register
(005316)···
? 0 0 0
(30) UART1 receive interrupt control register
(2) Processor mode register 1
(000516)··· 0 0 0 0 0
(005416)···
? 0 0 0
(3) System clock control register 0
(000616)··· 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
(31) Timer A0 interrupt control register
(005516)···
? 0 0 0
(4) System clock control register 1
(000716)··· 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
(32) Timer A1 interrupt control register
(005616)···
? 0 0 0
(5) Chip select control register
(000816)··· 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
(33) Timer A2 interrupt control register
(005716)···
? 0 0 0
(6) Address match interrupt enable register
(000916)···
0 0
(34) Timer A3 interrupt control register
(005816)···
? 0 0 0
0 0 0
(35) Timer A4 interrupt control register
(005916)···
? 0 0 0
(36) Timer B0 interrupt control register
(005A16)···
? 0 0 0
(000F16)··· 0 0 0 ? ? ? ? ?
(37) Timer B1 interrupt control register
(005B16)···
? 0 0 0
(001016)···
0016
(38) Timer B2 interrupt control register
(005C16)···
? 0 0 0
(001116)···
0016
(39) INT0 interrupt control register
(005D16)···
0 0 ? 0 0 0
(40) INT1 interrupt control register
(005E16)···
0 0 ? 0 0 0
0016
(41) INT2 interrupt control register
(005F16)···
0 0 ? 0 0 0
0016
(42) Timer B3,4,5 count start flag
(034016)··· 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
(43) Three-phase PWM control register 0
(034816)···
0016
(002C16)··· 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0
(44) Three-phase PWM control register 1
(034916)···
0016
(13) DMA1 control register
(003C16)··· 0 0 0 0 0 ? 0 0
(45) Three-phase output buffer register 0
(034A16)···
0016
(14) INT3 interrupt control register
(004416)···
(46) Three-phase output buffer register 1
(034B16)···
0016
(035B16)··· 0 0 ?
0 0 0 0
(7) Protect register
(000A16)···
(8) Data bank register
(000B16)···
(9) Watchdog timer control register
(10) Address match interrupt register 0
(001216)···
(11) Address match interrupt register 1
(001416)···
(001516)···
(001616)···
(12) DMA0 control register
0
0016
0 0 0 0
0 0 ? 0 0 0
(15) Timer B5 interrupt control register
(004516)···
? 0 0 0
(47) Timer B3 mode register
(16) Timer B4 interrupt control register
(004616)···
? 0 0 0
(48) Timer B4 mode register
(035C16)··· 0 0 ?
0 0 0 0
(17) Timer B3 interrupt control register
(004716)···
? 0 0 0
(49) Timer B5 mode register
(035D16)··· 0 0 ?
0 0 0 0
(035F16)···
0016
(036216)···
4016
(18) SI/O4 interrupt control register
(004816)···
0 0 ? 0 0 0
(50) Interrupt cause select register
(19) SI/O3 interrupt control register
(004916)···
0 0 ? 0 0 0
(51) SI/O3 control register
(20) Bus collision detection interrupt
control register
(004A16)···
? 0 0 0
(52) SI/O4 control register
(036616)···
4016
(037616)···
0016
(21) DMA0 interrupt control register
(004B16)···
? 0 0 0
(53) UART2 special mode register 2
(22) DMA1 interrupt control register
(004C16)···
? 0 0 0
(54) UART2 special mode register
(037716)···
0016
(23) Key input interrupt control register
(004D16)···
? 0 0 0
(55) UART2 transmit/receive mode register
(037816)···
0016
(24) A-D conversion interrupt control register
(004E16)···
? 0 0 0
(56) UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
(037C16)··· 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
(25) UART2 transmit interrupt control register
(004F16)···
? 0 0 0
(57) UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
(037D16)··· 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
(26) UART2 receive interrupt control register
(005016)···
? 0 0 0
(27) UART0 transmit interrupt control register
(005116)···
? 0 0 0
(28) UART0 receive interrupt control register
(005216)···
? 0 0 0
x : Nothing is mapped to this bit
? : Undefined
The content of other registers and RAM is undefined when the microcomputer is reset. The initial values must therefore be set.
Note: When the VCC level is applied to the CNVSS pin, it is 0316 at a reset.
Figure 1.6.3. Device's internal status after a reset is cleared
17
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Reset
(58) Count start flag
(038016)···
(59) Clock prescaler reset flag
(038116)··· 0
(60) One-shot start flag
(038216)··· 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(61) Trigger select flag
(038316)···
(62) Up-down flag
0016
(84) A-D control register 1
(03D716)···
0016
(85) D-A control register
(03DC16)···
0016
(86) Port P0 direction register
(03E216)···
0016
0016
(87) Port P1 direction register
(03E316)···
0016
(038416)···
0016
(88) Port P2 direction register
(03E616)···
0016
(63) Timer A0 mode register
(039616)···
0016
(89) Port P3 direction register
(03E716)···
0016
(64) Timer A1 mode register
(039716)···
0016
(90) Port P4 direction register
(03EA16)···
0016
(65) Timer A2 mode register
(039816)···
0016
(91) Port P5 direction register
(03EB16)···
0016
(66) Timer A3 mode register
(039916)···
0016
(92) Port P6 direction register
(03EE16)···
0016
0016
(67) Timer A4 mode register
(039A16)···
(93) Port P7 direction register
(03EF16)···
0016
(68) Timer B0 mode register
(039B16)··· 0 0 ?
0 0 0 0
(94) Port P8 direction register
(03F216)··· 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
(69) Timer B1 mode register
(039C16)··· 0 0 ?
0 0 0 0
(95) Port P9 direction register
(03F316)···
0016
(70) Timer B2 mode register
(039D16)··· 0 0 ?
0 0 0 0
(96) Port P10 direction register
(03F616)···
0016
(71) UART0 transmit/receive mode register
(03A016)···
(97) Pull-up control register 0
(03FC16)···
0016
(72) UART0 transmit/receive control register 0
(03A416)··· 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
(98) Pull-up control register 1(Note1) (03FD16)···
0016
(73) UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
(03A516)··· 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
(99) Pull-up control register 2
(03FE16)···
0016
(74) UART1 transmit/receive mode register
(03A816)···
(100) Port control register
(03FF16)···
0016
(75) UART1 transmit/receive control register 0
(03AC16)··· 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
(101) Data registers (R0/R1/R2/R3)
000016
(76) UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
(03AD16)··· 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
(102) Address registers (A0/A1)
000016
(77) UART transmit/receive control register 2
(03B016)···
(103) Frame base register (FB)
000016
(78) Flash memory control register 1 (Note2)
(03B616)··· ? ? ? ? 0 ? ? ?
(104) Interrupt table register (INTB)
0000016
(79) Flash memory control register 0 (Note2)
(03B716)···
(105) User stack pointer (USP)
000016
(80) DMA0 cause select register
(03B816)···
0016
(106) Interrupt stack pointer (ISP)
000016
(81) DMA1 cause select register
(03BA16)···
0016
(107) Static base register (SB)
000016
(82) A-D control register 2
(03D416)··· 0 0 0 0
(108) Flag register (FLG)
000016
(83) A-D control register 0
(03D616)··· 0 0 0 0 0 ? ? ?
0016
0016
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0
x : Nothing is mapped to this bit
? : Undefined
The content of other registers and RAM is undefined when the microcomputer is reset. The initial values
must therefore be set.
Note1: When the VCC level is applied to the CNVSS pin, it is 0216 at a reset.
Note2: This register is only exist in flash memory version.
Figure 1.6.4. Device's internal status after a reset is cleared
18
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SFR
000016
004016
000116
004116
000216
004216
000316
000416
000516
000616
000716
000816
000916
000A16
000B16
004316
Processor mode register 0 (PM0)
Processor mode register 1(PM1)
System clock control register 0 (CM0)
System clock control register 1 (CM1)
Chip select control register (CSR)
Address match interrupt enable register (AIER)
Protect register (PRCR)
Data bank register (DBR)
004416
004516
004616
004716
004816
004916
INT3 interrupt control register (INT3IC)
Timer B5 interrupt control register (TB5IC)
Timer B4 interrupt control register (TB4IC)
Timer B3 interrupt control register (TB3IC)
SI/O4 interrupt control register (S4IC)
INT5 interrupt control register (INT5IC)
SI/O3 interrupt control register (S3IC)
INT4 interrupt control register (INT4IC)
000C16
004A16
Bus collision detection interrupt control register (BCNIC)
000D16
004B16
DMA0 interrupt control register (DM0IC)
DMA1 interrupt control register (DM1IC)
Key input interrupt control register (KUPIC)
A-D conversion interrupt control register (ADIC)
000E16
000F16
Watchdog timer start register (WDTS)
Watchdog timer control register (WDC)
001016
001116
004C16
004D16
004E16
Address match interrupt register 0 (RMAD0)
004F16
001216
005016
001316
005116
001416
001516
005216
Address match interrupt register 1 (RMAD1)
005316
001616
005416
001716
005516
001816
005616
001916
005716
001A16
005816
001B16
005916
001C16
005A16
001D16
005B16
001E16
005C16
001F16
005D16
005E16
002016
002116
DMA0 source pointer (SAR0)
005F16
002216
006016
002316
006116
DMA0 destination pointer (DAR0)
006516
002716
002916
006316
006416
002616
002816
Timer A0 interrupt control register (TA0IC)
Timer A1 interrupt control register (TA1IC)
Timer A2 interrupt control register (TA2IC)
Timer A3 interrupt control register (TA3IC)
Timer A4 interrupt control register (TA4IC)
Timer B0 interrupt control register (TB0IC)
Timer B1 interrupt control register (TB1IC)
Timer B2 interrupt control register (TB2IC)
INT0 interrupt control register (INT0IC)
INT1 interrupt control register (INT1IC)
INT2 interrupt control register (INT2IC)
006216
002416
002516
UART2 transmit interrupt control register (S2TIC)
UART2 receive interrupt control register (S2RIC)
UART0 transmit interrupt control register (S0TIC)
UART0 receive interrupt control register (S0RIC)
UART1 transmit interrupt control register (S1TIC)
UART1 receive interrupt control register (S1RIC)
DMA0 transfer counter (TCR0)
002A16
002B16
002C16
DMA0 control register (DM0CON)
032A16
002D16
032B16
002E16
032C16
002F16
032D16
032E16
003016
003116
DMA1 source pointer (SAR1)
032F16
003216
033016
003316
033116
033216
003416
003516
DMA1 destination pointer (DAR1)
033316
003616
033416
003716
033516
003816
003916
DMA1 transfer counter (TCR1)
033716
033816
003A16
033916
003B16
003C16
033616
DMA1 control register (DM1CON)
033A16
003D16
033B16
003E16
033C16
003F16
033D16
033E16
033F16
Note 1: Locations in the SFR area where nothing is allocated are reserved areas. Do not access these areas for read or write.
Figure 1.7.1. Location of peripheral unit control registers (1)
19
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SFR
034016
Timer B3, 4, 5 count start flag (TBSR)
034216
034316
034416
034516
034616
034716
038016
038116
034116
Timer A1-1 register (TA11)
Timer A2-1 register (TA21)
Timer A4-1 register (TA41)
038216
038316
038416
038516
038616
038716
038816
034C16
Three-phase PWM control register 0(INVC0)
Three-phase PWM control register 1(INVC1)
Three-phase output buffer register 0(IDB0)
Three-phase output buffer register 1(IDB1)
Dead time timer(DTT)
034D16
Timer B2 interrupt occurrence frequency set counter(ICTB2)
038D16
034816
034916
034A16
034B16
038916
038A16
038B16
038C16
034E16
038E16
034F16
038F16
035016
039016
035116
035216
035316
035416
035516
Timer B3 register (TB3)
Timer B4 register (TB4)
Timer B5 register (TB5)
039116
039216
039316
039416
039516
035616
039616
035716
039716
035816
039816
035916
039916
039A16
035A16
035B16
035C16
035D16
Timer B3 mode register (TB3MR)
Timer B4 mode register (TB4MR)
Timer B5 mode register (TB5MR)
036016
Interrupt cause select register (IFSR)
SI/O3 transmit/receive register (S3TRR)
036116
036216
036316
036416
SI/O3 control register (S3C)
SI/O3 bit rate generator (S3BRG)
SI/O4 transmit/receive register (S4TRR)
036716
039C16
039D16
Timer A1 (TA1)
Timer A2 (TA2)
Timer A3 (TA3)
Timer A4 (TA4)
Timer B0 (TB0)
Timer B1 (TB1)
Timer B2 (TB2)
Timer A0 mode register (TA0MR)
Timer A1 mode register (TA1MR)
Timer A2 mode register (TA2MR)
Timer A3 mode register (TA3MR)
Timer A4 mode register (TA4MR)
Timer B0 mode register (TB0MR)
Timer B1 mode register (TB1MR)
Timer B2 mode register (TB2MR)
039F16
03A016
UART0 transmit/receive mode register (U0MR)
03A116
UART0 bit rate generator (U0BRG)
03A216
03A316
03A416
03A516
036516
036616
039B16
Timer A0 (TA0)
039E16
035E16
035F16
Count start flag (TABSR)
Clock prescaler reset flag (CPSRF)
One-shot start flag (ONSF)
Trigger select register (TRGSR)
Up-down flag (UDF)
SI/O4 control register (S4C)
SI/O4 bit rate generator (S4BRG)
03A616
03A716
UART0 transmit buffer register (U0TB)
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0 (U0C0)
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1 (U0C1)
UART0 receive buffer register (U0RB)
036816
03A816
UART1 transmit/receive mode register (U1MR)
036916
03A916
UART1 bit rate generator (U1BRG)
036A16
03AA16
036B16
03AB16
036C16
03AC16
036D16
03AD16
036E16
03AE16
036F16
03AF16
037016
03B016
037116
03B116
037216
03B216
037316
03B316
037416
03B416
037716
037816
037916
037A16
037B16
037C16
037D16
037E16
037F16
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0 (U1C0)
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1 (U1C1)
UART1 receive buffer register (U1RB)
UART transmit/receive control register 2 (UCON)
03B516
037516
037616
UART1 transmit buffer register (U1TB)
UART2 special mode register 2(U2SMR2)
UART2 special mode register (U2SMR)
03B616
UART2 transmit/receive mode register (U2MR)
UART2 bit rate generator (U2BRG)
03B816
UART2 transmit buffer register (U2TB)
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0 (U2C0)
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 (U2C1)
UART2 receive buffer register (U2RB)
03B716
Flash memory control register 1 (FMR1) (Note1)
Flash memory control register 0 (FMR0) (Note1)
DMA0 request cause select register (DM0SL)
03B916
03BA16
DMA1 request cause select register (DM1SL)
03BB16
03BC16
03BD16
03BE16
CRC data register (CRCD)
CRC input register (CRCIN)
03BF16
Note 1: This register is only exist in flash memory version.
Note 2: Locations in the SFR area where nothing is allocated are reserved areas. Do not access these areas for
read or write.
Figure 1.7.2. Location of peripheral unit control registers (2)
20
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SFR
03C016
03C116
03C216
03C316
03C416
03C516
03C616
03C716
03C816
03C916
03CA16
03CB16
03CC16
03CD16
03CE16
03CF16
A-D register 0 (AD0)
A-D register 1 (AD1)
A-D register 2 (AD2)
A-D register 3 (AD3)
A-D register 4 (AD4)
A-D register 5 (AD5)
A-D register 6 (AD6)
A-D register 7 (AD7)
03D016
03D116
03D216
03D316
03D416
A-D control register 2 (ADCON2)
03D516
03D616
03D716
03D816
A-D control register 0 (ADCON0)
A-D control register 1 (ADCON1)
D-A register 0 (DA0)
03D916
03DA16
D-A register 1 (DA1)
03DB16
03DC16
D-A control register (DACON)
03DD16
03DE16
03DF16
03E016
03E116
03E216
03E316
03E416
03E516
03E616
03E716
03E816
03E916
03EA16
03EB16
03EC16
03ED16
03EE16
03EF16
03F016
03F116
03F216
03F316
03F416
Port P0 (P0)
Port P1 (P1)
Port P0 direction register (PD0)
Port P1 direction register (PD1)
Port P2 (P2)
Port P3 (P3)
Port P2 direction register (PD2)
Port P3 direction register (PD3)
Port P4 (P4)
Port P5 (P5)
Port P4 direction register (PD4)
Port P5 direction register (PD5)
Port P6 (P6)
Port P7 (P7)
Port P6 direction register (PD6)
Port P7 direction register (PD7)
Port P8 (P8)
Port P9 (P9)
Port P8 direction register (PD8)
Port P9 direction register (PD9)
Port P10 (P10)
03F516
03F616
Port P10 direction register (PD10)
03F716
03F816
03F916
03FA16
03FB16
03FC16
03FD16
03FE16
03FF16
Pull-up control register 0 (PUR0)
Pull-up control register 1 (PUR1)
Pull-up control register 2 (PUR2)
Port control register (PCR)
Note : Locations in the SFR area where nothing is allocated are reserved
areas. Do not access these areas for read or write.
Figure 1.7.3. Location of peripheral unit control registers (3)
21
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Memory Space Expansion Functions
Memory Space Expansion Features
Here follows the description of the memory space expansion function.
With the processor running in memory expansion mode or in microprocessor mode, the memory space
expansion features provide the means of expanding the accessible space. The memory space expansion
features run in one of the three modes given below.
(1) Normal mode (no expansion)
(2) Memory space expansion mode 1 (to be referred as expansion mode 1)
(3) Memory space expansion mode 2 (to be referred as expansion mode 2)
Use bits 5 and 4 (PM15, PM14) of processor mode register 1 to select a desired mode. The external
memory area the chip select signal indicates is different in each mode so that the accessible memory space
varies. Table 1.8.1 shows how to set individual modes and corresponding accessible memory spaces. For
external memory area the chip select signal indicates, see Table 1.12.1 on page 34.
Table 1.8.1. The way of setting memory space expansion modes and corresponding memory spaces
Expansion mode
Normal mode (no expansion)
Expansion mode 1
Expansion mode 2
How to set PM15 and PM14
0, 0
1, 0
1, 1
Accessible memory space
Up to 1M byte
Up to 1.2M bytes
Up to 4M bytes
Here follows the description of individual modes.
(1) Normal mode (a mode with memory not expanded)
‘Normal mode’ means a mode in which memory is not expanded.
Figure 1.8.1 shows the memory maps and the chip select areas in normal mode.
Normal mode (memory area = 1M bytes for PM15 = 0, PM14 = 0)
Memory expansion mode
0000016
SFR area
0040016
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
Internal RAM area
XXXXX16
Internal area reserved
0400016
0800016
2800016
3000016
External area
D000016
Microprocessor mode
Internal area reserved
YYYYY16
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
SFR area
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
Internal RAMarea
Internal area reserved
External area
Address XXXXX16
00FFF16
02BFF16
02BFF16
Address YYYYY16
F800016
F000016
E800016
M30620MC/EC
02BFF16
E000016
M30622M8/E8
M30622MA
M30622MC
M30624MG/FG
013FF16
017FF16
017FF16
053FF16
F000016
E800016
E000016
C000016
Type No.
M30622M4
M30620M8
M30620MA
CS3 (16K bytes)
CS2 (128K bytes)
CS1 (32K bytes)
CS0
Memory expansion mode: 640K bytes
Microprocessor mode: 832K bytes
Note 1: These memory maps show an instance in which PM13 is set to 0; but in the case of M30624MG/FG, they show an
instance in which PM13 is set to 1.
Note 2: The memory maps in single-chip mode are omitted.
Figure 1.8.1. The memory maps and the chip select areas in normal mode
22
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Memory Space Expansion Functions
(2) Expansion mode 1
In this mode, the memory space can be expanded by 176K bytes in addition to that in normal mode.
Figure 1.8.2 shows the memory location and chip select area in expansion mode 1.
_______ _______
_______
In accessing data in expansion mode 1, CS3, CS2, and CS1 go active in the area from 0400016 through
_______
2FFFF16; in fetching a program, CS0 goes active. That is, the address space is expanded by using the
________
_______ _______
area from 0400016 through 2FFFF16 (176K bytes) appropriately for accessing data (CS3, CS2, CS1)
_______
and fetching a program (CS0).
Expansion mode 1 (memory space = 1.2M bytes for PM15 = 1, PM14 = 0)
Memory
expansion mode
0000016
0040016
SFR area
SFR area
Internal RAM
area
Internal RAM
area
Internal area reserved
Internal area reserved
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
XXXXX16
Microprocessor
mode
0400016
CS3 (16K bytes)
CS2 (128 Kbytes)
0400016
to
2FFFF16
CS1 (32K bytes)
CS0:active in fetching a program
CS1, CS2, CS3:active in accessing data
0800016
2800016
176K bytes
= the extent of memory expanded
3000016
External area
D000016
External
area
Internal area reserved
YYYYY16
FFFFF16
CS0
Memory expansion
mode:
816K bytes
Microprocessor mode:
1008K bytes
Internal ROM
area
Type No.
M30622M4
Address XXXXX16
00FFF16
M30620M8
M30620MA
02BFF16
02BFF16
M30620MC/EC
M30622M8/E8
M30622MA
M30622MC
M30624MG/FG
02BFF16
013FF16
017FF16
017FF16
053FF16
3000016
to
FFFFF16
CS0:active both in fetching a program
and in accessing data
Address YYYYY16
F800016
F000016
E800016
E000016
F000016
E800016
E000016
C000016
Note 1: These memory maps show an instance in which PM13 is set to 0; but in the case of M30624MG/FG, they show an
instance in which PM13 is set to 1.
Note 2: The memory maps in single-chip mode are omitted.
Figure 1.8.2. Memory location and chip select area in expansion mode 1
23
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Memory Space Expansion Functions
A connection example
Figure 1.8.3 shows a connection example of the MCU with the external memories in expansion mode 1.
_______
_______
In this example, CS0 is connected with a 1-M byte flash ROM and CS2 is connected with a 128-K byte
SRAM.
An example of connecting the MCU with external memories in expansion mode 1
(An example of using M30622MC in microprocessor mode)
8
D0 to D7
AD0 to AD16
AD17
AD18
A19
AD19
CS1
CS2
CS3
RD
OE
CS0
CS
WR
DQ0 to DQ7
AD0 to AD16
OE
S2
S1
W
0000016
0040016
SFR area
Internal RAM
area
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
017FF16
Flash
ROM
0800016
2800016
3000016
External area
FFFFF16
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
(1M byte)
Internal area reserved
0400016
D000016
128K bytes SRAM
A17
A18
1M byte flash ROM
M30622MC
A0 to A16
DQ0 to DQ7
17
SRAM
(128K bytes)
Usable for
data only
Usable for
programs only
CS2
(128K bytes)
Usable both for
programs and
for data
Figure 1.8.3. External memory connect example in expansion mode 1
24
CS0
(1008K bytes)
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Memory Space Expansion Functions
(3) Expansion mode 2
In expansion mode 2, the data bank register (0000B16) goes effective. Figure 1.8.4 shows the data bank
register.
Data bank register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
DBR
Address
000B16
Bit symbol
When reset
0016
Bit name
Description
R W
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
OFS
Offset bit
BSR
Bank selection bits
0: Not offset
1: Offset
b5 b4 b3
0 0 0: Bank 0
0 1 0: Bank 2
1 0 0: Bank 4
1 1 0: Bank 6
b5 b4 b3
0 0 1: Bank 1
0 1 1: Bank 3
1 0 1: Bank 5
1 1 1: Bank 7
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Figure 1.8.4. Data bank register
Expansion mode 2 (memory space = 4M bytes for PM15 = 1, PM14 = 1)
Memory
expansion mode
0000016
0040016
Microprocessor
mode
SFR area
SFR area
Internal RAM area
Internal RAM area
Internal area reserved
Internal area reserved
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
XXXXX16
0400016
CS3 (16K bytes)
0800016
2800016
CS2 (128K bytes)
CS1 (96K bytes)
4000016
External area
D000016
External area
Internal area reserved
YYYYY16
CS0
Memory expansion mode:
512K bytes x 7banks +
256K bytes
Microprocessor mode:
512K bytes x 8banks
Internal ROM area
Addresses from 4000016 through BFFFF16
Bank 7 in fetching a program
A bank selected by use of the bank selection
bits in accessing data
Addresses from C000016 through FFFFF16
Bank 7 invariably
Bank number is output to CS3 to CS1
FFFFF16
Type No.
M30622M4
Address XXXXX16
00FFF16
Address YYYYY16
F800016
M30620M8
M30620MA
02BFF16
02BFF16
F000016
E800016
M30620MC/EC
02BFF16
E000016
M30622M8/E8
M30622MA
M30622MC
M30624MG/FG
013FF16
017FF16
017FF16
053FF16
F000016
E800016
E000016
C000016
Note 1: These memory maps show an instance in which PM13 is set to 0; but in the case of M30624MG/FG, they
show an instance in which PM13 is set to 1.
Note 2: The memory maps in single-chip mode are omitted.
Figure 1.8.5. Memory location and chip select area in expansion mode 2
25
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Memory Space Expansion Functions
The data bank register is made up of the bank selection bits (bits 5 through 3) and the offset bit (bit 2). The
bank selection bits are used to set a bank number for accessing data lying between 4000016 and
BFFFF16. Assigning 1 to the offset bit provides the means to set offsets covering 4000016.
Figure 1.8.5 shows the memory location and chip select areas in expansion mode 2.
_______
The area relevant to CS0 ranges from 4000016 through FFFFF16. As for the area from 4000016 through
_______
BFFFF16, the bank number set by use of the bank selection bits are output from the output terminals CS3
_______
_______
_______
- CS1 only in accessing data. In fetching a program, bank 7 (1112) is output from CS3 - CS1. As for the
_______
_______
area from C000016 through FFFFF16, bank 7 (1112) is output from CS3 - CS1 without regard to accessing
data or to fetching a program.
_______
_______
_______
In accessing an area irrelevant to CS0, a chip select signal CS3 (400016 - 7FFF16), CS2 (800016 _______
27FFF16), and CS1 (2800016 - 3FFFF16) is output depending on the address as in the past.
Figure 1.8.6 shows an example of connecting the MCU with a 4-M byte ROM and to a 128-K byte SRAM.
_______
_______
_______
_______
Connect the chip select of 4-M byte ROM with CS0. Connect M16C’s CS3, CS2, and CS1 with address
inputs AD21, AD20, and AD19 respectively. Connect M16C’s output A19 with address input AD18. Figure 1.8.7 shows the relationship between addresses of the 4-M byte ROM and those of M16C.
In this mode, memory is
banked every 512 K bytes,
so that data access in differ-
SRAM’s chip select assumes
_______
that CS0=1 (not selected)
A0 to A16
DQ0 to D Q7
17
AD0 to AD16
A17
A19
AD17
CS1
CS2
AD19
CS3
RD
CS0
WR
AD18
AD20
AD21
OE
CS
4-M byte ROM
dresses 0FFFFF16 and
100000 16 of 4-Mbyte ROM
can be accessed successively without having to
change the bank bit by setting the offset bit to 1 and
then accessing addresses
07FFFF16 and 80000016.
On the other hand, the
8
D0 to D7
DQ0 to D Q7
AD0 to AD16
OE
S2
S1
W
128-K byte SRAM
ting the offset bit to 1, because in which case the
memory address is offset by
40000 16. For example, two
bytes of data located at ad-
An example of connecting the MCU with
external memories in expansion mode 2
(M30622MC, Microprocessor mode)
M30622MC
ent banks requires switching
over banks. However, data
on bank boundaries when
offset bit = 0 can be accessed successively by set-
Note: If only one chip select terminal (S1 or S2) is present,
decoding by use of an external circuit is required.
_______
and CS2=0 (selected), so
_______
connect CS0 with S2 and
_______
____
CS2 with S1. If the SRAM
doesn’t have a bipolar chip
select input terminal, decode
_______
_______
CS0 and CS2 externally.
26
Figure 1.8.6. An example of connecting the MCU with external
memories in expansion mode 2
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Memory Space Expansion Functions
Address area map of 4-M byte ROM
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
ROM address
M16C address
Offset bit = 0
000000
Offset bit = 1
40000
Bank 0
040000
080000
40000
BFFFF
40000
Bank 0
BFFFF
40000
Bank 1
0C0000
100000
BFFFF
40000
Bank 1
Data area
180000
Areas used for data only
00000016
to
38000016
BFFFF
40000
Bank 2
140000
BFFFF
40000
Bank 2
BFFFF
40000
Bank 3
1C0000
200000
BFFFF
40000
Bank 3
BFFFF
Bank 4
240000
280000
40000
BFFFF
40000
Bank 4
BFFFF
40000
Bank 5
2C0000
300000
BFFFF
40000
Bank 5
Data area
Area commonly used for data
and programs
38000016 to 3BFFFF16
380000
Area commonly used for data
and programs
3C000016 to 3FFFFF16
3C0000
BFFFF
Bank 6
340000
Program/
data area
Bank 7
40000
BFFFF
40000
Bank 6
7FFFF
C0000
BFFFF
Program/
data area
3FFFFF
FFFFF
Figure 1.8.7. Relationship between addresses on 4-M byte ROM and those on M16C
27
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Software Reset
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Software Reset
Writing “1” to bit 3 of the processor mode register 0 (address 000416) applies a (software) reset to the
microcomputer. A software reset has the same effect as a hardware reset. The contents of internal RAM
are preserved.
Processor Mode
(1) Types of Processor Mode
One of three processor modes can be selected: single-chip mode, memory expansion mode, and microprocessor mode. The functions of some pins, the memory map, and the access space differ according to
the selected processor mode.
• Single-chip mode
In single-chip mode, only internal memory space (SFR, internal RAM, and internal ROM) can be
accessed. Ports P0 to P10 can be used as programmable I/O ports or as I/O ports for the internal
peripheral functions.
• Memory expansion mode
In memory expansion mode, external memory can be accessed in addition to the internal memory
space (SFR, internal RAM, and internal ROM).
In this mode, some of the pins function as the address bus, the data bus, and as control signals. The
number of pins assigned to these functions depends on the bus and register settings. (See “Bus
Settings” for details.)
• Microprocessor mode
In microprocessor mode, the SFR, internal RAM, and external memory space can be accessed. The
internal ROM area cannot be accessed.
In this mode, some of the pins function as the address bus, the data bus, and as control signals. The
number of pins assigned to these functions depends on the bus and register settings. (See “Bus
Settings” for details.)
(2) Setting Processor Modes
The processor mode is set using the CNVSS pin and the processor mode bits (bits 1 and 0 at address
000416). Do not set the processor mode bits to “102”.
Regardless of the level of the CNVSS pin, changing the processor mode bits selects the mode. Therefore,
never change the processor mode bits when changing the contents of other bits. Also do not attempt to
shift to or from the microprocessor mode within the program stored in the internal ROM area.
• Applying VSS to CNVSS pin
The microcomputer begins operation in single-chip mode after being reset. Memory expansion mode
is selected by writing “012” to the processor mode is selected bits.
• Applying VCC to CNVSS pin
The microcomputer starts to operate in microprocessor mode after being reset.
Figure 1.9.1 shows the processor mode register 0 and 1.
Figure 1.10.1 shows the memory maps applicable for each of the modes when memory area dose not be
expanded (normal mode).
28
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Processor Mode
Processor mode register 0 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PM0
Address
000416
Bit symbol
When reset
0016 (Note 2)
Bit name
Function
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AAA
A
AA
AA
R W
Processor mode bit
b1 b0
PM02
R/W mode select bit
0 : RD,BHE,WR
1 : RD,WRH,WRL
PM03
Software reset bit
The device is reset when this bit is set
to “1”. The value of this bit is “0” when
read.
PM04
Multiplexed bus space
select bit
b5 b4
PM06
Port P40 to P43 function
select bit (Note 3)
0 : Address output
1 : Port function
(Address is not output)
PM07
BCLK output disable bit
0 : BCLK is output
1 : BCLK is not output
(Pin is left floating)
PM00
PM01
PM05
0 0: Single-chip mode
0 1: Memory expansion mode
1 0: Inhibited
1 1: Microprocessor mode
0 0 : Multiplexed bus is not used
0 1 : Allocated to CS2 space
1 0 : Allocated to CS1 space
1 1 : Allocated to entire space (Note4)
Note 1: Set bit 1 of the protect register (address 000A16) to “1” when writing new
values to this register.
Note 2: If the VCC voltage is applied to the CNVSS, the value of this register when
reset is 0316. (PM00 and PM01 both are set to “1”.)
Note 3: Valid in microprocessor and memory expansion modes.
Note 4: If the entire space is of multiplexed bus in memory expansion mode, choose an 8bit width.The processor operates using the separate bus after reset is revoked, so the entire
space multiplexed bus cannot be chosen in microprocessor mode.
The higher-order address becomes a port if the entire space multiplexed bus is chosen, so
only 256 bytes can be used in each chip select.
Processor mode register 1 (Note 1)
b7
b6
0
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0
Symbol
PM1
Address
000516
Bit symbol
When reset
00000XX02
Bit name
Reserved bit
Function
Must always be set to “0”
Nothing is assigned.
AA
R W
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
PM13
Internal reserved area
expansion bit (Note 2)
PM14
Memory area
expansion bit (Note 3)
PM15
Reserved bit
PM17
b5 b4
0 0 : Normal mode
(Do not expand)
0 1 : Inhibited
1 0 : Memory area expansion
mode 1
1 1 : Memory area expansion
mode 2
Must always be set to “0”
Wait bit
AAA
A
AA
AA
AA
0: The same internal reserved
area as that of M16C/60 and
M16C/61 group
1: Expands the internal RAM area
and internal ROM area to 23 K
bytes and to 256K bytes
respectively. (Note 2)
0 : No wait state
1 : Wait state inserted
Note 1: Set bit 1 of the protect register (address 000A16) to “1” when writing new values to this register.
Note 2: Be sure to set this bit to 0 except products whose RAM size and ROM size exceed 15K bytes
and 192K bytes respectively.
In using M30624MG/FG, a product having a RAM of more than 15K bytes and a ROM of more
than 192K bytes, set this bit to 1 at the beginning of user program.
Specify D000016 or a subsequent address, which becomes an internal ROM area if PM13 is set
to “0” at the time reset is revoked, for the reset vector table of user program.
Note 3: With the processor running in memory expansion mode or in microprocessor mode, setting this
bit provides the means of expanding the external memory area. (Normal mode: up to 1M byte,
expansion mode 1: up to 1.2 M bytes, expansion mode 2: up to 4M bytes)
For details, see “Memory space expansion functions”.
Figure 1.9.1. Processor mode register 0 and 1
29
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Processor Mode
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
0000016
SFR area
SFR area
SFR area
Internal
RAM area
Internal
RAM area
Internal
RAM area
Internally
reserved area
Internally
reserved area
External
area
External
area
0040016
XXXXX16
0400016
Inhibited
D000016
Internally
reserved area
YYYYY16
Internal
ROM area
Internal
ROM area
FFFFF16
Type No.
M30622M4
M30620M8
M30620MA
M30620MC/EC
M30622M8/E8
M30622MA
M30622MC
M30624MG/FG
Address XXXXX16
00FFF16
02BFF16
02BFF16
02BFF16
013FF16
017FF16
017FF16
053FF16
Address YYYYY16
F800016
F000016
E800016
External area : Accessing this area allows the user to
access a device connected externally
to the microcomputer.
E000016
F000016
E800016
E000016
C000016
Note : These memory maps show an instance in which PM13 is set to 0; but in the case of M30624MG/FG,
they show an instance in which PM13 is set to 1.
Figure 1.10.1. Memory maps in each processor mode (without memory area expansion, normal mode)
30
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Processor Mode
Figure 1.10.2 shows the memory maps and the chip selection areas effected by PM13 (the internal reserved area expansion bit) in each processor mode for the product having an internal RAM of more than
15K bytes and a ROM of more than 192K bytes.
(1)Normal mode
Internal reserved area expansion bit="0"
Memory expansion
mode
0000016
Memory expansion
mode
SFR area
(1K bytes)
SFR area
(1K bytes)
0000016
Internal RAM area
(15K bytes)
Internal RAM area
(15K bytes)
0040016
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
0040016
Internal reserved area expansion bit="1"
Microprocessor
mode
0400016
2800016
CS2 (128K bytes)
External area
CFFFF16
D000016
Internal ROM area
(192K bytes)
SFR area
(1K bytes)
Internal RAM area
(20K bytes)
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
Internal reserved area
2800016
CS1(32K bytes)
3000016
External area
SFR area
(1K bytes)
Internal RAM area
(20K bytes)
0540016 Internal reserved area
0600016
0800016
CS3(16K bytes)
0800016
Microprocessor
mode
CS3(8K bytes)
CS2 (128K bytes)
CS1(32K bytes)
3000016
External area
CS0
External area
BFFFF16
C000016
Memory expansion mode
: 640K bytes
Microprocessor mode
: 832K bytes
Internal ROM area
(256K bytes)
CS0
Memory expansion mode
: 576K bytes
Microprocessor mode
: 832K bytes
FFFFF16
FFFFF16
After reset
After reset, and set the Internal reserved area expansion bit to "1"
Note: The reset vector lies in an area between D000016 and FFFFB16.
(2)Expansion mode 1
Internal reserved area expansion bit="0"
Memory expansion
mode
0000016
SFR area
(1K bytes)
Internal RAM area
(15K bytes)
Memory expansion
mode
SFR area
(1K bytes)
0000016
Internal RAM area
(15K bytes)
0040016
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
0040016
Internal reserved area expansion bit="1"
Microprocessor
mode
0400016
CS3
(16K bytes)
2800016
CS1
176K bytes
= the extent of
memory
expanded
(32K bytes)
3000016
External area
External area
CFFFF16
D000016
Internal ROM area
(192K bytes)
SFR area
(1K bytes)
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
Internal RAM area
(20K bytes)
0540016 Internal reserved area
0600016
0800016
0800016
CS2 (128K bytes)
SFR area
(1K bytes)
Microprocessor
mode
Internal RAM area
(20K bytes)
Internal reserved area
CS3 (8K bytes)
2800016
CS2
(128K bytes)
CS1
(32K bytes)
168K bytes
= the extent of
memory
expanded
3000016
External area
CS0
Memory expansion mode
: 816K bytes
Microprocessor mode
: 1008K bytes
External area
BFFFF16
C000016
Internal ROM area
(256K bytes)
CS0
Memory expansion mode
: 744K bytes
Microprocessor mode
: 1000K bytes
FFFFF16
FFFFF16
After reset
After reset, and set the Internal reserved area expansion bit to "1"
Note: The reset vector lies in an area between D000016 and FFFFB16.
(2)Expansion mode 2
Internal reserved area expansion bit="0"
Memory expansion
mode
0000016
Memory expansion
mode
0000016
SFR area
(1K bytes)
SFR area
(1K bytes)
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
0040016
Internal reserved area expansion bit="1"
Microprocessor
mode
Internal RAM area
(15K bytes)
0400016
CS3(16K bytes)
0800016
CS2 (128K bytes)
2800016
4000016
External area
CFFFF16
D000016
Internal ROM area
(192K bytes)
FFFFF16
After reset
SFR area
(1K bytes)
SFR area
(1K bytes)
Internal RAM area
(20K bytes)
Internal RAM area
(20K bytes)
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
0040016
Internal RAM area
(15K bytes)
Microprocessor
mode
0540016 Internal reserved area
0600016
0800016
Internal reserved area
CS3(8K bytes)
CS2(128K bytes)
2800016
CS1(96K bytes)
External area
CS0
Memory expansion mode
: 512K bytes x 7banks + 256K bytes
Microprocessor mode
: 512K bytes x 8banks
4000016
BFFFF16
C000016
External area
CS1(96K bytes)
External area
CS0
Internal ROM area
(256K bytes)
Memory expansion mode
: 512K bytes x 7banks + 256K bytes
Microprocessor mode
: 512K bytes x 8banks
FFFFF16
After reset, and set the Internal reserved area expansion bit to "1"
Note: The reset vector lies in an area between D000016 and FFFFB16.
Figure 1.10.2. Memory location and chip select area in each processor mode
31
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Bus Settings
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Settings
The BYTE pin and bits 4 to 6 of the processor mode register 0 (address 000416) are used to change the bus settings.
Table 1.11.1 shows the factors used to change the bus settings.
Table 1.11.1. Factors for switching bus settings
Bus setting
Switching factor
Switching external address bus width
Bit 6 of processor mode register 0
Switching external data bus width
BYTE pin
Switching between separate and multiplex bus
Bits 4 and 5 of processor mode register 0
(1) Selecting external address bus width
The address bus width for external output in the 1M bytes of address space can be set to 16 bits (64K
bytes address space) or 20 bits (1M bytes address space). When bit 6 of the processor mode register 0
is set to “1”, the external address bus width is set to 16 bits, and P2 and P3 become part of the address
bus. P40 to P43 can be used as programmable I/O ports. When bit 6 of processor mode register 0 is set
to “0”, the external address bus width is set to 20 bits, and P2, P3, and P40 to P43 become part of the
address bus.
(2) Selecting external data bus width
The external data bus width can be set to 8 or 16 bits. (Note, however, that only the separate bus can be
set.) When the BYTE pin is “L”, the bus width is set to 16 bits; when “H”, it is set to 8 bits. (The internal bus
width is permanently set to 16 bits.) While operating, fix the BYTE pin either to “H” or to “L”.
(3) Selecting separate/multiplex bus
The bus format can be set to multiplex or separate bus using bits 4 and 5 of the processor mode register 0.
• Separate bus
In this mode, the data and address are input and output separately. The data bus can be set using the
BYTE pin to be 8 or 16 bits. When the BYTE pin is “H”, the data bus is set to 8 bits and P0 functions as
the data bus and P1 as a programmable I/O port. When the BYTE pin is “L”, the data bus is set to 16
bits and P0 and P1 are both used for the data bus.
When the separate bus is used for access, a software wait can be selected.
• Multiplex bus
In this mode, data and address I/O are time multiplexed. With an 8-bit data bus selected (BYTE pin =
“H”), the 8 bits from D0 to D7 are multiplexed with A0 to A7.
With a 16-bit data bus selected (BYTE pin = “L”), the 8 bits from D0 to D7 are multiplexed with A1 to A8.
D8 to D15 are not multiplexed. In this case, the external devices connected to the multiplexed bus are
mapped to the microcomputer’s even addresses (every 2nd address). To access these external devices, access the even addresses as bytes.
The ALE signal latches the address. It is output from P56.
Before using the multiplex bus for access, be sure to insert a software wait.
If the entire space is of multiplexed bus in memory expansion mode, choose an 8-bit width.
The processor operates using the separate bus after reset is revoked, so the entire space multiplexed
bus cannot be chosen in microprocessor mode.
The higher-order address becomes a port if the entire space multiplexed bus is chosen, so only 256
bytes can be used in each chip select.
32
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Settings
Table 1.11.2. Pin functions for each processor mode
Processor mode
Single-chip
mode
Memory expansion mode/microprocessor modes
“01”, “10”
Multiplexed bus
space select bit
“00”
Either CS1 or CS2 is for
multiplexed bus and others
are for separate bus
Data bus width
BYTE pin level
8 bits
“H”
16 bits
“L”
(separate bus)
8 bits
“H”
Memory
expansion mode
“11” (Note 1)
multiplexed
bus for the
entire
space
16 bits
“L”
8 bit
“H”
P00 to P07
I/O port
Data bus
Data bus
Data bus
Data bus
I/O port
P10 to P17
I/O port
I/O port
Data bus
I/O port
Data bus
I/O port
P20
I/O port
Address bus
Address bus
/data bus(Note 2)
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
/data bus
P21 to P27
I/O port
Address bus
/data bus(Note 2)
Address bus
/data bus(Note 2)
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
/data bus
P30
I/O port
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
A8/D7
/data bus(Note 2)
P31 to P37
I/O port
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
I/O port
P40 to P43
Port P40 to P43
function select bit = 1
I/O port
I/O port
I/O port
/O port
I/O port
I/O port
P40 to P43
Port P40 to P43
function select bit = 0
I/O port
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
Address bus
I/O port
P44 to P47
I/O port
CS (chip select) or programmable I/O port
(For details, refer to “Bus control”)
P50 to P53
I/O port
Outputs RD, WRL, WRH, and BCLK or RD, BHE, WR, and BCLK
(For details, refer to “Bus control”)
P54
I/O port
HLDA
HLDA
HLDA
HLDA
HLDA
P55
I/O port
HOLD
HOLD
HOLD
HOLD
HOLD
P56
I/O port
ALE
ALE
ALE
ALE
ALE
P57
I/O port
RDY
RDY
RDY
RDY
RDY
Note 1: If the entire space is of multiplexed bus in memory expansion mode, choose an 8-bit width.
The processor operates using the separate bus after reset is revoked, so the entire space multiplexed bus cannot be
chosen in microprocessor mode.
The higher-order address becomes a port if the entire space multiplexed bus is chosen, so only 256 bytes can be used
in each chip select.
Note 2: Address bus when in separate bus mode.
33
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Control
Bus Control
The following explains the signals required for accessing external devices and software waits. The signals
required for accessing the external devices are valid when the processor mode is set to memory expansion
mode and microprocessor mode. The software waits are valid in all processor modes.
(1) Address bus/data bus
The address bus consists of the 20 pins A0 to A19 for accessing the 1M bytes of address space.
The data bus consists of the pins for data I/O. When the BYTE pin is “H”, the 8 ports D0 to D7 function
as the data bus. When BYTE is “L”, the 16 ports D0 to D15 function as the data bus.
When a change is made from single-chip mode to memory expansion mode, the value of the address
bus is undefined until external memory is accessed.
(2) Chip select signal
The chip select signal is output using the same pins as P44 to P47. Bits 0 to 3 of the chip select control
register (address 000816) set each pin to function as a port or to output the chip select signal. The chip
select control register is valid in memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode. In single-chip
mode, P44 to P47 function as programmable I/O ports regardless of the value in the chip select control
register.
_______
In microprocessor mode, only CS0 outputs the chip select signal after the reset state has been can_______
_______
celled. CS1 to CS3 function as input ports. Figure 1.12.1 shows the chip select control register.
The chip select signal can be used to split the external area into as many as four blocks. Tables 1.12.1
and 1.12.2 show the external memory areas specified using the chip select signal.
Table 1.12.1. External areas specified by the chip select signals
(A product having an internal RAM equal to or less than 15K bytes and a ROM equal to or less than 192K bytes)(Note)
Specified address range
Memory space
expansion mode
CS0
Memory expansion mode
3000016 to
CFFFF16
(640K bytes)
Microprocessor mode
3000016 to
FFFFF16
(832K bytes)
Memory expansion mode
0400016 to
CFFFF16
(816K bytes)
Microprocessor mode
0400016 to
FFFFF16
(1008K bytes)
Normal mode
(PM15,14=0,0)
Expansion
mode 1
(PM15,14=1,0)
Chip select signal
Processor mode
Expansion
mode 2
Memory expansion mode
(PM15,14=1,1)
Microprocessor mode
4000016 to
BFFFF16
(512K bytes X 7 +
256K bytes)
4000016 to
FFFFF16
(512K bytes X 8)
CS1
CS3
0800016 to
27FFF16
(128K bytes)
0400016 to
07FFF16
(16K bytes)
2800016 to
2FFFF16
(32K bytes)
2800016 to
3FFFF16
(96K bytes)
Note :Be sure to set bit 3 (PM13) of processor mode register 1 to “0”.
34
CS2
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Control
Table 1.12.2. External areas specified by the chip select signals
(A product having an internal RAM of more than 15K bytes and a ROM of more than 192K bytes)
Memory space
expansion mode
CS0
Memory expansion mode
When PM13=0
3000016 to CFFFF16
(640K bytes)
When PM13=1
3000016 to BFFFF16
(576K bytes)
Microprocessor mode
3000016 to FFFFF16
(816K bytes)
Specified address range
Normal mode
(PM15,14=0,0)
Memory expansion mode
Expansion
mode 1
(PM15,14=1,0)
Microprocessor mode
Expansion
mode 2
(PM15,14=1,1)
Chip select signal
Processor mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
When PM13=0
0400016 to CFFFF16
(816K bytes)
When PM13=1
0600016 to BFFFF16
(744K bytes)
CS1
CS2
2800016 to
2FFFF16
(32K bytes)
0800016 to
27FFF16
(128K bytes)
When PM13=0
0400016 to FFFFF16
(1008K bytes)
CS3
When PM13=0
0400016 to
07FFF16
(16K bytes)
When PM13=1
0600016 to
07FFF16
(8K bytes)
When PM13=1
0600016 to FFFFF16
(1000K bytes)
4000016 to BFFFF16
(512K bytes X 7
+256K bytes)
4000016 to FFFFF16
(512K bytes X 8)
2800016 to
3FFFF16
(96K bytes)
Chip select control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CSR
Address
000816
Bit name
Bit symbol
CS0
CS1
CS0 output enable bit
CS1 output enable bit
CS2
CS2 output enable bit
CS3
CS3 output enable bit
CS0W
CS0 wait bit
CS1W
CS1 wait bit
CS2W
CS2 wait bit
CS3W
CS3 wait bit
When reset
0116
Function
0 : Chip select output disabled
(Normal port pin)
1 : Chip select output enabled
0 : Wait state inserted
1 : No wait state
AA
A
AA
A
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
RW
Figure 1.12.1. Chip select control register
35
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Control
(3) Read/write signals
With a 16-bit data bus (BYTE pin =“L”), bit 2 of the processor mode register 0 (address 000416) select the
_____ ________
______
_____ ________
_________
combinations of RD, BHE, and WR signals or RD, WRL, and WRH signals. With an 8-bit data bus (BYTE
_____ ______
_______
pin = “H”), use the combination of RD, WR, and BHE signals. (Set bit 2 of the processor mode register 0
(address 000416) to “0”.) Tables 1.12.3 and 1.12.4 show the operation of these signals.
_____ ______
________
After a reset has been cancelled, the combination of RD, WR, and BHE signals is automatically selected.
_____ _________
_________
When switching to the RD, WRL, and WRH combination, do not write to external memory until bit 2 of the
processor mode register 0 (address 000416) has been set (Note).
Note: Before attempting to change the contents of the processor mode register 0, set bit 1 of the protect
register (address 000A16) to “1”.
_____
________
_________
Table 1.12.3. Operation of RD, WRL, and WRH signals
Data bus width
16-bit
(BYTE = “L”)
RD
L
H
H
H
WRL
H
L
H
L
_____
WRH
H
H
L
L
______
Status of external data bus
Read data
Write 1 byte of data to even address
Write 1 byte of data to odd address
Write data to both even and odd addresses
________
Table 1.12.4. Operation of RD, WR, and BHE signals
Data bus width
16-bit
(BYTE = “L”)
8-bit
(BYTE = “H”)
RD
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
WR
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
BHE
L
L
H
H
L
L
Not used
Not used
A0
H
H
L
L
L
L
H/L
H/L
Status of external data bus
Write 1 byte of data to odd address
Read 1 byte of data from odd address
Write 1 byte of data to even address
Read 1 byte of data from even address
Write data to both even and odd addresses
Read data from both even and odd addresses
Write 1 byte of data
Read 1 byte of data
(4) ALE signal
The ALE signal latches the address when accessing the multiplex bus space. Latch the address when the
ALE signal falls.
When BYTE pin = “L”
When BYTE pin = “H”
ALE
ALE
D0/A0 to D7/A7
A8 to A19
Address
Data (Note 1)
A0
D0/A1 to D7/A8
Address
Address
Data (Note 1)
Address (Note 2)
A9 to A19
Address
Note 1: Floating when reading.
Note 2: When multiplexed bus for the entire space is selected, these are I/O ports.
Figure 1.12.2. ALE signal and address/data bus
36
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Control
________
(5) The RDY signal
________
RDY is a signal that facilitates access to an external device that requires long access time. As shown in
________
Figure 1.12.3, if an “L” is being input to the RDY at the BCLK falling edge, the bus turns to the wait state.
________
If an “H” is being input to the RDY pin at the BCLK falling edge, the bus cancels the wait state. Table
1.12.5 shows the state of the microcomputer with the bus in the wait state, and Figure 1.12.3 shows an
____
________
example in which the RD signal is prolonged by the RDY signal.
________
The RDY signal is valid when accessing the external area during the bus cycle in which bits 4 to 7 of the
________
chip select control register (address 000816) are set to “0”. The RDY signal is invalid when setting “1” to
________
all bits 4 to 7 of the chip select control register (address 000816), but the RDY pin should be treated as
properly as in non-using.
Table 1.12.5. Microcomputer status in ready state (Note)
Item
Status
Oscillation
On
___
_____
________
R/W signal, address bus, data bus, CS
__________
ALE signal, HLDA, programmable I/O ports
Internal peripheral circuits
Maintain status when RDY signal received
On
________
Note: The RDY signal cannot be received immediately prior to a software wait.
In an instance of separate bus
BCLK
AAAA
RD
CSi
(i=0 to 3)
RDY
tsu(RDY - BCLK)
Accept timing of RDY signal
In an instance of multiplexed bus
BCLK
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
RD
CSi
(i=0 to 3)
RDY
tsu(RDY - BCLK)
AA
AA
: Wait using RDY signal
Accept timing of RDY signal
: Wait using software
_____
________
Figure 1.12.3. Example of RD signal extended by RDY signal
37
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Control
(6) Hold signal
The hold signal is used to transfer the bus privileges from the CPU to the external circuits. Inputting “L” to
__________
the HOLD pin places the microcomputer in the hold state at the end of the current bus access. This status
__________
__________
is maintained and “L” is output from the HLDA pin as long as “L” is input to the HOLD pin. Table 1.12.6
shows the microcomputer status in the hold state.
__________
Bus-using priorities are given to HOLD, DMAC, and CPU in order of decreasing precedence.
__________
HOLD > DMAC > CPU
Figure 1.12.4. Bus-using priorities
Table 1.12.6. Microcomputer status in hold state
Item
Status
Oscillation
ON
___
_____
_______
R/W signal, address bus, data bus, CS, BHE
Programmable I/O ports
P0, P1, P2, P3, P4, P5
P6, P7, P8, P9, P10
Floating
Floating
Maintains status when hold signal is received
__________
HLDA
Internal peripheral circuits
ALE signal
Output “L”
ON (but watchdog timer stops)
Undefined
(7) External bus status when the internal area is accessed
Table 1.12.7 shows the external bus status when the internal area is accessed.
Table 1.12.7. External bus status when the internal area is accessed
Item
SFR accessed
Internal ROM/RAM accessed
Address bus
Address output
Maintain status before accessed
address of external area
Data bus
When read
Floating
Floating
When write
Output data
Undefined
RD, WR, WRL, WRH
RD, WR, WRL, WRH output
Output "H"
BHE
BHE output
Maintain status before accessed
status of external area
38
CS
Output "H"
Output "H"
ALE
Output "L"
Output "L"
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Control
(8) BCLK output
The user can choose the BCLK output by use of bit 7 of processor mode register 0 (000416) (Note).
When set to “1”, the output floating.
Note: Before attempting to change the contents of the processor mode register 0, set bit 1 of the protect
register (address 000A16) to “1”.
(9) Software wait
A software wait can be inserted by setting the wait bit (bit 7) of the processor mode register 1 (address
000516) (Note) and bits 4 to 7 of the chip select control register (address 000816).
A software wait is inserted in the internal ROM/RAM area and in the external memory area by setting the
wait bit of the processor mode register 1. When set to “0”, each bus cycle is executed in one BCLK cycle.
When set to “1”, each bus cycle is executed in two or three BCLK cycles. After the microcomputer has been
reset, this bit defaults to “0”. When set to “1”, a wait is applied to all memory areas (two or three BCLK
cycles), regardless of the contents of bits 4 to 7 of the chip select control register. Set this bit after referring
to the recommended operating conditions (main clock input oscillation frequency) of the electric character________
istics. However, when the user is using the RDY signal, the relevant bit in the chip select control register’s
bits 4 to 7 must be set to “0”.
When the wait bit of the processor mode register 1 is “0”, software waits can be set independently for
each of the 4 areas selected using the chip select signal. Bits 4 to 7 of the chip select control register
_______
_______
correspond to chip selects CS0 to CS3. When one of these bits is set to “1”, the bus cycle is executed in
one BCLK cycle. When set to “0”, the bus cycle is executed in two or three BCLK cycles. These bits
default to “0” after the microcomputer has been reset.
The SFR area is always accessed in two BCLK cycles regardless of the setting of these control bits. Also,
insert a software wait if using the multiplex bus to access the external memory area.
Table 1.12.8 shows the software wait and bus cycles. Figure 1.12.5 shows example bus timing when
using software waits.
Note: Before attempting to change the contents of the processor mode register 1, set bit 1 of the protect
register (address 000A16) to “1”.
Table 1.12.8. Software waits and bus cycles
Area
Wait bit
Bits 4 to 7 of chip select
control register
Invalid
Invalid
2 BCLK cycles
0
Invalid
1 BCLK cycle
1
Invalid
2 BCLK cycles
Separate bus
0
1
1 BCLK cycle
Separate bus
0
0
2 BCLK cycles
Separate bus
1
0 (Note)
2 BCLK cycles
Multiplex bus
0
0
3 BCLK cycles
Multiplex bus
1
0 (Note)
3 BCLK cycles
Bus status
SFR
Internal
ROM/RAM
External
memory
area
Bus cycle
Note: When using the RDY signal, always set to “0”.
39
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bus Control
< Separate bus (no wait) >
Bus cycle(Note)
Bus cycle(Note)
BCLK
Write signal
Read signal
Output
Data bus
Address bus
Address
Input
Address
Chip select
< Separate bus (with wait) >
Bus cycle(Note)
Bus cycle(Note)
BCLK
Write signal
Read signal
Input
Output
Data bus
Address
Address
Bus cycle(Note)
Bus cycle(Note)
Address bus
Chip select
< Multiplexed bus >
BCLK
Write signal
Read signal
ALE
Address bus
Address bus/
Data bus
Address
Address
Address
Data output
Address
Chip select
Note : These example timing charts indicate bus cycle length.
After this bus cycle sometimes come read and write cycles in succession.
Figure 1.12.5. Typical bus timings using software wait
40
Input
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock Generating Circuit
Clock Generating Circuit
The clock generating circuit contains two oscillator circuits that supply the operating clock sources to the
CPU and internal peripheral units.
Table 1.13.1. Main clock and sub-clock generating circuits
Use of clock
Usable oscillator
Pins to connect oscillator
Oscillation stop/restart function
Oscillator status immediately after reset
Other
Main clock generating circuit
Sub-clock generating circuit
• CPU’s operating clock source
• CPU’s operating clock source
• Internal peripheral units’
• Timer A/B’s count clock
operating clock source
source
Ceramic or crystal oscillator
Crystal oscillator
XIN, XOUT
XCIN, XCOUT
Available
Available
Oscillating
Stopped
Externally derived clock can be input
Example of oscillator circuit
Figure 1.13.1 shows some examples of the main clock circuit, one using an oscillator connected to the
circuit, and the other one using an externally derived clock for input. Figure 1.13.2 shows some examples
of sub-clock circuits, one using an oscillator connected to the circuit, and the other one using an externally
derived clock for input. Circuit constants in Figures 1.13.1 and 1.13.2 vary with each oscillator used. Use
the values recommended by the manufacturer of your oscillator.
Microcomputer
Microcomputer
(Built-in feedback resistor)
(Built-in feedback resistor)
XIN
XIN
XOUT
XOUT
Open
(Note)
Rd
Externally derived clock
CIN
COUT
Vcc
Vss
Note: Insert a damping resistor if required. The resistance will vary depending on the oscillator and the oscillation drive
capacity setting. Use the value recommended by the maker of the oscillator.
When the oscillation drive capacity is set to low, check that oscillation is stable. Also, if the oscillator manufacturer's
data sheet specifies that a feedback resistor be added external to the chip, insert a feedback resistor between XIN
and XOUT following the instruction.
Figure 1.13.1. Examples of main clock
Microcomputer
Microcomputer
(Built-in feedback resistor)
(Built-in feedback resistor)
XCIN
XCOUT
XCIN
XCOUT
Open
(Note)
RCd
Externally derived clock
CCIN
CCOUT
Vcc
Vss
Note: Insert a damping resistor if required. The resistance will vary depending on the oscillator and the oscillation drive
capacity setting. Use the value recommended by the maker of the oscillator.
When the oscillation drive capacity is set to low, check that oscillation is stable. Also, if the oscillator manufacturer's
data sheet specifies that a feedback resistor be added external to the chip, insert a feedback resistor between XCIN
and XCOUT following the instruction.
Figure 1.13.2. Examples of sub-clock
41
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock Generating Circuit
Clock Control
Figure 1.13.3 shows the block diagram of the clock generating circuit.
XCIN
XCOUT
fC32
1/32
f1
CM04
f1SIO2
fAD
fC
f8SIO2
f8
Sub clock
f32SIO2
CM10 “1”
Write signal
f32
S Q
XIN
XOUT
a
RESET
Software reset
Main clock
CM02
CM05
NMI
Interrupt request
level judgment
output
AAA
AAA
b
R
c
Divider
d
CM07=0
BCLK
fC
CM07=1
S Q
WAIT instruction
R
c
b
a
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
CM06=0
CM17,CM16=11
CM06=1
CM06=0
CM17,CM16=10
d
CM06=0
CM17,CM16=01
CM06=0
CM17,CM16=00
CM0i : Bit i at address 000616
CM1i : Bit i at address 000716
WDCi : Bit i at address 000F16
Figure 1.13.3. Clock generating circuit
42
Details of divider
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock Generating Circuit
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
The following paragraphs describes the clocks generated by the clock generating circuit.
(1) Main clock
The main clock is generated by the main clock oscillation circuit. After a reset, the clock is divided by 8 to
the BCLK. The clock can be stopped using the main clock stop bit (bit 5 at address 000616). Stopping the
clock, after switching the operating clock source of CPU to the sub-clock, reduces the power dissipation.
After the oscillation of the main clock oscillation circuit has stabilized, the drive capacity of the main clock
oscillation circuit can be reduced using the XIN-XOUT drive capacity select bit (bit 5 at address 000716).
Reducing the drive capacity of the main clock oscillation circuit reduces the power dissipation. This bit
changes to “1” when shifting from high-speed/medium-speed mode to stop mode and at a reset. When
shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation mode to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
(2) Sub-clock
The sub-clock is generated by the sub-clock oscillation circuit. No sub-clock is generated after a reset.
After oscillation is started using the port Xc select bit (bit 4 at address 000616), the sub-clock can be
selected as the BCLK by using the system clock select bit (bit 7 at address 000616). However, be sure
that the sub-clock oscillation has fully stabilized before switching.
After the oscillation of the sub-clock oscillation circuit has stabilized, the drive capacity of the sub-clock
oscillation circuit can be reduced using the XCIN-XCOUT drive capacity select bit (bit 3 at address 000616).
Reducing the drive capacity of the sub-clock oscillation circuit reduces the power dissipation. This bit
changes to “1” when shifting to stop mode and at a reset.
(3) BCLK
The BCLK is the clock that drives the CPU, and is fc or the clock is derived by dividing the main clock by
1, 2, 4, 8, or 16. The BCLK is derived by dividing the main clock by 8 after a reset. The BCLK signal can
be output from BCLK pin by the BCLK output disable bit (bit 7 at address 000416) in the memory expansion and the microprocessor modes.
The main clock division select bit 0(bit 6 at address 000616) changes to “1” when shifting from highspeed/medium-speed to stop mode and at reset. When shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation
mode to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
(4) Peripheral function clock(f1, f8, f32, f1SIO2, f8SIO2,f32SIO2,fAD)
The clock for the peripheral devices is derived from the main clock or by dividing it by 1, 8, or 32. The
peripheral function clock is stopped by stopping the main clock or by setting the WAIT peripheral function
clock stop bit (bit 2 at 000616) to “1” and then executing a WAIT instruction.
(5) fC32
This clock is derived by dividing the sub-clock by 32. It is used for the timer A and timer B counts.
(6) fC
This clock has the same frequency as the sub-clock. It is used for the BCLK and for the watchdog timer.
43
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock Generating Circuit
Figure 1.13.4 shows the system clock control registers 0 and 1.
System clock control register 0 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CM0
Address
000616
Bit symbol
When reset
4816
Bit name
Function
b1 b0
AA
A
AAA
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
RW
Clock output function
select bit
(Valid only in single-chip
mode)
0 0 : I/O port P57
0 1 : fC output
1 0 : f8 output
1 1 : f32 output
CM02
WAIT peripheral function
clock stop bit
0 : Do not stop peripheral function clock in wait mode
1 : Stop peripheral function clock in wait mode (Note 8)
CM03
XCIN-XCOUT drive capacity 0 : LOW
select bit (Note 2)
1 : HIGH
CM04
Port XC select bit
0 : I/O port
1 : XCIN-XCOUT generation
CM05
Main clock (XIN-XOUT)
stop bit (Note 3, 4, 5)
0 : On
1 : Off
CM06
Main clock division select
bit 0 (Note 7)
0 : CM16 and CM17 valid
1 : Division by 8 mode
CM07
System clock select bit
(Note 6)
0 : XIN, XOUT
1 : XCIN, XCOUT
CM00
CM01
Note 1: Set bit 0 of the protect register (address 000A16) to “1” before writing to this register.
Note 2: Changes to “1” when shiffing to stop mode and at a reset.
Note 3: When entering power saving mode, main clock stops using this bit. When returning from stop mode and
operating with XIN, set this bit to “0”. When main clock oscillation is operating by itself, set system clock select
bit (CM07) to “1” before setting this bit to “1”.
Note 4: When inputting external clock, only clock oscillation buffer is stopped and clock input is acceptable.
Note 5: If this bit is set to “1”, XOUT turns “H”. The built-in feedback resistor remains being connected, so XIN turns
pulled up to XOUT (“H”) via the feedback resistor.
Note 6: Set port Xc select bit (CM04) to “1” and stabilize the sub-clock oscillating before setting to this bit from “0” to “1”.
Do not write to both bits at the same time. And also, set the main clock stop bit (CM05) to “0” and stabilize the
main clock oscillating before setting this bit from “1” to “0”.
Note 7: This bit changes to “1” when shifting from high-speed/medium-speed mode to stop mode and at a reset. When
shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation mode to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
Note 8: fC32 is not included.
System clock control register 1 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
0 0
0
0
b0
Symbol
CM1
Address
000716
Bit symbol
CM10
When reset
2016
Bit name
All clock stop control bit
(Note4)
Function
0 : Clock on
1 : All clocks off (stop mode)
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
CM15
XIN-XOUT drive capacity
select bit (Note 2)
CM16
Main clock division
select bit 1 (Note 3)
0 : LOW
1 : HIGH
b7 b6
CM17
0 0 : No division mode
0 1 : Division by 2 mode
1 0 : Division by 4 mode
1 1 : Division by 16 mode
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
RW
Note 1: Set bit 0 of the protect register (address 000A16) to “1” before writing to this register.
Note 2: This bit changes to “1” when shifting from high-speed/medium-speed mode to stop mode and at a reset. When
shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation mode to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
Note 3: Can be selected when bit 6 of the system clock control register 0 (address 000616) is “0”. If “1”, division mode is
fixed at 8.
Note 4: If this bit is set to “1”, XOUT turns “H”, and the built-in feedback resistor is cut off. XCIN and XCOUT turn highimpedance state.
Figure 1.13.4. Clock control registers 0 and 1
44
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock Generating Circuit
Clock Output
In single-chip mode, the clock output function select bits (bits 0 and 1 at address 000616) enable f8, f32, or
fc to be output from the P57/CLKOUT pin. When the WAIT peripheral function clock stop bit (bit 2 at address
000616) is set to “1”, the output of f8 and f32 stops when a WAIT instruction is executed.
Stop Mode
Writing “1” to the all-clock stop control bit (bit 0 at address 000716) stops all oscillation and the microcomputer enters stop mode. In stop mode, the content of the internal RAM is retained provided that VCC remains above 2V.
Because the oscillation , BCLK, f1 to f32, f1SIO2 to f32SIO2, fC, fC32, and fAD stops in stop mode, peripheral
functions such as the A-D converter and watchdog timer do not function. However, timer A and timer B
operate provided that the event counter mode is set to an external pulse, and UARTi(i = 0 to 2), SI/O3,4
functions provided an external clock is selected. Table 1.13.2 shows the status of the ports in stop mode.
Stop mode is cancelled by a hardware reset or an interrupt. If an interrupt is to be used to cancel stop mode,
that interrupt must first have been enabled. If returning by an interrupt, that interrupt routine is executed.
When shifting from high-speed/medium-speed mode to stop mode and at a reset, the main clock division
select bit 0 (bit 6 at address 000616) is set to “1”. When shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation mode
to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
Table 1.13.2. Port status during stop mode
Pin
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
_______
Single-chip mode
_______
Address bus, data bus, CS0 to CS3,
Retains status before stop mode
________
BHE
_____
______
________
_________
RD, WR, WRL, WRH
“H”
__________
HLDA, BCLK
ALE
Port
CLKOUT
When fc selected
When f8, f32 selected
“H”
“H”
Retains status before stop mode Retains status before stop mode
Valid only in single-chip mode “H”
Valid only in single-chip mode Retains status before stop mode
45
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Wait Mode
Wait Mode
When a WAIT instruction is executed, the BCLK stops and the microcomputer enters the wait mode. In this
mode, oscillation continues but the BCLK and watchdog timer stop. Writing “1” to the WAIT peripheral
function clock stop bit and executing a WAIT instruction stops the clock being supplied to the internal
peripheral functions, allowing power dissipation to be reduced. Table 1.13.3 shows the status of the ports in
wait mode.
Wait mode is cancelled by a hardware reset or an interrupt. If an interrupt is used to cancel wait mode, the
microcomputer restarts from the interrupt routine using as BCLK, the clock that had been selected when the
WAIT instruction was executed.
Table 1.13.3. Port status during wait mode
Pin
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
_______
Single-chip mode
_______
Address bus, data bus, CS0 to CS3,
Retains status before wait mode
________
BHE
_____
______
________
_________
RD, WR, WRL, WRH
“H”
__________
HLDA,BCLK
ALE
Port
CLKOUT
46
“H”
“H”
Retains status before wait mode
When fC selected
Valid only in single-chip mode
When f8, f32 selected Valid only in single-chip mode
Retains status before wait mode
Does not stop
Does not stop when the WAIT
peripheral function clock stop
bit is “0”.
When the WAIT peripheral
function clock stop bit is “1”,
the status immediately prior
to entering wait mode is maintained.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Status Transition Of BCLK
Status Transition Of BCLK
Power dissipation can be reduced and low-voltage operation achieved by changing the count source for
BCLK. Table 1.13.4 shows the operating modes corresponding to the settings of system clock control
registers 0 and 1.
When reset, the device starts in division by 8 mode. The main clock division select bit 0(bit 6 at address
000616) changes to “1” when shifting from high-speed/medium-speed to stop mode and at a reset. When
shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation mode to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
The following shows the operational modes of BCLK.
(1) Division by 2 mode
The main clock is divided by 2 to obtain the BCLK.
(2) Division by 4 mode
The main clock is divided by 4 to obtain the BCLK.
(3) Division by 8 mode
The main clock is divided by 8 to obtain the BCLK. When reset, the device starts operating from this
mode. Before the user can go from this mode to no division mode, division by 2 mode, or division by 4
mode, the main clock must be oscillating stably. When going to low-speed or lower power consumption
mode, make sure the sub-clock is oscillating stably.
(4) Division by 16 mode
The main clock is divided by 16 to obtain the BCLK.
(5) No-division mode
The main clock is divided by 1 to obtain the BCLK.
(6) Low-speed mode
fC is used as the BCLK. Note that oscillation of both the main and sub-clocks must have stabilized before
transferring from this mode to another or vice versa. At least 2 to 3 seconds are required after the subclock starts. Therefore, the program must be written to wait until this clock has stabilized immediately
after powering up and after stop mode is cancelled.
(7) Low power dissipation mode
fC is the BCLK and the main clock is stopped.
Note : Before the count source for BCLK can be changed from XIN to XCIN or vice versa, the clock to which
the count source is going to be switched must be oscillating stably. Allow a wait time in software for
the oscillation to stabilize before switching over the clock.
Table 1.13.4. Operating modes dictated by settings of system clock control registers 0 and 1
CM17
CM16
CM07
CM06
CM05
CM04
Operating mode of BCLK
0
1
Invalid
1
0
Invalid
Invalid
1
0
Invalid
1
0
Invalid
Invalid
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
Invalid
Invalid
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Invalid
Invalid
Invalid
Invalid
Invalid
1
1
Division by 2 mode
Division by 4 mode
Division by 8 mode
Division by 16 mode
No-division mode
Low-speed mode
Low power dissipation mode
47
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Power control
The following is a description of the three available power control modes:
Modes
Power control is available in three modes.
(a) Normal operation mode
• High-speed mode
Divide-by-1 frequency of the main clock becomes the BCLK. The CPU operates with the internal
clock selected. Each peripheral function operates according to its assigned clock.
• Medium-speed mode
Divide-by-2, divide-by-4, divide-by-8, or divide-by-16 frequency of the main clock becomes the
BCLK. The CPU operates according to the internal clock selected. Each peripheral function operates according to its assigned clock.
• Low-speed mode
fC becomes the BCLK. The CPU operates according to the fc clock. The fc clock is supplied by the
secondary clock. Each peripheral function operates according to its assigned clock.
• Low power consumption mode
The main clock operating in low-speed mode is stopped. The CPU operates according to the fC
clock. The fc clock is supplied by the secondary clock. The only peripheral functions that operate
are those with the sub-clock selected as the count source.
(b) Wait mode
The CPU operation is stopped. The oscillators do not stop.
(c) Stop mode
All oscillators stop. The CPU and all built-in peripheral functions stop. This mode, among the three
modes listed here, is the most effective in decreasing power consumption.
Figure 1.13.5 is the state transition diagram of the above modes.
48
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Power control
Transition of stop mode, wait mode
Reset
All oscillators stopped
Stop mode
CM10 = “1”
Interrupt
All oscillators stopped
Stop mode
Stop mode
Interrupt
CPU operation stopped
WAIT
instruction
High-speed/mediumspeed mode
Wait mode
Interrupt
All oscillators stopped
CM10 = “1”
Wait mode
Interrupt
Interrupt
CM10 = “1”
CPU operation stopped
WAIT
instruction
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-8 mode)
CPU operation stopped
WAIT
instruction
Low-speed/low power
dissipation mode
Wait mode
Interrupt
Normal mode
(Refer to the following for the transition of normal mode.)
Transition of normal mode
Main clock is oscillating
Sub clock is stopped
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-8 mode)
CM06 = “1”
BCLK : f(XIN)/8
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “1”
Main clock is oscillating CM04 = “0”
Sub clock is oscillating
CM07 = “0” (Note 1)
CM06 = “1”
CM04 = “0”
CM04 = “1”
(Notes 1, 3)
High-speed mode
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-2 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/2
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “1”
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-8 mode)
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-4 mode)
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-16 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)/8
CM07 = “0”
CM06 = “1”
BCLK : f(XIN)/4
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/16
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “1”
Main clock is oscillating
Sub clock is oscillating
Low-speed mode
CM07 = “0”
(Note 1, 3)
BCLK : f(XCIN)
CM07 = “1”
CM07 = “1”
(Note 2)
CM05 = “0”
CM04 = “0”
CM06 = “0”
(Notes 1,3)
Main clock is oscillating
Sub clock is stopped
CM05 = “1”
CM04 = “1”
High-speed mode
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-2 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/2
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “1”
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-4 mode)
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-16 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)/4
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/16
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “1”
Main clock is stopped
Sub clock is oscillating
Low power dissipation mode
CM07 = “1” (Note 2)
CM05 = “1”
BCLK : f(XCIN)
CM07 = “1”
CM07 = “0” (Note 1)
CM06 = “0” (Note 3)
CM04 = “1”
Note 1: Switch clock after oscillation of main clock is sufficiently stable.
Note 2: Switch clock after oscillation of sub clock is sufficiently stable.
Note 3: Change CM06 after changing CM17 and CM16.
Note 4: Transit in accordance with arrow.
Figure 1.13.5. State transition diagram of Power control mode
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Protection
Protection
The protection function is provided so that the values in important registers cannot be changed in the event
that the program runs out of control. Figure 1.13.6 shows the protect register. The values in the processor
mode register 0 (address 000416), processor mode register 1 (address 000516), system clock control register 0 (address 000616), system clock control register 1 (address 000716), port P9 direction register (address 03F316) , SI/O3 control register (address 036216) and SI/O4 control register (address 036616) can
only be changed when the respective bit in the protect register is set to “1”. Therefore, important outputs
can be allocated to port P9.
If, after “1” (write-enabled) has been written to the port P9 direction register and SI/Oi control register
(i=3,4) write-enable bit (bit 2 at address 000A16), a value is written to any address, the bit automatically
reverts to “0” (write-inhibited). However, the system clock control registers 0 and 1 write-enable bit (bit 0 at
000A16) and processor mode register 0 and 1 write-enable bit (bit 1 at 000A16) do not automatically return
to “0” after a value has been written to an address. The program must therefore be written to return these
bits to “0”.
Protect register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PRCR
Bit symbol
Address
000A16
When reset
XXXXX0002
Bit name
Function
PRC0
Enables writing to system clock
control registers 0 and 1 (addresses 0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
000616 and 000716)
PRC1
Enables writing to processor mode
0 : Write-inhibited
registers 0 and 1 (addresses 000416
1 : Write-enabled
and 000516)
PRC2
Enables writing to port P9 direction
register (address 03F316) and SI/Oi
control register (i=3,4) (addresses
036216 and 036616) (Note)
0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be
indeterminate.
A
A
A
A
R W
Note: Writing a value to an address after “1” is written to this bit returns the bit
to “0” . Other bits do not automatically return to “0” and they must therefore
be reset by the program.
Figure 1.13.6. Protect register
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Overview of Interrupt
Type of Interrupts
Figure 1.14.1 lists the types of interrupts.










Hardware
Special
Peripheral I/O (Note)
















Interrupt
Software
Undefined instruction (UND instruction)
Overflow (INTO instruction)
BRK instruction
INT instruction
Reset
NMI
________
DBC
Watchdog timer
Single step
Address matched
_______
Note: Peripheral I/O interrupts are generated by the peripheral functions built into the microcomputer system.
Figure 1.14.1. Classification of interrupts
• Maskable interrupt :
An interrupt which can be enabled (disabled) by the interrupt enable flag
(I flag) or whose interrupt priority can be changed by priority level.
• Non-maskable interrupt : An interrupt which cannot be enabled (disabled) by the interrupt enable flag
(I flag) or whose interrupt priority cannot be changed by priority level.
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Software Interrupts
A software interrupt occurs when executing certain instructions. Software interrupts are non-maskable
interrupts.
• Undefined instruction interrupt
An undefined instruction interrupt occurs when executing the UND instruction.
• Overflow interrupt
An overflow interrupt occurs when executing the INTO instruction with the overflow flag (O flag) set to
“1”. The following are instructions whose O flag changes by arithmetic:
ABS, ADC, ADCF, ADD, CMP, DIV, DIVU, DIVX, NEG, RMPA, SBB, SHA, SUB
• BRK interrupt
A BRK interrupt occurs when executing the BRK instruction.
• INT interrupt
An INT interrupt occurs when specifying one of software interrupt numbers 0 through 63 and executing the INT instruction. Software interrupt numbers 0 through 31 are assigned to peripheral I/O interrupts, so executing the INT instruction allows executing the same interrupt routine that a peripheral I/
O interrupt does.
The stack pointer (SP) used for the INT interrupt is dependent on which software interrupt number is
involved.
So far as software interrupt numbers 0 through 31 are concerned, the microcomputer saves the stack
pointer assignment flag (U flag) when it accepts an interrupt request. If change the U flag to “0” and
select the interrupt stack pointer (ISP), and then execute an interrupt sequence. When returning from
the interrupt routine, the U flag is returned to the state it was before the acceptance of interrupt request. So far as software numbers 32 through 63 are concerned, the stack pointer does not make a
shift.
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Hardware Interrupts
Hardware interrupts are classified into two types — special interrupts and peripheral I/O interrupts.
(1) Special interrupts
Special interrupts are non-maskable interrupts.
• Reset
____________
Reset occurs if an “L” is input to the RESET pin.
_______
• NMI interrupt
_______
_______
An NMI interrupt occurs if an “L” is input to the NMI pin.
________
• DBC interrupt
This interrupt is exclusively for the debugger, do not use it in other circumstances.
• Watchdog timer interrupt
Generated by the watchdog timer.
• Single-step interrupt
This interrupt is exclusively for the debugger, do not use it in other circumstances. With the debug
flag (D flag) set to “1”, a single-step interrupt occurs after one instruction is executed.
• Address match interrupt
An address match interrupt occurs immediately before the instruction held in the address indicated by
the address match interrupt register is executed with the address match interrupt enable bit set to “1”.
If an address other than the first address of the instruction in the address match interrupt register is set,
no address match interrupt occurs.
(2) Peripheral I/O interrupts
A peripheral I/O interrupt is generated by one of built-in peripheral functions. Built-in peripheral functions are dependent on classes of products, so the interrupt factors too are dependent on classes of
products. The interrupt vector table is the same as the one for software interrupt numbers 0 through
31 the INT instruction uses. Peripheral I/O interrupts are maskable interrupts.
• Bus collision detection interrupt
This is an interrupt that the serial I/O bus collision detection generates.
• DMA0 interrupt, DMA1 interrupt
These are interrupts that DMA generates.
• Key-input interrupt
___
A key-input interrupt occurs if an “L” is input to the KI pin.
• A-D conversion interrupt
This is an interrupt that the A-D converter generates.
• UART0, UART1, UART2/NACK, SI/O3 and SI/O4 transmission interrupt
These are interrupts that the serial I/O transmission generates.
• UART0, UART1, UART2/ACK, SI/O3 and SI/O4 reception interrupt
These are interrupts that the serial I/O reception generates.
• Timer A0 interrupt through timer A4 interrupt
These are interrupts that timer A generates
• Timer B0 interrupt through timer B5 interrupt
These are interrupts that timer B generates.
________
________
• INT0 interrupt through INT5 interrupt
______
______
An INT interrupt occurs if either a rising edge or a falling edge or a both edge is input to the INT pin.
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt
Interrupts and Interrupt Vector Tables
If an interrupt request is accepted, a program branches to the interrupt routine set in the interrupt vector
table. Set the first address of the interrupt routine in each vector table. Figure 1.14.2 shows the format for
specifying the address.
Two types of interrupt vector tables are available — fixed vector table in which addresses are fixed and
variable vector table in which addresses can be varied by the setting.
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
MSB
LSB
Vector address + 0
Low address
Vector address + 1
Mid address
Vector address + 2
0000
High address
Vector address + 3
0000
0000
Figure 1.14.2. Format for specifying interrupt vector addresses
• Fixed vector tables
The fixed vector table is a table in which addresses are fixed. The vector tables are located in an area
extending from FFFDC16 to FFFFF16. One vector table comprises four bytes. Set the first address of
interrupt routine in each vector table. Table 1.14.1 shows the interrupts assigned to the fixed vector
tables and addresses of vector tables.
Table 1.14.1. Interrupts assigned to the fixed vector tables and addresses of vector tables
Interrupt source
Undefined instruction
Overflow
BRK instruction
Vector table addresses
Address (L) to address (H)
FFFDC16 to FFFDF16
FFFE016 to FFFE316
FFFE416 to FFFE716
Remarks
Interrupt on UND instruction
Interrupt on INTO instruction
If the vector contains FF16, program execution starts from
the address shown by the vector in the variable vector table
There is an address-matching interrupt enable bit
Do not use
Address match
FFFE816 to FFFEB16
Single step (Note)
FFFEC16 to FFFEF16
Watchdog timer
FFFF016 to FFFF316
________
DBC (Note)
FFFF416 to FFFF716
Do not use
_______
NMI
FFFF816 to FFFFB16
External interrupt by input to NMI pin
Reset
FFFFC16 to FFFFF16
Note: Interrupts used for debugging purposes only.
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
• Variable vector tables
The addresses in the variable vector table can be modified, according to the user’s settings. Indicate
the first address using the interrupt table register (INTB). The 256-byte area subsequent to the address the INTB indicates becomes the area for the variable vector tables. One vector table comprises
four bytes. Set the first address of the interrupt routine in each vector table. Table 1.14.2 shows the
interrupts assigned to the variable vector tables and addresses of vector tables.
Table 1.14.2. Interrupts assigned to the variable vector tables and addresses of vector tables
Software interrupt number
Vector table address
Interrupt source
Address (L) to address (H)
Software interrupt number 0
+0 to +3 (Note 1)
BRK instruction
Software interrupt number 4
+16 to +19 (Note 1)
INT3
Software interrupt number 5
+20 to +23 (Note 1)
Timer B5
Software interrupt number 6
+24 to +27 (Note 1)
Timer B4
Software interrupt number 7
+28 to +31 (Note 1)
Timer B3
Software interrupt number 8
+32 to +35 (Note 1)
SI/O4/INT5
(Note 2)
Software interrupt number 9
+36 to +39 (Note 1)
SI/O3/INT4
(Note 2)
Software interrupt number 10
+40 to +43 (Note 1)
Bus collision detection
Software interrupt number 11
+44 to +47 (Note 1)
DMA0
Software interrupt number 12
+48 to +51 (Note 1)
DMA1
Software interrupt number 13
+52 to +55 (Note 1)
Key input interrupt
Software interrupt number 14
+56 to +59 (Note 1)
A-D
Software interrupt number 15
+60 to +63 (Note 1)
UART2 transmit/NACK (Note 3)
Software interrupt number 16
+64 to +67 (Note 1)
UART2 receive/ACK (Note 3)
Software interrupt number 17
+68 to +71 (Note 1)
UART0 transmit
Software interrupt number 18
+72 to +75 (Note 1)
UART0 receive
Software interrupt number 19
+76 to +79 (Note 1)
UART1 transmit
Software interrupt number 20
+80 to +83 (Note 1)
UART1 receive
Software interrupt number 21
+84 to +87 (Note 1)
Timer A0
Software interrupt number 22
+88 to +91 (Note 1)
Timer A1
Software interrupt number 23
+92 to +95 (Note 1)
Timer A2
Software interrupt number 24
+96 to +99 (Note 1)
Timer A3
Software interrupt number 25
+100 to +103 (Note 1)
Timer A4
Software interrupt number 26
+104 to +107 (Note 1)
Timer B0
Software interrupt number 27
+108 to +111 (Note 1)
Timer B1
Software interrupt number 28
+112 to +115 (Note 1)
Timer B2
Software interrupt number 29
+116 to +119 (Note 1)
INT0
Software interrupt number 30
+120 to +123 (Note 1)
INT1
Software interrupt number 31
+124 to +127 (Note 1)
INT2
Software interrupt number 32
+128 to +131 (Note 1)
to
Software interrupt number 63
to
+252 to +255 (Note 1)
Software interrupt
Remarks
Cannot be masked I flag
Cannot be masked I flag
Note 1: Address relative to address in interrupt table register (INTB).
Note 2: It is selected by interrupt request cause bit (bit 6, 7 in address 035F16 ).
Note 3: When IIC mode is selected, NACK and ACK interrupts are selected.
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt Control
Descriptions are given here regarding how to enable or disable maskable interrupts and how to set the
priority to be accepted. What is described here does not apply to non-maskable interrupts.
Enable or disable a maskable interrupt using the interrupt enable flag (I flag), interrupt priority level selection bit, or processor interrupt priority level (IPL). Whether an interrupt request is present or absent is
indicated by the interrupt request bit. The interrupt request bit and the interrupt priority level selection bit
are located in the interrupt control register of each interrupt. Also, the interrupt enable flag (I flag) and the
IPL are located in the flag register (FLG).
Figure 1.14.3 shows the memory map of the interrupt control registers.
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt control register (Note2)
AAA
AA
A
AAAA
AA
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TBiIC(i=3 to 5)
BCNIC
DMiIC(i=0, 1)
KUPIC
ADIC
SiTIC(i=0 to 2)
SiRIC(i=0 to 2)
TAiIC(i=0 to 4)
TBiIC(i=0 to 2)
Bit symbol
ILVL0
Address
004516 to 004716
004A16
004B16, 004C16
004D16
004E16
005116, 005316, 004F16
005216, 005416, 005016
005516 to 005916
005A16 to 005C16
Bit name
Interrupt priority level
select bit
ILVL2
IR
Function
b2 b1 b0
000:
001:
010:
011:
100:
101:
110:
111:
ILVL1
Interrupt request bit
When reset
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
R
W
AA
AA
AA
AA
Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
0 : Interrupt not requested
1 : Interrupt requested
Nothing is assigned.
(Note 1)
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
Note 1: This bit can only be accessed for reset (= 0), but cannot be accessed for set (= 1).
Note 2: To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that dose not generate the
interrupt request for that register. For details, see the precautions for interrupts.
AAA
A
AA
b7
b6
b5
0
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
Address
INTiIC(i=3)
004416
SiIC/INTjIC (i=4, 3)
004816, 004916
(j=5, 4)
004816, 004916
INTiIC(i=0 to 2)
005D16 to 005F16
Bit symbol
ILVL0
Bit name
Interrupt priority level
select bit
ILVL1
ILVL2
IR
POL
When reset
XX00X0002
XX00X0002
XX00X0002
XX00X0002
Interrupt request bit
Polarity select bit
Reserved bit
Function
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
0 0 1 : Level 1
0 1 0 : Level 2
0 1 1 : Level 3
1 0 0 : Level 4
1 0 1 : Level 5
1 1 0 : Level 6
1 1 1 : Level 7
0: Interrupt not requested
1: Interrupt requested
0 : Selects falling edge
1 : Selects rising edge
Always set to “0”
Nothing is assigned.
AA
AA
A
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
R
W
(Note 1)
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
Note 1: This bit can only be accessed for reset (= 0), but cannot be accessed for set (= 1).
Note 2: To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that dose not generate the
interrupt request for that register. For details, see the precautions for interrupts.
Figure 1.14.3. Interrupt control registers
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt
Interrupt Enable Flag (I flag)
The interrupt enable flag (I flag) controls the enabling and disabling of maskable interrupts. Setting this
flag to “1” enables all maskable interrupts; setting it to “0” disables all maskable interrupts. This flag is set
to “0” after reset.
Interrupt Request Bit
The interrupt request bit is set to "1" by hardware when an interrupt is requested. After the interrupt is
accepted and jumps to the corresponding interrupt vector, the request bit is set to "0" by hardware. The
interrupt request bit can also be set to "0" by software. (Do not set this bit to "1").
Interrupt Priority Level Select Bit and Processor Interrupt Priority Level (IPL)
Set the interrupt priority level using the interrupt priority level select bit, which is one of the component bits
of the interrupt control register. When an interrupt request occurs, the interrupt priority level is compared
with the IPL. The interrupt is enabled only when the priority level of the interrupt is higher than the IPL.
Therefore, setting the interrupt priority level to “0” disables the interrupt.
Table 1.14.3 shows the settings of interrupt priority levels and Table 1.14.4 shows the interrupt levels
enabled, according to the consist of the IPL.
The following are conditions under which an interrupt is accepted:
· interrupt enable flag (I flag) = 1
· interrupt request bit = 1
· interrupt priority level > IPL
The interrupt enable flag (I flag), the interrupt request bit, the interrupt priority select bit, and the IPL are
independent, and they are not affected by one another.
Table 1.14.3. Settings of interrupt priority
levels
Interrupt priority
level select bit
Interrupt priority
level
Priority
order
b2 b1 b0
58
Table 1.14.4. Interrupt levels enabled according
to the contents of the IPL
IPL
Enabled interrupt priority levels
IPL2 IPL1 IPL0
0
0
0
Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
0
0
1
Level 1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
Interrupt levels 1 and above are enabled
0
0
1
Interrupt levels 2 and above are enabled
Level 2
0
1
0
Interrupt levels 3 and above are enabled
1
Level 3
0
1
1
Interrupt levels 4 and above are enabled
0
0
Level 4
1
0
0
Interrupt levels 5 and above are enabled
1
0
1
Level 5
1
0
1
Interrupt levels 6 and above are enabled
1
1
0
Level 6
1
1
0
Interrupt levels 7 and above are enabled
1
1
1
Level 7
1
1
1
All maskable interrupts are disabled
Low
High
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Rewrite the interrupt control register
To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that does not generate the interrupt request for
that register. If there is possibility of the interrupt request occur, rewrite the interrupt control register after
the interrupt is disabled. The program examples are described as follow:
Example 1:
INT_SWITCH1:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
NOP
NOP
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Four NOP instructions are required when using HOLD function.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 2:
INT_SWITCH2:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
MOV.W MEM, R0
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Dummy read.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 3:
INT_SWITCH3:
PUSHC FLG
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
POPC FLG
; Push Flag register onto stack
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Enable interrupts.
The reason why two NOP instructions (four when using the HOLD function) or dummy read are inserted
before FSET I in Examples 1 and 2 is to prevent the interrupt enable flag I from being set before the
interrupt control register is rewritten due to effects of the instruction queue.
When a instruction to rewrite the interrupt control register is executed but the interrupt is disabled, the
interrupt request bit is not set sometimes even if the interrupt request for that register has been generated. This will depend on the instruction. If this creates problems, use the below instructions to change
the register.
Instructions : AND, OR, BCLR, BSET
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt
Interrupt Sequence
An interrupt sequence — what are performed over a period from the instant an interrupt is accepted to the
instant the interrupt routine is executed — is described here.
If an interrupt occurs during execution of an instruction, the processor determines its priority when the
execution of the instruction is completed, and transfers control to the interrupt sequence from the next
cycle. If an interrupt occurs during execution of either the SMOVB, SMOVF, SSTR or RMPA instruction,
the processor temporarily suspends the instruction being executed, and transfers control to the interrupt
sequence.
In the interrupt sequence, the processor carries out the following in sequence given:
(1) CPU gets the interrupt information (the interrupt number and interrupt request level) by reading address 0000016. After this, the corresponding interrupt request bit becomes “0”.
(2) Saves the content of the flag register (FLG) as it was immediately before the start of interrupt sequence
in the temporary register (Note) within the CPU.
(3) Sets the interrupt enable flag (I flag), the debug flag (D flag), and the stack pointer select flag (U flag) to
“0” (the U flag, however does not change if the INT instruction, in software interrupt numbers 32
through 63, is executed)
(4) Saves the content of the temporary register (Note) within the CPU in the stack area.
(5) Saves the content of the program counter (PC) in the stack area.
(6) Sets the interrupt priority level of the accepted instruction in the IPL.
After the interrupt sequence is completed, the processor resumes executing instructions from the first
address of the interrupt routine.
Note: This register cannot be utilized by the user.
Interrupt Response Time
'Interrupt response time' is the period between the instant an interrupt occurs and the instant the first
instruction within the interrupt routine has been executed. This time comprises the period from the
occurrence of an interrupt to the completion of the instruction under execution at that moment (a) and the
time required for executing the interrupt sequence (b). Figure 1.14.4 shows the interrupt response time.
Interrupt request generated
Interrupt request acknowledged
Time
Instruction
Interrupt sequence
(a)
Instruction in
interrupt routine
(b)
Interrupt response time
(a) Time from interrupt request is generated to when the instruction then under execution is completed.
(b) Time in which the instruction sequence is executed.
Figure 1.14.4. Interrupt response time
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Time (a) is dependent on the instruction under execution. Thirty cycles is the maximum required for the
DIVX instruction (without wait).
Time (b) is as shown in Table 1.14.5.
Table 1.14.5. Time required for executing the interrupt sequence
Interrupt vector address
Stack pointer (SP) value
16-Bit bus, without wait
8-Bit bus, without wait
Even
Even
18 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
Even
Odd
19 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
Odd (Note 2)
Even
19 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
Odd (Note 2)
Odd
20 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
________
Note 1: Add 2 cycles in the case of a DBC interrupt; add 1 cycle in the case either of an address coincidence
interrupt or of a single-step interrupt.
Note 2: Locate an interrupt vector address in an even address, if possible.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
BCLK
Address bus
Address
0000
Interrupt
information
Data bus
R
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
SP-2
SP-4
SP-2
contents
SP-4
contents
vec
vec+2
vec
contents
PC
vec+2
contents
Indeterminate
W
The indeterminate segment is dependent on the queue buffer.
If the queue buffer is ready to take an instruction, a read cycle occurs.
Figure 1.14.5. Time required for executing the interrupt sequence
Variation of IPL when Interrupt Request is Accepted
If an interrupt request is accepted, the interrupt priority level of the accepted interrupt is set in the IPL.
If an interrupt request, that does not have an interrupt priority level, is accepted, one of the values shown
in Table 1.14.6 is set in the IPL.
Table 1.14.6. Relationship between interrupts without interrupt priority levels and IPL
Interrupt sources without priority levels
Value set in the IPL
_______
Watchdog timer, NMI
7
Reset
0
Other
Not changed
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt
Saving Registers
In the interrupt sequence, only the contents of the flag register (FLG) and that of the program counter
(PC) are saved in the stack area.
First, the processor saves the four higher-order bits of the program counter, and 4 upper-order bits and 8
lower-order bits of the FLG register, 16 bits in total, in the stack area, then saves 16 lower-order bits of the
program counter. Figure 1.14.6 shows the state of the stack as it was before the acceptance of the
interrupt request, and the state the stack after the acceptance of the interrupt request.
Save other necessary registers at the beginning of the interrupt routine using software. Using the
PUSHM instruction alone can save all the registers except the stack pointer (SP).
Address
MSB
Stack area
Address
MSB
LSB
Stack area
LSB
m–4
m–4
Program counter (PCL)
m–3
m–3
Program counter (PCM)
m–2
m–2
Flag register (FLGL)
m–1
m–1
m
Content of previous stack
m+1
Content of previous stack
Stack status before interrupt request
is acknowledged
[SP]
Stack pointer
value before
interrupt occurs
Flag register
(FLGH)
Program
counter (PCH)
m
Content of previous stack
m+1
Content of previous stack
Stack status after interrupt request
is acknowledged
Figure 1.14.6. State of stack before and after acceptance of interrupt request
62
[SP]
New stack
pointer value
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
The operation of saving registers carried out in the interrupt sequence is dependent on whether the
content of the stack pointer, at the time of acceptance of an interrupt request, is even or odd. If the
content of the stack pointer (Note) is even, the content of the flag register (FLG) and the content of the
program counter (PC) are saved, 16 bits at a time. If odd, their contents are saved in two steps, 8 bits at
a time. Figure 1.14.7 shows the operation of the saving registers.
Note: When any INT instruction in software numbers 32 to 63 has been executed, this is the stack pointer
indicated by the U flag. Otherwise, it is the interrupt stack pointer (ISP).
(1) Stack pointer (SP) contains even number
Address
Stack area
Sequence in which order
registers are saved
[SP] – 5 (Odd)
[SP] – 4 (Even)
Program counter (PCL)
[SP] – 3(Odd)
Program counter (PCM)
[SP] – 2 (Even)
Flag register (FLGL)
[SP] – 1(Odd)
[SP]
Flag register
(FLGH)
Program
counter (PCH)
(2) Saved simultaneously,
all 16 bits
(1) Saved simultaneously,
all 16 bits
(Even)
Finished saving registers
in two operations.
(2) Stack pointer (SP) contains odd number
Address
Stack area
Sequence in which order
registers are saved
[SP] – 5 (Even)
[SP] – 4(Odd)
Program counter (PCL)
(3)
[SP] – 3 (Even)
Program counter (PCM)
(4)
[SP] – 2(Odd)
Flag register (FLGL)
[SP] – 1 (Even)
[SP]
Flag register
(FLGH)
Program
counter (PCH)
Saved simultaneously,
all 8 bits
(1)
(2)
(Odd)
Finished saving registers
in four operations.
Note: [SP] denotes the initial value of the stack pointer (SP) when interrupt request is acknowledged.
After registers are saved, the SP content is [SP] minus 4.
Figure 1.14.7. Operation of saving registers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt
Returning from an Interrupt Routine
Executing the REIT instruction at the end of an interrupt routine returns the contents of the flag register
(FLG) as it was immediately before the start of interrupt sequence and the contents of the program counter
(PC), both of which have been saved in the stack area. Then control returns to the program that was being
executed before the acceptance of the interrupt request, so that the suspended process resumes.
Return the other registers saved by software within the interrupt routine using the POPM or similar instruction before executing the REIT instruction.
Interrupt Priority
If there are two or more interrupt requests occurring at a point in time within a single sampling (checking
whether interrupt requests are made), the interrupt assigned a higher priority is accepted.
Assign an arbitrary priority to maskable interrupts (peripheral I/O interrupts) using the interrupt priority level
select bit. If the same interrupt priority level is assigned, however, the interrupt assigned a higher hardware
priority is accepted.
Priorities of the special interrupts, such as Reset (dealt with as an interrupt assigned the highest priority),
watchdog timer interrupt, etc. are regulated by hardware.
Figure 1.14.8 shows the priorities of hardware interrupts.
Software interrupts are not affected by the interrupt priority. If an instruction is executed, control branches
invariably to the interrupt routine.
_______
________
Reset > NMI > DBC > Watchdog timer > Peripheral I/O > Single step > Address match
Figure 1.14.8. Hardware interrupts priorities
Interrupt resolution circuit
When two or more interrupts are generated simultaneously, this circuit selects the interrupt with the highest
priority level. Figure 1.14.9 shows the circuit that judges the interrupt priority level.
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Priority level of each interrupt
INT1
Level 0 (initial value)
High
Timer B2
Timer B0
Timer A3
Timer A1
Timer B4
INT3
INT2
INT0
Timer B1
Timer A4
Timer A2
Timer B3
Timer B5
UART1 reception
UART0 reception
Priority of peripheral I/O interrupts
(if priority levels are same)
UART2 reception/ACK
A-D conversion
DMA1
Bus collision detection
Serial I/O4/INT5
Timer A0
UART1 transmission
UART0 transmission
UART2 transmission/NACK
Key input interrupt
DMA0
Serial I/O3/INT4
Processor interrupt priority level (IPL)
Low
Interrupt request level judgment output
To clock generating circuit (Fig.1.13.3)
Interrupt enable flag (I flag)
Address match
Interrupt
request
accepted
Watchdog timer
DBC
NMI
Reset
Figure 1.14.9. Maskable interrupts priorities (peripheral I/O interrupts)
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______
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
INT Interrupt
______
INT Interrupt
________
________
INT0 to INT5 are triggered by the edges of external inputs. The edge polarity is selected using the polarity
select bit.
________
Of interrupt control registers, 004816 is used both as serial I/O4 and external interrupt INT5 input control
________
register, and 004916 is used both as serial I/O3 and as external interrupt INT4 input control register. Use the
interrupt request cause select bits - bits 6 and 7 of the interrupt request cause select register (035F16) - to
specify which interrupt request cause to select. After having set an interrupt request cause, be sure to clear
the corresponding interrupt request bit before enabling an interrupt.
Either of the interrupt control registers - 004816, 004916 - has the polarity-switching bit. Be sure to set this bit
to “0” to select an serial I/O as the interrupt request cause.
As for external interrupt input, an interrupt can be generated both at the rising edge and at the falling edge
by setting “1” in the INTi interrupt polarity switching bit of the interrupt request cause select register
(035F16). To select both edges, set the polarity switching bit of the corresponding interrupt control register
to ‘falling edge’ (“0”).
Figure 1.14.10 shows the Interrupt request cause select register.
AA
A
AA
A
AAAA
AA
Interrupt request cause select register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
IFSR
Bit symbol
Address
035F16
Bit name
Function
IFSR0
INT0 interrupt polarity
switching bit
0 : One edge
1 : Two edges
IFSR1
INT1 interrupt polarity
switching bit
0 : One edge
1 : Two edges
IFSR2
INT2 interrupt polarity
switching bit
0 : One edge
1 : Two edges
IFSR3
INT3 interrupt polarity
switching bit
0 : One edge
1 : Two edges
IFSR4
INT4 interrupt polarity
switching bit
0 : One edge
1 : Two edges
IFSR5
INT5 interrupt polarity
switching bit
0 : One edge
1 : Two edges
IFSR6
Interrupt request cause
select bit
0 : SIO3
1 : INT4
IFSR7
Interrupt request cause
select bit
0 : SIO4
1 : INT5
Figure 1.14.10. Interrupt request cause select register
66
When reset
0016
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
________
NMI Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
______
NMI Interrupt
______
______
______
An NMI interrupt is generated when the input to the P85/NMI pin changes from “H” to “L”. The NMI interrupt
is a non-maskable external interrupt. The pin level can be checked in the port P85 register (bit 5 at address
03F016).
This pin cannot be used as a normal port input.
Key Input Interrupt
If the direction register of any of P104 to P107 is set for input and a falling edge is input to that port, a key
input interrupt is generated. A key input interrupt can also be used as a key-on wakeup function for cancelling the wait mode or stop mode. However, if you intend to use the key input interrupt, do not use P104 to
P107 as A-D input ports. Figure 1.14.11 shows the block diagram of the key input interrupt. Note that if an
“L” level is input to any pin that has not been disabled for input, inputs to the other pins are not detected as
an interrupt.
Port P104-P107 pull-up
select bit
Pull-up
transistor
Key input interrupt control register
Port P107 direction
register
(address 004D16)
Port P107 direction register
P107/KI3
Pull-up
transistor
Port P106 direction
register
Interrupt control circuit
P106/KI2
Pull-up
transistor
Key input interrupt
request
Port P105 direction
register
P105/KI1
Pull-up
transistor
Port P104 direction
register
P104/KI0
Figure 1.14.11. Block diagram of key input interrupt
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Address Match Interrupt
Address Match Interrupt
An address match interrupt is generated when the address match interrupt address register contents match
the program counter value. Two address match interrupts can be set, each of which can be enabled and
disabled by an address match interrupt enable bit. Address match interrupts are not affected by the interrupt enable flag (I flag) and processor interrupt priority level (IPL). The value of the program counter (PC)
for an address match interrupt varies depending on the instruction being executed. Note that when using
the external data bus in width of 8 bits, the address match interrupt cannot be used for external area.
Figure 1.14.12 shows the address match interrupt-related registers.
Address match interrupt enable register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
AIER
Address
000916
When reset
XXXXXX002
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Bit symbol
Bit name
Function
AIER0
Address match interrupt 0
enable bit
0 : Interrupt disabled
1 : Interrupt enabled
AIER1
Address match interrupt 1
enable bit
0 : Interrupt disabled
1 : Interrupt enabled
RW
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to
be indeterminated.
Address match interrupt register i (i = 0, 1)
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
RMAD0
RMAD1
Address
001216 to 001016
001616 to 001416
Function
Address setting register for address match interrupt
When reset
X0000016
X0000016
AA
A
AA
A
Values that can be set R W
0000016 to FFFFF16
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to
be indeterminated.
Figure 1.14.12. Address match interrupt-related registers
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Precautions for Interrupts
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Precautions for Interrupts
(1) Reading address 0000016
• When maskable interrupt is occurred, CPU read the interrupt information (the interrupt number and
interrupt request level) in the interrupt sequence.
The interrupt request bit of the certain interrupt written in address 0000016 will then be set to “0”.
Reading address 0000016 by software sets enabled highest priority interrupt source request bit to “0”.
Though the interrupt is generated, the interrupt routine may not be executed.
Do not read address 0000016 by software.
(2) Setting the stack pointer
• The value of the stack pointer immediately after reset is initialized to 000016. Accepting an interrupt
before setting a value in the stack pointer may become a factor of runaway. Be sure to set a value in
_______
the stack pointer before accepting an interrupt. When using the NMI interrupt, initialize the stack point
at the beginning of a program. Concerning the first instruction immediately after reset, generating any
_______
interrupts including the NMI interrupt is prohibited.
_______
(3) The NMI interrupt
_______
_______
•The NMI interrupt can not be disabled. Be sure to connect NMI pin to Vcc via a pull-up resistor if
unused.
_______
• The NMI pin also serves as P85, which is exclusively input. Reading the contents of the P8 register
allows reading the pin value. Use the reading of this pin only for establishing the pin level at the time
_______
when the NMI interrupt is input.
_______
• Do not reset the CPU with the input to the NMI pin being in the “L” state.
_______
• Do not attempt to go into stop mode with the input to the NMI pin being in the “L” state. With the input to
_______
the NMI being in the “L” state, the CM10 is fixed to “0”, so attempting to go into stop mode is turned
down.
_______
• Do not attempt to go into wait mode with the input to the NMI pin being in the “L” state. With the input to
_______
the NMI pin being in the “L” state, the CPU stops but the oscillation does not stop, so no power is saved.
In this instance, the CPU is returned to the normal state by a later interrupt.
_______
• Signals input to the NMI pin require an “L” level of 1 clock or more, from the operation clock of the CPU.
(4) External interrupt
________
• Either an “L” level or an “H” level of at least 250 ns width is necessary for the signal input to pins INT0
________
through INT5 regardless of the CPU operation clock.
________
________
• When the polarity of the INT0 to INT5 pins is changed, the interrupt request bit is sometimes set to “1”.
After changing the polarity, set the interrupt request bit to “0”. Figure 1.14.13 shows the procedure for
______
changing the INT interrupt generate factor.
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Precautions for Interrupts
Clear the interrupt enable flag to “0”
(Disable interrupt)
Set the interrupt priority level to level 0
(Disable INTi interrupt)
Set the polarity select bit
Clear the interrupt request bit to “0”
Set the interrupt priority level to level 1 to 7
(Enable the accepting of INTi interrupt request)
Set the interrupt enable flag to “1”
(Enable interrupt)
______
Figure 1.14.13. Switching condition of INT interrupt request
(5) Rewrite the interrupt control register
• To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that does not generate the interrupt request for
that register. If there is possibility of the interrupt request occur, rewrite the interrupt control register after
the interrupt is disabled. The program examples are described as follow:
Example 1:
INT_SWITCH1:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
NOP
NOP
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Four NOP instructions are required when using HOLD function.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 2:
INT_SWITCH2:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
MOV.W MEM, R0
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Dummy read.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 3:
INT_SWITCH3:
PUSHC FLG
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
POPC FLG
; Push Flag register onto stack
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Enable interrupts.
The reason why two NOP instructions (four when using the HOLD function) or dummy read are inserted
before FSET I in Examples 1 and 2 is to prevent the interrupt enable flag I from being set before the
interrupt control register is rewritten due to effects of the instruction queue.
• When a instruction to rewrite the interrupt control register is executed but the interrupt is disabled, the
interrupt request bit is not set sometimes even if the interrupt request for that register has been generated. This will depend on the instruction. If this creates problems, use the below instructions to change
the register.
Instructions : AND, OR, BCLR, BSET
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog Timer
The watchdog timer has the function of detecting when the program is out of control. The watchdog timer is
a 15-bit counter which down-counts the clock derived by dividing the BCLK using the prescaler. A watchdog
timer interrupt is generated when an underflow occurs in the watchdog timer. When XIN is selected for the
BCLK, bit 7 of the watchdog timer control register (address 000F16) selects the prescaler division ratio (by
16 or by 128). When XCIN is selected as the BCLK, the prescaler is set for division by 2 regardless of bit 7
of the watchdog timer control register (address 000F16). Thus the watchdog timer's period can be calculated as given below. The watchdog timer's period is, however, subject to an error due to the prescaler.
With XIN chosen for BCLK
Watchdog timer period =
prescaler dividing ratio (16 or 128) X watchdog timer count (32768)
BCLK
With XCIN chosen for BCLK
Watchdog timer period =
prescaler dividing ratio (2) X watchdog timer count (32768)
BCLK
For example, suppose that BCLK runs at 16 MHz and that 16 has been chosen for the dividing ratio of the
prescaler, then the watchdog timer's period becomes approximately 32.8 ms.
The watchdog timer is initialized by writing to the watchdog timer start register (address 000E16) and when
a watchdog timer interrupt request is generated. The prescaler is initialized only when the microcomputer is
reset. After a reset is cancelled, the watchdog timer and prescaler are both stopped. The count is started by
writing to the watchdog timer start register (address 000E16).
Figure 1.15.1 shows the block diagram of the watchdog timer. Figure 1.15.2 shows the watchdog timerrelated registers.
Prescaler
1/16
BCLK
1/128
“CM07 = 0”
“WDC7 = 0”
“CM07 = 0”
“WDC7 = 1”
Watchdog timer
HOLD
Watchdog timer
interrupt request
“CM07 = 1”
1/2
Write to the watchdog timer
start register
(address 000E16)
Set to
“7FFF16”
RESET
Figure 1.15.1. Block diagram of watchdog timer
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Watchdog Timer
Watchdog timer control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0
Symbol
WDC
Bit symbol
Address
000F16
When reset
000XXXXX2
Function
Bit name
High-order bit of watchdog timer
Reserved bit
Must always be set to “0”
Reserved bit
Must always be set to “0”
WDC7
Prescaler select bit
0 : Divided by 16
1 : Divided by 128
AA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
R W
Watchdog timer start register
b7
b0
Symbol
WDTS
Address
000E16
When reset
Indeterminate
Function
The watchdog timer is initialized and starts counting after a write instruction to
this register. The watchdog timer value is always initialized to “7FFF16”
regardless of whatever value is written.
Figure 1.15.2. Watchdog timer control and start registers
72
A
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
DMAC
This microcomputer has two DMAC (direct memory access controller) channels that allow data to be sent to
memory without using the CPU. DMAC shares the same data bus with the CPU. The DMAC is given a
higher right of using the bus than the CPU, which leads to working the cycle stealing method. On this
account, the operation from the occurrence of DMA transfer request signal to the completion of 1-word (16bit) or 1-byte (8-bit) data transfer can be performed at high speed. Figure 1.16.1 shows the block diagram
of the DMAC. Table 1.16.1 shows the DMAC specifications. Figures 1.16.2 to 1.16.4 show the registers
used by the DMAC.
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAA
AA
A
AAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AA
A
AAA A
AAA
AAA
A
AA
AAA A AA
AA
AA
AA
A
A
AA
A
AA
AA
A
A
AAAA A
AA
AAAA AA AA
AA
AA
AA
A
A
AA
AA
A
A
A
AA
A
A AA
AA
Address bus
DMA0 source pointer SAR0(20)
(addresses 002216 to 002016)
DMA0 destination pointer DAR0 (20)
(addresses 002616 to 002416)
DMA0 forward address pointer (20) (Note)
DMA0 transfer counter reload register TCR0 (16)
DMA1 source pointer SAR1 (20)
(addresses 003216 to 003016)
(addresses 002916, 002816)
DMA0 transfer counter TCR0 (16)
DMA1 destination pointer DAR1 (20)
(addresses 003616 to 003416)
DMA1 transfer counter reload register TCR1 (16)
DMA1 forward address pointer (20) (Note)
(addresses 003916, 003816)
DMA1 transfer counter TCR1 (16)
Data bus low-order bits
Data bus high-order bits
DMA latch high-order bits
DMA latch low-order bits
AA
AA
Note: Pointer is incremented by a DMA request.
Figure 1.16.1. Block diagram of DMAC
Either a write signal to the software DMA request bit or an interrupt request signal is used as a DMA transfer
request signal. But the DMA transfer is affected neither by the interrupt enable flag (I flag) nor by the
interrupt priority level. The DMA transfer doesn't affect any interrupts either.
If the DMAC is active (the DMA enable bit is set to 1), data transfer starts every time a DMA transfer request
signal occurs. If the cycle of the occurrences of DMA transfer request signals is higher than the DMA
transfer cycle, there can be instances in which the number of transfer requests doesn't agree with the
number of transfers. For details, see the description of the DMA request bit.
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
Table 1.16.1. DMAC specifications
Item
No. of channels
Transfer memory space
Maximum No. of bytes transferred
Specification
2 (cycle steal method)
• From any address in the 1M bytes space to a fixed address
• From a fixed address to any address in the 1M bytes space
• From a fixed address to a fixed address
(Note that DMA-related registers [002016 to 003F16] cannot be accessed)
128K bytes (with 16-bit transfers) or 64K bytes (with 8-bit transfers)
________
________ ________
________
DMA request factors (Note)
Falling edge of INT0 or INT1 (INT0 can be selected by DMA0, INT1 by DMA1) or both edge
Timer A0 to timer A4 interrupt requests
Timer B0 to timer B5 interrupt requests
UART0 transfer and reception interrupt requests
UART1 transfer and reception interrupt requests
UART2 transfer and reception interrupt requests
Serial I/O3, 4 interrpt requests
A-D conversion interrupt requests
Software triggers
Channel priority
DMA0 takes precedence if DMA0 and DMA1 requests are generated simultaneously
Transfer unit
8 bits or 16 bits
Transfer address direction
forward/fixed (forward direction cannot be specified for both source and
destination simultaneously)
Transfer mode
• Single transfer mode
After the transfer counter underflows, the DMA enable bit turns to
“0”, and the DMAC turns inactive
• Repeat transfer mode
After the transfer counter underflows, the value of the transfer counter
reload register is reloaded to the transfer counter.
The DMAC remains active unless a “0” is written to the DMA enable bit.
DMA interrupt request generation timing When an underflow occurs in the transfer counter
Active
When the DMA enable bit is set to “1”, the DMAC is active.
When the DMAC is active, data transfer starts every time a DMA
transfer request signal occurs.
Inactive
• When the DMA enable bit is set to “0”, the DMAC is inactive.
• After the transfer counter underflows in single transfer mode
At the time of starting data transfer immediately after turning the DMAC active, the
Forward address pointer and
value of one of source pointer and destination pointer - the one specified for the
reload timing for transfer
forward direction - is reloaded to the forward direction address pointer, and the value
counter
of the transfer counter reload register is reloaded to the transfer counter.
Writing to register
Registers specified for forward direction transfer are always write enabled.
Registers specified for fixed address transfer are write-enabled when
the DMA enable bit is “0”.
Reading the register
Can be read at any time.
However, when the DMA enable bit is “1”, reading the register set up as the
forward register is the same as reading the value of the forward address pointer.
Note: DMA transfer is not effective to any interrupt. DMA transfer is affected neither by the interrupt enable
flag (I flag) nor by the interrupt priority level.
74
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
DMA0 request cause select register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
DM0SL
b0
Bit symbol
DSEL0
Address
03B816
When reset
0016
Function
Bit name
DMA request cause
select bit
DSEL1
DSEL2
DSEL3
b3 b2 b1 b0
R
W
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AA
A
AAA
0 0 0 0 : Falling edge of INT0 pin
0 0 0 1 : Software trigger
0 0 1 0 : Timer A0
0 0 1 1 : Timer A1
0 1 0 0 : Timer A2
0 1 0 1 : Timer A3
0 1 1 0 : Timer A4 (DMS=0)
/two edges of INT0 pin (DMS=1)
0 1 1 1 : Timer B0 (DMS=0)
Timer B3 (DMS=1)
1 0 0 0 : Timer B1 (DMS=0)
Timer B4 (DMS=1)
1 0 0 1 : Timer B2 (DMS=0)
Timer B5 (DMS=1)
1 0 1 0 : UART0 transmit
1 0 1 1 : UART0 receive
1 1 0 0 : UART2 transmit
1 1 0 1 : UART2 receive
1 1 1 0 : A-D conversion
1 1 1 1 : UART1 transmit
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMS
DMA request cause
expansion bit
0 : Normal
1 : Expanded cause
DSR
Software DMA
request bit
If software trigger is selected, a
DMA request is generated by
setting this bit to “1” (When read,
the value of this bit is always “0”)
Figure 1.16.2. DMAC register (1)
75
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
DMA1 request cause select register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
DM1SL
Address
03BA16
Function
Bit name
Bit symbol
DSEL0
When reset
0016
DMA request cause
select bit
DSEL1
DSEL2
DSEL3
b3 b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 0 : Falling edge of INT1 pin
0 0 0 1 : Software trigger
0 0 1 0 : Timer A0
0 0 1 1 : Timer A1
0 1 0 0 : Timer A2
0 1 0 1 : Timer A3(DMS=0)
/serial I/O3 (DMS=1)
0 1 1 0 : Timer A4 (DMS=0)
/serial I/O4 (DMS=1)
0 1 1 1 : Timer B0 (DMS=0)
/two edges of INT1 (DMS=1)
1 0 0 0 : Timer B1
1 0 0 1 : Timer B2
1 0 1 0 : UART0 transmit
1 0 1 1 : UART0 receive
1 1 0 0 : UART2 transmit
1 1 0 1 : UART2 receive
1 1 1 0 : A-D conversion
1 1 1 1 : UART1 receive
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMS
DMA request cause
expansion bit
0 : Normal
1 : Expanded cause
DSR
Software DMA
request bit
If software trigger is selected, a
DMA request is generated by
setting this bit to “1” (When read,
the value of this bit is always “0”)
AA
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
A
A
AA
R
W
DMAi control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
DMiCON(i=0,1)
Bit symbol
Address
002C16, 003C16
When reset
00000X002
Bit name
Function
DMBIT
Transfer unit bit select bit
0 : 16 bits
1 : 8 bits
DMASL
Repeat transfer mode
select bit
0 : Single transfer
1 : Repeat transfer
DMAS
DMA request bit (Note 1)
0 : DMA not requested
1 : DMA requested
DMAE
DMA enable bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
DSD
Source address direction
select bit (Note 3)
0 : Fixed
1 : Forward
DAD
Destination address
0 : Fixed
direction select bit (Note 3) 1 : Forward
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
A
A
AA
R
W
(Note 2)
Note 1: DMA request can be cleared by resetting the bit.
Note 2: This bit can only be set to “0”.
Note 3: Source address direction select bit and destination address direction select bit
cannot be set to “1” simultaneously.
Figure 1.16.3. DMAC register (2)
76
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
DMAi source pointer (i = 0, 1)
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
SAR0
SAR1
Address
002216 to 002016
003216 to 003016
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Transfer count
specification
Function
• Source pointer
Stores the source address
R W
AA
0000016 to FFFFF16
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMAi destination pointer (i = 0, 1)
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
DAR0
DAR1
Address
002616 to 002416
003616 to 003416
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Transfer count
specification
Function
• Destination pointer
Stores the destination address
AAAA
R W
0000016 to FFFFF16
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMAi transfer counter (i = 0, 1)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
TCR0
TCR1
Address
002916, 002816
003916, 003816
Function
• Transfer counter
Set a value one less than the transfer count
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Transfer count
specification
000016 to FFFF16
AA
R W
Figure 1.16.4. DMAC register (3)
77
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(1) Transfer cycle
The transfer cycle consists of the bus cycle in which data is read from memory or from the SFR area
(source read) and the bus cycle in which the data is written to memory or to the SFR area (destination
write). The number of read and write bus cycles depends on the source and destination addresses. In
memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode, the number of read and write bus cycles also depends on the level of the BYTE pin. Also, the bus cycle itself is longer when software waits are inserted.
(a) Effect of source and destination addresses
When 16-bit data is transferred on a 16-bit data bus, and the source and destination both start at odd
addresses, there are one more source read cycle and destination write cycle than when the source
and destination both start at even addresses.
(b) Effect of BYTE pin level
When transferring 16-bit data over an 8-bit data bus (BYTE pin = “H”) in memory expansion mode and
microprocessor mode, the 16 bits of data are sent in two 8-bit blocks. Therefore, two bus cycles are
required for reading the data and two are required for writing the data. Also, in contrast to when the
CPU accesses internal memory, when the DMAC accesses internal memory (internal ROM, internal
RAM, and SFR), these areas are accessed using the data size selected by the BYTE pin.
(c) Effect of software wait
When the SFR area or a memory area with a software wait is accessed, the number of cycles is
increased for the wait by 1 bus cycle. The length of the cycle is determined by BCLK.
Figure 1.16.5 shows the example of the transfer cycles for a source read. For convenience, the destination write cycle is shown as one cycle and the source read cycles for the different conditions are shown.
In reality, the destination write cycle is subject to the same conditions as the source read cycle, with the
transfer cycle changing accordingly. When calculating the transfer cycle, remember to apply the respective conditions to both the destination write cycle and the source read cycle. For example (2) in Figure
1.16.5, if data is being transferred in 16-bit units on an 8-bit bus, two bus cycles are required for both the
source read cycle and the destination write cycle.
78
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
(1) 8-bit transfers
16-bit transfers from even address and the source address is even.
BCLK
Address
bus
CPU use
Source
Destination
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
RD signal
WR signal
Data
bus
CPU use
Source
Destination
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
(2) 16-bit transfers and the source address is odd
Transferring 16-bit data on an 8-bit data bus (In this case, there are also two destination write cycles).
BCLK
Address
bus
CPU use
Source
Source + 1 Destination
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
RD signal
WR signal
Data
bus
CPU use
Source + 1 Destination
Source
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
(3) One wait is inserted into the source read under the conditions in (1)
BCLK
Address
bus
CPU use
Source
Destination
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
RD signal
WR signal
Data
bus
CPU use
Source
Destination Dummy
cycle
CPU use
(4) One wait is inserted into the source read under the conditions in (2)
(When 16-bit data is transferred on an 8-bit data bus, there are two destination write cycles).
BCLK
Address
bus
CPU use
Source
Source + 1
Destination
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
RD signal
WR signal
Data
bus
CPU use
Source
Source + 1
Destination
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
Note: The same timing changes occur with the respective conditions at the destination as at the source.
Figure 1.16.5. Example of the transfer cycles for a source read
79
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M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
(2) DMAC transfer cycles
Any combination of even or odd transfer read and write addresses is possible. Table 1.16.2 shows the
number of DMAC transfer cycles.
The number of DMAC transfer cycles can be calculated as follows:
No. of transfer cycles per transfer unit = No. of read cycles x j + No. of write cycles x k
Table 1.16.2. No. of DMAC transfer cycles
Single-chip mode
Transfer unit
8-bit transfers
(DMBIT= “1”)
16-bit transfers
(DMBIT= “0”)
Memory expansion mode
Bus width
Access address
Microprocessor mode
No. of read No. of write No. of read No. of write
cycles
cycles
cycles
cycles
16-bit
Even
1
1
1
1
(BYTE= “L”)
Odd
1
1
1
1
8-bit
Even
—
—
1
1
(BYTE = “H”)
Odd
—
—
1
1
16-bit
Even
1
1
1
1
(BYTE = “L”)
Odd
2
2
2
2
8-bit
Even
—
—
2
2
(BYTE = “H”)
Odd
—
—
2
2
Coefficient j, k
Internal memory
Internal ROM/RAM Internal ROM/RAM
No wait
With wait
1
2
80
SFR area
2
External memory
Separate bus Separate bus
No wait
With wait
1
2
Multiplex
bus
3
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMA enable bit
Setting the DMA enable bit to "1" makes the DMAC active. The DMAC carries out the following operations
at the time data transfer starts immediately after DMAC is turned active.
(1) Reloads the value of one of the source pointer and the destination pointer - the one specified for the
forward direction - to the forward direction address pointer.
(2) Reloads the value of the transfer counter reload register to the transfer counter.
Thus overwriting "1" to the DMA enable bit with the DMAC being active carries out the operations given
above, so the DMAC operates again from the initial state at the instant "1" is overwritten to the DMA
enable bit.
DMA request bit
The DMAC can generate a DMA transfer request signal triggered by a factor chosen in advance out of
DMA request factors for each channel.
DMA request factors include the following.
* Factors effected by using the interrupt request signals from the built-in peripheral functions and software
DMA factors (internal factors) effected by a program.
* External factors effected by utilizing the input from external interrupt signals.
For the selection of DMA request factors, see the descriptions of the DMAi factor selection register.
The DMA request bit turns to "1" if the DMA transfer request signal occurs regardless of the DMAC's state
(regardless of whether the DMA enable bit is set "1" or to "0"). It turns to "0" immediately before data
transfer starts.
In addition, it can be set to "0" by use of a program, but cannot be set to "1".
There can be instances in which a change in DMA request factor selection bit causes the DMA request bit
to turn to "1". So be sure to set the DMA request bit to "0" after the DMA request factor selection bit is
changed.
The DMA request bit turns to "1" if a DMA transfer request signal occurs, and turns to "0" immediately
before data transfer starts. If the DMAC is active, data transfer starts immediately, so the value of the
DMA request bit, if read by use of a program, turns out to be "0" in most cases. To examine whether the
DMAC is active, read the DMA enable bit.
Here follows the timing of changes in the DMA request bit.
(1) Internal factors
Except the DMA request factors triggered by software, the timing for the DMA request bit to turn to "1" due
to an internal factor is the same as the timing for the interrupt request bit of the interrupt control register to
turn to "1" due to several factors.
Turning the DMA request bit to "1" due to an internal factor is timed to be effected immediately before the
transfer starts.
(2) External factors
An external factor is a factor caused to occur by the leading edge of input from the INTi pin (i depends on
which DMAC channel is used).
Selecting the INTi pins as external factors using the DMA request factor selection bit causes input from
these pins to become the DMA transfer request signals.
The timing for the DMA request bit to turn to "1" when an external factor is selected synchronizes with the
signal's edge applicable to the function specified by the DMA request factor selection bit (synchronizes
with the trailing edge of the input signal to each INTi pin, for example).
With an external factor selected, the DMA request bit is timed to turn to "0" immediately before data
transfer starts similarly to the state in which an internal factor is selected.
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAC
(3) The priorities of channels and DMA transfer timing
If a DMA transfer request signal falls on a single sampling cycle (a sampling cycle means one period from
the leading edge to the trailing edge of BCLK), the DMA request bits of applicable channels concurrently
turn to "1". If the channels are active at that moment, DMA0 is given a high priority to start data transfer.
When DMA0 finishes data transfer, it gives the bus right to the CPU. When the CPU finishes single bus
access, then DMA1 starts data transfer and gives the bus right to the CPU.
An example in which DMA transfer is carried out in minimum cycles at the time when DMA transfer
request signals due to external factors concurrently occur.
Figure 1.16.6 An example of DMA transfer effected by external factors.
An example in which DMA transmission is carried out in minimum
cycles at the time when DMA transmission request signals due to
external factors concurrently occur.
BCLK
DMA0
DMA1
CPU
INT0
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAA AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AA
AAAAAA AAA AAAAAA
AA
DMA0
request bit
INT1
DMA1
request bit
Figure 1.16.6. An example of DMA transfer effected by external factors
82
Obtainm
ent of the
bus right
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer
Timer
There are eleven 16-bit timers. These timers can be classified by function into timers A (five) and timers B
(six). All these timers function independently. Figures 1.17.1 and 1.17.2 show the block diagram of timers.
Clock prescaler
f1
XIN
f8
1/8
1/4
f32
1/32
XCIN
Clock prescaler reset flag (bit 7
at address 038116) set to “1”
fC32
Reset
f1 f8 f32 fC32
• Timer mode
• One-shot mode
• PWM mode
Timer A0 interrupt
TA0IN
Noise
filter
Timer A0
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• One-shot mode
• PWM mode
TA1IN
Noise
filter
Timer A1 interrupt
Timer A1
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• One-shot mode
• PWM mode
Timer A2 interrupt
TA2IN
Noise
filter
Timer A2
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• One-shot mode
• PWM mode
Timer A3 interrupt
TA3IN
Noise
filter
Timer A3
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• One-shot mode
• PWM mode
Timer A4 interrupt
TA4IN
Noise
filter
Timer A4
• Event counter mode
Timer B2 overflow
Note 1: The TA0IN pin (P71) is shared with RxD2 and the TB5IN pin, so be careful.
Figure 1.17.1. Timer A block diagram
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer
Clock prescaler
f1
XIN
f8
1/8
1/4
f32
fC32
1/32
XCIN
Clock prescaler reset flag (bit 7
at address 038116) set to “1”
Reset
f1 f8 f32 fC32
Timer A
• Timer mode
• Pulse width measuring mode
TB0IN
Timer B0 interrupt
Noise
filter
Timer B0
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• Pulse width measuring mode
TB1IN
Noise
filter
Timer B1 interrupt
Timer B1
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• Pulse width measuring mode
TB2IN
Noise
filter
Timer B2 interrupt
Timer B2
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• Pulse width measuring mode
TB3IN
Noise
filter
Timer B3 interrupt
Timer B3
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• Pulse width measuring mode
TB4IN
Noise
filter
Timer B4 interrupt
Timer B4
• Event counter mode
• Timer mode
• Pulse width measuring mode
TB5IN
Noise
filter
Timer B5
• Event counter mode
Note 1: The TB5IN pin (P71) is shared with RxD2 and the TA0IN pin, so be careful.
Figure 1.17.2. Timer B block diagram
84
Timer B5 interrupt
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
Timer A
Figure 1.17.3 shows the block diagram of timer A. Figures 1.17.4 to 1.17.6 show the timer A-related
registers.
Except in event counter mode, timers A0 through A4 all have the same function. Use the timer Ai mode
register (i = 0 to 4) bits 0 and 1 to choose the desired mode.
Timer A has the four operation modes listed as follows:
• Timer mode: The timer counts an internal count source.
• Event counter mode: The timer counts pulses from an external source or a timer over flow.
• One-shot timer mode: The timer stops counting when the count reaches “000016”.
• Pulse width modulation (PWM) mode: The timer outputs pulses of a given width.
Data bus high-order bits
Clock source
selection
f1
f8
f32
Low-order
8 bits
• Timer
(gate function)
fC32
AAAA
AAAA
A
A
A
Data bus low-order bits
• Timer
• One shot
• PWM
High-order
8 bits
Reload register (16)
• Event counter
Counter (16)
Polarity
selection
Up count/down count
Clock selection
TAiIN
(i = 0 to 4)
Always down count except
in event counter mode
Count start flag
(Address 038016)
TAi
Timer A0
Timer A1
Timer A2
Timer A3
Timer A4
Down count
TB2 overflow
External
trigger
TAj overflow
Up/down flag
(Address 038416)
(j = i – 1. Note, however, that j = 4 when i = 0)
Addresses
038716 038616
038916 038816
038B16 038A16
038D16 038C16
038F16 038E16
TAj
Timer A4
Timer A0
Timer A1
Timer A2
Timer A3
TAk
Timer A1
Timer A2
Timer A3
Timer A4
Timer A0
TAk overflow
(k = i + 1. Note, however, that k = 0 when i = 4)
Pulse output
TAiOUT
(i = 0 to 4)
Toggle flip-flop
Figure 1.17.3. Block diagram of timer A
Timer Ai mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TAiMR(i=0 to 4)
Bit symbol
TMOD0
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
MR0
MR1
Address
When reset
039616 to 039A16
0016
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
0 1 : Event counter mode
1 0 : One-shot timer mode
1 1 : Pulse width modulation
(PWM) mode
Function varies with each operation mode
MR2
MR3
TCK0
TCK1
Count source select bit
(Function varies with each operation mode)
A
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
A
AA
AA
RW
Figure 1.17.4. Timer A-related registers (1)
85
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
Timer Ai register (Note)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
TA0
TA1
TA2
TA3
TA4
Address
038716,038616
038916,038816
038B16,038A16
038D16,038C16
038F16,038E16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
AA
A
AA
A
AAAA
AA
A
Function
Values that can be set
• Timer mode
Counts an internal count source
000016 to FFFF16
RW
• Event counter mode
000016 to FFFF16
Counts pulses from an external source or timer overflow
• One-shot timer mode
Counts a one shot width
000016 to FFFF16
• Pulse width modulation mode (16-bit PWM)
Functions as a 16-bit pulse width modulator
000016 to FFFE16
• Pulse width modulation mode (8-bit PWM)
Timer low-order address functions as an 8-bit
prescaler and high-order address functions as an 8-bit
pulse width modulator
0016 to FE16
(Both high-order
and low-order
addresses)
Note: Read and write data in 16-bit units.
Count start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TABSR
Address
038016
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Bit symbol
Up/down flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Bit name
TA0S
Timer A0 count start flag
TA1S
Timer A1 count start flag
TA2S
Timer A2 count start flag
TA3S
Timer A3 count start flag
TA4S
Timer A4 count start flag
TB0S
Timer B0 count start flag
TB1S
Timer B1 count start flag
TB2S
Timer B2 count start flag
Symbol
UDF
Address
038416
Bit symbol
Bit name
TA0UD
Timer A0 up/down flag
TA1UD
Timer A1 up/down flag
TA2UD
Timer A2 up/down flag
TA3UD
Timer A3 up/down flag
TA4UD
Timer A4 up/down flag
TA2P
TA3P
TA4P
R W
Function
0 : Stops counting
1 : Starts counting
When reset
0016
Function
0 : Down count
1 : Up count
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AAAA
A
A
This specification becomes valid
when the up/down flag content is
selected for up/down switching
cause
Timer A2 two-phase pulse 0 : two-phase pulse signal
processing disabled
signal processing select bit
1 : two-phase pulse signal
processing enabled
Timer A3 two-phase pulse
signal processing select bit
When not using the two-phase
Timer A4 two-phase pulse pulse signal processing function,
signal processing select bit set the select bit to “0”
Figure 1.17.5. Timer A-related registers (2)
86
When reset
0016
RW
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
One-shot start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
ONSF
b0
Address
038216
When reset
00X000002
Bit symbol
Bit name
TA0OS
Timer A0 one-shot start flag
Function
TA1OS
Timer A1 one-shot start flag
TA2OS
Timer A2 one-shot start flag
TA3OS
Timer A3 one-shot start flag
TA4OS
Timer A4 one-shot start flag
1 : Timer start
When read, the value is “0”
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
RW
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be indeterminate.
TA0TGL
Timer A0 event/trigger
select bit
TA0TGH
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA4 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA1 overflow is selected
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Trigger select register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TRGSR
Bit symbol
TA1TGL
Address
038316
Bit name
Timer A1 event/trigger
select bit
TA1TGH
TA2TGL
Timer A2 event/trigger
select bit
TA2TGH
TA3TGL
Timer A3 event/trigger
select bit
TA3TGH
TA4TGL
Timer A4 event/trigger
select bit
TA4TGH
When reset
0016
Function
b1 b0
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
R W
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA0 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA2 overflow is selected
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA1 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA3 overflow is selected
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA2 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA4 overflow is selected
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA3 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA0 overflow is selected
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Clock prescaler reset flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CPSRF
Address
038116
Bit symbol
Bit name
When reset
0XXXXXXX2
Function
RW
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be
indeterminate.
CPSR
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset
(When read, the value is “0”)
Figure 1.17.6. Timer A-related registers (3)
87
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
(1) Timer mode
In this mode, the timer counts an internally generated count source. (See Table 1.17.1.) Figure 1.17.7
shows the timer Ai mode register in timer mode.
Table 1.17.1. Specifications of timer mode
Item
Count source
Count operation
Specification
f1, f8, f32, fC32
• Down count
• When the timer underflows, it reloads the reload register contents before continuing counting
1/(n+1) n : Set value
Count start flag is set (= 1)
Count start flag is reset (= 0)
When the timer underflows
Programmable I/O port or gate input
Programmable I/O port or pulse output
Count value can be read out by reading timer Ai register
• When counting stopped
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to both reload register and counter
• When counting in progress
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to only reload register
(Transferred to counter at next reload time)
• Gate function
Counting can be started and stopped by the TAiIN pin’s input signal
• Pulse output function
Each time the timer underflows, the TAiOUT pin’s polarity is reversed
Divide ratio
Count start condition
Count stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
TAiIN pin function
TAiOUT pin function
Read from timer
Write to timer
Select function
Timer Ai mode register
b7
b6
b5
0
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0
Symbol
TAiMR(i=0 to 4)
Bit symbol
TMOD0
TMOD1
Address
When reset
039616 to 039A16
0016
Bit name
Operation mode
select bit
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
MR0
Pulse output function
select bit
0 : Pulse is not output
(TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
1 : Pulse is output (Note 1)
(TAiOUT pin is a pulse output pin)
MR1
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
AA
AA
AA
AAA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
RW
0 X (Note 2): Gate function not available
(TAiIN pin is a normal port pin)
1 0 : Timer counts only when TAiIN pin is
held “L” (Note 3)
1 1 : Timer counts only when TAiIN pin is
held “H” (Note 3)
MR2
MR3
0 (Must always be fixed to “0” in timer mode)
TCK0
Count source select bit
TCK1
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Note 1: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register
are invalid.
Note 2: The bit can be “0” or “1”.
Note 3: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Figure 1.17.7. Timer Ai mode register in timer mode
88
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
(2) Event counter mode
In this mode, the timer counts an external signal or an internal timer’s overflow. Timers A0 and A1 can
count a single-phase external signal. Timers A2, A3, and A4 can count a single-phase and a two-phase
external signal. Table 1.17.2 lists timer specifications when counting a single-phase external signal.
Figure 1.17.8 shows the timer Ai mode register in event counter mode.
Table 1.17.3 lists timer specifications when counting a two-phase external signal. Figure 1.17.9 shows
the timer Ai mode register in event counter mode.
Table 1.17.2. Timer specifications in event counter mode (when not processing two-phase pulse signal)
Item
Specification
Count source
• External signals input to TAiIN pin (effective edge can be selected by software)
• TB2 overflow, TAj overflow
Count operation
• Up count or down count can be selected by external signal or software
• When the timer overflows or underflows, it reloads the reload register con
tents before continuing counting (Note)
Divide ratio
1/ (FFFF16 - n + 1) for up count
1/ (n + 1) for down count
n : Set value
Count start condition
Count start flag is set (= 1)
Count stop condition
Count start flag is reset (= 0)
Interrupt request generation timing The timer overflows or underflows
TAiIN pin function
Programmable I/O port or count source input
TAiOUT pin function
Programmable I/O port, pulse output, or up/down count select input
Read from timer
Count value can be read out by reading timer Ai register
Write to timer
• When counting stopped
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to both reload register and counter
• When counting in progress
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to only reload register
(Transferred to counter at next reload time)
Select function
• Free-run count function
Even when the timer overflows or underflows, the reload register content is not reloaded to it
• Pulse output function
Each time the timer overflows or underflows, the TAiOUT pin’s polarity is reversed
Note: This does not apply when the free-run function is selected.
Timer Ai mode register
b7
b6
b5
0
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TAiMR(i = 0, 1)
0 1
Address
039616, 039716
When reset
0016
Bit symbol
Bit name
TMOD0
Operation mode select bit
b1 b0
Function
MR0
Pulse output function
select bit
0 : Pulse is not output
(TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
1 : Pulse is output (Note 2)
(TAiOUT pin is a pulse output pin)
MR1
Count polarity
select bit (Note 3)
0 : Counts external signal's falling edge
1 : Counts external signal's rising edge
MR2
Up/down switching
cause select bit
0 : Up/down flag's content
1 : TAiOUT pin's input signal (Note 4)
0 1 : Event counter mode (Note 1)
TMOD1
MR3
0 (Must always be fixed to “0” in event counter mode)
TCK0
Count operation type
select bit
TCK1
Invalid in event counter mode
Can be “0” or “1”
0 : Reload type
1 : Free-run type
AAAA
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AA
R W
Note 1: In event counter mode, the count source is selected by the event / trigger select bit
(addresses 038216 and 038316).
Note 2: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
Note 3: Valid only when counting an external signal.
Note 4: When an “L” signal is input to the TAiOUT pin, the downcount is activated. When “H”,
the upcount is activated. Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Figure 1.17.8. Timer Ai mode register in event counter mode
89
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
Table 1.17.3. Timer specifications in event counter mode (when processing two-phase pulse signal with timers A2, A3, and A4)
Item
Count source
Count operation
Divide ratio
Count start condition
Count stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
TAiIN pin function
TAiOUT pin function
Read from timer
Write to timer
Select function
Specification
• Two-phase pulse signals input to TAiIN or TAiOUT pin
• Up count or down count can be selected by two-phase pulse signal
• When the timer overflows or underflows, the reload register content is
reloaded and the timer starts over again (Note)
1/ (FFFF16 - n + 1) for up count
1/ (n + 1) for down count
n : Set value
Count start flag is set (= 1)
Count start flag is reset (= 0)
Timer overflows or underflows
Two-phase pulse input
Two-phase pulse input
Count value can be read out by reading timer A2, A3, or A4 register
• When counting stopped
When a value is written to timer A2, A3, or A4 register, it is written to both
reload register and counter
• When counting in progress
When a value is written to timer A2, A3, or A4 register, it is written to only
reload register. (Transferred to counter at next reload time.)
• Normal processing operation
The timer counts up rising edges or counts down falling edges on the TAiIN
pin when input signal on the TAiOUT pin is “H”
TAiOUT
TAiIN
(i=2,3)
Up
count
Up
count
Up
Down
count count
Down
count
Down
count
• Multiply-by-4 processing operation
If the phase relationship is such that the TAiIN pin goes “H” when the input
signal on the TAiOUT pin is “H”, the timer counts up rising and falling edges
on the TAiOUT and TAiIN pins. If the phase relationship is such that the
TAiIN pin goes “L” when the input signal on the TAiOUT pin is “H”, the timer
counts down rising and falling edges on the TAiOUT and TAiIN pins.
TAiOUT
Count up all edges
Count down all edges
Count up all edges
Count down all edges
TAiIN
(i=3,4)
Note: This does not apply when the free-run function is selected.
90
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
Timer Ai mode register
(When not using two-phase pulse signal processing)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
0
b1
b0
0 1
Symbol
Address
When reset
TAiMR(i = 2 to 4) 039816 to 039A16
0016
Bit symbol
TMOD0
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
Function
b1 b0
0 1 : Event counter mode
MR0
Pulse output function
select bit
0 : Pulse is not output
(TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
1 : Pulse is output (Note 1)
(TAiOUT pin is a pulse output pin)
MR1
Count polarity
select bit (Note 2)
0 : Counts external signal's falling edges
1 : Counts external signal's rising edges
MR2
Up/down switching
cause select bit
0 : Up/down flag's content
1 : TAiOUT pin's input signal (Note 3)
MR3
0 : (Must always be “0” in event counter mode)
TCK0
Count operation type
select bit
0 : Reload type
1 : Free-run type
TCK1
Two-phase pulse signal
processing operation
select bit (Note 4)(Note 5)
0 : Normal processing operation
1 : Multiply-by-4 processing operation
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
Note 1: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
Note 2: This bit is valid when only counting an external signal.
Note 3: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Note 4: This bit is valid for the timer A3 mode register.
For timer A2 and A4 mode registers, this bit can be “0 ”or “1”.
Note 5: When performing two-phase pulse signal processing, make sure the two-phase pulse
signal processing operation select bit (address 038416) is set to “1”. Also, always be
sure to set the event/trigger select bit (addresses 038216 and 038316) to “00”.
Timer Ai mode register
(When using two-phase pulse signal processing)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 1 0 0 0 1
Symbol
Address
When reset
TAiMR(i = 2 to 4) 039816 to 039A16
0016
Bit symbol
TMOD0
TMOD1
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
Function
b1 b0
0 1 : Event counter mode
MR0
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal
processing)
MR1
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal
processing)
MR2
1 (Must always be “1” when using two-phase pulse signal
processing)
MR3
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal
processing)
TCK0
Count operation type
select bit
0 : Reload type
1 : Free-run type
TCK1
Two-phase pulse
processing operation
select bit (Note 1)(Note 2)
0 : Normal processing operation
1 : Multiply-by-4 processing operation
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
RW
Note 1: This bit is valid for timer A3 mode register.
For timer A2 and A4 mode registers, this bit can be “0” or “1”.
Note 2: When performing two-phase pulse signal processing, make sure the two-phase pulse
signal processing operation select bit (address 038416) is set to “1”. Also, always be
sure to set the event/trigger select bit (addresses 038216 and 038316) to “00”.
Figure 1.17.9. Timer Ai mode register in event counter mode
91
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
(3) One-shot timer mode
In this mode, the timer operates only once. (See Table 1.17.4.) When a trigger occurs, the timer starts up
and continues operating for a given period. Figure 1.17.10 shows the timer Ai mode register in one-shot
timer mode.
Table 1.17.4. Timer specifications in one-shot timer mode
Item
Count source
Count operation
Specification
f1, f8, f32, fC32
• The timer counts down
• When the count reaches 000016, the timer stops counting after reloading a new count
• If a trigger occurs when counting, the timer reloads a new count and restarts counting
1/n
n : Set value
• An external trigger is input
• The timer overflows
• The one-shot start flag is set (= 1)
• A new count is reloaded after the count has reached 000016
• The count start flag is reset (= 0)
The count reaches 000016
Programmable I/O port or trigger input
Programmable I/O port or pulse output
When timer Ai register is read, it indicates an indeterminate value
• When counting stopped
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to both reload
register and counter
• When counting in progress
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to only reload register
(Transferred to counter at next reload time)
Divide ratio
Count start condition
Count stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
TAiIN pin function
TAiOUT pin function
Read from timer
Write to timer
Timer Ai mode register
b7
b6
b5
0
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
1 0
Symbol
Address
When reset
TAiMR(i = 0 to 4) 039616 to 039A16
0016
AA
A
AAA
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
Bit symbol
Bit name
TMOD0
Operation mode select bit
b1 b0
MR0
Pulse output function
select bit
0 : Pulse is not output
(TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
1 : Pulse is output (Note 1)
(TAiOUT pin is a pulse output pin)
MR1
External trigger select
bit (Note 2)
0 : Falling edge of TAiIN pin's input signal (Note 3)
1 : Rising edge of TAiIN pin's input signal (Note 3)
MR2
Trigger select bit
0 : One-shot start flag is valid
1 : Selected by event/trigger select
register
MR3
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot timer mode)
TCK0
Count source select bit
TMOD1
TCK1
Function
1 0 : One-shot timer mode
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
RW
Note 1: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
Note 2: Valid only when the TAiIN pin is selected by the event/trigger select bit
(addresses 038216 and 038316). If timer overflow is selected, this bit can be “1” or “0”.
Note 3: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Figure 1.17.10. Timer Ai mode register in one-shot timer mode
92
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
(4) Pulse width modulation (PWM) mode
In this mode, the timer outputs pulses of a given width in succession. (See Table 1.17.5.) In this mode, the
counter functions as either a 16-bit pulse width modulator or an 8-bit pulse width modulator. Figure
1.17.11 shows the timer Ai mode register in pulse width modulation mode. Figure 1.17.12 shows the
example of how a 16-bit pulse width modulator operates. Figure 1.17.13 shows the example of how an 8bit pulse width modulator operates.
Table 1.17.5. Timer specifications in pulse width modulation mode
Item
Specification
Count source
Count operation
16-bit PWM
8-bit PWM
Count start condition
Count stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
TAiIN pin function
TAiOUT pin function
Read from timer
Write to timer
f1, f8, f32, fC32
• The timer counts down (operating as an 8-bit or a 16-bit pulse width modulator)
• The timer reloads a new count at a rising edge of PWM pulse and continues counting
• The timer is not affected by a trigger that occurs when counting
• High level width
n / fi n : Set value
• Cycle time
(216-1) / fi fixed
• High level width n (m+1) / fi
n : values set to timer Ai register’s high-order address
• Cycle time
(28-1) (m+1) / fi
m : values set to timer Ai register’s low-order address
• External trigger is input
• The timer overflows
• The count start flag is set (= 1)
• The count start flag is reset (= 0)
PWM pulse goes “L”
Programmable I/O port or trigger input
Pulse output
When timer Ai register is read, it indicates an indeterminate value
• When counting stopped
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to both reload
register and counter
• When counting in progress
When a value is written to timer Ai register, it is written to only reload register
(Transferred to counter at next reload time)
Timer Ai mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
1 1
1
Symbol
TAiMR(i=0 to 4)
Bit symbol
TMOD0
TMOD1
Address
When reset
039616 to 039A16
0016
Bit name
Operation mode
select bit
Function
b1 b0
1 1 : PWM mode
A
AA
AAA
A
AA
AA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
MR0
1 (Must always be “1” in PWM mode)
MR1
External trigger select
bit (Note 1)
0: Falling edge of TAiIN pin's input signal (Note 2)
1: Rising edge of TAiIN pin's input signal (Note 2)
MR2
Trigger select bit
0: Count start flag is valid
1: Selected by event/trigger select register
MR3
16/8-bit PWM mode
select bit
0: Functions as a 16-bit pulse width modulator
1: Functions as an 8-bit pulse width modulator
TCK0
Count source select bit
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
b7 b6
TCK1
R W
Note 1: Valid only when the TAiIN pin is selected by the event/trigger select bit
(addresses 038216 and 038316). If timer overflow is selected, this bit can be “1” or “0”.
Note 2: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Figure 1.17.11. Timer Ai mode register in pulse width modulation mode
93
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer A
Condition : Reload register = 000316, when external trigger
(rising edge of TAiIN pin input signal) is selected
1 / fi X (2 16 – 1)
Count source
“H”
TAiIN pin
input signal
“L”
Trigger is not generated by this signal
1 / fi X n
PWM pulse output
from TAiOUT pin
“H”
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“L”
“0”
fi : Frequency of count source
(f1, f8, f32, fC32)
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note: n = 000016 to FFFE16.
Figure 1.17.12. Example of how a 16-bit pulse width modulator operates
Condition : Reload register high-order 8 bits = 0216
Reload register low-order 8 bits = 0216
External trigger (falling edge of TAiIN pin input signal) is selected
1 / fi X (m + 1) X (2 8 – 1)
Count source (Note1)
TAiIN pin input signal
“H”
“L”
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
1 / fi X (m + 1)
“H”
Underflow signal of
8-bit prescaler (Note2) “L”
1 / fi X (m + 1) X n
PWM pulse output
from TAiOUT pin
“H”
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“L”
“0”
fi : Frequency of count source
(f1, f8, f32, fC32)
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleaerd by software
Note 1: The 8-bit prescaler counts the count source.
Note 2: The 8-bit pulse width modulator counts the 8-bit prescaler's underflow signal.
Note 3: m = 0016 to FE16; n = 0016 to FE16.
Figure 1.17.13. Example of how an 8-bit pulse width modulator operates
94
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer B
Timer B
Figure 1.17.14 shows the block diagram of timer B. Figures 1.17.15 and 1.17.16 show the timer B-related
registers.
Use the timer Bi mode register (i = 0 to 5) bits 0 and 1 to choose the desired mode.
Timer B has three operation modes listed as follows:
• Timer mode: The timer counts an internal count source.
• Event counter mode: The timer counts pulses from an external source or a timer overflow.
• Pulse period/pulse width measuring mode: The timer measures an external signal's pulse period or
pulse width.
Data bus high-order bits
Data bus low-order bits
Clock source selection
High-order 8 bits
Low-order 8 bits
f1
• Timer
• Pulse period/pulse width measurement
f8
f32
fC32
Reload register (16)
Counter (16)
• Event counter
Count start flag
Polarity switching
and edge pulse
TBiIN
(i = 0 to 5)
(address 038016)
Counter reset circuit
Can be selected in only
event counter mode
TBi
Timer B0
Timer B1
Timer B2
Timer B3
Timer B4
Timer B5
TBj overflow
(j = i – 1. Note, however,
j = 2 when i = 0,
j = 5 when i = 3)
Address
039116 039016
039316 039216
039516 039416
035116 035016
035316 035216
035516 035416
TBj
Timer B2
Timer B0
Timer B1
Timer B5
Timer B3
Timer B4
Figure 1.17.14. Block diagram of timer B
Timer Bi mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
Address
TBiMR(i = 0 to 5) 039B16 to 039D16
035B16 to 035D16
Bit symbol
TMOD0
Function
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
MR0
When reset
00XX00002
00XX00002
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
0 1 : Event counter mode
1 0 : Pulse period/pulse width
measurement mode
1 1 : Inhibited
Function varies with each operation mode
MR1
MR2
AA
A
AAA
AAA
AAA
AA
A
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
R
W
(Note 1)
(Note 2)
MR3
TCK0
TCK1
Count source select bit
(Function varies with each operation mode)
Note 1: Timer B0, timer B3.
Note 2: Timer B1, timer B2, timer B4, timer B5.
Figure 1.17.15. Timer B-related registers (1)
95
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer B
Timer Bi register (Note)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
Symbol
TB0
TB1
TB2
TB3
TB4
TB5
b0
Address
039116, 039016
039316, 039216
039516, 039416
035116, 035016
035316, 035216
035516, 035416
Function
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
A
A
A
A
A
A
Values that can be set
• Timer mode
Counts the timer's period
000016 to FFFF16
• Event counter mode
Counts external pulses input or a timer overflow
000016 to FFFF16
• Pulse period / pulse width measurement mode
Measures a pulse period or width
Note: Read and write data in 16-bit units.
RW
Count start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TABSR
Address
038016
When reset
0016
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
Bit name
Bit symbol
TA0S
Timer A0 count start flag
TA1S
Timer A1 count start flag
TA2S
Timer A2 count start flag
TA3S
Timer A3 count start flag
TA4S
Timer A4 count start flag
TB0S
Timer B0 count start flag
TB1S
Timer B1 count start flag
TB2S
Timer B2 count start flag
Function
RW
0 : Stops counting
1 : Starts counting
Timer B3, 4, 5 count start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TBSR
Address
034016
When reset
000XXXXX2
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
A
A
Bit symbol
Bit name
Function
RW
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
TB3S
Timer B3 count start flag
TB4S
Timer B4 count start flag
TB5S
Timer B5 count start flag
0 : Stops counting
1 : Starts counting
Clock prescaler reset flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CPSRF
Address
038116
Bit symbol
Bit name
When reset
0XXXXXXX2
Function
R W
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
CPSR
Clock prescaler reset flag
Figure 1.17.16. Timer B-related registers (2)
96
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset
(When read, the value is “0”)
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer B
(1) Timer mode
In this mode, the timer counts an internally generated count source. (See Table 1.17.6.) Figure 1.17.17
shows the timer Bi mode register in timer mode.
Table 1.17.6. Timer specifications in timer mode
Item
Count source
Count operation
Specification
Divide ratio
Count start condition
Count stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
TBiIN pin function
Read from timer
Write to timer
AAA
AAA
f1, f8, f32, fC32
• Counts down
• When the timer underflows, it reloads the reload register contents before
continuing counting
1/(n+1) n : Set value
Count start flag is set (= 1)
Count start flag is reset (= 0)
The timer underflows
Programmable I/O port
Count value is read out by reading timer Bi register
• When counting stopped
When a value is written to timer Bi register, it is written to both reload register and counter
• When counting in progress
When a value is written to timer Bi register, it is written to only reload register
(Transferred to counter at next reload time)
Timer Bi mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0
Symbol
TBiMR(i=0 to 5)
Bit symbol
TMOD0
Address
039B16 to 039D16
035B16 to 035D16
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
MR0
MR1
MR2
When reset
00XX00002
00XX00002
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
Invalid in timer mode
Can be “0” or “1”
0 (Fixed to “0” in timer mode ; i = 0, 3)
Nothing is assiigned (i = 1, 2, 4, 5).
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out
to be indeterminate.
MR3
Invalid in timer mode.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read in
timer mode, turns out to be indeterminate.
TCK0
Count source select bit
TCK1
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Note 1: Timer B0, timer B3.
Note 2: Timer B1, timer B2, timer B4, timer B5.
AAA
A
AA
AAA
A
AAA
AA
AAA
A
A
AAA
AAA
R
W
(Note 1)
(Note 2)
Figure 1.17.17. Timer Bi mode register in timer mode
97
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Timer B
(2) Event counter mode
In this mode, the timer counts an external signal or an internal timer's overflow. (See Table 1.17.7.)
Figure 1.17.18 shows the timer Bi mode register in event counter mode.
Table 1.17.7. Timer specifications in event counter mode
Item
Count source
Specification
• External signals input to TBiIN pin
• Effective edge of count source can be a rising edge, a falling edge, or falling
and rising edges as selected by software
Count operation
• Counts down
• When the timer underflows, it reloads the reload register contents before
continuing counting
Divide ratio
1/(n+1)
n : Set value
Count start condition
Count start flag is set (= 1)
Count stop condition
Count start flag is reset (= 0)
Interrupt request generation timing The timer underflows
TBiIN pin function
Read from timer
Write to timer
Count source input
Count value can be read out by reading timer Bi register
• When counting stopped
When a value is written to timer Bi register, it is written to both reload register and counter
• When counting in progress
When a value is written to timer Bi register, it is written to only reload register
(Transferred to counter at next reload time)
AA
AA
Timer Bi mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 1
Symbol
TBiMR(i=0 to 5)
Address
039B16 to 039D16
035B16 to 035D16
Bit symbol
Bit name
TMOD0
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
MR0
Count polarity select
bit (Note 1)
MR1
MR2
MR3
When reset
00XX00002
00XX00002
Function
b1 b0
0 1 : Event counter mode
b3 b2
0 0 : Counts external signal's
falling edges
0 1 : Counts external signal's
rising edges
1 0 : Counts external signal's
falling and rising edges
1 1 : Inhibited
0 (Fixed to “0” in event counter mode; i = 0, 3)
Nothing is assigned (i = 1, 2, 4, 5).
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read,
turns out to be indeterminate.
Invalid in event counter mode.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read in
event counter mode, turns out to be indeterminate.
TCK0
Invalid in event counter mode.
Can be “0” or “1”.
TCK1
Event clock select
0 : Input from TBiIN pin (Note 4)
1 : TBj overflow
(j = i – 1; however, j = 2 when i = 0,
j = 5 when i = 3)
AA
AA
AA
AA
AAA
A
A
AA
AA
Note 1: Valid only when input from the TBiIN pin is selected as the event clock.
If timer's overflow is selected, this bit can be “0” or “1”.
Note 2: Timer B0, timer B3.
Note 3: Timer B1, timer B2, timer B4, timer B5.
Note 4: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Figure 1.17.18. Timer Bi mode register in event counter mode
98
R
(Note 2)
(Note 3)
W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer B
(3) Pulse period/pulse width measurement mode
In this mode, the timer measures the pulse period or pulse width of an external signal. (See Table 1.17.8.)
Figure 1.17.19 shows the timer Bi mode register in pulse period/pulse width measurement mode. Figure
1.17.20 shows the operation timing when measuring a pulse period. Figure 1.17.21 shows the operation
timing when measuring a pulse width.
Table 1.17.8. Timer specifications in pulse period/pulse width measurement mode
Item
Count source
Count operation
Specification
f1, f8, f32, fC32
• Up count
• Counter value “000016” is transferred to reload register at measurement
pulse's effective edge and the timer continues counting
Count start condition
Count start flag is set (= 1)
Count stop condition
Count start flag is reset (= 0)
Interrupt request generation timing • When measurement pulse's effective edge is input (Note 1)
• When an overflow occurs. (Simultaneously, the timer Bi overflow flag
changes to “1”. The timer Bi overflow flag changes to “0” when the count
start flag is “1” and a value is written to the timer Bi mode register.)
TBiIN pin function
Measurement pulse input
Read from timer
When timer Bi register is read, it indicates the reload register’s content
(measurement result) (Note 2)
Write to timer
Cannot be written to
Note 1: An interrupt request is not generated when the first effective edge is input after the timer has started counting.
Note 2: The value read out from the timer Bi register is indeterminate until the second effective edge is input after the timer.
Timer Bi mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
1 0
Symbol
TBiMR(i=0 to 5)
Bit symbol
TMOD0
TMOD1
MR0
Address
039B16 to 039D16
035B16 to 035D16
Bit name
Operation mode
select bit
Measurement mode
select bit
MR1
MR2
When reset
00XX00002
00XX00002
Function
b1 b0
1 0 : Pulse period / pulse width
measurement mode
b3 b2
0 0 : Pulse period measurement (Interval between
measurement pulse's falling edge to falling edge)
0 1 : Pulse period measurement (Interval between
measurement pulse's rising edge to rising edge)
1 0 : Pulse width measurement (Interval between
measurement pulse's falling edge to rising edge,
and between rising edge to falling edge)
1 1 : Inhibited
0 (Fixed to “0” in pulse period/pulse width measurement mode; i = 0, 3)
Nothing is assigned (i = 1, 2, 4, 5).
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be
indeterminate.
MR3
Timer Bi overflow
flag ( Note 1)
TCK0
Count source
select bit
TCK1
0 : Timer did not overflow
1 : Timer has overflowed
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
AA
AA
AAAA
AA
AA
AAA
AA
R
W
(Note 2)
(Note 3)
Note 1: The timer Bi overflow flag changes to “0” when the count start flag is “1” and a value is written to the
timer Bi mode register. This flag cannot be set to “1” by software.
Note 2: Timer B0, timer B3.
Note 3: Timer B1, timer B2, timer B4, timer B5.
Figure 1.17.19. Timer Bi mode register in pulse period/pulse width measurement mode
99
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Timer B
When measuring measurement pulse time interval from falling edge to falling edge
Count source
Measurement pulse
Reload register
transfer timing
“H”
“L”
Transfer
(indeterminate value)
Transfer
(measured value)
counter
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
(Note 2)
Timing at which counter
reaches “000016”
“1”
Count start flag
“0”
Timer Bi interrupt
request bit
“1”
Timer Bi overflow flag
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software.
“0”
Note 1: Counter is initialized at completion of measurement.
Note 2: Timer has overflowed.
Figure 1.17.20. Operation timing when measuring a pulse period
Count source
Measurement pulse
Reload register
transfer timing
“H”
“L”
counter
Transfer
(indeterminate
value)
(Note 1)
Transfer
(measured value)
Transfer
(measured
value)
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
Transfer
(measured value)
(Note 1)
(Note 2)
Timing at which counter
reaches “000016”
Count start flag
“1”
“0”
Timer Bi interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software.
Timer Bi overflow flag
“1”
“0”
Note 1: Counter is initialized at completion of measurement.
Note 2: Timer has overflowed.
Figure 1.17.21. Operation timing when measuring a pulse width
100
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Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
Use of more than one built-in timer A and timer B provides the means of outputting three-phase motor
driving waveforms.
Figures 1.18.1 to 1.18.3 show registers related to timers for three-phase motor control.
Three-phase PWM control register 0
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
Address
When reset
INVC0
034816
0016
Bit symbol
INV00
Bit name
Description
R
W
Effective interrupt output 0: A timer B2 interrupt occurs when the timer
A1 reload control signal is “1”.
polarity select bit
1: A timer B2 interrupt occurs when the timer
(Note4)
A1 reload control signal is “0”.
Effective only in three-phase mode 1
INV01
Effective interrupt output 0: Not specified.
1: Selected by the effective interrupt output
specification bit
polarity selection bit.
(Note4)
Effective only in three-phase mode 1
INV02
Mode select bit
(Note 2)
0: Normal mode
1: Three-phase PWM output mode
INV03
Output control
bit
0: Output disabled
1: Output enabled
INV04
Positive and negative
phases concurrent L
output disable function
enable bit
0: Feature disabled
1: Feature enabled
INV05
Positive and negative
phases concurrent L
output detect flag
0: Not detected yet
1: Already detected
INV06
Modulation mode select 0: Triangular wave modulation mode
1: Sawtooth wave modulation mode
bit (Note 3)
INV07
Software trigger bit
(Note 1)
1: Trigger generated
The value, when read, is “0”.
Note 1: No value other than “0” can be written.
Note 2: Selecting three-phase PWM output mode causes P80, P81, and P72 through P75 to output U, U, V, V, W, and W, and works the
timer for setting short circuit prevention time, the U, V, W phase output control circuits, and the circuit for setting timer B2 interrupt
frequency.
Note 3: In triangular wave modulation mode:
The short circuit prevention timer starts in synchronization with the falling edge of timer Ai output.
The data transfer from the three-phase buffer register to the three-phase output shift register is made only once in synchronization
with the transfer trigger signal after writing to the three-phase output buffer register.
In sawtooth wave modulation mode:
The short circuit prevention timer starts in synchronization with the falling edge of timer A output and with the transfer trigger signal.
The data transfer from the three-phase output buffer register to the three-phase output shift register is made with respect to every
transfer trigger.
Note 4: To write “1” both to bit 0 (INV00) and bit 1 (INV01) of the three-phase PWM control register, set in advance the content of the timer
B2 interrupt occurrences frequency set counter.
Three-phase
PWM control register 1
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
0
Symbol
Address
When reset
INVC1
034916
0016
Bit symbol
Bit name
Description
INV10
Timer Ai start trigger
signal select bit
0: Timer B2 overflow signal
1: Timer B2 overflow signal,
signal for writing to timer B2
INV11
Timer A1-1, A2-1, A4-1
control bit
0: Three-phase mode 0
1: Three-phase mode 1
INV12
Short circuit timer count
source select bit
0 : Not to be used
1 : f1/2 (Note)
R
W
Noting is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
Noting is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Note : To use three-phase PWM output mode, write “1” to INV12.
Figure 1.18.1. Registers related to timers for three-phase motor control
101
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Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
Three-phase output buffer register 0 (Note)
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
IDB0
Address
034A16
Bit Symbol
Bit name
DU0
U phase output buffer 0
When reset
0016
Function
R W
Setting in U phase output buffer 0
DUB0
U phase output buffer 0
Setting in U phase output buffer 0
DV0
V phase output buffer 0
Setting in V phase output buffer 0
DVB0
V phase output buffer 0
Setting in V phase output buffer 0
DW0
W phase output buffer 0
Setting in W phase output buffer 0
DWB0
W phase output buffer 0
Setting in W phase output buffer 0
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Note: When executing read instruction of this register, the contents of three-phase shift
register is read out.
Three-phase output buffer register 1 (Note)
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
IDB1
Address
034B16
When reset
0016
Bit Symbol
Bit name
Function
DU1
U phase output buffer 1
Setting in U phase output buffer 1
DUB1
U phase output buffer 1
Setting in U phase output buffer 1
DV1
V phase output buffer 1
Setting in V phase output buffer 1
DVB1
V phase output buffer 1
Setting in V phase output buffer 1
DW1
W phase output buffer 1
Setting in W phase output buffer 1
DWB1
W phase output buffer 1
Setting in W phase output buffer 1
R W
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Note: When executing read instruction of this register, the contents of three-phase shift
register is read out.
Dead time timer
b7
b0
Symbol
DTT
Address
034C16
Function
When reset
Indeterminate
Values that can be set
Set dead time timer
R W
1 to 255
Timer B2 interrupt occurrences frequency set counter
b3
b0
Symbol
ICTB2
Address
034D16
Function
Set occurrence frequency of timer B2
interrupt request
When reset
Indeterminate
Values that can be set
R
W
1 to 15
Note1: In setting 1 to bit 1 (INV01) - the effective interrupt output specification bit - of threephase PWM control register 0, do not change the B2 interrupt occurrences frequency
set counter to deal with the timer function for three-phase motor control.
Note2: Do not write at the timing of an overflow occurrence in timer B2.
Figure 1.18.2. Registers related to timers for three-phase motor control
102
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Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
Timer Ai register (Note)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
TA1
TA2
TA4
TB2
Address
038916,038816
038B16,038A16
038F16,038E16
039516,039416
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
Values that can be set
• Timer mode
Counts an internal count source
000016 to FFFF16
• One-shot timer mode
Counts a one shot width
000016 to FFFF16
Note: Read and write data in 16-bit units.
A
A
R W
Timer Ai-1 register (Note)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
TA11
TA21
TA41
Address
034316,034216
034516,034416
034716,034616
Function
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Values that can be set
Counts an internal count source
000016 to FFFF16
Note: Read and write data in 16-bit units.
A
R W
Trigger select register
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
TRGSR
Address
038316
Bit symbol
TA1TGL
Bit name
Timer A1 event/trigger
select bit
TA1TGH
TA2TGL
Timer A2 event/trigger
select bit
TA2TGH
TA3TGL
Timer A3 event/trigger
select bit
TA3TGH
TA4TGL
When reset
0016
Timer A4 event/trigger
select bit
TA4TGH
Function
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA0 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA2 overflow is selected
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA1 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA3 overflow is selected
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA2 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA4 overflow is selected
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA3 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA0 overflow is selected
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
R W
b1 b0
Count start flag
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
TABSR
Address
038016
When reset
0016
A
A
A
AA
A
A
AA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AA
A
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
AA
Bit symbol
Bit name
TA0S
Timer A0 count start flag
TA1S
Timer A1 count start flag
TA2S
Timer A2 count start flag
TA3S
Timer A3 count start flag
TA4S
Timer A4 count start flag
TB0S
Timer B0 count start flag
TB1S
Timer B1 count start flag
TB2S
Timer B2 count start flag
Function
R W
0 : Stops counting
1 : Starts counting
Figure 1.18.3. Registers related to timers for three-phase motor control
103
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Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
Three-phase motor driving waveform output mode (three-phase waveform mode)
Setting “1” in the mode select bit (bit 2 at 034816) shown in Figure 1.18.1 - causes three-phase waveform
mode that uses four timers A1, A2, A4, and B2 to be selected. As shown in Figure 1.18.4, set timers A1,
A2, and A4 in one-shot timer mode, set the trigger in timer B2, and set timer B2 in timer mode using the
respective timer mode registers.
Timer Ai mode register
Symbol
TA1MR
TA2MR
TA3MR
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
0 1
1 0
Bit symbol
TMOD0
Address
039716
039816
039A16
When reset
0016
0016
0016
A
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
RW
Operation mode
select bit
b1 b0
MR0
Pulse output function
select bit
0 (Must always be “0” in three-phase PWM
output mode)
MR1
External trigger select
bit
Invalid in three-phase PWM output mode
MR2
Trigger select bit
1 : Selected by event/trigger select
register
MR3
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot timer mode)
TCK0
Count source select bit
TMOD1
TCK1
AA
Function
Bit name
1 0 : One-shot timer mode
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Timer B2 mode register
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
0
0 0
Symbol
TB2MR
Address
039D16
Bit symbol
Bit name
TMOD0
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
MR0
When reset
00XX00002
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
MR1
Invalid in timer mode
Can be “0” or “1”
MR2
0 (Fixed to “0” in timer mode ; i = 0)
MR3
Invalid in timer mode.
This bit can neither be set nor reset. When read in timer mode,
its content is indeterminate.
TCK0
Count source select bit
TCK1
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Figure 1.18.4. Timer mode registers in three-phase waveform mode
104
A
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
AA
RW
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Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Figure 1.18.5 shows the block diagram for three-phase waveform mode. In three-phase waveform mode,
___
___
the positive-phase waveforms (U phase, V phase, and W phase) and negative waveforms (U phase, V
___
phase, and W phase), six waveforms in total, are output from P80, P81, P72, P73, P74, and P75 as active
___
on the “L” level. Of the timers used in this mode, timer A4 controls the U phase and U phase, timer A1
___
___
controls the V phase and V phase, and timer A2 controls the W phase and W phase respectively; timer B2
controls the periods of one-shot pulse output from timers A4, A1, and A2.
In outputting a waveform, dead time can be set so as to cause the “L” level of the positive waveform
___
output (U phase, V phase, and W phase) not to lap over the “L” level of the negative waveform output (U
___
___
phase, V phase, and W phase).
To set short circuit time, use three 8-bit timers sharing the reload register for setting dead time. A value
from 1 through 255 can be set as the count of the timer for setting dead time. The timer for setting dead
time works as a one-shot timer. If a value is written to the dead timer (034C16), the value is written to the
reload register shared by the three timers for setting dead time.
Any of the timers for setting dead time takes the value of the reload register into its counter, if a start
trigger comes from its corresponding timer, and performs a down count in line with the clock source
selected by the dead time timer count source select bit (bit 2 at 034916). The timer can receive another
trigger again before the workings due to the previous trigger are completed. In this instance, the timer
performs a down count from the reload register’s content after its transfer, provoked by the trigger, to the
timer for setting dead time.
Since the timer for setting dead time works as a one-shot timer, it starts outputting pulses if a trigger
comes; it stops outputting pulses as soon as its content becomes 0016, and waits for the next trigger to
come.
___
___
The positive waveforms (U phase, V phase, and W phase) and the negative waveforms (U phase, V
___
phase, and W phase) in three-phase waveform mode are output from respective ports by means of
setting “1” in the output control bit (bit 3 at 034816). Setting “0” in this bit causes the ports to be the state
of set by port direction register. This bit can be set to “0” not only by use of the applicable instruction, but
_______
by entering a falling edge in the NMI terminal or by resetting. Also, if “1” is set in the positive and negative
phases concurrent L output disable function enable bit (bit 4 at 034816) causes one of the pairs of U
___
___
___
phase and U phase, V phase and V phase, and W phase and W phase concurrently go to “L”, as a result,
the port become the state of set by port direction register.
105
106
(Timer mode)
Timer B2
Timer A4-1
T Q
INV11
(One-shot timer mode)
Timer A4 counter
Reload
Figure 1.18.5. Block diagram for three-phase waveform mode
Timer A1-1
(One-shot timer mode)
Timer A1 counter
Reload
Timer A2 counter
Reload
Timer A2-1
1
INV06
INV06
Note: To use three-phase output mode, write "1" to INV12.
(One-shot timer mode)
INV11
T Q
To be set to “0” when timer A2 stops
Trigger
Timer A2
1/2
Trigger signal for
transfer
INV06
f1
A
T
Q
T
Q
T
Q
D
Q
For short circuit
prevention
V phase output signal
V phase output signal
W phase output signal
W phase output signal
n = 1 to 255
Dead time timer setting (8)
W phase output
control circuit
Trigger
Trigger
U phase output signal
Three-phase output
shift register
(U phase)
INV05
INV04
RESET
NMI
R
INV03 D Q
W(P75)
W(P74)
V(P73)
V(P72)
U(P81)
U(P80)
Diagram for switching to P80, P81, and to P72 - P75 is not shown.
T
D Q
D Q
T
D Q
T
D Q
T
T
D Q
D Q
T
Interrupt request bit
U phase output signal
Dead time timer setting (8)
n = 1 to 255
T
DUB0
D
DU0
V phase output
control circuit
Trigger
Trigger
D
DUB1
D
DU1
Bit 0 at 034B16
Bit 0 at 034A16
Dead time timer setting
n = 1 to 255
n = 1 to 255
Reload register
Interrupt occurrence
frequency set counter
n = 1 to 15
U phase output control circuit
Trigger
Trigger
INV12 (Note)
0
1
Circuit foriInterrupt occurrence
frequency set counter
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
INV11
T Q
To be set to “0” when timer A1 stops
Trigger
Timer A1
To be set to “0” when timer A4 stops
Trigger
Timer A4
INV07
INV00
Control signal for timer A4 reload
Trigger signal for
timer Ai start
Signal to be
written to B2
INV10
Overflow
INV01
INV11
Mitsubishi microcomputers
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
M16C / 62 Group
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Triangular wave modulation
To generate a PWM waveform of triangular wave modulation, set “0” in the modulation mode select bit
(bit 6 at 034816). Also, set “1” in the timers A4-1, A1-1, A2-1 control bit (bit 1 at 034916). In this mode, each
of timers A4, A1, and A2 has two timer registers, and alternately reloads the timer register’s content to the
counter every time timer B2 counter’s content becomes 000016. If “0” is set to the effective interrupt
output specification bit (bit 1 at 034816), the frequency of interrupt requests that occur every time the timer
B2 counter’s value becomes 000016 can be set by use of the timer B2 counter (034D16) for setting the
frequency of interrupt occurrences. The frequency of occurrences is given by (setting; setting ≠ 0).
Setting “1” in the effective interrupt output specification bit (bit 1 at 034816) provides the means to choose
which value of the timer A1 reload control signal to use, “0” or “1”, to cause timer B2’s interrupt request to
occur. To make this selection, use the effective interrupt output polarity selection bit (bit 0 at 034816).
An example of U phase waveform is shown in Figure 1.18.6, and the description of waveform output
workings is given below. Set “1” in DU0 (bit 0 at 034A16). And set “0” in DUB0 (bit 1 at 034A16). In
addition, set “0” in DU1 (bit 0 at 034B16) and set “1” in DUB1 (bit 1 at 034B16). Also, set “0” in the effective
interrupt output specification bit (bit 1 at 034816) to set a value in the timer B2 interrupt occurrence
frequency set counter. By this setting, a timer B2 interrupt occurs when the timer B2 counter’s content
becomes 000016 as many as (setting) times. Furthermore, set “1” in the effective interrupt output specification bit (bit 1 at 034816), set “0” in the effective interrupt polarity select bit (bit 0 at 034816) and set "1" in
the interrupt occurrence frequency set counter (034D16). These settings cause a timer B2 interrupt to
occur every other interval when the U phase output goes to “H”.
When the timer B2 counter’s content becomes 000016, timer A4 starts outputting one-shot pulses. In this
instance, the content of DU1 (bit 0 at 034B16) and that of DU0 (bit 0 at 034A16) are set in the three-phase
output shift register (U phase), the content of DUB1 (bit 1 at 034B16) and that of DUB0 (bit 1 at 034A16)
___
are set in the three-phase shift register (U phase). After triangular wave modulation mode is selected,
however, no setting is made in the shift register even though the timer B2 counter’s content becomes
000016.
___
The value of DU0 and that of DUB0 are output to the U terminal (P80) and to the U terminal (P81)
respectively. When the timer A4 counter counts the value written to timer A4 (038F16, 038E16) and when
timer A4 finishes outputting one-shot pulses, the three-phase shift register’s content is shifted one posi___
tion, and the value of DU1 and that of DUB1 are output to the U phase output signal and to U phase output
signal respectively. At this time, one-shot pulses are output from the timer for setting dead time used for
___
setting the time over which the “L” level of the U phase waveform does not lap over the “L” level of the U
phase waveform, which has the opposite phase of the former. The U phase waveform output that started
from the “H” level keeps its level until the timer for setting dead time finishes outputting one-shot pulses
even though the three-phase output shift register’s content changes from “1” to “0” by the effect of the
one-shot pulses. When the timer for setting dead time finishes outputting one-shot pulses, "0" already
shifted in the three-phase shift register goes effective, and the U phase waveform changes to the "L"
level. When the timer B2 counter’s content becomes 000016, the timer A4 counter starts counting the
value written to timer A4-1 (034716, 034616), and starts outputting one-shot pulses. When timer A4 finishes outputting one-shot pulses, the three-phase shift register’s content is shifted one position, but if the
three-phase output shift register’s content changes from “0” to “1” as a result of the shift, the output level
changes from “L” to “H” without waiting for the timer for setting dead time to finish outputting one-shot
pulses. A U phase waveform is generated by these workings repeatedly. With the exception that the
three-phase output shift register on the U phase side is used, the workings in generating a U phase
waveform, which has the opposite phase of the U phase waveform, are the same as in generating a U
107
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
phase waveform. In this way, a waveform can be picked up from the applicable terminal in a manner in
which the "L" level of the U phase waveform doesn’t lap over that of the U phase waveform, which has the
opposite phase of the U phase waveform. The width of the “L” level too can be adjusted by varying the
___
___
values of timer B2, timer A4, and timer A4-1. In dealing with the V and W phases, and V and W phases,
the latter are of opposite phase of the former, have the corresponding timers work similarly to dealing with
___
the U and U phases to generate an intended waveform.
A carrier wave of triangular waveform
Carrier wave
Signal wave
Timer B2
Timber B2 interrupt occurres
Rewriting timer A4 and timer A4-1.
Possible to set the number of overflows to generate an
interrupt by use of the interrupt occurrences frequency
set circuit
Trigger signal for
timer Ai start
(timer B2 overflow
signal)
Timer A4 output
m
n
m
n
m
p
Control signal for
timer A4 reload
U phase
output signal
U phase
output signal
U phase
U phase
Dead time
Note: Set to triangular wave modulation mode and to three-phase mode 1.
Figure 1.18.6. Timing chart of operation (1)
108
o
The three-phase
shift register
shifts in
synchronization
with the falling
edge of the A4
output.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
Assigning certain values to DU0 (bit 0 at 034A16) and DUB0 (bit 1 at 034A16), and to DU1 (bit 0 at 034B16)
and DUB1 (bit 1 at 034B16) allows the user to output the waveforms as shown in Figure 1.18.7, that is, to
___
___
output the U phase alone, to fix U phase to “H”, to fix the U phase to “H,” or to output the U phase alone.
A carrier wave of triangular waveform
Carrier wave
Signal wave
Timer B2
Rewriting timer A4 every timer B2 interrupt occurres.
Timer B2 interrupt occurres.
Rewriting three-phase buffer register.
Trigger signal for
timer Ai start
(timer B2 overflow
signal)
Timer A4 output
m
n
m
n
m
p
o
Control signal for
timer A4 reload
U phase
output signal
U phase
output signal
U phase
U phase
Dead time
Note: Set to triangular wave modulation mode and to three-phase mode 0.
Figure 1.18.7. Timing chart of operation (2)
109
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Sawtooth modulation
To generate a PWM waveform of sawtooth wave modulation, set “1” in the modulation mode select bit (bit
6 at 034816). Also, set “0” in the timers A4-1, A1-1, and A2-1 control bit (bit 1 at 034916). In this mode, the
timer registers of timers A4, A1, and A2 comprise conventional timers A4, A1, and A2 alone, and reload
the corresponding timer register’s content to the counter every time the timer B2 counter’s content becomes 000016. The effective interrupt output specification bit (bit 1 at 034816) and the effective interrupt
output polarity select bit (bit 0 at 034816) go nullified.
An example of U phase waveform is shown in Figure 1.18.8, and the description of waveform output
workings is given below. Set “1” in DU0 (bit 0 at 034A16), and set “0” in DUB0 (bit 1 at 034A16). In addition,
set “0” in DU1 (bit 0 at 034A16) and set “1” in DUB1 (bit 1 at 034A16).
When the timber B2 counter’s content becomes 000016, timer B2 generates an interrupt, and timer A4
starts outputting one-shot pulses at the same time. In this instance, the contents of the three-phase buffer
registers DU1 and DU0 are set in the three-phase output shift register (U phase), and the contents of
___
DUB1 and DUB0 are set in the three-phase output register (U phase). After this, the three-phase buffer
register’s content is set in the three-phase shift register every time the timer B2 counter’s content becomes 000016.
___
The value of DU0 and that of DUB0 are output to the U terminal (P80) and to the U terminal (P81)
respectively. When the timer A4 counter counts the value written to timer A4 (038F16, 038E16) and when
timer A4 finishes outputting one-shot pulses, the three-phase output shift register’s content is shifted one
___
position, and the value of DU1 and that of DUB1 are output to the U phase output signal and to the U
output signal respectively. At this time, one-shot pulses are output from the timer for setting dead time
used for setting the time over which the “L” level of the U phase waveform doesn’t lap over the “L” level of
___
the U phase waveform, which has the opposite phase of the former. The U phase waveform output that
started from the “H” level keeps its level until the timer for setting dead time finishes outputting one-shot
pulses even though the three-phase output shift register’s content changes from “1” to “0 ”by the effect of
the one-shot pulses. When the timer for setting dead time finishes outputting one-shot pulses, 0 already
shifted in the three-phase shift register goes effective, and the U phase waveform changes to the “L”
level. When the timer B2 counter’s content becomes 000016, the contents of the three-phase buffer
registers DU1 and DU0 are set in the three-phase shift register (U phase), and the contents of DUB1 and
___
DUB0 are set in the three-phase shift register (U phase) again.
A U phase waveform is generated by these workings repeatedly. With the exception that the three-phase
___
___
output shift register on the U phase side is used, the workings in generating a U phase waveform, which
has the opposite phase of the U phase waveform, are the same as in generating a U phase waveform. In
this way, a waveform can be picked up from the applicable terminal in a manner in which the “L” level of
___
the U phase waveform doesn’t lap over that of the U phase waveform, which has the opposite phase of
the U phase waveform. The width of the “L” level too can be adjusted by varying the values of timer B2
___
___
and timer A4. In dealing with the V and W phases, and V and W phases, the latter are of opposite phase
___
of the former, have the corresponding timers work similarly to dealing with the U and U phases to generate an intended waveform.
___
Setting “1” both in DUB0 and in DUB1 provides a means to output the U phase alone and to fix the U
phase output to “H” as shown in Figure 1.18.9.
110
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
A carrier wave of sawtooth waveform
Carrier wave
Signal wave
Timer B2
Interrupt occurres.
Rewriting the value of timer A4.
Trigger signal for
timer Ai start
(timer B2 overflow
signal)
Timer A4 output
m
n
Data transfer is made from the threephase buffer register to the threephase shift register in step with the
timing of the timer B overflow.
o
U phase output
signal
p
The three-phase
shift register
shifts in
synchronization
with the falling
edge of timer A4.
U phase
output signal
U phase
U phase
Dead time
Note: Set to sawtooth modulation mode and to three-phase mode 0.
Figure 1.18.8. Timing chart of operation (3)
111
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timers’ functions for three-phase motor control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A carrier wave of sawtooth waveform
Carrier wave
Signal wave
Timer B2
Interrupt occurres.
Rewriting the value of timer A4.
Trigger signal for
timer Ai start
(timer B2 overflow
signal)
Timer A4 output
Interrupt occurres.
Rewriting the value of timer A4.
Rewriting three-phase
output buffer register
m
n
U phase
output signal
U phase
output signal
U phase
U phase
Dead time
Note: Set to sawtooth modulation mode and to three-phase mode 0.
Figure 1.18.9. Timing chart of operation (4)
112
Data transfer is made from the threephase buffer register to the threephase shift register in step with the
timing of the timer B overflow.
p
The three-phase
shift register shifts
in synchronization
with the falling
edge of timer A4.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
Serial I/O
Serial I/O is configured as five channels: UART0, UART1, UART2, S I/O3 and S I/O4.
UART0 to 2
UART0, UART1 and UART2 each have an exclusive timer to generate a transfer clock, so they operate
independently of each other.
Figure 1.19.1 shows the block diagram of UART0, UART1 and UART2. Figures 1.19.2 and 1.19.3 show
the block diagram of the transmit/receive unit.
UARTi (i = 0 to 2) has two operation modes: a clock synchronous serial I/O mode and a clock asynchronous
serial I/O mode (UART mode). The contents of the serial I/O mode select bits (bits 0 to 2 at addresses
03A016, 03A816 and 037816) determine whether UARTi is used as a clock synchronous serial I/O or as a
UART. Although a few functions are different, UART0, UART1 and UART2 have almost the same functions.
UART2, in particular, is used for the SIM interface with some extra settings added in clock-asynchronous
serial I/O mode (Note). It also has the bus collision detection function that generates an interrupt request if
the TxD pin and the RxD pin are different in level.
Table 1.19.1 shows the comparison of functions of UART0 through UART2, and Figures 1.19.4 to 1.19.8
show the registers related to UARTi.
Note: SIM : Subscriber Identity Module
Table 1.19.1. Comparison of functions of UART0 through UART2
Function
UART0
UART1
UART2
CLK polarity selection
Possible
(Note 1)
Possible
(Note 1)
Possible
(Note 1)
LSB first / MSB first selection
Possible
(Note 1)
Possible
(Note 1)
Possible
(Note 2)
Continuous receive mode selection
Possible
(Note 1)
Possible
(Note 1)
Possible
(Note 1)
Transfer clock output from multiple
pins selection
Impossible
Possible
(Note 1)
Impossible
Separate CTS/RTS pins
Possible
Impossible
Impossible
Serial data logic switch
Impossible
Impossible
Possible
Sleep mode selection
Possible
TxD, RxD I/O polarity switch
Impossible
Impossible
Possible
TxD, RxD port output format
CMOS output
CMOS output
N-channel open-drain
output
Parity error signal output
Impossible
Impossible
Possible
Bus collision detection
Impossible
Impossible
Possible
(Note 3)
Possible
(Note 3)
(Note 4)
Impossible
(Note 4)
Note 1: Only when clock synchronous serial I/O mode.
Note 2: Only when clock synchronous serial I/O mode and 8-bit UART mode.
Note 3: Only when UART mode.
Note 4: Using for SIM interface.
113
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
(UART0)
RxD0
TxD0
UART reception
1/16
Clock source selection
f1
f8
f32
Reception
control circuit
Clock synchronous type
Bit rate generator
Internal (address 03A116)
1 / (n0+1)
UART transmission
1/16
Transmission
control circuit
Clock synchronous type
External
Receive
clock
Transmit/
receive
unit
Transmit
clock
Clock synchronous type
(when internal clock is selected)
1/2
Clock synchronous type
(when internal clock is selected)
Clock synchronous type
(when external clock is
selected)
CLK
polarity
reversing
circuit
CLK0
CTS/RTS disabled
CTS/RTS selected
RTS0
CTS0 / RTS0
Vcc
CTS/RTS disabled
CTS0
CTS/RTS separated
CTS0 from UART1
(UART1)
RxD1
TxD1
Clock source selection
Bit rate generator
Internal (address 03A916)
f1
f8
f32
UART reception
1/16
1 / (n1+1)
UART transmission
1/16
CTS1 / RTS1
/ CTS0 / CLKS1
Clock synchronous type
(when internal clock is selected)
Transmit
clock
Clock synchronous type
(when external clock is
selected)
CTS/RTS disabled
CTS/RTS separated
Clock output pin
select switch
Transmit/
receive
unit
(when internal clock is selected)
1/2
CLK1
Transmission
control circuit
Clock synchronous type
Clock synchronous type
External
CLK
polarity
reversing
circuit
Reception
control circuit
Clock synchronous type
Receive
clock
RTS1
VCC
CTS/RTS disabled
CTS0
CTS1
CTS0 to UART0
(UART2)
TxD
polarity
reversing
circuit
RxD polarity
reversing circuit
RxD2
UART reception
1/16
Clock source selection
Bit rate generator
Internal (address 037916)
f1
f8
f32
1 / (n2+1)
Clock synchronous type
UART transmission
1/16
Clock synchronous type
External
Reception
control circuit
Transmission
control circuit
Receive
clock
Transmit/
receive
unit
Transmit
clock
Clock synchronous type
1/2
CLK2
CLK
polarity
reversing
circuit
(when internal clock is selected)
Clock synchronous type
(when internal clock is selected)
CTS/RTS
selected
Clock synchronous type
(when external clock is
selected)
CTS/RTS disabled
RTS2
CTS2 / RTS2
Vcc
CTS/RTS disabled
CTS2
n0 : Values set to UART0 bit rate generator (BRG0)
n1 : Values set to UART1 bit rate generator (BRG1)
n2 : Values set to UART2 bit rate generator (BRG2)
Figure 1.19.1. Block diagram of UARTi (i = 0 to 2)
114
TxD2
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
Clock
synchronous type
PAR
disabled
1SP
RxDi
SP
SP
UART (7 bits)
UART (8 bits)
Clock
synchronous
type
UARTi receive register
UART (7 bits)
PAR
2SP
PAR
enabled
UART
UART (9 bits)
Clock
synchronous type
UART (8 bits)
UART (9 bits)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
UARTi receive
buffer register
Address 03A616
Address 03A716
Address 03AE16
Address 03AF16
MSB/LSB conversion circuit
Data bus high-order bits
Data bus low-order bits
MSB/LSB conversion circuit
D7
D8
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
UART (9 bits)
2SP
SP
SP
Clock synchronous
type
UART
TxDi
PAR
1SP
UARTi transmit
buffer register
Address 03A216
Address 03A316
Address 03AA16
Address 03AB16
UART (8 bits)
UART (9 bits)
PAR
enabled
D0
PAR
disabled
“0”
Clock
synchronous
type
UART (7 bits)
UARTi transmit register
UART (7 bits)
UART (8 bits)
Clock synchronous
type
SP: Stop bit
PAR: Parity bit
Figure 1.19.2. Block diagram of UARTi (i = 0, 1) transmit/receive unit
115
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
No reverse
RxD data
reverse circuit
RxD2
Reverse
Clock
synchronous type
PAR
disabled
1SP
SP
SP
UART2 receive register
UART(7 bits)
PAR
2SP
PAR
enabled
0
UART
(7 bits)
UART
(8 bits)
Clock
synchronous
type
0
0
0
UART
0
Clock
synchronous type
UART
(9 bits)
0
0
UART
(8 bits)
UART
(9 bits)
D8
D0
UART2 receive
buffer register
Logic reverse circuit + MSB/LSB conversion circuit
Address 037E16
Address 037F16
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
Data bus high-order bits
Data bus low-order bits
Logic reverse circuit + MSB/LSB conversion circuit
D7
D8
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
UART2 transmit
buffer register
Address 037A16
Address 037B16
UART
(8 bits)
UART
(9 bits)
PAR
enabled
2SP
SP
SP
UART
(9 bits)
Clock
synchronous type
UART
PAR
1SP
PAR
disabled
“0”
Clock
synchronous
type
UART
(7 bits)
UART
(8 bits)
UART2 transmit register
UART(7 bits)
Clock
synchronous type
Error signal output
disable
No reverse
TxD data
reverse circuit
Error signal
output circuit
Error signal output
enable
Reverse
SP: Stop bit
PAR: Parity bit
Figure 1.19.3. Block diagram of UART2 transmit/receive unit
116
TxD2
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
UARTi transmit buffer register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
U0TB
U1TB
U2TB
Address
03A316, 03A216
03AB16, 03AA16
037B16, 037A16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
AA
R W
Transmit data
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turn out to be indeterminate.
UARTi receive buffer register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Bit
symbol
Symbol
U0RB
U1RB
U2RB
Address
03A716, 03A616
03AF16, 03AE16
037F16, 037E16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
Receive data
Function
(During UART mode)
Receive data
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
ABT
Arbitration lost detecting
flag (Note 2)
OER
Overrun error flag (Note 1) 0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
FER
Framing error flag (Note 1) Invalid
0 : No framing error
1 : Framing error found
PER
Parity error flag (Note 1)
Invalid
0 : No parity error
1 : Parity error found
SUM
Error sum flag (Note 1)
Invalid
0 : No error
1 : Error found
0 : Not detected
1 : Detected
Invalid
A
AA
AA
AA
A
R W
Note 1: Bits 15 through 12 are set to “0” when the serial I/O mode select bit (bits 2 to 0 at addresses 03A016,
03A816 and 037816) are set to “0002” or the receive enable bit is set to “0”.
(Bit 15 is set to “0” when bits 14 to 12 all are set to “0”.) Bits 14 and 13 are also set to “0” when the
lower byte of the UARTi receive buffer register (addresses 03A616, 03AE16 and 037E16) is read out.
Note 2: Arbitration lost detecting flag is allocated to U2RB and noting but “0” may be written. Nothing is
assigned in bit 11 of U0RB and U1RB. These bits can neither be set or reset. When read, the value
of this bit is “0”.
UARTi bit rate generator
b7
b0
Symbol
U0BRG
U1BRG
U2BRG
Address
03A116
03A916
037916
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
Assuming that set value = n, BRGi divides the count source by
n+1
Values that can be set
0016 to FF16
AA
RW
Figure 1.19.4. Serial I/O-related registers (1)
117
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
UARTi transmit/receive mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UiMR(i=0,1)
Address
03A016, 03A816
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit
symbol
Bit name
SMD0
Serial I/O mode select bit
Must be fixed to 001
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
SMD1
SMD2
Function
(During UART mode)
b2 b1 b0
R W
AA
A
A
AA
AA
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
CKDIR Internal/external clock
select bit
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
STPS
Stop bit length select bit
Invalid
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd/even parity select bit Invalid
PRYE
Parity enable bit
Invalid
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
SLEP
Sleep select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Sleep mode deselected
1 : Sleep mode selected
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
Note : Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
U2MR
b0
Address
037816
Bit
symbol
Bit name
SMD0
Serial I/O mode select bit
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Must be fixed to 001
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : (Note 1)
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
SMD1
SMD2
b2 b1 b0
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note 2)
Must always be fixed to “0”
STPS
Stop bit length select bit
Invalid
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd/even parity select bit Invalid
PRYE
Parity enable bit
Invalid
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
IOPOL
TxD, RxD I/O polarity
reverse bit
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Usually set to “0”
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Usually set to “0”
Figure 1.19.5. Serial I/O-related registers (2)
R W
AA
AA
A
A
AA
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
AA
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
CKDIR Internal/external clock
select bit
Note 1: Bit 2 to bit 0 are set to “0102” when I2C mode is used.
Note 2: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
118
Function
(During UART mode)
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
UARTi transmit/receive control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UiC0(i=0,1)
Bit
symbol
CLK0
Address
When reset
03A416, 03AC16
0816
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
b1 b0
BRG count source
select bit
CLK1
CRS
TXEPT
CTS/RTS function
select bit
Function
(During UART mode)
b1 b0
R W
AA
AA
AA
A
AA
AAAA
AA
AA
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : Data present in transmit
0 : Data present in transmit register
Transmit register empty
register (during transmission)
(during transmission)
flag
1 : No data present in transmit
1 : No data present in transmit
register (transmission
completed)
register (transmission completed)
CRD
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P60 and P64 function as
programmable I/O port)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P60 and P64 function as
programmable I/O port)
NCH
Data output select bit
0 : TXDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TXDi pin is N-channel
open-drain output
0: TXDi pin is CMOS output
1: TXDi pin is N-channel
open-drain output
CKPOL
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmit data is output at
falling edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
rising edge
1 : Transmit data is output at
rising edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
falling edge
Must always be “0”
UFORM Transfer format select bit 0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
Must always be “0”
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Note 2: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
U2C0
Bit
symbol
CLK0
Address
037C16
Bit name
BRG count source
select bit
CLK1
CRS
TXEPT
CTS/RTS function
select bit
When reset
0816
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
R W
0 : Data present in transmit
0 : Data present in transmit register
Transmit register empty
register (during transmission)
(during transmission)
flag
1 : No data present in transmit
1 : No data present in transmit
CTS/RTS disable bit
Nothing is assigned.
register (transmission completed)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P73 functions
programmable I/O port)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P73 functions programmable
I/O port)
0 : TXDi pin is CMOS output
0: TXDi pin is CMOS output
: TXDi
pinvalue,
is N-channel
1: TXDi
is N-channel
In an attempt to write to this bit, write1“0”.
The
if read, turns out
to bepin“0”.
CKPOL
AA
AAAA
AA
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
register (transmission
completed)
CRD
Function
(During UART mode)
CLK polarity select bit
open-drain output
0 : Transmit data is output at
falling edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
rising edge
1 : Transmit data is output at
rising edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
falling edge
UFORM Transfer format select bit 0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
(Note 3)
open-drain output
Must always be “0”
0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Note 2: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
Note 3: Only clock synchronous serial I/O mode and 8-bit UART mode are valid.
Figure 1.19.6. Serial I/O-related registers (3)
119
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
UARTi transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
UiC1(i=0,1)
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
03A516,03AD16
When reset
0216
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
Function
(During UART mode)
TE
Transmit enable bit
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
TI
Transmit buffer
empty flag
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
RE
Receive enable bit
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
RI
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
R W
A
A
A
A
A
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
U2C1
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
037D16
Bit name
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Function
(During UART mode)
TE
Transmit enable bit
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
TI
Transmit buffer
empty flag
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
RE
Receive enable bit
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
RI
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : Transmit buffer empty
(TI = 1)
1 : Transmit is completed
(TXEPT = 1)
0 : Transmit buffer empty
(TI = 1)
1 : Transmit is completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U2RRM UART2 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enabled
Invalid
U2LCH Data logic select bit
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
U2ERE Error signal output
enable bit
Must be fixed to “0”
0 : Output disabled
1 : Output enabled
U2IRS UART2 transmit interrupt
cause select bit
Figure 1.19.7. Serial I/O-related registers (4)
120
When reset
0216
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Serial I/O
UART transmit/receive control register 2
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UCON
Bit
symbol
U0IRS
Address
03B016
When reset
X00000002
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit
name
UART0 transmit
interrupt cause select bit
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U1IRS
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
UART1 transmit
interrupt cause select bit
(TXEPT = 1)
Function
(During UART mode)
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U0RRM UART0 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enable
Invalid
U1RRM UART1 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enabled
Invalid
CLKMD0 CLK/CLKS select bit 0
Valid when bit 5 = “1”
0 : Clock output to CLK1
1 : Clock output to CLKS1
Invalid
CLKMD1 CLK/CLKS select
bit 1 (Note)
0 : Normal mode
Must always be “0”
(CLK output is CLK1 only)
1 : Transfer clock output
from multiple pins
function selected
RCSP
Separate CTS/RTS bit
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
1 : CTS/RTS separated
A
A
A
A
AA
A
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
RW
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
1 : CTS/RTS separated
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be indeterminate.
Note: When using multiple pins to output the transfer clock, the following requirements must be met:
• UART1 internal/external clock select bit (bit 3 at address 03A816) = “0”.
UART2 special mode register
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
U2SMR
0
Bit
symbol
Address
037716
Bit
name
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Function
(During UART mode)
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
IICM
IIC mode selection bit
0 : Normal mode
1 : IIC mode
Must always be “0”
ABC
Arbitration lost detecting
flag control bit
0 : Update per bit
1 : Update per byte
Must always be “0”
BBS
Bus busy flag
0 : STOP condition detected
1 : START condition detected
Must always be “0”
SCLL sync output
enable bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
Must always be “0”
ABSCS
Bus collision detect
sampling
clock select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Rising edge of transfer
clock
1 : Underflow signal of timer A0
ACSE
Auto clear function
select bit of transmit
enable bit
Must always be “0”
0 : No auto clear function
1 : Auto clear at occurrence of
bus collision
SSS
Transmit start condition
select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Ordinary
1 : Falling edge of RxD2
LSYN
Reserved bit
Note: Nothing but "0" may be written.
Always set to “0”
R W
(Note)
Figure 1.19.8. Serial I/O-related registers (5)
121
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Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(1) Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
The clock synchronous serial I/O mode uses a transfer clock to transmit and receive data. Tables 1.19.2
and 1.19.3 list the specifications of the clock synchronous serial I/O mode. Figure 1.19.9 shows the
UARTi transmit/receive mode register.
Table 1.19.2. Specifications of clock synchronous serial I/O mode (1)
Item
Transfer data format
Transfer clock
Specification
• Transfer data length: 8 bits
• When internal clock is selected (bit 3 at addresses 03A016, 03A816, 037816
= “0”) : fi/ 2(n+1) (Note 1) fi = f1, f8, f32
• When external clock is selected (bit 3 at addresses 03A016, 03A816, 037816
= “1”) : Input from CLKi pin
_______
_______
_______ _______
Transmission/reception control • CTS function/RTS function/CTS, RTS function chosen to be invalid
Transmission start condition • To start transmission, the following requirements must be met:
_ Transmit enable bit (bit 0 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “1”
_ Transmit buffer empty flag (bit 1 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “0”
_______
_______
_ When CTS function selected, CTS input level = “L”
• Furthermore, if external clock is selected, the following requirements must also be met:
_ CLKi polarity select bit (bit 6 at addresses 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “0”:
CLKi input level = “H”
_ CLKi polarity select bit (bit 6 at addresses 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “1”:
CLKi input level = “L”
Reception start condition • To start reception, the following requirements must be met:
_ Receive enable bit (bit 2 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “1”
_ Transmit enable bit (bit 0 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “1”
_ Transmit buffer empty flag (bit 1 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “0”
• Furthermore, if external clock is selected, the following requirements must
also be met:
_ CLKi polarity select bit (bit 6 at addresses 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “0”:
CLKi input level = “H”
_ CLKi polarity select bit (bit 6 at addresses 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “1”:
CLKi input level = “L”
• When transmitting
Interrupt request
_ Transmit interrupt cause select bit (bits 0, 1 at address 03B016, bit 4 at
generation timing
address 037D16) = “0”: Interrupts requested when data transfer from UARTi
transfer buffer register to UARTi transmit register is completed
_ Transmit interrupt cause select bit (bits 0, 1 at address 03B016, bit 4 at
address 037D16) = “1”: Interrupts requested when data transmission from
UARTi transfer register is completed
• When receiving
_ Interrupts requested when data transfer from UARTi receive register to
UARTi receive buffer register is completed
Error detection
• Overrun error (Note 2)
This error occurs when the next data is ready before contents of UARTi
receive buffer register are read out
Note 1: “n” denotes the value 0016 to FF16 that is set to the UART bit rate generator.
Note 2: If an overrun error occurs, the UARTi receive buffer will have the next data written in. Note also that
the UARTi receive interrupt request bit is not set to “1”.
122
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Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Table 1.19.4. Specifications of clock synchronous serial I/O mode (2)
Item
Select function
Specification
• CLK polarity selection
Whether transmit data is output/input at the rising edge or falling edge of the
transfer clock can be selected
• LSB first/MSB first selection
Whether transmission/reception begins with bit 0 or bit 7 can be selected
• Continuous receive mode selection
Reception is enabled simultaneously by a read from the receive buffer register
• Transfer clock output from multiple pins selection (UART1) (Note)
UART1 transfer clock can be chosen by software to be output from one of
the two pins set
_______ _______
• Separate CTS/RTS pins (UART0) (Note)
_______
_______
UART0 CTS and RTS pins each can be assigned to separate pins
• Switching serial data logic (UART2)
Whether to reverse data in writing to the transmission buffer register or
reading the reception buffer register can be selected.
• TxD, RxD I/O polarity reverse (UART2)
This function is reversing TxD port output and RxD port input. All I/O data
level is reversed.
_______ _______
Note: The transfer clock output from multiple pins and the separate CTS/RTS pins functions cannot be
selected simultaneously.
123
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
UARTi transmit/receive mode registers
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
0
b2
b1
b0
0 0 1
Symbol
UiMR(i=0,1)
Bit symbol
SMD0
Address
03A016, 03A816
When reset
0016
Bit name
Serial I/O mode select bit
SMD1
SMD2
CKDIR
Internal/external clock
select bit
Function
b2 b1 b0
0 0 1 : Clock synchronous serial
I/O mode
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
STPS
PRY
Invalid in clock synchronous serial I/O mode
PRYE
SLEP
0 (Must always be “0” in clock synchronous serial I/O mode)
Note : Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
RW
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
b7
0
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0 1
Symbol
U2MR
Bit symbol
SMD0
Address
037816
Bit name
Serial I/O mode select bit
SMD1
SMD2
CKDIR
When reset
0016
Internal/external clock
select bit
Function
b2 b1 b0
0 0 1 : Clock synchronous serial
I/O mode
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note 2)
STPS
PRY
Invalid in clock synchronous serial I/O mode
PRYE
IOPOL
TxD, RxD I/O polarity
reverse bit (Note 1)
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Note 1: Usually set to “0”.
Note 2: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
A
A
A
AA
A
A
AA
AA
A
A
AA
AA
AA
A
A
RW
Figure 1.19.9. UARTi transmit/receive mode register in clock synchronous serial I/O mode
124
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Table 1.19.4 lists the functions of the input/output pins during clock synchronous serial I/O mode. This
_______
table shows the pin functions when the transfer clock output from multiple pins and the separate CTS/
_______
RTS pins functions are not selected. Note that for a period from when the UARTi operation mode is
selected to when transfer starts, the TxDi pin outputs a “H”. (If the N-channel open-drain is selected, this
pin is in floating state.)
Table 1.19.4. Input/output pin functions in clock synchronous serial I/O mode
Pin name
Function
Method of selection
TxDi
Serial data output
(P63, P67, P70)
(Outputs dummy data when performing reception only)
Serial data input
RxDi
(P62, P66, P71)
Port P62, P66 and P71 direction register (bits 2 and 6 at address 03EE16,
bit 1 at address 03EF16)= “0”
(Can be used as an input port when performing transmission only)
CLKi
Transfer clock output
(P61, P65, P72)
Transfer clock input
Internal/external clock select bit (bit 3 at address 03A016, 03A816, 037816) = “0”
CTSi/RTSi
CTS input
(P60, P64, P73)
CTS/RTS disable bit (bit 4 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) =“0”
CTS/RTS function select bit (bit 2 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “0”
Port P60, P64 and P73 direction register (bits 0 and 4 at address 03EE16,
bit 3 at address 03EF16) = “0”
Internal/external clock select bit (bit 3 at address 03A016, 03A816, 037816) = “1”
Port P61, P65 and P72 direction register (bits 1 and 5 at address 03EE16,
bit 2 at address 03EF16) = “0”
RTS output
CTS/RTS disable bit (bit 4 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “0”
CTS/RTS function select bit (bit 2 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “1”
Programmable I/O port
CTS/RTS disable bit (bit 4 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “1”
_______ _______
(when transfer clock output from multiple pins and separate CTS/RTS pins functions are not selected)
125
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
• Example of transmit timing (when internal clock is selected)
Tc
Transfer clock
Transmit enable
bit (TE)
Transmit buffer
empty flag (Tl)
“1”
“0”
Data is set in UARTi transmit buffer register
“1”
“0”
Transferred from UARTi transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
“H”
CTSi
TCLK
“L”
Stopped pulsing because CTS = “H”
Stopped pulsing because transfer enable bit = “0”
CLKi
TxDi
D0 D 1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
Transmit
register empty
flag (TXEPT)
D0 D 1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D 6 D7
D 0 D1 D2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D6 D7
“1”
“0”
Transmit interrupt “1”
request bit (IR)
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings:
• Internal clock is selected.
• CTS function is selected.
• CLK polarity select bit = “0”.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “0”.
Tc = TCLK = 2(n + 1) / fi
fi: frequency of BRGi count source (f1, f8, f32)
n: value set to BRGi
• Example of receive timing (when external clock is selected)
“1”
Receive enable
bit (RE)
“0”
Transmit enable
bit (TE)
“0”
Transmit buffer
empty flag (Tl)
“1”
“0”
“H”
RTSi
Dummy data is set in UARTi transmit buffer register
“1”
Transferred from UARTi transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
“L”
1 / fEXT
CLKi
Receive data is taken in
D 0 D1 D 2 D3 D 4 D5 D6 D 7
RxDi
Receive complete “1”
flag (Rl)
“0”
Receive interrupt
request bit (IR)
Transferred from UARTi receive register
to UARTi receive buffer register
D0 D 1 D 2
D3 D4 D5
Read out from UARTi receive buffer register
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings:
• External clock is selected.
• RTS function is selected.
• CLK polarity select bit = “0”.
Meet the following conditions are met when the CLK
input before data reception = “H”
• Transmit enable bit “1”
• Receive enable bit “1”
• Dummy data write to UARTi transmit buffer register
fEXT: frequency of external clock
Figure 1.19.10. Typical transmit/receive timings in clock synchronous serial I/O mode
126
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M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
(a) Polarity select function
As shown in Figure 1.19.11, the CLK polarity select bit (bit 6 at addresses 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16)
allows selection of the polarity of the transfer clock.
• When CLK polarity select bit = “0”
CLKi
TXDi
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RXDi
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Note 1: The CLK pin level when not
transferring data is “H”.
• When CLK polarity select bit = “1”
CLKi
TXDi
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
R XD i
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Note 2: The CLK pin level when not
transferring data is “L”.
Figure 1.19.11. Polarity of transfer clock
(b) LSB first/MSB first select function
As shown in Figure 1.19.12, when the transfer format select bit (bit 7 at addresses 03A416, 03AC16,
037C16) = “0”, the transfer format is “LSB first”; when the bit = “1”, the transfer format is “MSB first”.
• When transfer format select bit = “0”
CLKi
TXDi
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
LSB first
RXDi
• When transfer format select bit = “1”
CLKi
TXDi
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
MSB first
RXDi
Note: This applies when the CLK polarity select bit = “0”.
Figure 1.19.12. Transfer format
127
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Clock synchronous serial I/O mode
(c) Transfer clock output from multiple pins function (UART1)
This function allows the setting two transfer clock output pins and choosing one of the two to output a
clock by using the CLK and CLKS select bit (bits 4 and 5 at address 03B016). (See Figure 1.19.13.)
The multiple pins function is valid only when the internal clock is selected for UART1. Note that when
_______ _______
this function is selected, UART1 CTS/RTS function cannot be used.
Microcomputer
TXD1 (P67)
CLKS1 (P64)
CLK1 (P65)
IN
IN
CLK
CLK
Note: This applies when the internal clock is selected and transmission
is performed only in clock synchronous serial I/O mode.
Figure 1.19.13. The transfer clock output from the multiple pins function usage
(d) Continuous receive mode
If the continuous receive mode enable bit (bits 2 and 3 at address 03B016, bit 5 at address 037D16) is
set to “1”, the unit is placed in continuous receive mode. In this mode, when the receive buffer register
is read out, the unit simultaneously goes to a receive enable state without having to set dummy data to
the transmit buffer register back again.
_______ _______
(e) Separate CTS/RTS pins function (UART0)
This function works the same way as in the clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode. The method
of setting and the input/output pin functions are both the same, so refer to select function in the next
section, “(2) Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode”. Note that this function is invalid if the
transfer clock output from the multiple pins function is selected.
(f) Serial data logic switch function (UART2)
When the data logic select bit (bit6 at address 037D16) = “1”, and writing to transmit buffer register or
reading from receive buffer register, data is reversed. Figure 1.19.14 shows the example of serial data
logic switch timing.
•When LSB first
Transfer clock
“H”
“L”
TxD2
“H”
(no reverse) “L”
TxD2
“H”
(reverse) “L”
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Figure 1.19.14. Serial data logic switch timing
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
(2) Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
The UART mode allows transmitting and receiving data after setting the desired transfer rate and transfer
data format. Tables 1.19.5 and 1.19.6 list the specifications of the UART mode. Figure 1.19.15 shows
the UARTi transmit/receive mode register.
Table 1.19.5. Specifications of UART Mode (1)
Item
Transfer data format
Transfer clock
Specification
• Character bit (transfer data): 7 bits, 8 bits, or 9 bits as selected
• Start bit: 1 bit
• Parity bit: Odd, even, or nothing as selected
• Stop bit: 1 bit or 2 bits as selected
• When internal clock is selected (bit 3 at addresses 03A016, 03A816, 037816 = “0”) :
fi/16(n+1) (Note 1) fi = f1, f8, f32
• When external clock is selected (bit 3 at addresses 03A016, 03A816 =“1”) :
fEXT/16(n+1) (Note 1) (Note 2) (Do not set external clock for UART2)
_______
_______
_______
_______
Transmission/reception control • CTS function/RTS function/CTS, RTS function chosen to be invalid
Transmission start condition • To start transmission, the following requirements must be met:
- Transmit enable bit (bit 0 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “1”
- Transmit buffer empty flag (bit 1 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “0”
_______
_______
- When CTS function selected, CTS input level = “L”
Reception start condition • To start reception, the following requirements must be met:
- Receive enable bit (bit 2 at addresses 03A516, 03AD16, 037D16) = “1”
- Start bit detection
Interrupt request
• When transmitting
generation timing
- Transmit interrupt cause select bits (bits 0,1 at address 03B016, bit4 at
address 037D16) = “0”: Interrupts requested when data transfer from UARTi
transfer buffer register to UARTi transmit register is completed
- Transmit interrupt cause select bits (bits 0, 1 at address 03B016, bit4 at
address 037D16) = “1”: Interrupts requested when data transmission from
UARTi transfer register is completed
• When receiving
- Interrupts requested when data transfer from UARTi receive register to
UARTi receive buffer register is completed
Error detection
• Overrun error (Note 3)
This error occurs when the next data is ready before contents of UARTi
receive buffer register are read out
• Framing error
This error occurs when the number of stop bits set is not detected
• Parity error
This error occurs when if parity is enabled, the number of 1’s in parity and
character bits does not match the number of 1’s set
• Error sum flag
This flag is set (= 1) when any of the overrun, framing, and parity errors is
encountered
Note 1: ‘n’ denotes the value 0016 to FF16 that is set to the UARTi bit rate generator.
Note 2: fEXT is input from the CLKi pin.
Note 3: If an overrun error occurs, the UARTi receive buffer will have the next data written in. Note also that
the UARTi receive interrupt request bit is not set to “1”.
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Table 1.19.6. Specifications of UART Mode (2)
Item
Specification
_______ _______
Select function
130
• Separate CTS/RTS pins (UART0)
_______
_______
UART0 CTS and RTS pins each can be assigned to separate pins
• Sleep mode selection (UART0, UART1)
This mode is used to transfer data to and from one of multiple slave microcomputers
• Serial data logic switch (UART2)
This function is reversing logic value of transferring data. Start bit, parity bit
and stop bit are not reversed.
• TXD, RXD I/O polarity switch
This function is reversing TXD port output and RXD port input. All I/O data
level is reversed.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
UARTi transmit / receive mode registers
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UiMR(i=0,1)
Bit symbol
SMD0
Address
03A016, 03A816
Bit name
Serial I/O mode select bit
SMD1
SMD2
CKDIR
When reset
0016
Function
b2 b1 b0
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
Internal / external clock
select bit
Stop bit length select bit
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd / even parity
select bit
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
PRYE
Parity enable bit
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
SLEP
Sleep select bit
0 : Sleep mode deselected
1 : Sleep mode selected
STPS
A
A
AA
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
AA
AA
AA
RW
Note : Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
UART2 transmit / receive mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
U2MR
Address
037816
Bit symbol
SMD0
Bit name
Serial I/O mode select bit
SMD1
SMD2
CKDIR
STPS
When reset
0016
Internal / external clock
select bit
Stop bit length select bit
Function
b2 b1 b0
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
RW
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
Must always be fixed to “0”
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd / even parity
select bit
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
PRYE
Parity enable bit
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
IOPOL
TxD, RxD I/O polarity
reverse bit (Note)
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Note: Usually set to “0”.
Figure 1.19.15. UARTi transmit/receive mode register in UART mode
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Table 1.19.7 lists the functions of the input/output pins during UART mode. This table shows the pin
_______ _______
functions when the separate CTS/RTS pins function is not selected. Note that for a period from when the
UARTi operation mode is selected to when transfer starts, the TxDi pin outputs a “H”. (If the N-channel
open-drain is selected, this pin is in floating state.)
Table 1.19.7. Input/output pin functions in UART mode
Pin name
Function
TxDi
Serial data output
(P63, P67, P70)
Method of selection
RxDi
Serial data input
(P62, P66, P71)
Port P62, P66 and P71 direction register (bits 2 and 6 at address 03EE16,
bit 1 at address 03EF16)= “0”
(Can be used as an input port when performing transmission only)
CLKi
Programmable I/O port
(P61, P65, P72)
Transfer clock input
Internal/external clock select bit (bit 3 at address 03A016, 03A816, 037816) = “0”
CTSi/RTSi
CTS input
(P60, P64, P73)
CTS/RTS disable bit (bit 4 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) =“0”
CTS/RTS function select bit (bit 2 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “0”
Port P60, P64 and P73 direction register (bits 0 and 4 at address 03EE16,
bit 3 at address 03EF16) = “0”
Internal/external clock select bit (bit 3 at address 03A016, 03A816) = “1”
Port P61, P65 direction register (bits 1 and 5 at address 03EE16) = “0”
(Do not set external clock for UART2)
RTS output
CTS/RTS disable bit (bit 4 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “0”
CTS/RTS function select bit (bit 2 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “1”
Programmable I/O port
CTS/RTS disable bit (bit 4 at address 03A416, 03AC16, 037C16) = “1”
________ _______
(when separate CTS/RTS pins function is not selected)
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
• Example of transmit timing when transfer data is 8 bits long (parity enabled, one stop bit)
The transfer clock stops momentarily as CTS is “H” when the stop bit is checked.
The transfer clock starts as the transfer starts immediately CTS changes to “L”.
Tc
Transfer clock
Transmit enable
bit(TE)
“1”
Transmit buffer
empty flag(TI)
“1”
“0”
Data is set in UARTi transmit buffer register.
“0”
Transferred from UARTi transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
“H”
CTSi
“L”
Start
bit
TxDi
Parity
bit
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
Stopped pulsing because transmit enable bit = “0”
Stop
bit
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
ST D0 D1
SP
“1”
Transmit register
empty flag (TXEPT)
“0”
Transmit interrupt
request bit (IR)
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is enabled.
• One stop bit.
• CTS function is selected.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “1”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi or 16 (n + 1) / fEXT
fi : frequency of BRGi count source (f1, f8, f32)
fEXT : frequency of BRGi count source (external clock)
n : value set to BRGi
• Example of transmit timing when transfer data is 9 bits long (parity disabled, two stop bits)
Tc
Transfer clock
Transmit enable
bit(TE)
“1”
Transmit buffer
empty flag(TI)
“1”
“0”
Data is set in UARTi transmit buffer register
“0”
Transferred from UARTi transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
Start
bit
TxDi
Stop
bit
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 SP SP
Stop
bit
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 SPSP
ST D0 D1
“1”
Transmit register
empty flag (TXEPT)
“0”
Transmit interrupt
request bit (IR)
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is disabled.
• Two stop bits.
• CTS function is disabled.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “0”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi or 16 (n + 1) / fEXT
fi : frequency of BRGi count source (f1, f8, f32)
fEXT : frequency of BRGi count source (external clock)
n : value set to BRGi
Figure 1.19.16. Typical transmit timings in UART mode(UART0,UART1)
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
• Example of transmit timing when transfer data is 8 bits long (parity enabled, one stop bit)
Tc
Transfer clock
Transmit enable
bit(TE)
“1”
Transmit buffer
empty flag(TI)
“1”
Data is set in UART2 transmit buffer register
“0”
Note
“0”
Transferred from UART2 transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
Parity
bit
Start
bit
TxD2
ST D0 D1
D2 D 3 D4 D 5 D6 D7
P
Stop
bit
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
“1”
Transmit register
empty flag (TXEPT) “0”
Transmit interrupt
request bit (IR)
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is enabled.
• One stop bit.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “1”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi
fi : frequency of BRG2 count source (f1, f8, f32)
n : value set to BRG2
Note: The transmit is started with overflow timing of BRG after having written in a value at the transmit buffer in the above timing.
Figure 1.19.17. Typical transmit timings in UART mode(UART2)
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
• Example of receive timing when transfer data is 8 bits long (parity disabled, one stop bit)
BRGi count
source
Receive enable bit
“1”
“0”
Stop bit
Start bit
RxDi
D7
D1
D0
Sampled “L”
Receive data taken in
Transfer clock
Reception triggered when transfer clock
“1” is generated by falling edge of start bit
Receive
complete flag
Transferred from UARTi receive register to
UARTi receive buffer register
“0”
“H”
“L”
RTSi
Receive interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
The above timing applies to the following settings :
•Parity is disabled.
•One stop bit.
•RTS function is selected.
Figure 1.19.18. Typical receive timing in UART mode
_______ _______
(a) Separate CTS/RTS pins function (UART0)
_______ _______
_______
Setting the CTS/RTS separate bit (bit 6 of address 03B016) to "1" inputs/outputs the CTS signal and
_______
_______
_______
_______ _______
RTS signal from different pins. Choose which to use, CTS or RTS, by use of the CTS/RTS function
select bit (bit 2 of address 03A416). This function is effective in UART0 only. With this function cho_______ _______
_______ _______
sen, the user cannot use the CTS/RTS function. Set "0" both to the CTS/RTS function select bit (bit
_______ _______
2 of address 03AC16) and to the CTS/RTS disable bit (bit 4 of address 03AC16).
Microcomputer
IC
TXD0 (P63)
IN
RXD0 (P62)
OUT
RTS0 (P60)
CTS
CTS0 (P64)
RTS
Note : The user cannot use CTS and RTS at the same time.
_______ _______
Figure 1.19.19. The separate CTS/RTS pins function usage
(b) Sleep mode (UART0, UART1)
This mode is used to transfer data between specific microcomputers among multiple microcomputers
connected using UARTi. The sleep mode is selected when the sleep select bit (bit 7 at addresses
03A016, 03A816) is set to “1” during reception. In this mode, the unit performs receive operation when
the MSB of the received data = “1” and does not perform receive operation when the MSB = “0”.
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
(c) Function for switching serial data logic (UART2)
When the data logic select bit (bit 6 of address 037D16) is assigned 1, data is inverted in writing to the
transmission buffer register or reading the reception buffer register. Figure 1.19.20 shows the example of timing for switching serial data logic.
• When LSB first, parity enabled, one stop bit
Transfer clock
“H”
“L”
TxD2
“H”
(no reverse)
“L”
TxD2
“H”
(reverse)
“L”
ST
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
P
SP
ST
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
P
SP
ST : Start bit
P : Even parity
SP : Stop bit
Figure 1.19.20. Timing for switching serial data logic
(d) TxD, RxD I/O polarity reverse function (UART2)
This function is to reverse TXD pin output and RXD pin input. The level of any data to be input or output
(including the start bit, stop bit(s), and parity bit) is reversed. Set this function to “0” (not to reverse) for
usual use.
(e) Bus collision detection function (UART2)
This function is to sample the output level of the TXD pin and the input level of the RXD pin at the rising
edge of the transfer clock; if their values are different, then an interrupt request occurs. Figure 1.19.21
shows the example of detection timing of a buss collision (in UART mode).
Transfer clock
“H”
“L”
TxD2
“H”
ST
SP
ST
SP
“L”
RxD2
“H”
“L”
Bus collision detection
interrupt request signal
“1”
Bus collision detection
interrupt request bit
“1”
“0”
“0”
ST : Start bit
SP : Stop bit
Figure 1.19.21. Detection timing of a bus collision (in UART mode)
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
(3) Clock-asynchronous serial I/O mode (used for the SIM interface)
The SIM interface is used for connecting the microcomputer with a memory card or the like; adding some
extra settings in UART2 clock-asynchronous serial I/O mode allows the user to effect this function. Table
1.19.8 shows the specifications of clock-asynchronous serial I/O mode (used for the SIM interface).
Table 1.19.8. Specifications of clock-asynchronous serial I/O mode (used for the SIM interface)
Item
Transfer data format
Transfer clock
Specification
• Transfer data 8-bit UART mode (bit 2 through bit 0 of address 037816 = “1012”)
• One stop bit (bit 4 of address 037816 = “0”)
• With the direct format chosen
Set parity to “even” (bit 5 and bit 6 of address 037816 = “1” and “1” respectively)
Set data logic to “direct” (bit 6 of address 037D16 = “0”).
Set transfer format to LSB (bit 7 of address 037C16 = “0”).
• With the inverse format chosen
Set parity to “odd” (bit 5 and bit 6 of address 037816 = “0” and “1” respectively)
Set data logic to “inverse” (bit 6 of address 037D16 = “1”)
Set transfer format to MSB (bit 7 of address 037C16 = “1”)
• With the internal clock chosen (bit 3 of address 037816 = “0”) : fi / 16 (n + 1) (Note 1) : fi=f1, f8, f32
(Do not set external clock)
_______
_______
Transmission / reception control • Disable the CTS and RTS function (bit 4 of address 037C16 = “1”)
Other settings
• The sleep mode select function is not available for UART2
• Set transmission interrupt factor to “transmission completed” (bit 4 of address 037D16 = “1”)
Transmission start condition • To start transmission, the following requirements must be met:
- Transmit enable bit (bit 0 of address 037D16) = “1”
- Transmit buffer empty flag (bit 1 of address 037D16) = “0”
Reception start condition
• To start reception, the following requirements must be met:
- Reception enable bit (bit 2 of address 037D16) = “1”
- Detection of a start bit
Interrupt request
• When transmitting
generation timing
When data transmission from the UART2 transfer register is completed
(bit 4 of address 037D16 = “1”)
• When receiving
When data transfer from the UART2 receive register to the UART2 receive
buffer register is completed
Error detection
• Overrun error (see the specifications of clock-asynchronous serial I/O) (Note 2)
• Framing error (see the specifications of clock-asynchronous serial I/O)
• Parity error (see the specifications of clock-asynchronous serial I/O)
- On the reception side, an “L” level is output from the TXD2 pin by use of the parity error
signal output function (bit 7 of address 037D16 = “1”) when a parity error is detected
- On the transmission side, a parity error is detected by the level of input to
the RXD2 pin when a transmission interrupt occurs
• The error sum flag (see the specifications of clock-asynchronous serial I/O)
Note 1: ‘n’ denotes the value 0016 to FF16 that is set to the UARTi bit rate generator.
Note 2: If an overrun error occurs, the UART2 receive buffer will have the next data written in. Note also
that the UARTi receive interrupt request bit is not set to “1”.
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
Tc
Transfer clock
Transmit enable
bit(TE)
“1”
Transmit buffer
empty flag(TI)
“1”
“0”
Data is set in UART2 transmit buffer register
Note 1
“0”
Transferred from UART2 transmit buffer register to UART2 transmit register
Start
bit
TxD2
Parity
bit
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
Stop
bit
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
SP
P
SP
P
SP
RxD2
A “L” level returns from TxD2 due to
the occurrence of a parity error.
Signal conductor level
(Note 2)
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
The level is
detected by the
interrupt routine.
The level is detected by the
interrupt routine.
“1”
Transmit register
empty flag (TXEPT)
“0”
Transmit interrupt
request bit (IR)
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is enabled.
• One stop bit.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “1”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi
fi : frequency of BRG2 count source (f1, f8, f32)
n : value set to BRG2
Note 1: The transmit is started with overflow timing of BRG after having written in a value at the transmit buffer in the above timing.
Note 2: Equal in waveform because TxD2 and RxD2 are connected.
Tc
Transfer clock
Receive enable
bit (RE)
“1”
“0”
Start
bit
RxD2
Parity
bit
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
Stop
bit
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
TxD2
A “L” level returns from TxD2 due to
the occurrence of a parity error.
Signal conductor level
(Note)
Receive complete
flag (RI)
“1”
Receive interrupt
request bit (IR)
“1”
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
“0”
Read to receive buffer
Read to receive buffer
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is enabled.
• One stop bit.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “0”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi
fi : frequency of BRG2 count source (f1, f8, f32)
n : value set to BRG2
Note: Equal in waveform because TxD2 and RxD2 are connected.
Figure 1.19.22. Typical transmit/receive timing in UART mode (used for the SIM interface)
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
(a) Function for outputting a parity error signal
With the error signal output enable bit (bit 7 of address 037D16) assigned “1”, you can output an “L”
level from the TxD2 pin when a parity error is detected. In step with this function, the generation timing
of a transmission completion interrupt changes to the detection timing of a parity error signal. Figure
1.19.23 shows the output timing of the parity error signal.
• LSB first
Transfer
clock
“H”
RxD2
“H”
TxD2
“H”
Receive
complete flag
“1”
“L”
ST
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
P
SP
“L”
Hi-Z
“L”
“0”
ST : Start bit
P : Even Parity
SP : Stop bit
Figure 1.19.23. Output timing of the parity error signal
(b) Direct format/inverse format
Connecting the SIM card allows you to switch between direct format and inverse format. If you choose
the direct format, D0 data is output from TxD2. If you choose the inverse format, D7 data is inverted
and output from TxD2.
Figure 1.19.24 shows the SIM interface format.
Transfer
clcck
TxD2
(direct)
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
P
TxD2
(inverse)
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
P
P : Even parity
Figure 1.19.24. SIM interface format
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Clock asynchronous serial I/O (UART) mode
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Figure 1.19.25 shows the example of connecting the SIM interface. Connect TXD2 and RXD2 and apply
pull-up.
Microcomputer
SIM card
TxD2
RxD2
Figure 1.19.25. Connecting the SIM interface
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UART2 Special Mode Register
UART2 Special Mode Register
The UART2 special mode register (address 037716) is used to control UART2 in various ways.
Figure 1.19.26 shows the UART2 special mode register.
UART2 special mode register
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
U2SMR
0
Bit
symbol
Address
037716
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
Function
(During UART mode)
AA
A
AA
AAA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
IICM
I 2C mode selection bit
0 : Normal mode
1 : I2 C mode
Must always be “0”
ABC
Arbitration lost detecting
flag control bit
0 : Update per bit
1 : Update per byte
Must always be “0”
BBS
Bus busy flag
0 : STOP condition detected
1 : START condition detected
Must always be “0”
LSYN
SCLL sync output
enable bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
Must always be “0”
ABSCS
Bus collision detect
sampling clock select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Rising edge of transfer
clock
1 : Underflow signal of timer A0
ACSE
Auto clear function
select bit of transmit
enable bit
Must always be “0”
0 : No auto clear function
1 : Auto clear at occurrence of
bus collision
Transmit start condition
select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Ordinary
1 : Falling edge of RxD2
SSS
Reserved bit
R W
(Note)
Always set to “0”
Note: Nothing but "0" may be written.
Figure 1.19.26. UART2 special mode register
Table 1.19.9. Features in I2C mode
Function
Normal mode
I2C mode (Note 1)
Start condition detection or stop
condition detection
1
Factor of interrupt number 10 (Note 2)
Bus collision detection
2
Factor of interrupt number 15 (Note 2)
UART2 transmission
No acknowledgment detection (NACK)
3
Factor of interrupt number 16 (Note 2)
UART2 reception
Acknowledgment detection (ACK)
4
UART2 transmission output delay
Not delayed
Delayed
5
P70 at the time when UART2 is in use
TxD2 (output)
SDA (input/output) (Note 3)
6
P71 at the time when UART2 is in use
RxD2 (input)
SCL (input/output)
7
P72 at the time when UART2 is in use
CLK2
P72
8
DMA1 factor at the time when 1 1 0 1 is assigned
to the DMA request factor selection bits
UART2 reception
Acknowledgment detection (ACK)
9
Noise filter width
15ns
50ns
10 Reading P71
Reading the terminal when 0 is
assigned to the direction register
Reading the terminal regardless of the
value of the direction register
11 Initial value of UART2 output
H level (when 0 is assigned to
the CLK polarity select bit)
The value set in latch P70 when the port is
selected
Note 1: Make the settings given below when I2C mode is in use.
Set 0 1 0 in bits 2, 1, 0 of the UART2 transmission/reception mode register.
Disable the RTS/CTS function. Choose the MSB First function.
Note 2: Follow the steps given below to switch from a factor to another.
1. Disable the interrupt of the corresponding number.
2. Switch from a factor to another.
3. Reset the interrupt request flag of the corresponding number.
4. Set an interrupt level of the corresponding number.
Note 3: Set an initial value of SDA transmission output when serial I/O is invalid.
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UART2 Special Mode Register
In the first place, the control bits related to the I2C bus (simplified I2C bus) interface are explained.
Bit 0 of the UART special mode register (037716) is used as the I2C mode selection bit.
Setting “1” in the I2C mode select bit (bit 0) goes the circuit to achieve the I2C bus (simplified I2C bus)
interface effective.
Table 1.19.9 shows the relation between the I2C mode select bit and respective control workings.
Since this function uses clock-synchronous serial I/O mode, set this bit to “0” in UART mode.
P70 through P72 conforming to the simplified I 2C bus
P70/TxD2/SDA
To DMA0, DMA1
Timer
Selector
IICM=1
I/O
UART2
IICM=0
D
Noize
Filter
Q
IICM=0
Transmission
register
delay
IICM=1
UART2
To DMA0
Arbitration
T
IICM=1
Timer
UART2 transmission/
NACK interrupt
request
IICM=0
Reception register
UART2
IICM=0
UART2 reception/ACK
interrupt request
DMA1 request
IICM=1
Start condition detection
S
Stop condition detection
I/O
Selector
T
ACK
9th pulse
IICM=1
Internal clock
CLK
IICM=1
Noize
Filter
Noize
Filter
P72/CLK2
D Q
Data bus
(Port P71 output data latch)
UART2
IICM=1
NACK
Q
T
R
Q
Bus busy
D
L-synchronous
output enabling bit
Falling edge
detection
P71/RxD2/SCL
R Q
Bus collision
detection
Bus collision/start, stop
condition detection
interrupt request
IICM=0
External clock
IICM=0
UART2 IICM=0
Selector
I/O
Timer
UART2
Port reading
* With IICM set to 1, the port terminal is to be readable
even if 1 is assigned to P71 of the direction register.
Figure 1.19.27. Functional block diagram for I2C mode
Figure 1.19.27 shows the functional block diagram for I2C mode. Setting “1” in the I2C mode selection bit
(IICM) causes ports P70, P71, and P72 to work as data transmission-reception terminal SDA, clock inputoutput terminal SCL, and port P72 respectively. A delay circuit is added to the SDA transmission output,
so the SDA output changes after SCL fully goes to “L”. An attempt to read Port P71 (SCL) results in
getting the terminal’s level regardless of the content of the port direction register. The initial value of SDA
transmission output in this mode goes to the value set in port P70. The interrupt factors of the bus collision
detection interrupt, UART2 transmission interrupt, and of UART2 reception interrupt turn to the start/stop
condition detection interrupt, acknowledgment non-detection interrupt, and acknowledgment detection
interrupt respectively.
The start condition detection interrupt refers to the interrupt that occurs when the falling edge of the SDA
terminal (P70) is detected with the SCL terminal (P71) staying “H”. The stop condition detection interrupt
refers to the interrupt that occurs when the rising edge of the SDA terminal (P70) is detected with the SCL
terminal (P71) staying “H”. The bus busy flag (bit 2 of the UART2 special mode register) is set to “1” by the
start condition detection, and set to “0” by the stop condition detection.
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UART2 Special Mode Register
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
The acknowledgment non-detection interrupt refers to the interrupt that occurs when the SDA terminal
level is detected still staying “H” at the rising edge of the 9th transmission clock. The acknowledgment
detection interrupt refers to the interrupt that occurs when SDA terminal’s level is detected already went
to “L” at the 9th transmission clock. Also, assigning 1 1 0 1 (UART2 reception) to the DMA1 request factor
select bits provides the means to start up the DMA transfer by the effect of acknowledgment detection.
Bit 1 of the UART2 special mode register (037716) is used as the arbitration loss detecting flag control bit.
Arbitration means the act of detecting the nonconformity between transmission data and SDA terminal
data at the timing of the SCL rising edge. This detecting flag is located at bit 3 of the UART2 reception
buffer register (037F16), and “1” is set in this flag when nonconformity is detected. Use the arbitration lost
detecting flag control bit to choose which way to use to update the flag, bit by bit or byte by byte. When
setting this bit to “1” and updated the flag byte by byte if nonconformity is detected, the arbitration lost
detecting flag is set to “1” at the falling edge of the 9th transmission clock.
If update the flag byte by byte, must judge and clear (“0”) the arbitration lost detecting flag after completing the first byte acknowledge detect and before starting the next one byte transmission.
Bit 3 of the UART2 special mode register is used as SCL- and L-synchronous output enable bit. Setting
this bit to “1” goes the P71 data register to “0” in synchronization with the SCL terminal level going to “L”.
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UART2 Special Mode Register
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Some other functions added are explained here. Figure 1.19.28 shows their workings.
Bit 4 of the UART2 special mode register is used as the bus collision detect sampling clock select bit. The
bus collision detect interrupt occurs when the RxD2 level and TxD2 level do not match, but the nonconformity is detected in synchronization with the rising edge of the transfer clock signal if the bit is set to “0”. If
this bit is set to “1”, the nonconformity is detected at the timing of the overflow of timer A0 rather than at
the rising edge of the transfer clock.
Bit 5 of the UART2 special mode register is used as the auto clear function select bit of transmit enable
bit. Setting this bit to “1” automatically resets the transmit enable bit to “0” when “1” is set in the bus
collision detect interrupt request bit (nonconformity).
Bit 6 of the UART2 special mode register is used as the transmit start condition select bit. Setting this bit
to “1” starts the TxD transmission in synchronization with the falling edge of the RxD terminal.
1. Bus collision detect sampling clock select bit (Bit 4 of the UART2 special mode register)
0: Rising edges of the transfer clock
CLK
TxD/RxD
1: Timer A0 overflow
Timer A0
2. Auto clear function select bit of transmt enable bit (Bit 5 of the UART2 special mode register)
CLK
TxD/RxD
Bus collision
detect interrupt
request bit
Transmit
enable bit
3. Transmit start condition select bit (Bit 6 of the UART2 special mode register)
0: In normal state
CLK
TxD
Enabling transmission
With "1: falling edge of RxD2" selected
CLK
TxD
RxD
Figure 1.19.28. Some other functions added
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UART2 Special Mode Register 2
UART2 Special Mode Register 2
UART2 special mode register 2 (address 037616) is used to further control UART2 in I2C mode. Figure
1.19.29 shows the UART2 special mode register 2.
UART2 special mode register 2
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
U2SMR2
Bit
symbol
Address
037616
When reset
0016
Bit name
Function
IICM2
I 2C mode selection bit 2
Refer to Table 1.19.10
CSC
Clock-synchronous bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
SWC
SCL wait output bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
ASL
SDA output stop bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
STAC
UART2 initialization bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
SWC2
SCL wait output bit 2
SDHI
SDA output disable bit
0: UART2 clock
1: 0 output
0: Enabled
1: Disabled (high impedance)
SHTC
Start/stop condition
control bit
Set this bit to "1" in I2C mode
(refer to Table 1.19.11)
R W
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
Figure 1.19.29. UART2 special mode register 2
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UART2 Special Mode Register 2
Bit 0 of the UART2 special mode register 2 (address 037616) is used as the I2C mode selection bit 2.
Table 1.19.10 shows the types of control to be changed by I2C mode selection bit 2 when the I2C mode
selection bit is set to “1”. Table 1.19.11 shows the timing characteristics of detecting the start condition
and the stop condition. Set the start/stop condition control bit (bit 7 of UART2 special mode register 2) to
“1” in I2C mode.
Table 1.19.10. Functions changed by I2C mode selection bit 2
IICM2 = 0
IICM2 = 1
1 Factor of interrupt number 15
No acknowledgment detection (NACK)
UART2 transmission (the rising edge
of the final bit of the clock)
2 Factor of interrupt number 16
Acknowledgment detection (ACK)
UART2 reception (the falling edge
of the final bit of the clock)
Function
3 DMA1 factor at the time when 1 1 0 1 Acknowledgment detection (ACK)
is assigned to the DMA request
factor selection bits
UART2 reception (the falling edge of
the final bit of the clock)
4 Timing for transferring data from the
UART2 reception shift register to the
reception buffer.
The rising edge of the final bit of the
reception clock
The falling edge of the final bit of the
reception clock
5 Timing for generating a UART2
reception/ACK interrupt request
The rising edge of the final bit of the
reception clock
The falling edge of the final bit of the
reception clock
Table 1.19.11. Timing characteristics of detecting the start condition and the stop condition (Note1)
3 to 6 cycles < duration for setting-up (Note2)
3 to 6 cycles < duration for holding (Note2)
Note 1 : When the start/stop condition count bit is "1" .
Note 2 : "cycles" is in terms of the input oscillation frequency f(XIN) of the main clock.
Duration for
setting up
SCL
SDA
(Start condition)
SDA
(Stop condition)
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Duration for
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UART2 Special Mode Register 2
P70/TXD2/SDA
Timer
Selector
To DMA0, DMA1
IICM=0
or
IICM2=1
I/0
UART2
IICM=1
delay
Transmission register
UART2
IICM=0
SDHI
ALS
D
IICM=1
and IICM2=0
To DMA0
Arbitration
Q
T
Noize
Filter
UART2 transmission/
NACK interrupt
request
IICM=0
or IICM2=1
IICM=1
Reception register
IICM=0
UART2
IICM=1
and IICM2=0
Start condition detection
S
R
Q
UART2 reception/ACK interrupt request
DMA1 request
Bus
busy
Stop condition detection
P71/RXD2/SCL
D
L-synchronous
output enabling bit
Falling edge
detection
D
I/0
R
UART2
IICM=1
IICM=1
IICM=0
Bus collision
SWC2 CLK
detection
External clock control UART2
R
Bus collision/start, stop condition detection
interrupt request
IICM=0
Falling of 9th pulse
SWC
Port reading
* With IICM set to 1, the port terminal is to be readable
even if 1 is assigned to P71 of the direction register.
UART2
IICM=0
Selector
IICM=1
Internal clock
S
P72/CLK2
ACK
9th pulse
Selector
Noize
Filter
Q
T
Data register
Noize
Filter
NACK
Q
T
I/0
Timer
Figure 1.19.30. Functional block diagram for I2C mode
Functions available in I2C mode are shown in Figure 1.19.30 — a functional block diagram.
Bit 3 of the UART2 special mode register 2 (address 037616) is used as the SDA output stop bit. Setting
this bit to "1" causes an arbitration loss to occur, and the SDA pin turns to high-impedance state the
instant when the arbitration loss detection flag is set to "1".
Bit 1 of the UART2 special mode register 2 (address 037616) is used as the clock synchronization bit.
With this bit set to "1" at the time when the internal SCL is set to "H", the internal SCL turns to "L" if the
falling edge is found in the SCL pin; and the baud rate generator reloads the set value, and start counting
within the "L" interval. When the internal SCL changes from "L" to "H" with the SCL pin set to "L", stops
counting the baud rate generator, and starts counting it again when the SCL pin turns to "H". Due to this
function, the UART2 transmission-reception clock becomes the logical product of the signal flowing
through the internal SCL and that flowing through the SCL pin. This function operates over the period
from the moment earlier by a half cycle than falling edge of the UART2 first clock to the rising edge of the
ninth bit. To use this function, choose the internal clock for the transfer clock.
Bit 2 of the UART2 special mode register 2 (037616) is used as the SCL wait output bit. Setting this bit to
"1" causes the SCL pin to be fixed to "L" at the falling edge of the ninth bit of the clock. Setting this bit to
"0" frees the output fixed to "L".
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UART2 Special Mode Register 2
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Bit 4 of the UART2 special mode register 2 (address 037616) is used as the UART2 initialization bit.
Setting this bit to "1", and when the start condition is detected, the microcomputer operates as follows.
(1) The transmission shift register is initialized, and the content of the transmission register is transferred
to the transmission shift register. This starts transmission by dealing with the clock entered next as the
first bit. The UART2 output value, however, doesn’t change until the first bit data is output after the
entrance of the clock, and remains unchanged from the value at the moment when the microcomputer
detected the start condition.
(2) The reception shift register is initialized, and the microcomputer starts reception by dealing with the
clock entered next as the first bit.
(3) The SCL wait output bit turns to "1". This turns the SCL pin to "L" at the falling edge of the ninth bit of
the clock.
Starting to transmit/receive signals to/from UART2 using this function doesn’t change the value of the
transmission buffer empty flag. To use this function, choose the external clock for the transfer clock.
Bit 5 of the UART2 special mode register 2 (037616) is used as the SCL pin wait output bit 2. Setting this
bit to "1" with the serial I/O specified allows the user to forcibly output an "L" from the SCL pin even if
UART2 is in operation. Setting this bit to "0" frees the "L" output from the SCL pin, and the UART2 clock
is input/output.
Bit 6 of the UART2 special mode register 2 (037616) is used as the SDA output disable bit. Setting this bit
to "1" forces the SDA pin to turn to the high-impedance state. Refrain from changing the value of this bit
at the rising edge of the UART2 transfer clock. There can be instances in which arbitration lost detection
flag is turned on.
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S I/O3, 4
S I/O3, 4
S I/O3 and S I/O4 are exclusive clock-synchronous serial I/Os.
Figure 1.19.31 shows the S I/O3, 4 block diagram, and Figure 1.19.32 shows the S I/O3, 4 control register.
Table 1.19.12 shows the specifications of S I/O3, 4.
f1
Data bus
SMi1
SMi0
f8
f32
Synchronous
circuit
SMi3
SMi6
1/2
1/(ni+1)
Transfer rate register (8)
SMi6
P90/CLK3
(P95/CLK4)
S I/O counter i (3)
S I/Oi
interrupt request
SMi2
SMi3
P92/SOUT3
(P96/SOUT4)
SMi5 LSB
P91/SIN3
(P97/SIN4)
MSB
S I/Oi transmission/reception register (8)
8
Note: i = 3, 4.
ni = A value set in the S I/O transfer rate register i (036316, 036716).
Figure 1.19.31. S I/O3, 4 block diagram
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S I/O3, 4
S I/Oi control register (i = 3, 4) (Note 1)
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
SiC
Bit
symbol
Address
036216, 036616
When reset
4016
Description
Bit name
R W
Internal synchronous
clock select bit
b1 b0
SMi2
SOUTi output disable bit
0 : SOUTi output
1 : SOUTi output disable(high impedance)
SMi3
S I/Oi port select bit
(Note 2)
0 : Input-output port
1 : SOUTi output, CLK function
SMi0
0 0 : Selecting f1
0 1 : Selecting f8
1 0 : Selecting f32
1 1 : Not to be used
SMi1
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
SMi5
Transfer direction select
bit
0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
SMi6
Synchronous clock
select bit (Note 2)
0 : External clock
1 : Internal clock
Effective when SMi3 = 0
0 : L output
1 : H output
Note 1: Set “1” in bit 2 of the protection register (000A16) in advance to write to the
S I/Oi control register (i = 3, 4).
Note 2: When using the port as an input/output port by setting the SI/Oi port
select bit (i = 3, 4) to “0”, be sure to set the sync clock select bit to “1”.
SMi7
SOUTi initial value
set bit
SI/Oi bit rate generator
b7
Symbol
S3BRG
S4BRG
b0
Address
036316
036716
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Values that can be set
Indeterminate
Assuming that set value = n, BRGi divides the count
source by n + 1
R W
0016 to FF16
SI/Oi transmit/receive register
b7
b0
Symbol
S3TRR
S4TRR
Address
036016
036416
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Transmission/reception starts by writing data to this register.
After transmission/reception finishes, reception data is input.
Figure 1.19.32. S I/O3, 4 related register
150
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S I/O3, 4
Table 1.19.12. Specifications of S I/O3, 4
Item
Transfer data format
Transfer clock
Conditions for
transmission/
reception start
Interrupt request
generation timing
Select function
Precaution
Specifications
• Transfer data length: 8 bits
• With the internal clock selected (bit 6 of 036216, 036616 = “1”): f1/2(ni+1),
f8/2(ni+1), f32/2(ni+1) (Note 1)
• With the external clock selected (bit 6 of 036216, 036616 = 0):Input from the CLKi terminal (Note 2)
• To start transmit/reception, the following requirements must be met:
- Select the synchronous clock (use bit 6 of 036216, 036616).
Select a frequency dividing ratio if the internal clock has been selected (use bits
0 and 1 of 036216, 036616).
- SOUTi initial value set bit (use bit 7 of 036216, 036616)= 1.
- S I/Oi port select bit (bit 3 of 036216, 036616) = 1.
- Select the transfer direction (use bit 5 of 036216, 036616)
-Write transfer data to SI/Oi transmit/receive register (036016, 036416)
• To use S I/Oi interrupts, the following requirements must be met:
- Clear the SI/Oi interrupt request bit before writing transfer data to the SI/Oi
transmit/receive register (bit 3 of 004916, 004816) = 0.
• Rising edge of the last transfer clock. (Note 3)
• LSB first or MSB first selection
Whether transmission/reception begins with bit 0 (LSB) or bit 7 (MSB) can be
selected.
• Function for setting an SOUTi initial value selection
When using an external clock for the transfer clock, the user can choose the
SOUTi pin output level during a non-transfer time. For details on how to set, see
Figure 1.19.33.
• Unlike UART0–2, SI/Oi (i = 3, 4) is not divided for transfer register and buffer.
Therefore, do not write the next transfer data to the SI/Oi transmit/receive register
(addresses 036016, 036416) during a transfer. When the internal clock is selected
for the transfer clock, SOUTi holds the last data for a 1/2 transfer clock period after
it finished transferring and then goes to a high-impedance state. However, if the
transfer data is written to the SI/Oi transmit/receive register (addresses 036016,
036416) during this time, SOUTi is placed in the high-impedance state immediately
upon writing and the data hold time is thereby reduced.
Note 1: n is a value from 0016 through FF16 set in the S I/Oi transfer rate register (i = 3, 4).
Note 2: With the external clock selected:
• Before data can be written to the SI/Oi transmit/receive register (addresses 036016, 036416), the
CLKi pin input must be in the high state. Also, before rewriting the SI/Oi Control Register (addresses
036216, 036616)’s bit 7 (SOUTi initial value set bit), make sure the CLKi pin input is held high.
• The S I/Oi circuit keeps on with the shift operation as long as the synchronous clock is entered in it,
so stop the synchronous clock at the instant when it counts to eight. The internal clock, if selected,
automatically stops.
Note 3: If the internal clock is used for the synchronous clock, the transfer clock signal stops at the “H” state.
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S I/O3, 4
Functions for setting an SOUTi initial value
When using an external clock for the transfer clock, the SOUTi pin output level during a non-transfer
time can be set to the high or the low state. Figure 1.19.33 shows the timing chart for setting an SOUTi
initial value and how to set it.
(Example) With “H” selected for SOUTi:
S I/Oi port select bit SMi3 = 0
Signal written to the S I/Oi
transmission/reception
register
SOUTi initial value select bit
SMi7 = 1
(SOUTi: Internal
“H” level)
SOUTi's initial value
set bit (SMi7)
S I/Oi port select bit
SMi3 = 0
1
(Port select: Normal port
SOUTi)
S I/Oi port select bit
(SMi3)
D0
SOUTi (internal)
SOUTi terminal = “H” output
D0
Port output
Signal written to the S I/Oi register
=“L”
“H”
“L”
(Falling edge)
SOUTi terminal output
Initial value = “H” (Note)
(i = 3, 4)
Setting the SOUTi
initial value to H
Port selection
(normal port
SOUTi)
SOUTi terminal = Outputting
stored data in the S I/Oi transmission/
reception register
Note: The set value is output only when the external clock has been selected. When
initializing SOUTi, make sure the CLKi pin input is held “H” level.
If the internal clock has been selected or if SOUT output disable has been set,
this output goes to the high-impedance state.
Figure 1.19.33. Timing chart for setting SOUTi’s initial value and how to set it
S I/Oi operation timing
Figure 1.19.34 shows the S I/Oi operation timing
1.5 cycle (max)
SI/Oi internal clock
"H"
"L"
Transfer clock
(Note 1)
"H"
"L"
Signal written to the
S I/Oi register
"H"
"L"
S I/Oi output SOUTi
"H"
"L"
Note2
(i= 3, 4)
S I/Oi input SINi
(i= 3, 4)
SI/Oi interrupt request
(i= 3, 4)
bit
Hiz
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Hiz
"H"
"L"
"1"
"0"
Note 1: With the internal clock selected for the transfer clock, the frequency dividing ratio can be selected using bits 0 and 1 of the S I/Oi control
register. (i=3,4) (No frequency division, 8-division frequency, 32-division frequency.)
Note 2: With the internal clock selected for the transfer clock, the SOUTi (i = 3, 4) pin becomes to the high-impedance state after the transfer finishes.
Note 3: Shown above is the case where the SOUTi (i = 3, 4) port select bit ="1".
Figure 1.19.34. S I/Oi operation timing chart
152
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
The A-D converter consists of one 10-bit successive approximation A-D converter circuit with a capacitive coupling
amplifier. Pins P100 to P107, P95, and P96 also function as the analog signal input pins. The direction registers of
these pins for A-D conversion must therefore be set to input. The Vref connect bit (bit 5 at address 03D716) can be
used to isolate the resistance ladder of the A-D converter from the reference voltage input pin (VREF) when the A-D
converter is not used. Doing so stops any current flowing into the resistance ladder from VREF, reducing the power
dissipation. When using the A-D converter, start A-D conversion only after setting bit 5 of 03D716 to connect VREF.
The result of A-D conversion is stored in the A-D registers of the selected pins. When set to 10-bit precision, the low
8 bits are stored in the even addresses and the high 2 bits in the odd addresses. When set to 8-bit precision, the low
8 bits are stored in the even addresses.
Table 1.20.1 shows the performance of the A-D converter. Figure 1.20.1 shows the block diagram of the
A-D converter, and Figures 1.20.2 and 1.20.3 show the A-D converter-related registers.
Table 1.20.1. Performance of A-D converter
Item
Performance
Method of A-D conversion Successive approximation (capacitive coupling amplifier)
Analog input voltage (Note 1) 0V to AVCC (VCC)
Operating clock φAD (Note 2) VCC = 5V fAD/divide-by-2 of fAD/divide-by-4 of fAD, fAD=f(XIN)
VCC = 3V divide-by-2 of fAD/divide-by-4 of fAD, fAD=f(XIN)
Resolution
8-bit or 10-bit (selectable)
Absolute precision
VCC = 5V • Without sample and hold function
±3LSB
• With sample and hold function (8-bit resolution)
±2LSB
• With sample and hold function (10-bit resolution)
AN0 to AN7 input : ±3LSB
ANEX0 and ANEX1 input (including mode in which external
operation amp is connected) : ±7LSB
VCC = 3V • Without sample and hold function (8-bit resolution)
±2LSB
Operating modes
One-shot mode, repeat mode, single sweep mode, repeat sweep mode 0,
and repeat sweep mode 1
Analog input pins
8pins (AN0 to AN7) + 2pins (ANEX0 and ANEX1)
A-D conversion start condition • Software trigger
A-D conversion starts when the A-D conversion start flag changes to “1”
• External trigger (can be retriggered)
A-D conversion starts when the A-D conversion start flag is “1” and the
___________
ADTRG/P97 input changes from “H” to “L”
Conversion speed per pin • Without sample and hold function
8-bit resolution: 49 φAD cycles, 10-bit resolution: 59 φAD cycles
• With sample and hold function
8-bit resolution: 28 φAD cycles, 10-bit resolution: 33 φAD cycles
Note 1: Does not depend on use of sample and hold function.
Note 2: Divide the frequency if f(XIN) exceeds 10MHZ, and make φAD frequency equal to 10MHZ.
Without sample and hold function, set the φAD frequency to 250kHZ min.
With the sample and hold function, set the φAD frequency to 1MHZ min.
153
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
CKS1=1
φAD
CKS0=1
fAD
1/2
1/2
CKS0=0
CKS1=0
A-D conversion rate
selection
V REF
VCUT=0
Resistor ladder
AV SS
VCUT=1
Successive conversion register
A-D control register 1 (address 03D716)
A-D control register 0 (address 03D616)
Addresses
(03C116, 03C016)
A-D register 0(16)
(03C316, 03C216)
A-D register 1(16)
A-D register 2(16)
A-D register 3(16)
(03C516, 03C416)
(03C716, 03C616)
(03C916, 03C816)
A-D register 4(16)
(03CB16, 03CA16)
(03CD16, 03CC16)
A-D register 5(16)
A-D register 6(16)
(03CF16, 03CE16)
A-D register 7(16)
Vref
Decoder
VIN
Comparator
Data bus high-order
Data bus low-order
AN0
CH2,CH1,CH0=000
AN1
CH2,CH1,CH0=001
AN2
CH2,CH1,CH0=010
AN3
CH2,CH1,CH0=011
AN4
CH2,CH1,CH0=100
AN5
CH2,CH1,CH0=101
AN6
CH2,CH1,CH0=110
AN7
CH2,CH1,CH0=111
OPA1,OPA0=0,0
OPA1, OPA0
OPA1,OPA0=1,1
OPA0=1
ANEX0
OPA1,OPA0=0,1
ANEX1
OPA1=1
Figure 1.20.1. Block diagram of A-D converter
154
0
0
1
1
0 : Normal operation
1 : ANEX0
0 : ANEX1
1 : External op-amp mode
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
A-D control register 0 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON0
Bit symbol
Address
03D616
When reset
00000XXX2
Bit name
Function
CH0
Analog input pin select bit
CH1
CH2
0 0 0 : AN0 is selected
0 0 1 : AN1 is selected
0 1 0 : AN2 is selected
0 1 1 : AN3 is selected
1 0 0 : AN4 is selected
1 0 1 : AN5 is selected
1 1 0 : AN6 is selected
1 1 1 : AN7 is selected
0 0 : One-shot mode
0 1 : Repeat mode
1 0 : Single sweep mode
1 1 : Repeat sweep mode 0
Repeat sweep mode 1
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
1 : ADTRG trigger
ADST
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
1 : A-D conversion started
CKS0
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
MD0
MD1
TRG
(Note 2)
b4 b3
A-D operation mode
select bit 0
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
RW
b2 b1 b0
(Note 2)
Note 1: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result is
indeterminate.
Note 2: When changing A-D operation mode, set analog input pin again.
A-D control register 1 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON1
Bit symbol
Address
03D716
When reset
0016
Bit name
A-D sweep pin select bit
SCAN0
Function
When single sweep and repeat sweep
mode 0 are selected
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
0 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN5 (6 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
When repeat sweep mode 1 is selected
SCAN1
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0 (1 pin)
0 1 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN2 (3 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
MD2
A-D operation mode
select bit 1
0 : Any mode other than repeat sweep
mode 1
1 : Repeat sweep mode 1
BITS
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
CKS1
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
Vref connect bit
0 : Vref not connected
1 : Vref connected
External op-amp
connection mode bit
b7 b6
VCUT
OPA0
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
RW
OPA1
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result is
indeterminate.
Figure 1.20.2. A-D converter-related registers (1)
155
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
A-D control register 2 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0 0
Symbol
Address
When reset
ADCON2
03D416
0000XXX02
Bit symbol
SMP
Bit name
A-D conversion method
select bit
Function
0 : Without sample and hold
1 : With sample and hold
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to
be “0”.
A
A
A
A
AA
RW
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion
result is indeterminate.
Symbol
A-D register i
(b15)
b7
ADi(i=0 to 7)
(b8)
b0 b7
Address
When reset
03C016 to 03CF16 Indeterminate
b0
Function
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
• During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
• During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if
read, turns out to be “0”.
Figure 1.20.3. A-D converter-related registers (2)
156
A
A
A
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
(1) One-shot mode
In one-shot mode, the pin selected using the analog input pin select bit is used for one-shot A-D conversion. Table 1.20.2 shows the specifications of one-shot mode. Figure 1.20.4 shows the A-D control register in one-shot mode.
Table 1.20.2. One-shot mode specifications
Item
Function
Start condition
Stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
Input pin
Reading of result of A-D converter
Specification
The pin selected by the analog input pin select bit is used for one A-D conversion
Writing “1” to A-D conversion start flag
• End of A-D conversion (A-D conversion start flag changes to “0”, except
when external trigger is selected)
• Writing “0” to A-D conversion start flag
End of A-D conversion
One of AN0 to AN7, as selected
Read A-D register corresponding to selected pin
A-D control register 0 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0
Symbol
ADCON0
Bit symbol
CH0
Address
03D616
Bit name
Analog input pin select
bit
CH1
CH2
MD0
When reset
00000XXX2
Function
0 0 0 : AN0 is selected
0 0 1 : AN1 is selected
0 1 0 : AN2 is selected
0 1 1 : AN3 is selected
1 0 0 : AN4 is selected
1 0 1 : AN5 is selected
1 1 0 : AN6 is selected
1 1 1 : AN7 is selected
(Note 2)
b4 b3
MD1
A-D operation mode
select bit 0
TRG
Trigger select bit
ADST
A-D conversion start flag 0 : A-D conversion disabled
1 : A-D conversion started
CKS0
Frequency select bit 0
0 0 : One-shot mode
AAA
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
RW
b2 b1 b0
(Note 2)
0 : Software trigger
1 : ADTRG trigger
0: fAD/4 is selected
1: fAD/2 is selected
Note 1: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion
result is indeterminate.
Note 2: When changing A-D operation mode, set analog input pin again.
A-D control register 1 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
1
b4
b3
b2
0
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON1
Bit symbol
Address
03D716
When reset
0016
Bit name
Function
A-D sweep pin
select bit
Invalid in one-shot mode
MD2
A-D operation mode
select bit 1
0 : Any mode other than repeat sweep
mode 1
BITS
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
CKS1
Frequency select bit1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
VCUT
Vref connect bit
SCAN0
SCAN1
OPA0
OPA1
External op-amp
connection mode bit
1 : Vref connected
b7 b6
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
RW
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion
result is indeterminate.
Figure 1.20.4. A-D conversion register in one-shot mode
157
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
(2) Repeat mode
In repeat mode, the pin selected using the analog input pin select bit is used for repeated A-D conversion.
Table 1.20.3 shows the specifications of repeat mode. Figure 1.20.5 shows the A-D control register in
repeat mode.
Table 1.20.3. Repeat mode specifications
Item
Function
Star condition
Stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
Input pin
Reading of result of A-D converter
Specification
The pin selected by the analog input pin select bit is used for repeated A-D conversion
Writing “1” to A-D conversion start flag
Writing “0” to A-D conversion start flag
None generated
One of AN0 to AN7, as selected
Read A-D register corresponding to selected pin
A-D control register 0 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 1
Symbol
ADCON0
Bit symbol
CH0
Address
03D616
When reset
00000XXX2
Bit name
Analog input pin
select bit
CH1
CH2
Function
0 0 0 : AN0 is selected
0 0 1 : AN1 is selected
0 1 0 : AN2 is selected
0 1 1 : AN3 is selected
1 0 0 : AN4 is selected
1 0 1 : AN5 is selected
1 1 0 : AN6 is selected
1 1 1 : AN7 is selected
b4 b3
MD1
A-D operation mode
select bit 0
TRG
Trigger select bit
ADST
A-D conversion start flag
0 : Software trigger
1 : ADTRG trigger
0 : A-D conversion disabled
1 : A-D conversion started
CKS0
Frequency select bit 0
MD0
0 1 : Repeat mode
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
AAA
RW
b2 b1 b0
(Note 2)
(Note 2)
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
Note 1: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion
result is indeterminate.
Note 2: When changing A-D operation mode, set analog input pin again.
A-D control register 1 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
1
b4
b3
b2
0
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON1
Bit symbol
Address
03D716
When reset
0016
Bit name
Function
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
A-D sweep pin
select bit
Invalid in repeat mode
A-D operation mode
select bit 1
0 : Any mode other than repeat sweep mode 1
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
CKS1
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
VCUT
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
OPA0
External op-amp
connection mode bit
SCAN0
SCAN1
MD2
BITS
OPA1
b7 b6
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion
result is indeterminate.
Figure 1.20.5. A-D conversion register in repeat mode
158
RW
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
(3) Single sweep mode
In single sweep mode, the pins selected using the A-D sweep pin select bit are used for one-by-one A-D
conversion. Table 1.20.4 shows the specifications of single sweep mode. Figure 1.20.6 shows the A-D
control register in single sweep mode.
Table 1.20.4. Single sweep mode specifications
Item
Specification
Function
The pins selected by the A-D sweep pin select bit are used for one-by-one A-D conversion
Start condition
Writing “1” to A-D converter start flag
Stop condition
• End of A-D conversion (A-D conversion start flag changes to “0”, except
when external trigger is selected)
• Writing “0” to A-D conversion start flag
Interrupt request generation timing End of A-D conversion
Input pin
AN0 and AN1 (2 pins), AN0 to AN3 (4 pins), AN0 to AN5 (6 pins), or AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
Reading of result of A-D converter Read A-D register corresponding to selected pin
A-D control register 0 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
1 0
Symbol
ADCON0
Bit symbol
CH0
Address
03D616
When reset
00000XXX2
Bit name
Analog input pin
select bit
Function
Invalid in single sweep mode
CH1
CH2
MD0
A-D operation mode
select bit 0
b4 b3
1 0 : Single sweep mode
MD1
TRG
ADST
CKS0
Trigger select bit
A-D conversion start flag
Frequency select bit 0
0 : Software trigger
1 : ADTRG trigger
0 : A-D conversion disabled
1 : A-D conversion started
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
AA
A
A
AA
A
RW
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result
is indeterminate.
A-D control register 1 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
1
b4
b3
b2
0
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON1
Bit symbol
SCAN0
Address
03D716
When reset
0016
Bit name
A-D sweep pin select bit
Function
When single sweep and repeat sweep mode 0
are selected
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
0 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN5 (6 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
SCAN1
MD2
A-D operation mode
select bit 1
0 : Any mode other than repeat sweep mode 1
BITS
8/10-bit mode select bit
CKS1
Frequency select bit 1
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
VCUT
Vref connect bit
OPA0
External op-amp
connection mode
bit (Note 2)
OPA1
1 : Vref connected
b7 b6
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
AA
AA
AA
A
A
R W
Note 1: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result
is indeterminate.
Note 2: Neither ‘01’ nor ‘10’ can be selected with the external op-amp connection mode bit.
Figure 1.20.6. A-D conversion register in single sweep mode
159
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
(4) Repeat sweep mode 0
In repeat sweep mode 0, the pins selected using the A-D sweep pin select bit are used for repeat sweep
A-D conversion. Table 1.20.5 shows the specifications of repeat sweep mode 0. Figure 1.20.7 shows the
A-D control register in repeat sweep mode 0.
Table 1.20.5. Repeat sweep mode 0 specifications
Item
Function
Start condition
Stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
Input pin
Reading of result of A-D converter
Specification
The pins selected by the A-D sweep pin select bit are used for repeat sweep A-D conversion
Writing “1” to A-D conversion start flag
Writing “0” to A-D conversion start flag
None generated
AN0 and AN1 (2 pins), AN0 to AN3 (4 pins), AN0 to AN5 (6 pins), or AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
Read A-D register corresponding to selected pin (at any time)
A-D control register 0 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
1 1
Symbol
ADCON0
Bit symbol
CH0
Address
03D616
When reset
00000XXX2
Bit name
Analog input pin
select bit
Function
Invalid in repeat sweep mode 0
CH1
CH2
MD0
A-D operation mode
select bit 0
b4 b3
1 1 : Repeat sweep mode 0
MD1
TRG
ADST
CKS0
Trigger select bit
A-D conversion start flag
Frequency select bit 0
0 : Software trigger
1 : ADTRG trigger
0 : A-D conversion disabled
1 : A-D conversion started
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
AA
A
AAA
AAA
AAA
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
RW
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result
is indeterminate.
A-D control register 1 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
1
b4
b3
b2
0
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON1
Bit symbol
SCAN0
Address
03D716
When reset
0016
Bit name
A-D sweep pin select bit
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
0 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN5 (6 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
SCAN1
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AAA
A-D operation mode
select bit 1
0 : Any mode other than repeat sweep mode 1
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
VCUT
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
OPA0
External op-amp
connection mode
bit (Note 2)
b7 b6
MD2
BITS
CKS1
OPA1
RW
When single sweep and repeat sweep mode 0
are selected
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
Note 1: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result
is indeterminate.
Note 2: Neither “01” nor “10” can be selected with the external op-amp connection mode bit.
Figure 1.20.7. A-D conversion register in repeat sweep mode 0
160
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
(5) Repeat sweep mode 1
In repeat sweep mode 1, all pins are used for A-D conversion with emphasis on the pin or pins selected
using the A-D sweep pin select bit. Table 1.20.6 shows the specifications of repeat sweep mode 1. Figure
1.20.8 shows the A-D control register in repeat sweep mode 1.
Table 1.20.6. Repeat sweep mode 1 specifications
Item
Specification
All pins perform repeat sweep A-D conversion, with emphasis on the pin or
pins selected by the A-D sweep pin select bit
Example : AN0 selected AN0
AN1
AN0
AN2
AN0
AN3, etc
Writing “1” to A-D conversion start flag
Writing “0” to A-D conversion start flag
None generated
AN0 (1 pin), AN0 and AN1 (2 pins), AN0 to AN2 (3 pins), AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
Read A-D register corresponding to selected pin (at any time)
Function
Start condition
Stop condition
Interrupt request generation timing
Input pin
Reading of result of A-D converter
A-D control register 0 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
1 1
Symbol
ADCON0
Bit symbol
CH0
Address
03D616
When reset
00000XXX2
Bit name
Analog input pin
select bit
Function
Invalid in repeat sweep mode 1
CH1
CH2
MD0
A-D operation mode
select bit 0
b4 b3
1 1 : Repeat sweep mode 1
MD1
TRG
ADST
CKS0
Trigger select bit
A-D conversion start flag
Frequency select bit 0
0 : Software trigger
1 : ADTRG trigger
0 : A-D conversion disabled
1 : A-D conversion started
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
RW
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result
is indeterminate.
A-D control register 1 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
1
b4
b3
b2
1
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON1
Address
03D716
Bit symbol
Bit name
SCAN0
A-D sweep pin select bit
When reset
0016
Function
When repeat sweep mode 1 is selected
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0 (1 pin)
0 1 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN2 (3 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
SCAN1
MD2
A-D operation mode
select bit 1
1 : Repeat sweep mode 1
BITS
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
CKS1
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
VCUT
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
OPA0
External op-amp
connection mode
bit (Note 2)
b7 b6
OPA1
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
AA
A
AAA
R W
Note 1: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result
is indeterminate.
Note 2: Neither ‘01’ nor ‘10’ can be selected with the external op-amp connection mode bit.
Figure 1.20.8. A-D conversion register in repeat sweep mode 1
161
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D Converter
(a) Sample and hold
Sample and hold is selected by setting bit 0 of the A-D control register 2 (address 03D416) to “1”. When
sample and hold is selected, the rate of conversion of each pin increases. As a result, a 28 fAD cycle is
achieved with 8-bit resolution and 33 fAD with 10-bit resolution. Sample and hold can be selected in all
modes. However, in all modes, be sure to specify before starting A-D conversion whether sample and
hold is to be used.
(b) Extended analog input pins
In one-shot mode and repeat mode, the input via the extended analog input pins ANEX0 and ANEX1 can
also be converted from analog to digital.
When bit 6 of the A-D control register 1 (address 03D716) is “1” and bit 7 is “0”, input via ANEX0 is
converted from analog to digital. The result of conversion is stored in A-D register 0.
When bit 6 of the A-D control register 1 (address 03D716) is “0” and bit 7 is “1”, input via ANEX1 is
converted from analog to digital. The result of conversion is stored in A-D register 1.
(c) External operation amp connection mode
In this mode, multiple external analog inputs via the extended analog input pins, ANEX0 and ANEX1, can
be amplified together by just one operation amp and used as the input for A-D conversion.
When bit 6 of the A-D control register 1 (address 03D716) is “1” and bit 7 is “1”, input via AN0 to AN7 is
output from ANEX0. The input from ANEX1 is converted from analog to digital and the result stored in the
corresponding A-D register. The speed of A-D conversion depends on the response of the external operation amp. Do not connect the ANEX0 and ANEX1 pins directly. Figure 1.20.9 is an example of how to
connect the pins in external operation amp mode.
Resistor ladder
Successive conversion register
Analog
input
AN0
AN1
AN2
AN3
AN4
AN5
AN6
AN7
ANEX0
ANEX1
Comparator
External op-amp
Figure 1.20.9. Example of external op-amp connection mode
162
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
D-A Converter
D-A Converter
This is an 8-bit, R-2R type D-A converter. The microcomputer contains two independent D-A converters of
this type.
D-A conversion is performed when a value is written to the corresponding D-A register. Bits 0 and 1 (D-A
output enable bits) of the D-A control register decide if the result of conversion is to be output. Do not set the
target port to output mode if D-A conversion is to be performed.
Output analog voltage (V) is determined by a set value (n : decimal) in the D-A register.
V = VREF X n/ 256 (n = 0 to 255)
VREF : reference voltage
Table 1.21.1 lists the performance of the D-A converter. Figure 1.21.1 shows the block diagram of the D-A
converter. Figure 1.21.2 shows the D-A control register. Figure 1.21.3 shows the D-A converter equivalent
circuit.
Table 1.21.1. Performance of D-A converter
Item
Conversion method
Resolution
Analog output pin
Performance
R-2R method
8 bits
2 channels
Data bus low-order bits
D-A register0 (8)
(Address 03D816)
D-A0 output enable bit
R-2R resistor ladder
D-A register1 (8)
AAA
P93/DA0
(Address 03DA16)
D-A1 output enable bit
R-2R resistor ladder
AAA
P94/DA1
Figure 1.21.1. Block diagram of D-A converter
163
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
D-A Converter
D-A control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
DACON
b0
Address
03DC16
Bit symbol
When reset
0016
Bit name
AA
A
AA
A
Function
DA0E
D-A0 output enable bit
0 : Output disabled
1 : Output enabled
DA1E
D-A1 output enable bit
0 : Output disabled
1 : Output enabled
RW
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”
D-A register
b7
Symbol
DAi (i = 0,1)
b0
Address
03D816, 03DA16
When reset
Indeterminate
AA
A
AA
A
Function
RW
R
W
Output value of D-A conversion
Figure 1.21.2. D-A control register
D-A0 output enable bit
“0”
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
2R
2R
2R
2R
2R
2R
2R
2R
DA0
“1”
2R
MSB
D-A0 register0
“0”
LSB
“1”
AVSS
VREF
Note 1: The above diagram shows an instance in which the D-A register is assigned 2A16.
Note 2: The same circuit as this is also used for D-A1.
Note 3: To reduce the current consumption when the D-A converter is not used, set the D-A output enable bit to 0 and set the D-A register to 0016
so that no current flows in the resistors Rs and 2Rs.
Figure 1.21.3. D-A converter equivalent circuit
164
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CRC
CRC Calculation Circuit
The Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) calculation circuit detects an error in data blocks. The microcomputer uses a generator polynomial of CRC_CCITT (X16 + X12 + X5 + 1) to generate CRC code.
The CRC code is a 16-bit code generated for a block of a given data length in multiples of 8 bits. The CRC
code is set in a CRC data register each time one byte of data is transferred to a CRC input register after
writing an initial value into the CRC data register. Generation of CRC code for one byte of data is completed in two machine cycles.
Figure 1.22.1 shows the block diagram of the CRC circuit. Figure 1.22.2 shows the CRC-related registers.
Figure 1.22.3 shows the calculation example using the CRC calculation circuit
Data bus high-order bits
Data bus low-order bits
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
Eight low-order bits
Eight high-order bits
CRC data register (16)
(Addresses 03BD16, 03BC16)
CRC code generating circuit
x16 + x12 + x5 + 1
CRC input register (8)
(Address 03BE16)
Figure 1.22.1. Block diagram of CRC circuit
CRC data register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
CRCD
Address
03BD16, 03BC16
When reset
Indeterminate
Values that
can be set
Function
CRC calculation result output register
000016 to FFFF16
A
RW
CRC input register
b7
Symbo
CRCIN
b0
Function
Data input register
Address
03BE16
When reset
Indeterminate
Values that
can be set
0016 to FF16
A
RW
Figure 1.22.2. CRC-related registers
165
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CRC
b15
b0
CRC data register CRCD
[03BD16, 03BC16]
(1) Setting 000016
b7
b0
CRC input register
(2) Setting 0116
CRCIN
[03BE16]
2 cycles
After CRC calculation is complete
b15
b0
CRC data register
118916
CRCD
[03BD16, 03BC16]
Stores CRC code
The code resulting from sending 0116 in LSB first mode is (1000 0000). Thus the CRC code in the generating polynomial,
(X16 + X12 + X5 + 1), becomes the remainder resulting from dividing (1000 0000) X16 by (1 0001 0000 0010 0001) in
conformity with the modulo-2 operation.
LSB
MSB
Modulo-2 operation is
operation that complies
with the law given below.
1000 1000
1 0001 0000 0010 0001
9
1000 0000 0000
1000 1000 0001
1000 0001
1000 1000
1001
LSB
8
1
0000
0000
0000
0001
0001
0000
1
1000
0000
1000
0000
0+0=0
0+1=1
1+0=1
1+1=0
-1 = 1
0
1
1000
MSB
1
Thus the CRC code becomes (1001 0001 1000 1000). Since the operation is in LSB first mode, the (1001 0001 1000 1000)
corresponds to 118916 in hexadecimal notation. If the CRC operation in MSB first mode is necessary in the CRC operation
circuit built in the M16C, switch between the LSB side and the MSB side of the input-holding bits, and carry out the CRC
operation. Also switch between the MSB and LSB of the result as stored in CRC data.
b7
b0
CRC input register
(3) Setting 2316
CRCIN
[03BE16]
After CRC calculation is complete
b15
b0
0A4116
CRC data register
CRCD
[03BD16, 03BC16]
Stores CRC code
Figure 1.22.3. Calculation example using the CRC calculation circuit
166
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Programmable I/O Port
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Ports
There are 87 programmable I/O ports: P0 to P10 (excluding P85). Each port can be set independently for
input or output using the direction register. A pull-up resistance for each block of 4 ports can be set. P85 is
an input-only port and has no built-in pull-up resistance.
Figures 1.23.1 to 1.23.4 show the programmable I/O ports. Figure 1.23.5 shows the I/O pins.
Each pin functions as a programmable I/O port and as the I/O for the built-in peripheral devices.
To use the pins as the inputs for the built-in peripheral devices, set the direction register of each pin to input
mode. When the pins are used as the outputs for the built-in peripheral devices (other than the D-A converter), they function as outputs regardless of the contents of the direction registers. When pins are to be
used as the outputs for the D-A converter, do not set the direction registers to output mode. See the
descriptions of the respective functions for how to set up the built-in peripheral devices.
(1) Direction registers
Figure 1.23.6 shows the direction registers.
These registers are used to choose the direction of the programmable I/O ports. Each bit in these registers corresponds one for one to each I/O pin.
Note: There is no direction register bit for P85.
(2) Port registers
Figure 1.23.7 shows the port registers.
These registers are used to write and read data for input and output to and from an external device. A
port register consists of a port latch to hold output data and a circuit to read the status of a pin. Each bit
in port registers corresponds one for one to each I/O pin.
(3) Pull-up control registers
Figure 1.23.8 shows the pull-up control registers.
The pull-up control register can be set to apply a pull-up resistance to each block of 4 ports. When ports
are set to have a pull-up resistance, the pull-up resistance is connected only when the direction register is
set for input.
However, in memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode, the pull-up control register of P0 to P3,
P40 to P43, and P5 is invalid.
(4) Port control register
Figure 1.23.9 shows the port control register.
The bit 0 of port control resister is used to read port P1 as follows:
0 : When port P1 is input port, port input level is read.
When port P1 is output port , the contents of port P1 register is read.
1 : The contents of port P1 register is read always.
This register is valid in the following:
• External bus width is 8 bits in microprocessor mode or memory expansion mode.
• Port P1 can be used as a port in multiplexed bus for the entire space.
167
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P00 to P07, P20 to P27,
P30 to P37, P40 to P47,
P50 to P54, P56
Data bus
Port latch
(Note)
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P10 to P14
Port P1 control register
Data bus
Port latch
(Note)
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P15 to P17
Port P1 control register
Data bus
Port latch
(Note)
Input to respective peripheral functions
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P57, P60, P61, P64, P65,
P72 to P76, P80, P81,
P90, P92
"1"
Output
Data bus
Port latch
(Note)
Input to respective peripheral functions
Note :1
symbolizes a parasitic diode.
Do not apply a voltage higher than Vcc to each port.
Figure 1.23.1. Programmable I/O ports (1)
168
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Pull-up selection
P82 to P84
Direction register
Data bus
Port latch
(Note1)
Input to respective peripheral functions
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P55, P62, P66, P77,
P91, P97
Data bus
Port latch
(Note1)
Input to respective peripheral functions
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P63, P67
"1"
Data bus
Port latch
Output
(Note1)
P85
Data bus
NMI interrupt input
P70, P71
(Note1)
Direction register
"1"
Port latch
Output
(Note2)
Input to respective peripheral functions
Note :1
Note :2
symbolizes a parasitic diode.
Do not apply a voltage higher than Vcc to each port.
symbolizes a parasitic diode.
Figure 1.23.2. Programmable I/O ports (2)
169
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Pull-up selection
P100 to P103
(inside dotted-line not included)
P104 to P107
(inside dotted-line included)
Direction register
Data bus
Port latch
(Note)
Analog input
Input to respective peripheral functions
Pull-up selection
D-A output enabled
Direction register
P93, P94
Data bus
Port latch
(Note)
Input to respective peripheral functions
Analog output
D-A output enabled
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P96
"1"
Data bus
Port latch
Output
(Note)
Analog input
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P95
"1"
Data bus
Port latch
Output
(Note)
Input to respective peripheral functions
Analog input
Note :
symbolizes a parasitic diode.
Do not apply a voltage higher than Vcc to each port.
Figure 1.23.3. Programmable I/O ports (3)
170
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Pull-up selection
Direction register
P87
Data bus
Port latch
(Note)
fc
Rf
Pull-up selection
Rd
Direction register
P86
"1"
Data bus
Port latch
Output
(Note)
Note :
symbolizes a parasitic diode.
Do not apply a voltage higher than Vcc to each port.
Figure 1.23.4. Programmable I/O ports (4)
(Note2)
BYTE
BYTE signal input
(Note1)
(Note2)
CNVSS
CNVSS signal input
(Note1)
RESET
RESET signal input
(Note1)
Note 1:
symbolizes a parasitic diode.
Do not apply a voltage higher than Vcc to each pin.
Note 2: A parasitic diode on the VCC side is added to the mask ROM version.
Do not apply a voltage higher than Vcc to each pin.
Figure 1.23.5. I/O pins
171
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Port Pi direction register (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PDi (i = 0 to 10, except 8)
Bit symbol
Address
03E216, 03E316, 03E616, 03E716, 03EA16
03EB16, 03EE16, 03EF16, 03F316, 03F616
Bit name
PDi_0
Port Pi0 direction register
PDi_1
Port Pi1 direction register
PDi_2
Port Pi2 direction register
PDi_3
PDi_4
Port Pi3 direction register
Port Pi4 direction register
PDi_5
Port Pi5 direction register
PDi_6
Port Pi6 direction register
PDi_7
Port Pi7 direction register
Function
A
A
A
A
A
A
RW
0 : Input mode
(Functions as an input port)
1 : Output mode
(Functions as an output port)
(i = 0 to 10 except 8)
Note: Set bit 2 of protect register (address 000A16) to “1” before rewriting to
the port P9 direction register.
Port P8 direction register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PD8
Bit symbol
Address
03F216
Bit name
PD8_0
Port P80 direction register
PD8_1
Port P81 direction register
PD8_2
Port P82 direction register
PD8_3
Port P83 direction register
When reset
00X000002
Function
0 : Input mode
(Functions as an input port)
1 : Output mode
(Functions as an output port)
PD8_4
Port P84 direction register
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be
indeterminate.
PD8_6
Port P86 direction register
PD8_7
Port P87 direction register
Figure 1.23.6. Direction register
172
0 : Input mode
(Functions as an input port)
1 : Output mode
(Functions as an output port)
A
A
A
A
A
A
RW
When reset
0016
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Port Pi register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
Pi (i = 0 to 10, except 8)
Bit symbol
Address
03E016, 03E116, 03E416, 03E516, 03E816
03E916, 03EC16, 03ED16, 03F116, 03F416
Bit name
Pi_0
Port Pi0 register
Pi_1
Pi_2
Port Pi1 register
Port Pi2 register
Pi_3
Port Pi3 register
Pi_4
Port Pi4 register
Pi_5
Port Pi5 register
Pi_6
Port Pi6 register
Pi_7
Port Pi7 register
Function
Data is input and output to and from
each pin by reading and writing to
and from each corresponding bit
0 : “L” level data
1 : “H” level data (Note)
(i = 0 to 10 except 8)
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
A
A
A
A
A
RW
Note : Since P70 and P71 are N-channel open drain ports, the data is high-impedance.
Port P8 register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
P8
Bit symbol
Address
03F016
Bit name
P8_0
Port P80 register
P8_1
Port P81 register
P8_2
Port P82 register
P8_3
Port P83 register
P8_4
Port P84 register
P8_5
Port P85 register
P8_6
Port P86 register
P8_7
Port P87 register
When reset
Indeterminate
Function
Data is input and output to and from
each pin by reading and writing to
and from each corresponding bit
(except for P85)
0 : “L” level data
1 : “H” level data
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
Figure 1.23.7. Port register
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Pull-up control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PUR0
Address
03FC16
Bit symbol
Bit name
PU00
P00 to P03 pull-up
PU01
P04 to P07 pull-up
PU02
P10 to P13 pull-up
PU03
P14 to P17 pull-up
PU04
P20 to P23 pull-up
PU05
P24 to P27 pull-up
PU06
P30 to P33 pull-up
PU07
P34 to P37 pull-up
When reset
0016
Function
The corresponding port is pulled
high with a pull-up resistor
0 : Not pulled high
1 : Pulled high
A
A
A
A
A
RW
Pull-up control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PUR1
Address
03FD16
Bit symbol
Bit name
PU10
P40 to P43 pull-up
PU11
P44 to P47 pull-up
PU12
P50 to P53 pull-up
PU13
P54 to P57 pull-up
PU14
P60 to P63 pull-up
PU15
P64 to P67 pull-up
PU16
P70 to P73 pull-up (Note 1)
When reset
0016 (Note 2)
Function
The corresponding port is pulled
high with a pull-up resistor
0 : Not pulled high
1 : Pulled high
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
PU17
P74 to P77 pull-up
Note 1: Since P70 and P71 are N-channel open drain ports, pull-up is not available for them.
Note 2: When the VCC level is being impressed to the CNVSS terminal, this register becomes
to 0216 when reset (PU11 becomes to “1”).
Pull-up control register 2
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PUR2
Address
03FE16
Bit symbol
Bit name
PU20
P80 to P83 pull-up
PU21
P84 to P87 pull-up
(Except P85)
PU22
P90 to P93 pull-up
PU23
PU24
P94 to P97 pull-up
P100 to P103 pull-up
PU25
P104 to P107 pull-up
When reset
0016
Function
The corresponding port is pulled
high with a pull-up resistor
0 : Not pulled high
1 : Pulled high
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Figure 1.23.8. Pull-up control register
174
A
A
A
A
A
RW
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Port control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbpl
PCR
Address
03FF16
Bit symbol
PCR0
Bit name
Port P1 control register
When reset
0016
Function
0 : When input port, read port
input level. When output port,
read the contents of port P1
register.
1 : Read the contents of port P1
register though input/output
port.
R W
A
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be “0”.
Figure 1.23.9. Port control register
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Programmable I/O Port
Table 1.23.1. Example connection of unused pins in single-chip mode
Pin name
Connection
Ports P0 to P10
(excluding P85)
After setting for input mode, connect every pin to VSS or VCC via a
resistor; or after setting for output mode, leave these pins open.
XOUT (Note)
Open
NMI
Connect via resistor to VCC (pull-up)
AVCC
Connect to VCC
AVSS, VREF, BYTE
Connect to VSS
Note: With external clock input to XIN pin.
Table 1.23.2. Example connection of unused pins in memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode
Pin name
Connection
Ports P6 to P10
(excluding P85)
After setting for input mode, connect every pin to VSS or VCC via a
resistor; or after setting for output mode, leave these pins open.
P45 / CS1 to P47 / CS3
Sets ports to input mode, sets bits CS1 through CS3 to 0, and connects
to Vcc via resistors (pull-up).
BHE, ALE, HLDA,
XOUT (Note 1), BCLK (Note 2)
Open
HOLD, RDY, NMI
Connect via resistor to VCC (pull-up)
AVCC
Connect to VCC
AVSS, VREF
Connect to VSS
Note 1: With external clock input to XIN pin.
Note 2: When the BCLK output disable bit (bit 7 at address 000416) is set to “1”, connect to VCC via a resistor (pull-up).
Microcomputer
Microcomputer
Port P0 to P10 (except for P85)
Port P6 to P10 (except for P85)
(Input mode)
·
·
·
(Input mode)
(Output mode)
(Input mode)
·
·
·
(Input mode)
··
·
(Output mode)
Open
AVCC
NMI
BHE
HLDA
ALE
XOUT
BCLK (Note)
BYTE
HOLD
AVSS
RDY
VREF
AVCC
NMI
XOUT
Port P45 / CS1
to P47 / CS3
Open
VCC
··
·
Open
Open
VCC
AVSS
VREF
VSS
VSS
In single-chip mode
In memory expansion mode or
in microprocessor mode
Note : When the BCLK output disable bit (bit 7 at address 000416) is set to “1”, connect to VCC via a resistor (pull-up).
Figure 1.23.10. Example connection of unused pins
176
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Usage precaution
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Usage Precaution
Timer A (timer mode)
(1) Reading the timer Ai register while a count is in progress allows reading, with arbitrary timing, the
value of the counter. Reading the timer Ai register with the reload timing gets “FFFF16”. Reading the
timer Ai register after setting a value in the timer Ai register with a count halted but before the counter
starts counting gets a proper value.
Timer A (event counter mode)
(1) Reading the timer Ai register while a count is in progress allows reading, with arbitrary timing, the
value of the counter. Reading the timer Ai register with the reload timing gets “FFFF16” by underflow
or “000016” by overflow. Reading the timer Ai register after setting a value in the timer Ai register with
a count halted but before the counter starts counting gets a proper value.
(2) When stop counting in free run type, set timer again.
Timer A (one-shot timer mode)
(1) Setting the count start flag to “0” while a count is in progress causes as follows:
• The counter stops counting and a content of reload register is reloaded.
• The TAiOUT pin outputs “L” level.
• The interrupt request generated and the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(2) The timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1” if the timer's operation mode is set using any of the
following procedures:
• Selecting one-shot timer mode after reset.
• Changing operation mode from timer mode to one-shot timer mode.
• Changing operation mode from event counter mode to one-shot timer mode.
Therefore, to use timer Ai interrupt (interrupt request bit), set timer Ai interrupt request bit to “0”
after the above listed changes have been made.
Timer A (pulse width modulation mode)
(1) The timer Ai interrupt request bit becomes “1” if setting operation mode of the timer in compliance with
any of the following procedures:
• Selecting PWM mode after reset.
• Changing operation mode from timer mode to PWM mode.
• Changing operation mode from event counter mode to PWM mode.
Therefore, to use timer Ai interrupt (interrupt request bit), set timer Ai interrupt request bit to “0”
after the above listed changes have been made.
(2) Setting the count start flag to “0” while PWM pulses are being output causes the counter to stop
counting. If the TAiOUT pin is outputting an “H” level in this instance, the output level goes to “L”, and
the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”. If the TAiOUT pin is outputting an “L” level in this instance,
the level does not change, and the timer Ai interrupt request bit does not becomes “1”.
Timer B (timer mode, event counter mode)
(1) Reading the timer Bi register while a count is in progress allows reading , with arbitrary timing, the
value of the counter. Reading the timer Bi register with the reload timing gets “FFFF16”. Reading the
timer Bi register after setting a value in the timer Bi register with a count halted but before the counter
starts counting gets a proper value.
177
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Usage precaution
Timer B (pulse period/pulse width measurement mode)
(1) If changing the measurement mode select bit is set after a count is started, the timer Bi interrupt
request bit goes to “1”.
(2) When the first effective edge is input after a count is started, an indeterminate value is transferred to
the reload register. At this time, timer Bi interrupt request is not generated.
A-D Converter
(1) Write to each bit (except bit 6) of A-D control register 0, to each bit of A-D control register 1, and to bit
0 of A-D control register 2 when A-D conversion is stopped (before a trigger occurs).
In particular, when the Vref connection bit is changed from “0” to “1”, start A-D conversion after an
elapse of 1 µs or longer.
(2) When changing A-D operation mode, select analog input pin again.
(3) Using one-shot mode or single sweep mode
Read the correspondence A-D register after confirming A-D conversion is finished. (It is known by AD conversion interrupt request bit.)
(4) Using repeat mode, repeat sweep mode 0 or repeat sweep mode 1
Use the undivided main clock as the internal CPU clock.
Stop Mode and Wait Mode
____________
(1) When returning from stop mode by hardware reset, RESET pin must be set to “L” level until main clock
oscillation is stabilized.
(2) When switching to either wait mode or stop mode, instructions occupying four bytes either from the
WAIT instruction or from the instruction that sets the every-clock stop bit to “1” within the instruction
queue are prefetched and then the program stops. So put at least four NOPs in succession either to
the WAIT instruction or to the instruction that sets the every-clock stop bit to “1”.
Interrupts
(1) Reading address 0000016
• When maskable interrupt is occurred, CPU read the interrupt information (the interrupt number
and interrupt request level) in the interrupt sequence.
The interrupt request bit of the certain interrupt written in address 0000016 will then be set to “0”.
Reading address 0000016 by software sets enabled highest priority interrupt source request bit to “0”.
Though the interrupt is generated, the interrupt routine may not be executed.
Do not read address 0000016 by software.
(2) Setting the stack pointer
• The value of the stack pointer immediately after reset is initialized to 000016. Accepting an
interrupt before setting a value in the stack pointer may become a factor of runaway. Be sure to
set a value in the stack pointer before accepting an interrupt.
_______
When using the NMI interrupt, initialize the stack point at the beginning of a program. Concerning
_______
the first instruction immediately after reset, generating any interrupts including the NMI interrupt is
prohibited.
_______
(3) The NMI interrupt
_______
_______
• The NMI interrupt can not be disabled. Be sure to connect NMI pin to Vcc via a pull-up resistor if
unused.
_______
• Do not get either into stop mode with the NMI pin set to “L”.
178
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Usage precaution
(4) External interrupt
_______
_______
• When the polarity of the INT0 to INT5 pins is changed, the interrupt request bit is sometimes set
to "1". After changing the polarity, set the interrupt request bit to "0".
(5) Rewrite the interrupt control register
• To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that does not generate the interrupt
request for that register. If there is possibility of the interrupt request occur, rewrite the interrupt
control register after the interrupt is disabled. The program examples are described as follow:
Example 1:
INT_SWITCH1:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
NOP
NOP
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Four NOP instructions are required when using HOLD function.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 2:
INT_SWITCH2:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
MOV.W MEM, R0
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Dummy read.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 3:
INT_SWITCH3:
PUSHC FLG
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
POPC FLG
; Push Flag register onto stack
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Enable interrupts.
The reason why two NOP instructions (four when using the HOLD function) or dummy read are inserted
before FSET I in Examples 1 and 2 is to prevent the interrupt enable flag I from being set before the
interrupt control register is rewritten due to effects of the instruction queue.
• When a instruction to rewrite the interrupt control register is executed but the interrupt is disabled,
the interrupt request bit is not set sometimes even if the interrupt request for that register has
been generated. This will depend on the instruction. If this creates problems, use the below instructions to change the register.
Instructions : AND, OR, BCLR, BSET
Noise
(1) VPP line of one-time PROM version or EPROM version
• VPP (This line is for PROM programming power line) line of internal PROM connected to CNVSS
with one-time PROM version or EPROM version. So CNVSS should be a short line for improvement of noise resistance. If CNVSS line is long, you should insert an approximately 5K ohm
resistor close to CNVSS pin and connect to VSS or VCC.
Note 1: Inserting a 5 K ohm resistor will not cause any problem when switching to mask ROM version.
(2) Insert bypass capacitor between VCC and VSS pin for noise and latch up countermeasure.
• Insert bypass capacitor (about 0.1 µF) and connect short and wide line between VCC and VSS
lines.
179
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Usage precaution
External ROM version
The external ROM version is operated only in microprocessor mode, so be sure to perform the following:
• Connect CNVss pin to Vcc.
• Fix the processor mode bit to “112”
Built-in PROM version
(1) All built-in PROM versions
High voltage is required to program to the built-in PROM. Be careful not to apply excessive voltage.
Be especially careful during power-on.
(2) One Time PROM version
One Time PROM versions shipped in blank (M30620ECFP, M30620ECGP), of which built-in PROMs
are programmed by users, are also provided. For these microcomputers, a programming test and
screening are not performed in the assembly process and the following processes. Therefore ROM
write defectiveness occurs around 5 %. To improve their reliability after programming, we recommend
to program and test as flow shown in Figure 1.24.1 before use.
Programming with PROM programmer
Screening (Note)
(Leave at 150˚C for 40 hours)
Verify test PROM programmer
Function check in target device
Note: Never expose to 150˚C exceeding 100 hours.
Figure 1.24.1. Programming and test flow for One Time PROM version
(3) EPROM version
• Cover the transparent glass window with a shield or others during the read mode because exposing
to sun light or fluorescent lamp can cause erasing the information.
A shield to cover the transparent window is available from Mitsubishi Electric Corp. Be careful that
the shield does not touch the EPROM lead pins.
• Clean the transparent glass before erasing. Fingers’ flat and paste disturb the passage of ultraviolet
rays and may affect badly the erasure capability.
• The EPROM version is a tool only for program development (for evaluation), and do not use it for the
mass product run.
180
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Items to be submitted when ordering masked ROM version
Please submit the following when ordering masked ROM products:
(1) Mask ROM confirmation form
(2) Mark specification sheet
(3) ROM data : EPROMs or floppy disks
*: In the case of EPROMs, there sets of EPROMs are required per pattern.
*: In the case of floppy disks, 3.5-inch double-sided high-density disk (IBM format) is required per pattern.
181
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Electrical characteristics
Table 1.26.1. Absolute maximum ratings
Symbol
Vcc
AVcc
VI
VO
Pd
Topr
Tstg
Parameter
Supply voltage
Analog supply voltage
RESET, (maskROM : CNVSS, BYTE),
Input
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
voltage
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
P60 to P67, P72 to P77, P80 to P87,
P90 to P97, P100 to P107,
VREF, XIN
P70, P71,(EPROM : CNVSS, BYTE)
Output
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
voltage
P30 to P37,P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
Rated value
Unit
VCC=AVCC
VCC=AVCC
-0.3 to 6.5
V
-0.3 to 6.5
V
P60 to P67,P72 to P77, P80 to P84,
P86, P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107,
XOUT
P70, P71,
Power dissipation
Operating ambient temperature
Storage temperature
Note 1: When writing to EPROM ,only CNVss is –0.3 to 13 (V) .
Note 2: Specify a product of -40 to 85°C to use it.
182
Condition
Ta=25 C
-0.3 to Vcc+0.3
V
-0.3 to 6.5(Note 1)
V
-0.3 to Vcc+0.3
V
-0.3 to 6.5
V
300
-20 to 85 / -40 to 85(Note 2)
-65 to 150
mW
C
C
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Electrical characteristics
Table 1.26.2. Recommended operating conditions (referenced to VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V at Ta = – 20oC
to 85oC / – 40oC to 85oC(Note3) unless otherwise specified)
Standard
Symbol
Unit
Parameter
Typ.
Min
Max.
Vcc
AVcc
Vss
AVss
Supply voltage
Analog supply voltage
Supply voltage
Analog supply voltage
2.7
VIH
HIGH input P31 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57, P60 to P67,
P72 to P77, P80 to P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107,
voltage
XIN, RESET, CNVSS, BYTE
P70 , P71
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27, P30 (during single-chip mode)
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27, P30
(data input function during memory expansion and microprocessor modes)
5.5
V
V
V
V
0.8Vcc
Vcc
V
0.8Vcc
0.8Vcc
6.5
Vcc
V
V
0.5Vcc
Vcc
V
0
0.2Vcc
V
0
0.2Vcc
V
0
0.16Vcc
V
LOW input P31 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57, P60 to P67,
P70 to P77, P80 to P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107,
voltage
XIN, RESET, CNVSS, BYTE
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27, P30 (during single-chip mode)
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27, P30
VIL
(data input function during memory expansion and microprocessor modes)
HIGH peak output P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,P30 to P37,
P40 to P47, P50 to P57, P60 to P67,P72 to P77,
current
P80 to P84,P86,P87,P90 to P97,P100 to P107
HIGH average output P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,P30 to P37,
current
P40 to P47, P50 to P57, P60 to P67,P72 to P77,
P80 to P84,P86,P87,P90 to P97,P100 to P107
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,P30 to P37,
LOW peak output
P40 to P47, P50 to P57, P60 to P67,P70 to P77,
current
P80 to P84,P86,P87,P90 to P97,P100 to P107
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,P30 to P37,
LOW average
P40 to P47, P50 to P57, P60 to P67,P70 to P77,
output current
P80 to P84,P86,P87,P90 to P97,P100 to P107
Vcc=4.5V to 5.5V
EPROM version,
One time PROM
Vcc=2.7V to 4.5V
version
I OH (peak)
I OH (avg)
I OL (peak)
I OL (avg)
No wait
Main clock input
oscillation frequency
f (XIN)
With wait
f (XcIN)
5.0
Vcc
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Mask ROM version, Vcc=4.2V to 5.5V
Flash memory 5V
Vcc=2.7V to 4.2V
version (Note 5)
0
0
32.768
Subclock oscillation frequency
mA
-5.0
mA
10.0
mA
5.0
mA
16
MHz
6.95 X Vcc MHz
-15.275
16
MHz
0
Mask ROM version, Vcc=4.2V to 5.5V
Flash memory 5V
Vcc=2.7V to 4.2V
version (Note 5)
Vcc=4.5V to 5.5V
EPROM version,
One time PROM
Vcc=2.7V to 4.5V
version
-10.0
7.33 X Vcc
-14.791
16
5X Vcc
-6.5
16
4 X Vcc
-0.8
50
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
MHz
kHz
Note 1: The mean output current is the mean value within 100ms.
Note 2: The total IOL (peak) for ports P0, P1, P2, P86, P87, P9, and P10 must be 80mA max. The total IOH (peak) for ports P0, P1,
P2, P86, P87, P9, and P10 must be 80mA max. The total IOL (peak) for ports P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, and P80 to P84 must be
80mA max. The total IOH (peak) for ports P3, P4, P5, P6, P72 to P77, and P80 to P84 must be 80mA max.
Note 3: Specify a product of -40°C to 85°C to use it.
Note 4: Relationship between main clock oscillation frequency and supply voltage.
3.5
0.0
2.7
4.5
Supply voltage[V]
(BCLK: no division)
5.5
16.0
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
7.33 X VCC - 14.791MHZ
5.0
0.0
2.7
4.2
Supply voltage[V]
(BCLK: no division)
5.5
16.0
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
5 X VCC - 6.5MHZ
7.0
0.0
2.7
4.5
Supply voltage[V]
(BCLK: no division)
5.5
Main clock input oscillation frequency
(Mask ROM version, Flash memory 5V
version, With wait)
Operating maximum frequency [MHZ]
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
6.95 X VCC - 15.275MHZ
Main clock input oscillation frequency
(EPROM version, One-time PROM
version, With wait)
Operating maximum frequency [MHZ]
16.0
Main clock input oscillation frequency
(Mask ROM version, Flash memory 5V version,
No wait)
Operating maximum frequency [MHZ]
Operating maximum frequency [MHZ]
Main clock input oscillation frequency
(EPROM version, One-time PROM
version, No wait)
16.0
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
4 X VCC - 0.8MHZ
10.0
0.0
2.7
4.2
5.5
Supply voltage[V]
(BCLK: no division)
Note 5: Execute case without wait, program / erase of flash memory by VCC=4.2V to 5.5V and f(BCLK) ≤ 6.25 MHz. Execute case
with wait, program / erase of flash memory by VCC=4.2V to 5.5V and f(BCLK) ≤ 12.5 MHz.
183
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Electrical characteristics (Vcc = 5V)
VCC = 5V
Table 1.26.3. Electrical characteristics (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, f(XIN) =
16MHZ unless otherwise specified)
Parameter
Symbol
VOH
VOH
VOH
Measuring condition
HIGH output P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
voltage
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
IOH=-5mA
P60 to P67, P72 to P77, P80 to P84,
P86, P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107
HIGH output P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
voltage
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
IOH=-200µA
P60 to P67, P72 to P77, P80 to P84,
P86, P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107
HIGHPOWER
IOH=-1mA
HIGH output
XOUT
voltage
LOWPOWER
IOH=-0.5mA
HIGH output
voltage
XCOUT
Standard
Min Typ. Max.
Unit
3.0
V
4.7
V
3.0
V
3.0
HIGHPOWER
With no load applied
3 .0
LOWPOWER
With no load applied
1 .6
V
VOL
LOW output P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
voltage
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
P60 to P67, P70 to P77, P80 to P84,
P86, P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107
IOL=5mA
2 .0
V
VOL
LOW output P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
voltage
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
P60 to P67, P70 to P77, P80 to P84,
P86, P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107
IOL=200µA
0.45
V
VOL
LOW output
voltage
XOUT
HIGHPOWER
IOL=1mA
2 .0
LOWPOWER
IOL=0.5mA
2.0
LOW output
voltage
XCOUT
HIGHPOWER
With no load applied
0
LOWPOWER
With no load applied
0
Hysteresis
VT+-VT-
HOLD, RDY, TA0IN to TA4IN,
TB0IN to TB5IN, INT0 to INT5,
ADTRG, CTS0 to CTS2, CLK0 to
CLK4,TA2OUT to TA4OUT,NMI,
KI0 to KI3, RxD0 to RxD2, SIN3, SIN4
V
V
0.2
0 .8
V
0.2
1.8
V
VT+-VT-
Hysteresis
II H
HIGH input P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
current
P60 to P67, P70 to P77, P80 to P87,
P90 to P97, P100 to P107,
XIN, RESET, CNVss, BYTE
VI=5V
5 .0
µA
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
P60 to P67, P70 to P77, P80 to P87,
P90 to P97, P100 to P107,
XIN, RESET, CNVss, BYTE
VI=0V
-5.0
µA
P00 to P07, P10 to P17, P20 to P27,
P30 to P37, P40 to P47, P50 to P57,
P60 to P67, P72 to P77, P80 to P84,
P86, P87, P90 to P97, P100 to P107
VI=0V
167.0
kΩ
LOW input
current
I IL
RPULLUP
Pull-up
resistance
RESET
30.0
50.0
RfXIN
Feedback resistance XIN
1.0
MΩ
RfXCIN
Feedback resistance XCIN
6.0
MΩ
V
RAM retention voltage
RAM
When clock is stopped
In single-chip
mode, the
output pins are
open and other
pins are VSS
EPROM,
f(XIN)=16MHz
One-time PROM,
mask ROM versions Square wave, no division
Flash memory 5V
version
f(XIN)=16MHz
Square wave, no division
EPROM,
f(XCIN)=32kHz
One-time PROM,
mask ROM versions Square wave
Icc
Power supply current
Flash memory 5V
version
f(XCIN)=32kHz
Flash memory 5V
version
f(XCIN)=32kHz
Square wave, in RAM
Square wave, in flash memory
2.0
V
30.0
50.0
mA
35.0
50.0
mA
90.0
µA
90.0
µA
8.0
mA
4.0
µA
f(XCIN)=32kHz
When a WAIT instruction
is executed (Note)
Ta=25°C
when clock is stopped
Ta=85°C
when clock is stopped
Note : With one timer operated using fC32.
184
1 .0
µA
20.0
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Electrical characteristics (Vcc = 5V)
VCC = 5V
Table 1.26.4. A-D conversion characteristics (referenced to VCC = AVCC = VREF = 5V, Vss = AVSS = 0V
at Ta = 25oC, f(XIN) = 16MHZ unless otherwise specified)
Symbol
Parameter
Resolution
VREF = VCC
Absolute Sample & hold function not available
accuracy
VREF = VCC = 5V
Sample & hold function available(10bit)
Sample & hold function available(8bit)
RLADDER
tCONV
tCONV
tSAMP
VREF
VIA
Measuring condition
Ladder resistance
Conversion time(10bit)
Conversion time(8bit)
Sampling time
Reference voltage
Analog input voltage
Standard
Unit
Min. Typ. Max.
AN0 to AN7 input
VREF =VCC ANEX0, ANEX1 input,
= 5V
External op-amp connection mode
VREF = VCC = 5V
VREF = VCC
10
3.3
10
Bits
±3
±3
LSB
LSB
±7
LSB
±2
40
LSB
kkΩ
µs
2.8
0.3
2
VCC
µs
µs
V
0
VREF
V
Note: Divide the frequency if f(XIN) exceeds 10 MHz, and make ØAD equal to or lower than 10 MHz.
Table 1.26.5. D-A conversion characteristics (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = AVSS = 0V, VREF = 5V
at Ta = 25oC, f(XIN) = 16MHZ unless otherwise specified)
Symbol
tsu
RO
IVREF
Parameter
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
Setup time
Output resistance
Reference power supply input current
Measuring condition
Min.
4
(Note)
Standard
Typ. Max.
10
8
1.0
3
20
1.5
Unit
Bits
%
µs
kΩ
k
mA
Note: This applies when using one D-A converter, with the D-A register for the unused D-A converter set to “0016”.
The A-D converter's ladder resistance is not included.
Also, when DA register contents are not “00”, the current IVREF always flows even though Vref may
have been set to be “unconnected” by the A-D control register.
185
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Timing (VCC=5V)
VCC = 5V
Timing requirements (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC unless otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.6. External clock input
Symbol
tc
Parameter
External clock input cycle time
External clock input HIGH pulse width
External clock input LOW pulse width
External clock rise time
External clock fall time
tw(H)
tw(L)
tr
tf
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
ns
62.5
25
25
15
15
ns
ns
ns
ns
Table 1.26.7. Memory expansion and microprocessor modes
Symbol
Parameter
tac1(RD-DB)
Data input access time (no wait)
tac2(RD-DB)
Data input access time (with wait)
Data input access time (when accessing multiplex bus area)
Data input setup time
RDY input setup time
HOLD input setup time
Data input hold time
RDY input hold time
HOLD input hold time
HLDA output delay time
tac3(RD-DB)
tsu(DB-RD)
tsu(RDY-BCLK )
tsu(HOLD-BCLK )
th(RD-DB)
th(BCLK -RDY)
th(BCLK-HOLD )
td(BCLK-HLDA )
Note: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
tac1(RD – DB) =
10 9
– 45
f(BCLK) X 2
tac2(RD – DB) =
3 X 10
– 45
f(BCLK) X 2
tac3(RD – DB) =
3 X 10
– 45
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
9
[ns]
9
186
[ns]
Standard
Max.
Min.
(Note)
(Note)
(Note)
40
Unit
ns
ns
ns
40
ns
ns
ns
0
ns
0
ns
30
ns
0
40
ns
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (VCC=5V)
VCC = 5V
Timing requirements (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC unless otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.8. Timer A input (counter input in event counter mode)
Symbol
tc(TA)
Parameter
TAiIN input cycle time
tw(TAH)
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
tw(TAL)
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
Standard
Min.
Max.
100
40
40
Unit
ns
ns
ns
Table 1.26.9. Timer A input (gating input in timer mode)
Symbol
tc(TA)
tw(TAH)
tw(TAL)
Parameter
TAiIN input cycle time
Standard
Max.
Min.
400
200
200
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
Unit
ns
ns
ns
Table 1.26.10. Timer A input (external trigger input in one-shot timer mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Max.
Min.
Unit
tc(TA)
TAiIN input cycle time
200
ns
tw(TAH)
tw(TAL)
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
100
ns
100
ns
Table 1.26.11. Timer A input (external trigger input in pulse width modulation mode)
Symbol
tw(TAH)
tw(TAL)
Parameter
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
Standard
Max.
Min.
100
100
Unit
ns
ns
Table 1.26.12. Timer A input (up/down input in event counter mode)
Symbol
Parameter
tc(UP)
TAiOUT input cycle time
tw(UPH)
TAiOUT input HIGH pulse width
tw(UPL)
TAiOUT input LOW pulse width
tsu(UP-TIN)
TAiOUT input setup time
TAiOUT input hold time
th(TIN-UP)
Standard
Max.
Min.
2000
1000
1000
400
400
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
187
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Timing (VCC=5V)
VCC = 5V
Timing requirements (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC unless otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.13. Timer B input (counter input in event counter mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time (counted on one edge)
100
ns
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width (counted on one edge)
40
ns
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input LOW pulse width (counted on one edge)
ns
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time (counted on both edges)
40
200
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width (counted on both edges)
80
ns
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input LOW pulse width (counted on both edges)
80
ns
ns
Table 1.26.14. Timer B input (pulse period measurement mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time
400
ns
tw(TBH)
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width
TBiIN input LOW pulse width
200
200
ns
ns
Table 1.26.15. Timer B input (pulse width measurement mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time
400
ns
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width
200
ns
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input LOW pulse width
200
ns
Table 1.26.16. A-D trigger input
Symbol
tc(AD)
tw(ADL)
Parameter
ADTRG input cycle time (trigger able minimum)
ADTRG input LOW pulse width
Standard
Min.
1000
125
Max.
Unit
ns
ns
Table 1.26.17. Serial I/O
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tc(CK)
CLKi input cycle time
200
ns
tw(CKH)
CLKi input HIGH pulse width
100
ns
100
tw(CKL)
CLKi input LOW pulse width
td(C-Q)
TxDi output delay time
th(C-Q)
TxDi hold time
tsu(D-C)
RxDi input setup time
RxDi input hold time
th(C-D)
ns
80
ns
0
30
ns
90
ns
ns
_______
Table 1.26.18. External interrupt INTi inputs
Symbol
188
Parameter
tw(INH)
INTi input HIGH pulse width
tw(INL)
INTi input LOW pulse width
Standard
Min.
250
250
Max.
Unit
ns
ns
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (VCC=5V)
VCC = 5V
Switching characteristics (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, CM15 = “1” unless
otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.19. Memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode (no wait)
Symbol
td(BCLK-AD)
th(BCLK-AD)
th(RD-AD)
th(WR-AD)
td(BCLK-CS)
th(BCLK-CS)
td(BCLK-ALE)
th(BCLK-ALE)
td(BCLK-RD)
th(BCLK-RD)
td(BCLK-WR)
th(BCLK-WR)
td(BCLK-DB)
th(BCLK-DB)
td(DB-WR)
th(WR-DB)
Measuring condition
Parameter
Address output delay time
Address output hold time (BCLK standard)
Address output hold time (RD standard)
Address output hold time (WR standard)
Chip select output delay time
Chip select output hold time (BCLK standard)
ALE signal output delay time
ALE signal output hold time
RD signal output delay time
RD signal output hold time
WR signal output delay time
WR signal output hold time
Data output delay time (BCLK standard)
Data output hold time (BCLK standard)
Data output delay time (WR standard)
Data output hold time (WR standard)(Note2)
Standard
Min.
Max.
25
4
0
0
25
4
25
Figure 1.26.1
–4
25
0
25
0
40
4
(Note1)
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
0
Note 1: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
td(DB – WR) =
10 9
– 40
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
Note 2: This is standard value shows the timing when the output is off,
and doesn't show hold time of data bus.
Hold time of data bus is different by capacitor volume and pull-up
(pull-down) resistance value.
Hold time of data bus is expressed in
t = –CR X ln (1 – VOL / VCC)
by a circuit of the right figure.
For example, when VOL = 0.2VCC, C = 30pF, R = 1kΩ, hold time
of output “L” level is
t = – 30pF X 1kΩ X ln (1 – 0.2VCC / VCC)
= 6.7ns.
R
DBi
C
189
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Timing (VCC=5V)
VCC = 5V
Switching characteristics (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, CM15 = “1” unless
otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.20. Memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode
(with wait, accessing external memory)
Symbol
Measuring condition
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
td(BCLK-AD)
th(BCLK-AD)
th(RD-AD)
th(WR-AD)
Address output delay time
Address output hold time (BCLK standard)
Address output hold time (RD standard)
Address output hold time (WR standard)
4
0
0
td(BCLK-CS)
th(BCLK-CS)
Chip select output delay time
Chip select output hold time (BCLK standard)
4
td(BCLK-ALE)
th(BCLK-ALE)
td(BCLK-RD)
ALE signal output delay time
ALE signal output hold time
RD signal output delay time
th(BCLK-RD)
td(BCLK-WR)
RD signal output hold time
WR signal output delay time
0
th(BCLK-WR)
td(BCLK-DB)
WR signal output hold time
Data output delay time (BCLK standard)
0
th(BCLK-DB)
td(DB-WR)
th(WR-DB)
Data output hold time (BCLK standard)
Data output delay time (WR standard)
Data output hold time (WR standard)(Note2)
25
ns
ns
ns
ns
25
25
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
25
ns
ns
40
ns
ns
25
Figure 1.26.1
Unit
–4
4
(Note1)
ns
ns
ns
0
Note 1: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
td(DB – WR) =
10 9
f(BCLK)
– 40
[ns]
Note 2: This is standard value shows the timing when the output is off,
and doesn't show hold time of data bus.
Hold time of data bus is different by capacitor volume and pull-up
(pull-down) resistance value.
Hold time of data bus is expressed in
t = –CR X ln (1 – VOL / VCC)
by a circuit of the right figure.
For example, when VOL = 0.2VCC, C = 30pF, R = 1kΩ, hold time
of output “L” level is
t = – 30pF X 1kΩ X ln (1 – 0.2VCC / VCC)
= 6.7ns.
190
R
DBi
C
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (VCC=5V)
VCC = 5V
Switching characteristics (referenced to VCC = 5V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, CM15 = “1” unless
otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.21. Memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode
(with wait, accessing external memory, multiplex bus area selected)
Standard
Measuring condition
Symbol
Parameter
Min.
Max.
25
Unit
td(BCLK-AD)
Address output delay time
th(BCLK-AD)
th(RD-AD)
Address output hold time (BCLK standard)
Address output hold time (RD standard)
(Note)
ns
ns
th(WR-AD)
Address output hold time (WR standard)
(Note)
ns
td(BCLK-CS)
th(BCLK-CS)
th(RD-CS)
Chip select output delay time
Chip select output hold time (BCLK standard)
Chip select output hold time (RD standard)
th(WR-CS)
td(BCLK-RD)
th(BCLK-RD)
Chip select output hold time (WR standard)
RD signal output delay time
RD signal output hold time
td(BCLK-WR)
th(BCLK-WR)
td(BCLK-DB)
WR signal output delay time
WR signal output hold time
Data output delay time (BCLK standard)
th(BCLK-DB)
td(DB-WR)
Data output hold time (BCLK standard)
Data output delay time (WR standard)
th(WR-DB)
td(BCLK-ALE)
Data output hold time (WR standard)
ALE signal output delay time (BCLK standard)
th(BCLK-ALE)
td(AD-ALE)
ALE signal output hold time (BCLK standard)
ALE signal output delay time (Address standard)
(Note)
ns
ns
th(ALE-AD)
td(AD-RD)
ALE signal output hold time (Adderss standard)
Post-address RD signal output delay time
30
0
ns
ns
td(AD-WR)
tdZ(RD-AD)
Post-address WR signal output delay time
Address output floating start time
4
25
4
(Note)
(Note)
25
0
25
Figure 1.26.1
0
40
4
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
(Note)
(Note)
25
–4
0
8
ns
ns
ns
ns
Note: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
th(RD – AD) =
10 9
f(BCLK) X 2
th(WR – AD) =
10
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
th(RD – CS) =
10 9
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
th(WR – CS) =
10
f(BCLK) X 2
td(DB – WR) =
10 X 3
– 40
f(BCLK) X 2
th(WR – DB) =
10
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
td(AD – ALE) =
10 9
– 25
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
[ns]
9
9
[ns]
9
[ns]
9
191
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing
P0
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
P7
P8
P9
P10
Figure 1.26.1. Port P0 to P10 measurement circuit
192
30pF
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 5V)
VCC = 5V
tc(TA)
tw(TAH)
TAiIN input
tw(TAL)
tc(UP)
tw(UPH)
TAiOUT input
tw(UPL)
TAiOUT input
(Up/down input)
During event counter mode
TAiIN input
(When count on falling
edge is selected)
th(TIN–UP)
tsu(UP–TIN)
TAiIN input
(When count on rising
edge is selected)
tc(TB)
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input
tw(TBL)
tc(AD)
tw(ADL)
ADTRG input
tc(CK)
tw(CKH)
CLKi
tw(CKL)
th(C–Q)
TxDi
td(C–Q)
tsu(D–C)
th(C–D)
RxDi
tw(INL)
INTi input
tw(INH)
Figure 1.26.2. VCC=5V timing diagram (1)
193
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 5V)
VCC = 5V
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
(Valid only with wait)
BCLK
RD
(Separate bus)
WR, WRL, WRH
(Separate bus)
RD
(Multiplexed bus)
WR, WRL, WRH
(Multiplexed bus)
RDY input
tsu(RDY–BCLK)
th(BCLK–RDY)
(Valid with or without wait)
BCLK
tsu(HOLD–BCLK)
th(BCLK–HOLD)
HOLD input
HLDA output
td(BCLK–HLDA)
td(BCLK–HLDA)
P0, P1, P2,
P3, P4,
P50 to P52
Hi–Z
Note: The above pins are set to high-impedance regardless of the input level of the
BYTE pin and bit (PM06) of processor mode register 0 selects the function of
ports P40 to P43.
Measuring conditions :
• VCC=5V
• Input timing voltage : Determined with VIL=1.0V, VIH=4.0V
• Output timing voltage : Determined with VOL=2.5V, VOH=2.5V
Figure 1.26.3. VCC=5V timing diagram (2)
194
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 5V)
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
VCC = 5V
(With no wait)
Read timing
BCLK
td(BCLK–CS)
th(BCLK–CS)
4ns.min
25ns.max
CSi
th(RD–CS)
tcyc
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
25ns.max
ADi
BHE
ALE
4ns.min
th(RD–AD)
td(BCLK–ALE) th(BCLK–ALE)
0ns.min
–4ns.min
25ns.max
th(BCLK–RD)
td(BCLK–RD)
25ns.max
0ns.min
RD
tac1(RD–DB)
Hi–Z
DB
tSU(DB–RD)
th(RD–DB)
40ns.min
0ns.min
td(BCLK–CS)
th(BCLK–CS)
Write timing
BCLK
4ns.min
25ns.max
CSi
th(WR–CS)
tcyc
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK-AD)
25ns.max
ADi
BHE
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE) th(BCLK–ALE)
th(WR–AD) 0ns.min
–4ns.min
ALE
25ns.max
th(BCLK–WR)
td(BCLK–WR)
WR,WRL,
WRH
DB
0ns.min
25ns.max
td(BCLK–DB)
40ns.max
Hi-Z
th(BCLK–DB)
4ns.min
td(DB–WR)
th(WR–DB)
0ns.min
(tcyc/2–40)ns.min
Figure 1.26.4. VCC=5V timing diagram (3)
195
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 5V)
VCC = 5V
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
(When accessing external memory area with wait)
Read timing
BCLK
th(BCLK–CS)
td(BCLK–CS)
4ns.min
25ns.max
CSi
th(RD–CS)
tcyc
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
25ns.max
ADi
BHE
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE) 25ns.max
th(BCLK–ALE)
th(RD–AD)
0ns.min
–4ns.min
ALE
th(BCLK–RD)
td(BCLK–RD)
0ns.min
25ns.max
RD
tac2(RD–DB)
Hi–Z
DB
tSU(DB–RD)
th(RD–DB)
40ns.min
0ns.min
Write timing
BCLK
td(BCLK–CS)
th(BCLK–CS)
4ns.min
25ns.max
CSi
th(WR–CS)
tcyc
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
25ns.max
ADi
BHE
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE)
th(WR–AD)
25ns.max
th(BCLK–ALE)
0ns.min
–4ns.min
ALE
td(BCLK–WR)
25ns.max
WR,WRL,
WRH
td(BCLK–DB)
40ns.max
th(BCLK–WR)
0ns.min
th(BCLK–DB)
4ns.min
DBi
td(DB–WR)
(tcyc–40)ns.min
th(WR–DB)
0ns.min
Measuring conditions :
• VCC=5V
• Input timing voltage : Determined with: VIL=0.8V, VIH=2.5V
• Output timing voltage : Determined with: VOL=0.8V, VOH=2.0V
Figure 1.26.5. VCC=5V timing diagram (4)
196
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 5V)
VCC = 5V
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
(When accessing external memory area with wait, and select multiplexed bus)
Read timing
BCLK
td(BCLK–CS)
tcyc
CSi
td(AD–ALE)
th(BCLK–CS)
th(RD–CS)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
25ns.max
4ns.min
th(ALE–AD)
(tcyc/2-25)ns.min
30ns.min
ADi
/DBi
Address
Data input
tdz(RD–AD)
tac3(RD–DB)
8ns.max
Address
th(RD–DB)
tSU(DB–RD)
0ns.min
40ns.min
td(AD–RD)
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
25ns.max
ADi
BHE
ALE
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE)
th(BCLK–ALE)
th(RD–AD)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
–4ns.min
25ns.max
th(BCLK–RD)
td(BCLK–RD)
0ns.min
25ns.max
RD
Write timing
BCLK
td(BCLK–CS)
th(BCLK–CS)
tcyc
th(WR–CS)
25ns.max
4ns.min
(tcyc/2)ns.min
CSi
th(BCLK–DB)
td(BCLK–DB)
4ns.min
40ns.max
ADi
/DBi
Data output
Address
td(DB–WR)
(tcyc*3/2–40)ns.min
td(AD–ALE)
(tcyc/2–25)ns.min
ADi
BHE
ALE
Address
th(WR–DB)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
25ns.max
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE)
th(BCLK–ALE)
–4ns.min
td(AD–WR)
0ns.min
25ns.max
td(BCLK–WR)
25ns.max
WR,WRL,
WRH
th(WR–AD)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
th(BCLK–WR)
0ns.min
Measuring conditions :
• VCC=5V
• Input timing voltage : Determined with VIL=0.8V, VIH=2.5V
• Output timing voltage : Determined with VOL=0.8V, VOH=2.0V
Figure 1.26.6. VCC=5V timing diagram (5)
197
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Electrical characteristics (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Table 1.26.22. Electrical characteristics (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, f(XIN) =
7MHZ(Note 1) with wait)
Symbol
VOH
VOH
Measuring condition
Parameter
HIGH output
voltage
P00 to P07,P10 to P17,P20 to P27,
P30 to P37,P40 to P47,P50 to P57,
IOH=-1mA
P60 to P67,P72 to P77,P80 to P84,
P86,P87,P90 to P97,P100 to P107
HIGH output voltage
XOUT
HIGH output voltage XCOUT
IOH=-0.1mA
2.5
LOWPOWER
IOH=-50µA
2.5
HIGHPOWER
VOL
LOW output
voltage
XOUT
LOW output voltage XCOUT
V
0 .5
HIGHPOWER
IOL=0.1mA
0 .5
LOWPOWER
IOL=50µA
0 .5
HIGHPOWER
With no load applied
0
LOWPOWER
With no load applied
0
V
V
V
HOLD, RDY, TA0IN to TA4IN,
TB0IN to TB5IN, INT0 to INT5,
ADTRG, CTS0 to CTS2, CLK0 to
CLK4,TA2OUT to TA4OUT,NMI,
KI0 to KI3, RxD0 to RxD2, SIN3, SIN4
0.2
0 .8
V
Hysteresis
RESET
0.2
1.8
V
HIGH input
current
P00 to P07,P10 to P17,P20 to P27,
P30 to P37,P40 to P47,P50 to P57,
P60 to P67,P70 to P77,P80 to P87,
P90 to P97,P100 to P107,
VI=3V
4 .0
µA
VI=0V
-4.0
µA
500.0
kΩ
VT+-VT-
VT+-VT-
V
3.0
1 .6
P00 to P07,P10 to P17,P20 to P27,
P30 to P37,P40 to P47,P50 to P57,
IOL=1mA
P60 to P67,P70 to P77,P80 to P84,
P86,P87,P90 to P97,P100 to P107
LOW output voltage
Hysteresis
With no load applied
With no load applied
Unit
V
2.5
HIGHPOWER
LOWPOWER
VOL
Standard
Min Typ. Max.
II H
XIN, RESET, CNVss, BYTE
LOW input
current
I IL
P00 to P07,P10 to P17,P20 to P27,
P30 to P37,P40 to P47,P50 to P57,
P60 to P67,P70 to P77,P80 to P87,
P90 to P97,P100 to P107,
XIN, RESET, CNVss, BYTE
R PULLUP
Pull-up
resistance
P00 to P07,P10 to P17,P20 to P27,
P30 to P37,P40 to P47,P50 to P57,
P60 to P67,P72 to P77,P80 to P84,
P86,P87,P90 to P97,P100 to P107
VI=0V
66.0
120.0
R fXIN
Feedback resistance XIN
3.0
MΩ
R fXCIN
Feedback resistance XCIN
10.0
MΩ
V RAM
RAM retention voltage
When clock is stopped
In single-chip
mode, the
output pins are
open and other
pins are VSS
EPROM,Onetime PROM
versions
f(XIN)=7MHz
Mask ROM
version
f(XIN)=10MHz
Flash memory
5V version
f(XIN)=10MHz
Square wave, no division
Square wave, no division
Square wave, no division
EPROM,One-time
f(XCIN)=32kHz
PROM, mask
Square wave
ROM versions
Icc
Power supply current
Flash memory
5V version
f(XCIN)=32kHz
Flash memory
5V version
f(XCIN)=32kHz
Square wave in RAM
Square wave, in flash memory
2.0
V
6 .0
15.0
mA
8 .5
21.25
mA
13.5
21.25
mA
40.0
µA
40.0
µA
4.5
mA
2.8
µA
0 .9
µA
f(XCIN)=32kHz
When a WAITinstruction
is executed.
Oscillation capacity High
(Note2)
f(XCIN)=32kHz
When a WAIT instruction
is executed.
Oscillation capacity Low
(Note2)
Ta=25°C
when clock is stopped
1 .0
Ta=85°C
when clock is stopped
20.0
Note 1: 10 MHZ for the mask ROM version and flash memory 5V version.
Note 2: With one timer operated using fC32.
198
µA
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Electrical characteristics (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Table 1.26.23. A-D conversion characteristics (referenced to VCC = AVCC = VREF = 3V, VSS = AVSS =
0V at Ta = 25oC, f(XIN) = 7MHZ unless otherwise specified)
Standard
Symbol
Parameter
Measuring condition
Unit
Min. Typ. Max
10
VREF = VCC
Bits
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
Sample & hold function not available (8 bit)
Ladder resistance
RLADDER
VREF = VCC
Conversion EPROM, One-time PROM
Mask ROM, Flash memory (5V Version)
time (8bit)
Reference voltage
Analog input voltage
tCONV
VREF
VIA
±2
40
LSB
2.7
VCC
V
0
VREF
V
VREF = VCC = 3V, φAD = f(XIN )/2
10
14.0
9.8
kΩ
µs
µs
Note: 10 MHZ for the mask ROM version and flash memory 5V version.
Table 1.26.24. D-A conversion characteristics (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = AVSS = 0V, VREF = 3V
at Ta = 25oC, f(XIN) = 7MHZ(Note2) unless otherwise specified)
Symbol
tsu
RO
IVREF
Parameter
Resolution
Absolute accuracy
Setup time
Output resistance
Reference power supply input current
Measuring condition
Standard
Min. Typ. Max
Unit
8
1.0
3
20
1.0
Bits
%
µs
kΩ
mA
4
(Note1)
10
Note 1: This applies when using one D-A converter, with the D-A register for the unused D-A converter set to
“0016”. The A-D converter's ladder resistance is not included.
Also, when DA register contents are not “00”, the current IVREF always flows even though Vref may
have been set to be “unconnected” by the A-D control register.
Note 2: 10 MHZ for the mask ROM version and flash memory 5V version.
199
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Timing requirements (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC unless otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.25. External clock input
Symbol
Parameter
EPROM, One-time PROM
Mask ROM, Flash memory (5V version)
EPROM, One-time PROM
Mask ROM, Flash memory (5V version)
EPROM, One-time PROM
Mask ROM, Flash memory (5V version)
External clock input
cycle time
tc
External clock input
HIGH pulse width
tw(H)
tw(L)
External clock input
LOW pulse width
tr
tf
External clock rise time
External clock fall time
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
143
ns
100
60
ns
ns
40
60
ns
ns
40
18
18
ns
ns
ns
Table 1.26.26. Memory expansion and microprocessor modes
Symbol
tac1(RD-DB)
tac2(RD-DB)
tac3(RD-DB)
tsu(DB-RD)
tsu(RDY-BCLK )
tsu(HOLD-BCLK )
th(RD-DB)
th(BCLK -RDY)
th(BCLK-HOLD )
td(BCLK-HLDA)
Parameter
Data input access time (no wait)
Data input access time (with wait)
Data input access time (when accessing multiplex bus area)
Data input setup time
RDY input setup time
HOLD input setup time
Data input hold time
RDY input hold time
HOLD input hold time
HLDA output delay time
Note: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
tac1(RD – DB) =
10 9
– 90
f(BCLK) X 2
tac2(RD – DB) =
3 X 10
– 90
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
tac3(RD – DB) =
3 X 10 9
– 90
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
[ns]
9
200
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
(Note)
ns
ns
(Note)
ns
(Note)
ns
80
60
ns
ns
80
0
ns
0
ns
0
ns
100
ns
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Timing requirements (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC unless otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.27. Timer A input (counter input in event counter mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
150
Unit
tc(TA)
TAiIN input cycle time
tw(TAH)
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
60
ns
tw(TAL)
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
60
ns
ns
Table 1.26.28. Timer A input (gating input in timer mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tc(TA)
TAiIN input cycle time
600
ns
tw(TAH)
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
300
ns
tw(TAL)
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
300
ns
Table 1.26.29. Timer A input (external trigger input in one-shot timer mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tc(TA)
TAiIN input cycle time
300
tw(TAH)
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
150
ns
ns
tw(TAL)
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
150
ns
Table 1.26.30. Timer A input (external trigger input in pulse width modulation mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tw(TAH)
TAiIN input HIGH pulse width
150
ns
tw(TAL)
TAiIN input LOW pulse width
150
ns
Table 1.26.31. Timer A input (up/down input in event counter mode)
tc(UP)
TAiOUT input cycle time
Standard
Min.
Max.
3000
tw(UPH)
TAiOUT input HIGH pulse width
1500
tw(UPL)
TAiOUT input LOW pulse width
1500
ns
tsu(UP-TIN)
TAiOUT input setup time
600
ns
th(TIN-UP)
TAiOUT input hold time
600
ns
Symbol
Parameter
Unit
ns
ns
201
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Timing requirements (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC unless otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.32. Timer B input (counter input in event counter mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time (counted on one edge)
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width (counted on one edge)
60
ns
ns
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input LOW pulse width (counted on one edge)
60
ns
150
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time (counted on both edges)
300
ns
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width (counted on both edges)
160
ns
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input LOW pulse width (counted on both edges)
160
ns
Table 1.26.33. Timer B input (pulse period measurement mode)
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Max.
Unit
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time
Min.
600
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width
300
ns
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input LOW pulse width
300
ns
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
ns
ns
Table 1.26.34. Timer B input (pulse width measurement mode)
Symbol
Parameter
tc(TB)
TBiIN input cycle time
600
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input HIGH pulse width
300
ns
tw(TBL)
TBiIN input LOW pulse width
300
ns
Table 1.26.35. A-D trigger input
Symbol
Parameter
tc(AD)
ADTRG input cycle time (trigger able minimum)
tw(ADL)
ADTRG input LOW pulse width
Standard
Min.
Max.
Unit
1500
ns
200
ns
Table 1.26.36. Serial I/O
Symbol
Parameter
Standard
Min.
300
Max.
Unit
tc(CK)
CLKi input cycle time
tw(CKH)
CLKi input HIGH pulse width
150
ns
tw(CKL)
CLKi input LOW pulse width
150
ns
td(C-Q)
TxDi output delay time
th(C-Q)
TxDi hold time
tsu(D-C)
th(C-D)
ns
160
ns
0
ns
RxDi input setup time
50
ns
RxDi input hold time
90
ns
_______
Table 1.26.37. External interrupt INTi inputs
Symbol
202
Parameter
Standard
tw(INH)
INTi input HIGH pulse width
Min.
380
tw(INL)
INTi input LOW pulse width
380
Max.
Unit
ns
ns
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Switching characteristics (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, CM15 = “1” unless
otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.38. Memory expansion and microprocessor modes (with no wait)
Symbol
td(BCLK-AD)
th(BCLK-AD)
th(RD-AD)
th(WR-AD)
td(BCLK-CS)
th(BCLK-CS)
td(BCLK-ALE)
th(BCLK-ALE)
td(BCLK-RD)
th(BCLK-RD)
td(BCLK-WR)
th(BCLK-WR)
td(BCLK-DB)
th(BCLK-DB)
td(DB-WR)
th(WR-DB)
Measuring condition
Parameter
Address output delay time
Address output hold time (BCLK standard)
Address output hold time (RD standard)
Address output hold time (WR standard)
Chip select output delay time
Chip select output hold time (BCLK standard)
ALE signal output delay time
ALE signal output hold time
RD signal output delay time
RD signal output hold time
WR signal output delay time
WR signal output hold time
Data output delay time (BCLK standard)
Data output hold time (BCLK standard)
Data output delay time (WR standard)
Data output hold time (WR standard)(Note2)
Standard
Min.
Max.
60
4
0
0
60
4
60
Figure 1.26.1
—4
60
0
60
0
80
4
(Note1)
0
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Note 1: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
9
td(DB – WR) =
10
f(BCLK) X 2
– 80
[ns]
Note 2: This is standard value shows the timing when the output is off,
and doesn't show hold time of data bus.
Hold time of data bus is different by capacitor volume and pull-up
(pull-down) resistance value.
Hold time of data bus is expressed in
t = –CR X ln (1 – VOL / VCC)
by a circuit of the right figure.
For example, when VOL = 0.2VCC, C = 30pF, R = 1kΩ, hold time
of output “L” level is
t = – 30pF X 1kΩ X ln (1 – 0.2VCC / VCC)
= 6.7ns.
R
DBi
C
203
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Switching characteristics (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, CM15 = “1” unless
otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.39. Memory expansion and microprocessor modes
(when accessing external memory area with wait)
Symbol
Measuring condition
Parameter
td(BCLK-AD)
th(BCLK-AD)
th(RD-AD)
Address output delay time
Address output hold time (BCLK standard)
Address output hold time (RD standard)
th(WR-AD)
td(BCLK-CS)
th(BCLK-CS)
td(BCLK-ALE)
th(BCLK-ALE)
td(BCLK-RD)
th(BCLK-RD)
td(BCLK-WR)
th(BCLK-WR)
td(BCLK-DB)
th(BCLK-DB)
td(DB-WR)
th(WR-DB)
Address output hold time (WR standard)
Chip select output delay time
Chip select output hold time (BCLK standard)
ALE signal output delay time
ALE signal output hold time
RD signal output delay time
RD signal output hold time
WR signal output delay time
WR signal output hold time
Data output delay time (BCLK standard)
Data output hold time (BCLK standard)
Data output delay time (WR standard)
Data output hold time (WR standard)(Note2)
Figure 1.26.1
Standard
Min.
Max.
60
4
0
0
60
4
60
–4
60
0
60
0
80
4
(Note1)
0
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
Note 1: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
9
td(DB – WR) =
10
f(BCLK)
– 80
[ns]
Note 2: This is standard value shows the timing when the output is off,
and doesn't show hold time of data bus.
Hold time of data bus is different by capacitor volume and pull-up
(pull-down) resistance value.
Hold time of data bus is expressed in
t = –CR X ln (1 – VOL / VCC)
by a circuit of the right figure.
For example, when VOL = 0.2VCC, C = 30pF, R = 1kΩ, hold time
of output “L” level is
t = – 30pF X 1kΩ X ln (1 – 0.2VCC / VCC)
= 6.7ns.
204
R
DBi
C
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Switching characteristics (referenced to VCC = 3V, VSS = 0V at Ta = 25oC, CM15 = “1” unless
otherwise specified)
Table 1.26.40. Memory expansion and microprocessor modes
(when accessing external memory area with wait, and select multiplexed bus)
Symbol
Measuring condition
Parameter
Standard
Min.
Max.
60
4
td(BCLK-AD)
th(BCLK-AD)
Address output delay time
Address output hold time (BCLK standard)
th(RD-AD)
th(WR-AD)
Address output hold time (RD standard)
Address output hold time (WR standard)
td(BCLK-CS)
th(BCLK-CS)
Chip select output delay time
Chip select output hold time (BCLK standard)
th(RD-CS)
th(WR-CS)
td(BCLK-RD)
Chip select output hold time (RD standard)
Chip select output hold time (WR standard)
RD signal output delay time
th(BCLK-RD)
td(BCLK-WR)
RD signal output hold time
WR signal output delay time
th(BCLK-WR)
td(BCLK-DB)
WR signal output hold time
Data output delay time (BCLK standard)
0
th(BCLK-DB)
td(DB-WR)
th(WR-DB)
Data output hold time (BCLK standard)
Data output delay time (WR standard)
Data output hold time (WR standard)
4
(Note)
(Note)
td(BCLK-ALE)
th(BCLK-ALE)
ALE signal output delay time (BCLK standard)
ALE signal output hold time (BCLK standard)
td(AD-ALE)
th(ALE-AD)
ALE signal output delay time (Address standard)
ALE signal output hold time(Address standard)
td(AD-RD)
td(AD-WR)
tdZ(RD-AD)
Post-address RD signal output delay time
Post-address WR signal output delay time
Address output floating start time
ns
ns
ns
ns
(Note)
(Note)
60
4
ns
ns
60
ns
ns
ns
60
ns
ns
80
ns
ns
(Note)
(Note)
0
Figure 1.26.1
Unit
ns
ns
ns
–4
60
ns
ns
(Note)
50
ns
ns
0
0
ns
ns
ns
8
Note: Calculated according to the BCLK frequency as follows:
9
th(RD – AD) =
th(WR – AD) =
10
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
10 9
[ns]
f(BCLK) X 2
9
th(RD – CS) =
th(WR – CS) =
10
f(BCLK) X 2
[ns]
10 9
[ns]
f(BCLK) X 2
9
td(DB – WR) =
th(WR – DB) =
10 X 3
– 80
f(BCLK) X 2
10 9
[ns]
f(BCLK) X 2
td(AD – ALE) =
[ns]
10 9
f(BCLK) X 2
– 45
[ns]
205
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
tc(TA)
tw(TAH)
TAiIN input
tw(TAL)
tc(UP)
tw(UPH)
TAiOUT input
tw(UPL)
TAiOUT input
(Up/down input)
During event counter mode
TAiIN input
th(TIN–UP)
(When count on falling
edge is selected)
tsu(UP–TIN)
TAiIN input
(When count on rising
edge is selected)
tc(TB)
tw(TBH)
TBiIN input
tw(TBL)
tc(AD)
tw(ADL)
ADTRG input
tc(CK)
tw(CKH)
CLKi
tw(CKL)
th(C–Q)
TxDi
td(C–Q)
tsu(D–C)
RxDi
tw(INL)
INTi input
Figure 1.26.7. VCC=3V timing diagram (1)
206
tw(INH)
th(C–D)
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
(Valid only with wait)
BCLK
RD
(Separate bus)
WR, WRL, WRH
(Separate bus)
RD
(Multiplexed bus)
WR, WRL, WRH
(Multiplexed bus)
RDY input
tsu(RDY–BCLK)
th(BCLK–RDY)
(Valid with or without wait)
BCLK
tsu(HOLD–BCLK)
th(BCLK–HOLD)
HOLD input
HLDA output
td(BCLK–HLDA)
td(BCLK–HLDA)
P0, P1, P2,
P3, P4,
P50 to P52
Hi–Z
Note: The above pins are set to high-impedance regardless of the input level of the
BYTE pin and bit (PM06) of processor mode register 0 selects the function of
ports P40 to P43.
Measuring conditions :
• VCC=3V
• Input timing voltage : Determined with VIL=0.6V, VIH=2.4V
• Output timing voltage : Determined with VOL=1.5V, VOH=1.5V
Figure 1.26.8. VCC=3V timing diagram (2)
207
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
(With no wait)
Read timing
BCLK
th(BCLK–CS)
td(BCLK–CS)
4ns.min
60ns.max
CSi
th(RD–CS)
tcyc
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
60ns.max
ADi
BHE
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE) th(BCLK–ALE)
th(RD–AD) 0ns.min
–4ns.min
ALE
60ns.max
td(BCLK–RD)
60ns.max
th(BCLK–RD)
0ns.min
RD
tac1(RD–DB)
Hi–Z
DB
th(RD–DB)
0ns.min
tSU(DB–RD)
80ns.min
Write timing
BCLK
td(BCLK–CS)
th(BCLK–CS)
4ns.min
60ns.max
CSi
th(WR–CS)
tcyc
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
60ns.max
ADi
BHE
ALE
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE) th(BCLK–ALE)
th(BCLK–WR)
td(BCLK–WR)
60ns.max
td(BCLK–DB)
80ns.max
DB
0ns.min
–4ns.min
60ns.max
WR,WRL,
WRH
th(WR–AD)
0ns.min
th(BCLK–DB)
Hi–Z
4ns.min
th(WR–DB)
td(DB–WR)
(tcyc/2–80)ns.min
Figure 1.26.9. VCC=3V timing diagram (3)
208
0ns.min
VCC = 3V
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
(When accessing external memory area with wait)
Read timing
BCLK
th(BCLK–CS)
td(BCLK–CS)
4ns.min
60ns.max
CSi
tcyc
th(RD–CS)
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
60ns.max
ADi
BHE
4ns.min
td(BCLK–ALE)
th(RD–AD)
60ns.max
th(BCLK–ALE)
0ns.min
–4ns.min
ALE
td(BCLK–RD)
th(BCLK–RD)
0ns.min
60ns.max
RD
tac2(RD–DB)
Hi–Z
DB
th(RD–DB) 0ns.min
tSU(DB–RD)
80ns.min
Write timing
BCLK
td(BCLK–CS)
th(BCLK–CS)
60ns.max
4ns.min
CSi
th(WR–CS)
tcyc
0ns.min
td(BCLK–AD)
th(BCLK–AD)
60ns.max
ADi
BHE
td(BCLK–ALE)
4ns.min
th(BCLK–ALE)
th(WR–AD)
60ns.max
–4ns.min
0ns.min
ALE
td(BCLK–WR)
60ns.max
WR,WRL,
WRH
th(BCLK–WR)
0ns.min
th(BCLK–DB)
td(BCLK–DB)
4ns.min
80ns.max
DBi
td(DB–WR)
(tcyc–80)ns.min
th(WR–DB)
0ns.min
Measuring conditions :
• VCC=3V
• Input timing voltage : Determined with VIL=0.48V, VIH=1.5V
• Output timing voltage : Determined with VOL=1.5V, VOH=1.5V
Figure 1.26.10. VCC=3V timing diagram (4)
209
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timing (Vcc = 3V)
VCC = 3V
Memory Expansion Mode and Microprocessor Mode
(When accessing external memory area with wait, and select multiplexed bus)
Read timing
BCLK
th(BCLK–CS)
tcyc
td(BCLK–CS)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
CSi
td(AD–ALE) (tcyc/2–45)ns.min
tdz(RD–AD)
8ns.max
ADi
/DBi
Data input
Address
th(ALE–AD)
tac3(RD–DB)
tSU(DB–RD)
0ns.min
80ns.min
td(AD–RD)
td(BCLK–AD)
ALE
Address
th(RD–DB)
50ns.min
ADi
BHE
4ns.min
th(RD–CS)
60ns.max
th(BCLK–AD)
0ns.min
60ns.max
4ns.min
th(BCLK–ALE)
td(BCLK–ALE)
th(RD–AD)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
–4ns.min
60ns.max
th(BCLK–RD)
td(BCLK–RD)
0ns.min
60ns.max
RD
Write timing
BCLK
td(BCLK–CS)
tcyc
th(BCLK–CS)
th(WR–CS)
60ns.max
4ns.min
(tcyc/2)ns.min
CSi
td(BCLK–DB)
th(BCLK–DB)
4ns.min
80ns.max
ADi
/DBi
Address
td(AD–ALE)
(tcyc/2–60)ns.min
Data output
td(DB–WR)
(tcyc*3/2–80)ns.min
Address
th(WR–DB)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
th(BCLK–AD)
td(BCLK–AD)
ADi
BHE
4ns.min
60ns.max
td(BCLK–ALE) th(BCLK–ALE)
td(AD–WR)
0ns.min
ALE
60ns.max
–4ns.min
td(BCLK–WR)
60ns.max
WR,WRL,
WRH
th(WR–AD)
(tcyc/2)ns.min
th(BCLK–WR)
0ns.min
Measuring conditions :
• VCC=3V
• Input timing voltage : Determined with VIL=0.48V,VIH=1.5V
• Output timing voltage : Determined with VOL=1.5V,VOH=1.5V
Figure 1.26.11. VCC=3V timing diagram (5)
210
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SH12
58B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620M8-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Receipt
Date :
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
Customer
Date
issued
Date :
)
Issuance
TEL
(
Company
name
Submitted by
.
Supervisor
signature
GZZ
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30620M8-XXXFP
M30620M8-XXXGP
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
(hex)
EPROM type :
27C201
Address
AAAA
AAAA
27C401
Address
AAAA
AAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30620M8 0001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30620M8 0001016
2FFFF16
3000016
6FFFF16
7000016
ROM(64K)
3FFFF16
ROM(64K)
7FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30620M8-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'0 '
'M '
'8 '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3016
= 4D16
= 3816
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
0000916
FF16
0000A16
FF16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
211
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
58B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620M8-XXXGP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
27C201
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0C0000H
.BYTE
' M30620M8- '
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30620M8- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30620M8-XXXGP
M30620M8-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30620M8-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30620M8-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
212
MHZ
)
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
58B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620M8-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
213
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
60B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620MA-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Receipt
Date :
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
Date :
Issuance
)
Supervisor
signature
(
Customer
Date
issued
Submitted by
TEL
Company
name
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30620MA-XXXGP
M30620MA-XXXFP
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
(hex)
EPROM type :
27C201
Address
AAAA
AAAA
27C401
Address
AAAA
AAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30620MA0001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30620MA 0001016
27FFF16
2800016
67FFF16
6800016
ROM(96K)
3FFFF16
ROM(96K)
7FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30620MA-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
214
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'0 '
'M '
'A '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3016
= 4D16
= 4116
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
0000916
FF16
0000A16
FF16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
.
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
60B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620MA-XXXGP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
27C201
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0C0000H
.BYTE
' M30620MA- '
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30620MA- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30620MA-XXXGP
M30620MA-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30620MA-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30620MA-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
MHZ
215
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
60B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620MA-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
216
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SH12
62B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620MC-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Receipt
Date :
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
Customer
Date
issued
Date :
)
Issuance
TEL
(
Company
name
Submitted by
.
Supervisor
signature
GZZ
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30620MC-XXXGP
M30620MC-XXXFP
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
(hex)
EPROM type :
27C201
Address
AAAA
AAAA
27C401
Address
AAAA
AAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30620MC0001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30620MC 0001016
1FFFF16
2000016
5FFFF16
6000016
ROM(128K)
3FFFF16
ROM(128K)
7FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30620MC-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'0 '
'M '
'C '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3016
= 4D16
= 4316
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
0000916
FF16
0000A16
FF16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
217
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
62B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620MC-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
27C201
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0C0000H
.BYTE
' M30620MC- '
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30620MC- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30620MC-XXXGP
M30620MC-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30620MC-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30620MC-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
218
MHZ
)
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
62B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30620MC-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
219
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
74B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622M4-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Date :
Receipt
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
Issuance
)
Customer
Date
issued
Date :
Supervisor
signature
Submitted by
TEL
(
Company
name
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622M4-XXXFP
M30622M4-XXXGP
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
(hex)
EPROM type :
27C101
Address
AAAA
AAAA
Address
Address
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA AAAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622M40001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622M4 0001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622M4 0001016
17FFF16
1800016
37FFF16
3800016
77FFF16
7800016
ROM(32K)
1FFFF16
ROM(32K)
ROM(32K)
7FFFF16
3FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30622M4-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
220
27C401
27C201
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'2 '
'M '
'4 '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3216
= 4D16
= 3416
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
0000916
FF16
0000A16
FF16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
.
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
74B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622M4-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
27C101
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
27C201
.SECTION
ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0E0000H
.BYTE
' M30622M4- '
.SECTION
ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0C0000H
.BYTE
' M30622M4- '
.SECTION
ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30622M4- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622M4-XXXGP
M30622M4-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30622M4-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30622M4-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
MHZ
221
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
74B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622M4-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
222
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SH12
64B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622M8-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Receipt
Date :
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
)
Date :
Issuance
(
Customer
Date
issued
Submitted by
TEL
Company
name
.
Supervisor
signature
GZZ
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622M8-XXXFP
M30622M8-XXXGP
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
(hex)
EPROM type :
27C401
27C201
Address
Address
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA AAAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622M8 0001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622M8 0001016
2FFFF16
3000016
6FFFF16
7000016
ROM(64K)
3FFFF16
ROM(64K)
7FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30622M8-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'2 '
'M '
'8 '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3016
= 4D16
= 3816
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
FF16
0000916
FF16
0000A16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
223
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
64B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622M8-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
27C201
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0C0000H
.BYTE
' M30622M8- '
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30622M8- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622M8-XXXGP
M30622M8-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30622M8-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30622M8-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
224
MHZ
)
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
64B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622M8-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
225
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
66B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622MA-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Receipt
Date :
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
)
Date :
Issuance
(
Customer
Supervisor
signature
TEL
Company
name
Date
issued
Submitted by
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622MA-XXXGP
M30622MA-XXXFP
(hex)
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
EPROM type :
27C401
27C201
Address
Address
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA AAAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622MA0001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622MA 0001016
27FFF16
2800016
67FFF16
6800016
ROM(96K)
ROM(96K)
3FFFF16
7FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30622MA-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
226
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'2 '
'M '
'A '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3216
= 4D16
= 4116
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
0000916
FF16
FF16
0000A16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
.
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
66B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622MA-XXXGP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
27C201
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0C0000H
.BYTE
' M30622MA- '
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30622MA- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622MA-XXXGP
M30622MA-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30622MA-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30622MA-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
MHZ
227
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
66B <82A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622MA-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
228
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SH12
03B <77A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622MC-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Receipt
Date :
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
(
)
Customer
Date :
Issuance
TEL
Company
name
Date
issued
Submitted by
.
Supervisor
signature
GZZ
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622MC-XXXGP
M30622MC-XXXFP
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
(hex)
EPROM type :
27C201
Address
27C401
Address
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA AAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622MC0001016
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30622MC 0001016
1FFFF16
2000016
5FFFF16
6000016
ROM(128K)
3FFFF16
ROM(128K)
7FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30622MC-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'2 '
'M '
'C '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3216
= 4D16
= 4316
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
0000916
FF16
0000A16
FF16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
229
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
03B <77A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622MC-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
27C201
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 0C0000H
.BYTE
' M30622MC- '
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30622MC- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30622MC-XXXGP
M30622MC-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30622MC-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30622MC-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
230
MHZ
)
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
03B <77A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30622MC-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
231
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
78B <83A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30624MG-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
Receipt
Date :
Section head
signature
Supervisor
signature
Note : Please complete all items marked
Date
issued
Date :
)
Issuance
Customer
Submitted by
Supervisor
signature
TEL
(
Company
name
1. Check sheet
Name the product you order, and choose which to give in, EPROMs or floppy disks.
If you order by means of EPROMs, three sets of EPROMs are required per pattern. If you order by
means of floppy disks, one floppy disk is required per pattern.
In the case of EPROMs
Mitsubishi will create the mask using the data on the EPROMs supplied, providing the data is the
same on at least two of those sets. Mitsubishi will, therefore, only accept liability if there is any
discrepancy between the data on the EPROM sets and the ROM data written to the product.
Please carefully check the data on the EPROMs being submitted to Mitsubishi.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30624MG-XXXGP
M30624MG-XXXFP
Checksum code for total EPROM area :
(hex)
EPROM type :
27C401
Address
AAAA
AAAA
0000016 Product : Area
containing ASCII
0000F16 code for M30624MG0001016
3FFFF16
4000016
ROM(128K)
7FFFF16
(1) Write “FF16” to the lined area.
(2) The area from 0000016 to 0000F16 is for storing
data on the product type name.
The ASCII code for 'M30624MG-' is shown at right.
The data in this table must be written to address
0000016 to 0000F16.
Both address and data are shown in hex.
232
Address
Address
0000016
0000116
0000216
0000316
0000416
0000516
0000616
0000716
'M '
'3 '
'0 '
'6 '
'2 '
'4 '
'M '
'G '
= 4D16
= 3316
= 3016
= 3616
= 3216
= 3416
= 4D16
= 4716
0000816 ' — ' = 2D16
0000916
FF16
0000A16
FF16
FF16
0000B16
FF16
0000C16
FF16
0000D16
FF16
0000E16
FF16
0000F16
.
t
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
78B <83A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30624MG-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
The ASCII code for the type No. can be written to EPROM addresses 0000016 to 0000F16 by specifying the
pseudo-instructions for the respective EPROM type shown in the following table at the beginning of the
assembler source program.
EPROM type
Code entered in
source program
27C401
.SECTION ASCIICODE, ROM DATA
.ORG 080000H
.BYTE
' M30624MG- '
Note: The ROM cannot be processed if the type No. written to the EPROM does not match the type No.
in the check sheet.
In the case of floppy disks
Mitsubishi processes the mask files generated by the mask file generation utilities out of those held on
the floppy disks you give in to us, and forms them into masks. Hence, we assume liability provided that
there is any discrepancy between the contents of these mask files and the ROM data to be burned into
products we produce. Check thoroughly the contents of the mask files you give in.
Prepare 3.5 inches 2HD(IBM format) floppy disks. And store only one mask file in a floppy disk.
Microcomputer type No. :
M30624MG-XXXGP
M30624MG-XXXFP
File code :
(hex)
Mask file name :
.MSK (alpha-numeric 8-digit)
2. Mark specification
The mark specification differs according to the type of package. After entering the mark specification on
the separate mark specification sheet (for each package), attach that sheet to this masking check sheet
for submission to Mitsubishi.
For the M30624MG-XXXFP, submit the 100P6S mark specification sheet. For the M30624MG-XXXGP,
submit the 100P6Q mark specification sheet.
3. Usage Conditions
For our reference when of testing our products, please reply to the following questions about the usage of
the products you ordered.
(1) Which kind of XIN-XOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XIN) =
MHZ
233
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
GZZ
SH12
78B <83A0>
Mask ROM number
MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT
MICROCOMPUTER M30624MG-XXXFP/GP
MASK ROM CONFIRMATION FORM
(2) Which kind of XCIN-XCOUT oscillation circuit is used?
Ceramic resonator
Quartz-crystal oscillator
External clock input
Other (
)
What frequency do you use?
f(XCIN) =
kHZ
(3) Which operation mode do you use?
Single-chip mode
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
(4) Which operating ambient temperature do you use?
–10 °C to 75 °C
–20 °C to 75 °C
–40 °C to 75 °C
–10 °C to 85 °C
–20 °C to 85 °C
–40 °C to 85 °C
(5) Which operating supply voltage do you use?
2.7V to 3.2V
3.2V to 3.7V
3.7V to 4.2V
4.2V to 4.7V
4.7V to 5.2V
5.2V to 5.5V
Thank you cooperation.
4. Special item (Indicate none if there is no specified item)
234
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description (Flash Memory Version)
Outline Performance
Table 1.28.1 shows the outline performance of the M16C/62 (flash memory version) and Table 1.28.2
shows the power supply current( Typ.).
Table 1.28.1. Outline Performance of the M16C/62 (flash memory version)
Item
Performance
Power supply voltage
5V version: 2.7V to 5.5 V
(f(XIN)=16MHz, without wait, 4.2V to 5.5V,
f(XIN)=10MHz, with one wait, 2.7V to 5.5V)
3V version: 2.4V to 3.6 V
(f(XIN)=10MHz, without wait, 2.7V to 3.6V,
f(XIN)=7MHz, without wait, 2.4V to 3.6V)
Program/erase voltage
5V version: 4.2V to 5.5 V
(f(XIN)=12.5MHz, with one wait,
f(XIN)=6.25MHz, without wait)
3V version: 2.7V to 3.6 V
(f(XIN)=10MHz, with one wait,
f(XIN)=6.25MHz, without wait)
Flash memory operation mode
Three modes (parallel I/O, standard serial I/O, CPU rewrite)
Erase block
division
User ROM area
See Figure 1.28.1
Boot ROM area
One division (8 Kbytes) (Note 1)
Program method
In units of pages (in units of 256 bytes)
Erase method
Collective erase/block erase
Program/erase control method
Program/erase control by software command
Protect method
Protected for each block by lock bit
Number of commands
8 commands
Program/erase count
100 times
ROM code protect
Parallel I/O and standard serial modes are supported.
3V version main clock input
oscillation frequency(Max.)
(Note2)
10 X VCC - 17 MHz (VCC=2.4V to 2.7V,without wait)
10MHz (VCC=2.7V to 3.6V,without wait)
3V version power supply
current (Notes 3, 4)
12.0mA(Typ.), 21.25mA(Max.) (VCC=3V, f(XIN)=10MHz, square wave, no division, without wait)
40µA(Typ.) (VCC=3V, f(XCIN)=32kHz, square wave, without wait) [operate in RAM]
700µA(Typ.) (VCC=3V, f(XCIN)=32kHz, square wave, without wait) [operate in flash memory]
Note1: The boot ROM area contains a standard serial I/O mode control program which is stored in it when shipped from the factory.
This area can be erased and programmed in only parallel I/O mode.
Note2: Refer to recommended operating conditions about 5 V version. 3V version relationship between main clock oscillation
frequency and supply voltage are as follows.
Operating maximum frequency [MHZ]
Main clock input oscillation frequency
(flash memory 3V version, without wait)
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
10.0
10 X VCC - 17MHZ
7.0
0.0
2.4
2.7
3.6
Supply voltage[V] (BCLK: no division)
Note3: Refer to electric characteristic about 5V version.
Note4: A standard value in stop and wait modes do not depend on a kind of memory to have built-in and is the same class. Refer to
electric characteristic in VCC=3V.
Table 1.28.2. Power supply current (typ.) of the M16C/62 (flash memory version)
Standard (Typ.)
Parameter
Remark
Measuring condition
Read
Program
Erase
28mA
25mA
-
-
17mA
14mA
5V power supply current(5V version)
f(XIN)=16MHz, without wait, No division
35mA
3V power supply current(5V version)
f(XIN)=10MHz, with wait, No division
13.5mA
3V power supply current(3V version)
f(XIN)=10MHz, without wait, No division
12mA
Division by 4 in program/erase
Division by 2 in program/erase
235
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Description (Flash Memory Version)
Flash Memory
The M16C/62 (flash memory version) contains the DINOR (DIvided bit line NOR) type of flash memory that
can be rewritten with a single voltage of 5 V or 3.3 V. For this flash memory, three flash memory modes are
available in which to read, program, and erase: parallel I/O and standard serial I/O modes in which the flash
memory can be manipulated using a programmer and a CPU rewrite mode in which the flash memory can
be manipulated by the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Each mode is detailed in the pages to follow.
The flash memory is divided into several blocks as shown in Figure 1.28.1, so that memory can be erased
one block at a time. Each block has a lock bit to enable or disable execution of an erase or program
operation, allowing for data in each block to be protected.
In addition to the ordinary user ROM area to store a microcomputer operation control program, the flash
memory has a boot ROM area that is used to store a program to control rewriting in CPU rewrite and
standard serial I/O modes. This boot ROM area has had a standard serial I/O mode control program stored
in it when shipped from the factory. However, the user can write a rewrite control program in this area that
suits the user’s application system. This boot ROM area can be rewritten in only parallel I/O mode.
0C000016
Block 6 : 64K byte
0D000016
Block 5 : 64K byte
0E000016
Block 4 : 64K byte
0F000016
Flash memory Flash memory
start address
size
256 K byte
0C000016
0F800016
0FA00016
0FC00016
Block 3 : 32K byte
Block 2 : 8K byte
Block 1 : 8K byte
Block 0 : 16K byte
0FFFFF16
User ROM area
Figure 1.28.1. Block diagram of flash memory version
236
Note 1: The boot ROM area can be rewritten in
only parallel input/output mode. (Access
to any other areas is inhibited.)
Note 2: To specify a block, use the maximum
address in the block that is an even
address.
0FE00016
0FFFFF16
8K byte
Boot ROM area
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode
In CPU rewrite mode, the on-chip flash memory can be operated on (read, program, or erase) under control
of the Central Processing Unit (CPU).
In CPU rewrite mode, only the user ROM area shown in Figure 1.28.1 can be rewritten; the boot ROM area
cannot be rewritten. Make sure the program and block erase commands are issued for only the user ROM
area and each block area.
The control program for CPU rewrite mode can be stored in either user ROM or boot ROM area. In the CPU
rewrite mode, because the flash memory cannot be read from the CPU, the rewrite control program must
be transferred to any area other than the internal flash memory before it can be executed.
Microcomputer Mode and Boot Mode
The control program for CPU rewrite mode must be written into the user ROM or boot ROM area in
parallel I/O mode beforehand. (If the control program is written into the boot ROM area, the standard
serial I/O mode becomes unusable.)
See Figure 1.28.1 for details about the boot ROM area.
Normal microcomputer mode is entered when the microcomputer is reset with pulling CNVSS pin low. In
this case, the CPU starts operating using the control program in the user ROM area.
When the microcomputer is reset by pulling the P55 pin low, the CNVSS pin high, and the P50 pin high, the
CPU starts operating using the control program in the boot ROM area. This mode is called the “boot”
mode. The control program in the boot ROM area can also be used to rewrite the user ROM area.
Block Address
Block addresses refer to the maximum even address of each block. These addresses are used in the
block erase command, lock bit program command, and read lock status command.
237
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Outline Performance (CPU Rewrite Mode)
In the CPU rewrite mode, the CPU erases, programs and reads the internal flash memory as instructed by
software commands. Operations must be executed from a memory other than the internal flash memory,
such as the internal RAM.
When the CPU rewrite mode select bit (bit 1 at address 03B716) is set to “1”, transition to CPU rewrite mode
occurs and software commands can be accepted.
In the CPU rewrite mode, write to and read from software commands and data into even-numbered address (“0” for byte address A0) in 16-bit units. Always write 8-bit software commands into even-numbered
address. Commands are ignored with odd-numbered addresses.
Use software commands to control program and erase operations. Whether a program or erase operation
has terminated normally or in error can be verified by reading the status register.
Figure 1.29.1 shows the flash memory control register 0 and the flash memory control register 1.
_____
Bit 0 of the flash memory control register 0 is the RY/BY status flag used exclusively to read the operating
status of the flash memory. During programming and erase operations, it is “0”. Otherwise, it is “1”.
Bit 1 of the flash memory control register 0 is the CPU rewrite mode select bit. The CPU rewrite mode is
entered by setting this bit to “1”, so that software commands become acceptable. In CPU rewrite mode, the
CPU becomes unable to access the internal flash memory directly. Therefore, write bit 1 in an area other
than the internal flash memory. To set this bit to “1”, it is necessary to write “0” and then write “1” in
succession. The bit can be set to “0” by only writing a “0” .
Bit 2 of the flash memory control register 0 is a lock bit disable bit. By setting this bit to “1”, it is possible to
disable erase and write protect (block lock) effectuated by the lock bit data. The lock bit disable select bit
only disables the lock bit function; it does not change the lock data bit value. However, if an erase operation
is performed when this bit =“1”, the lock bit data that is “0” (locked) is set to “1” (unlocked) after erasure. To
set this bit to “1”, it is necessary to write “0” and then write “1” in succession. This bit can be manipulated
only when the CPU rewrite mode select bit = “1”.
Bit 3 of the flash memory control register 0 is the flash memory reset bit used to reset the control circuit of
the internal flash memory. This bit is used when exiting CPU rewrite mode and when flash memory access
has failed. When the CPU rewrite mode select bit is “1”, writing “1” for this bit resets the control circuit. To
release the reset, it is necessary to set this bit to “0”.
Bit 5 of the flash memory control register 0 is a user ROM area select bit which is effective in only boot
mode. If this bit is set to “1” in boot mode, the area to be accessed is switched from the boot ROM area to
the user ROM area. When the CPU rewrite mode needs to be used in boot mode, set this bit to “1”. Note
that if the microcomputer is booted from the user ROM area, it is always the user ROM area that can be
accessed and this bit has no effect. When in boot mode, the function of this bit is effective regardless of
whether the CPU rewrite mode is on or off. Use the control program except in the internal flash memory to
rewrite this bit.
238
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Bit 3 of the flash memory control register 1 turns power supply to the internal flash memory on/off. When
this bit is set to “1”, power is not supplied to the internal flash memory, thus power consumption can be
reduced. However, in this state, the internal flash memory cannot be accessed. To set this bit to “1”, it is
necessary to write “0” and then write “1” in succession. Use this bit mainly in the low speed mode (when
XCIN is the block count source of BCLK).
When the CPU is shifted to the stop or wait modes, power to the internal flash memory is automatically shut
off. It is reconnected automatically when CPU operation is restored. Therefore, it is not particularly necessary to set flash memory control register 1.
Figure 1.29.2 shows a flowchart for setting/releasing the CPU rewrite mode. Figure 1.29.3 shows a flowchart for shifting to the low speed mode. Always perform operation as indicated in these flowcharts.
Flash memory control register 0
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
0
Symbol
Address
When reset
FMR0
03B716
XX0000012
Bit name
Bit symbol
Function
AA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
R WW
R
FMR00
RY/BY status flag
0: Busy (being written or erased)
1: Ready
FMR01
CPU rewrite mode
select bit (Note 1)
0: Normal mode
(Software commands invalid)
1: CPU rewrite mode
(Software commands acceptable)
FMR02
Lock bit disable bit
(Note 2)
0: Block lock by lock bit data is
enabled
1: Block lock by lock bit data is
disabled
FMR03
Flash memory reset bit
(Note 3)
0: Normal operation
1: Reset
Reserved bit
FMR05
Must always be set to “0”
User ROM area select bit ( 0: Boot ROM area is accessed
Note 4) (Effective in only 1: User ROM area is accessed
boot mode)
Nothing is assigned.
When write, set "0". When read, values are indeterminate.
Note 1: For this bit to be set to “1”, the user needs to write a “0” and then a “1” to
it in succession. When it is not this procedure, it is not enacted in “1”.
This is necessary to ensure that no interrupt or DMA transfer will be
executed during the interval. Use the control program except in the
internal flash memory for write to this bit.
Note 2: For this bit to be set to “1”, the user needs to write a “0” and then a “1” to
it in succession when the CPU rewrite mode select bit = “1”. When it is
not this procedure, it is not enacted in “1”. This is necessary to ensure
that no interrupt or DMA transfer will be executed during the interval.
Note 3: Effective only when the CPU rewrite mode select bit = 1. Set this bit to 0
subsequently after setting it to 1 (reset).
Note 4: Use the control program except in the internal flash memory for write to
this bit.
Flash memory control register 1
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0
Symbol
Address
When reset
FMR1
03B616
XXXX0XXX2
Bit name
Bit symbol
Function
Reserved bit
Must always be set to “0”
FMR13
0: Flash memory power supply is
connected
1: Flash memory power supply-off
Flash memory power
supply-OFF bit (Note)
Reserved bit
Must always be set to “0”
AA
AAA
R WW
R
Note : For this bit to be set to “1”, the user needs to write a “0” and then a “1” to
it in succession. When it is not this procedure, it is not enacted in “1”.
This is necessary to ensure that no interrupt or DMA transfer will be
executed during the interval. Use the control program except in the
internal flash memory for write to this bit.
During parallel I/O mode,programming,erase or read of flash memory is
not controlled by this bit,only by external pins.
Figure 1.29.1. Flash memory control registers
239
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Program in ROM
Program in RAM
Start
Single-chip mode, memory expansion
mode, or boot mode
Set processor mode register (Note 1)
Transfer CPU rewrite mode control
program to internal RAM
Jump to transferred control program in RAM
(Subsequent operations are executed by control
program in this RAM)
*1
(Boot mode only)
Set user ROM area select bit to “1”
Set CPU rewrite mode select bit to “1” (by
writing “0” and then “1” in succession)(Note 2)
Using software command execute erase,
program, or other operation
(Set lock bit disable bit as required)
Execute read array command or reset flash
memory by setting flash memory reset bit (by
writing “1” and then “0” in succession) (Note 3)
*1
Write “0” to CPU rewrite mode select bit
(Boot mode only)
Write “0” to user ROM area select bit (Note 4)
End
Note 1: During CPU rewrite mode, set the main clock frequency as shown below using the main clock divide ratio
select bit (bit 6 at address 000616 and bits 6 and 7 at address 000716):
6.25 MHz or less when wait bit (bit 7 at address 000516) = “0” (without internal access wait state)
12.5 MHz or less when wait bit (bit 7 at address 000516) = “1” (with internal access wait state)
Note 2: For CPU rewrite mode select bit to be set to “1”, the user needs to write a “0” and then a “1” to it in
succession. When it is not this procedure, it is not enacted in “1”. This is necessary to ensure that no
interrupt or DMA transfer will be executed during the interval.
Note 3: Before exiting the CPU rewrite mode after completing erase or program operation, always be sure to
execute a read array command or reset the flash memory.
Note 4: “1” can be set. However, when this bit is “1”, user ROM area is accessed.
Figure 1.29.2. CPU Rewrite Mode Set/Reset Flowchart
Program in ROM
Program in RAM
Start
Transfer the program to be executed in the
low speed mode, to the internal RAM.
Jump to transferred control program in RAM
(Subsequent operations are executed by control
program in this RAM)
*1
Set flash memory power supply-OFF bit to “1”
(by writing “0” and then “1” in succession)(Note 1)
Switch the count source of BCLK.
XIN stop. (Note 2)
Process of low speed mode
*1
XIN oscillating
Wait until the XIN has stabilized
Switch the count source of BCLK (Note 2)
Set flash memory power supply-OFF bit to “0”
Wait time until the internal circuit stabilizes
(Set NOP instruction about twice)
End
Note 1: For flash memory power supply-OFF bit to be set to “1”, the user needs to write a “0” and then a “1” to it in
succession. When it is not this procedure, it is not enacted in “1”. This is necessary to ensure that no
interrupt or DMA transfer will be executed during the interval.
Note 2: Before the count source for BCLK can be changed from XIN to XCIN or vice versa, the clock to which
the count source is going to be switched must be oscillating stably.
Figure 1.29.3. Shifting to The Low Speed Mode Flowchart
240
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Precautions on CPU Rewrite Mode
Described below are the precautions to be observed when rewriting the flash memory in CPU rewrite
mode.
(1) Operation speed
During CPU rewrite mode, set the main clock frequency as shown below using the main clock divide
ratio select bit (bit 6 at address 000616 and bits 6 and 7 at address 000716):
6.25 MHz or less when wait bit (bit 7 at address 000516) = 0 (without internal access wait state)
12.5 MHz or less when wait bit (bit 7 at address 000516) = 1 (with internal access wait state)
(2) Instructions inhibited against use
The instructions listed below cannot be used during CPU rewrite mode because they refer to the
internal data of the flash memory:
UND instruction, INTO instruction, JMPS instruction, JSRS instruction, and BRK instruction
(3) Interrupts inhibited against use
The address match interrupt cannot be used during CPU rewrite mode because they refer to the
internal data of the flash memory. If interrupts have their vector in the variable vector table, they can be
_______
used by transferring the vector into the RAM area. The NMI and watchdog timer interrupts each can
be used to change the flash memory’s operation mode forcibly to read array mode upon occurrence of
_______
the interrupt. Since the rewrite operation is halted when the NMI and watchdog timer interrupts occur,
the erase/program operation needs to be performed over again.
Disabling erase or rewrite operations for address FC00016 to address FFFFF16 in the user ROM block
disables these operations for all subsequent blocks as well. Therefore, it is recommended to rewrite
this block in the standard serial I/O mode.
(4) Internal reserved area expansion bit (Bit 3 at address 000516)
The reserved area of the internal memory can be changed by using the internal reserved area expansion bit (bit 3 at address 000516). However, if the CPU rewrite mode select bit (bit 1 at address 03B716)
is set to 1, the internal reserved area expansion bit (bit 3 at address 000516) also is set to 1 automatically. Similarly, if the CPU rewrite mode select bit (bit 1 at address 03B716) is set to 0, the internal
reserved area expansion bit (bit 3 at address 000516) also is set to 0 automatically.
The precautions above apply to the M30624FG and M30624FGL only.
(5) Reset
Reset input is always accepted. After a reset, the addresses 0C000016 through 0CFFFF16 are made
a reserved area and cannot be accessed. Therefore, if your product has this area in the user ROM
area, do not write any address of this area to the reset vector. This area is made accessible by
changing the internal reserved area expansion bit (bit 3 at address 000516) in a program.
(6) Access disable
Write CPU rewrite mode select bit, flash memory power supply-OFF bit and user ROM area select bit
in an area other than the internal flash memory.
(7) How to access
For CPU rewrite mode select bit, lock bit disable bit, and flash memory power supply-OFF bit to be set
to “1”, the user needs to write a “0” and then a “1” to it in succession. When it is not this procedure, it
is not enacted in “1”. This is necessary to ensure that no interrupt or DMA transfer will be executed
during the interval.
241
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Software Commands
Table 1.29.1 lists the software commands available with the M16C/62 (flash memory version).
After setting the CPU rewrite mode select bit to 1, write a software command to specify an erase or
program operation. Note that when entering a software command, the upper byte (D8 to D15) is ignored.
The content of each software command is explained below.
Table 1.29.1. List of Software Commands (CPU Rewrite Mode)
First bus cycle
Command
Mode
Address
Second bus cycle
Data
(D0 to D7)
Mode
Address
Read
X
Read array
Write
Read status register
Write
X
7016
Clear status register
Write
X
5016
Page program
Write
X
4116
Write
Block erase
Write
X
2016
Write
Erase all unlock block
Write
X
A716
Lock bit program
Write
X
Read lock bit status
Write
X
(Note 3)
X
(Note 6)
Third bus cycle
Data
(D0 to D7)
Data
Mode Address (D0 to D7)
FF16
SRD
(Note 2)
WA0 (Note 3) WD0 (Note 3) Write
(Note 4)
D016
Write
X
D016
7716
Write
BA
D016
7116
Read
BA
D6
BA
WA1
WD1
(Note 5)
Note 1: When a software command is input, the high-order byte of data (D8 to D15) is ignored.
Note 2: SRD = Status Register Data
Note 3: WA = Write Address, WD = Write Data
WA and WD must be set sequentially from 0016 to FE16 (byte address; however, an even address). The page size is
256 bytes.
Note 4: BA = Block Address (Enter the maximum address of each block that is an even address.)
Note 5: D6 corresponds to the block lock status. Block not locked when D6 = 1, block locked when D6 = 0.
Note 6: X denotes a given address in the user ROM area (that is an even address).
Read Array Command (FF16)
The read array mode is entered by writing the command code “FF16” in the first bus cycle. When an
even address to be read is input in one of the bus cycles that follow, the content of the specified
address is read out at the data bus (D0–D15), 16 bits at a time.
The read array mode is retained intact until another command is written.
Read Status Register Command (7016)
When the command code “7016” is written in the first bus cycle, the content of the status register is
read out at the data bus (D0–D7) by a read in the second bus cycle.
The status register is explained in the next section.
Clear Status Register Command (5016)
This command is used to clear the bits SR3 to 5 of the status register after they have been set. These
bits indicate that operation has ended in an error. To use this command, write the command code
“5016” in the first bus cycle.
242
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Page Program Command (4116)
Page program allows for high-speed programming in units of 256 bytes. Page program operation
starts when the command code “4116” is written in the first bus cycle. In the second bus cycle through
the 129th bus cycle, the write data is sequentially written 16 bits at a time. At this time, the addresses
A0-A7 need to be incremented by 2 from “0016” to “FE16.” When the system finishes loading the data,
it starts an auto write operation (data program and verify operation).
Whether the auto write operation is completed can be confirmed by reading the status register or the
flash memory control register 0. At the same time the auto write operation starts, the read status
register mode is automatically entered, so the content of the status register can be read out. The
status register bit 7 (SR7) is set to 0 at the same time the auto write operation starts and is returned to
1 upon completion of the auto write operation. In this case, the read status register mode remains
active until the Read Array command (FF16) or Read Lock Bit Status command (7116) is written or the
flash memory is reset using its reset bit.
____
The RY/BY status flag of the flash memory control register 0 is 0 during auto write operation and 1
when the auto write operation is completed as is the status register bit 7.
After the auto write operation is completed, the status register can be read out to know the result of the
auto write operation. For details, refer to the section where the status register is detailed.
Figure 1.29.4 shows an example of a page program flowchart.
Each block of the flash memory can be write protected by using a lock bit. For details, refer to the
section where the data protect function is detailed.
Additional writes to the already programmed pages are prohibited.
Start
Write 4116
n=0
Write address n and
data n
n = FE16
n=n+2
NO
YES
RY/BY status flag
= 1?
NO
YES
Check full status
Page program
completed
Figure 1.29.4. Page program flowchart
243
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Block Erase Command (2016/D016)
By writing the command code “2016” in the first bus cycle and the confirmation command code “D016”
in the second bus cycle that follows to the block address of a flash memory block, the system initiates
an auto erase (erase and erase verify) operation.
Whether the auto erase operation is completed can be confirmed by reading the status register or the
flash memory control register 0. At the same time the auto erase operation starts, the read status
register mode is automatically entered, so the content of the status register can be read out. The
status register bit 7 (SR7) is set to 0 at the same time the auto erase operation starts and is returned
to 1 upon completion of the auto erase operation. In this case, the read status register mode remains
active until the Read Array command (FF16) or Read Lock Bit Status command (7116) is written or the
flash memory is reset using its reset bit.
____
The RY/BY status flag of the flash memory control register 0 is 0 during auto erase operation and 1
when the auto erase operation is completed as is the status register bit 7.
After the auto erase operation is completed, the status register can be read out to know the result of
the auto erase operation. For details, refer to the section where the status register is detailed.
Figure 1.29.5 shows an example of a block erase flowchart.
Each block of the flash memory can be protected against erasure by using a lock bit. For details, refer
to the section where the data protect function is detailed.
Start
Write 2016
Write D016
Block address
RY/BY status flag
= 1?
YES
Check full status check
Block erase
completed
Figure 1.29.5. Block erase flowchart
244
NO
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Erase All Unlock Blocks Command (A716/D016)
By writing the command code “A716” in the first bus cycle and the confirmation command code “D016”
in the second bus cycle that follows, the system starts erasing blocks successively.
Whether the erase all unlock blocks command is terminated can be confirmed by reading the status
register or the flash memory control register 0, in the same way as for block erase. Also, the status
register can be read out to know the result of the auto erase operation.
When the lock bit disable bit of the flash memory control register 0 = 1, all blocks are erased no matter
how the lock bit is set. On the other hand, when the lock bit disable bit = 0, the function of the lock bit
is effective and only nonlocked blocks (where lock bit data = 1) are erased.
Lock Bit Program Command (7716/D016)
By writing the command code “7716” in the first bus cycle and the confirmation command code “D016”
in the second bus cycle that follows to the block address of a flash memory block, the system sets the
lock bit for the specified block to 0 (locked).
Figure 1.29.6 shows an example of a lock bit program flowchart. The status of the lock bit (lock bit
data) can be read out by a read lock bit status command.
Whether the lock bit program command is terminated can be confirmed by reading the status register
or the flash memory control register 0, in the same way as for page program.
For details about the function of the lock bit and how to reset the lock bit, refer to the section where the
data protect function is detailed.
Start
Write 7716
Write D016
block address
RY/BY status flag
= 1?
NO
YES
SR4 = 0?
NO
Lock bit program in
error
YES
Lock bit program
completed
Figure 1.29.6. Lock bit program flowchart
245
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Read Lock Bit Status Command (7116)
By writing the command code “7116” in the first bus cycle and then the block address of a flash
memory block in the second bus cycle that follows, the system reads out the status of the lock bit of
the specified block on to the data (D6).
Figure 1.29.7 shows an example of a read lock bit program flowchart.
Start
Write 7116
Enter block address
(Note)
NO
D6 = 0?
YES
Blocks locked
Note: Data bus bit 6.
Figure 1.29.7. Read lock bit status flowchart
246
Blocks not locked
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Data Protect Function (Block Lock)
Each block in Figure 1.28.1 has a nonvolatile lock bit to specify that the block be protected (locked)
against erase/write. The lock bit program command is used to set the lock bit to 0 (locked). The lock bit of
each block can be read out using the read lock bit status command.
Whether block lock is enabled or disabled is determined by the status of the lock bit and how the flash
memory control register 0’s lock bit disable bit is set.
(1) When the lock bit disable bit = 0, a specified block can be locked or unlocked by the lock bit status
(lock bit data). Blocks whose lock bit data = 0 are locked, so they are disabled against erase/write.
On the other hand, the blocks whose lock bit data = 1 are not locked, so they are enabled for erase/
write.
(2) When the lock bit disable bit = 1, all blocks are nonlocked regardless of the lock bit data, so they are
enabled for erase/write. In this case, the lock bit data that is 0 (locked) is set to 1 (nonlocked) after
erasure, so that the lock bit-actuated lock is removed.
Status Register
The status register indicates the operating status of the flash memory and whether an erase or program
operation has terminated normally or in an error. The content of this register can be read out by only
writing the read status register command (7016). Table 1.29.2 details the status register.
The status register is cleared by writing the Clear Status Register command (5016).
After a reset, the status register is set to “8016.”
Each bit in this register is explained below.
Write state machine (WSM) status (SR7)
After power-on, the write state machine (WSM) status is set to 1.
The write state machine (WSM) status indicates the operating status of the device, as for output on the
____
RY/BY pin. This status bit is set to 0 during auto write or auto erase operation and is set to 1 upon
completion of these operations.
Erase status (SR5)
The erase status informs the operating status of auto erase operation to the CPU. When an erase
error occurs, it is set to 1.
The erase status is reset to 0 when cleared.
247
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Program status (SR4)
The program status informs the operating status of auto write operation to the CPU. When a write
error occurs, it is set to 1.
The program status is reset to 0 when cleared.
When an erase command is in error (which occurs if the command entered after the block erase
command (2016) is not the confirmation command (D016), both the program status and erase status
(SR5) are set to 1.
When the program status or erase status = 1, the following commands entered by command write are
not accepted.
Also, in one of the following cases, both SR4 and SR5 are set to 1 (command sequence error):
(1) When the valid command is not entered correctly
(2) When the data entered in the second bus cycle of lock bit program (7716/D016), block erase
(2016/D016), or erase all unlock blocks (A716/D016) is not the D016 or FF16. However, if FF16 is
entered, read array is assumed and the command that has been set up in the first bus cycle is
canceled.
Block status after program (SR3)
If excessive data is written (phenomenon whereby the memory cell becomes depressed which results
in data not being read correctly), “1” is set for the program status after-program at the end of the page
write operation. In other words, when writing ends successfully, “8016” is output; when writing fails,
“9016” is output; and when excessive data is written, “8816” is output.
Table 1.29.2. Definition of each bit in status register
Definition
Each bit of
SRD
248
Status name
"1"
"0"
Ready
Busy
-
-
SR7 (bit7)
Write state machine (WSM) status
SR6 (bit6)
Reserved
SR5 (bit5)
Erase status
Terminated in error
Terminated normally
SR4 (bit4)
Program status
Terminated in error
Terminated normally
SR3 (bit3)
Block status after program
Terminated in error
Terminated normally
SR2 (bit2)
Reserved
-
-
SR1 (bit1)
Reserved
-
-
SR0 (bit0)
Reserved
-
-
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CPU Rewrite Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Full Status Check
By performing full status check, it is possible to know the execution results of erase and program
operations. Figure 1.29.8 shows a full status check flowchart and the action to be taken when each
error occurs.
Read status register
YES
SR4=1 and SR5
=1 ?
Command
sequence error
NO
SR5=0?
NO
Block erase error
Execute the clear status register command (5016)
to clear the status register. Try performing the
operation one more time after confirming that the
command is entered correctly.
Should a block erase error occur, the block in error
cannot be used.
YES
SR4=0?
NO
Program error (page
or lock bit)
NO
Program error
(block)
YES
SR3=0?
YES
Execute the read lock bit status command (7116)
to see if the block is locked. After removing lock,
execute write operation in the same way. If the
error still occurs, the page in error cannot be
used.
After erasing the block in error, execute write
operation one more time. If the same error still
occurs, the block in error cannot be used.
End (block erase, program)
Note: When one of SR5 to SR3 is set to 1, none of the page program, block erase,
erase all unlock blocks and lock bit program commands is accepted. Execute the
clear status register command (5016) before executing these commands.
Figure 1.29.8. Full status check flowchart and remedial procedure for errors
249
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Functions To Inhibit Rewriting (Flash Memory Version)
Functions To Inhibit Rewriting Flash Memory Version
To prevent the contents of the flash memory version from being read out or rewritten easily, the device
incorporates a ROM code protect function for use in parallel I/O mode and an ID code check function for
use in standard serial I/O mode.
ROM code protect function
The ROM code protect function reading out or modifying the contents of the flash memory version by
using the ROM code protect control address (0FFFFF16) during parallel I/O mode. Figure 1.29.9 shows
the ROM code protect control address (0FFFFF16). (This address exists in the user ROM area.)
If one of the pair of ROM code protect bits is set to 0, ROM code protect is turned on, so that the contents
of the flash memory version are protected against readout and modification. ROM code protect is implemented in two levels. If level 2 is selected, the flash memory is protected even against readout by a
shipment inspection LSI tester, etc. When an attempt is made to select both level 1 and level 2, level 2 is
selected by default.
If both of the two ROM code protect reset bits are set to “00,” ROM code protect is turned off, so that the
contents of the flash memory version can be read out or modified. Once ROM code protect is turned on,
the contents of the ROM code protect reset bits cannot be modified in parallel I/O mode. Use the serial I/
O or some other mode to rewrite the contents of the ROM code protect reset bits.
ROM code protect control address
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
ROMCP
Address
0FFFFF16
When reset
FF16
Bit name
Bit symbol
Reserved bit
Function
Always set this bit to 1.
ROM code protect level
2 set bit (Note 1, 2)
b3 b2
ROMCP2
ROM code protect reset
bit (Note 3)
b5 b4
ROMCR
ROMCP1
ROM code protect level
1 set bit (Note 1)
b7 b6
00: Protect enabled
01: Protect enabled
10: Protect enabled
11: Protect disabled
00: Protect removed
01: Protect set bit effective
10: Protect set bit effective
11: Protect set bit effective
00: Protect enabled
01: Protect enabled
10: Protect enabled
11: Protect disabled
Note 1: When ROM code protect is turned on, the on-chip flash memory is protected against
readout or modification in parallel input/output mode.
Note 2: When ROM code protect level 2 is turned on, ROM code readout by a shipment
inspection LSI tester, etc. also is inhibited.
Note 3: The ROM code protect reset bits can be used to turn off ROM code protect level 1 and
ROM code protect level 2. However, since these bits cannot be changed in parallel input/
output mode, they need to be rewritten in serial input/output or some other mode.
Figure 1.29.9. ROM code protect control address
250
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Functions To Inhibit Rewriting (Flash Memory Version)
ID Code Check Function
Use this function in standard serial I/O mode. When the contents of the flash memory are not blank, the ID
code sent from the peripheral unit is compared with the ID code written in the flash memory to see if they
match. If the ID codes do not match, the commands sent from the peripheral unit are not accepted. The ID
code consists of 8-bit data, the areas of which, beginning with the first byte, are 0FFFDF16, 0FFFE316,
0FFFEB16, 0FFFEF16, 0FFFF316, 0FFFF716, and 0FFFFB16. Write a program which has had the ID code
preset at these addresses to the flash memory.
Address
0FFFDC16 to 0FFFDF16
ID1 Undefined instruction vector
0FFFE016 to 0FFFE316
ID2 Overflow vector
0FFFE416 to 0FFFE716
BRK instruction vector
0FFFE816 to 0FFFEB16
ID3 Address match vector
0FFFEC16 to 0FFFEF16
ID4 Single step vector
0FFFF016 to 0FFFF316
ID5 Watchdog timer vector
0FFFF416 to 0FFFF716
ID6 DBC vector
0FFFF816 to 0FFFFB16
ID7
0FFFFC16 to 0FFFFF16
NMI vector
Reset vector
4 bytes
Figure 1.29.10. ID code store addresses
251
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Parallel I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Parallel I/O Mode
In this mode, the M16C/62 (flash memory version) operates in a manner similar to the flash memory
M5M29FB/T800 from Mitsubishi. Since there are some differences with regard to the functions not available with the microcomputer and matters related to memory capacity, the M16C/62 cannot be programed
by a programer for the flash memory.
Use an exclusive programer supporting M16C/62 (flash memory version).
Refer to the instruction manual of each programer maker for the details of use.
User ROM and Boot ROM Areas
In parallel I/O mode, the user ROM and boot ROM areas shown in Figure 1.28.1 can be rewritten. Both
areas of flash memory can be operated on in the same way.
Program and block erase operations can be performed in the user ROM area. The user ROM area and its
blocks are shown in Figure 1.28.1.
The boot ROM area is 8 Kbytes in size. In parallel I/O mode, it is located at addresses 0FE00016 through
0FFFFF16. Make sure program and block erase operations are always performed within this address
range. (Access to any location outside this address range is prohibited.)
In the boot ROM area, an erase block operation is applied to only one 8 Kbyte block. The boot ROM area
has had a standard serial I/O mode control program stored in it when shipped from the Mitsubishi factory.
Therefore, using the device in standard serial input/output mode, you do not need to write to the boot
ROM area.
252
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Pin functions (Flash memory standard serial I/O mode)
Pin
Name
Description
I/O
Apply program/erase protection voltage to Vcc pin and 0 V to Vss pin.
VCC,VSS
Power input
CNVSS
CNVSS
I
Connect to Vcc pin.
RESET
Reset input
I
Reset input pin. While reset is "L" level, a 20 cycle or longer clock
must be input to XIN pin.
XIN
Clock input
I
XOUT
Clock output
O
Connect a ceramic resonator or crystal oscillator between XIN and
XOUT pins. To input an externally generated clock, input it to XIN pin
and open XOUT pin.
BYTE
BYTE
I
AVCC, AVSS
Analog power supply input
VREF
Reference voltage input
I
P00 to P07
Input port P0
I
P10 to P17
Input port P1
I
P20 to P27
Input port P2
I
P30 to P37
Input port P3
I
P40 to P47
Input port P4
I
P51 to P54,
P56, P57
Input port P5
I
P50
CE input
I
P55
EPM input
I
P60 to P63
Input port P6
I
P64
BUSY output
O
P65
SCLK input
I
P66
RxD input
I
P67
TxD output
O
P70 to P77
Input port P7
I
P80 to P84, P86,
P87
Input port P8
I
P85
NMI input
I
P90 to P97
Input port P9
I
P100 to P107
Input port P10
I
Connect this pin to Vcc or Vss.
Connect AVSS to Vss and AVcc to Vcc, respectively.
Enter the reference voltage for AD from this pin.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" level signal.
Input "L" level signal.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
BUSY signal output pin
Serial clock input pin
Serial data input pin
Serial data output pin
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Connect this pin to Vcc.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
Input "H" or "L" level signal or open.
253
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
P10/D8
P11/D9
P12/D10
P13/D11
P14/D12
P15/D13/INT3
P16/D14/INT4
P17/D15/INT5
P20/A0(/D0/-)
P21/A1(/D1/D0)
P22/A2(/D2/D1)
P23/A3(/D3/D2)
P24/A4(/D4/D3)
P25/A5(/D5/D4)
P26/A6(/D6/D5)
P27/A7(/D7/D6)
Vss
P30/A8(/-/D7)
Vcc
P31/A9
P32/A10
P33/A11
P34/A12
P35/A13
P36/A14
P37/A15
P40/A16
P41/A17
P42/A18
P43/A19
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51
P07/D7
P06/D6
P05/D5
P04/D4
P03/D3
P02/D2
P01/D1
P00/D0
P107/AN7/KI3
P106/AN6/KI2
P105/AN5/KI1
P104/AN4/KI0
P103/AN3
P102/AN2
P101/AN1
AVSS
P100/AN0
VREF
AVcc
P97/ADTRG/SIN4
50
49
48
47
81
82
83
84
85
46
45
44
43
86
87
88
89
M16C/62 flash memory version
(100P6S)
90
91
92
93
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
94
95
96
97
34
33
32
31
98
99
100
1
2 3 4 5
P44/CS0
P45/CS1
P46/CS2
P47/CS3
P50/WRL/WR
P51/WRH/BHE
P52/RD
P53/BCLK
P54/HLDA
P55/HOLD
P56/ALE
P57/RDY/CLKOUT
P60/CTS0/RTS0
P61/CLK0
P62/RxD0
P63/TXD0
P64/CTS1/RTS1/CTS0/CLKS1
P65/CLK1
P66/RxD1
P67/TXD1
CE
EPM
BUSY
SCLK
RxD
TxD
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
RESET
CNVss
Mode setup method
Value
Signal
CNVss
Vcc
EPM
Vss
RESET
Vss to Vcc
CE
Vcc
P96/ANEX1/SOUT4
P95/ANEX0/CLK4
P94/DA1/TB4IN
P93/DA0/TB3IN
P92/TB2IN/SOUT3
P91/TB1IN/SIN3
P90/TB0IN/CLK3
BYTE
CNVss
P87/XCIN
P86/XCOUT
RESET
XOUT
VSS
XIN
VCC
P85/NMI
P84/INT2
P83/INT1
P82/INT0
P81/TA4IN/U
P80/TA4OUT/U
P77/TA3IN
P76/TA3OUT
P75/TA2IN/W
P74/TA2OUT/W
P73/CTS2/RTS2/TA1IN/V
P72/CLK2/TA1OUT/V
P71/RxD2/SCL/TA0IN/TB5IN
P70/TXD2/SDA/TA0OUT
Vss
Connect
oscillator
circuit.
Figure 1.31.1. Pin connections for serial I/O mode (1)
254
Vcc
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
P13/D11
P14/D12
P15/D13/INT3
P16/D14/INT4
P17/D15/INT5
P20/A0(/D0/-)
P21/A1(/D1/D0)
P22/A2(/D2/D1)
P23/A3(/D3/D2)
P24/A4(/D4/D3)
P25/A5(/D5/D4)
P26/A6(/D6/D5)
P27/A7(/D7/D6)
Vss
P30/A8(/-/D7)
Vcc
P31/A9
P32/A10
P33/A11
P34/A12
P35/A13
P36/A14
P37/A15
P40/A16
P41/A17
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
M16C/62 flash memory version
(100P6Q)
100
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
P42/A18
P43/A19
P44/CS0
P45/CS1
P46/CS2
P47/CS3
P50/WRL/WR
P51/WRH/BHE
P52/RD
P53/BCLK
P54/HLDA
P55/HOLD
P56/ALE
P57/RDY/CLKOUT
P60/CTS0/RTS0
P61/CLK0
P62/RxD0
P63/TXD0
P64/CTS1/RTS1/CTS0/CLKS1
P65/CLK1
P66/RxD1
P67/TXD1
P70/TXD2/SDA/TA0OUT
P71/RxD2/SCL/TA0IN/TB5IN
P72/CLK2/TA1OUT/V
CE
EPM
BUSY
SCLK
RXD
TXD
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
P94/DA1/TB4IN
P93/DA0/TB3IN
P92/TB2IN/SOUT3
P91/TB1IN/SIN3
P90/TB0IN/CLK3
BYTE
CNVss
P87/XCIN
P86/XCOUT
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
RESET
XOUT
VSS
XIN
VCC
P85/NMI
P84/INT2
P83/INT1
P82/INT0
P81/TA4IN/U
P80/TA4OUT/U
P77/TA3IN
P76/TA3OUT
P75/TA2IN/W
P74/TA2OUT/W
P73/CTS2/RTS2/TA1IN/V
P12/D10
P11/D9
P10/D8
P07/D7
P06/D6
P05/D5
P04/D4
P03/D3
P02/D2
P01/D1
P00/D0
P107/AN7/KI3
P106/AN6/KI2
P105/AN5/KI1
P104/AN4/KI0
P103/AN3
P102/AN2
P101/AN1
AVSS
P100/AN0
VREF
AVcc
P97/ADTRG/SIN4
P96/ANEX1/SOUT4
P95/ANEX0/CLK4
Mode setup method
Signal
Value
CNVss
Vcc
EPM
Vss
RESET
Vss to Vcc
CE
Vcc
VSS
VCC
RESET
CNVSS
Connect
oscillator
circuit.
Figure 1.31.2. Pin connections for serial I/O mode (2)
255
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Standard Serial I/O Mode
The standard serial I/O mode serially inputs and outputs the software commands, addresses and data
necessary for operating (read, program, erase, etc.) the internal flash memory. It uses a purpose-specific
peripheral unit.
The standard serial I/O mode differs from the parallel I/O mode in that the CPU controls operations like
rewriting (uses the CPU rewrite mode) in the flash memory or serial input for rewriting data. The standard
_____
serial I/O mode is started by clearing the reset with an “H” level signal at the P50 (CE) pin, an “L” signal at
________
the P55 (EPM) pin and an “H” level at the CNVss pin. (For the normal microprocessor mode, set CNVss to
“L”.)
This control program is written in the boot ROM area when shipped from Mitsubishi Electric. Therefore, if
the boot ROM area is rewritten in the parallel I/O mode, the standard serial I/O mode cannot be used.
Figures 1.31.1 and 1.31.2 show the pin connections for the standard serial I/O mode. Serial data I/O uses
four UART1 pins: CLK1, RxD1, TxD1 and RTS1 (BUSY).
The CLK1 pin is the transfer clock input pin and it inputs the external transfer clock. The TxD1 pin outputs
the CMOS signal. The RTS1 (BUSY) pin outputs an “L” level when reception setup ends and an “H” level
when the reception operation starts. Transmission and reception data is transferred serially in 8-byte
blocks.
In the standard serial I/O mode, only the user ROM area shown in Figure 1.31.1 can be rewritten, the boot
ROM area cannot.
The standard serial I/O mode has a 7-byte ID code. When the flash memory is not blank and the ID code
does not match the content of the flash memory, the command sent from the peripheral unit (programmer)
is not accepted.
Function Overview (Standard Serial I/O Mode)
In the standard serial I/O mode, software commands, addresses and data are input and output between
the flash memory and an external device (peripheral unit, etc.) using a 4-wire clock synchronized serial I/
O (UART1). In reception, the software commands, addresses and program data are synchronized with
the rise of the transfer clock input to the CLK1 pin and input into the flash memory via the RxD1 pin.
In transmission, the read data and status are synchronized with the fall of the transfer clock and output to
the outside from the TxD1 pin.
The TxD1 pin is CMOS output. Transmission is in 8-bit blocks and LSB first.
When busy, either during transmission or reception, or while executing an erase operation or program,
the RTS1 (BUSY) pin is “H” level. Accordingly, do not start the next transmission until the RTS1 (BUSY)
pin is “L” level.
Also, data in memory and the status register can be read after inputting a software command. It is possible to check flash memory operating status or whether a program or erase operation ended successfully or in error by reading the status register.
Software commands and the status register are explained here following.
256
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Software Commands
Table 1.31.1 lists software commands. In the standard serial I/O mode, erase operations, programs and
reading are controlled by transferring software commands via the RxD pin. Software commands are
explained here below.
Table 1.31.1. Software commands (Standard serial I/O mode)
Control command
2nd byte
3rd byte
4th byte 5th byte 6th byte
Address
(middle)
Address
(high)
Data
output
Data
output
Data
output
Address
(middle)
Address
(high)
Data
input
Data
input
Data
input
Address
(middle)
D016
Address
(high)
D016
SRD
output
SRD1
output
1
Page read
FF16
2
Page program
4116
3
Block erase
2016
4
Erase all unlocked blocks
A716
5
Read status register
7016
6
Clear status register
5016
7
Read lockbit status
7116
Address
(middle)
Address
(high)
8
Lockbit program
7716
Address
(middle)
Address
(high)
9
Lockbit enable
7A16
10 Lockbit disable
7516
11 ID check function
F516
12 Download function
FA16
Address
(low)
Size
(low)
Address
(middle)
Size
(high)
Address
(high)
Checksum
Version
data
output
Address
(middle)
Version
data
output
Address
(high)
Version
data
output
Data
output
13 Version data output function FB16
14 Boot area output function
FC16
When ID is
not verificate
Not
acceptable
Data
output to
259th
byte
Data input
Not
to 259th acceptable
byte
Not
acceptable
Not
acceptable
Acceptable
Not
acceptable
Not
acceptable
Lock bit
data
output
D016
ID size
ID1
To ID7
Not
acceptable
Not
acceptable
Not
acceptable
Acceptable
Data
input
To
Not
required
acceptable
number
of times
Version
Version Version
Acceptable
data
data data output
output output to 9th byte
Data
Data
Data
Not
output to acceptable
output output
259th byte
Note1: Shading indicates transfer from flash memory microcomputer to peripheral unit. All other data is transferred from the peripheral unit to the flash memory microcomputer.
Note2: SRD refers to status register data. SRD1 refers to status register 1 data.
Note3: All commands can be accepted when the flash memory is totally blank.
257
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Page Read Command
This command reads the specified page (256 bytes) in the flash memory sequentially one byte at a
time. Execute the page read command as explained here following.
(1) Send the “FF16” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send addresses A8 to A15 and A16 to A23 in the 2nd and 3rd bytes of the transmission respectively.
(3) From the 4th byte onward, data (D0–D7) for the page (256 bytes) specified with addresses A8 to
A23 will be output sequentially from the smallest address first in sync with the rise of the clock.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
FF16
A8 to
A15
A16 to
A23
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
data0
data255
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.3. Timing for page read
Read Status Register Command
This command reads status information. When the “7016” command code is sent in the 1st byte of the
transmission, the contents of the status register (SRD) specified in the 2nd byte of the transmission
and the contents of status register 1 (SRD1) specified in the 3rd byte of the transmission are read.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
7016
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.4. Timing for reading the status register
258
SRD
output
SRD1
output
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clear Status Register Command
This command clears the bits (SR3–SR5) which are set when the status register operation ends in
error. When the “5016” command code is sent in the 1st byte of the transmission, the aforementioned
bits are cleared. When the clear status register operation ends, the RTS1 (BUSY) signal changes
from the “H” to the “L” level.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
5016
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.5. Timing for clearing the status register
Page Program Command
This command writes the specified page (256 bytes) in the flash memory sequentially one byte at a
time. Execute the page program command as explained here following.
(1) Send the “4116” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send addresses A8 to A15 and A16 to A23 in the 2nd and 3rd bytes of the transmission respectively.
(3) From the 4th byte onward, as write data (D0–D7) for the page (256 bytes) specified with addresses
A8 to A23 is input sequentially from the smallest address first, that page is automatically written.
When reception setup for the next 256 bytes ends, the RTS1 (BUSY) signal changes from the “H” to
the “L” level. The result of the page program can be known by reading the status register. For more
information, see the section on the status register.
Each block can be write-protected with the lock bit. For more information, see the section on the data
protection function. Additional writing is not allowed with already programmed pages.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
4116
A8 to A16 to data0
A15
A23
data255
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.6. Timing for the page program
259
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Block Erase Command
This command erases the data in the specified block. Execute the block erase command as explained
here following.
(1) Send the “2016” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send addresses A8 to A15 and A16 to A23 in the 2nd and 3rd bytes of the transmission respectively.
(3) Send the verify command code “D016” in the 4th byte of the transmission. With the verify command code, the erase operation will start for the specified block in the flash memory. Write the
highest address of the specified block for addresses A16 to A23.
When block erasing ends, the RTS1 (BUSY) signal changes from the “H” to the “L” level. After block
erase ends, the result of the block erase operation can be known by reading the status register. For
more information, see the section on the status register.
Each block can be erase-protected with the lock bit. For more information, see the section on the data
protection function.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.7. Timing for block erasing
260
2016
A8 to
A15
A16 to
A23
D016
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Erase All Unlocked Blocks Command
This command erases the content of all blocks. Execute the erase all unlocked blocks command as
explained here following.
(1) Send the “A716” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send the verify command code “D016” in the 2nd byte of the transmission. With the verify command code, the erase operation will start and continue for all blocks in the flash memory.
When block erasing ends, the RTS1 (BUSY) signal changes from the “H” to the “L” level. The result of the
erase operation can be known by reading the status register. Each block can be erase-protected with the
lock bit. For more information, see the section on the data protection function.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
D016
A716
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.8. Timing for erasing all unlocked blocks
Lock Bit Program Command
This command writes “0” (lock) for the lock bit of the specified block. Execute the lock bit program
command as explained here following.
(1) Send the “7716” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send addresses A8 to A15 and A16 to A23 in the 2nd and 3rd bytes of the transmission respectively.
(3) Send the verify command code “D016” in the 4th byte of the transmission. With the verify command code, “0” is written for the lock bit of the specified block. Write the highest address of the
specified block for addresses A8 to A23.
When writing ends, the RTS1 (BUSY) signal changes from the “H” to the “L” level. Lock bit status can
be read with the read lock bit status command. For information on the lock bit function, reset procedure and so on, see the section on the data protection function.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
7716
A8 to
A15
A16 to
A23
D016
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.9. Timing for the lock bit program
261
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Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Read Lock Bit Status Command
This command reads the lock bit status of the specified block. Execute the read lock bit status command as explained here following.
(1) Send the “7116” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send addresses A8 to A15 and A16 to A23 in the 2nd and 3rd bytes of the transmission respectively.
(3) The lock bit data of the specified block is output in the 4th byte of the transmission. Write the
highest address of the specified block for addresses A8 to A23.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
7116
A8 to
A15
A16 to
A23
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
DQ6
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.10. Timing for reading lock bit status
Lock Bit Enable Command
This command enables the lock bit in blocks whose bit was disabled with the lock bit disable command. The command code “7A16” is sent in the 1st byte of the serial transmission. This command only
enables the lock bit function; it does not set the lock bit itself.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.11. Timing for enabling the lock bit
262
7A16
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Lock Bit Disable Command
This command disables the lock bit. The command code “7516” is sent in the 1st byte of the serial
transmission. This command only disables the lock bit function; it does not set the lock bit itself.
However, if an erase command is executed after executing the lock bit disable command, “0” (locked)
lock bit data is set to “1” (unlocked) after the erase operation ends. In any case, after the reset is
cancelled, the lock bit is enabled.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
7516
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.12. Timing for disabling the lock bit
Download Command
This command downloads a program to the RAM for execution. Execute the download command as
explained here following.
(1) Send the “FA16” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send the program size in the 2nd and 3rd bytes of the transmission.
(3) Send the check sum in the 4th byte of the transmission. The check sum is added to all data sent
in the 5th byte onward.
(4) The program to execute is sent in the 5th byte onward.
When all data has been transmitted, if the check sum matches, the downloaded program is executed.
The size of the program will vary according to the internal RAM.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
FA16
Check
sum
Program
data
Program
data
Data size (low)
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
Data size (high)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.13. Timing for download
263
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
Version Information Output Command
This command outputs the version information of the control program stored in the boot area. Execute
the version information output command as explained here following.
(1) Send the “FB16” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) The version information will be output from the 2nd byte onward. This data is composed of 8
ASCII code characters.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
FB16
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
'V'
'E'
'R'
'X'
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.14. Timing for version information output
Boot Area Output Command
This command outputs the control program stored in the boot area in one page blocks (256 bytes).
Execute the boot area output command as explained here following.
(1) Send the “FC16” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send addresses A8 to A15 and A16 to A23 in the 2nd and 3rd bytes of the transmission respectively.
(3) From the 4th byte onward, data (D0–D7) for the page (256 bytes) specified with addresses A8 to
A23 will be output sequentially from the smallest address first, in sync with the rise of the clock.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception data)
FC16
TxD1
(M16C transmit data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.15. Timing for boot area output
264
A8 to
A15
A16 to
A23
data0
data255
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
ID Check
This command checks the ID code. Execute the boot ID check command as explained here following.
(1) Send the “F516” command code in the 1st byte of the transmission.
(2) Send addresses A0 to A7, A8 to A15 and A16 to A23 of the 1st byte of the ID code in the 2nd, 3rd
and 4th bytes of the transmission respectively.
(3) Send the number of data sets of the ID code in the 5th byte.
(4) The ID code is sent in the 6th byte onward, starting with the 1st byte of the code.
CLK1
RxD1
(M16C reception
data)
F516
DF16
FF16
0F16
ID size
ID1
ID7
TxD1
(M16C transmit
data)
RTS1(BUSY)
Figure 1.31.16. Timing for the ID check
ID Code
When the flash memory is not blank, the ID code sent from the peripheral unit and the ID code written
in the flash memory are compared to see if they match. If the codes do not match, the command sent
from the peripheral unit is not accepted. An ID code contains 8 bits of data. Area is, from the 1st byte,
addresses 0FFFDF16, 0FFFE316, 0FFFEB16, 0FFFEF16, 0FFFF316, 0FFFF716 and 0FFFFB16. Write
a program into the flash memory, which already has the ID code set for these addresses.
Address
0FFFDC16 to 0FFFDF16
ID1 Undefined instruction vector
0FFFE016 to 0FFFE316
ID2 Overflow vector
0FFFE416 to 0FFFE716
BRK instruction vector
0FFFE816 to 0FFFEB16
ID3 Address match vector
0FFFEC16 to 0FFFEF16
ID4 Single step vector
0FFFF016 to 0FFFF316
ID5 Watchdog timer vector
0FFFF416 to 0FFFF716
ID6 DBC vector
0FFFF816 to 0FFFFB16
ID7
0FFFFC16 to 0FFFFF16
NMI vector
Reset vector
4 bytes
Figure 1.31.17. ID code storage addresses
265
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Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Data Protection (Block Lock)
Each of the blocks in Figure 1.30.1 have a nonvolatile lock bit that specifies protection (block lock) against
erasing/writing. A block is locked (writing “0” for the lock bit) with the lock bit program command. Also, the
lock bit of any block can be read with the read lock bit status command.
Block lock disable/enable is determined by the status of the lock bit itself and execution status of the lock
bit disable and lock enable bit commands.
(1) After the reset has been cancelled and the lock bit enable command executed, the specified block
can be locked/unlocked using the lock bit (lock bit data). Blocks with a “0” lock bit data are locked
and cannot be erased or written in. On the other hand, blocks with a “1” lock bit data are unlocked
and can be erased or written in.
(2) After the lock bit enable command has been executed, all blocks are unlocked regardless of lock bit
data status and can be erased or written in. In this case, lock bit data that was “0” before the block
was erased is set to “1” (unlocked) after erasing, therefore the block is actually unlocked with the
lock bit.
0C000016
Block 6 : 64K byte
0D000016
Block 5 : 64K byte
0E000016
Block 4 : 64K byte
Flash memory Flash memory
size
start address
256K byte
0C000016
0F000016
0F800016
0FA00016
0FC00016
Block 3 : 32K byte
Block 2 : 8K byte
Block 1 : 8K byte
Block 0 : 16K byte
0FFFFF16
User ROM area
Figure 1.31.18. Blocks in the user area
266
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Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Status Register (SRD)
The status register indicates operating status of the flash memory and status such as whether an erase
operation or a program ended successfully or in error. It can be read by writing the read status register
command (7016). Also, the status register is cleared by writing the clear status register command (5016).
Table 1.31.2 gives the definition of each status register bit. After clearing the reset, the status register
outputs “8016”.
Table 1.31.2. Status register (SRD)
SRD0 bits
Status name
SR7 (bit7)
Write state machine (WSM) status
SR6 (bit6)
Reserved
SR5 (bit5)
Definition
"1"
"0"
Ready
Busy
-
-
Erase status
Terminated in error
Terminated normally
SR4 (bit4)
Program status
Terminated in error
Terminated normally
SR3 (bit3)
Block status after program
Terminated in error
Terminated normally
SR2 (bit2)
Reserved
-
-
SR1 (bit1)
Reserved
-
-
SR0 (bit0)
Reserved
-
-
Write State Machine (WSM) Status (SR7)
The write state machine (WSM) status indicates the operating status of the flash memory. When
power is turned on, “1” (ready) is set for it. The bit is set to “0” (busy) during an auto write or auto erase
operation, but it is set back to “1” when the operation ends.
Erase Status (SR5)
The erase status reports the operating status of the auto erase operation. If an erase error occurs, it is
set to “1”. When the erase status is cleared, it is set to “0”.
Program Status (SR4)
The program status reports the operating status of the auto write operation. If a write error occurs, it is
set to “1”. When the program status is cleared, it is set to “0”.
267
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Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Program Status After Program (SR3)
If excessive data is written (phenomenon whereby the memory cell becomes depressed which results
in data not being read correctly), “1” is set for the program status after-program at the end of the page
write operation. In other words, when writing ends successfully, “8016” is output; when writing fails,
“9016” is output; and when excessive data is written, “8816” is output.
If “1” is written for any of the SR5, SR4 or SR3 bits, the page program, block erase, erase all unlocked
blocks and lock bit program commands are not accepted. Before executing these commands, execute
the clear status register command (5016) and clear the status register.
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Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Status Register 1 (SRD1)
Status register 1 indicates the status of serial communications, results from ID checks and results from
check sum comparisons. It can be read after the SRD by writing the read status register command (7016).
Also, status register 1 is cleared by writing the clear status register command (5016).
Table 1.31.3 gives the definition of each status register 1 bit. “0016” is output when power is turned ON
and the flag status is maintained even after the reset.
Table 1.31.3. Status register 1 (SRD1)
SRD1 bits
Status name
SR15 (bit7)
Boot update completed bit
SR14 (bit6)
Definition
"1"
"0"
Update completed
Not update
Reserved
-
-
SR13 (bit5)
Reserved
-
-
SR12 (bit4)
Checksum match bit
SR11 (bit3)
ID check completed bits
SR10 (bit2)
SR9 (bit1)
Data receive time out
SR8 (bit0)
Reserved
Match
00
01
10
11
Mismatch
Not verified
Verification mismatch
Reserved
Verified
Time out
Normal operation
-
-
Boot Update Completed Bit (SR15)
This flag indicates whether the control program was downloaded to the RAM or not, using the download function.
Check Sum Consistency Bit (SR12)
This flag indicates whether the check sum matches or not when a program, is downloaded for execution using the download function.
ID Check Completed Bits (SR11 and SR10)
These flags indicate the result of ID checks. Some commands cannot be accepted without an ID
check.
Data Reception Time Out (SR9)
This flag indicates when a time out error is generated during data reception. If this flag is attached
during data reception, the received data is discarded and the microcomputer returns to the command
wait state.
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Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Full Status Check
Results from executed erase and program operations can be known by running a full status check. Figure
1.31.19 shows a flowchart of the full status check and explains how to remedy errors which occur.
Read status register
YES
SR4=1 and SR5
=1 ?
Command
sequence error
NO
SR5=0?
NO
Block erase error
Execute the clear status register command (5016)
to clear the status register. Try performing the
operation one more time after confirming that the
command is entered correctly.
Should a block erase error occur, the block in error
cannot be used.
YES
SR4=0?
NO
Program error (page
or lock bit)
NO
Program error
(block)
YES
SR3=0?
YES
Execute the read lock bit status command (7116)
to see if the block is locked. After removing lock,
execute write operation in the same way. If the
error still occurs, the page in error cannot be
used.
After erasing the block in error, execute write
operation one more time. If the same error still
occurs, the block in error cannot be used.
End (block erase, program)
Note: When one of SR5 to SR3 is set to 1, none of the page program, block erase,
erase all unlock blocks and lock bit program commands is accepted. Execute the
clear status register command (5016) before executing these commands.
Figure 1.31.19. Full status check flowchart and remedial procedure for errors
270
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M16C / 62 Group
Appendix Standard Serial I/O Mode (Flash Memory Version)
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Example Circuit Application for The Standard Serial I/O Mode
The below figure shows a circuit application for the standard serial I/O mode. Control pins will vary according to peripheral unit (programmer), therefore see the peripheral unit (programmer) manual for more
information.
Clock input
CLK1
BUSY output
RTS1(BUSY)
Data input
RXD1
Data output
TXD1
M16C/62 flash
memory version
CNVss
NMI
P50(CE)
P55(EPM)
(1) Control pins and external circuitry will vary according to peripheral unit (programmer). For
more information, see the peripheral unit (programmer) manual.
(2) In this example, the microprocessor mode and standard serial I/O mode are switched via a
switch.
Figure 1.31.20. Example circuit application for the standard serial I/O mode
271
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
MMP
100P6S-A
EIAJ Package Code
QFP100-P-1420-0.65
Plastic 100pin 14✕20mm body QFP
Weight(g)
1.58
Lead Material
Alloy 42
MD
e
JEDEC Code
–
81
1
b2
100
ME
HD
D
80
I2
Recommended Mount Pad
E
30
HE
Symbol
51
50
A
L1
c
A2
b
x
A1
F
e
M
L
Detail F
y
MMP
EIAJ Package Code
LQFP100-P-1414-0.50
Plastic 100pin 14✕14mm body LQFP
Weight(g)
0.63
JEDEC Code
–
Lead Material
Cu Alloy
MD
e
100P6Q-A
b2
I2
MD
ME
b2
HD
ME
31
A
A1
A2
b
c
D
E
e
HD
HE
L
L1
x
y
Dimension in Millimeters
Min
Nom
Max
3.05
–
–
0.1
0.2
0
2.8
–
–
0.25
0.3
0.4
0.13
0.15
0.2
13.8
14.0
14.2
19.8
20.0
20.2
0.65
–
–
16.5
16.8
17.1
22.5
22.8
23.1
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.4
–
–
–
–
0.13
0.1
–
–
0°
10°
–
0.35
–
–
1.3
–
–
14.6
–
–
20.6
–
–
D
76
100
l2
Recommended Mount Pad
75
1
A
A1
A2
b
c
D
E
e
HD
HE
L
L1
Lp
HE
E
Symbol
51
25
26
50
A
L1
F
A3
M
y
L
Detail F
272
Lp
c
x
A1
b
A3
A2
e
x
y
b2
I2
MD
ME
Dimension in Millimeters
Min
Nom
Max
1.7
–
–
0.1
0.2
0
1.4
–
–
0.13
0.18
0.28
0.105
0.125
0.175
13.9
14.0
14.1
13.9
14.0
14.1
0.5
–
–
15.8
16.0
16.2
15.8
16.0
16.2
0.3
0.5
0.7
1.0
–
–
0.45
0.6
0.75
–
0.25
–
–
–
0.08
0.1
–
–
0°
10°
–
0.225
–
–
0.9
–
–
14.4
–
–
–
–
14.4
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Differences between M30622MC and M30612MC
Type Name
M30622MC
M30612MC
Memory space
Memory expansion is possible
1.2M bytes mode
4M bytes mode
1M byte fixed
Timer B
6 channels
3 channels
Serial I/O
UART/clocked SI/O · · · · · 3 channel
Clocked SI/O · · · · · · · · · · 2 channel
UART/clocked SI/O · · · · · 3 channels
IIC bus mode
UART2 used
IIC bus interface can be performed
with software
Impossible
Port function
P90 · · · · · TB0IN/CLK3
P91 · · · · · TB1IN/SIN3
P92 · · · · · TB2IN/SOUT3
P93 · · · · · TB3IN/DA0
P94 · · · · · TB4IN/DA1
P95 · · · · · ANEX0/CLK4
P96 · · · · · ANEX1/SOUT4
P97 · · · · · ADTRG/SIN4
P15 · · · · · D13/INT3
P16 · · · · · D14/INT4
P17 · · · · · D15/INT5
P71 · · · · · RXD2/TA0IN/TB5IN
P90 · · · · · TB0IN
P91 · · · · · TB1IN
P92 · · · · · TB2IN
P93 · · · · · DA0
P94 · · · · · DA1
P95 · · · · · ANEX0
P96 · · · · · ANEX1
P97 · · · · · ADTRG
P15 · · · · · D13
P16 · · · · · D14
P17 · · · · · D15
P71 · · · · · RXD2/TA0IN
Interrupt cause
Internal 25 sources
External 8 sources
Software 4 sources
(Added two Serial I/O, three
timers and 3external interrupts)
Internal 20 sources
External 5 sources
Software 4 sources
Chip select
M30612MC type and the type as
below can be switched
(Besides 4M-byte mode is possible.)
CS0 : 0400016 to 3FFFF16 (fetch)
4000016 to FFFFF16 (data/facth)
CS1 : 2800016 to 2FFFF16 (data)
CS2 : 0800016 to 27FFF16 (data)
CS3 : 0400016 to 07FFF16 (data)
CS0 : 3000016 to FFFFF16
CS1 : 2800016 to 2FFFF16
CS2 : 0800016 to 27FFF16
CS3 : 0400016 to 07FFF16
Three-phase inverter
control circuit
PWM output for three-phase inverter
can be performed using timer A4, A1
and A2.
Output port is arranged to P72 to P75,
P80 and P81.
Impossible
Read port P1
By setting to register, the state of port
register can be read always.
The state of port when input mode.
The state of port register when output
mode.
P44/CS0 - P47/CS3
pin pull-up resistors
If a Vcc level is applied to the CNVss
pin, bit 2 (PU11) of pull-up control
register 1 turns to "1" when reset, and
P44/ CS0 - P47/ CS3 turn involved in
pull-up.
Bit 2 (PU11) of the pull-up control
register 1 turns to "0" when reset, and
P44/ CS0 - P47/ CS3 turn free from pullup.
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
274
Chapter 2
Peripheral Functions Usage
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Protect
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.1 Protect
2.1.1 Overview
'Protect' is a function that causes a value held in a register to be unchanged even when a program runs
away. The following is an overview of the protect function:
(1) Registers affected by the protect function
The registers affected by the protect function are:
(a) System clock control registers 0, 1 (addresses 000616 and 000716)
(b) Processor mode registers 0, 1 (addresses 000416 and 000516)
(c) Port P9 direction register (address 03F316), SI/Oi control register (i=3,4)(addresses 036216 and
036616)
The values in registers (1) through (3) cannot be changed in write-protect state. To change values in
the registers, put the individual registers in write-enabled state.
(2) Protect register
Figure 2.1.1 shows protect register.
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Protect
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Protect register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PRCR
Bit symbol
Address
000A16
When reset
XXXXX0002
Bit name
Function
PRC0
Enables writing to system clock
control registers 0 and 1 (addresses 0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
000616 and 000716)
PRC1
Enables writing to processor mode
0 : Write-inhibited
registers 0 and 1 (addresses 000416
1 : Write-enabled
and 000516)
PRC2
Enables writing to port P9 direction
register (address 03F316) and SI/Oi
control register (i=3,4) (addresses
036216 and 036616) (Note)
0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
A
A
A
A
AA
AA
R W
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be
indeterminate.
Note: Writing a value to an address after “1” is written to this bit returns the bit
to “0” . Other bits do not automatically return to “0” and they must therefore
be reset by the program.
Figure 2.1.1. Protect register
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Protect
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.1.2 Protect Operation
The following explains the protect operation. Figure 2.1.2 shows the set-up procedure.
Operation (1) Setting “1” in the write-enable bit of system clock control registers 0 and 1 causes system
clock control register 0 and system clock control register 1 to be in write-enabled state.
(2) The contents of system clock control register 0 and that of system clock control register 1 are changed.
(3) Setting “0” in the write-enable bit of system control registers 0 and 1 causes system clock
control register 0 and system control register 1 to be in write-inhibited state.
(4) To change the contents of processor mode register 0 and that of processor mode register 1,
follow the same steps as in dealing with system clock control registers.
(5) The write-enable bit of port 9 direction register and SI/Oi control register (i=3,4) goes to “0”
when the next write instruction is executed after write-enabled state is readied. Make
changes in input/output and SI/Oi control register (i=3,4) immediately after the instruction that
sets “1” in the write-enable bit of port P9 direction register and SI/Oi control register
(i=3,4)(avoid causing an interrupt). Also take measures to prevent DMA transfer from being
executed.
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Protect
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(1) Clearing the protect (set to write-enabled state)
b7
b0
1
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1 (addresses 000616 and 000716)
1 : Write-enabled
Enables writing to port P9 direction register (address 03F316) and SI/Oi control register
(i=3,4) (addresses 036216 and 036616)
0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
(2)
Setting system clock control register i (i = 0, 1)
(3) Setting the protect (set to write-inhibited state)
b7
b0
0
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1 (addresses 000616 and 000716)
0 : Write-inhibited
Enables writing to port P9 direction register (address 03F316) and SI/Oi control register
(i=3,4) (addresses 036216 and 036616)
0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
(4) Clearing the protect (set to write-enabled state)
b7
b0
1
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1 (addresses 000616 and 000716)
0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
Enables writing to port P9 direction register (address 03F316) and SI/Oi control register (
i=3,4) (addresses 036216 and 036616)
1 : Write-enabled
(5)
Changes in port P9 or changes in SI/Oi control register (i=3,4)
Figure 2.1.2. Set-up procedure for protect function
2.1.3 Precaution for Protect
(1) The write-enable bit of port 9 direction register and SI/Oi control register (i=3,4) goes to “0”
when the next write instruction is executed after write-enabled state is readied. Make
changes in input/output and SI/Oi control register (i=3,4) immediately after the instruction that
sets “1” in the write-enable bit of port P9 direction register and SI/Oi control register
(i=3,4)(avoid causing an interrupt). Also take measures to prevent DMA transfer from being
executed.
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Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2 Timer A
2.2.1 Overview
The following is an overview for timer A, a 16-bit timer.
(1) Mode
Timer A operates in one of the four modes:
(a) Timer mode
In this mode, the internal count source is counted. Two functions can be selected: the pulse output
function that reverses output from a port every time an overflow occurs, or the gate function which
controls the count start/stop according to the input signal from a port.
• Timer mode operation .............................................................................................................. P286
• Timer mode, gate function operation ........................................................................................ P288
• Timer mode, pulse output function operation ........................................................................... P290
(b) Event counter mode
This mode counts the pulses from the outside and the number of overflows in other timers. The freerun type, in which nothing is reloaded from the reload register, can be selected when an underflow
occurs. The pulse output function can also be selected. Please refer to the timer mode explanation
for details, as the operation is identical.
• Event counter mode operation ................................................................................................. P292
• Event counter mode, free run type operation ........................................................................... P294
Furthermore, Timer A has a 2-phase pulse signal processing function which generates an up count
or down count in the event counter mode, depending on the phase of the two input signals.
• Operation of the 2-phase pulse signal processing function in normal event counter mode ..... P296
• Operation of the 2-phase pulse signal processing function in 4-multiplication mode ............... P298
(c) One-shot timer mode
In this mode, the timer is started by the trigger and stops when the timer goes to “0”. The trigger can
be selected from the following 3 types: an external input signal, an overflow of the timer, or a software
trigger. The pulse output function can also be selected. Please refer to the timer mode explanation
for details, as the operation is identical.
• Operation in one-shot timer mode effected by software ........................................................... P300
• Operation in one-shot timer mode effected by an external trigger ........................................... P302
(d) Pulse width modulation (PWM) mode
In this mode, the arbitrary pulses are successively output. Either a 16-bit fixed-period PWM mode or
8-bit variable-period mode can be selected. The trigger for initiating output can also be selected.
Please refer to the one-shot timer mode explanation for details, as the operation is identical.
• 16-bit PWM mode operation ..................................................................................................... P304
• 8-bit PWM mode operation ....................................................................................................... P306
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Timer A
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(2) Count source
The internal count source can be selected from f1, f8, f32, and fC32. Clocks f1, f8, and f32 are derived
by dividing the CPU's main clock by 1, 8, and 32 respectively. Clock fC32 is derived by dividing the
CPU's secondary clock by 32.
(3) Frequency division ratio
In timer mode or pulse width modulation mode, [the value set in the timer register + 1] becomes the
frequency division ratio. In event counter mode, [the set value + 1] becomes the frequency division
ratio when a down count is performed, or [FFFF16 - the set value + 1] becomes the frequency division
ratio when an up count is performed. In one-shot timer mode, the value set in the timer register becomes the frequency division ratio.
The counter overflows (or underflows) when a count source equal to a frequency division ratio is input,
and an interrupt occurs. For the pulse output function, the output from the port varies (the value in the
port register does not vary).
(4) Reading the timer
Either in timer mode or in event counter mode, reading the timer register takes out the count at that
moment. Read it in 16-bit units. The data either in one-shot timer mode or in pulse width modulation
mode is indeterminate.
(5) Writing to the timer
To write to the timer register when a count is in progress, the value is written only to the reload register.
When writing to the timer register when a count is stopped, the value is written both to the reload
register and to the counter. Write a value in 16-bit units.
(6) Relation between the input/output to/from the timer and the direction register
With the output function of the timer, pulses are output regardless of the direction register of the
relevant port. To input an external signal to the timer, set the direction register of the relevant port to
input.
(7) Pins related to timer A
(a) TA0IN, TA1IN, TA2IN, TA3IN, TA4IN
(b) TA0OUT, TA1OUT, TA2OUT, TA3OUT, TA4OUT
Input pins to timer A.
Output pins from timer A. They become input pins to
timer A when event counter mode is active.
(8) Registers related to timer A
Figure 2.2.1 shows the memory map of timer A-related registers. Figures 2.2.2 through 2.2.5 show
timer A-related registers.
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Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
005516
Timer A0 interrupt control register (TA0IC)
005616
Timer A1 interrupt control register (TA1IC)
005716
Timer A2 interrupt control register (TA2IC)
005816
Timer A3 interrupt control register (TA3IC)
005916
Timer A4 interrupt control register (TA4IC)
038016
Count start flag (TABSR)
Clock prescaler reset flag (CPSRF)
038116
038216
One-shot start flag (ONSF)
038316
Trigger select register (TRGSR)
038416
Up-down flag (UDF)
038516
038616
038716
038816
038916
038A16
038B16
038C16
038D16
038E16
038F16
Timer A0 (TA0)
Timer A1 (TA1)
Timer A2 (TA2)
Timer A3 (TA3)
Timer A4 (TA4)
039616
Timer A0 mode register (TA0MR)
039716
Timer A1 mode register (TA1MR)
039816
Timer A2 mode register (TA2MR)
039916
Timer A3 mode register (TA3MR)
039A16
Timer A4 mode register (TA4MR)
Figure 2.2.1. Memory map of timer A-related registers
Timer Ai mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TAiMR(i=0 to 4)
Bit symbol
TMOD0
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
MR0
MR1
Address
When reset
039616 to 039A16
0016
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
0 1 : Event counter mode
1 0 : One-shot timer mode
1 1 : Pulse width modulation
(PWM) mode
Function varies with each operation mode
MR2
MR3
TCK0
TCK1
Count source select bit
(Function varies with each operation mode)
Figure 2.2.2. Timer A-related registers (1)
282
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
RW
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer Ai register (Note)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
TA0
TA1
TA2
TA3
TA4
Address
038716,038616
038916,038816
038B16,038A16
038D16,038C16
038F16,038E16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
Function
Values that can be set
• Timer mode
Counts an internal count source
000016 to FFFF16
RW
• Event counter mode
000016 to FFFF16
Counts pulses from an external source or timer overflow
• One-shot timer mode
Counts a one shot width
000016 to FFFF16
• Pulse width modulation mode (16-bit PWM)
Functions as a 16-bit pulse width modulator
000016 to FFFE16
• Pulse width modulation mode (8-bit PWM)
Timer low-order address functions as an 8-bit
prescaler and high-order address functions as an 8-bit
pulse width modulator
0016 to FE16
(Both high-order
and low-order
addresses)
Note: Read and write data in 16-bit units.
Count start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TABSR
Address
038016
When reset
0016
AA
AA
AAAA
AA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AA
Bit symbol
Bit name
TA0S
Timer A0 count start flag
TA1S
Timer A1 count start flag
TA2S
Timer A2 count start flag
TA3S
Timer A3 count start flag
TA4S
Timer A4 count start flag
TB0S
Timer B0 count start flag
TB1S
Timer B1 count start flag
TB2S
Timer B2 count start flag
Function
R W
0 : Stops counting
1 : Starts counting
Figure 2.2.3. Timer A-related registers (2)
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Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Up/down flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UDF
Address
038416
Bit symbol
Timer A0 up/down flag
TA1UD
Timer A1 up/down flag
TA2UD
Timer A2 up/down flag
TA3UD
Timer A3 up/down flag
TA4UD
Timer A4 up/down flag
TA3P
TA4P
One-shot start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Bit name
TA0UD
TA2P
When reset
0016
0 : Down count
1 : Up count
This specification becomes valid
when the up/down flag content is
selected for up/down switching
cause
Timer A2 two-phase pulse 0 : two-phase pulse signal
processing disabled
signal processing select bit
1 : two-phase pulse signal
processing enabled
Timer A3 two-phase pulse
signal processing select bit
When not using the two-phase
Timer A4 two-phase pulse pulse signal processing function,
signal processing select bit set the select bit to “0”
Symbol
ONSF
Address
038216
Bit symbol
Bit name
TA0OS
Timer A0 one-shot start flag
TA1OS
Timer A1 one-shot start flag
TA2OS
Timer A2 one-shot start flag
TA3OS
Timer A3 one-shot start flag
TA4OS
Timer A4 one-shot start flag
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
A
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
RW
Function
When reset
00X000002
Function
1 : Timer start
When read, the value is “0”
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be indeterminate.
TA0TGL
Timer A0 event/trigger
select bit
TA0TGH
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA4 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA1 overflow is selected
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Figure 2.2.4. Timer A-related registers (3)
284
RW
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Trigger select register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TRGSR
Bit symbol
TA1TGL
Address
038316
Bit name
Timer A1 event/trigger
select bit
TA1TGH
TA2TGL
Timer A2 event/trigger
select bit
TA2TGH
TA3TGL
Timer A3 event/trigger
select bit
TA3TGH
TA4TGL
Timer A4 event/trigger
select bit
TA4TGH
When reset
0016
Function
b1 b0
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA0 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA2 overflow is selected
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA1 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA3 overflow is selected
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA2 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA4 overflow is selected
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note)
0 1 : TB2 overflow is selected
1 0 : TA3 overflow is selected
1 1 : TA0 overflow is selected
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
Clock prescaler reset flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CPSRF
Address
038116
Bit symbol
Bit name
When reset
0XXXXXXX2
Function
RW
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be
indeterminate.
CPSR
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset
(When read, the value is “0”)
Figure 2.2.5. Timer A-related registers (4)
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Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.2 Operation of Timer A (timer mode)
In timer mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.1. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.2.6 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.7 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.2.1. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Pulse output function
O
Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
No pulses output
Pulses output
Gate function
O
No gate function
Performs count only for the period in which the TAiIN pin is at “L” level
Performs count only for the period in which the TAiIN pin is at “H” level
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to perform a down count on the count
source.
(2) If an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is reloaded, and the count continues.
At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop.
Counter content (hex)
n = reload register content
FFFF16
(1) Start count
(2) Underflow
(3) Stop count
n
Start count again
000016
Time
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
Cleared to “0” by
software
Set to “1” by software
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Figure 2.2.6. Operation timing of timer mode
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting timer mode and functions
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
0
Selection of timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
00:
01:
Gate function not available (TAiIN pin is a normal port pin)
0 (Must always be “0” in timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by
dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.7. Set-up procedure of timer mode
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.3 Operation of Timer A (timer mode, gate function selected)
In timer mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.2. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.2.8 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.9 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.2.2. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Internal count source(f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
Pulse output function
O
No pulses output
Pulses output
Gate function
No gate function
Performs count only for the period in which the TAiIN pin is at “L” level
O
Performs count only for the period in which the TAiIN pin is at “H” level
Operation (1) When the count start flag is set to “1” and the TAiIN pin inputs at “H” level, the counter performs a down count on the count source.
(2) When the TAiIN pin inputs at “L” level, the counter holds its value and stops.
(3) If an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is reloaded and the count continues.
At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(4) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop.
Note
• Make the pulse width of the signal input to the TAiIN pin not less than two cycles of the count
source.
n = reload register content
FFFF16
(1) Start count
(3) Underflow
Counter content (hex)
n
(2) Stop count
(4) Stop count
Start count again.
000016
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
“1”
“0”
TAiIN pin
input signal
“H”
Cleared to “0” by
software
Time
Set to “1” by software
“L”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Figure 2.2.8. Operation timing of timer mode, gate function selected
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Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting timer mode and functions
b7
b0
0
1
1
0
0
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
0
Selection of timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
1 1 : Timer counts only when TAiIN pin is held “H” (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by
dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.9. Set-up procedure of timer mode, gate function selected
289
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.4 Operation of Timer A (timer mode, pulse output function selected)
In timer mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.3. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.2.10 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.11 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.2.3. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Pulse output function
Gate function
Internal count source(f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
No pulses output
O
Pulses output
O
No gate function
Performs count only for the period in which the TAiIN pin is at “L” level
Performs count only for the period in which the TAiIN pin is at “H” level
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to perform a down count on the count
source.
(2) If an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is reloaded and the count continues.
At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”. Also, the output polarity of the
TAiOUT pin reverses.
(3) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop. Also, the
TAiOUT pin outputs an “L” level.
n = reload register content
Counter content (hex)
FFFF16
(2) Underflow
(3) Stop count
(1) Start count
n
Start count again
000016
Time
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
Cleared to “0” by
software
Set to “1” by software
“1”
“0”
Pulse output from “H”
TAiOUT pin
“L”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Figure 2.2.10. Operation timing of timer mode, pulse output function selected
290
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting timer mode and functions
b7
b0
0
0
1
0
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
0
Selection of timer mode
1 : Pulse is output (Note) (TAiOUT pin is a pulse output pin)
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
00:
01:
Gate function not available (TAiIN pin is a normal port pin)
0 (Must always be “0” in timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Note: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by
dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.11. Set-up procedure of timer mode, pulse output function selected
291
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.5 Operation of Timer A (event counter mode, reload type selected)
In event counter mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.4. Operations of the circled items
are described below. Figure 2.2.12 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.13 shows the set-up
procedure.
Table 2.2.4. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Item
Set-up
Input signal to TAiIN
(counting falling edges)
Pulse output function O
Input signal to TAiIN
(counting rising edges)
Count operation type
O
Timer overflow
(TB2/TAj overflow)
Factor for switching
between up and
down
No pulses output
Pulses output
Reload type
Free-run type
O
Content of up/down flag
Input signal to TAiOUT
Note: j = i – 1, but j = 4 when i = 0.
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to count the falling edges of the count
source.
(2) If an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is reloaded, and the count continues.
At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) If switching from an up count to a down count or vice versa while a count is in progress, the
switch takes effect from the next effective edge of the count source.
(4) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop.
(5) If an overflow occurs, the content of the reload register is reloaded, and the count continues.
At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
AAAA
AAAAAAAA
n = reload register content
FFFF16
(3) Switch count
Counter content (hex)
(1) Start count
n
(5) Overflow
(2) Underflow
(4) Stop count
Start count again
000016
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
Up/down flag
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” by
software
Set to “1” by software
Time
Set to “1” by software
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer Ai interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
Figure 2.2.12. Operation timing of event counter mode, reload type selected
292
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting event counter mode and functions
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
1
Selection of event counter mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
Count polarity select bit
0 : Counts external signal's falling edge
Up/down switching cause select bit
0 : Up/down flag's content
0 (Must always be “0” in event counter mode)
Count operation type select bit
0 : Reload type
Invalid in event counter mode (i = 0, 1)
Invalid when not using two-phase pulse signal processing(i = 2 to 4)
Setting up/down flag
b7
0
b0
0
Up/down flag [Address 038416]
UDF
0
Timer A0 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A1 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A2 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A3 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A4 up/down flag
0 : Down count
When not using the 2-phase pulse signal processing function, set the select bit to “0”.
Setting one-shot start flag and trigger select register
b7
b0
b7
One-shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
Timer A0 event/trigger select bit
b0
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note)
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note)
Timer A2 event/trigger select bit
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note)
Timer A3 event/trigger select bit
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note)
Timer A4 event/trigger select bit
b7 b6
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note)
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.13. Set-up procedure of event counter mode, reload type selected
293
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.6 Operation of Timer A (event counter mode, free run type selected)
In event counter mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.5. Operations of the circled items
are described below. Figure 2.2.14 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.15 shows the set-up
procedure.
Table 2.2.5. Choosed functions
Item
Count source
Set-up
O
Item
Set-up
Input signal to TAiIN
(counting falling edges)
Pulse output function O
Input signal to TAiIN
(counting rising edges)
Count operation type
Timer overflow
(TB2/TAj overflow)
Factor for switching
between up and
down
No pulses output
Pulses output
Reload type
O
Free-run type
O
Content of up/down flag
Input signal to TAiOUT
Note: j = i – 1, but j = 4 when i = 0
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to count the falling edges of the count
source.
(2) Even if an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is not reloaded, but the count
continues. At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) If switching from an up count to a down count or vice versa while a count is in progress, the
switch takes effect from the next effective edge of the count source.
(4) Even if an overflow occurs, the content of the reload register is not reloaded, but the count
continues. At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
n = reload register content
(2) Underflow
(3) Switch count
(4) Overflow
Counter content (hex)
FFFF16
(1) Start count
n
000016
Time
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
“1”
“0”
Up/down flag
Set to “1” by software
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Figure 2.2.14. Operation timing of event counter mode, free run type selected
294
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting event counter mode and functions
b7
b0
1
0
0
0
0
0
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
1
Selection of event counter mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TAiOUT pin is a normal port pin)
Count polarity select bit
0 : Counts external signal's falling edge
Up/down switching cause select bit
0 : Up/down flag's content
0 (Must always be “0” in event counter mode)
Count operation type select bit
1 : Free-run type
Invalid in event counter mode (i = 0, 1)
Invalid when not using two-phase pulse signal processing(i = 2 to 4)
Setting up/down flag
b7
0
b0
0
Up/down flag [Address 038416]
UDF
0
Timer A0 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A1 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A2 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A3 up/down flag
0 : Down count
Timer A4 up/down flag
0 : Down count
When not using the 2-phase pulse signal processing function, be sure to set the select bit to “0”.
Setting one-shot start flag and trigger select register
b7
b0
One-shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
b7
b0
Timer A0 event/trigger select bit
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note)
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note)
Timer A2 event/trigger select bit
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note)
Timer A3 event/trigger select bit
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note)
Timer A4 event/trigger select bit
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note)
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.15. Set-up procedure of event counter mode, free run type selected
295
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.7 Operation of timer A (2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode,
normal mode selected)
In processing 2-phase pulse signals in event counter mode, choose functions from those listed in Table
2.2.6. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.2.16 shows the operation timing, and
Figure 2.2.17 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.2.6. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Reload type
Count operation type
2-phase pulses
process (Note)
O
Free run type
O
Normal processing
4-multiplication processing
Note: Timer A3 alone can be selected. Timer A2 is solely used for normal processes, and timer A4 is solely used for 4
multiplication processes.
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to count effective edges of the count
source.
(2) Even if an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is not reloaded, but the count
continues. At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) Even if an overflow occurs, the content of the reload register is not reloaded, but the count
continues. At this time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
• The up count or down count conditions are as follows:
If a rising edge is present at the TAiIN pin when the input signal level to the TAiOUT pin is “H”,
an up count is performed.
If a falling edge is present at the TAiIN pin when the input signal level to the TAiOUT pin is “H”,
a down count is performed.
Note
Counter content (hex)
Input pulse
(1) Start count
TAiOUT
TAiIN
“H”
“L”
“H”
“L”
(2) Underflow
(3) Overflow
FFFF16
000016
Count start flag
Set to “1” by software
Time
“1”
“0”
Timer Ai interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Figure 2.2.16. Operation timing of 2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode, normal mode selected
296
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting event counter mode and functions
b7
0
b0
1
0
1
0
0
0
Timer Ai mode register (i= 2, 3) [Address 039816, 039916]
TAiMR (i= 2, 3)
1
Selection of event counter mode
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
1 (Must always be “1” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
Count operation type select bit
1 : Free-run type
Two-phase pulse signal processing operation select bit
0 : Normal processing operation
Two-phase pulse signal processing select bit
b7
b0
Up/down flag [Address 038416]
UDF
Timer A2 two-phase pulse signal processing select bit
1 : Two-phase pulse signal processing enabled
Timer A3 two-phase pulse signal processing select bit
1 : Two-phase pulse signal processing enabled
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A2 register [Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
Timer A3 register [Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.17. Set-up procedure of 2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode, normal mode selected
297
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.8 Operation of timer A (2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode,
multiply-by-4 mode selected)
In processing 2-phase pulse signals in event counter mode, choose functions from those listed in Table
2.2.7. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.2.18 shows the operation timing, and
Figure 2.2.19 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.2.7. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count operation type
Item
Reload type
O
Set-up
Processing 2 phase
pulses (Note)
Free run type
Normal processing
O
4-multiplication processing
Note: Timer A3 alone can be selected. Timer A2 is solely used for normal processes, and timer A4 is solely used for 4multiplication processes.
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to count effective edges of the count source.
(2) Even if an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is not reloaded, but the count
continues. At this time, the interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) Even if an overflow occurs, the content of the reload register is not reloaded, but the count
continues. At this time, the interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
Note
• The up count or down count conditions are as follows:
Table 2.2.8. The up count or down count conditions
Input signal to the
TAiOUT pin
Input signal to the
TAiIN pin
“H” level
Rising
Up count
Input signal to the
TAiOUT pin
Input signal to the
TAiIN pin
“H” level
Falling
Down
count
“L” level
Falling
“L” level
Rising
Rising
“L” level
Rising
“H” level
Falling
“H” level
Falling
“L” level
TAiOUT
TAiIN
Counter content (hex)
Input pulse
(1) Start count
“H”
“L”
“H”
“L”
FFFF16
000016
Time
Set to “1” by software
(2) Underflow
Count start flag
(3) Overflow
“1”
“0”
Timer Ai interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Figure 2.2.18. Operation timing of 2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode, multiply-by-4 mode selected
298
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting event counter mode and functions
b7
1
b0
1
0
1
0
0
0
Timer Ai mode register (i= 3, 4) [Address 039916, 039A16]
TAiMR (i= 3, 4)
1
Selection of event counter mode
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
1 (Must always be “1” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
0 (Must always be “0” when using two-phase pulse signal processing)
Count operation type select bit
1 : Free-run type
Two-phase pulse signal processing operation select bit
1 : Multiply-by-4 processing operation
Two-phase pulse signal processing select bit
b7
b0
Up/down flag [address 038416]
UDF
Timer A3 two-phase pulse signal processing select bit
1 : Two-phase pulse signal processing enabled
Timer A4 two-phase pulse signal processing select bit
1 : Two-phase pulse signal processing enabled
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A3 register [Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
Timer A4 register [Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.19. Set-up procedure of 2-phase pulse signal process in event counter mode, multiply-by-4 mode selected
299
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.9 Operation of Timer A (one-shot timer mode)
In one-shot timer mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.9. Operations of the circled items
are described below. Figure 2.2.20 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.21 shows the set-up
procedure.
Table 2.2.9. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Pulse output function
Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
No pulses output
O
Pulses output
External trigger input (falling edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
Count start condition
External trigger input (rising edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
Timer overflow (TB2/TAj/TAk overflow)
O
Writing “1” to the one-shot start flag
Note: j = i – 1, but j = 4 when i = 0; k = i + 1, but k = 0 when i = 4.
Operation (1) Setting the one-shot start flag to “1” with the count start flag set to “1” causes the counter to
perform a down count on the count source. At this time, the TAiOUT pin outputs an “H” level.
(2) The instant the value of the counter becomes “000016”, the TAiOUT pin outputs an “L” level,
and the counter reloads the content of the reload register and stops counting. At this time, the
timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) If a trigger occurs while a count is in progress, the counter reloads the value in the reload
register again and continues counting. The reload timing is in step with the next count source
input after the trigger.
(4) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to stop and to reload the content of the
reload register. Also, the TAiOUT pin outputs an “L” level. At this time, the timer Ai interrupt
request bit goes to “1”.
Counter content (hex)
n = reload register content
FFFF16
(2) Stop count
(3) Start count
(1) Start count
Start count
(4) Stop count
n
Reload
Reload
Reload
000116
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
Cleared to “0” by software
Time
“1”
“0”
Write signal to
one-shot start flag
1 / fi X (n)
1 / fi X (n+1)
One-shot pulse output “H”
from TAiOUT pin
“L”
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Figure 2.2.20. Operation timing of one-shot mode
300
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting one-shot timer mode and functions
b7
b0
0
0
1
1
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
0
Selection of one-shot timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
1 : Pulse is output
External trigger select bit
When internal trigger is selected, this bit can be “1” or “0”
Trigger select bit
0 : When the one-shot start flag is set “1”
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Clearing timer Ai interrupt request bit
b7
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Refer to 'Precaution for Timer A (one shot timer mode)'
b0
Timer Ai interrupt control register [Address 005516 to 005916]
TAiIC (i=0 to 4)
0
Interrupt request bit
Setting one-shot timer's time
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000116 to FFFF16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32
by dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Setting one-shot start flag
b7
b0
One-shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
Timer A0 one-shot start flag
Timer A1 one-shot start flag
Timer A2 one-shot start flag
Timer A3 one-shot start flag
Timer A4 one-shot start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.21. Set-up procedure of one-shot mode
301
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.10 Operation of Timer A (one-shot timer mode, external trigger selected)
In one-shot timer mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.10. Operations of the circled
items are described below. Figure 2.2.22 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.23 shows the set-up
procedure.
Table 2.2.10. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Pulse output function
Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
No pulses output
O
Count start condition
Pulses output
External trigger input (falling edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
O
External trigger input (rising edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
Timer overflow (TB2/TAj/TAk overflow)
Writing “1” to the one-shot start flag
Note: j = i – 1, but j = 4 when i = 0; k = i + 1, but k = 0 when i = 4.
Operation (1) If the TAiIN pin input level changes from “L” to “H” with the count start flag set to “1”, the
counter performs a down count on the count source. At this time, the TAiOUT pin output level
goes to “H” level.
(2) If the value of the counter becomes “000016”, the TAiOUT pin outputs an “L” level, and the
counter reloads the content of the reload register and stops counting. At this time, the timer Ai
interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) If a trigger occurs while a count is in progress, the counter reloads the value of the reload
register again and continues counting. The reload timing is in step with the next count source
input after the trigger.
(4) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to stop and to reload the content of the
reload register. Also, the TAiOUT pin outputs an “L” level. At this time, the timer Ai interrupt
request bit goes to “1”.
FFFF16
n = reload register content
(2) Stop count
(3) Start count
Counter content (hex)
(1) Start count
Start count
(4) Stop count
n
Reload
Reload
Reload
000116
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
“1”
“0”
TAiIN pin
input signal
“H”
Cleared to “0” by software
Trigger during count
“L”
1 / fi X (n)
1 / fi X (n+1)
One-shot pulse output “H”
from TAiOUT pin
“L”
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Figure 2.2.22. Operation timing of one-shot mode, external trigger selected
302
Time
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting one-shot timer mode and functions
b7
b0
0
1
1
1
1
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
0
Selection of one-shot timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
1 : Pulse is output
External trigger select bit
1 : Rising edge of TAiIN pin's input signal
Trigger select bit
1 : Selected by event/trigger select register
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Clearing timer Ai interrupt request bit
b7
b0
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Refer to 'Precaution for Timer A (one shot timer mode)'
Timer Ai interrupt control register [Address 005516 to 005916]
TAiIC (i=0 to 4)
0
Interrupt request bit
Setting event/trigger select bit
b7
b0
b7
b0
One-shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
Timer A0 event/trigger select bit
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note)
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note)
Timer A2 event/trigger select bit
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note)
Timer A3 event/trigger select bit
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note)
Timer A4 event/trigger select bit
b7 b6
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Setting one-shot timer's time
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note)
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000116 to FFFF16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.23. Set-up procedure of one-shot mode, external trigger selected
303
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.11 Operation of Timer A (pulse width modulation mode, 16-bit PWM mode selected)
In pulse width modulation mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.11. Operations of the
circled items are described below. Figure 2.2.24 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.25 shows the
set-up procedure.
Table 2.2.11. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
PWM mode
O
16-bit PWM
8-bit PWM
Count start condition
External trigger input (falling edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
O
External trigger input (rising edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
Timer overflow (TB2/TAj/TAk overflow)
Note: j = i – 1, but j = 4 when i = 0; k = i + 1, but k = 0 when i = 4.
Operation (1) If the TAiIN pin input level changes from “L” to “H” with the count start flag set to “1”, the counter
performs a down count on the count source. Also, the TAiOUT pin outputs an “H” level.
(2) The TAiOUT pin output level changes from “H” to “L” when a set time period elapses. At this
time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) The counter reloads the content of the reload register every time PWM pulses are output for
one cycle, and continues counting.
(4) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop. Also, the
TAiOUT outputs an “L” level.
Note
• The period of PWM pulses becomes (216 – 1)/fi, and the “H” level pulse width becomes n/fi. If
the timer Ai register is set to “000016”, the pulse width modulator does not work, and the the
TAiOUT pin output level remains at “L”.
(fi : frequency of the count source f1, f8, f32, fC32; n : value of the timer)
Conditions: Reload register = 000316, external trigger (rising edge of TAiIN pin input signal) is selected
16
1 / fi X (2
–1)
Count source
“H”
TAiIN pin
input signal
“L”
Trigger is not generated by this signal
Cleared to “0”
by software
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
“1”
“0”
(1) Start count
(2) Output level “H” to “L”
1 / fi X n
PWM pulse output
from TAiOUT pin
“H”
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
(3) One period is complete
(4) Stop count
“L”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is
accepted, or cleared by software
“0”
Note: n = 000016 to FFFE16
Figure 2.2.24. Operation timing of pulse width modulation mode, 16-bit PWM mode selected
304
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting PWM mode and functions
b7
b0
0
1
1
1
1
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
1
Selection of PWM mode
1 (Must always be “1” in PWM mode)
External trigger select bit
1 : Rising edge of TAiIN pin's input signal (Note 1)
Trigger select bit
1 : Selected by event/trigger select register
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction
register to “0”.
16/8-bit PWM mode select bit
0 : Functions as a 16-bit pulse width modulator
Count source select bit
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
11 : fC32
Clearing timer Ai interrupt request bit
b7
b0
0
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
b7 b6
b7 b6
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Refer to 'Precaution for Timer A (pulse width modulation mode)'
Timer Ai interrupt control register [Address 005516 to 005916]
TAiIC (i=0 to 4)
Interrupt request bit
Setting event/trigger select bit
b7
b0
b7
b0
One-shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
Timer A0 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note 2)
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note 2)
Timer A2 event/trigger select bit
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note 2)
Timer A3 event/trigger select bit
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note 2)
Timer A4 event/trigger select bit
Note 2: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note 2)
Setting PWM pulse's “H” level width
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer A0 register
Timer A1 register
Timer A2 register
Timer A3 register
Timer A4 register
[Address 038716, 038616] TA0
[Address 038916, 038816] TA1
[Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
[Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
[Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 000016 to FFFE16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count starts flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.25. Set-up procedure of pulse width modulation mode, 16-bit PWM mode selected
305
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.12 Operation of Timer A (pulse width modulation mode, 8-bit PWM mode selected)
In pulse width modulation mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.2.12. Operations of the
circled items are described below. Figure 2.2.26 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.2.27 shows the
set-up procedure.
Table 2.2.12. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
PWM mode
Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
16-bit PWM
Count start condition
O
8-bit PWM
O
External trigger input (falling edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
External trigger input (rising edge of input signal to the TAiIN pin)
Timer overflow (TB2/TAj/TAk overflow)
Note: j = i – 1, but j = 4 when i = 0; k = i + 1, but k = 0 when i = 4.
Operation (1) If the TAiIN pin input level changes from “H” to “L” with the count start flag set to “1”, the counter
performs a down count on the count source. Also, the TAiOUT pin outputs an “H” level.
(2) The TAiOUT pin output level changes from “H” to “L” when a set time period elapses. At this
time, the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) The counter reloads the content of the reload register every time PWM pulses are output for
one cycle, and continues counting.
(4) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop. Also, the
TAiOUT pin outputs an “L” level.
Note
• The period of PWM pulses becomes (m + 1) X (28 – 1) / fi, and the “H” level pulse width
becomes n X (m + 1) / fi. If “0016” is set in the eight higher-order bits of the timer Ai register, the
pulse width modulator does not work, and the the TAiOUT pin output level remains at “L”.
(fi : frequency of the count source f1, f8, f32, fc32; n : value of the timer)
• When a trigger is generated, the TAiout pin outputs “L” level of same amplitude as “H” level of
the set PWM pulse, after which it starts PWM pulse output.
Conditions: Reload register high-order 8 bits = 0216
Reload register low-order 8 bits = 0216
External trigger (falling edge of TAiIN pin input signal) is selected
(4) Stop count
8
1 / fi X (m + 1) X (2 – 1)
Count source (Note 1)
“1”
Count start flag
“0”
“H”
TAiIN pin input
(1) Start count
(2) Output level “H” to “L”
(3) One period is
complete
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
“L”
Underflow signal of 8-bit “H”
prescaler (Note 2)
“L”
PWM pulse output from
TAiOUT pin
“H”
Timer Ai interrupt
request bit
“1”
1 / fi X (m+1)
1 / fi X (m + 1) X n
“L”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request
is accepted, or cleared by software
“0”
Note 1: The 8-bit prescaler counts the count source.
Note 2: The 8-bit pulse width modulator counts the 8-bit prescaler's underflow signal.
Note 3: m = 0016 to FE16; n = 0016 to FE16.
Figure 2.2.26. Operation timing of pulse width modulation mode, with 8-bit PWM mode selected
306
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting PWM mode and function
b7
b0
1
1
0
1
1
Timer Ai mode register (i=0 to 4) [Address 039616 to 039A16]
TAiMR (i=0 to 4)
1
Selection of PWM mode
1 (Must always be “1” in PWM mode)
External trigger select bit
0 : Falling edge of TAiIN pin's input signal (Note1)
Trigger select bit
1 : Selected by event/trigger select register
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction
register to “0”.
16/8-bit PWM mode select bit
1: Functions as an 8-bit pulse width modulator
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Clearing timer Ai interrupt request bit
b7
b0
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Refer to 'Precaution for Timer A (pulse width modulation mode)'
Timer Ai interrupt control register [Address 005516 to 005916]
TAiIC (i=0 to 4)
0
Interrupt request bit
Setting event/trigger select bit
b7
b0
b7
One-shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
b0
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
Timer A0 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note 2)
0 0 : Input on TA1IN is selected (Note 2)
Timer A2 event/trigger select bit
b3 b2
0 0 : Input on TA2IN is selected (Note 2)
Timer A3 event/trigger select bit
b5 b4
0 0 : Input on TA3IN is selected (Note 2)
Timer A4 event/trigger select bit
b7 b6
Note 2: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
0 0 : Input on TA4IN is selected (Note 2)
Setting PWM pulse's period and “H” level width
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
Timer A0 register [Address 038716, 038616] TA0
Timer A1 register [Address 038916, 038816] TA1
Timer A2 register [Address 038B16, 038A16] TA2
Timer A3 register [Address 038D16, 038C16] TA3
Timer A4 register [Address 038F16, 038E16] TA4
Can be set to 0016 to FE16
b0
Can be set to 0016 to FE16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
Timer A1 count start flag
Timer A2 count start flag
Timer A3 count start flag
Timer A4 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.2.27. Set-up procedure of pulse width modulation mode, 8-bit PWM mode selected
307
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.13 Precautions for Timer A (timer mode)
(1) To clear reset, the count start flag is set to “0”. Set a value in the timer Ai register, then set the
flag to “1”.
(2) Reading the timer Ai register while a count is in progress allows reading, with arbitrary timing,
the value of the counter. Reading the timer Ai register with the reload timing shown in Figure
2.2.28 gets “FFFF16”. Reading the timer Ai register after setting a value in the timer Ai register with a count halted but before the counter starts counting gets a proper value.
Reload
Counter value (Hex.)
2
1
0
n
n–1
Read value (Hex.)
2
1
0
FFFF
n–1
Time
n = reload register content
Figure 2.2.28. Reading timer Ai register
308
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.14 Precautions for Timer A (event counter mode)
(1) To clear reset, the count start flag is set to “0”. Set a value in the timer Ai register, then set the
flag to “1”.
(2) Reading the timer Ai register while a count is in progress allows reading, with arbitrary timing,
the value of the counter. Reading the timer Ai register with the reload timing shown in Figure
2.2.29 gets “FFFF16” by underflow or “000016” by overflow. Reading the timer Ai register after
setting a value in the timer Ai register with a count halted but before the counter starts counting gets a proper value.
(3) Please note the standards for the differences between the 2 pulses used in the 2-phase pulse
signals input signals to the TAiIN pin and TAiOUT pin (i = 2, 3, 4), as shown in Figure 2.2.30.
(4) When free run type is selected, if count is stopped, set a value in the timer Ai register again.
(1) Down count
(2) Up count
Reload
Counter value
(Hex.)
2
1
0
Read value
(Hex.)
2
1
0
n
A
A
Reload
n–1
FFFF n – 1
Counter value
(Hex.)
FFFD FFFE FFFF
Read value
(Hex.)
FFFD FFFE FFFF 0000 n + 1
Time
n = reload register content
n
n+1
Time
n = reload register content
Figure 2.2.29. Reading timer Ai register
T1
TA2IN
TA3IN
TA4IN
TA2OUT
TA3OUT
TA4OUT
Vcc = 5V, f(XIN) = 16MHz
T1
(Min.)
T2, T3
(Min.)
800ns
200ns
Vcc = 3V, f(XIN) = 10MHz, one-wait
T2
T3
T1
(Min.)
T2, T3
(Min.)
2µs
500ns
Figure 2.2.30. Standard of 2-phase pulses
309
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.15 Precautions for Timer A (one-shot timer mode)
(1) At reset, the count start flag is set to “0”. Set a value in the timer Ai register, then set the flag
to “1”.
(2) Setting the count start flag to “0” while a count is in progress causes as follows:
• The counter stops counting and a content of reload register is reloaded.
• The TAiOUT pin outputs “L” level.
• The interrupt request generated and the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) The output from the one-shot timer synchronizes with the count source generated internally.
Therefore, when an external trigger has been selected, a delay of one cycle of count source
as a maximum occurs between the trigger input to the TAiIN pin and the one-shot timer
output.
(4) The timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1” if the timer's operation mode is set using any of
the following procedures:
• Selecting one-shot timer mode after reset.
• Changing operation mode from timer mode to one-shot timer mode.
• Changing operation mode from event counter mode to one-shot timer mode.
Therefore, to use timer Ai interrupt (interrupt request bit), set timer Ai interrupt request bit to
“0” after the above listed changes have been made.
(5) If a trigger occurs while a count is in progress, after the counter performs one down count
following the reoccurrence of a trigger, the reload register contents are reloaded, and the
count continues. To generate a trigger while a count is in progress, generate the second
trigger after an elapse longer than one cycle of the timer's count source after the previous
trigger occurred.
TAiIN pin input signal
“H”
“L”
Trigger input
Count source
One-shot pulse
output from TAiOUT pin
Start one-shot pulse output
Note: The above applies when an external trigger (falling edge of TAiIN pin input signal) is selected.
Figure 2.2.31. One-shot timer delay
310
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Timer A
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.2.16 Precautions for Timer A (pulse width modulation mode)
(1) To clear reset, the count start flag is set to “0”. Set a value in the timer Ai register, then set the
flag to “1”.
(2) The timer Ai interrupt request bit becomes “1” if setting operation mode of the timer in compliance with any of the following procedures:
• Selecting PWM mode after reset.
• Changing operation mode from timer mode to PWM mode.
• Changing operation mode from event counter mode to PWM mode.
Therefore, to use timer Ai interrupt (interrupt request bit), set timer Ai interrupt request bit to
“0” after the above listed changes have been made.
(3) Setting the count start flag to “0” while PWM pulses are being output causes the counter to
stop counting. If the TAiOUT pin is outputting an “H” level in this instance, the output level
goes to “L”, and the timer Ai interrupt request bit goes to “1”. If the TAiOUT pin is outputting an
“L” level in this instance, the level does not change, and the timer Ai interrupt request bit does
not becomes “1”.
311
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.3 Timer B
2.3.1 Overview
The following is an overview for timer B, a 16-bit timer.
(1) Mode
Timer B operates in one of three modes:
(a) Timer mode
The internal count source is counted.
• Operation in timer mode ........................................................................................................... P316
(b) Event counter mode
The number of pulses coming from outside and the number of the timer overflows are counted.
• Operation in event counter mode ............................................................................................. P318
(c) Pulse period measurement/pulse width measurement mode
External pulse period or external pulse widths are measured. If pulse period measurement mode is
selected, the periods of input pulses are continuously measured. If pulse width measurement mode
is selected, widths of “H” level pulses and those of “L” level pulses are continuously measured.
• Operation in pulse period measurement mode ........................................................................ P320
• Operation in pulse width measurement mode .......................................................................... P322
(2) Count source
An internal count source can be selected from f1, f8, f32, and fC32. f1, f8, and f32 are clocks obtained by
dividing the CPU main clock by 1, 8, and 32 respectively. fC32 is the clock obtained by dividing the
CPU secondary clock by 32.
(3) Frequency division ratio
The frequency division ratio equals [the value set in the timer register + 1]. The counter underflows
when a count source equal to a frequency division ratio is input, and an interrupt request occurs.
(4) Reading the timer
In timer mode or event counter mode, the count value at the time of reading the timer register will be
read. Read the register in 16-bit increments. In both the pulse period measurement mode and pulse
width measurement mode, an indeterminate value is read until the second effective edge is input after
a count is started, otherwise, the measurement results are read.
(5) Writing to the timer
When writing to the timer register while a count is in progress, the value is written only to the reload
register. When writing to the timer register while a count has stopped, the value is written both to the
reload register and the count. Write the value in 16-bit increments. The timer register cannot be
written to in either the pulse period measurement mode or the pulse width measurement mode.
312
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(6) Input to the timer and the direction register
To input an external signal to the timer, set the direction register of the relevant port to input.
(7) Pins related to timer B
(a) TB0IN, TB1IN, TB2IN, TB3IN, TB4IN, TB5IN:Input pins to timer B.
(8) Registers related to timer B
Figure 2.3.1 shows the memory map of timer B-related registers. Figures 2.3.2 and 2.3.3 show timer
B-related registers.
004516
Timer B5 interrupt control register (TB5IC)
004516
Timer B4 interrupt control register (TB4IC)
004716
Timer B3 interrupt control register (TB3IC)
034016
Timer B3,4,5 count start flag (TBSR)
005A16
Timer B0 interrupt control register (TB0IC)
005B16
Timer B1 interrupt control register (TB1IC)
005C16
Timer B2 interrupt control register (TB2IC)
035016
035116
035216
035316
035416
035516
Timer B3 (TB3)
Timer B4 (TB4)
Timer B5 (TB5)
035B16
Timer B3 mode register (TB3MR)
035C16
Timer B4 mode register (TB4MR)
035D16
Timer B5 mode register (TB5MR)
038016
Count start flag (TABSR)
038116
Clock prescaler reset flag (CPSRF)
039016
Timer B0 (TB0)
039116
039216
Timer B1 (TB1)
039316
039416
Timer B2 (TB2)
039516
039B16
Timer B0 mode register (TB0MR)
039C16
Timer B1 mode register (TB1MR)
039D16
Timer B2 mode register (TB2MR)
Figure 2.3.1. Memory map of timer B-related registers
313
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer Bi mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
Address
TBiMR(i = 0 to 5) 039B16 to 039D16
035B16 to 035D16
Bit symbol
TMOD0
Function
Bit name
Operation mode select bit
TMOD1
MR0
When reset
00XX00002
00XX00002
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
0 1 : Event counter mode
1 0 : Pulse period/pulse width
measurement mode
1 1 : Inhibited
Function varies with each operation mode
MR1
MR2
AAA
AAA
AAA
AA
A
AAA
AA
AA
A
AAA
R
(Note 1)
(Note 2)
MR3
TCK0
TCK1
Count source select bit
(Function varies with each operation mode)
Note 1: Timer B0, timer B3.
Note 2: Timer B1, timer B2, timer B4, timer B5.
Figure 2.3.2. Timer B-related registers (1)
314
W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Timer Bi register (Note)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
Symbol
TB0
TB1
TB2
TB3
TB4
TB5
b0
Address
039116, 039016
039316, 039216
039516, 039416
035116, 035016
035316, 035216
035516, 035416
Function
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
A
A
A
A
A
Values that can be set
• Timer mode
Counts the timer's period
000016 to FFFF16
• Event counter mode
Counts external pulses input or a timer overflow
000016 to FFFF16
• Pulse period / pulse width measurement mode
Measures a pulse period or width
Note: Read and write data in 16-bit units.
R W
Count start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TABSR
Address
038016
When reset
0016
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
Bit name
Bit symbol
TA0S
Timer A0 count start flag
TA1S
Timer A1 count start flag
TA2S
Timer A2 count start flag
TA3S
Timer A3 count start flag
TA4S
Timer A4 count start flag
TB0S
Timer B0 count start flag
TB1S
Timer B1 count start flag
TB2S
Timer B2 count start flag
Function
R W
0 : Stops counting
1 : Starts counting
Timer B3, 4, 5 count start flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TBSR
Address
034016
When reset
000XXXXX2
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
Bit symbol
Bit name
Function
R W
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
TB3S
Timer B3 count start flag
TB4S
Timer B4 count start flag
TB5S
Timer B5 count start flag
0 : Stops counting
1 : Starts counting
Clock prescaler reset flag
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CPSRF
Address
038116
Bit symbol
Bit name
When reset
0XXXXXXX2
Function
R W
Nothing is assigned.
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
CPSR
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset
(When read, the value is “0”)
Figure 2.3.3. Timer B-related registers (2)
315
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.3.2 Operation of Timer B (timer mode)
In timer mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.3.1. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.3.4 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.3.5 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.3.1. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O
Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to perform a down count on the count
source.
(2) If an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is reloaded, and the counter continues counting. At this time, the timer Bi interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop.
Counter content (hex)
n = reload register content
FFFF16
(1) Start count
(2) Underflow
(3) Stop count
n
Start count
again
000016
Time
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
Cleared to “0” by
software
Set to “1” by software
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer Bi interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
Figure 2.3.4. Operation timing of timer mode
316
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting timer mode and functions
b7
b0
0
Timer Bi mode register (i=0 to 5) [Address 039B16 to 039D16, 035B16 to 035D16]
TBiMR (i=0 to 5)
0
Selection of timer mode
Invalid in timer mode
Can be “0” or “1”
Fixed to “0” in timer mode ( i = 0, 3)
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0” (i = 1, 2, 4, 5)
Invalid in timer mode
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
Timer B0 register
Timer B1 register
Timer B2 register
Timer B3 register
Timer B4 register
Timer B5 register
2µs
976.56µs
[Address 039116, 039016]
[Address 039316, 039216]
[Address 039516, 039416]
[Address 035116, 035016]
[Address 035316, 035216]
[Address 035516, 035416]
TB0
TB1
TB2
TB3
TB4
TB5
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by
dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag
[Address 038016]
TABSR
b7
b0
Timer B3,4,5 count start
flag
[Address 034016]
TBSR
Timer B0 count start flag
Timer B1 count start flag
Timer B3 count start flag
Timer B4 count start flag
Timer B2 count start flag
Timer B5 count start flag
Start count
Figure 2.3.5. Set-up procedure of timer mode
317
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.3.3 Operation of Timer B (event counter mode)
In event counter mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.3.2. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.3.6 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.3.7 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.3.2. Choosed functions
Item
Count source
Set-up
O
Input signal to the TBiIN pin (counting falling edges)
Input signal to the TBiIN pin (counting rising edges)
Input signal to the TBiIN pin (counting rising edges and falling edges)
Timer overflow(TBj overflow)
Note: j = i – 1, but j = 2 when i = 0,j = 5 when i = 3
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to count the falling edges of the count
source.
(2) If an underflow occurs, the content of the reload register is reloaded, and the count continues.
At this time, the timer Bi interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(3) Setting the count start flag to “0” causes the counter to hold its value and to stop.
Counter content (hex)
n = reload register content
FFFF16
(1) Start count
(2) Underflow
(3) Stop count
n
Start count again
000016
Time
Set to “1” by software
Count start flag
Cleared to “0” by
software
Set to “1” by softwar
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer Bi interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
Figure 2.3.6. Operation timing of event counter mode
318
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting event counter mode and functions
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
Timer Bi mode register (i=0 to 5) [Address 039B16 to 039D16, 035B16 to 035D16]
TBiMR (i=0 to 5)
1
Selection of event counter mode
Count polarity select bit
b3 b2
0 0 : Counts external signal falling edges
Fixed to “0” in event counter mode ( i = 0, 3)
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0” (i = 1, 2, 4, 5)
Invalid in event counter mode
Event clock select
0 : Input from TBiIN pin (Note)
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Timer B0 register
Timer B1 register
Timer B2 register
Timer B3 register
Timer B4 register
Timer B5 register
[Address 039116, 039016]
[Address 039316, 039216]
[Address 039516, 039416]
[Address 035116, 035016]
[Address 035316, 035216]
[Address 035516, 035416]
TB0
TB1
TB2
TB3
TB4
TB5
Can be set to 000016 to FFFF16 (n)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Timer B0 count start flag
Timer B3,4,5 count start
flag
[Address 034016]
TBSR
Timer B3 count start flag
Timer B1 count start flag
Timer B2 count start flag
Timer B4 count start flag
Timer B5 count start flag
Count start flag
[Address 038016]
TABSR
b7
b0
Start count
Figure 2.3.7. Set-up procedure of event counter mode
319
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.3.4 Operation of Timer B (pulse period measurement mode)
In pulse period/pulse width measurement mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.3.3. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.3.8 shows the operation timing, and Figure
2.3.9 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.3.3. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Count source
O Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
Measurement
mode
O Pulse period measurement (interval between measurement pulse falling edge to falling edge)
Pulse period measurement (interval between measurement pulse rising edge to rising edge)
Pulse width measurement (interval between measurement pulse falling edge to rising edge,
and between rising edge to falling edge)
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to start counting the count source.
(2) If a measurement pulse changes from “H” to “L”, the value of the counter goes to “000016”,
and measurement is started. In this instance, an indeterminate value is transferred to the
reload register. The timer Bi interrupt request does not generate.
(3) If a measurement pulse changes from “H” to “L” again, the value of the counter is transferred
to the reload register, and the timer Bi interrupt request bit goes to “1”. Then the value of the
counter becomes “000016”, and the measurement is started again.
Note
• The timer Bi interrupt request bit goes to “1” when an effective edge of a measurement pulse is
input or timer Bi is overflowed. The factor of interrupt request can be determined by use of the
timer Bi overflow flag within the interrupt routine.
• The value of the counter at the beginning of a count is indeterminate. Thus there can be instances in which the timer Bi overflow flag goes to “1” immediately after a count is performed.
• The timer Bi overflow flag goes to “0” if timer Bi mode register is written to when the count start
flag is “1”. This flag cannot be set to “1” by software.
Measurement of pulse time interval from falling edge to falling edge
(1) Start count
(2) Start measurement
(3) Start measurement again
Count source
Measurement pulse
“H”
“L”
Transfer
(indeterminate value)
Reload register ← counter
transfer timing
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
Transfer
(measured value)
(Note 2)
Timing at which counter
reaches “000016”
“1”
Count start flag
“0”
Timer Bi interrupt
request bit
“1”
“0”
Timer Bi overflow flag
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note 1: Counter is initialized at completion of measurement.
Note 2: Timer has overflowed.
Figure 2.3.8. Operation timing of pulse period measurement mode
320
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting pulse period / pulse width measurement mode and functions
b7
b0
0
0
1
Timer Bi mode register (i=0 to 5) [Address 039B16 to 039D16, 035B16 to 035D16]
TBiMR (i=0 to 5)
0
Selection of pulse period / pulse width measurement mode
Measurement mode select bit
b3 b2
0 0 : Pulse period measurement
(Interval between measurement pulse falling edge to falling edge)
Fixed to “0” in pulse period/pulse width measurement mode (i = 0, 3)
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0” (i = 1, 2, 4, 5)
Timer Bi overflow flag
0 : Timer did not overflow
1 : Timer has overflowed
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by
dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b7
b0
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
Count start flag
[Address 038016]
TABSR
b7
b0
Timer B3,4,5 count start
flag
[Address 034016]
TBSR
Timer B0 count start flag
Timer B1 count start flag
Timer B3 count start flag
Timer B4 count start flag
Timer B2 count start flag
Timer B5 count start flag
Start count
Clearing overflow flag
b7
b0
0
Timer Bi mode register (i=0 to 5) [Address 039B16 to 039D16, 035B16 to 035D16]
TBiMR (i=0 to 5)
Timer Bi overflow flag
0 : Timer did not overflow
Figure 2.3.9. Set-up procedure of pulse period measurement mode
321
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.3.5 Operation of Timer B (pulse width measurement mode)
In pulse period/pulse width measurement mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.3.4. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.3.10 shows the operation timing, and Figure
2.3.11 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.3.4. Choosed functions
Item
Count source
Set-up
O
Internal count source (f1 / f8 / f32 / fc32)
Pulse period measurement (interval between measurement pulse falling edge to falling edge)
Measurement
mode
Pulse period measurement (interval between measurement pulse rising edge to rising edge)
O
Pulse width measurement (interval between measurement pulse falling edge to rising edge,
and between rising edge to falling edge)
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to start counting the count source.
(2) If an effective edge of a pulse to be measured is input, the value of the counter goes to
“000016”, and measurement is started. In this instance, an indeterminate value is transferred
to the reload register. The timer Bi interrupt request does not generate.
(3) If an effective edge of a pulse to be measured is input again, the value of the counter is
transferred to the reload register, and the timer Bi interrupt request bit goes to “1”. Then the
value of the counter becomes “000016”, and measurement is started again.
Note
• The timer Bi interrupt request bit goes to “1” when an effective edge of a pulse to be measured
is input or timer Bi is overflows. The factor of interrupt request can be determined by use of the
timer Bi overflow flag within the interrupt routine.
• The value of the counter at the beginning of a count is indeterminate. Thus there can be instances in which the timer Bi overflow flag goes to “1” immediately after a count is performed.
• The timer Bi overflow flag goes to “0” if timer Bi mode register is written to when the count start
flag is “1”. This flag cannot be set to “1” by software.
(1) Start count
(3) Start measurement again
(2) Start measurement
Count source
Measurement pulse
“H”
“L”
Reload register ← counter
transfer timing
Transfer
(indeterminate
value)
Transfer(measured value)
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
(Note 1)
Timing at which counter
reaches “000016”
Count start flag
“1”
“0”
Timer Bi interrupt request bit “1”
“0”
Timer Bi overflow flag
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note 1: Counter is initialized at completion of measurement.
Note 2: Timer has overflowed.
Figure 2.3.10. Operation timing of pulse width measurement mode
322
(Note 2)
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting pulse period / pulse width measurement mode and functions
b7
b0
1
0
1
Timer Bi mode register (i=0 to 5) [Address 039B16 to 039D16, 035B16 to 035D16]
TBiMR (i=0 to 5)
0
Selection of pulse period / pulse width measurement mode
Measurement mode select bit
b3 b2
1 0 : Pulse width measurement (Interval between measurement pulse falling edge to
rising edge, and between rising edge to falling edge)
Fixed to “0” in pulse period/pulse width measurement mode (i = 0, 3)
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0” (i = 1, 2, 4, 5)
Timer Bi overflow flag
0 : Timer did not overflow
1 : Timer has overflowed
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
0 1 : f8
1 0 : f32
1 1 : fC32
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Setting clock prescaler reset flag
(This function is effective when fC32 is selected as the count source. Reset the prescaler for generating fC32 by
dividing the XCIN by 32.)
b0
b7
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Clock prescaler reset flag
0 : No effect
1 : Prescaler is reset (When read, the value is “0”)
Setting count start flag
b7
Count start flag
[Address 038016]
TABSR
b0
b7
b0
Timer B3,4,5 count start
flag
[Address 034016]
TBSR
Timer B0 count start flag
Timer B1 count start flag
Timer B3 count start flag
Timer B4 count start flag
Timer B2 count start flag
Timer B5 count start flag
Start count
Clearing overflow flag
b0
b7
0
Timer Bi mode register (i=0 to 5) [Address 039B16 to 039D16, 035B16 to 035D16]
TBiMR (i=0 to 5)
Timer Bi overflow flag
0 : Timer did not overflow
Figure 2.3.11. Set-up procedure of pulse width measurement mode
323
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer B
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.3.6 Precautions for Timer B (timer mode, event counter mode)
(1) To clear reset, the count start flag is set to “0”. Set a value in the timer Bi register, then set the
flag to “1”.
(2) Reading the timer Bi register while a count is in progress allows reading, with arbitrary timing,
the value of the counter. Reading the timer Bi register with the reload timing shown in Figure
2.3.12 gets “FFFF16”. Reading the timer Bi register after setting a value in the timer Bi register with a count halted but before the counter starts counting gets a proper value.
Reload
Counter value (Hex.)
2
1
0
n
n–1
Read value (Hex.)
2
1
0
FFFF
n–1
Time
n = reload register content
Figure 2.3.12. Reading timer Bi register
324
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Timer B
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.3.7 Precautions for Timer B (pulse period/pulse width measurement mode)
(1) The timer Bi interrupt request bit goes to “1” when an effective edge of a measurement pulse
is input or timer Bi is overflowed. The factor of interrupt request can be determined by use of
the timer Bi overflow flag within the interrupt routine.
(2) If the timer overflow occurs simultaneously with the input of a measurement pulse, and if the
interrupt factor cannot be determined from the timer Bi overflow flag, connect the timers and
count the number of overflows.
(3) When reset, the timer Bi overflow flag goes to “1”. This flag can be set to “0” by writing to the
timer Bi mode register when the count start flag is “1”.
(4) Use the timer Bi interrupt request bit to detect only overflows. Use the timer Bi overflow flag
only to determine the interrupt factor within the interrupt routine.
(5) When the first effective edge is input after a count is started, an indeterminate value is transferred to the reload register. At this time, timer Bi interrupt request is not generated.
(6) The value of the counter is indeterminate at the beginning of a count. Therefore the timer Bi
overflow flag may go to “1” immediately after a count is started.
(7) If changing the measurement mode select bit is set after a count is started, the timer Bi
interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(8) If the input signal to the TBiIN pin is affected by noise, precise measurement may not be
performed in some cases. It is recommended to see that measurements fall within a specific
range by use of software.
(9) For pulse width measurement, pulse widths are successively measured. Use software to
check whether the measurement result is an “H” level width or an “L” level width.
325
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.4 Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
2.4.1 Overview
Clock-synchronous serial I/O carries out 8-bit data communications in synchronization with the clock. The
following is an overview of the clock-synchronous serial I/O.
(1) Transmission/reception format
8-bit data
(2) Transfer rate
If the internal clock is selected as the transfer clock, the divide-by-2 frequency, resulting from the bit
rate generator division, becomes the transfer rate. The bit rate generator count source can be selected from the following: f1, f8, and f32. Clocks f1, f8, and f32 are derived by dividing the CPU’s main
clock by 1, 8, and 32 respectively.
Furthermore, if an external clock is selected as the transfer clock, the clock frequency input to the CLK
pin becomes the transfer rate.
(3) Error detection
Only overrun error can be detected. Overrun error is an error that occurs when the next data is made
ready before the reception buffer register is read.
(4) How to deal with an error
When receiving data, read an error flag and reception data simultaneously to determine which error
has occurred. If the data read is erroneous, initialize the error flag and the UARTi receive buffer
register, then receive the data again.
To initialize the UARTi receive buffer register
1. Set the receive enable bit to “0” (disable reception).
2. Set the serial I/O mode select bit to “0002” (invalid serial I/O).
3. Set the serial I/O mode select bit.
4. Set the receive enable bit to “1” again (enable reception).
To transmit data again due to an error on the reception side, set the UARTi transmit buffer register
again, then transmit the data again.
To set the UARTi transmit buffer register again
1. Set the serial I/O mode select bits to “0002” (invalidate serial I/O).
2. Set the serial I/O mode select bits again.
3. Set the transmit enable bit to “1” (enable transmission), then set transmission data in the UARTi
transmit buffer register.
(5) Function selection
For clock-synchronous serial I/O, the following functions can be selected:
_______ _______
(a) CTS/RTS function
_______
In the CTS function, an external IC can start transmission/reception by inputting an “H” level to the
_______
_______
CTS pin. The CTS pin input level is detected when transmission/reception starts. Therefore, if the
level is set to “L” during transmission/reception, it will stop from the next data.
_______
_______
_______
The RTS function informs an external IC that RTS is reception-ready and has changed to “L”. RTS
goes to “H” at the falling edge of the transfer clock.
_______ _______
The clock-synchronous serial I/O has four types of CTS/RTS functions to choose from:
326
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
_______ _______
• CTS/RTS functions disabled
_______
• CTS function only enabled
_______
• RTS function only enabled
_______ _______
• CTS/RTS separation function
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
_______ _______
CTS/RTS pin is a programmable I/O port.
_______ _______
_______
CTS/RTS pin performs the CTS function.
_______ _______
_______
CTS/RTS pin performs the RTS function.
_______
_______
P60 pin works the RTS function, and P64 pin performs the CTS
_______ _______
_______
function. When CTS/RTS separation function is selected, CTS/
_______
RTS function cannot select simultaneously.
(b) Function for choosing polarity
This function switches the polarity of the transfer clock. The following operations are available:
• Data is input at the falling edge of the transfer clock, and is output at the rising edge.
• Data is input at the rising edge of the transfer clock, and is output at the falling edge.
(c) Function for choosing which bit to transmit first
This function is to choose whether to transmit data from bit 0 or from bit 7. Choose either of the
following:
• LSB first
Data is transmitted from bit 0.
• MSB first
Data is transmitted from bit 7.
(d) Function for choosing successive reception mode
Successive reception mode is a mode in which reading the receive buffer register makes the reception-enabled status ready. In this mode, there is no need to write dummy data to the transmit buffer
register so as to make the reception-enabled status ready. But at the time of starting reception, read
the receive buffer register into a dummy manner.
• Normal mode
Writing dummy data to the transmit buffer register makes the
reception enabled status ready.
Reading the reception buffer register makes the reception-enabled
• Successive reception mode
status ready.
(e) Function for outputting transfer clock to multiple pins
This function is to switch among pins to output the transfer clock. This function is effective only when
selecting the internal clock. Switching among pins for outputting the transfer clock allows data transmission to two external ICs in a time-sharing manner.
(f) Data logic select function
This function is to reserve data when writing to transmit buffer register or reading from receive buffer register.
(g) Function for choosing a transmission interrupt factor
The timing to generate a transmission interrupt can be selected from the following: the instant the
transmission buffer is emptied or the instant the transmission register is emptied. When transmission buffer empty timing is selected, an interrupt occurs when transmitted data is moved from the
transmission buffer to the transmission register. Therefore, data can be transmitted in succession.
When transmission register empty timing is selected, an interrupt occurs when data transmission is
complete.
(h) TxD, RxD I/O polarity reverse function
This function is to reserve a polarity of TxD port output level and a polarity of RxD port input level.
327
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Following are some examples in which various functions (a) through (g) are selected:
_______
• Transmission Operation WITH: CTS function, transmission at falling edge of transfer clock, LSB
First, interrupt at instant transmission buffer is emptied; WITHOUT transfer clock output to multiple
pins function ............................................................................................................................ P334
_______ _______
• Transmission Operation WITH: CTS/RTS function disabled, transmission at falling edge of transfer
clock, LSB First, interrupt at instant transmission is completed; WITH transfer clock output to multiple pins function (UART0 selection available) ....................................................................... P338
• Reception WITH: RTS function, reception at falling edge of transfer clock, LSB First, successive
reception mode disabled; WITHOUT transfer clock output to multiple pins function .............. P342
(6) Input to the serial I/O and the direction register
To input an external signal to the serial I/O, set the direction register of the relevant port to input.
(7) Pins related to the serial I/O
_______ ________
________
_______
• CTS0, CTS1, CTS2 pins
Input pins for the CTS function
________
________
________
_______
• RTS0, RTS1, RTS2 pins
Output pins for the RTS function
• CLK0, CLK1, CLK2 pins
Input/output pins for the transfer clock
• RxD0, RxD1, RxD2 pins
Input pins for data
Output pins for data (Since TxD2 pin is N-channel open drain, this pin
• TxD0, TxD1, TxD2 pins
needs pull-up resistor.)
• CLKS1 pin
Output pin for transfer clock. Can be used as transfer clock output pin in
the transfer clock output to multiple pins function.
(8) Registers related to the serial I/O
Figure 2.4.1 shows the memory map of serial I/O-related registers, and Figures 2.4.2 to 2.4.6 show
serial I/O-related registers.
004F16
005416
UART2
UART2
UART0
UART0
UART1
UART1
037816
UART2 transmit/receive mode register (U2MR)
005016
005116
005216
005316
037916
037A16
037B16
037C16
037D16
037E16
037F16
transmit interrupt control register (S2TIC)
receive interrupt control register (S2RIC)
transmit interrupt control register (S0TIC)
receive interrupt control register (S0RIC)
transmit interrupt control regster(S1TIC)
receive interrupt control register(S1RIC)
UART2 bit rate generator (U2BRG)
UART2 transmit buffer register (U2TB)
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0 (U2C0)
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 (U2C1)
UART2 receive buffer register (U2RB)
03A016
UART0 transmit/receive mode register (U0MR)
03A116
UART0 bit rate generator (U0BRG)
03A216
03A316
03A416
03A516
03A616
03A716
UART0 transmit buffer register (U0TB)
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0 (U0C0)
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1 (U0C1)
UART0 receive buffer register (U0RB)
03A816
UART1 transmit/receive mode register (U1MR)
03A916
UART1 bit rate generator (U1BRG)
03AA16
03AB16
03AC16
03AD16
03AE16
UART1 transmit buffer register (U1TB)
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0 (U1C0)
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1 (U1C1)
03AF16
UART1 receive buffer register (U1RB)
03B016
UART transmit/receive control register 2 (UCON)
03B116
Figure 2.4.1. Memory map of serial I/O-related registers
328
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit buffer register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
U0TB
U1TB
U2TB
Address
03A316, 03A216
03AB16, 03AA16
037B16, 037A16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
A
A
R W
Transmit data
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turn out to be indeterminate.
UARTi receive buffer register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
Symbol
U0RB
U1RB
U2RB
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
03A716, 03A616
03AF16, 03AE16
037F16, 037E16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
Receive data
Function
(During UART mode)
Receive data
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
ABT
Arbitration lost detecting
flag (Note 2)
0 : Not detected
1 : Detected
Invalid
OER
Overrun error flag (Note 1)
0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
FER
Framing error flag (Note 1) Invalid
PER
Parity error flag (Note 1)
Invalid
0 : No parity error
1 : Parity error found
SUM
Error sum flag (Note 1)
Invalid
0 : No error
1 : Error found
0 : No framing error
1 : Framing error found
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
Note 1: Bits 15 through 12 are set to “0” when the serial I/O mode select bit (bits 2 to 0 at addresses 03A016,
03A816 and 037816) are set to “0002” or the receive enable bit is set to “0”.
(Bit 15 is set to “0” when bits 14 to 12 all are set to “0”.) Bits 14 and 13 are also set to “0” when the
lower byte of the UARTi receive buffer register (addresses 03A616, 03AE16 and 037E16) is read out.
Note 2: Arbitration lost detecting flag is allocated to U2RB and noting but “0” may be written. Nothing is
assigned in bit 11 of U0RB and U1RB. These bits can neither be set or reset. When read, the value
of this bit is “0”.
UARTi bit rate generator
b7
b0
Symbol
U0BRG
U1BRG
U2BRG
Address
03A116
03A916
037916
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
Assuming that set value = n, BRGi divides the count source by
n+1
Values that can be set
0016 to FF16
A
R W
Figure 2.4.2. Serial I/O-related registers (1)
329
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit/receive mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UiMR(i=0,1)
Address
03A016, 03A816
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit
symbol
Bit name
SMD0
Serial I/O mode select bit
Must be fixed to 001
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
SMD1
SMD2
Function
(During UART mode)
b2 b1 b0
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
CKDIR Internal/external clock
select bit
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
STPS
Stop bit length select bit
Invalid
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd/even parity select bit Invalid
PRYE
Parity enable bit
Invalid
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
SLEP
Sleep select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Sleep mode deselected
1 : Sleep mode selected
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
Note : Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
R W
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
U2MR
b0
Address
037816
Bit
symbol
Bit name
SMD0
Serial I/O mode select bit
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Must be fixed to 001
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : (Note 1)
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
SMD1
SMD2
b2 b1 b0
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
CKDIR Internal/external clock
select bit
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note 2)
Must always be fixed to “0”
STPS
Stop bit length select bit
Invalid
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd/even parity select bit Invalid
PRYE
Parity enable bit
Invalid
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
IOPOL
TxD, RxD I/O polarity
reverse bit
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Usually set to “0”
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Usually set to “0”
Note 1: Bit 2 to bit 0 are set to “0102” when I2C mode is used.
Note 2: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Figure 2.4.3. Serial I/O-related registers (2)
330
Function
(During UART mode)
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit/receive control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UiC0(i=0,1)
Bit
symbol
CLK0
Address
When reset
03A416, 03AC16
0816
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
b1 b0
BRG count source
select bit
CLK1
CRS
TXEPT
CTS/RTS function
select bit
Function
(During UART mode)
b1 b0
R W
AAAA
AA
A
AAAA
AA
AA
AA
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : Data present in transmit
0 : Data present in transmit register
Transmit register empty
register (during transmission)
(during transmission)
flag
1 : No data present in transmit
1 : No data present in transmit
register (transmission
completed)
register (transmission completed)
CRD
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P60 and P64 function as
programmable I/O port)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P60 and P64 function as
programmable I/O port)
NCH
Data output select bit
0 : TXDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TXDi pin is N-channel
open-drain output
0: TXDi pin is CMOS output
1: TXDi pin is N-channel
open-drain output
CKPOL
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmit data is output at
falling edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
rising edge
1 : Transmit data is output at
rising edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
falling edge
Must always be “0”
UFORM Transfer format select bit 0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
Must always be “0”
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Note 2: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
U2C0
Bit
symbol
CLK0
Address
037C16
Bit name
BRG count source
select bit
CLK1
CRS
TXEPT
CTS/RTS function
select bit
When reset
0816
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
b1 b0
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : Data present in transmit
0 : Data present in transmit register
Transmit register empty
register (during transmission)
(during transmission)
flag
1 : No data present in transmit
1 : No data present in transmit
CTS/RTS disable bit
Nothing is assigned.
register (transmission completed)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P73 functions
programmable I/O port)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P73 functions programmable
I/O port)
0 : TXDi pin is CMOS output
0: TXDi pin is CMOS output
: TXDi
is N-channel
1: TXDi
is N-channel
In an attempt to write to this bit, write1“0”.
Thepinvalue,
if read, turns out
to bepin“0”.
CKPOL
AAAA
AAAA
AA
AAAA
R W
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
register (transmission
completed)
CRD
Function
(During UART mode)
CLK polarity select bit
open-drain output
0 : Transmit data is output at
falling edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
rising edge
1 : Transmit data is output at
rising edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
falling edge
UFORM Transfer format select bit 0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
(Note 3)
open-drain output
Must always be “0”
0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
AAAA
AAAA
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Note 2: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
Note 3: Only clock synchronous serial I/O mode and 8-bit UART mode are valid.
Figure 2.4.4. Serial I/O-related registers (3)
331
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
UiC1(i=0,1)
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
03A516,03AD16
When reset
0216
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
Function
(During UART mode)
TE
Transmit enable bit
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
TI
Transmit buffer
empty flag
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
RE
Receive enable bit
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
RI
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
AA
A
AA
A
R W
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
U2C1
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
037D16
Bit name
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Function
(During UART mode)
TE
Transmit enable bit
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
TI
Transmit buffer
empty flag
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
RE
Receive enable bit
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
RI
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : Transmit buffer empty
(TI = 1)
1 : Transmit is completed
(TXEPT = 1)
0 : Transmit buffer empty
(TI = 1)
1 : Transmit is completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U2RRM UART2 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enabled
Invalid
U2LCH Data logic select bit
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
U2ERE Error signal output
enable bit
Must be fixed to “0”
0 : Output disabled
1 : Output enabled
U2IRS UART2 transmit interrupt
cause select bit
Figure 2.4.5. Serial I/O-related registers (4)
332
When reset
0216
AA
A
A
AA
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UART transmit/receive control register 2
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UCON
Bit
symbol
U0IRS
Address
03B016
When reset
X00000002
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit
name
UART0 transmit
interrupt cause select bit
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U1IRS
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
UART1 transmit
interrupt cause select bit
(TXEPT = 1)
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enable
Invalid
U1RRM UART1 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enabled
Invalid
CLKMD0 CLK/CLKS select bit 0
Valid when bit 5 = “1”
0 : Clock output to CLK1
1 : Clock output to CLKS1
Invalid
CLKMD1 CLK/CLKS select
bit 1 (Note)
0 : Normal mode
Must always be “0”
(CLK output is CLK1 only)
1 : Transfer clock output
from multiple pins
function selected
Separate CTS/RTS bit
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
1 : CTS/RTS separated
RW
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U0RRM UART0 continuous
receive mode enable bit
RCSP
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
Function
(During UART mode)
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
1 : CTS/RTS separated
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be indeterminate.
Note: When using multiple pins to output the transfer clock, the following requirements must be met:
• UART1 internal/external clock select bit (bit 3 at address 03A816) = “0”.
UART2 special mode register
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
U2SMR
0
Bit
symbol
Address
037716
Bit
name
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Function
(During UART mode)
IICM
IIC mode selection bit
0 : Normal mode
1 : IIC mode
Must always be “0”
ABC
Arbitration lost detecting
flag control bit
0 : Update per bit
1 : Update per byte
Must always be “0”
BBS
Bus busy flag
0 : STOP condition detected
1 : START condition detected
Must always be “0”
SCLL sync output
enable bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
Must always be “0”
ABSCS
Bus collision detect
sampling
clock select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Rising edge of transfer
clock
1 : Underflow signal of timer A0
ACSE
Auto clear function
select bit of transmit
enable bit
Must always be “0”
0 : No auto clear function
1 : Auto clear at occurrence of
bus collision
SSS
Transmit start condition
select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Ordinary
1 : Falling edge of RxD2
LSYN
Reserved bit
Note: Nothing but "0" may be written.
Always set to “0”
A
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
R W
(Note)
Figure 2.4.6. Serial I/O-related registers (5)
333
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.4.2 Operation of Serial I/O (transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode)
In transmitting data in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode, choose functions from those listed in Table
2.4.1. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.4.7 shows the operation timing, and
Figures 2.4.8 and 2.4.9 show the set-up procedures.
Table 2.4.1. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Transfer clock
source
O
CTS function
O
CTS function enabled
O
Output transmission data at
the falling edge of the
transfer clock
Internal clock (f1 / f8 / f32)
External clock (CLKi pin)
CTS function disabled
CLK polarity
Output transmission data at
the rising edge of the
transfer clock
Transfer clock
O
LSB first
MSB first
Item
Set-up
Transmission
interrupt factor
O
Output transfer clock
to multiple pins
(Note 1)
O
CTS / RTS
separation function
(Note 2)
Data logic select
function
(Note 3)
O
Pin shared by CTS and RTS
O
No reverse
TXD, RXD I/O
polarity reverse bit
(Note 3)
Transmission buffer empty
Transmission complete
Not selected
Selected
CTS and RTS separated
Reverse
O
No reverse
Reverse
Note 1: This can be selected only when UART1 is used in combination with the internal clock. When this function is
_______ _______
_______ _______
selected, neither UART1 CTS/RTS function, nor UART0 CTS/RTS separation function can be utilized. Set the
_______ _______
UART1 CTS/RTS disable bit to “1”.
_______ _______
Note 2: UART0 only. (UART1 CTS/RTS function cannot be used when this function is selected.)
Note 3: UART2 only.
Operation (1) Setting the transmit enable bit to “1” and writing transmission data to the UARTi transmit
buffer register makes data transmissible status ready.
________
_______
(2) When input to the CTSi pin goes to “L” level, transmission starts (the CTSi pin must be
controlled on the reception side).
(3) In synchronization with the first falling edge of the transfer clock, transmission data held in the
UARTi transmit buffer register is transmitted to the UARTi transmit register. At this time, the
UARTi transmit interrupt request bit goes to “1”. Also, the first bit of the transmission data is
transmitted from the TxDi pin. Then the data is transmitted bit by bit from the lower order in
synchronization with the falling edges.
(4) When transmission of 1-byte data is completed, the transmit register empty flag goes to “1”,
which indicates that transmission is completed. The transfer clock stops at “H” level.
(5) If the next transmission data is set in the UARTi transmit buffer register while transmission is
in progress (before the eighth bit has been transmitted), the data is transmitted in succession.
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Example of wiring
(Note)
Microcomputer
Receiver side IC
CLKi
CLK
TXDi
RXD
CTSi
Port
Note : Since TXD2 pin is N-channel open drain,
this pin needs pull-up resistor.
Example of operation
AAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA
AAAAAAA AAAAAAAAA
(1) Transmission enabled
(2) Confirming CTS
(3) Start transmission Tc
(4) Transmission is complete
(5) Transmit next data
Transfer clock
Transmit
enable bit (TE)
“1”
Transmit
buffer empty
flag (Tl)
“1”
“0”
Data is set to UARTi transmit buffer register
“0”
Transferred from UARTi transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
“H”
CTSi
“L”
TCLK
Stopped pulsing because CTSi = “H”
Stopped pulsing because
transfer enable bit = “0”
CLKi
TxDi
D0 D 1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D7
D0 D 1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D 6 D7
D 0 D1 D2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D6 D7
Transmit register “1”
empty flag
“0”
(TXEPT)
“1”
Transmit
interrupt request “0”
bit (IR)
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings:
• Internal clock is selected.
• CTS function is selected.
• CLK polarity select bit = “0”.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “0”.
Tc = TCLK = 2(n + 1) / fi
fi: frequency of BRGi count source (f1, f8, f32)
n: value set to BRGi
Figure 2.4.7. Operation timing of transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting UARTi transmit/receive mode register (i=0 to 2)
b7
0
0
0
0
b0
UART0 transmit/receive mode register
1
U0MR [Address 03A016]
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
1
U2MR [Address 037816]
UART1 transmit/receive mode register
U1MR [Address 03A816]
Must be fixed to “001”
Must be fixed to “001”
Internal/external clock select bit
0 : Internal clock
Internal/external clock select bit
0 : Internal clock
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
TXD, RXD I/O polarity reverse bit
Usually set to “0”
Sleep select bit
Must be “0” in clock synchronous I/O mode
Setting UARTi transmit/receive control register 0 (i=0 to 2)
b7
b0
0 0
0
0
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0
U0C0 [Address 03A416]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0
U1C0 [Address 03AC16]
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
U2C0 [Address 037C16]
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
BRG count source select bit
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
CTS/RTS function select bit
(Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note)
CTS/RTS function select bit
(Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note)
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register
(during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register
(transmission completed)
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register
(during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register
(transmission completed)
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
Data output select bit
0 : TxDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TxDi pin is N-channel open-drain output
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmission data is output at falling edge
of transfer clock and reception data is input
at rising edge
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmission data is output at falling edge
of transfer clock and reception data is input
at rising edge
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0” .
Setting UART transmit/receive control register 2 and UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
UART transmit/receive control register 2
UCON [Address 03B016]
b7
0
b0
0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
U2C1 [Address 037D16]
UART0 transmit interrupt cause select bit
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
UART2 transmit interrupt cause select bit
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
UART1 transmit interrupt cause select bit
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
Data logic select bit
0 : No reverse
Valid when bit 5 = “1”
Error signal output enable bit
Must be “0” in clock synchronous I/O mode
CLK/CLKS select bit 1
0 : Normal mode (CLK output is CLK1 only)
Separate CTS/RTS bit
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
Continued to the next page
Figure 2.4.8. Set-up procedure of transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode (1)
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Setting UARTi bit rate generator (i = 0 to 2)
b7
b0
UARTi bit rate generator (i = 0 to 2) [Address 03A116, 03A916, 037916]
UiBRG (i = 0 to 2)
Can be set to 0016 to FF16 (Note)
Note: Write to UARTi bit rate generator when transmission/reception is halted.
Transmission enabled
b7
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
U0C1 [Address 03A516]
1 UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
U1C1 [Address 03AD16]
b0
b7
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
1 U2C1 [Address 037D16]
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Writing transmit data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART0 transmit buffer register [Address 03A316, 03A216] U0TB
UART1 transmit buffer register [Address 03AB16, 03AA16] U1TB
UART2 transmit buffer register [Address 037B16, 037A16] U2TB
Setting transmission data
When CTSi input level = “L”
Start transmission
Checking the status of UARTi transmit /receive control register (i = 0 to 2)
b7
b0
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
U0C1 [Address 03A516]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
U1C1 [Address 03AD16]
b7
Transmit buffer empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit
buffer register
1 : No data present in transmit
buffer register
(Writing next transmit data enabled)
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
U2C1 [Address 037D16]
Transmit buffer empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit
buffer register
1 : No data present in transmit
buffer register
(Writing next transmit data enabled)
Writing next transmit data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART0 transmit buffer register [Address 03A316, 03A216] U0TB
UART1 transmit buffer register [Address 03AB16, 03AA16] U1TB
UART2 transmit buffer register [Address 037B16, 037A16] U2TB
Setting transmission data
Transmission is complete
Figure 2.4.9. Set-up procedure of transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode (2)
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.4.3 Operation of the Serial I/O (transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O
mode, transfer clock output from multiple pins function selected)
In transmitting data in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode, choose functions from those listed in Table
2.4.2. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.4.10 shows the operation timing, and
Figures 2.4.11 and 2.4.12 show the set-up procedures.
Table 2.4.2. Choosed functions
Item
Transfer clock
source
Set-up
O
Internal clock (f1 / f8 / f32)
External clock (CLKi pin)
CTS function
CTS function enabled
O
CTS function disabled
O
Output transmission data at
the falling edge of the
transfer clock
CLK polarity
Output transmission data at
the rising edge of the
transfer clock
Transfer clock
O
LSB first
MSB first
Item
Transmission
interrupt factor
Output transfer clock
to multiple pins
(Note 1)
CTS / RTS
separation function
(Note 2)
Data logic select
function
(Note 3)
TXD, RXD I/O
polarity reverse bit
(Note 3)
Set-up
Transmission buffer empty
O
Transmission complete
Not selected
O
Selected
O
Pin shared by CTS and RTS
CTS and RTS separated
O
No reverse
Reverse
O
No reverse
Reverse
Note 1: This can be selected only when UART1 is used in combination with the internal clock. When this function is
_______ _______
_______ _______
selected, neither UART1 CTS/RTS function, nor UART0 CTS/RTS separation function can be utilized. Set the
_______ _______
UART1 CTS/RTS disable bit to “1”.
_______ _______
Note 2: UART0 only. (UART1 CTS/RTS function cannot be used when this function is selected.)
Note 3: UART2 only.
Operation (1) Setting the transmit enable bit to “1” makes data transmissible status ready.
(2) When transmission data is written to the UART1 transmit buffer register, transmission data
held in the UART1 transmit buffer register is transmitted to the UART1 transmit register in
synchronization with the first falling edge of the transfer clock. At this time, the first bit of the
transmission data is transmitted from the TxD1 pin. Then the data is transmitted bit by bit
from the lower order in synchronization with the falling edges of the transfer clock.
(3) When transmission of 1-byte data is completed, the transmit register empty flag goes to “1”,
which indicates that the transmission is completed. The transfer clock stops at “H” level. At
this time, the UART1 transmit interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(4) Setting CLK/CLKS select bit 1 to “1” and setting CLK/CLKS select bit 0 to “1” causes the
CLKS1 pin to go to the transfer clock output pin. Change the transfer clock output pin when
transmission is halted.
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Example of wiring
Microcomputer
TXD1 (P67)
CLKS1 (P64)
CLK1 (P65)
IN
IN
CLK
CLK
Note: This applies when performing only transmission with an internal
clock selected in the clock synchronous serial I/O mode.
Example of operation
(1) Transmission enabled
(3) Transmission is complete
(2) Start transmission
(4) Clock switched
Transfer clock
(TE)
Transmit enable bit
(TI)
Transmit buffer
empty flag
“1”
“0”
“1”
“0”
(CLKMD1)
CLK, CLKS
select bit 1
“1”
“0”
(CLKMD0)
CLK, CLKS
select bit 0
“1”
“0”
CLK1
CLKS1
D 0 D1 D 2 D 3 D 4 D5 D6 D 7
TxD1
D 0 D1 D 2 D 3 D 4 D5 D6 D 7
“1”
UART1 Transmit
interrupt request bit “0”
(IR)
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Figure 2.4.10. Operation timing of transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode, transfer
clock output from multiple pins function selected
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting UART1 transmit/receive mode register
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
1
UART1 transmit/receive mode register [Address 03A816]
U1MR
Must be fixed to “001”
Internal/external clock select bit
0 : Internal clock
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Sleep select bit
Must be “0” in clock synchronous I/O mode
Setting UART1 transmit/receive control register 0
b7
0
b0
0
1
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0 [Address 03AC16]
U1C0
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register (during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register (transmission completed)
CTS/RTS disable bit
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
Data output select bit
0 : TXDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TxDi pin is N-channel open-drain output
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmission data is output at falling edge of transfer clock and
reception data is input at rising edge
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Setting UART transmit/receive control register 2
b7
b0
1
1
UART transmit/receive control register 2 [Address 03B016]
UCON
UART0 transmit interrupt cause select bit
1 : Transmission completed (TXEPT = 1)
CLK/CLKS select bit 0
0 : Clock output to CLK1
1 : Clock output to CLKS1
CLK/CLKS select bit 1
1 : Transfer clock output from multiple pins function selected
Invalid when bit 5 = “1”
Continued to the next page
Figure 2.4.11. Set-up procedure of transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode, transfer
clock output from multiple pins function selected (1)
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Setting UART1 bit rate generator
b7
b0
UART1 bit rate generator [Address 03A916]
U1BRG
Can be set to 0016 to FF16 (Note)
Note: Write to UART1 bit rate generator when transmission/reception is halted.
Transmission enabled
b7
b0
1
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1 [Address 03AD16]
U1C1
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Writing transmit data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART1 transmit buffer register [Address 03AB16, 03AA16]
U1TB
Setting transmission data
Start transmission
Checking the status of UART1 transmit/receieve control register
b7
b0
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1 [Address 03AD16]
U1C1
Transmit buffer empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in transmit buffer register (Writing next transmit data enabled)
Writing next transmit data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART1 transmit buffer register [Address 03AB16, 03AA16]
U1TB
Setting transmission data
Transmission is complete
Figure 2.4.12. Set-up procedure of transmission in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode, transfer
clock output from multiple pins function selected (2)
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.4.4 Operation of Serial I/O (reception in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode)
In receiving data in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.4.3.
Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.4.13 shows the operation timing, and Figures 2.4.14 and 2.4.15 show the set-up procedures.
Table 2.4.3. Choosed functions
Item
Transfer clock
source
RTS function
Set-up
Internal clock (f1 / f8 / f32)
O
External clock (CLKi pin)
O
RTS function enabled
RTS function disabled
CLK polarity
O
Input reception data at
the rising edge of the
transfer clock
Input reception data at
the falling edge of the
transfer clock
Transfer clock
O
LSB first
MSB first
Item
Set-up
Continuous receive
mode
O
Disabled
Output transfer clock
to multiple pins
(Note 1)
O
Not selected
CTS / RTS
separation function
(Note 2)
Data logic select
function
(Note 3)
O
Pin shared by CTS and RTS
O
No reverse
TXD, RXD I/O
polarity reverse bit
(Note 3)
Enabled
Selected
CTS and RTS separated
Reverse
O
No reverse
Reverse
Note 1: This can be selected only when UART1 is used in combination with the internal clock. When this function is
_______ _______
_______ _______
selected, neither UART1 CTS/RTS function, nor UART0 CTS/RTS separation function can be utilized. Set the
_______ _______
UART1 CTS/RTS disable bit to “1”.
_______ _______
Note 2: UART0 only. (UART1 CTS/RTS function cannot be used when this function is selected.)
Note 3: UART2 only.
Operation (1) Writing dummy data to the UARTi transmit buffer register, setting the receive enable bit to “1”,
and the transmit enable bit to “1”, makes the data receivable status ready. At this time, the
________
output from the RTSi pin goes to “L” level, which informs the transmission side that the data
receivable status is ready (output the transfer clock from the IC on the transmission side after
_______
checking that the RTS output has gone to “L” level).
(2) In synchronization with the first rising edge of the transfer clock, the input signal to the RxDi
pin is stored in the highest bit of the UARTi receive register. Then, data is taken in by shifting
right the content of the UARTi reception data in synchronization with the rising edges of the
transfer clock.
(3) When 1-byte data lines up in the UARTi receive register, the content of the UARTi receive
register is transmitted to the UARTi receive buffer register. The transfer clock stops at “H”
level. At this time, the receive complete flag and the UARTi receive interrupt request bit goes
to “1”.
(4) The receive complete flag goes to “0” when the lower-order byte of the UARTi buffer register
is read.
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Example of wiring
Microcomputer
Transmitter side IC
CLKi
CLK
RXDi
TXD
RTSi
Port
Example of operation
(1) Reception enabled
(3) Reception is complete
(2) Start reception
Receive enable
bit (RE)
Transmit enable
bit (TE)
Transmit buffer
empty flag (Tl)
(4) Read of reception data
“1”
“0”
“1”
“0”
Dummy data is set in UARTi transmit buffer register
“1”
“0”
“H”
Transferred from UARTi transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
RTSi
“L”
1 / fEXT
CLKi
Reception data is taken in
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
RxDi
Receive complete “1”
flag (Rl)
“0”
Receive interrupt
request bit (IR)
Transferred from UARTi receive register
to UARTi receive buffer register
D7
D0 D1 D2
D3 D4 D5
Read out from UARTi receive buffer register
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings:
• External clock is selected.
• RTS function is selected.
• CLK polarity select bit = “0”.
Make sure that the following conditions are met when
the CLKi pin input =“H” before data reception
• Transmit enable bit → “1”
• Receive enable bit → “1”
• Dummy data write to UARTi transmit buffer register
fEXT: frequency of external clock
Figure 2.4.13. Operation timing of reception in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting UARTi transmit/receive mode register (i=0 to 2)
b7
b0
0
1 0 0 1
UART0 transmit/receive mode register
U0MR [Address 03A016]
UART1 transmit/receive mode register
U1MR [Address 03A816]
b7
b0
0
1 0 0 1
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
U2MR [Address 037816]
Must be fixed to “001”
Must be fixed to “001”
Internal/external clock select bit
1 : External clock
Internal/external clock select bit
1 : External clock
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O
mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
Invalid in clock synchronous I/O mode
TXD, RXD I/O polarity reverse bit
Usually set to “0”
Sleep select bit
Must be “0” in clock synchronous I/O mode
Setting UARTi transmit/receive control register 0 (i=0 to 2)
b7
b0
0 0
0
1
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0
U0C0 [Address 03A416]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0
U1C0 [Address 03AC16]
b7
0 0
b0
0
1
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
U2C0 [Address 037C16]
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
CTS/RTS function select bit
(Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
1 : RTS function is selected
CTS/RTS function select bit
(Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
1 : RTS function is selected
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register
(during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register
(transmission completed)
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register
(during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register
(transmission completed)
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
Data output select bit
0 : TxDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TxDi pin is N-channel open-drain output
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmission data is output at falling edge
of transfer clock and reception data is input
at rising edge
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmission data is output at falling edge
of transfer clock and reception data is input
at rising edge
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Setting UART transmit/receive control register 2 and UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b0
0 0
0 0
UART transmit/receive control register 2
UCON [Address 03B016]
b7
0 0 0
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
U2C1 [Address 037D16]
UART0 continuous receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive mode disabled
UART2 continuous receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive mode disabled
UART1 continuous receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive mode disabled
Data logic select bit
0 : No reverse
Valid when bit 5 = “1”
Error signal output enable bit
Must be “0” in clock synchronous I/O mode
CLK/CLKS select bit 1
0 : Normal mode (CLK output is CLK1 only)
Separate CTS/RTS bit
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
Continued to the next page
Figure 2.4.14. Set-up procedure of reception in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode (1)
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Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Reception enabled
b7
b0
1
1
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
[Address 03A516] U0C1
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
[Address 03AD16] U1C1
b7
b0
1
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
[Address 037D16] U2C1
1
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Receive enable bit
1 : Reception enabled
Receive enable bit
1 : Reception enabled
Writing dummy data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART0 transmit buffer register [Address 03A316, 03A216] U0TB
UART1 transmit buffer register [Address 03AB16, 03AA16] U1TB
UART2 transmit buffer register [Address 037B16, 037A16] U2TB
Setting dummy data
Start reception
Checking completion of reception
b7
b0
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1 b7
[Address 03A516] U0C1
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
[Address 03AD16] U1C1
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in receive buffer register
1 : Data present in receive buffer register
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
[Address 037D16] U2C1
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in receive buffer register
1 : Data present in receive buffer register
Checking error
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART0 receive buffer register [Address 03A716, 03A616]U0RB
UART1 receive buffer register [Address 03AF16, 03AE16]U1RB
UART2 receive buffer register [Address 037F16, 037E16]U2RB
Receive data
Overrun error flag
0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
Processing after reading out reception data
Figure 2.4.15. Set-up procedure of reception in clock-synchronous serial I/O mode (2)
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M16C / 62 Group
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.4.5 Precautions for Serial I/O (in clock-synchronous serial I/O)
Transmission/reception
_______
________
(1) With an external clock selected, and choosing the RTS function, the output level of the RTSi
pin goes to “L” when the data-receivable status becomes ready, which informs the transmis________
sion side that the reception has become ready. The output level of the RTSi pin goes to “H”
________
________
when reception starts. So if the RTSi pin is connected to the CTSi pin on the transmission
side, the circuit can transmission and reception data with consistent timing. With the internal
_______
clock, the RTS function has no effect. Figure 2.4.16 shows an example of wiring.
Transmitter side IC
TxDi
TxDi
RxDi
RxDi
CLKi
CLKi
CTSi
RTSi
Figure 2.4.16. Example of wiring
346
Receiver side IC
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Clock-Synchronous Serial I/O
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Transmission
(1) With an external clock selected, perform the following set-up procedure with the CLKi pin
input level = “H” if the CLK polarity select bit = “0” or with the CLKi pin input level = “L” if the
CLK polarity select bit = “1”:
1. Set the transmit enable bit (to “1”)
2. Write transmission data to the UARTi transmit buffer register
________
_______
3. “L” level input to the CTSi pin (when the CTS function is selected)
Reception (1) In operating the clock-synchronous serial I/O, operating a transmitter generates a shift clock.
Fix settings for transmission even when using the device only for reception. Dummy data is
output to the outside from the TxDi pin (transmission pin) when receiving data.
(2) With the internal clock selected, setting the transmit enable bit to “1” (transmission-enabled
status) and setting dummy data in the UARTi transmission buffer register generates a shift
clock.
With the external clock selected, a shift clock is generated when the transmit enable bit is set
to “1”, dummy data is set in the UARTi transmit buffer register, and the external clock is input
to the CLKi pin.
(3) In receiving data in succession, an overrun error occurs when the next reception data is made
ready in the UARTi receive register with the receive complete flag set to “1” (before the
content of the UARTi receive buffer register is read), and overrun error flag is set to “1”. In this
instance, the next data is written to the UARTi receive buffer register, so handle with this
problem by writing programs on transmission side and reception side so that the previous
data is transmitted again.
If an overrun error occurs, the UARTi receive interrupt request bit does not go to “1”.
(4) To receive data in succession, set dummy data in the lower-order byte of the UARTi transmit
buffer register every time reception is made.
(5) With an external clock selected, perform the following set-up procedure with the CLKi pin
input level = “H” if the CLK polarity select bit = “0” or with the CLKi pin input level = “L” if the
CLK polarity select bit = “1”:
1. Set receive enable bit (to “1”)
2. Set transmit enable bit (to “1”)
3. Write dummy data to the UARTi transmit buffer register
_______
(6) Output from the RTS pin goes to “L” level as soon as the receive enable bit is set to “1”. This
is not related to the content of the transmit buffer empty flag or the content of the transmit
enable bit.
_______
Output from the RTS pin goes to “H” level when reception starts, and goes to “L” level when
reception is completed. This is not related to the content of the transmit buffer empty flag or
the content of the receive complete flag.
347
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UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.5 Clock-Asynchronous Serial I/O (UART)
2.5.1 Overview
UART handles communications by means of character-by-character synchronization. The transmission
side and the reception side are independent of each other, so full-duplex communication is possible. The
following is an overview of the clock-asynchronous serial I/O.
(1) Transmission/reception format
Figure 2.5.1 shows the transmission/reception format, and Table 2.5.1 shows the names and functions of transmission data.
Transfer data length : 7 bits
1ST – 7DATA
1ST – 7DATA
1ST – 7DATA – 1PAR –
1ST – 7DATA – 1PAR –
1SP
2SP
1SP
2SP
Transfer data length : 8 bits
1ST – 8DATA
1ST – 8DATA
1ST – 8DATA – 1PAR –
1ST – 8DATA – 1PAR –
1SP
2SP
1SP
2SP
Transfer data length : 9 bits
1ST – 9DATA
1ST – 9DATA
1ST – 9DATA – 1PAR –
1ST – 9DATA – 1PAR –
1SP
2SP
1SP
2SP
ST
DATA
PAR
SP
: Start bit
: Character bit (Transfer data)
: Parity bit
: Stop bit
Figure 2.5.1. Transmission/reception format
Table 2.5.1. Transmission data names and functions
Name
348
ST (start bit)
Function
A 1-bit “L” signal to be added immediately before character bits.
This bit signals the start of data transmission.
DATA (character bits)
Transmission data set in the UARTi transmit buffer register.
PAR (parity bit)
A signal to be added immediately after character bits so as to increase data
reliability. The level of this signal so varies that the total number of 1's in
character bits and this bit always becomes even or odd depending on which
parity is chosen, even or odd.
SP (stop bit)
Either 1-bit or 2-bit “H” signal to be added immediately after character bits (after
the parity bit if parity is checked). This / they signals the end of data
transmission.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(2) Transfer rate
The divide-by-16 frequency, resulting from division in the bit rate generator (BRG), becomes the transfer rate. The count source for the transfer rate register can be selected from f1, f8, f32, and the input
from the CLK pin. Clocks f1, f8, f32 are derived by dividing the CPU’s main clock by 1, 8, and 32
respectively.
Table 2.5.2. Example of baud rate setting
Baud rate
(bps)
BRG's
count source
System clock : 16MHz
BRG's set value : n
System clock : 7.3728MHz
Actual time (bps)
BRG's set value : n
Actual time (bps)
600
f8
207 (CF16)
601
95 (5F16)
600
1200
f8
103 (6716)
1202
47 (2F16)
1200
2400
f8
51 (3316)
2404
23 (1716)
2400
4800
f1
207 (CF16)
4808
95 (5F16)
4800
9600
f1
103 (6716)
9615
47 (2F16)
9600
14400
f1
68 (4416)
14493
31 (1F16)
14400
19200
f1
51 (3316)
19231
23 (1716)
19200
28800
f1
34 (2216)
28571
15 (F16)
28800
31250
f1
31 (1F16)
31250
(3) An error detection
In clock-asynchronous serial I/O mode, detect errors are shown in Table 2.5.3.
Table 2.5.3. Error detection
Type of error
Overrun error
Description
• This error occurs when the
next data lines up before the
content of the UARTi receive
buffer register is read.
• The next data is written to the
UARTi receive buffer register.
• The UARTi receive interrupt
request bit does not go to “1”.
Framing error
• This error occurs when the
stop bit falls short of the set
number of stop bits.
Parity error
• With parity enabled, this error
occurs when the total number
of 1's in character bits and the
parity bit is different from the
specified number.
Error-sum flag
• This flag turns on when any
error (overrun, framing, or
parity) is detected.
When the flag turns on
How to clear the flag
• Set the serial I/O mode select
bits to “0002”.
• Set the receive enable bit to
“0”.
The error is detected
• Set the serial I/O mode select
when data is
bits to ”0002”.
transferred from the
UARTi receive register • Set the receive enable bit to
“0”.
to the UARTi receive
• Read the lower-order byte of
buffer register.
the UARTi receive buffer
register.
• When all error (overrun,
framing, and parity) are
removed, the flag is cleared.
349
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M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(4) How to deal with an error
When receiving data, read an error flag and reception data simultaneously to determine which error
has occurred. If the data read is erroneous, initialize the error flag and the UARTi receive buffer
register, then receive the data again.
To initialize the UARTi receive buffer register
1. Set the receive enable bit to “0” (disable reception).
2. Set the receive enable bit to “1” again (enable reception).
To transmit data again due to an error on the reception side, set the UARTi transmit buffer register
again, then transmit the data again.
To set the UARTi transmit buffer register again
1. Set the serial I/O mode select bits to “0002” (invalidate serial I/O).
2. Set the serial I/O mode select bits again.
3. Set the transmit enable bit to “1” (enable transmission), then set transmission data in the UARTi
transmit buffer register.
(5) Functions selection
In operating UART, the following functions can be used:
_______ _______
(a) CTS/RTS function
_______
CTS function is a function in which an external IC can start transmission/reception by means of
_______
_______
inputting an “L” level to the CTS pin. The CTS pin input level is detected when transmission/reception
starts, so if the level is gone to“ H” while transmission/reception is in progress, transmission/reception stops at the next data.
_______
_______
RTS function is a function to inform an external IC that RTS pin output level has changed to “L” when
_______
reception is ready. RTS regoes to “H” at the falling edge of the transfer clock.
_______ _______
When using clock-asynchronous serial I/O, choose one of four types of CTS/RTS functions.
_______ _______
_______ _______
• CTS/RTS functions disabled
CTS/RTS pin is a programmable I/O port.
_______
_______ _______
_______
• CTS function only enabled
CTS/RTS pin performs the CTS function.
_______
_______ _______
_______
• RTS function only enabled
CTS/RTS pin performs the RTS function.
_______ _______
_______
• CTS/RTS separation function
P60 pin performs the RTS function, and P64 pin per_______
_______ _______
forms the CTS function. When CTS/RTS separation
_______ _______
function is selected, CTS/RTS function cannot select
simultaneously.
(b) Sleep mode
Sleep mode is a mode in which data is transferred to a particular microcomputer among those connected by use of clock-asynchronous serial I/O devices.
(c) Data logic select function
This function is to reserve data when writing to transmit buffer register or reading from receive buffer
register.
(d) TxD, RxD I/O polarity reverse function
This function receive a polarity of TxD port output level and a polarity of RxD port input level.
350
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M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(e) Bus collision detection function
This function is to sample the output level of the TxD pin and the input level of the RxD pin at the
rising edge of the transfer clock; if their values are different, then an interrupt request occurs.
The following are examples in which functions (a) to (e) are chosen:
_______
• Transmission WITH: CTS function, WITHOUT: other functions ............................................... P358
_______
• Reception WITH: RTS function, WITHOUT: other functions .................................................... P362
Also, the SIM interface is used by adding some extra settings in UART2's clock-asynchronous serial
I/O mode. Direct or inverse format is selected by connecting SIM card.
• Transmission WITH: direct format ............................................................................................ P366
• Reception WITH: direct format ................................................................................................. P370
(6) Input to the serial I/O and the direction register
To input an external signal to the serial I/O, set the direction register of the relevant port to input.
(7) Pins related to the serial I/O
_________ _________ __________
_______
• CTS0, CTS1, CTS2 pins
:Input pins for the CTS function
_________ _________ _________
_______
• RTS0, RTS1, RTS2 pins
:Output pins for the RTS function
• CLK0, CLK1 pins
:Input pins for the transfer clock
• RxD0, RxD1, RxD2 pins
:Input pins for data
• TxD0, TxD1, TxD2 pins
:Output pins for data
Since TxD2 pin is N-channel open drain, this pin needs pull-up resistor.
351
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M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(8) Registers related to the serial I/O
Figure 2.5.2 shows the memory map of serial I/O-related registers, and Figures 2.5.3 to 2.5.7 show
UARTi-related registers.
004A16
Bus collision detection interrupt control register (BCNIC)
004F16
UART2 transmit interrupt control register (S2TIC)
005016
UART2 receive interrupt control register (S2RIC)
005116
UART0 transmit interrupt control register (S0TIC)
005216
UART0 receive interrupt control register (S0RIC)
005316
UART1 transmit interrupt control regster(S1TIC)
005416
UART1 receive interrupt control register(S1RIC)
037816
UART2 transmit/receive mode register (U2MR)
037916
UART2 bit rate generator (U2BRG)
037A16
037B16
UART2 transmit buffer register (U2TB)
037C16
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0 (U2C0)
037D16
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 (U2C1)
037E16
UART2 receive buffer register (U2RB)
037F16
03A016
UART0 transmit/receive mode register (U0MR)
03A116
UART0 bit rate generator (U0BRG)
03A216
03A316
UART0 transmit buffer register (U0TB)
03A416
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0 (U0C0)
03A516
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1 (U0C1)
03A616
03A716
UART0 receive buffer register (U0RB)
03A816
UART1 transmit/receive mode register (U1MR)
03A916
UART1 bit rate generator (U1BRG)
03AA16
03AB16
UART1 transmit buffer register (U1TB)
03AC16
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0 (U1C0)
03AD16
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1 (U1C1)
03AE16
03AF16
03B016
UART1 receive buffer register (U1RB)
UART transmit/receive control register 2 (UCON)
Figure 2.5.2. Memory map of UARTi-related registers
352
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UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit buffer register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
Symbol
U0TB
U1TB
U2TB
b0
Address
03A316, 03A216
03AB16, 03AA16
037B16, 037A16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
A
R W
Transmit data
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turn out to be indeterminate.
UARTi receive buffer register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
Symbol
U0RB
U1RB
U2RB
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
03A716, 03A616
03AF16, 03AE16
037F16, 037E16
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
Receive data
Function
(During UART mode)
Receive data
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
ABT
Arbitration lost detecting
flag (Note 2)
OER
Overrun error flag (Note 1) 0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
FER
Framing error flag (Note 1) Invalid
0 : No framing error
1 : Framing error found
PER
Parity error flag (Note 1)
Invalid
0 : No parity error
1 : Parity error found
SUM
Error sum flag (Note 1)
Invalid
0 : No error
1 : Error found
0 : Not detected
1 : Detected
Invalid
R W
AA
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
Note 1: Bits 15 through 12 are set to “0” when the serial I/O mode select bit (bits 2 to 0 at addresses 03A016,
03A816 and 037816) are set to “0002” or the receive enable bit is set to “0”.
(Bit 15 is set to “0” when bits 14 to 12 all are set to “0”.) Bits 14 and 13 are also set to “0” when the
lower byte of the UARTi receive buffer register (addresses 03A616, 03AE16 and 037E16) is read out.
Note 2: Arbitration lost detecting flag is allocated to U2RB and noting but “0” may be written. Nothing is
assigned in bit 11 of U0RB and U1RB. These bits can neither be set or reset. When read, the value
of this bit is “0”.
UARTi bit rate generator
b7
Symbol
U0BRG
U1BRG
U2BRG
b0
Address
03A116
03A916
037916
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Function
Assuming that set value = n, BRGi divides the count source by
n+1
Values that can be set
0016 to FF16
A
RW
Figure 2.5.3. UARTi-related registers (1)
353
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UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit/receive mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UiMR(i=0,1)
Address
03A016, 03A816
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit
symbol
Bit name
SMD0
Serial I/O mode select bit
Must be fixed to 001
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
SMD1
SMD2
Function
(During UART mode)
b2 b1 b0
R W
A
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
CKDIR Internal/external clock
select bit
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note)
STPS
Stop bit length select bit
Invalid
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd/even parity select bit Invalid
PRYE
Parity enable bit
Invalid
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
SLEP
Sleep select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Sleep mode deselected
1 : Sleep mode selected
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
Note : Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
U2MR
b0
Address
037816
Bit
symbol
Bit name
SMD0
Serial I/O mode select bit
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Must be fixed to 001
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : (Note 1)
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
SMD1
SMD2
b2 b1 b0
0 : Internal clock
1 : External clock (Note 2)
Must always be fixed to “0”
STPS
Stop bit length select bit
Invalid
0 : One stop bit
1 : Two stop bits
PRY
Odd/even parity select bit Invalid
PRYE
Parity enable bit
Invalid
0 : Parity disabled
1 : Parity enabled
IOPOL
TxD, RxD I/O polarity
reverse bit
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Usually set to “0”
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
Usually set to “0”
Figure 2.5.4. UARTi-related registers (2)
AA
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
1 0 0 : Transfer data 7 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 1 0 : Transfer data 9 bits long
0 0 0 : Serial I/O invalid
0 1 0 : Inhibited
0 1 1 : Inhibited
1 1 1 : Inhibited
CKDIR Internal/external clock
select bit
Note 1: Bit 2 to bit 0 are set to “0102” when I2C mode is used.
Note 2: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
354
Function
(During UART mode)
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
0 : Odd parity
1 : Even parity
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit/receive control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UiC0(i=0,1)
Bit
symbol
CLK0
Address
When reset
03A416, 03AC16
0816
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
b1 b0
BRG count source
select bit
CLK1
CRS
TXEPT
CTS/RTS function
select bit
Function
(During UART mode)
b1 b0
AA
A
AA
AAA
AAA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
R W
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : Data present in transmit
0 : Data present in transmit register
Transmit register empty
register (during transmission)
(during transmission)
flag
1 : No data present in transmit
1 : No data present in transmit
register (transmission
completed)
register (transmission completed)
CRD
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P60 and P64 function as
programmable I/O port)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P60 and P64 function as
programmable I/O port)
NCH
Data output select bit
0 : TXDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TXDi pin is N-channel
open-drain output
0: TXDi pin is CMOS output
1: TXDi pin is N-channel
open-drain output
CKPOL
CLK polarity select bit
0 : Transmit data is output at
falling edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
rising edge
1 : Transmit data is output at
rising edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
falling edge
Must always be “0”
UFORM Transfer format select bit 0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
Must always be “0”
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Note 2: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
U2C0
Bit
symbol
CLK0
Address
037C16
Bit name
BRG count source
select bit
CLK1
CRS
TXEPT
CTS/RTS function
select bit
When reset
0816
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : CTS function is selected (Note 1)
1 : RTS function is selected (Note 2)
0 : Data present in transmit
0 : Data present in transmit register
Transmit register empty
register (during transmission)
(during transmission)
flag
1 : No data present in transmit
1 : No data present in transmit
CTS/RTS disable bit
Nothing is assigned.
CLK polarity select bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P73 functions
programmable I/O port)
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
(P73 functions programmable
I/O port)
0 : TXDi pin is CMOS output
0: TXDi pin is CMOS output
open-drain output
0 : Transmit data is output at
falling edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
rising edge
1 : Transmit data is output at
rising edge of transfer clock
and receive data is input at
falling edge
UFORM Transfer format select bit 0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
(Note 3)
R W
register (transmission completed)
: TXDi
is N-channel
1: TXDi
is N-channel
In an attempt to write to this bit, write1“0”.
Thepinvalue,
if read, turns out
to bepin“0”.
CKPOL
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
register (transmission
completed)
CRD
Function
(During UART mode)
open-drain output
Must always be “0”
0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
Note 1: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Note 2: The settings of the corresponding port register and port direction register are invalid.
Note 3: Only clock synchronous serial I/O mode and 8-bit UART mode are valid.
Figure 2.5.5. UARTi-related registers (3)
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UARTi transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
UiC1(i=0,1)
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
03A516,03AD16
When reset
0216
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit name
Function
(During UART mode)
TE
Transmit enable bit
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
TI
Transmit buffer
empty flag
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
RE
Receive enable bit
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
RI
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
AA
A
A
AA
A
A
R W
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
U2C1
b0
Bit
symbol
Address
037D16
Bit name
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Function
(During UART mode)
TE
Transmit enable bit
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
0 : Transmission disabled
1 : Transmission enabled
TI
Transmit buffer
empty flag
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
0 : Data present in
transmit buffer register
1 : No data present in
transmit buffer register
RE
Receive enable bit
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
0 : Reception disabled
1 : Reception enabled
RI
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : No data present in
receive buffer register
1 : Data present in
receive buffer register
0 : Transmit buffer empty
(TI = 1)
1 : Transmit is completed
(TXEPT = 1)
0 : Transmit buffer empty
(TI = 1)
1 : Transmit is completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U2RRM UART2 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enabled
Invalid
U2LCH Data logic select bit
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
0 : No reverse
1 : Reverse
U2ERE Error signal output
enable bit
Must be fixed to “0”
0 : Output disabled
1 : Output enabled
U2IRS UART2 transmit interrupt
cause select bit
Figure 2.5.6. UARTi-related registers (4)
356
When reset
0216
AA
A
AA
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
R W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
UART transmit/receive control register 2
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
UCON
Bit
symbol
U0IRS
Address
03B016
When reset
X00000002
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Bit
name
UART0 transmit
interrupt cause select bit
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U1IRS
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
UART1 transmit
interrupt cause select bit
(TXEPT = 1)
Function
(During UART mode)
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
0 : Transmit buffer empty (Tl = 1)
1 : Transmission completed
(TXEPT = 1)
U0RRM UART0 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enable
Invalid
U1RRM UART1 continuous
receive mode enable bit
0 : Continuous receive
mode disabled
1 : Continuous receive
mode enabled
Invalid
CLKMD0 CLK/CLKS select bit 0
Valid when bit 5 = “1”
0 : Clock output to CLK1
1 : Clock output to CLKS1
Invalid
CLKMD1 CLK/CLKS select
bit 1 (Note)
0 : Normal mode
Must always be “0”
(CLK output is CLK1 only)
1 : Transfer clock output
from multiple pins
function selected
RCSP
Separate CTS/RTS bit
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
1 : CTS/RTS separated
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
RW
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
1 : CTS/RTS separated
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be indeterminate.
Note: When using multiple pins to output the transfer clock, the following requirements must be met:
• UART1 internal/external clock select bit (bit 3 at address 03A816) = “0”.
UART2 special mode register
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
U2SMR
0
Bit
symbol
Address
037716
Bit
name
When reset
0016
Function
(During clock synchronous
serial I/O mode)
Function
(During UART mode)
IICM
IIC mode selection bit
0 : Normal mode
1 : IIC mode
Must always be “0”
ABC
Arbitration lost detecting
flag control bit
0 : Update per bit
1 : Update per byte
Must always be “0”
BBS
Bus busy flag
0 : STOP condition detected
1 : START condition detected
Must always be “0”
SCLL sync output
enable bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
Must always be “0”
ABSCS
Bus collision detect
sampling
clock select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Rising edge of transfer
clock
1 : Underflow signal of timer A0
ACSE
Auto clear function
select bit of transmit
enable bit
Must always be “0”
0 : No auto clear function
1 : Auto clear at occurrence of
bus collision
SSS
Transmit start condition
select bit
Must always be “0”
0 : Ordinary
1 : Falling edge of RxD2
LSYN
Reserved bit
Note: Nothing but "0" may be written.
Always set to “0”
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
(Note)
Figure 2.5.7. UARTi-related registers (5)
357
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.5.2 Operation of Serial I/O (transmission in UART mode)
In transmitting data in UART mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.5.4. Operations of the
circled items are described below. Figure 2.5.8 shows the operation timing, and Figures 2.5.9 and 2.5.10
show the set-up procedures.
Table 2.5.4. Choosed functions
Item
Transfer clock
source
(Note 2)
CTS function
Set-up
O
Internal clock (f1 / f8 / f32)
External clock (CLKi pin)
O
CTS function enabled
CTS function disabled
Transmission
interrupt factor
CTS / RTS
separation function
(Note 1)
Transmission buffer empty
O
Transmission complete
O
Pin shared by CTS and RTS
CTS and RTS separate
Item
Set-up
Sleep mode
(Note 2)
O
Data logic select
function
(Note 3)
O
TXD, RXD I/O
polarity reverse bit
(Note 3)
O
Bus collision
detection function
(Note 3)
O
Sleep mode off
Sleep mode selected
No reverse
Reverse
No reverse
Reverse
Not selected
Selected
_______________
Note 1: UART0 only. (UART1 CTS/RTS function cannot be used when this function is selected.)
Note 2: UART0, UART1 only.
Note 3: UART2 only.
Operation (1) Setting the transmit enable bit to “1” and writing transmission data to the UARTi transmit
buffer register readies the data transmissible status.
________
________
(2) When input to the CTSi pin goes to “L”, transmission starts (the CTSi pin needs to be controlled on the reception side).
(3) Transmission data held in the UARTi transmit buffer register is transmitted to the UARTi
transmit register. At this time, the first bit (the start bit) of the transmission data is transmitted
from the TxDi pin. Then, data is transmitted, bit by bit, in sequence: LSB, ····, MSB, parity bit,
and stop bit(s).
(4) When the stop bit(s) is (are) transmitted, the transmit register empty flag goes to “1”, which
indicates that transmission is completed. At this time, the UARTi transmit interrupt request bit
goes to “1”. The transfer clock stops at “H” level.
(5) If the transmission condition of the next data is ready when transmission is completed, a start
bit is generated following to stop bit(s), and the next data is transmitted.
358
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Example of wiring
(Note)
Microcomputer
Receiver side IC
TXDi
RXD
CTSi
Port
Note: Since TXD2 pin is N-channel open drain,
this pin needs pull-up resistor.
Example of operation
Tc
When confirming stop bit, stopped transfer clock once because CTS = “H”
Started transfer clock again to start transmitting immediately after confirming CTS = “L”
Transfer clock
(1) Transmission enabled
(4) Confirme stop bit
(2) Confirme CTS
(3) Start transmission
Transmit
enable bit (TE)
(5) Start transmission
“1”
“0”
Data is set in UARTi transmit buffer register
Transmit buffer “1”
empty flag (Tl) “0”
Transferred from UARTi transmit buffer register to UARTi transmit register
“H”
CTSi
“L”
Parity Stop
bit
bit
Start
bit
TxDi
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
Transmit
register empty
flag (TXEPT)
P
SP
Stopped pulsing because transfer enable bit = “0”
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
ST D0 D1
“1”
“0”
Transmit
“1”
interrupt request
“0”
bit (IR)
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is enabled.
• One stop bit.
• CTS function is selected.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “1”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi or 16 (n + 1) / fEXT
fi : frequency of BRGi count source (f1, f8, f32)
fEXT : frequency of BRGi count source (external clock)
n : value set to BRGi
Figure 2.5.8. Operation timing of transmission in UART mode
359
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting UARTi transmit/receive mode register (i=0 to 2)
b7
0
b0
1 0
0
0
1 0
1
UART0 transmit/receive mode register
U0MR [Address 03A016]
UART1 transmit/receive mode register
U1MR [Address 03A816]
b7
0
b0
1
0
0 0
1
0
1
Serial I/O mode select bit
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
U2MR [Address 037816]
Serial I/O mode select bit
b2 b1 b0
b2 b1 b0
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
Internal/external clock select bit
0 : Internal clock
Must be fixed “0” in UART mode
Stop bit length select bit
0 : One stop bit
Odd/even parity select bit (Valid when bit 6 = “1”)
0 : Odd parity
Stop bit
bit length
length select
select bit
bit
Stop
One stop
stop bit
bit
00 :: One
Odd/even parity select bit (Valid when bit 6 = “1”)
0 : Odd parity
Parity enable bit
1 : Parity enabled
Parity
Parity enable
enable bit
bit
11 :: Parity
Parity enabled
enabled
Sleep select bit
0 : Invalid
TXD, RXD I/O polarity reverse bit
Usually set to “0”
Setting UARTi transmit/receive control register 0 (i = 0 to 2)
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0
U0C0 [Address 03A416]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0
U1C0 [Address 03AC16]
b7
0
b0
0
0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
U2C0 [Address 037C16]
0
BRG count source select bit
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
CTS/RTS function select bit (Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
0 : CTS function is selected
CTS/RTS function select bit (Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
0 : CTS function is selected
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register
(during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register
(transmission completed)
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register
(during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register
(transmission completed)
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
Data output select bit
0 : TxDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TxDi pin is N-channel open-drain output
Must be fixed “0” in UART mode
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Must be “0” in UART mode
Must be “0” in UART mode
Setting UART transmit/receive control register 2 and UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
UART transmit/receive control register 2
UCON [Address 03B016]
b7
b0
UART2transmit/receive control register 1
UCON [Address 037D16]
0 0
UART0 transmit interrupt cause select bit
1 : Transmission completed (TXEPT = 1)
UART1 transmit interrupt cause select bit
1 : Transmission completed (TXEPT = 1)
UART0 transmit interrupt cause select bit
1 : Transmission completed (TXEPT = 1)
Invalid in UART mode
Data logic select bit
0 : No reverse
Invalid in UART mode
Invalid in UART mode
Error signal output enable bit
0 : output enabled
Invalid in UART mode
Must be “0” in UART mode
Separate CTS/RTS bit
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
Continued to the next page
Figure 2.5.9. Set-up procedure of transmission in UART mode (1)
360
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Setting UARTi bit rate generator (i = 0 to 2)
b7
b0
UARTi bit rate generator (i = 0 to 2) [Address 03A116, 03A916, 037916]
UiBRG (i = 0 to 2)
Can be set to 0016 to FF16 (Note)
Note: Write to UARTi bit rate generator when transmission/reception is halted.
Transmission enabled
b7
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
U0C1 [Address 03A516]
1 UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
U1C1 [Address 03AD16]
b0
b7
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
1 U2C1 [Address 037D16]
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Writing transmit data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART0 transmit buffer register [Address 03A316, 03A216] U0TB
UART1 transmit buffer register [Address 03AB16, 03AA16] U1TB
UART2 transmit buffer register [Address 037B16, 037A16] U2TB
Setting transmission data
When CTSi input level = “L”
Start transmission
Checking the status of UARTi transmit/receive control (i = 0 to 2)
b7
b0
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
U0C1 [Address 03A516]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
U1C1 [Address 03AD16]
b7
Transmit buffer empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit
buffer register
1 : No data present in transmit
buffer register
(Writing next transmit data enabled)
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
U2C1 [Address 037D16]
Transmit buffer empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit
buffer register
1 : No data present in transmit
buffer register
(Writing next transmit data enabled)
Writing next transmit data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART0 transmit buffer register [Address 03A316, 03A216] U0TB
UART1 transmit buffer register [Address 03AB16, 03AA16] U1TB
UART2 transmit buffer register [Address 037B16, 037A16] U2TB
Setting transmission data
Transmission is complete
Figure 2.5.10. Set-up procedure of transmission in UART mode (2)
361
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.5.3 Operation of Serial I/O (reception in UART mode)
In receiving data in UART mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.5.5. Operations of the
circled items are described below. Figure 2.5.11 shows the operation timing, and Figures 2.5.12 and
2.5.13 show the set-up procedures.
Table 2.5.5. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Transfer clock
source
(Note 2)
O
RTS function
O
CTS / RTS
separation function
(Note 1)
O
Sleep mode
(Note 2)
O
Internal clock (f1 / f8 / f32)
External clock (CLKi pin)
RTS function enabled
RTS function disabled
Pin shared by CTS and RTS
CTS and RTS separate
Item
Set-up
Data logic select
function
(Note 3)
O
TXD, RXD I/O
polarity reverse bit
(Note 3)
O
Bus collision
detection function
(Note 3)
O
No reverse
Reverse
No reverse
Reverse
Not selected
Selected
Sleep mode off
Sleep mode selected
_______ ________
Note 1: UART0 only. (UART1 CTS/RTS function cannot be used when this function is selected.)
Note 2: UART0, UART1 only.
Note 3: UART2 only.
Operation (1) Setting the receive enable bit to “1” readies data-receivable status. At this time, output from
________
the RTSi pin goes to “L” level to inform the transmission side that the receivable status is
ready.
(2) When the first bit (the start bit) of reception data is received from the RxDi pin, output from the
_______
RTS goes to “H” level. Then, data is received, bit by bit, in sequence: LSB, ····, MSB, and stop
bit(s).
(3) When the stop bit(s) is (are) received, the content of the UARTi receive register is transmitted
to the UARTi receive buffer register.
At this time, the receive complete flag goes to “1” to indicate that the reception is completed, the
_______
UARTi receive interrupt request bit goes to “1”, and output from the RTS pin goes to “L” level.
(4) The receive complete flag goes to “0” when the lower-order byte of the UARTi buffer register
is read.
362
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Example of wiring
Microcomputer
Transmitter side IC
RXDi
TXD
RTSi
Port
Example of operation
(4) Data is
read
(1) Reception enabled
(2) Start reception
(3) Receiving is
completed
BRGi's count
source
Receive enable
bit (RE)
“1”
“0”
Start bit
RxDi
D1
D0
D7
Stop bit
Sampled “L”
Receive data taken in
Transfer clock
Receive
complete flag
(RI)
RTSi
Receive interrupt
request bit
(IR)
“1”
Reception started when transfer
clock is generated by falling edge
of start bit
Transferred from UARTi receive register
to UARTi receive buffer register
“0”
“H”
“L”
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timing of transfer data 8 bits long applies to the following settings :
•Transfer data length is 8 bits.
•Parity is disabled.
•One stop bit
•RTS function is selected.
Figure 2.5.11. Operation timing of reception in UART mode
363
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting UARTi transmit/receive mode register (i=0 to 2)
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
1
0 1
UART0 transmit/receive mode register
U0MR [Address 03A016]
UART1 transmit/receive mode register
U1MR [Address 03A816]
b7
b0
0 0
0
0
1 0
1
Serial I/O mode select bit
UART2 transmit/receive mode register
U2MR [Address 037816]
Serial I/O mode select bit
b2 b1 b0
b2 b1 b0
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
Internal/external clock select bit
0 : Internal clock
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Stop bit length select bit
0 : One stop bit
Stop bit length select bit
0 : One stop bit
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
Valid when bit 6 = “1”
Parity enable bit
0 : Parity diabled
Parity enable bit
0 : Parity diabled
Sleep select bit
0 : Sleep mode deselected
Sleep select bit
0 : Sleep mode deselected
Setting UARTi transmit/receive control register 0 (i=0 to 2)
b7
0
b0
0 0
0
1
UART0 transmit/receive control register 0
U0C0 [Address 03A416]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 0
U1C0 [Address 03AC16]
b7
0
b0
0
0
1
BRG count source select bit
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
U2C0 [Address 037C16]
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
CTS/RTS function select bit
(Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
1 : RTS function is selected
CTS/RTS function select bit
(Valid when bit 4 = “0”)
1 : RTS function is selected
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data
present
in transmit
Transmit
register
empty
flag register
(during
transmission)
0 : Data
present
in transmit register
1(during
: No data
present in transmit register
transmission)
(transmission
1 : No
data presentcompleted)
in transmit register
(transmission completed)
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register
(during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register
(transmission completed)
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS function enabled
CTS/RTS disable bit
0 : CTS/RTS
function
enabled
Must
be fixed to
“0” in UART
mode
Data output select bit
0 : TxDi pin is CMOS output
1 : TxDi pin is N-channel open-drain output
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Setting UART transmit/receive control register 2 and UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
UART transmit/receive control register 2
UCON [Address 03B016]
b7
0
b0
0
Invalid in UART mode
Invalid in UART mode
Invalid in UART mode
Data logic select bit
0 : No reverse
Invalid in UART mode
Error signal output enable bit
0 : Output disabled
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Separate CTS/RTS bit
0 : CTS/RTS shared pin
Continued to the next page
Figure 2.5.12. Set-up procedure of reception in UART mode (1)
364
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
U2C1 [Address 037D16]
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
UART
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Setting UARTi bit rate generator(i = 0 to 2)
b7
b0
UARTi bit rate generator (i = 0 to 2) [Address 03A116, 03A916, 037916]
UiBRG (i = 0 to 2)
Can be set to 0016 to FF16 (Note)
Note: Write to UARTi bit rate generator when transmission/reception is halted.
Reception enabled
b7
b0
1
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
U0C1 [Address 03A516]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
U1C1 [Address 03AD16]
b7
b0
1
Receive enable bit
1 : Reception enabled
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
U2C1 [Address 037D16]
Receive enable bit
1 : Reception enabled
Start reception
Checking completion of reception
b7
b0
UART0 transmit/receive control register 1
U0C1 [Address 03A516]
UART1 transmit/receive control register 1
U1C1 [Address 03AD16]
b7
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in receive buffer register
1 : Data present in receive buffer register
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
U2C1 [Address 037D16]
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in receive buffer register
1 : Data present in receive buffer register
Checking error
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART0 receive buffer register [Address 03A716, 03A616]U0RB
UART1 receive buffer register [Address 03AF16, 03AE16]U1RB
UART2 receive buffer register [Address 037F16, 037E16]U2RB
Receive data
Overrun error flag
0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
Framing error flag
0 : No framing error
1 : Framing error found
Parity error flag
0 : No parity error
1 : Parity error found
Error sum flag
0 : No error
1 : Error found
Processing after reading out reception data
Figure 2.5.13. Set-up procedure of reception in UART mode (2)
365
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
2.5.4 Operation of Serial I/O (transmission used for SIM interface)
In transmitting data in UART mode (used for SIM interface), choose functions from those listed in Table
2.5.6. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.5.14 shows the operation timing, and
Figures 2.5.15 and 2.5.16 show the set-up procedures.
Table 2.5.6. Choosed functions
Item
Transfer data
format
Set-up
O
Direct format
Inverse format
Operation (1) Setting the transmit enable bit and receive enable bit to “1” and writing transmission data to
the UART2 transmit buffer register readies the data transmissible status. Set UART2 transfer
interrupt is enabled.
(2) Transmission data held in the UART2 transmit buffer register is transmitted to the UART2
transmit register. At this time, the first bit (the start bit) of the transmission data is transmitted
from the TxD2 pin. Then, data is transmitted, bit by bit, in sequence: LSB, ····, MSB, parity bit,
and stop bit(s).
(3) When the stop bit(s) is (are) transmitted, the transmit register empty flag goes to “1”, which
indicates that transmission is completed. At this time, the UART2 transmit interrupt request
bit goes to “1”. The transfer clock stops at “H” level.
(4) If the transmission condition of the next data is ready when transmission is completed, a start
bit is generated following to stop bit(s), and the next data is transmitted.
(5) If a parity error occurs, an L is output from the SIM card, and the RxD2 terminal turns to the
"L" level. Check the RxD2 terminal's level within the UART2 transmission interrupt routine,
and if it is found to be at the "L" level, then handle the error.
Note
366
• The parity error level is determined within a UART2 transmission interrupt. When a transmission interrupt request occurs, set the priority level of the transmission interrupt higher than
those of other interrupts so that the interrupt routine can be immediately carried out. Either in
the main routine or in an interrupt routine, the interrupt inhibition time has to be made as short
as possible.
• Set the RxD2 terminal's direction register to input.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Example of wiring
Microcomputer
SIM card
TxD2
RxD2
Example of operation (when direct format)
(1) Transmission enabled
(5) Dispose
parity error
(3) Confirme stop bit
(2) Start transmission
(4) Start transmission
Tc
Transfer clock
Transmit
enable bit (TE)
Transmit buffer
empty flag (Tl)
“1”
“0”
Data is set in UART2 transmit buffer register
(Note 1)
“1”
“0”
Transferred from UART2 transmit buffer register to UART2 transmit register
Parity Stop
bit
bit
Start
bit
TXD2 (Note 2)
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
RXD2 (Note 2)
Since a parity error occurred, the
“L” level returns from TxD2
Signal line level
(Note 2)
Transmit buffer
empty flag
(TEXPT)
Transmit
interrupt request
bit (IR)
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
Detects the level
using an interrupt
routine
“1”
P
SP
Detects the level
using an interrupt
routine
“0”
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is enabled.
• One stop bit.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “1”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi
fi : frequency of BRG2 count source (f1, f8, f32)
n : value set to BRG2
Note 1: The transmit is started with overflow timing of BRG after having written in a value at the transmit buffer in the above timing.
Note 2: TxD2 and RxD2 are connected in the manner of wired OR as shown in the connection diagram. So TxD2 and RxD2 ought to
become the same signal from the logical standpoint, but the output signals turn complex, so they are shown separately. Also,
the signal level resulting from connecting TxD2 and RxD2 is shown as a signal line level.
Figure 2.5.14. Operation timing of transmission in UART mode (used for SIM interface)
367
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Setting UART2 transmit/receive mode register
b7
0
b0
1 1
0 0
1
0
1
UARTi transmit/receive mode register [Address 037816]
U2MR
Serial I/O mode select bit
b2 b1 b0
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Stop bit length select bit
0 : One stop bit
Odd/even parity select bit (Valid when bit 6 = “1”)
Must be “1” (even parity) in direct format
Parity enable bit
1 : Parity enabled
TXD, RXD I/O polarity reverse bit
Usually set to “0”
Setting UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
b7
0
b0
0
1
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0 [Address 037C16]
U2C0
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register (during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register (transmission completed)
CTS/RTS disable bit
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Transfer format select bit
Must be “0” (LSB first) in direct format
Setting UART2 transmit/receive control register 1
b7
1
b0
0
1
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 [Address 037D16]
U2C1
UART2 transmit interrupt cause select bit
1 : Transmission completed (TXEPT = 1)
Invalid in UART mode
Data logic select bit
Must be “0” (no reverse) in direct format
Error signal output enable bit
1 : Output enabled
Continued to the next page
Figure 2.5.15. Set-up procedure of transmission in UART mode (used for SIM interface) (1)
368
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Continued from the previous page
Setting UART2 bit rate generator
b7
b0
UART2 bit rate generator [Address 037916]
U2BRG
Can be set to 0016 to FF16 (Note)
Note: Write to UARTi bit rate generator when transmission/reception is halted.
Transmit enabled
b7
b0
1
1
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 [Address 037D16]
U2C1
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Receive enable bit
1 : Reception enabled
Writing transmit data
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART2 transmit buffer register [Address 037B16, 037A16]
U2TB
Setting transmission
data
UART2 transmit interrupt
Confirm RXD2 pin level
b7
b0
Port P7 register [Address 03ED16]
P7
Port P71 register
0 : "L" level
1 : "H" level
REIT instruction
Figure 2.5.16. Set-up procedure of transmission in UART mode (used for SIM interface) (2)
369
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
2.5.5 Operation of Serial I/O (reception used for SIM interface)
In receiving data in UART mode (used for SIM interface), choose functions from those listed in Table
2.5.7. Operations of the circled items are described below. Figure 2.5.17 shows the operation timing, and
Figures 2.5.18 and 2.5.19 show the set-up procedures.
Figure 2.5.7. Choosed functions
Item
Transfer data
format
Set-up
O
Direct format
Inverse format
Operation (1) Setting the transmit enable bit and receive enable bit to “1” readies data-receivable status.
(2) When the first bit (the start bit) of reception data is received from the RxD2 pin, data is received, bit by bit, in sequence: LSB, ····, MSB, and stop bit(s).
(3) When the stop bit(s) is (are) received, the content of the UART2 receive register is transmitted to the UART2 receive buffer register.
At this time, the receive complete flag goes to “1” to indicate that the reception is completed,
the UART2 receive interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
(4) The receive complete flag goes to “0” when the lower-order byte of the UART2 buffer register
is read.
(5) When the parity error is occurred, TXD2 pin goes to “L” level.
370
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Example of wiring
Microcomputer
SIM card
TxD2
RxD2
Example of operation (when direct format)
(1) Reception enabled
(3) Receiving is completed
(2) Start reception
(5) Parity error occurred
(4) Data is read
Tc
Transfer clock
Receive enable
bit(RE)
“1”
“0”
Start
bit
RXD2 (Note)
Parity
bit
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
Stop
bit
SP
TXD2 (Note)
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
P
S
P
P
SP
Since a parity error occurred, the
“L” level returns from TxD2
Signal line level
(Note)
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
Receive
complete flag(RI)
“1”
Receive interrupt
request bit(IR)
“1”
P
SP
ST D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
“0”
Read to receive buffer
Read to receive buffer
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Shown in ( ) are bit symbols.
The above timing applies to the following settings :
• Parity is enabled.
• One stop bit.
• Transmit interrupt cause select bit = “1”.
Tc = 16 (n + 1) / fi
fi : frequency of BRG2 count source (f1, f8, f32)
n : value set to BRG2
Note: TxD2 and RxD2 are connected in the manner of wired OR as shown in the connection diagram. So TxD2 and RxD2 ought to
become the same signal from the logical standpoint, but the output signals turn complex, so they are shown separately. Also,
the signal level resulting from connecting TxD2 and RxD2 is shown as a signal line level.
Figure 2.5.17. Operation timing of reception in UART mode (used for SIM interface)
371
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Setting UART2 transmit/receive mode register
b7
0
b0
1
1 0
0 1
0
1
UART2 transmit/receive mode register [Address 037816]
U2MR
Serial I/O mode select bit
b2 b1 b0
1 0 1 : Transfer data 8 bits long
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Stop bit length select bit
0 : One stop bit
Odd/even parity select bit (Valid when bit 6 = “1”)
Must be “1” (odd parity) in direct format
Parity enable bit
1 : Parity enabled
TXD, RXD I/O polarity reverse bit
Usually set to “0”
Setting UART2 transmit/receive control register 0
b7
0
b0
0
1
0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 0 [Address 037C16]
U2C0
BRG count source select bit
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
Valid when bit 4 = “0”
Transmit register empty flag
0 : Data present in transmit register (during transmission)
1 : No data present in transmit register (transmission completed)
CTS/RTS disable bit
1 : CTS/RTS function disabled
Must be fixed to “0” in UART mode
Transfer format select bit
Must be “0” (LSB first) in direct format
Setting UART2 transmit/receive control register
1
b7
b0
1 0
1
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 [Address 037D16]
U2C1
UART2 transmit interrupt cause select bit
1 : Transmission completed (TXEPT = 1)
Invalid in UART mode
Data logic select bit
Must be “0” (no reverse) in direct format
Error signal output enable bit
1 : Output enabled
Continued to the next page
Figure 2.5.18. Set-up procedure of reception in UART mode (used for SIM interface) (1)
372
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Continued from the previous page
Setting UART2 bit rate generator
b7
b0
UART2 bit rate generator [Address 037916]
U2BRG
Can be set to 0016 to FF16 (Note)
Note: Write to UART2 bit rate generator when transmission/reception is halted.
Transmit enabled
b7
b0
1
1
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 [Address 037D16]
U2C1
Transmit enable bit
1 : Transmission enabled
Receive enable bit
1 : Reception enabled
Start reception
Checking completion of reception
b7
b0
UART2 transmit/receive control register 1 [Address 037D16]
U2C1
Receive complete flag
0 : No data present in receive buffer register
1 : Data present in receive buffer register
Checking error
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
UART2 receive buffer register [Address 037F16, 037E16]
U2RB
Receive data
Overrun error flag
0 : No overrun error
1 : Overrun error found
Framing error flag
0 : No framing error
1 : Framing error found
Parity error flag
0 : No parity error
1 : Parity error found
Error sum flag
0 : No error
1 : Error found
Processing after reading out reception data
Figure 2.5.19. Set-up procedure of reception in UART mode (used for SIM interface)(2)
373
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
2.5.6 Clock Signals in used for the SIM Interface
In conforming to the SIM interface, the UART clock signal within the SIM card needs to conform to the
UART2 clock signal within the microprocessor. Two examples are given here as means of generating a
UART2 clock signal within the microprocessor.
* In the case of setting a value equal to or less than (1/256 X 1/16) in the division rate of UART2 clock
Choose f1 for the UART’s source clock signal and set an optional value in the bit rate generator.
* In the case of setting a value equal to or greater than (1/256 X 1/16) in the division rate of UART2 clock
Set the bit rate generator to "0", turn the source clock signal to timer output and set an optional value
in the timer.
Let F be the clock signal within the SIM card and D be the bit rate adjustment factor, then the formula for
the UART clock signal becomes as follows. Figure 2.5.20 shows an example of connection.
• In the case of setting a value equal to or less than (1/256 X 1/16) in the division rate of UART2 clock
UART2 clock signal within microprocessor = UART clock within SIM card
f1 x
1
Bit rate generator + 1
x
1
16
= f1
x
1
x flip-flop x F/D
Timer Ai counter + 1
1
Let XIN = 16 MHz, timer Ai counter = 1, F = 372, and D = 1, then the value to be set in the bit rate
generator becomes
16 x
1
Bit rate generator + 1
x
1
16
=16 X
1
1
1
x
x
2
372/1
2
Bit rate generator = 92
Table 2.5.8 shows an example of setting in the UART2 bit rate generator.
• In the case of setting a value equal to or greater than (1/256 X 1/16) in the division rate of UART2 clock
UART2 clock signal within microprocessor = UART clock within SIM card
1
1
x flip-flop x
Timer Aj counter + 1
Bit rate generator + 1
1
1
= f1 x
x flip-flop x
F/D
Bit rate generator + 1
f1 x
x
1
16
Let XIN= 16 MHz, timer Ai counter = 3, bit rate generator = 0, F = 1860, and D = 1, then the value to be
set in the timer Aj counter becomes
16 x
1
1
1
1
x
x
x
2
0+1
16
Timer Aj counter + 1
=16 x
1
3+1
Timer Aj counter = 464
Table 2.5.9 shows an example of setting in the timer Aj counter.
374
x
1
x
2
1
1860/1
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Clock generator
M30622MC
XIN
Timer Ai counter
flip-flop
Timer Aj counter
flip-flop
f1
External clock
SIM CARD
TAiOUT
TAjOUT
CLK
1
F/D
SIM card
internal clock
frequency
division ratio
CLK2
UART clock
UART2 bit rate generator
UART
1/16
UART2 clock
RxD2
UART
TxD2
Figure 2.5.20. Example of connection
375
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Table 2.5.8. UART2 bit rate adjustment factor
SIM card
internal clock
F(Hz)
Bit rate
D
372
F/D
1
372
2
4
UART2 bit
rate
generator
set value
SIM card
internal clock
F(Hz)
92
1116
Bit rate
D
F/D
1
1116
186
2
558
93
4
279
8
8
16
16
UART2 bit
rate
generator
set value
278
1/2
744
185
1/2
2232
557
1/4
1488
371
1/4
4464
1115
1/8
2976
743
1/8
8928
2231
1/16
5952
1487
1/16
17856
4463
1/32
11904
2975
1/32
35712
8927
1/64
23808
5951
1/64
71424
17855
1
558
1
1488
371
2
279
2
744
185
4
372
92
8
8
186
16
16
93
558
1488
4
1/2
1116
278
1/2
2976
743
1/4
2232
557
1/4
5952
1487
1/8
4464
1115
1/8
11904
2975
1/16
8928
2231
1/16
23808
5951
1/32
17856
4463
1/32
47616
11903
1/64
35712
8927
1/64
95232
23807
1
744
185
1
1860
464
2
372
92
2
930
4
186
4
465
8
93
8
744
16
1/2
1860
16
1488
371
1/2
3720
929
1/4
2976
743
1/4
7440
1859
1/8
5952
1487
1/8
14880
3719
1/16
11904
2975
1/16
29760
7439
1/32
23808
5951
1/32
59520
14879
1/64
47616
11903
1/64 119040
29759
Combination impossible to deal with due to the current specifications of M30622MC
Combination in which the F/D itself does not become an integer
Setting example under the following conditions.
f(XIN)=16MHz
Timer Ai counter set value = 1
376
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
SIM interface
Table 2.5.9. TimerAi register adjustment factor
SIM card
internal clock
F(Hz)
Timer Ai value
Bit rate
D
372
F/D
SIM card
internal clock
F(Hz)
92
1116
Timer Aj value
Bit rate
D
F/D
1
372
1
2
186
2
558
4
93
4
279
8
8
16
16
1116
278
1/2
744
185
1/2
2232
557
1/4
1488
371
1/4
4464
1115
1/8
2976
743
1/8
8928
2231
1/16
5952
1487
1/16
17856
4463
1/32
11904
2975
1/32
35712
8927
1/64
23808
5951
1/64
71424
17855
1
558
1
1488
371
2
279
558
1488
2
744
185
4
372
92
8
8
186
16
16
93
4
1/2
1116
278
1/2
2976
743
1/4
2232
557
1/4
5952
1487
1/8
4464
1115
1/8
11904
2975
1/16
8928
2231
1/16
23808
5951
1/32
17856
4463
1/32
47616
11903
1/64
35712
8927
1/64
95232
23807
1
744
185
1
1860
464
2
372
92
4
186
8
93
744
1860
2
930
4
465
8
16
16
1/2
1488
371
1/2
3720
929
1/4
2976
743
1/4
7440
1859
1/8
5952
1487
1/8
14880
3719
1/16
11904
2975
1/16
29760
7439
1/32
23808
5951
1/32
59520
14879
1/64
47616
11903
1/64
119040
29759
Combination impossible to deal with due to the current specifications of M30622MC
Combination in which the F/D itself does not become an integer
Setting example under the following conditions.
f(XIN)=16MHz
Timer Ai counter set value = 3, UARTi bit rate generator set value = 0
377
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SI/O3, 4
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.6 SI/O3, 4
2.6.1 Overview
SI/O3, 4 carries out 8-bit data communications in synchronization with the clock. The following is an
overview of the SI/O3, 4.
(1) Transmission/reception format
8-bit data
(2) Transfer rate
If the internal clock is selected as the transfer clock, the divide-by-2 frequency, resulting from the bit
rate generator division, becomes the transfer rate. The bit rate generator count source can be selected from the following: f1, f8, and f32. Clocks f1, f8, and f32 are derived by dividing the CPU’s main
clock by 1, 8, and 32 respectively.
Furthermore, if an external clock is selected as the transfer clock, the clock frequency input to the CLK
pin becomes the transfer rate.
(3) Function selection
For SI/O3, 4, the following functions can be selected:
(a) Function for choosing which bit to transmit first
This function is to choose whether to transmit data from bit 0 or from bit 7. Choose either of the
following:
• LSB first
Data is transmitted from bit 0.
• MSB first
Data is transmitted from bit 7.
(b) Choosing output level when not transferring
• Internal clock
High-impedance output.
• External clock
"H" or "L" output level is selected.
(6) Input to the serial I/O and the direction register
To input an external signal to the serial I/O, set the direction register of the relevant port to input.
(7) Pins related to the SI/O3, 4
• CLK3, CLK4 pins
Input/output pins for the transfer clock
• SIN3, SIN4 pins
Input pins for data
• SOUT3, SOUT4 pins Output pins for data
(8) Registers related to the SI/O3, 4
Figure 2.6.1 shows the memory map of SI/O3, 4-related registers, and Figures 2.6.2 show SI/O3, 4related registers.
004816
004916
SI/O4 interrupt control register (S4IC)
SI/O3 interrupt control register (S3IC)
036016
SI/O3 transmit/receive register (S3TRR)
036116
036216
036316
036416
SI/O3 transmit/receive control register (S3C)
SI/O3 bit rate generator (S3BRG)
SI/O4 transmit/receive register (S4TRR)
036516
036616
036716
SI/O4 control register (S4C)
SI/O4 bit rate generator (S4BRG)
Figure 2.6.1. Memory map of serial I/O3, 4-related registers
378
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SI/O3, 4
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
S I/Oi control register (i = 3, 4) (Note 1)
b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0
Symbol
SiC
Bit
symbol
Address
036216, 036616
When reset
4016
Description
Bit name
R W
Internal synchronous
clock select bit
b1 b0
SMi2
SOUTi output disable bit
0 : SOUTi output
1 : SOUTi output disable(high impedance)
SMi3
S I/Oi port select bit
(Note 2)
0 : Input-output port
1 : SOUTi output, CLK function
SMi0
0 0 : Selecting f1
0 1 : Selecting f8
1 0 : Selecting f32
1 1 : Not to be used
SMi1
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
SMi5
Transfer direction select
bit
0 : LSB first
1 : MSB first
SMi6
Synchronous clock
select bit (Note 2)
0 : External clock
1 : Internal clock
Effective when SMi3 = 0
0 : L output
1 : H output
Note 1: Set “1” in bit 2 of the protection register (000A16) in advance to write to the
S I/Oi control register (i = 3, 4).
Note 2: When using the port as an input/output port by setting the SI/Oi port
select bit (i = 3, 4) to “0”, be sure to set the sync clock select bit to “1”.
SMi7
SOUTi initial value
set bit
SI/Oi bit rate generator
b7
Symbol
S3BRG
S4BRG
b0
Address
036316
036716
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Values that can be set
Indeterminate
R W
0016 to FF16
Assuming that set value = n, BRGi divides the count
source by n + 1
SI/Oi transmit/receive register
b7
b0
Symbol
S3TRR
S4TRR
Address
036016
036416
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
R W
Transmission/reception starts by writing data to this register.
After transmission/reception finishes, reception data is input.
Figure 2.6.2. Serial I/O3, 4-related registers
379
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SI/O3, 4
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.6.2 Operation of SI/O3,4
In transmitting data in this mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.6.1. Operations of the
circled items are described below. Figure 2.6.3 shows the operation timing, and Figures 2.6.4 and 2.6.5
show the set-up procedures.
Table 2.6.1. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Transfer clock
source
O
Transfer clock
O
Item
Internal clock (f1 / f8 / f32)
External clock (CLKi pin)
Set-up
SOUTi initial value
set function
O
Not used
Used
LSB first
MSB first
Operation (1) Transfer begins upon writing the SI/Oi transmit data.
The transmit data is sent out from the SOUTi pin synchronously with falling edges of the
transfer clock.
(2) When SOUT finishes sending one byte of data, the interrupt request bit is set to 1.
(3) After the transfer is completed, SOUT holds the last data for a 1/2 transfer clock period before
going to a high-impedance state.
Note
• Do not write data to the SI/Oi transmit/receive register (i = 3, 4; addresses 036016, 036416)
during a transfer.
• Data can only be written to the SI/Oi transmit/receive register when the device is idle neither
sending nor receiving data.
Example of wiring
Microcomputer
Receiver side IC
CLKi
CLK
SOUTi
SIN
Example of operation
(1) Transmission enabled
(2) Transmission
is complete
1.5 TCLK (Max)
(3) Highimpedance
Internal clock
SI/Oi transmit/receive
register write signal
TCLK
SI/Oi output
SOUTi
CLKi
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
Hi-Z
SI/Oi input
SINi
SI/Oi interrupt
request bit
"1"
"0"
(i = 3, 4)
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
TCLK = 2(n + 1) / fi
fi: frequency of BRGi count source (f1, f8, f32)
n: value set to SiBRG
Figure 2.6.3. Operation timing of transmission in SI/O3, 4 mode
380
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
SI/O3, 4
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Clearing the protect (set to write-enabled state)
b7
b0
1
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1 (addresses 000616 and 000716)
0 : Write-inhibited
1 : Write-enabled
Enables writing to port P9 direction register (address 03F316) and SI/Oi control register
(i=3,4) (addresses 036216 and 036616)
1 : Write-enabled
Setting SI/Oi transmit/receive control register (i=3, 4)
b7
b0
1
0
1
SI/Oi transmit/receive control register (i=3,4) [Address 036216, 036616]
SiC(i=3,4)
0
Internal synchronous clock select bit
b1 b0
0 0 : f1 is selected
0 1 : f8 is selected
1 0 : f32 is selected
1 1 : Inhibited
SOUTi output disable bit
0 : SOUTi output
SI/Oi port select bit
1 : SOUTi output, CLK function
Transfer format select bit
0 : LSB first
Synchronous clock select bit
1 : Internal clock
SOUTi initial value set bit(Effective when SMi3=0)
0 : L output
1 : H output
Note 1: Be sure to set the protect register and SI/Oi control register successively.
Setting SI/Oi bit rate generator (i = 3, 4)
b7
b0
SI/Oi bit rate generator (i = 3, 4) [Address 036316, 036716]
SiBRG (i = 3, 4)
Can be set to 0016 to FF16 (Note 2)
Note 2: Write to SI/Oi bit rate generator when transmission/reception is halted.
Writing transmit data
b7
b0
SI/Oi transmit/receive register (i=3, 4) [Address 036016, 036416]
SiTRR (i=3, 4)
Setting transmission data (Note 3)
Note 3: Write to SI/Oi transmit/receive register when transmission/reception is halted.
SI/Oi interrupt
request bit
0
1
Reading Receive data
b7
b0
SI/Oi transmit/receive register (i=3, 4) [Address 036016, 036416]
SiTRR (i=3, 4)
Receive data
Wait for a 1/2 transfer clock period
Transfer the next data
Figure 2.6.4. Set-up procedure of transmission in SI/O3, 4 mode
381
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7 A-D Converter
2.7.1 Overview
The A-D converter used in the M16C/62 group operates on a successive conversion basis. The following
is an overview of the A-D converter.
(1) Mode
The A-D converter operates in one of five modes:
(a) One-shot mode
Carries out A-D conversion on input level of one specified pin only once.
(b) Repetition mode
Repeatedly carries out A-D conversion on input level of one specified pin.
(c) One-shot sweep mode
Carries out A-D conversion on input level of two or more specified pins only once.
(d) Repeated sweep mode 0
Repeatedly carries out A-D conversion on input level of two or more pins.
(e) Repeated sweep mode 1
Repeatedly carries out A-D conversion on input level of two or more pins. This mode is different from
the repeated sweep mode 0 in that weights can be assigned to specifing pins control the number of
conversion times.
(2) Operation clock
The operation clock in 5 V operation can be selected from the following: fAD, divide-by-2 fAD, and
divide-by-4 fAD. In 3 V operation, the selection is divide-by-2 fAD or divide-by-4. The fAD frequency is
equal to that of the CPU’s main clock.
(3) Conversion time
Number of conversion for A-D convertor varies depending on resolution as given. Table 2.7.1 shows
relation between the A-D converter operation clock and conversion time.
Sample & Hold function selected:
33 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution, or 28 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution
No Sample & Hold function:
59 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution, or 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution
Table 2.7.1. Conversion time every operation clock
Frequency selection bit 1
0
Frequency selection bit 0
A-D converter's operation clock
1
φAD =
Invalid
1
0
fAD
4
φAD =
fAD
2
φAD = fAD
Min. conversion
cycles (Note 1)
8-bit mode
28 X φAD
10-bit mode
33 X φAD
Min. conversion
time (Note 2)
8-bit mode
11.2µs
5.6µs
2.8µs
10-bit mode
13.2µs
6.6µs
3.3µs
Note 1: The number of conversion cycles per one analog input pin.
Note 2: The conversion time per one analog input pin (when fAD = f(XIN) = 10 MHz)
382
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(4) Functions selection
(a) Sample & Hold function
Sample & Hold function samples input voltage when A-D conversion starts and carries out A-D
conversion on the voltage sampled. When A-D conversion starts, input voltage is sampled for 3
cycles of the operation clock. When the Sample & Hold function is selected, set the operation clock
for A-D conversion to 1 MHz or higher.
(b) 8-bit A-D to 10-bit A-D switching function
Either 8-bit resolution or 10-bit resolution can be selected. When 8-bit resolution is selected, the 8
higher-order bits of the 10-bit A-D are subjected to A-D conversion. The equations for 10-bit resolution and 8-bit resolution are given below:
10-bit resolution (Vref X n / 210 ) – (Vref X 0.5 / 1010 ) (n = 1 to 1023), 0 (n = 0)
8-bit resolution
(Vref X n / 28 ) – (Vref X 0.5 / 210 )
(n = 1 to 255), 0 (n = 0)
(c) A-D conversion by external trigger
The user can select software or an external pin input to start A-D conversion.
(d) External operation amplifier connection function
The selected A-D convertor pin input voltage can be output from the ANEX0 pin. By connecting an
operation amplifier between the ANEX1 pin and ANEX0 pin when using this function, the input voltage to all A-D conversion pins can be amplified with one operation amplifier.
(e) Expanded analog input pins function
A-D conversion can be done for voltage input from either the ANEX0 pin or the ANEX1 pin.
(f) Connecting or cutting Vref
Cutting Vref allows decrease of the current flowing into the A-D converter. To decrease the
microcomputer's power consumption, cut Vref. To carry out A-D conversion, start A-D conversion 1
µs or longer after connecting Vref.
The following are exsamples in which functions (a) through (f) are selected:
• One-shot mode ......................................................................................................................... P388
___________
• One-shot mode, trigger by ADTRG ................................................................................................................... P390
• One-shot mode, software trigger, expanded analog input ........................................................ P392
• One-shot mode, software trigger, external operation amplifier connected ............................... P394
• Repeat mode, software trigger ................................................................................................. P396
• One-shot sweep mode, software trigger ................................................................................... P398
• Repeated sweep mode 0, software trigger ............................................................................... P400
• Repeated sweep mode 1, software trigger ............................................................................... P402
383
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(5) Input to A-D converter and direction register
To use the A-D converter, set the direction register of the relevant port to input.
(6) Pins related to A-D converter
(a) AN0 pin through AN7 pin
(b) AVcc pin
(c) VREF pin
(d) AVss pin
(e) ANEX0 pin and ANEX1 pin
___________
(f) ADTRG pin
Input pins of the A-D converter
Power source pin of the analog section
Input pin of reference voltage
GND pin of the analog section
Expanded input pins of the A-D converter
Trigger input pin of the A-D converter
(7) A-D converter and related registers
Figure 2.7.1 shows the memory map of A-D converter-related registers, and Figures 2.7.2 through
2.7.4 show A-D converter-related registers.
004E16
03C016
03C116
03C216
03C316
03C416
03C516
03C616
03C716
03C816
03C916
03CA16
03CB16
03CC16
03CD16
03CE16
03CF16
03D416
A-D conversion interrupt control register (ADIC)
A-D register 0 (AD0)
A-D register 1 (AD1)
A-D register 2 (AD2)
A-D register 3 (AD3)
A-D register 4 (AD4)
A-D register 5 (AD5)
A-D register 6 (AD6)
A-D register 7 (AD7)
A-D control register 2 (ADCON2)
03D516
03D616
A-D control register 0 (ADCON0)
03D716
A-D control register 1 (ADCON1)
Figure 2.7.1. Memory map of A-D converter-related registers
384
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D control register 0 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON0
Bit symbol
Address
03D616
When reset
00000XXX2
Bit name
Function
RW
b2 b1 b0
CH0
Analog input pin select bit
CH1
CH2
0 0 0 : AN0 is selected
0 0 1 : AN1 is selected
0 1 0 : AN2 is selected
0 1 1 : AN3 is selected
1 0 0 : AN4 is selected
1 0 1 : AN5 is selected
1 1 0 : AN6 is selected
1 1 1 : AN7 is selected
A-D operation mode
select bit 0
0 0 : One-shot mode
0 1 : Repeat mode
1 0 : Single sweep mode
1 1 : Repeat sweep mode 0
Repeat sweep mode 1
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
1 : ADTRG trigger
ADST
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
1 : A-D conversion started
CKS0
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
MD0
MD1
TRG
(Note 2)
b4 b3
(Note 2)
AA
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
Note 1: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result is
indeterminate.
Note 2: When changing A-D operation mode, set analog input pin again.
Figure 2.7.2. A-D converter-related registers (1)
385
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D control register 1 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
ADCON1
Bit symbol
Address
03D716
When reset
0016
Bit name
A-D sweep pin select bit
SCAN0
Function
When single sweep and repeat sweep
mode 0 are selected
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
0 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN5 (6 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
When repeat sweep mode 1 is selected
SCAN1
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0 (1 pin)
0 1 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN2 (3 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
MD2
A-D operation mode
select bit 1
0 : Any mode other than repeat sweep
mode 1
1 : Repeat sweep mode 1
BITS
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
CKS1
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
Vref connect bit
0 : Vref not connected
1 : Vref connected
External op-amp
connection mode bit
b7 b6
VCUT
OPA0
OPA1
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
A
RW
A
AA
A
A
A
A
A
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion result is
indeterminate.
Figure 2.7.3. A-D converter-related registers (2)
386
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
A-D control register 2 (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0 0
Symbol
Address
When reset
ADCON2
03D416
0000XXX02
Bit symbol
SMP
Bit name
A-D conversion method
select bit
Function
0 : Without sample and hold
1 : With sample and hold
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to
be “0”.
AA
AAA
A
RW
Note: If the A-D control register is rewritten during A-D conversion, the conversion
result is indeterminate.
Symbol
A-D register i
(b15)
b7
ADi(i=0 to 7)
(b8)
b0 b7
Address
When reset
03C016 to 03CF16 Indeterminate
b0
Function
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
• During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
• During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
A
A
R W
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if
read, turns out to be “0”.
Figure 2.7.4. A-D converter-related registers (3)
387
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.2 Operation of A-D converter (one-shot mode)
In one-shot mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.2. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.7.5 shows the operation timing, and Figure 2.7.6 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.2. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Operation clock
φAD
O
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedby-2 fAD / fAD
Resolution
O 8-bit / 10-bit
Analog input pin
O One of AN0 pin to AN7 pin
Trigger for starting
A-D conversion
O Software trigger
Item
Expanded analog
input pin
Set-up
O
Not used
Either ANEX0 pin or
ANEX1 pin
External operation amplifier
connection mode
Sample & Hold
Trigger by ADTRG
Not activated
O
Activated
Operation (1) Setting the A-D conversion start flag to “1” causes the A-D converter to begin operating.
(2) After A-D conversion is completed, the content of the successive comparison register (conversion result) is transmitted to A-D register i. At this time, the A-D conversion interrupt request bit goes to “1”. Also, the A-D conversion start flag goes to “0”, and the A-D converter
stops operating.
(1) Start A-D conversion
(2) A-D conversion is complete
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
φAD
Set to “1” by software
A-D conversion
start flag
“1”
“0”
A-D register i
A-D conversion
interrupt request
Result
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHZ, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.5. Operation timing of one-shot mode
388
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting Sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 and A-D control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
0
b7
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
0
0
b0
0
1
Analog input pin select bit (Note)
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
0
Invalid in one-shot mode
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : AN0 is selected
0 0 1 : AN1 is selected
0 1 0 : AN2 is selected
0 1 1 : AN3 is selected
1 0 0 : AN4 is selected
1 0 1 : AN5 is selected
1 1 0 : AN6 is selected
1 1 1 : AN7 is selected
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot mode)
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
One-shot mode is selected (Note)
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
External op-amp connection mode bit
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
b7 b6
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
Start A-D conversion
Stop A-D conversion
Reading conversion result
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
A-D register 3
A-D register 4
A-D register 5
A-D register 6
A-D register 7
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
[Address 03C516, 03C416]
[Address 03C716, 03C616]
[Address 03C916, 03C816]
[Address 03CB16, 03CA16]
[Address 03CD16, 03CC16]
[Address 03CF16, 03CE16]
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
AD5
AD6
AD7
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Figure 2.7.6. Set-up procedure of one-shot mode
389
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.3 Operation of A-D Converter (in one-shot mode, an external trigger selected)
In one-shot mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.3. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.7.7 shows timing chart, and Figure 2.7.8 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.3. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Operation clock
φAD
O
Resolution
O 8-bit / 10-bit
Analog input pin
O One of AN0 pin to AN7 pin
Trigger for starting
A-D conversion
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedby-2 fAD / fAD
Software trigger
O Trigger by ADTRG
Item
Expanded analog
input pin
Set-up
O
Not used
Either ANEX0 pin or
ANEX1 pin
External operation amplifier
connection mode
Sample & Hold
Not activated
O
Activated
___________
Operation (1) If the level of the ADTRG changes from “H” to “L” with the A-D conversion start flag set to “1”,
the A-D converter begins operating.
(2) After A-D conversion is completed, the content of the successive comparison register (conversion result) is transmitted to A-D register i. At this time, the A-D conversion interrupt request bit goes to “1”. Also the A-D converter stops operating.
___________
(3) If the level of the ADTRG pin changes from “H” to “L”, the A-D converter carries out conversion
___________
from step (1) again. If the level of the ADTRG pin changes from “H” to “L” while conversion is
in progress, the A-D converter stops the A-D conversion in process, and carries out conversion from step (1) again.
(1) Start A-D conversion
(2) A-D conversion is
complete
(3) Start A-D
conversion
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
φAD
Set to “1” by software
A-D
conversion
start flag
“1”
“0”
“H”
ADTRG
“L”
A-D register i
Result
A-D conversion “1”
interrupt request
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHZ, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.7. Operation timing of one-shot mode, with an external trigger selected
390
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 and A-D control register 1
b7
b0
0
1
0
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
0
b7
0
b0
0 1
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
0
Invalid in one-shot mode
Analog input pin select bit (Note)
b2 b1 b0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0 : AN0 is selected
1 : AN1 is selected
0 : AN2 is selected
1 : AN3 is selected
0 : AN4 is selected
1 : AN5 is selected
0 : AN6 is selected
1 : AN7 is selected
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot mode)
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
One-shot mode is selected (Note)
Trigger select bit
1 : ADTRG trigger
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
External op-amp connection mode bit
b7 b6
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
1
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
When ADTRG pin level becomes from “H” to “L”
Start A-D conversion
Reading conversion result
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
A-D register 3
A-D register 4
A-D register 5
A-D register 6
A-D register 7
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
[Address 03C516, 03C416]
[Address 03C716, 03C616]
[Address 03C916, 03C816]
[Address 03CB16, 03CA16]
[Address 03CD16, 03CC16]
[Address 03CF16, 03CE16]
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
AD5
AD6
AD7
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
0
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
Stop A-D conversion
Figure 2.7.8. Set-up procedure of one-shot mode, with an external trigger selected
391
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.4 Operation of A-D Converter (in one-shot mode, expanded analog input pin selected)
In one-shot mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.4. Operations of the circled items
are described below. Figure 2.7.9 shows timing chart, and Figure 2.7.10 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.4. Choosed functions
Item
Operation clock
φAD
Set-up
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedO by-2 fAD / fAD
Resolution
O 8-bit / 10-bit
Analog input pin
O One of AN0 pin to AN7 pin
Trigger for starting
A-D conversion
O Software trigger
Trigger by ADTRG
Item
Set-up
Not used
Expanded analog
input pin
O
Either ANEX0 pin or
ANEX1 pin
External operation amplifier
connection mode
Sample & Hold
Not activated
O
Activated
Operation (1) Setting the A-D conversion start flag to “1” causes the A-D converter to start the conversion on
voltage input to the ANEXi pin.
(2) After the A-D conversion of voltage input to the ANEXi pin is completed, the content of the
successive comparison register (conversion result) is transmitted to the A-D register. At the
same time, the A-D conversion interrupt request bit goes to “1”. Also, the A-D conversion start
flag goes to “0”, and the A-D converter stops operating.
(1) Start A-D conversion
(2) A-D convesion is complete
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
φAD
Set to “1” by software
A-D conversion “1”
start flag
“0”
A-D register i
Result
A-D conversion “1”
interrupt request “0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHZ, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.9. Operation timing of one-shot mode, with expanded analog input pin selected
392
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 and A-D control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
b7
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
0 0
b0
1
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
0
Invalid in one-shot mode
Analog input pin select bit (Note)
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : AN0 is selected(ANEX0)
0 0 1 : AN1 is selected(ANEX1)
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot mode)
One-shot mode is selected (Note)
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
External op-amp connection mode bit
b7 b6
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
0 1 : ANEX0 input is A-D converted
1 0 : ANEX1 input is A-D converted
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
Start A-D conversion
Stop A-D conversion
Reading conversion result
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
AD0
AD1
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Figure 2.7.10. Set-up procedure of one-shot mode, with expanded analog input pin selected
393
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.5 Operation of A-D Converter (in one-shot mode, external op-amp connection mode selected)
In one-shot mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.5. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.7.11 shows timing chart, and Figure 2.7.12 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.5. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Item
Operation clock
φAD
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedO by-2 fAD / fAD
Resolution
O 8-bit / 10-bit
Analog input pin
O One of AN0 pin to AN7 pin
Trigger for starting
A-D conversion
O Software trigger
Set-up
Not used
Expanded analog
input pin
Either ANEX0 pin or
ANEX1 pin
O
Sample & Hold
Not activated
O
Trigger by ADTRG
External operation amplifier
connection mode
Activated
Operation (1) Setting the A-D conversion start flag to “1” causes voltage input to the ANi pin to be output
from the ANEX0 pin. The A-D conversion is carried out on voltage input to the ANEX1 pin
(connect an operation amplifier between the ANEX0 pin and the ANEX1 pin).
(2) After the A-D conversion is completed, the content of the successive comparison register
(conversion result) is transmitted to A-D register i corresponding to the ANi pin. At this time,
the A-D conversion interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
Example of wiring
Example of operation
(1) Start A-D conversion
(2) A-D conversion is complete
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
Microcomputer
Input voltage
AN0
Input voltage
AN1
Op-amp
AAA
AAA
AA
φAD
Set to “1” by software
A-D conversion
start flag
“1”
“0”
A-D register i
Result
ANEX0
ANEX1
A-D conversion “1”
interrupt request “0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHZ, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles for
10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.11. Operation timing of one-shot mode, with external op-amp connection mode selected
394
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting Sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 and A-D control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
b7
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
0 0
1
b0
1
1
Analog input pin select bit (Note)
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
0
Invalid in one-shot mode
b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 : AN0 is selected
0 0 1 : AN1 is selected
0 1 0 : AN2 is selected
0 1 1 : AN3 is selected
1 0 0 : AN4 is selected
1 0 1 : AN5 is selected
1 1 0 : AN6 is selected
1 1 1 : AN7 is selected
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot mode)
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
One-shot mode is selected (Note)
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
External op-amp connection mode bit
b7 b6
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
1 1 : External op-amp connection mode
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
Start A-D conversion
Stop A-D conversion
Reading conversion result
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
A-D register 3
A-D register 4
A-D register 5
A-D register 6
A-D register 7
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
[Address 03C516, 03C416]
[Address 03C716, 03C616]
[Address 03C916, 03C816]
[Address 03CB16, 03CA16]
[Address 03CD16, 03CC16]
[Address 03CF16, 03CE16]
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
AD5
AD6
AD7
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Figure 2.7.12. Set-up procedure of one-shot mode, with external op-amp connection mode selected
395
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.6 Operation of A-D Converter (in repeat mode)
In repeat mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.6. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.7.13 shows timing chart, and Figure 2.7.14 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.6. Choosed functions
Item
Item
Set-up
Operation clock
φAD
O
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedby-2 fAD / fAD
Resolution
O
8-bit / 10-bit
Analog input pin
O
One of AN0 pin to AN7 pin
Trigger for starting
A-D conversion
O
Software trigger
Expanded analog
input pin
Set-up
O
Not used
Either ANEX0 pin or
ANEX1 pin
External operation amplifier
connection mode
Sample & Hold
Not activated
O
Trigger by ADTRG
Activated
Operation (1) Setting the A-D conversion start flag to “1” causes the A-D converter to start operating.
(2) After the first conversion is completed, the content of the successive comparison register
(conversion result) is transmitted to A-D register i. The A-D conversion interrupt request bit
does not go to “1”.
(3) The A-D converter continues operating until the A-D conversion start flag is set to “0” by
software. The conversion result is transmitted to A-D register i every time a conversion is
completed.
(1) Start A-D conversion
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
(2) Conversion result is transferred to the A-D register
(3) A-D conversion
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
is complete
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
φAD
Set to “1” by software
Cleared to “0” by software
A-D conversion “1”
start flag
“0”
A-D register i
A-D conversion
Result
Result
Stop
Convert
Convert
Convert
Stop
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHz, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles
for 10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.13. Operation timing of repeat mode
396
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting Sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 and A-D control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
0
b7
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
1
b0
0 0
1
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
0
Invalid in Repeat mode
Analog input pin select bit (Note)
b2 b1 b0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0 : AN0 is selected
1 : AN1 is selected
0 : AN2 is selected
1 : AN3 is selected
0 : AN4 is selected
1 : AN5 is selected
0 : AN6 is selected
1 : AN7 is selected
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in repeat mode)
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
Repeat mode is selected (Note)
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
External op-amp connection mode bit
b7 b6
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
1
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
Start A-D conversion
Transmitting conversion result to A-D register i
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
A-D register 3
A-D register 4
A-D register 5
A-D register 6
A-D register 7
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
[Address 03C516, 03C416]
[Address 03C716, 03C616]
[Address 03C916, 03C816]
[Address 03CB16, 03CA16]
[Address 03CD16, 03CC16]
[Address 03CF16, 03CE16]
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
AD5
AD6
AD7
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
0
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
Stop A-D conversion
Figure 2.7.14. Set-up procedure of repeat mode
397
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.7 Operation of A-D Converter (in single sweep mode)
In single sweep mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.7. Operations of the circled items
are described below. Figure 2.7.15 shows timing chart, and Figure 2.7.16 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.7. Choosed functions
Item
Operation clock
Resolution
Set-up
Item
Set-up
O
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedby-2 fAD / fAD
Trigger for starting AD conversion
O
8-bit / 10-bit
Expanded analog
input pin
O
AN0 and AN1 (2 pins) / AN0
to AN3 (4 pins) / AN0 to AN5
(6 pins) / AN0 to AN7 (8 pins) Sample & Hold
AD
Analog input pin
O
O
Software trigger
Trigger by ADTRG
Not used
External ope-amp
connection mode
Not activated
O
Activated
Operation (1) Setting the A-D conversion start flag to “1” causes the A-D converter to start the conversion
on voltage input to the AN0 pin.
(2) After the A-D conversion of voltage input to the AN0 pin is completed, the content of the
successive comparison register (conversion result) is transmitted to A-D register 0. The A-D
converter converts all analog input pins selected by the user. The conversion result is transmitted to A-D register i corresponding to each pin, every time conversion on one pin is completed.
(3) When the A-D conversion on all the analog input pins selected is completed, the A-D conversion interrupt request bit goes to “1”. At this time, the A-D conversion start flag goes to “0”.
The A-D converter stops operating.
(1) Start A-D conversion
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
(2) After A-D conversion on AN0 pin is complete,
A-D converter begins converting all pins selected
(3) A-D conversion
is complete
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
φAD
Set to “1” by software
A-D conversion “1”
start flag
“0”
A-D register 0
Result
A-D register 1
Result
A-D register i
Result
A-D conversion “1”
interrupt request
“0”
bit
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHZ, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.15. Operation timing of single sweep mode
398
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting Sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 and A-D control register 1
b7
b0
0
0
b7
A-D control register 0
[Address 03D616] ADCON0
1 0
0
b0
0
1
0
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
A-D sweep pin select bit (Note)
Invalid in single sweep mode
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
0 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN5 (6 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
Single sweep mode is selected
(Note)
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in Single sweep mode)
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
External op-amp connection mode bit
b7 b6
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
Start A-D conversion
Stop A-D conversion
Reading conversion result
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
A-D register 3
A-D register 4
A-D register 5
A-D register 6
A-D register 7
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
[Address 03C516, 03C416]
[Address 03C716, 03C616]
[Address 03C916, 03C816]
[Address 03CB16, 03CA16]
[Address 03CD16, 03CC16]
[Address 03CF16, 03CE16]
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
AD5
AD6
AD7
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Figure 2.7.16. Set-up procedure of single sweep mode
399
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.8 Operation of A-D Converter (in repeat sweep mode 0)
In repeat sweep 0 mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.8. Operations of the circled items
are described below. Figure 2.7.17 shows timing chart, and Figure 2.7.18 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.8. Choosed functions
Item
Operation clock AD
Resolution
Set-up
Item
Set-up
O
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedby-2 fAD / fAD
Trigger for starting
A-D conversion
O
O
8-bit / 10-bit
Expanded analog
input pin
O
O
AN0 and AN1 (2 pins) / AN0
to AN3 (4 pins) / AN0 to AN5
(6 pins) / AN0 to AN7 (8 pins) Sample & Hold
Analog input pin
Software trigger
Trigger by ADTRG
Not used
External ope-amp
connection mode
Not activated
O
Activated
Operation (1) Setting the A-D conversion start flag to “1” causes the A-D converter to start the conversion
on voltage input to the AN0 pin.
(2) After the A-D conversion of voltage input to the AN0 pin is completed, the content of the
successive comparison register (conversion result) is transmitted to A-D register 0.
(3) The A-D converter converts all pins selected by the user. The conversion result is transmitted
to A-D register i corresponding to each pin every time A-D conversion on the pin is completed. The A-D conversion interrupt request bit does not go to “1”.
(4) The A-D converter continues operating until the A-D conversion start flag is set to “0” by
software.
(1) Start A-D conversion
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
(2) AN1 conversion begins after AN0
conversion is complete
(3) Consecutive conversion
(4) A-D conversion
is complete
8-bit resolution : 28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution : 33 φAD cycles
φAD
Cleared to “0” by software
Set to “1” by software.
A-D
conversion
start flag
A-D register 0
“1”
“0”
Result
A-D register 1
Result
A-D register i
Result
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHZ, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.17. Operation timing of repeat sweep 0 mode
400
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting Sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 and A-D control register 1
b7
b7
b0
0
0
1
A-D control register 0
[Address 03D616] ADCON0
1
0
b0
0
1
0
Invalid in repeat sweep mode 0
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
A-D sweep pin select bit (Note)
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
0 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN5 (6 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN7 (8 pins)
Repeat sweep mode 0 is selected
(Note)
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in repeat sweep mode 0)
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
External op-amp connection mode bit
b7 b6
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
Repeatedly carries out A-D conversion on pins
selected through the A-D sweep pin select bit.
Start A-D conversion
Transmitting conversion result to A-D register i
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
A-D register 3
A-D register 4
A-D register 5
A-D register 6
A-D register 7
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
[Address 03C516, 03C416]
[Address 03C716, 03C616]
[Address 03C916, 03C816]
[Address 03CB16, 03CA16]
[Address 03CD16, 03CC16]
[Address 03CF16, 03CE16]
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
AD5
AD6
AD7
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
0
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
Stop A-D conversion
Figure 2.7.18. Set-up procedure of repeat sweep 0 mode
401
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.9 Operation of A-D Converter (in repeat sweep mode 1)
In repeat sweep 1 mode, choose functions from those listed in Table 2.7.9. Operations of the circled items are
described below. Figure 2.7.19 shows ANi pin's sweep sequence, Figure 2.7.20 shows timing chart, and Figure
2.7.21 shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.7.9. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Operation clock φAD
Resolution
Item
Set-up
O
Divided-by-4 fAD / dividedby-2 fAD / fAD
Trigger for starting
A-D conversion
O
O
8-bit / 10-bit
Expanded analog
input pin
O
O
An0 (1 pin) / AN0 and AN1 (2
pins) / AN0 to AN2 (3 pins) /
AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
Analog input pin
Software trigger
Trigger by ADTRG
Not used
External ope-amp
connection mode
Sample & Hold
Not activated
O
Operation
Activated
(1) Setting the A-D conversion start flag to “1” causes the A-D converter to start the conversion on voltage
input to the AN0 pin.
(2) After the A-D conversion on voltage input to the AN0 pin is completed, the content of the successive
comparison register (conversion result) is transmitted to A-D register 0.
(3) Every time the A-D converter carries out A-D conversion on a selected analog input pin, the A-D converter
carries out A-D conversion on only one unselected pin, and then the A-D converter carries out A-D conversion from the AN0 pin again. (See Figure 2.7.19.) The conversion result is transmitted to A-D register i
every time conversion on a pin is completed. The A-D conversion interrupt request bit does not go to “1”.
(4) The A-D converter continues operating until software goes the A-D conversion start flag to “0”.
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
.
.
.
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
.
.
.
3
4
5
6
7
When AN0 to AN2 are selected
Time
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
.
.
.
When AN0 to AN3 are selected
Converted analog input pin
0
Time
Converted analog input pin
When AN0, AN1 are selected
Time
Converted analog input pin
Converted analog input pin
When AN0 is selected
Time
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
4
0
1
2
3
0
.
.
.
4
5
6
7
Figure 2.7.19. ANi pin's sweep sequence in repeat sweep mode
(2) Conversion result is
transfered to A-D
conversion register 0
(1) Start AN0 pin conversion
8-bit resolution :
28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution :
33 φAD cycles
8-bit resolution :
28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution :
33 φAD cycles
(3) Consecutive conversion
8-bit resolution :
28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution :
33 φAD cycles
8-bit resolution :
28 φAD cycles
10-bit resolution :
33 φAD cycles
(4) A-D
conversion
is complete
φAD
Cleared to “0” by software
Set to “1” by software
A-D
conversion
start flag
A-D register 0
“1”
“0”
Result
Result
Result
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
Result
Note: When φAD frequency is less than 1MHz, sample and hold function cannot be selected.
Conversion rate per analog input pin is 49 φAD cycles for 8-bit resolution and 59 φAD cycles for 10-bit resolution.
Figure 2.7.20. Operation timing of repeat sweep 1 mode
402
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Selecting Sample and hold
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 2 [Address 03D416]
ADCON2
A-D conversion method select bit
1 : With sample and hold
Setting A-D control register 0 andA-D control register 1
b7
b0
0 0
1
b7
A-D control register 0
[Address 03D616] ADCON0
1
0
b0
0
1
1
Invalid in repeat sweep mode 1
A-D control register 1 [Address 03D716]
ADCON1
A-D sweep pin select bit (Note)
b1 b0
0 0 : AN0 (1 pin)
0 1 : AN0, AN1 (2 pins)
1 0 : AN0 to AN2 (3 pins)
1 1 : AN0 to AN3 (4 pins)
Repeat sweep mode 1 is selected
(Note)
Trigger select bit
0 : Software trigger
A-D operation mode select bit 1 (Note)
0 (Must always be “0” in repeat sweep mode 1)
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
8/10-bit mode select bit
0 : 8-bit mode
1 : 10-bit mode
Frequency select bit 0
0 : fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD/2 is selected
Frequency select bit 1
0 : fAD/2 or fAD/4 is selected
1 : fAD is selected
Vref connect bit
1 : Vref connected
External op-amp connection mode bit
b7 b6
Note: Rewrite to analog input pin select bit after changing A-D operation mode.
0 0 : ANEX0 and ANEX1 are not used
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
1
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
1 : A-D conversion started
Converts non-selected pin after converting pins
selected through the A-D sweep pin select bit.
Start A-D conversion
Transmitting conversion result to A-D register i
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
A-D register 0
A-D register 1
A-D register 2
A-D register 3
A-D register 4
A-D register 5
A-D register 6
A-D register 7
b0
[Address 03C116, 03C016]
[Address 03C316, 03C216]
[Address 03C516, 03C416]
[Address 03C716, 03C616]
[Address 03C916, 03C816]
[Address 03CB16, 03CA16]
[Address 03CD16, 03CC16]
[Address 03CF16, 03CE16]
AD0
AD1
AD2
AD3
AD4
AD5
AD6
AD7
Eight low-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 10-bit mode
Two high-order bits of A-D conversion result
During 8-bit mode
When read, the content is indeterminate
Setting A-D conversion start flag
b7
b0
0
A-D control register 0 [Address 03D616]
ADCON0
A-D conversion start flag
0 : A-D conversion disabled
Stop A-D conversion
Figure 2.7.21. Set-up procedure of repeat sweep 1 mode
403
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.10 Precautions for A-D Converter
(1) Write to each bit (except bit 6) of A-D control register 0, to each bit of A-D control register 1,
and to bit 0 of A-D control register 2 when A-D conversion is stopped (before a trigger occurs).
In particular, when the Vref connection bit is changed from 0 to 1, start A-D conversion after
an elapse of 1 µs or longer.
(2) To reduce conversion error due to noise, connect a voltage to the AVcc pin and to the Vref pin from
an independent source. It is recommended to connect a capacitor between the AVss pin and the
AVcc pin, between the AVss pin and the Vref pin, and between the AVss pin and the analog input
pin (ANi). Figure 2.7.22 shows the an example of connecting the capacitors to these pins.
Microcomputer
VCC
AVCC
VREF
C1
C2
AVSS
C3
ANi
Note 1: C1 0.47 µF, C2 0.47 µF, C3 100 pF
(for reference)
Note 2: Use thick and shortest possible wiring
to connect capacitors.
Figure 2.7.22. Use of capacitors to reduce noice
(3) Set the direction register of the following ports to input: the port corresponding to a pin to be
used as an analog input pin and external trigger input pin (P97).
(4) In using a key-input interrupt, none of the 4 pins (AN4 through AN7) can be used as an A-D
conversion port (if the A-D input voltage goes to “L” level, a key-input interrupt occurs).
(5) If using the A-D converter with Vcc = 2.7V to 4.0 V:
Use only a divided frequency for fAD (undivided fAD is not allowed).
Select without the Sample & Hold feature.
Select 8-bit mode.
(6) Rewrite to analog input pin after changing A-D operation mode. The two cannot be set at the
same time.
(7) When using the one-shot or single sweep mode
Confirm that A-D conversion is complete before reading the A-D register.
(Note: When A-D conversion interrupt request bit is set, it shows that A-D conversion is completed.)
(8) When using the repeat mode or repeat sweep mode 0 or 1
Use the undivided main clock as the internal CPU clock.
(9) Use AD under 10 MHz. When XIN is over 10 MHz, divide it.
404
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.11 Method of A-D Conversion (10-bit mode)
(1) The A-D converter compares the reference voltage (Vref) generated internally based on the
contents of the successive comparison register with the analog input voltage (VIN) input from
the analog input pin. Each bit of the comparison result is stored in the successive comparison
register until analog-to-digital conversion (successive comparison method) is complete. If a
trigger occurs, the A-D converter carries out the following:
1. Fixes bit 9 of the successive comparison register.
Compares Vref with VIN: [In this instance, the contents of the successive comparison
register are “10000000002” (default).]
Bit 9 of the successive comparison register varies depending on the comparison result as follows.
If Vref < VIN, then “1” is assigned to bit 9.
If Vref > VIN, then “0” is assigned to bit 9.
2. Fixes bit 8 of the successive comparison register.
Sets bit 8 of the successive comparison register to “1”, then compares Vref with VIN.
Bit 8 of the successive comparison register varies depending on the comparison
result as follows:
If Vref < VIN, then “1” is assigned to bit 8.
If Vref > VIN, then “0” is assigned to bit 8.
3. Fixes bit 7 through bit 0 of the successive comparison register.
Carries out step 2 above on bit 7 through bit 0.
After bit 0 is fixed, the contents of the successive comparison register (conversion
result) are transmitted to A-D register i.
Vref is generated based on the latest content of the successive comparison register. Table
2.7.10 shows the relationship of the successive comparison register contents and Vref. Table
2.7.11 shows how the successive comparison register and Vref vary while A-D conversion is
in progress. Figure 2.7.23 shows theoretical A-D conversion characteristics.
Table 2.7.10. Relationship of the successive comparison register contents and Vref
Successive approximation register : n
Vref (V)
0
0
1 to1023
VREF
1024
x
n
–
VREF
2048
405
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Table 2.7.11. Variation of the successive comparison register and Vref while A-D conversion is in
progress (10-bit mode)
Successive approximation register
b9
Vref change
b0
A-D converter stopped
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VREF [V]
2
1st comparison
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VREF VREF
[V]
–
2048
2
2nd comparison
n9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VREF
VREF
VREF
[V] n9 = 0
–
±
2
2048
4
n9 = 1
1st comparison result
3rd comparison
n9 n8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2nd comparison result
10th comparison
n9 n8 n7 n6 n5 n4 n3 n2 n1 0
Conversion complete
n9 n8 n7 n6 n5 n4 n3 n2 n1 n0
VREF
4
– VREF
4
+
n8 = 1
+
VREF ± VREF ± VREF – VREF [V]
n8 = 0
2
4
8
2048
–
VREF
8
VREF
8
VREF
VREF
VREF
VREF
VREF
[V]
± ...... ±
–
±
±
4
8
2
1024
2048
This data transfers to the bit 0
to bit 9 of A-D register.
Result of A-D conversion
Theoretical A-D
conversion characteristic
3FF16
3FE16
00316
Ideal A-D conversion
characteristic
00216
00116
00016
0
VREF x 1
1024
VREF x 2
1024
VREF x 3
1024
VREF x 1021 VREF x 1022 VREF x 1023
1024
1024
1024
VREF x 0.5
1024
Figure 2.7.23. Theoretical A-D conversion characteristics (10-bit mode)
406
VREF
Analog input voltage
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.12 Method of A-D Conversion (8-bit mode)
(1) In 8-bit mode, 8 higher-order bits of the 10-bit successive comparison register becomes A-D
conversion result. Hence, if compared to a result obtained by using an 8-bit A-D converter,
the voltage compared is different by 3 VREF/2048 (see what are underscored in Table
2.7.12), and differences in stepping points of output codes occur as shown in Figure 2.7.24.
Table 2.7.12. The comparison voltage in 8-bit mode compared to 8-bit A-D converter
8-bit mode
8-bit A-D converter
0
0
n=0
Comparison
voltage
Vref
n = 1 to 255
VREF
28
x n
–
VREF
210
x 0.5
VREF
28
x
n –
VREF
28
x 0.5
Optimal conversion characteristics of 8-bit A-D converter (VREF = 5.12 V)
Output code
(Result of A-D conversion)
02
01
00
10
30
Analog input voltage (mV)
Optimal conversion characteristics in 8-bit mode (VREF = 5.12 V)
Output code
(Result of A-D conversion)
8-bit
mode
10-bit
mode
(Note)
10bit-mode
02
01
00
09
08
07
06
05
04
03
02
01
00
8bit-mode
17.5
37.5
Analog input voltage (mV)
Note: Differences in stepping points of output code for analog input voltage.
Figure 2.7.24. The level conversion characteristics of 8-bit mode and 8-bit A-D converter
407
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Table 2.7.13. Variation of the successive comparison register and Vref while A-D conversion is in
progress (8-bit mode)
Vref change
Successive approximation register
b9
b0
A-D converter stopped
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VREF
[V]
2
1st comparison
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VREF VREF
[V]
–
2048
2
2nd comparison
n9 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
VREF
VREF
VREF
[V]
–
±
2
2048
4
1st comparison result
3rd comparison
n9 n8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2nd comparison result
8th comparison
n9 n8 n7 n6 n5 n4 n3 1 0 0
Conversion
complete
n9 n8 n7 n 6 n 5 n 4 n 3 n 2 0 0
n9 = 1
n9 = 0
VREF
4
VREF
–
4
n8 = 1
+
VREF
VREF
VREF VREF
[V]
–
±
±
4
8
2048
2
n8 = 0
+
–
VREF
VREF
VREF
VREF
VREF
[V]
±
±
± ...... ±
–
2048
2
4
8
256
This data transfers to bit 0 to
bit 7 of A-D register.
Result of A-D conversion
Theoretical A-D conversion
characteristic of general 8-bit
A-D converter
FF16
FE16
0316
Theoretical A-D conversion
characteristic in the 8-bit mode
0216
0116
0016
0
VREF x 1
256
VREF x 2
256
VREF x 3
256
VREF x 4
256
VREF x 254
256
VREF x 3
2048
Figure 2.7.25. Theoretical A-D conversion characteristics (8-bit mode)
408
VREF
8
VREF
8
VREF x 255
256
VREF
Analog input voltage
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.13 Absolute Accuracy and Differential Non-Linearity Error
• Absolute accuracy
Absolute accuracy is the difference between output code based on the theoretical A-D conversion
characteristics, and actual A-D conversion result. When measuring absolute accuracy, the voltage at
the middle point of the width of analog input voltage (1-LSB width), that can meet the expectation of
outputting an equal code based on the theoretical A-D conversion characteristics, is used as an analog input voltage. For example, if 10-bit resolution is used and if VREF (reference voltage) = 5.12 V,
then 1-LSB width becomes 5 mV, and 0 mV, 5 mV, 10 mV, 15 mV, 20 mV, ···· are used as analog input
voltages. If analog input voltage is 25 mV, “absolute accuracy = ± 3LSB” refers to the fact that actual
A-D conversion falls on a range from “00216” to ”00816” though an output code, “00516”, can be expected from the theoretical A-D conversion characteristics. Zero error and full-scale error are included
in absolute accuracy.
Also, all the output codes for analog input voltage between VREF and AVcc becomes “3FF16”.
Output code
(result of A-D conversion)
00B16
00A16
00916
+3LSB
00816
Theoretical A-D conversion
characteristic
00716
00616
00516
00416
00316
00216
–3LSB
00116
00016
0
5
10 15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
Analog input voltage (mV)
Figure 2.7.26. Absolute accuracy (10-bit resolution)
409
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M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
• Differential non-linearity error
Differential non-linearity error refers to the difference between 1-LSB width based on the theoretical AD conversion characteristics (an analog input width that can meet the expectation of outputting an
equal code) and an actually measured 1-LSB width (analog input voltage width that outputs an equal
code). If 10-bit resolution is used and if VREF (reference voltage) = 5.12 V, “differential non-linearity
error = ± 1LSB” refers to the fact that 1-LSB width actually measured falls on a range from 0 mV to 10
mV though 1-LSB width based on the theoretical A-D conversion characteristics is 5 mV (see 8.2 A-D
converter's standard characteristics).
Output code
(result of A-D conversion)
00916
1LSB width for theoretical A-D
conversion characteristic
00816
00716
00616
00516
00416
00316
00216
00116
Differential non-linear error
00016
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Analog input voltage (mV)
Figure 2.7.27. Differential non-linearity error (10-bit resolution)
410
40
45
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M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.14 Internal Equivalent Circuit of Analog Input
Figure 2.7.28 shows the internal equivalent circuit of analog input.
Vcc
Vcc Vss
AVcc
Parasitic
diode
ON resistor
approx. 2k Ω
AN0
ON resistor
approx. 0.6k Ω
Wiring resistor
approx. 0.2k Ω
Analog input voltage
SW1
SW2
Parasitic
diode
C = Approx. 3.0pF
AMP
VIN
ON resistor,
approx. 5k Ω
Sampling
control signal
Vss
SW3
SW4
i ladder-type
switches
(i = 10)
i ladder-type wiring
resistors
(i = 10)
AVss
Chopper-type
amplifier
AN i
SW1
b2 b1 b0
Reference control
signal
A-D control register 0
A-D successive conversion
register
Vref
VREF
Resistor
ladder
SW2
Comparison voltage
ON resistor
approx. 0.6k Ω
ADT/A-D conversion
interrupt request
AVss
Comparison reference voltage (Vref) generator
Sampling
Comparison
SW1 conducts only on the ports selected for analog input.
Connect to
Control signal
for SW2
Connect to
SW2 and SW3 are open when A-D conversion is not in
progress; their status varies as shown by the waveforms in
the diagrams on the left.
Connect to
SW4 conducts only when A-D conversion is not in progress.
Control signal
for SW3
Connect to
Warning: Use only as a standard for designing this data.
Mass production may cause some changes in device characteristics.
Figure 2.7.28. Internal equivalent circuit to analog input
411
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M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.7.15 Sensor’s Output Impedance under A-D Conversion
To carry out A-D conversion properly, charging the internal capacitor C shown in Figure 2.7.29 has to be
completed within a specified period of time. With T as the specified time, time T is the time that switches
SW2 and SW3 are connected to O in Figure 2.7.28. Let output impedance of sensor equivalent circuit be
R0, microcomputer’s internal resistance be R, precision (error) of the A-D converter be X, and the A-D
converter’s resolution be Y (Y is 1024 in the 10-bit mode, and 256 in the 8-bit mode).
Vc is generally VC = VIN {1 – e
And when t = T,
VC=VIN –
e
–
–
t
C (R0 + R)
X
X
VIN=VIN(1 –
)
Y
Y
T
C (R0 + R)
X
Y
=
T
=ln
C (R0 +R)
T
–R
X
C • ln
Y
–
Hence, R0 = –
}
X
Y
With the model shown in Figure 2.7.29 as an example, when the difference between VIN and VC becomes
0.1LSB, we find impedance R0 when voltage between pins VC changes from 0 to VIN-(0.1/1024) VIN in
time T. (0.1/1024) means that A-D precision drop due to insufficient capacitor charge is held to 0.1LSB at
time of A-D conversion in the 10-bit mode. Actual error however is the value of absolute precision added
to 0.1LSB. When f(XIN) = 10 MHz, T = 0.3 us in the A-D conversion mode with sample & hold. Output
impedance R0 for sufficiently charging capacitor C within time T is determined as follows.
T = 0.3 µs, R = 7.8 kΩ, C = 3 pF, X = 0.1, and Y = 1024 . Hence,
0.3 X 10-6
R0 = –
3.0 X 10 –12 • ln
0.1
–7.8 X103
3.0 X 103
1024
Thus, the allowable output impedance of the sensor circuit capable of thoroughly driving the A-D converter turns out to be approximately 3.0 kΩ. Tables 2.7.14 and 2.7.15 show output impedance values
based on the LSB values.
Microprocessor's inside
Sensor-equivalent circuit
R0
VIN
R (7.8k Ω)
C (3.0pF)
VC
Figure 2.7.29 A circuit equivalent to the A-D conversion terminal
412
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
A-D Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Tables 2.7.14. Relation between output impedance and precision (error) of A-D converter (10-bit mode) Reference value
f(Xin)
(MHz)
10
Cycle
Sampling time
R
0.1
0.3
(3 x cycle,
Sample & hold
bit is
enabled)
7.8
C
(pF)
3.0
10
0.1
0.2
(2 x cycle,
Sample & hold
bit is
disabled)
7.8
3.0
Resolution
(LSB)
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
R0
3.0
4.5
5.3
5.9
6.4
6.8
7.2
7.5
7.8
8.1
0.4
0.9
1.3
1.7
2.0
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
Tables 2.7.15. Relation between output impedance and precision (error) of A-D converter (8-bit mode) Reference value
f(Xin)
(MHz)
10
Cycle
Sampling time
R
0.1
0.3
(3 x cycle,
Sample & hold
bit is
enabled)
7.8
C
(pF)
3.0
10
0.1
0.2
(2 x cycle,
Sample & hold
bit is
disabled)
7.8
3.0
Resolution
(LSB)
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
1.7
1.9
R0
4.9
7.0
8.2
9.1
9.9
10.5
11.1
11.7
12.1
12.6
0.7
2.1
2.9
3.5
4.0
4.4
4.8
5.2
5.5
5.8
413
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
D-A Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.8 D-A Converter
2.8.1 Overview
The D-A converter used in the M16C/62 group is based on the 8-bit R-2R technique.
(1) Output voltage
The D-A converter outputs voltage within a range from 0 V to VREF. The output voltage is determined
by VREF/(256) X the D-A register contents.
The D-A converter is not effected by the Vref connection bit of the A-D converter.
(2) Conversion time
tsu = 3 µs
(3) Output from the D-A converter and the direction register
To use the D-A converter, do not set the direction register of the relevant port to output.
(4) Pins related to the D-A converter
• DA0 pin, DA1 pin
Output pins of the D-A converter
• AVcc pin
The power source pin of the analog section
• VREF pin
Input pin of the reference voltage
• AVss pin
The GND pin of the analog section
(5) Registers related to the D-A converter
Figure 2.8.1 shows the memory map of D-A converter-related registers, and Figure 2.8.2 shows D-A
converter-related registers.
(6) Note
D-A output pins shared with P93 and P94. The two pins are input ports and floating at the reset.
03D816
D-A register 0 (DA0)
03D916
03DA16
D-A register 1 (DA1)
03DB16
03DC16
D-A control register (DACON)
Figure 2.8.1. Memory map of D-A converter-related registers
D-A control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
DACON
Address
03DC16
Bit symbol
When reset
0016
Bit name
Function
DA0E
D-A0 output enable bit
0 : Output disabled
1 : Output enabled
DA1E
D-A1 output enable bit
0 : Output disabled
1 : Output enabled
RW
AA
A
AAA
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”
D-A register
b7
b0
Symbol
DAi (i = 0,1)
Address
03D816, 03DA16
Function
Output value of D-A conversion
Figure 2.8.2. D-A converter-related registers
414
When reset
Indeterminate
AA
A
AAA
RW
R
W
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
D-A Converter
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.8.2 D-A Converter Operation
The following is the D-A converter operation. Figure 2.8.3 shows the set-up procedure.
Operation (1) Writing a value to the D-A register starts D-A conversion.
(2) Setting the D-Ai output enable bit to “1” outputs an analog signal on the DAi pin.
(3) The D-A converter continues outputting an analog signal until the D-A output enable bit is set
to “0”.
Setting D-A register
b7
b0
D-A register 0 [Address 03D816] DA0
D-A register 1 [Address 03DA16] DA1
Output value of D-A conversion
Setting D-A control register
b7
b0
D-A Control register [Address 03DC16]
DACON
D-A0 output enable bit
1 : Output enabled
D-A1 output enable bit
1 : Output enabled
Figure 2.8.3. Set-up procedure of D-A converter
415
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.9 DMAC
2.9.1 Overview
DMAC transfers one data item held in the source address to the destination address every time a transfer
request is generated. The following is a DMAC overview.
(1) Source address and destination address
Both the register which indicates a source and the register which indicates a destination comprise of
24 bits, so that each can cover a 1M bytes space. After transfer of one bit of data is completed, the
address in either the source register or the destination register can be incremented. However, both
registers cannot be incremented. The links between the source and destination are as follows:
(a) A fixed address from an arbitrary 1M bytes space
(b) An arbitrary 1M bytes space from a fixed address
(c) A fixed address from another fixed address
(2) The number of bits of data transferred
The number of bit of data indicated by the transfer counter is transferred. If a 16-bit transfer is selected, up to 128 K bytes can be transferred. If an 8-bit transfer is selected, up to 64K bytes can be
transferred. The transfer counter is decremented each time one bit of data is transferred, and a DMA
interrupt request occurs when the transfer counter underflows.
(3) DMA transfer factor
________
The DMA transfer factor can be selected from the following 25 factors: falling edge/two edges of INT0/
________
INT1 pin, timer A0 interrupt request through timer A4 interrupt request, timer B0 interrupt request
through timer B5 interrupt request, UART0 transmission interrupt request, UART0 reception interrupt
request, UART1 transmission/UART1 reception interrupt request, UART2 transmission interrupt request, UART2 reception interrupt request, SI/O 3, 4 interrupt request, A-D conversion interrupt request, and software trigger.
When software trigger is selected, DMA transfer is generated by writing “1” to software DMA interrupt
request bit. When other factor is selected, DMA transfer is generated by generating corresponding
interrupt request.
(4) Channel priority
If DMA0 transfer request and DMA1 transfer request occur simultaneously, priority is given to DMA0.
(5) Writing to a register
When writing to the source register or the destination register with DMA enabled, the content of the
register with a fixed address will change at the time of writing. Therefore, the user should not write to
a register with a fixed address when the DMA enable bit is set to “1”. The contents of the register with
‘forward direction’ selected, and the transfer counter, are changed when reloaded. A reload occurs
either when the transfer counter underflows, or when the DMA enable bit is re-enabled, after having
been disabled.
The reload register can be written to, as in normal conditions.
(6) Reading to a register
The reload register can be read to, as in normal conditions.
416
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(7) Switching function
(a) Switching between one-shot transfer and repeated transfer
'One-shot transfer' refers to a mode in which DMA is disabled after the transfer counter underflows.
'Repeated transfer' refers to a mode in which a reload is carried out after the transfer counter underflows. The reload is carried out for the transfer counter and on the address pointer subjected to
forward direction.
The following are examples of operation in which the options listed are selected.
• A fixed address from an arbitrary 1M byte space, one-shot transfer ........................................ P420
• An arbitrary 1M byte space from a fixed address, repeated transfer ........................................ P422
(8) Registers related to DMAC
Figure 2.9.1 shows the memory map of DMAC-related registers, and Figures 2.9.2 and 2.9.3 show
DMAC-related registers.
002016
002116
DMA0 source pointer (SAR0)
002216
002316
002416
002516
DMA0 destination pointer (DAR0)
002616
002716
002816
DMA0 transfer counter (TCR0)
002916
002C15
DMA0 control register (DM0CON)
003016
003116
DMA1 source pointer (SAR1)
003216
003316
003416
003516
DMA1 destination pointer (DAR1)
003616
003716
003816
003916
DMA1 transfer counter (TCR1)
003C16
DMA1 control register (DM1CON)
004B16
DMA0 interrupt control register (DM0IC)
004C16
DMA1 interrupt control register (DM1IC)
03B816
DMA0 cause select register (DM0SL)
03B916
03BA16
DMA1 cause select register (DM1SL)
Figure 2.9.1. Memory map of DMAC-related registers
417
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMA0 request cause select register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
DM0SL
Address
03B816
Function
Bit name
Bit symbol
DSEL0
When reset
0016
DMA request cause
select bit
DSEL1
DSEL2
DSEL3
b3 b2 b1 b0
AA
A
A
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
R
W
0 0 0 0 : Falling edge of INT0 pin
0 0 0 1 : Software trigger
0 0 1 0 : Timer A0
0 0 1 1 : Timer A1
0 1 0 0 : Timer A2
0 1 0 1 : Timer A3
0 1 1 0 : Timer A4 (DMS=0)
/two edges of INT0 pin (DMS=1)
0 1 1 1 : Timer B0 (DMS=0)
Timer B3 (DMS=1)
1 0 0 0 : Timer B1 (DMS=0)
Timer B4 (DMS=1)
1 0 0 1 : Timer B2 (DMS=0)
Timer B5 (DMS=1)
1 0 1 0 : UART0 transmit
1 0 1 1 : UART0 receive
1 1 0 0 : UART2 transmit
1 1 0 1 : UART2 receive
1 1 1 0 : A-D conversion
1 1 1 1 : UART1 transmit
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMS
DMA request cause
expansion bit
0 : Normal
1 : Expanded cause
DSR
Software DMA
request bit
If software trigger is selected, a
DMA request is generated by
setting this bit to “1” (When read,
the value of this bit is always “0”)
DMA1 request cause select register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
DM1SL
Address
03BA16
Function
Bit name
Bit symbol
DSEL0
When reset
0016
DMA request cause
select bit
DSEL1
DSEL2
DSEL3
b3 b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 0 : Falling edge of INT1 pin
0 0 0 1 : Software trigger
0 0 1 0 : Timer A0
0 0 1 1 : Timer A1
0 1 0 0 : Timer A2
0 1 0 1 : Timer A3(DMS=0)
/serial I/O3 (DMS=1)
0 1 1 0 : Timer A4 (DMS=0)
/serial I/O4 (DMS=1)
0 1 1 1 : Timer B0 (DMS=0)
/two edges of INT1 (DMS=1)
1 0 0 0 : Timer B1
1 0 0 1 : Timer B2
1 0 1 0 : UART0 transmit
1 0 1 1 : UART0 receive
1 1 0 0 : UART2 transmit
1 1 0 1 : UART2 receive
1 1 1 0 : A-D conversion
1 1 1 1 : UART1 receive
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMS
DMA request cause
expansion bit
0 : Normal
1 : Expanded cause
DSR
Software DMA
request bit
If software trigger is selected, a
DMA request is generated by
setting this bit to “1” (When read,
the value of this bit is always “0”)
Figure 2.9.2. DMAC-related registers (1)
418
AA
AA
AA
AA
R
W
AAAA
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
DMAi control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
DMiCON(i=0,1)
b0
Address
002C16, 003C16
Bit symbol
When reset
00000X002
Bit name
AA
AA
A
A
AA
AA
AA
A
A
AA
Function
R
DMBIT
Transfer unit bit select bit
0 : 16 bits
1 : 8 bits
DMASL
Repeat transfer mode
select bit
0 : Single transfer
1 : Repeat transfer
DMAS
DMA request bit (Note 1)
0 : DMA not requested
1 : DMA requested
DMAE
DMA enable bit
0 : Disabled
1 : Enabled
DSD
Source address direction
select bit (Note 3)
0 : Fixed
1 : Forward
DAD
Destination address
0 : Fixed
direction select bit (Note 3) 1 : Forward
W
(Note 2)
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Note 1: DMA request can be cleared by resetting the bit.
Note 2: This bit can only be set to “0”.
Note 3: Source address direction select bit and destination address direction select bit
cannot be set to “1” simultaneously.
DMAi source pointer (i = 0, 1)
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
SAR0
SAR1
Address
002216 to 002016
003216 to 003016
Transfer count
specification
Function
• Source pointer
Stores the source address
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
AAA
R W
0000016 to FFFFF16
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMAi destination pointer (i = 0, 1)
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
DAR0
DAR1
Address
002616 to 002416
003616 to 003416
Transfer count
specification
Function
• Destination pointer
Stores the destination address
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
R W
AAA
0000016 to FFFFF16
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
DMAi transfer counter (i = 0, 1)
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
TCR0
TCR1
Address
002916, 002816
003916, 003816
Function
• Transfer counter
Set a value one less than the transfer count
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
Transfer count
specification
AA
R W
000016 to FFFF16
Figure 2.9.3. DMAC-related registers (2)
419
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.9.2 Operation of DMAC (one-shot transfer mode)
In one-shot transfer mode, choose functions from the items shown in Table 2.9.1. Operations of the
circled items are described below. Figure 2.9.4 shows an example of operation and Figure 2.9.5
shows the set-up procedure.
Table 2.9.1. Choosed functions
Item
Transfer space
Set-up
O
Fixed address from an arbitrary 1 M bytes space
Arbitrary 1 M bytes space from a fixed address
Fixed address from fixed address
Unit of transfer
O
8 bits
16 bits
Operation (1) When software trigger is selected, setting software DMA request bit to “1” generates a DMA
transfer request signal.
(2) If DMAC is active, data transfer starts, and the contents of the address indicated by the DMAi
forward-direction address pointer are transferred to the address indicated by the DMAi destination pointer. When data transfer starts directly after DMAC becomes active, the value of
the DMAi transfer counter reload register is reloaded to the DMAi transfer counter, and the
value of the DMAi source pointer is reloaded by the DMAi forward-direction address pointer.
Each time a DMA transfer request signal is generated, 1 byte of data is transferred. The
DMAi transfer counter is down counted, and the DMAi forward-direction address pointer is up
counted.
(3) If the DMA transfer counter underflows, the DMA enable bit changes to “0” and DMA transfer
is completed. The DMA interrupt request bit changes to “1” simultaneously.
(1) Request signal for a DMA transfer occurs
(2) Data transfer begins
(3) Underflow
BCLK
Destination
Destination
Address bus
CPU use
Dummy
cycle
Source
CPU use
Source
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
RD signal
WR signal
Destination
Data bus
CPU use
Source
Destination
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
Source
Dummy
cycle
CPU use
Write signal to
software DMAi
request bit
DMAi
request bit
DMA transfer
counter
DMAi
interrupt
request bit
Indeterminate
0016
0116
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is
accepted, or cleared by software
DMAi
enable bit
• In the case in which the number of transfer times is set to 2.
Figure 2.9.4. Example of operation of one-shot transfer mode
420
FF16
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting DMAi request cause select register
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
DMAi request cause select register (i = 0, 1) [Address 03B816, 03BA16]
DMiSL(i = 0, 1)
1
DMA request cause select bit
b3 b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 1 : Software trigger
Software DMA request bit
Set to “0”
Setting DMAi control register
b7
b0
0 1
0 0
0
DMAi control register (i = 0, 1) [Address 002C16, 003C16]
DMiCON(i = 0, 1)
1
Transfer unit bit select bit
1 : 8 bits
Repeat transfer mode select bit
0 : Single transfer
DMA request bit
0 : DMA not requested
DMA enable bit
0 : Disabled
Source address direction select bit
1 : Forward (Bit 4 and bit 5 cannot be set to “1” simultaneously)
Destination address direction select bit
0 : Fixed (Bit 4 and bit 5 cannot be set to “1” simultaneously)
Setting DMAi source pointer
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
DMA0 source pointer [Address 002216 to 002016] SAR0
DMA1 source pointer [Address 003216 to 003016] SAR1
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Source pointer
Stores the source address
Setting DMAi destination pointer
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
DMA0 destination pointer [Address 002616 to 002416] DAR0
DMA1 destination pointer [Address 003616 to 003416] DAR1
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Destination pointer
Stores the destination address
Setting DMAi transfer counter
(b15)
b0
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
DMA0 transfer counter [Address 002916, 002816] TCR0
DMA1 transfer counter [Address 003916, 003816] TCR1
Transfer counter
Set a value one less than the transfer count
Setting DMAi control register
b7
b0
1
DMAi control register (i = 0, 1) [Address 002C16, 003C16]
DMiCON(i = 0, 1)
DMA enable bit
1 : Enabled
Note: Clear DMA request bit simultaneously again.
When software DMA request bit = “1”
Start DMA transmission
Figure 2.9.5. Set-up procedure of one-shot transfer mode
421
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.9.3 Operation of DMAC (repeated transfer mode)
In repeat transfer mode, choose functions from the items shown in Table 2.9.2. Operations of the circled
items are described below. Figure 2.9.6 shows an example of operation and Figure 2.9.7 shows the setup procedure.
Table 2.9.2. Choosed functions
Item
Set-up
Fixed address from an arbitrary 1 M bytes space
Transfer space
O
Arbitrary 1 M bytes space from a fixed address
Fixed address from fixed address
Unit of transfer
8 bits
O
16 bits
Operation (1) When software trigger is selected, setting software DMA request bit to “1” generates a DMA
transfer request signal.
(2) If DMAC is active, data transfer starts, and the contents of the address indicated by the DMAi
forward-direction address pointer are transferred to the address indicated by the DMAi destination pointer. When data transfer starts directly after DMAC becomes active, the value of
the DMAi transfer counter reload register is reloaded to the DMAi transfer counter, and the
value of the DMAi source pointer is reloaded by the DMAi forward-direction address pointer.
Each time a DMA transfer request signal is generated, 2 byte of data is transferred. The
DMAi transfer counter is down counted, and the DMAi forward-direction address pointer is up
counted.
(3) Though DMAi transfer counter is underflowed, DMA enable bit is still “1”. The DMA interrupt
request bit changes to “1” simultaneously.
(4) After DMAi transfer counter is underflowed, when the next DMA request is generated, DMA
transfer is repeated from (1).
(1) Request signal for a DMA transfer occurs
(2) Data transfer begins
(3) Underflow
BCLK
Destination
Address bus
CPU use
Destination
Dummy cycle
CPU use
Source
Dummy cycle
Destination
CPU use
Source
Source
Dummy cycle
CPU use
RD signal
WR signal
Destination
Data bus
CPU use
Destination
Dummy cycle
Source
CPU use
Dummy cycle
Source
CPU use
Destination
Source
Dummy cycle
CPU use
Write signal to
software DMAi
request bit
DMAi
request bit
0116
0116
DMA transfer
counter
DMAi
interrupt
request bit
DMAi
enable bit
Indeterminate
0016
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
“1”
• In the case in which the number of transfer times is set to 2.
Figure 2.9.6. Example of operation of repeated transfer mode
422
FF16
0016
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting DMAi request cause select register
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
DMAi request cause select register (i = 0, 1) [Address 03B816, 03BA16]
DMiSL(i = 0, 1)
1
DMA request cause select bit
b3 b2 b1 b0
0 0 0 1 : Software trigger
Software DMA request bit
Set to “0”
Setting DMAi control register
b7
b0
1 0
0
0
DMAi control register (i = 0, 1) [Address 002C16, 003C16]
DMiCON(i = 0, 1)
1 0
Transfer unit bit select bit
0 : 16 bits
Repeat transfer mode select bit
1 : Repeat transfer
DMA request bit
0 : DMA not requested
DMA enable bit
0 : Disabled
Source address direction select bit
0 : Fixed (Bit 4 and bit 5 cannot be set to “1” simultaneously)
Destination address direction select bit
1 : Forward (Bit 4 and bit 5 cannot be set to “1” simultaneously)
Setting DMAi source pointer
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
DMA0 source pointer [Address 002216 to 002016] SAR0
DMA1 source pointer [Address 003216 to 003016] SAR1
(b16) (b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Source pointer
Stores the source address
Setting DMAi destination pointer
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
DMA0 destination pointer [Address 002616 to 002416] DAR0
DMA1 destination pointer [Address 003616 to 003416] DAR1
(b16) (b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Destination pointer
Stores the destination address
Setting DMAi transfer counter
(b8)
b0 b7
(b15)
b0
b0
DMA0 transfer counter [Address 002916, 002816] TCR0
DMA1 transfer counter [Address 003916, 003816] TCR1
Transfer counter
Set a value one less than the transfer count
Setting DMAi control register
b7
b0
1
DMAi control register (i = 0, 1) [Address 002C16, 003C16]
DMiCON(i = 0, 1)
DMA enable bit
1 : Enabled
Note: Clear DMA request bit simultaneously again.
When software DMA request bit = “1”
Start DMA transmission
Figure 2.9.7. Set-up procedure of repeated transfer mode
423
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CRC Calculation Circuit
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.10 CRC Calculation Circuit
2.10.1 Overview
Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is a method that compares CRC code formed from transmission data
by use of a polynomial generation with CRC check data so as to detect errors in transmission data. Using
the CRC calculation circuit allows generation of CRC code. A polynomial counter is used for the polynomial generation of CRC_CCITT (X16 + X12 + X5 + 1).
(1) Registers related to CRC calculation circuit
Figure 2.10.1 shows the memory map of CRC-related registers, and Figure 2.10.2 shows CRC- related registers.
03BC16
03BD16
03BE16
CRC data register (CRCD)
CRC input register (CRCIN)
Figure 2.10.1. Memory map of CRC-related registers
CRC data register
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
CRCD
Address
03BD16, 03BC16
When reset
Indeterminate
AAA
A
Values that
can be set
Function
CRC calculation result output register
RW
000016 to FFFF16
CRC input register
b7
Symbo
CRCIN
b0
Function
Data input register
Figure 2.10.2. CRC-related registers
424
Address
03BE16
When reset
Indeterminate
Values that
can be set
AA
0016 to FF16
RW
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
CRC Calculation Circuit
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.10.2 Operation of CRC Calculation Circuit
The following describes the operation of the CRC calculation. Figure 2.10.3 shows an example of calculation data 012316 using the CRC calculation circuit.
Operation (1) The CRC calculation circuit sets an initial value in the CRC data register.
(2) Writing 1 byte data to the CRC input register generates CRC code based on the data register.
CRC code generation for 1 byte data finishes in two machine cycles.
(3) The CRC calculation circuit detects an error by means of comparing the CRC-checking data
with the content of the CRC data register, after the next data is written to the CRC input
register.
(4) The content of CRC data register after all data is written becomes CRC code.
b15
b0
CRC data register CRCD
[03BD16, 03BC16]
(1) Setting 000016
b7
b0
CRC input register
(2) Setting 0116
CRCIN
[03BE16]
2 cycles
After CRC calculation is complete
b15
b0
CRC data register
118916
CRCD
[03BD16, 03BC16]
Stores CRC code
The code resulting from sending 0116 in LSB first mode is (1000 0000). Thus the CRC code in the generating polynomial,
(X16 + X12 + X5 + 1), becomes the remainder resulting from dividing (1000 0000) X16 by (1 0001 0000 0010 0001) in
conformity with the modulo-2 operation.
LSB
MSB
Modulo-2 operation is
operation that complies
with the law given below.
1000 1000
1 0001 0000 0010 0001
9
1000 0000 0000
1000 1000 0001
1000 0001
1000 1000
1001
LSB
8
1
0000
0000
0000
0001
0001
0000
1
1000
0000
1000
0000
0+0=0
0+1=1
1+0=1
1+1=0
-1 = 1
0
1
1000
MSB
1
Thus the CRC code becomes (1001 0001 1000 1000). Since the operation is in LSB first mode, the (1001 0001 1000 1000)
corresponds to 118916 in hexadecimal notation. If the CRC operation in MSB first mode is necessary in the CRC operation
circuit built in the M16C, switch between the LSB side and the MSB side of the input-holding bits, and carry out the CRC
operation. Also switch between the MSB and LSB of the result as stored in CRC data.
b7
b0
CRC input register
(3) Setting 2316
CRCIN
[03BE16]
After CRC calculation is complete
b15
b0
0A4116
CRC data register
CRCD
[03BD16, 03BC16]
Stores CRC code
Figure 2.10.3. Calculation example using the CRC calculation circuit
425
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Watchdog Timer
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.11 Watchdog Timer
2.11.1 Overview
The watchdog timer can detect a runaway program using its 15-bit timer prescaler. The following is an
overview of the watchdog timer.
(1) Watchdog timer start procedure
When reset, the watchdog timer is in stopped state. Writing to the watchdog timer start register
initializes the watchdog timer to 7FFF16 and causes it to start performing a down count. The watchdog
timer, once started operating, cannot be stopped by any means other than stopping conditions.
(2) Watchdog timer stop conditions
The watchdog timer stops in any one of the following states:
(a) Period in which the CPU is in stopped state
(b) Period in which the CPU is in waiting state
(c) Period in which the microcomputer is in hold state
(3) Watchdog timer initialization
The watchdog timer is initialized to 7FFF16 in the cases given below, and begins a down count.
(a) When the watchdog timer writes to the watchdog timer start register while a count is in progress
(b) When the watchdog timer underflows
(4) Runaway detection
When the watchdog timer underflows, a watchdog timer interrupt occurs. In writing a program, write to
the watchdog timer start register before the watchdog timer underflows. The watchdog timer interrupt
occurs regardless of the status of the interrupt enable flag (I flag). In processing a watchdog timer
interrupt, set the software reset bit to “1” to reset software.
(5) Watchdog timer cycle
The watchdog timer cycle varies depending on the BCLK and the frequency division ratio of the
prescaler selected.
Table 2.11.1. The watchdog timer cycle
CM07
CM06
CM17
CM16
BCLK
0
0
0
0
16MHz
0
0
0
1
8MHz
0
0
1
0
4MHz
0
0
1
1
1MHz
0
1
Invalid
Invalid
2MHz
1
Invalid
Invalid
Invalid
32kHz
Note: An error due to the prescaler occurs.
426
WDC7
Period
0
Approx. 32.8ms (Note)
1
Approx. 262.1ms (Note)
0
Approx. 65.5ms (Note)
1
Approx. 524.3ms (Note)
0
Approx. 131.1ms (Note)
1
Approx. 1.049s (Note)
0
Approx. 524.3ms (Note)
1
Approx. 4.194s (Note)
0
Approx. 262.1ms (Note)
1
Approx. 2.097s (Note)
Invalid
Approx. 2s (Note)
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Watchdog Timer
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(6) Registers related to the watchdog timer
Figure 2.11.1 shows the memory map of watchdog timer-related registers, and Figure 2.11.2 shows
watchdog timer-related registers.
000E16
Watchdog timer start register (WDTS)
000F16
Watchdog timer control register (WDC)
Figure 2.11.1. Memory map of watchdog timer-related registers
Watchdog timer control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0 0
Symbol
WDC
Bit symbol
Address
000F16
When reset
000XXXXX2
Function
Bit name
High-order bit of watchdog timer
Reserved bit
Must always be set to “0”
Reserved bit
Must always be set to “0”
WDC7
Prescaler select bit
0 : Divided by 16
1 : Divided by 128
A
AA
AA
AA
R W
Watchdog timer start register
b7
b0
Symbol
WDTS
Address
000E16
When reset
Indeterminate
Function
A
R W
The watchdog timer is initialized and starts counting after a write instruction to
this register. The watchdog timer value is always initialized to “7FFF16”
regardless of whatever value is written.
Figure 2.11.2. Watchdog timer-related registers
427
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Watchdog Timer
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.11.2 Operation of Watchdog Timer
The following is an operation of the watchdog timer. Figure 2.11.3 shows the operation timing, and Figure
2.11.4 shows the set-up procedure.
Operation (1) Writing to the watchdog timer start register initializes the watchdog timer to 7FFF16 and
causes it to start a down count.
(2) With a count in progress, writing to the watchdog timer start register again initializes the
watchdog timer to 7FFF16 and causes it to resume counting.
(3) Either executing the WAIT instruction or going to the stopped state causes the watchdog
timer to hold the count in progress and to stop counting. The watchdog timer resumes counting after returning from the execution of the WAIT instruction or from the stopped state.
(4) If the watchdog timer underflows, it is initialized to 7FFF16 and continues counting. At this
time, a watchdog timer interrupt occurs.
(3) In stopped state, or WAIT
instruction is executing, etc
(2) Write operation
(1) Start count
7FFF16
000016
Write signal to the “H”
watchdog timer
start register
“L”
Figure 2.11.3. Operation timing of watchdog timer
428
(4) Generate
watchdog timer
interrupt
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Watchdog Timer
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting watchdog timer control register
b7
b0
0 0
Watchdog timer control register [Address 000F16]
WDC
Reserved bit
Must always be “0”
Prescaler select bit
0 : Divided by 16
1 : Divided by 128
Setting watchdog timer start register
b7
b0
Watchdog timer start register [Address 000E16]
WDTS
The watchdog timer is initialized and starts counting with a write instruction to
this register. The watchdog timer value is always initialized to “7FFF16”
regardless of the value written.
Generating watchdog
timer interrupt
Software reset
b7
b0
1
Processor mode register 0 [Address 000416]
PM0
Software reset bit
The device is reset when this bit is set to “1”. The value of this bit
is “0” when read.
Figure 2.11.4. Set-up procedure of watchdog timer
429
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Address Match Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.12 Address Match Interrupt
2.12.1 Overview
The address match interrupt is used for correcting a ROM or for a simplified debugging-purpose monitor.
The following is an overview of the address match interrupt.
(1) Enabling/disabling the address match interrupt
The address match interrupt enable bit can be used to enable and disable an address match interrupt.
It is affected neither by the processor interrupt priority level (IPL) nor the interrupt enable flag (I flag).
(2) Timing of the address match interrupt
An interrupt occurs immediately before executing the instruction in the address indicated by the address match interrupt register. Set the first address of the instruction in the address match interrupt
register. Setting a half address of an instruction or an address of tabulated data does not generate an
address match interrupt.
The first instruction of an interrupt routine does not generate an address match interrupt either.
(3) Returning from an address match interrupt
The return address put in the stack when an address match interrupt occurs depends on the instruction not yet executed (the instruction the address match interrupt register indicates). The return address is not put in the stack. For this reason, to return from an address match interrupt, either rewrite
the content of the stack and use the REIT instruction or use the POP instruction to restore the stack to
the state as it was before the interrupt occurred and return by use of a jump instruction.
Figure 2.12.1 shows unexecuted instructions and corresponding the stacked addresses.
<Instructions whose address is added to by 2 when an address match interrupt occurs>
• 16-bit operation code instructions
• 8-bit operation code instructions given below
ADD.B:S
OR.B:S
#IMM8,dest
#IMM8,dest
SUB.B:S
MOV.B:S
#IMM8,dest
#IMM8,dest
AND.B:S
STZ.B:S
STNZ.B:S
#IMM8,dest
STZX.B:S
#IMM81,#IMM82,dest
CMP.B:S
#IMM8,dest
PUSHM
src
JMPS
#IMM8
JSRS
#IMM8
MOV.B:S
#IMM,dest (However, dest = A0/A1)
POPM
#IMM8,dest
#IMM8,dest
dest
<Instructions whose address is added to by 1 when an address match interrupt occurs>
• Instructions other than those listed above
Figure 2.12.1. Unexecuted instructions and corresponding stacked addresses
(4) How to determine an address match interrupt
Address match interrupts can be set at two different locations. However, both location will have the
same vector address. Therefore, it is necessary to determine which interrupt has occurred; address
match interrupt 0 or address match interrupt 1. Using the content of the stack, etc., determine which
interrupt has occurred according to the first part of the address match interrupt routine.
430
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Address Match Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(5) Registers related to the address match interrupt
Figure 2.12.2 shows the memory map of address match interrupt-related registers, and Figure 2.12.3
shows address match interrupt-related registers.
000916
Address match interrupt enable register (AIER)
000A16
000B16
000C16
000D16
000E16
000F16
001016
001116
Address match interrupt register 0 (RMAD0)
001216
001316
001416
001516
Address match interrupt register 1 (RMAD1)
001616
Figure 2.12.2. Memory map of address match interrupt-related registers
Address match interrupt enable register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
AIER
Address
000916
When reset
XXXXXX002
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
A
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
Bit symbol
Bit name
Function
AIER0
Address match interrupt 0
enable bit
0 : Interrupt disabled
1 : Interrupt enabled
AIER1
Address match interrupt 1
enable bit
0 : Interrupt disabled
1 : Interrupt enabled
RW
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to
be indeterminated.
Address match interrupt register i (i = 0, 1)
(b23)
b7
(b19)
b3
(b16)(b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Symbol
RMAD0
RMAD1
Address
001216 to 001016
001616 to 001416
Function
Address setting register for address match interrupt
When reset
X0000016
X0000016
A
Values that can be set R W
0000016 to FFFFF16
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to
be indeterminated.
Figure 2.12.3. Address match interrupt-related registers
431
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Address Match Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.12.2 Operation of Address Match Interrupt
The following is an operation of address match interrupt. Figure 2.12.4 shows the set-up procedure of
address match interrupt, and Figure 2.12.5 shows the overview of the address match interrupt handling
routine.
Operation (1) The address match interrupt handling routine sets an address to be used to cause the address match interrupt register to generate an interrupt.
(2) Setting the address match enable flag to “1” enables an interrupt to occur.
(3) An address match interrupt occurs immediately before the instruction in the address indicated
by the address match interrupt register as a program is executed.
Setting address match interrupt register
Address match interrupt register 0 [Address 001216 to 001016]
RMAD0
Address match interrupt register 1 [Address 001616 to 001416]
RMAD1
(b23)
b7
(b20) (b19)
b4 b3
(b16) (b15)
b0 b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
Can be set to “0000016” to “FFFFF16”
Setting address match interrupt enable register
b7
b0
Address match interrupt enable register [Address 000916]
AIER
Address match interrupt 0 enable bit
1: Interrupt enabled
Address match interrupt 1 enable bit
1: Interrupt enabled
Figure 2.12.4. Set-up procedure of address match interrupt
432
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Address Match Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Address match interrupt routine
[1] Storing registers
[2] Determining the interrupt address
Address match 0?
No
Yes
Address match 0 program
Address match 1?
No
Yes
Address match 1 program
[3] Rewriting the stack
Restoring registers
REIT
Handling an error
Explanation:
[1] Storing the contents of the registers holding the main program status to be kept.
[2] Determining the interrupt address
Determining which factor generated the interrupt.
[3] Rewriting the stack
Rewriting the return address.
Figure 2.12.5. Overview of the address match interrupt handling routine
433
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Key-Input Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.13 Key-Input Interrupt
2.13.1 Overview
Key-input interrupt occurs when a falling edge is input to P104 through P107. The following is an overview
of the key-input interrupt:
(1) Enabling/disabling the key-input interrupt
The key-input interrupt can be enabled and disabled using the key-input interrupt register. The keyinput interrupt is affected by the interrupt priority level (IPL) and the interrupt enable flag (I flag).
(2) Occurrence timing of the key-input interrupt
With key-input interrupt acceptance enabled, pins P104 through P107, which are set to input, become
_____
_____
key-input interrupt pins (KI0 through KI3). A key-input interrupt occurs when a falling edge is input to a
key-input interrupt pin. At this moment, the level of other key-input interrupt pins must be “H”. No
interrupt occurs when the level of other key-input interrupt pins is “L”.
(3) How to determine a key-input interrupt
A key-input interrupt occurs when a falling edge is input to one of four pins, but each pin has the same
vector address.
Therefore, read the input level of pins P104 through P107 in the key-input interrupt routine to determine the interrupted pin.
(4) Registers related to the key-input interrupt
Figure 2.13.1 shows the memory map of key-input interrupt-related registers, and Figure 2.13.2
shows key-input interrupt-related registers.
004D16
Key input interrupt control register(KUPIC)
03F616
Port P10 direction register (PD10)
03FE16
Pull-up control register 2 (PUR2)
Figure 2.13.1. Memory map of key-input interrupt-related registers
434
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Key-Input Interrupt
AAA
AA
A
AAAA
AA
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt control register (Note 2)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
Symbol
KUPIC
b0
Bit symbol
ILVL0
Address
004D16
Bit name
Interrupt priority level
select bit
ILVL1
ILVL2
IR
When reset
XXXX00002
Interrupt request bit
Function
R
W
b2 b1 b0
000:
001:
010:
011:
100:
101:
110:
111:
Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
0 : Interrupt not requested
1 : Interrupt requested
(Note1)
Nothing is assigned.
These bits can neither be set nor reset. When read, their contents are
indeterminate.
Note 1: This bit can only be accessed for reset (= 0), but cannot be accessed for set (= 1).
Note 2: To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that dose not generate the
interrupt request for that register. For details, see the precautions for interrupts.
Port P10 direction register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PD10
Bit symbol
PD10_0
PD10_1
Address
When reset
03F616
0016
Bit symbol
R
Bit symbol
PD10_2
PD10_3
Port P100 direction register
Port P101 direction register 0 : Imput mode
(Functions as an input port)
Port P102 direction register 1 : Output mode
Port P103 direction register
(Functions as an output port)
PD10_4
Port P104 direction register
PD10_5
PD10_6
Port P105 direction register
Port P106 direction register
PD10_7
Port P107 direction register
W
Pull-up control register 2
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PUR2
Bit symbol
Address
03FE16
Bit name
PU20
P80 to P83 pull-up
PU21
P84 to P87 pull-up
(Except P85)
PU22
P90 to P93 pull-up
PU23
PU24
P94 to P97 pull-up
P100 to P103 pull-up
PU25
P104 to P107 pull-up
When reset
0016
Function
AA
AA
A
A
A
AA
A
AA
RW
The corresponding port is pulled
high with a pull-up resistor
0 : Not pulled high
1 : Pulled high
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Figure 2.13.2. key-input interrupt-related registers
435
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Key-Input Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.13.2 Operation of Key-Input Interrupt
The following is an operation of key-input interrupt. Figure 2.13.3 shows an example of a circuit that uses
the key-input interrupt, Figure 2.13.4 shows an example of operation of key-input interrupt, and Figure
2.13.5 shows the setting procedure of key-input interrupt.
Operation (1) Set the direction register of the ports to be changed to key-input interrupt pins to input, and set
the pull-up function.
(2) Setting the key-input interrupt control register and setting the interrupt enable flag makes the
interrupt-enabled state ready.
_____
_____
(3) If a falling edge is input to either KI0 through KI3, the key-input interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
P100
VREF
P101
P102
P103
I/O port
P104 / KI0
P105 / KI1
P106 / KI2
P107 / KI3
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
Figure 2.13.3. Example of circuit using the key-input interrupt
(1) Enter to stop mode
(2) Cancel stop mode
(3) Key scan
(4) Enter to stop mode
P100 output
P101 output
P102 output
P103 output
P104 to P107
input
Key input
Key OFF
Key ON
Key OFF
Key input
interrupt processing
Figure 2.13.4. Example of operation of key-input interrupt
436
Key ON
Key matrix scan
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Key-Input Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting port P10 direction register
b7
b0
Port P10 direction register [Address 03F616]
PD10
0 : Input mode (Functions as an input port)
1 : Output mode (Functions as an output port)
Setting pull-up control register 2
b7
b0
Pull-up control register 2 [Address 03FE16]
PUR2
1
P104 to P107
1 : Pulled high
Setting interrupt control register
b7
b0
0
Key input interrupt control register [Address 004D16]
KUPIC
Interrupt priority level select bit
b2 b1 b0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0 : Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
1 : Level 1
0 : Level 2
1 : Level 3
0 : Level 4
1 : Level 5
0 : Level 6
1 : Level 7
Interrupt request bit
0 : Interrupt not requested
Figure 2.13.5. Set-up procedure of key-input interrupt
437
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Power Control
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.14 Power Control
2.14.1 Overview
‘Power Control’ refers to the reduction of CPU power consumption by stopping the CPU and oscillators,
or decreasing the operation clock. The following is a description of the three available power control
modes:
(1) Modes
Power control is available in three modes.
(a) Normal operation mode
• High-speed mode
Divide-by-1 frequency of the main clock becomes the BCLK. The CPU operates with the BCLK
selected. Each peripheral function operates according to its assigned clock.
• Medium-speed mode
Divide-by-2, divide-by-4, divide-by-8, or divide-by-16 frequency of the main clock becomes the
BCLK. The CPU operates according to the BCLK selected. Each peripheral function operates
according to its assigned clock.
• Low-speed mode
fc becomes the BCLK. The CPU operates according to the fc clock. The fc clock is supplied by the
secondary clock. Each peripheral function operates according to its assigned clock.
• Low power consumption mode
The main clock operating in low-speed mode is stopped. The CPU operates according to the fc
clock. The fc clock is supplied by the secondary clock. The only peripheral functions that operate
are those with the sub-clock selected as the count source.
(b) Wait mode
The CPU operation is stopped. The oscillators do not stop.
(c) Stop mode
All oscillators stop. The CPU and all built-in peripheral functions stop. This mode, among the three
modes listed here, is the most effective in decreasing power consumption.
Figure 2.14.1 is the state transition diagram of the above modes.
(2) Switching the driving capacity of the oscillation circuit
Both the main clock and the secondary clock have the ability to switch the driving capacity. Reducing
the driving capacity after the oscillation stabilizes allows for further reduction in power consumption.
438
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power Control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Transition of stop mode, wait mode
Reset
All oscillators stopped
Stop mode
CM10 = “1”
Interrupt
All oscillators stopped
Stop mode
CM10 = “1”
Interrupt
CPU operation stopped
WAIT
instruction
High-speed/mediumspeed mode
Wait mode
Interrupt
All oscillators stopped
Stop mode
Wait mode
Interrupt
Interrupt
CM10 = “1”
CPU operation stopped
WAIT
instruction
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-8 mode)
CPU operation stopped
WAIT
instruction
Low-speed/low power
dissipation mode
Wait mode
Interrupt
Normal mode
(Refer to the following for the transition of normal mode.)
Transition of normal mode
Main clock is oscillating
Sub clock is stopped
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-8 mode)
CM06 = “1”
BCLK : f(XIN)/8
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “1”
Main clock is oscillating CM04 = “0”
Sub clock is oscillating
CM07 = “0” (Note 1)
CM06 = “1”
CM04 = “0”
CM04 = “1”
(Notes 1, 3)
High-speed mode
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-2 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/2
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “1”
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-8 mode)
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-4 mode)
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-16 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)/8
CM07 = “0”
CM06 = “1”
BCLK : f(XIN)/4
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/16
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “1”
Main clock is oscillating
Sub clock is oscillating
Low-speed mode
CM07 = “0”
(Note 1, 3)
BCLK : f(XCIN)
CM07 = “1”
CM07 = “1”
(Note 2)
CM05 = “0”
CM04 = “0”
CM06 = “0”
(Notes 1,3)
Main clock is oscillating
Sub clock is stopped
CM05 = “1”
CM04 = “1”
High-speed mode
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-2 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/2
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “0” CM16 = “1”
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-4 mode)
Medium-speed mode
(divided-by-16 mode)
BCLK : f(XIN)/4
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “0”
BCLK : f(XIN)/16
CM07 = “0” CM06 = “0”
CM17 = “1” CM16 = “1”
Main clock is stopped
Sub clock is oscillating
Low power dissipation mode
CM07 = “1” (Note 2)
CM05 = “1”
BCLK : f(XCIN)
CM07 = “1”
CM07 = “0” (Note 1)
CM06 = “0” (Note 3)
CM04 = “1”
Note 1: Switch clock after oscillation of main clock is sufficiently stable.
Note 2: Switch clock after oscillation of sub clock is sufficiently stable.
Note 3: Change CM06 after changing CM17 and CM16.
Note 4: Transit in accordance with arrow.
Figure 2.14.1. State transition diagram of power control mode
439
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power Control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(3) Clearing stop mode and wait mode
The stop mode and wait mode can be cleared by generating an interrupt request, or by resetting
hardware. Set the priority level of the interrupt to be used for clearing, higher than the processor
interrupt priority level (IPL), and enable the interrupt enable flag (I flag). When an interrupt clears a
mode, that interrupt is processed. Table 2.14.1 shows the interrupts that can be used for clearing a
stop mode and wait mode.
(4) BCLK in returning from wait mode or stop mode
(a) Returning from wait mode
The processor immediately returns to the BCLK, which was in use before entering wait mode.
(b) Returning from stop mode
CM06 is set to “1” when the device enters stop mode after selecting the main clock for BCLK. CM17,
CM16, and CM07 do not change state. In this case, when restored from stop mode, the device starts
operating in divided-by-8 mode.
When the device enters stop mode after selecting the subclock for BCLK, CM06, CM17, CM16, and
CM07 all do not change state. In this case, when restored from stop mode, the device starts operating in low-speed mode.
Table 2.14.1. Interrupts available for clearing stop mode and wait mode
Interrupt for clearing
Bus collision detection interrupt
DMA0 interrupt
DMA1 interrupt
Key input interrupt
A-D interrupt
UART0 transmit interrupt
UART0
UART1
UART1
UART2
receive interrupt
transmit interrupt
receive interrupt
transmit interrupt
UART2 receive interrupt
SI/O3 interrupt
SI/O4 interrupt
Timer A0 interrupt
Timer A1 interrupt
Timer A2 interrupt
Timer A3 interrupt
Timer A4 interrupt
Timer B0 interrupt
Timer B1 interrupt
Timer B2 interrupt
Timer B3 interrupt
Timer B4 interrupt
Timer B5 interrupt
INT0 interrupt
INT1 interrupt
INT2 interrupt
INT3 interrupt
INT4 interrupt
INT5 interrupt
NMI interrupt
Note
Note
Note
Note
440
1: Can
2: Can
3: Can
4: Can
be
be
be
be
used
used
used
used
Wait mode
CM02 = 0
Possible
CM02 = 1
Impossible
Impossible
Possible
Note 3
Note 1
Impossible
Impossible
Possible
Impossible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Note 1
Note 1
Note 1
Possible
Possible
Possible
Note 1
Note 1
Note 1
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Note 2
Note 2
Note 2
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Stop mode
Note 1
Impossible
Impossible
Possible
Impossible
Note 1
Note 1
Note 1
Note 1
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
Note
1
1
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
Possible
when an external clock in clock synchronous serial I/O mode is selected.
when the external signal is being counted in event counter mode.
in one-shot mode and one-shot sweep mode.
when an external clock.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power Control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(5) Sequence of returning from stop mode
Sequence of returning from stop mode is oscillation start-up time and interrupt sequence.
When interrupt is generated in stop mode, CM10 becomes “0” and clearing stop mode.
Starting oscillation and supplying BCLK execute the interrupt sequence as follow:
In the interrupt sequence, the processor carries out the following in sequence given:
(a) CPU gets the interrupt information (the interrupt number and interrupt request level) by reading address 0000016. The interrupt request bit of the interrupt written in address 0000016 will
then be set to “0”.
(b) Saves the content of the flag register (FLG) as it was immediately before the start of interrupt
sequence in the temporary register (Note) within the CPU.
(c) Sets the interrupt enable flag (I flag), the debug flag (D flag), and the stack pointer assignment
flag (U flag) to “0” (the U flag, however does not change if the INT instruction, in software
interrupt numbers 32 through 63, is executed)
(d) Saves the content of the temporary register (Note) within the CPU in the stack area.
(e) Saves the content of the program counter (PC) in the stack area.
(f) Sets the interrupt priority level of the accepted instruction in the IPL.
Note: This register cannot be utilized by the user.
After the interrupt sequence is completed, the processor resumes executing instructions from the first address of the interrupt routine.
Figure 2.14.2 shows the sequence of returning from stop mode.
Writing “1” to CM10
(all clock stop control bit)
Operated by divided-by-8 mode
BCLK
Address
00000
Address bus
Interrupt
information
Data bus
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
SP-2
SP-4
vec
vec+2
SP-2
SP-4
vec
contents contents contents
PC
vec+2
contents
Indeterminate
RD
WR
INTi
Stop mode Oscillation start-up
Interrupt sequence approximately 20 cycle (13µ sec)
(Single-chip mode, f(XIN) = 16MHz)
Note: Shown above is the case where the main clock is selected for BCLK. If the sub-clock is selected for BCLK,
the sub-clock functions as BCLK when restored from stop mode, with the main clock's divide ratio
unchanged.
Figure 2.14.2. Sequence of returning from stop mode
(6) Registers related to power control
Figure 2.14.3 shows the memory map of power control-related registers, and Figure 2.14.4 shows
power control-related registers.
000616
System clock control register 0 (CM0)
000716
System clock control register 1 (CM1)
Figure 2.14.3. Memory map of power control-related registers
441
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power Control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
System clock control register 0 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CM0
Address
000616
Bit symbol
When reset
4816
Bit name
Function
b1 b0
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
RW
Clock output function
select bit
(Valid only in single-chip
mode)
0 0 : I/O port P57
0 1 : fC output
1 0 : f8 output
1 1 : f32 output
CM02
WAIT peripheral function
clock stop bit
0 : Do not stop peripheral function clock in wait mode
1 : Stop peripheral function clock in wait mode (Note 8)
CM03
XCIN-XCOUT drive capacity 0 : LOW
select bit (Note 2)
1 : HIGH
CM04
Port XC select bit
0 : I/O port
1 : XCIN-XCOUT generation
CM05
Main clock (XIN-XOUT)
stop bit (Note 3, 4, 5)
0 : On
1 : Off
CM06
Main clock division select
bit 0 (Note 7)
0 : CM16 and CM17 valid
1 : Division by 8 mode
CM07
System clock select bit
(Note 6)
0 : XIN, XOUT
1 : XCIN, XCOUT
CM00
CM01
Note 1: Set bit 0 of the protect register (address 000A16) to “1” before writing to this register.
Note 2: Changes to “1” when shiffing to stop mode and at a reset.
Note 3: When entering power saving mode, main clock stops using this bit. When returning from stop mode and
operating with XIN, set this bit to “0”. When main clock oscillation is operating by itself, set system clock select
bit (CM07) to “1” before setting this bit to “1”.
Note 4: When inputting external clock, only clock oscillation buffer is stopped and clock input is acceptable.
Note 5: If this bit is set to “1”, XOUT turns “H”. The built-in feedback resistor remains being connected, so XIN turns
pulled up to XOUT (“H”) via the feedback resistor.
Note 6: Set port Xc select bit (CM04) to “1” and stabilize the sub-clock oscillating before setting to this bit from “0” to “1”.
Do not write to both bits at the same time. And also, set the main clock stop bit (CM05) to “0” and stabilize the
main clock oscillating before setting this bit from “1” to “0”.
Note 7: This bit changes to “1” when shifting from high-speed/medium-speed mode to stop mode and at a reset. When
shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation mode to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
Note 8: fC32 is not included.
System clock control register 1 (Note 1)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
0 0
0
0
b0
Symbol
CM1
Address
000716
Bit symbol
CM10
When reset
2016
Bit name
All clock stop control bit
(Note4)
Function
0 : Clock on
1 : All clocks off (stop mode)
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
CM15
XIN-XOUT drive capacity
select bit (Note 2)
CM16
Main clock division
select bit 1 (Note 3)
0 : LOW
1 : HIGH
b7 b6
CM17
0 0 : No division mode
0 1 : Division by 2 mode
1 0 : Division by 4 mode
1 1 : Division by 16 mode
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
RW
Note 1: Set bit 0 of the protect register (address 000A16) to “1” before writing to this register.
Note 2: This bit changes to “1” when shifting from high-speed/medium-speed mode to stop mode and at a reset. When
shifting from low-speed/low power dissipation mode to stop mode, the value before stop mode is retained.
Note 3: Can be selected when bit 6 of the system clock control register 0 (address 000616) is “0”. If “1”, division mode is
fixed at 8.
Note 4: If this bit is set to “1”, XOUT turns “H”, and the built-in feedback resistor is cut off. XCIN and XCOUT turn highimpedance state.
Figure 2.14.4. Power control-related registers
442
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power Control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.14.2 Stop Mode Set-Up
Settings and operation for entering stop mode are described here.
Operation (1) Enables the interrupt used for returning from stop mode.
(2) Sets the interrupt enable flag (I flag) to “1”.
(3) Clearing the protection and setting all clock stop control bit to “1” stops oscillation and causes
the processor to go into stop mode.
(1) Setting interrupt to cancel stop mode
Interrupt control register
TBiIC(i=3 to 5)
[Address 004516 to 004716]
BCNIC
KUPIC
SiTIC(i=0 to 2)
SiRIC(i=0 to 2)
TAiIC(i=0 to 4)
TBiIC(i=0 to 2)
[Address 004A16]
[Address 004D16]
[Address 005116, 005316, 004F16]
[Address 005216, 005416, 005016]
[Address 005516 to 005916]
[Address 005A16 to 005C16]
b7
b0
INTiIC(i=3)
SiIC/INTjIC(i=4, 3)
(j=3, 4)
INTiIC(i=0 to 2)
b7
[Address 004416]
[Address 004816, 004916]
[Address 004816, 004916]
[Address 005D16 to 005F16]
b0
0
Interrupt priority level select bit
Make sure that the interrupt priority
level of the interrupt which is used to
cancel the wait mode is higher than
the processor interrupt priority(IPL) of
the routine where the WAIT
instruction is executed.
(2) Interrupt enable flag (I flag)
Interrupt priority level select bit
Make sure that the interrupt priority level of the
interrupt which is used to cancel the wait mode is
higher than the processor interrupt priority(IPL) of
the routine where the WAIT instruction is executed.
Reserved bit
Must be set to “0”
“1”
(3) Canceling protect
b7
b0
1
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1(
addresses 000616 and 000716)
1 : Write-enabled
(3) Setting operation clock after returning from stop mode
(When operating with XIN after returning)
b7
0
b0
0
(When operating with XCIN after returning)
System clock control register
b7
[Address 000616] CM0
1
b0
1
System clock control register 0
[Address 000616] CM0
Main clock (XIN-XOUT) stop bit
On
Port XC select bit
XCIN-XCOUT generation
System clock select bit
XIN, XOUT
System clock select bit
XCIN, XCOUT
As this register becomes setting mentioned above when
operating with XIN (count source of BCLK is XIN),
the user does not need to set it again.
As this register becomes setting mentioned above when operating with XCIN
(count source of BCLK is XCIN), the user does not need to set it again.
When operating with XIN, set port Xc select bit to “1” before setting system clock
select bit to “1”. The both bits cannot be set at the same time.
(3) All clocks off (stop mode)
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
1
System clock control register [Address 000716]
CM1
All clock stop control bit
1 : All clocks off (stop mode)
Reserved bit
Must be set to “0”
All clocks off (stop mode)
Figure 2.14.5. Example of stop mode set-up
443
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power Control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.14.3 Wait Mode Set-Up
Settings and operation for entering wait mode are described here.
Operation (1) Enables the interrupt used for returning from wait mode.
(2) Sets the interrupt enable flag (I flag) to “1”.
(3) Clears the protection and changes the content of the system clock control register.
(4) Executes the WAIT instruction.
(1) Setting interrupt to cancel wait mode
Interrupt control register
TBiIC(i=3 to 5)
[Address 004516 to 004716]
BCNIC
KUPIC
SiTIC(i=0 to 2)
SiRIC(i=0 to 2)
TAiIC(i=0 to 4)
TBiIC(i=0 to 2)
[Address 004A16]
[Address 004D16]
[Address 005116, 005316, 004F16]
[Address 005216, 005416, 005016]
[Address 005516 to 005916]
[Address 005A16 to 005C16]
b7
b0
INTiIC(i=3)
SiIC/INTjIC (i=4, 3)
(j=3, 4)
INTiIC(i=0 to 2)
b7
[Address 004416]
[Address 004816, 004916]
[Address 004816, 004916]
[Address 005D16 to 005F16]
b0
0
Interrupt priority level select bit
Make sure that the interrupt priority
level of the interrupt which is used
to cancel the wait mode is higher
than the processor interrupt priority
(IPL) of the routine where the
WAIT instruction is executed.
(2) Interrupt enable flag (I flag)
Interrupt priority level select bit
Make sure that the interrupt priority level of the
interrupt which is used to cancel the wait mode is
higher than the processor interrupt priority (IPL) of
the routine where the WAIT instruction is executed.
Reserved bit
Must be set to “0”
“1”
(3) Canceling protect
b7
b0
1
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1
(addresses 000616 and 000716)
1 : Write-enabled
(3) Control of CPU clock
b7
b0
0
0
0
0
System clock control register 1
[Address 000716] CM1
b7
Reserved bit
Must be set to “0”
b0
System clock control register 0
[Address 000616] CM0
WAIT peripheral function clock stop bit
0 : Do not stop f1, f8, f32 in wait mode
1 : Stop f1, f8, f32 in wait mode
Main clock division select bit
b7 b6
Port XC select bit
0 : I/O port
1 : XCIN-XCOUT generation
0 0 : No division mode
0 1 : Division by 2 mode
1 0 : Division by 4 mode
1 1 : Division by 16 mode
Main clock (XIN-XOUT) stop bit
0 : On
1 : Off
Main clock division select bit 0
0 : CM16 and CM17 valid
1 : Division by 8 mode
System clock select bit (Note)
0 : XIN, XOUT
1 : XCIN, XCOUT
Note: When switching the system clock, it is necessary
to wait for the oscillation to stabilize.
(4) WAIT instruction
Wait mode
Figure 2.14.6. Example of wait mode set-up
444
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Power Control
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.14.4 Precautions in Power Control
______
(1) The processor does not switch to stop mode when the NMI pin is at “L” level.
____________
(2) When returning from stop mode by hardware reset, RESET pin must be set to “L” level until
main clock oscillation is stabilized.
(3) When switching to either wait mode or stop mode, instructions occupying four bytes either
from the WAIT instruction or from the instruction that sets the all clock stop control bit to “1”
within the instruction queue are prefetched and then the program stops. So put at least four
NOPs in succession either to the WAIT instruction or to the instruction that sets the all clock
stop control bit to “1”.
(4) Before the count source for BCLK can be changed from XIN to XCIN or vice versa, the clock to
which the count source is going to be switched must be oscillating stably. Allow a wait time in
software for the oscillation to stabilize before switching over the clock.
(5) Suggestions to reduce power consumption
• Ports
The processor retains the state of each programmable I/O port even when it goes to
wait mode or to stop mode. A current flows in active I/O ports. A pass current flows in
input ports that float. When entering wait mode or stop mode, set non-used ports to
input and stabilize the potential.
(a) A-D converter
A current always flows in the VREF pin. When entering wait mode or stop mode, set
the Vref connection bit to “0” so that no current flows into the VREF pin.
(b) D-A converter
The processor retains the D-A state even when entering wait mode or stop mode.
Disable the output from the D-A converter then work on the programmable I/O ports.
Set D-A register to “0016”.
(c) Stopping peripheral functions
In wait mode, stop non-used wait peripheral functions using the peripheral function
clock stop bit.
(d) Switching the oscillation-driving capacity
Set the driving capacity to “LOW” when oscillation is stable.
(e) External clock
When using an external clock input for the CPU clock, set the main clock stop bit to
“1”. Setting the main clock stop bit to “1” causes the XOUT pin not to operate and the
power consumption goes down (when using an external clock input, the clock signal
is input regardless of the content of the main clock stop bit).
445
Mitsubishi microcomputers
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Programmable I/O Ports
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
2.15 Programmable I/O Ports
2.15.1 Overview
Eighty-seven programmable I/O ports and one input-only port are available. I/O pins also serve as I/O
pins for built-in peripheral functions.
Each port has a direction register that defines the I/O direction and also has a port register for I/O data. In
addition, each port has a pull-up control register that defines pull-up in terms of 4 bits. The input-only port
has neither direction register nor pull-up control bit.
The following is an overview of the programmable I/O ports:
(1) Writing to a port register
With the direction register set to output, the level of the written values from each relevant pin is output
by writing to a port register. The output level conforms to CMOS output. Port P70 and P71 are N
channel open drain. Writing to the port register, with the direction register set to input, inputs a value
to the port register, but nothing is output to the relevant pins. The output level remains floating.
(2) Reading a port register
With the direction register set to output, reading a port register takes out the content of the port register, not the content of the pin. With the direction register set to input, reading the port register takes out
the content of the pin.
(3) Effect of the protection register
Data written to the direction register of P9 is affected by the protection register. The direction register
of P9 cannot be easily rewritten.
(4) Input-only port
_______
P85 is used as the input-only port, it also serves as NMI. P85 has no direction register. Pull-up cannot
_______
_______
be set to this port. As NMI cannot be disabled, an NMI interrupt occurs if a falling edge is input to P85.
Use P85 for reading the level input at this time only.
(5) Setting pull-up
The pull-up control bit allows setting of the pull-up, in terms of 4 bits, either in use or not in use. For the
four bits chosen, pull-up is effective only in the ports whose direction register is set to input. Pull-up is
not effective in ports whose direction register is set to output.
Do not set pull-up of corresponding pin when XCIN/XCOUT is set or a port is used as A-D input.
Pull-up can be set for P0 to P3, P40 to P43, P5 in only single-chip mode. Pull-up cannot be set for P0
to P3, P40 to P43, P5 in memory expansion and microprocessor modes.
446
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Programmable I/O Ports
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(6) I/O functions of built-in peripheral devices
Table 2.15.1 shows relation between ports and I/O functions of built-in peripheral devices.
Table 2.15.1. Relation between ports and I/O functions of built-in peripheral devices
Port
Internal peripheral device I/O pins
P15 to P17
Input pins for external interrupt
P6
I/O pins for serial I/O communication
P70
I/O pins for serial I/O communication/Timer A I/O pin
P71
P72 to P73
P74 to P75
I/O pins for serial I/O communication/Timer A I/O pins/Timer B input pin
I/O pins for serial I/O communication/Timer A I/O pins/Three-phase motor
control output pins
Timer A I/O pins/Three-phase motor control output pins
P76 to P77
Timer A I/O pins
P80, P81
P82 to P84
Timer A I/O pins
Input pins for external interrupt
P86, P87
Sub-clock oscillation circuit I/O pins
P90 to P92
Timer B input pins
P93, P94
D-A converter output pins
P95, P96
A-D converter extended input pins
P97
A-D trigger input pin
P100 to P103
A-D converter input pins
P104 to P107
A-D converter input pins / key-input interrupt function input pins
(7) Examples of working on non-used pins
Table 2.15.2 contains examples of working on non-used pins. There are shown here for mere examples. In practical use, make suitable changes and perform sufficient evaluation in compliance with
you application.
(a) Single-chip mode
Table 2.15.2. Examples of working on unused pins in single-chip mode
Pin name
Connection
Ports P0 to P10 (excluding P85) After setting for input mode, connect every pin to VSS or VCC via a
resistor; or after setting for output mode, leave these pins open.
(Note 1, Note 3)
XOUT (Note 2)
Open
NMI
Connect to VCC via a resistor
AVCC
Connect to VCC
AVSS, VREF, BYTE
Connect to VSS
Note 1: If setting these pins in output mode and opening them, ports are in input mode until switched into
output mode by use of software after reset. Thus the voltage levels of the pins become unstable,
and there can be instances in which the power source current increases while the ports are in
input mode.
In view of an instance in which the contents of the direction registers change due to a runaway
generated by noise or other causes, setting the contents of the direction registers periodically by
use of software increases program reliability.
Note 2: When an external clock is input to the XIN pin.
Note 3: Output "L" if port P70 and P71 are set to output mode.
Port P70 and P71 are N channel open drain.
447
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Programmable I/O Ports
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(b) Memory expansion mode, microprocessor mode
Table 2.15.3. Examples of working on unused pins in memory expansion mode or microprocessor mode
Pin name
Connection
Ports P6 to P10 (excluding P85) After setting for input mode, connect every pin to VSS or VCC via a
resistor; or after setting for output mode, leave these pins open.
(Note 1, Note 2, Note 5)
BHE, ALE, HLDA
Open (Note 3)
XOUT (Note 4), BCLK (Note 6)
Open
HOLD, RDY, NMI
Connect via resistor to VCC (pull-up)
AVCC
Connect to VCC
AVSS, VREF
Connect to VSS
Note 1: If setting these pins in output mode and opening them, ports are in input mode until switched into
output mode by use of software after reset. Thus the voltage levels of the pins become unstable,
and there can be instances in which the power source current increases while the ports are in
input mode.
In view of an instance in which the contents of the direction registers change due to a runaway
generated by noise or other causes, setting the contents of the direction registers periodically by
use of software increases program reliability.
Note 2: Make wiring as short as possible (not more than 2 cm from the microcomputer's pins) in working
on non-used pins.
Note 3: When a VSS level is connected to the CNVSS pin, these pins are input ports until the processor
mode is switched by use of software after reset. Thus the voltage levels of the pins destabilize,
and there can be an increase in the power source current while these pins are input ports.
Note 4: When an external clock is input to the XIN pin.
Note 5: Output "L" if port P70 and P71 are set to output mode.
Port P70 and P71 are N channel open drain.
Note 6: When the BCLK output disable bit (bit 7 at address 000416) is set to “1”, connect to VCC via a
resistor (pull-up).
448
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Programmable I/O Ports
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(8) Registers related to the programmable I/O ports
Figure 2.15.1 shows the memory map of programmable I/O ports-related registers, and Figures
2.15.2 to 2.15.4 show programmable I/O ports-related registers.
03E016
Port P0 (P0)
03E116
Port P1 (P1)
03E216
Port P0 direction register (PD0)
03E316
Port P1 direction register (PD1)
03E416
Port P2 (P2)
03E516
Port P3 (P3)
03E616
Port P2 direction register (PD2)
03E716
Port P3 direction register (PD3)
03E816
Port P4 (P4)
03E916
Port P5 (P5)
03EA16
Port P4 direction register (PD4)
03EB16
Port P5 direction register (PD5)
03EC16
Port P6 (P6)
03ED16
Port P7 (P7)
03EE16
Port P6 direction register (PD6)
03EF16
Port P7 direction register (PD7)
03F016
Port P8 (P8)
03F116
Port P9 (P9)
03F216
Port P8 direction register (PD8)
03F316
Port P9 direction register (PD9)
03F416
Port P10 (P10)
03F516
03F616
Port P10 direction register (PD10)
03FC16
Pull-up control register 0 (PUR0)
03FD16
Pull-up control register 1 (PUR1)
03FE16
Pull-up control register 2 (PUR2)
03FF16
Port control register (PCR)
Figure 2.15.1. Memory map of programmable I/O ports-related registers
449
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Programmable I/O Ports
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Port Pi direction register (Note)
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PDi (i = 0 to 10, except 8)
Bit symbol
Address
03E216, 03E316, 03E616, 03E716, 03EA16
03EB16, 03EE16, 03EF16, 03F316, 03F616
Bit name
PDi_0
Port Pi0 direction register
PDi_1
Port Pi1 direction register
PDi_2
Port Pi2 direction register
PDi_3
PDi_4
Port Pi3 direction register
Port Pi4 direction register
PDi_5
Port Pi5 direction register
PDi_6
Port Pi6 direction register
PDi_7
Port Pi7 direction register
When reset
0016
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
Function
RW
0 : Input mode
(Functions as an input port)
1 : Output mode
(Functions as an output port)
(i = 0 to 10 except 8)
Note: Set bit 2 of protect register (address 000A16) to “1” before rewriting to
the port P9 direction register.
Port P8 direction register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PD8
Bit symbol
Address
03F216
When reset
00X000002
Bit name
PD8_0
Port P80 direction register
PD8_1
Port P81 direction register
PD8_2
Port P82 direction register
PD8_3
Port P83 direction register
Function
PD8_4
Port P84 direction register
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to this bit, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be
indeterminate.
PD8_6
Port P86 direction register
PD8_7
Port P87 direction register
0 : Input mode
(Functions as an input port)
1 : Output mode
(Functions as an output port)
Figure 2.15.2. Programmable I/O ports-related registers (1)
450
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
0 : Input mode
(Functions as an input port)
1 : Output mode
(Functions as an output port)
RW
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Programmable I/O Ports
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Port Pi register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
Pi (i = 0 to 10, except 8)
Bit symbol
Address
03E016, 03E116, 03E416, 03E516, 03E816
03E916, 03EC16, 03ED16, 03F116, 03F416
Bit name
Pi_0
Port Pi0 register
Pi_1
Pi_2
Port Pi1 register
Port Pi2 register
Pi_3
Port Pi3 register
Pi_4
Port Pi4 register
Pi_5
Port Pi5 register
Pi_6
Port Pi6 register
Pi_7
Port Pi7 register
Function
Data is input and output to and from
each pin by reading and writing to
and from each corresponding bit
0 : “L” level data
1 : “H” level data (Note)
(i = 0 to 10 except 8)
When reset
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
A
A
A
A
A
RW
Note : Since P70 and P71 are N-channel open drain ports, the data is high-impedance.
Port P8 register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
P8
Bit symbol
Address
03F016
When reset
Indeterminate
Bit name
P8_0
Port P80 register
P8_1
Port P81 register
P8_2
Port P82 register
P8_3
Port P83 register
P8_4
Port P84 register
P8_5
Port P85 register
P8_6
Port P86 register
P8_7
Port P87 register
Function
Data is input and output to and from
each pin by reading and writing to
and from each corresponding bit
(except for P85)
0 : “L” level data
1 : “H” level data
A
A
A
A
A
A
R W
Figure 2.15.3. Programmable I/O ports-related registers (2)
451
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M16C / 62 Group
Programmable I/O Ports
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Pull-up control register 0
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PUR0
Bit symbol
Address
03FC16
When reset
0016
Bit name
PU00
P00 to P03 pull-up
PU01
P04 to P07 pull-up
PU02
P10 to P13 pull-up
PU03
P14 to P17 pull-up
PU04
P20 to P23 pull-up
PU05
P24 to P27 pull-up
PU06
P30 to P33 pull-up
PU07
P34 to P37 pull-up
Function
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
RW
The corresponding port is pulled
high with a pull-up resistor
0 : Not pulled high
1 : Pulled high
Pull-up control register 1
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PUR1
Bit symbol
Address
03FD16
When reset
0016 (Note 2)
Bit name
PU10
P40 to P43 pull-up
PU11
P44 to P47 pull-up
PU12
P50 to P53 pull-up
PU13
P54 to P57 pull-up
PU14
P60 to P63 pull-up
PU15
P64 to P67 pull-up
PU16
P70 to P73 pull-up (Note 1)
Function
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
R W
The corresponding port is pulled
high with a pull-up resistor
0 : Not pulled high
1 : Pulled high
PU17
P74 to P77 pull-up
Note 1: Since P70 and P71 are N-channel open drain ports, pull-up is not available for them.
Note 2: When the VCC level is being impressed to the CNVSS terminal, this register becomes
to 0216 when reset (PU11 becomes to “1”).
Pull-up control register 2
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
PUR2
Bit symbol
Address
03FE16
When reset
0016
Bit name
PU20
P80 to P83 pull-up
PU21
P84 to P87 pull-up
(Except P85)
PU22
P90 to P93 pull-up
PU23
PU24
P94 to P97 pull-up
P100 to P103 pull-up
PU25
P104 to P107 pull-up
Function
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Figure 2.15.4. Programmable I/O ports-related registers (3)
452
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
AA
A
The corresponding port is pulled
high with a pull-up resistor
0 : Not pulled high
1 : Pulled high
RW
Chapter 3
Examples of Peripheral functions Applications
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Applications
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
This chapter presents applications in which peripheral functions built in the M16C/62 are used. They are
shown here as examples. In practical use, make suitable changes and perform sufficient evaluation. For
basic use, see Chapter 2 How to Use Peripheral Functions.
Here follows the list of applications that appear in this chapter.
• 3.1 Long-period timers .............................................................................................................. P456
• 3.2 Variable-period variable-duty PWM output ......................................................................... P460
• 3.3 Delayed one-shot output .................................................................................................... P464
• 3.4 Buzzer output ..................................................................................................................... P468
• 3.5 Solution for external interrupt pins shortage ....................................................................... P470
• 3.6 Memory to memory DMA transfer ...................................................................................... P472
• 3.7 Controlling power using stop mode .................................................................................... P476
• 3.8 Controlling power using wait mode ..................................................................................... P480
454
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Applications
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
455
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.1 Long-Period Timers
Overview In this process, Timer A0 and Timer A1 are connected to make a 16-bit timer with a 16-bit
prescaler. Figure 3.1.1 shows the operation timing, Figure 3.1.2 shows the connection diagram, and Figures 3.1.3 and 3.1.4 show the set-up procedure.
Use the following peripheral functions:
• Timer mode of timer A
• Event counter mode of timer A
Specifications
(1) Set timer A0 to timer mode, and set timer A1 to event counter mode.
(2) Perform a count on count source f1 using timer A0 to count for 1 ms, and perform a count
on timer A0 using timer A1 to count for 1 second.
(3) Connect a 16-MHz oscillator to XIN.
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter to begin counting. The counter of
timer A0 performs a down count on count source f1.
(2) If the counter of timer A0 underflows, the counter reloads the content of the reload register
and continues counting. At this time, the timer A0 interrupt request bit goes to “1”. The
counter of timer A1 performs a down count on underflows in timer A0.
(3) If the counter of timer A1 underflows, the counter reloads the content of the reload register
and continues counting. At this time, the timer A1 interrupt request bit goes to “1”.
Timer A0 counter
content (hex)
l = reload register content
FFFF16
(1) Start count (2) Timer A0 underflow
(3) Timer A1 underflow
l
Timer A1 counter
content (hex)
000016
Time
n = reload register content
FFFF16
Start count.
n
000016
Set to “1” by software
Timer A0 count
start flag
“1”
“0”
Timer A1 count
start flag
“1”
“0”
Cleard “0” by software
Time
Set to “1” by software
Timer A0 interrupt “1”
“0”
request bit
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer A1 interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
Figure 3.1.1. Operation timing of long-period timers
456
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
f1
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Used for timer mode
f8
f32
fC32
Timer A0
Timer A0 interrupt request bit
Timer A1
Timer A1 interrupt request bit
Used for event counter mode
Figure 3.1.2. Connection diagram of long-period timers
457
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting timer A0
Selecting timer mode and functions
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Timer A0 mode register [Address 039616]
TA0MR
Selection of timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TA0OUT pin is a normal port pin)
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
0 0 : Gate function not available (TA0IN pin is a normal port pin)
0 (Must always be “0” in timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
3E16
b0
7F16
Timer A0 register [Address 038716, 038616]
TA0
Setting timer A1
Selecting event counter mode and each function
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
Timer A1 mode register [Address 039716]
TA1MR
Selection of event counter mode
Pulse output function select bit]
0 : Pulse is not output (TA1OUT pin is a normal port pin)
Count polarity select bit
Up/down switching cause select bit
0 : Up/down flag content
0 (Must always be “0” in event counter mode)
Count operation type select bit
0 : Reload type
Fix to “0” when counting timer overflow flag
Continued to the next page
Figure 3.1.3. Set-up procedure of long-period timers (1)
458
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Setting trigger select register
b7
b0
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
1 0
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
1 0 : TA0 overflow is selected
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
0316
b0
E716
Timer A1 register [Address 038916, 038816]
TA1
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
1
1
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Timer A1 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Start counting
Figure 3.1.4. Set-up procedure of long-period timers (2)
459
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Timer A Applications
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.2 Variable-Period Variable-Duty PWM Output
Overview In this process, Timer A0 and A1 are used to generate variable-period, variable-duty PWM output. Figure 3.2.1 shows the operation timing, Figure 3.2.2 shows the connection diagram, and
Figures 3.2.3 and 3.2.4 show the set-up procedure.
Use the following peripheral functions:
• Timer mode of timer A
• One-shot timer mode of timer A
Specifications
(1) Set timer A0 in timer mode, and set timer A1 in one-shot timer mode with pulse-output function.
(2) Set 1 ms, the PWM period, to timer A0. Set 500 µs, the width of PWM “H” pulse, to timer A1.
Both timer A0 and timer A1 use f1 for the count source.
(3) Connect a 16-MHz oscillator to XIN.
Operation (1) Setting the count start flag to “1” causes the counter of timer A0 to begin counting. The
counter of timer A0 performs a down count on count source f1.
(2) If the counter of timer A0 underflows, the counter reloads the content of the reload register
and continues counting. At this time, the timer A0 interrupt request bit gose to “1”.
(3) An underflow in timer A0 triggers the counter of timer A1 and causes it to begin counting. When
the counter of timer A1 begins counting, the output level of the TA1OUT pin gose to “H”.
(4) As soon as the count of the counter of timer A1 becomes “000016”, the output level of TA1OUT
pin gose to “L”, and the counter reloads the content of the reload register and stops counting.
At the same time, the timer A1 interrupt request bit gose to “1”.
460
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
l = reload register content
Timer A0 counter
content (hex)
(1) Timer A0 start count
FFFF16
(2) Timer A0 underflow
l
Timer A1 counter
content (hex)
000016
Time
n = reload register content
FFFF16
(3) Timer A1 start count
(4) Timer A1 stop count
n
000116
Set to “1” by software
Timer A0 count
start flag
“1”
“0”
Timer A1 count
start flag
“1”
“0”
Time
Set to “1” by software
1ms
500µs
PWM pulse output “H”
from TA1OUT pin
“L”
Timer A0 interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Timer A1 interrupt “1”
request bit
“0”
AAA
AAA
AAA
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Figure 3.2.1. Operation timing of variable-period variable-duty PWM output
f1
Used for timer mode (Set to period)
f8
Timer A0
Timer A0 interrupt request bit
Timer A1
Timer A1 interrupt request bit
f32
fC32
Used for one-shot timer mode (Set to “H” width)
Figure 3.2.2. Connection diagram of variable-period variable-duty PWM output
461
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting timer A0
Selecting timer mode and functions
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Timer A0 mode register [Address 039616 ]
TA0MR
Selection of timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TA0OUT pin is a normal port pin)
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
0 0 : Gate function not available (TA0IN pin is a normal port pin)
0 (Must always be “0” in timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Setting divide ratio
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
7F16
3E16
Timer A0 register [Address 038716, 038616]
TA0
Setting timer A1
Selecting one-shot timer mode and functions
b7
0
b0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
Timer A1 mode register [Address 039716 ]
TA1MR
Selection of one-shot timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
1 : Pulse is output
External trigger select bit (Invalid when choosing timer's overflow as trigger)
Trigger select bit
1 : Selected by event/trigger select register
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
b7 b6
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Continued to the next page
Figure 3.2.3. Set-up procedure of variable-period variable-duty PWM output (1)
462
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Setting trigger select register
b7
b0
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
1 0
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
1 0 : TA0 overflow is selected
Setting one-shot timer's time
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
1F16
b0
4016
Timer A1 register [Address 038916, 038816]
TA1
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
1
1
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Timer A1 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Start counting
Figure 3.2.4. Set-up procedure of variable-period variable-duty PWM output (2)
463
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Timer A Applications
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.3 Delayed One-Shot Output
Overview The following are steps of outputting a pulse only once after a specified elapse since an external
trigger is input. Figure 3.3.1 shows the operation timing, Figure 3.3.2 shows the connection diagram, and Figures 3.3.3 and 3.3.4 show the set-up procedure.
Use the following peripheral function:
• One-shot timer mode of timer A
Specifications
(1) Set timer A0 in one-shot timer mode, and set timer A1 in one-shot timer mode with pulseoutput function.
(2) Set 1 ms, an interval before a pulse is output, in timer A0; and set 50 µs, a pulse width, in timer
A1. Both timer A0 and timer A1 use f1 for the count source.
(3) Connect a 16-MHz oscillator to XIN.
Operation (1) Setting the trigger select bit to “1” and setting the count start flag to “1” enables the counter of
timer A0 to count.
(2) If an effective edge, selected by use of the external trigger select bit, is input to the TA0IN pin,
the counter begins a down count. The counter of timer A0 performs a down count on count
source f1.
(3) As soon as the counter of timer A0 becomes “000016”, the counter reloads the content of the
reload register and stops counting. At this time, the timer A0 interrupt request bit gose to “1”.
(4) An underflow in timer A0 triggers the counter of timer A1 and causes it to begin counting.
When timer A1 begins counting, the output level of the TA1OUT pin gose to “H”.
(5) As soon as the counter of timer A1 becomes “000016”, the output level of the TA1OUT pin
gose to “L”, the counter reloads the content of the reload register, and stops counting. At this
time, timer A1 interrupt request bit gose to “1”.
464
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
l = reload register content
Timer A0 counter
content (hex)
(1) Count enabled
(2) Timer A0 start count
FFFF16
(3) Timer A0 stop count
l
Timer A1 counter
content (hex)
000116
Time
n = reload register content
(4) Timer A1 start count
FFFF16
(5) Timer A1 stop count
n
000116
Set to “1” by software
Timer A0 count
start flag
“1”
“0”
Timer A1 count
start flag
“1”
“0”
Input signal from
TA0IN pin
“H”
“L”
Time
Set to “1” by software
1ms
50µs
PWM pulse output “H”
from TA1OUT pin
“L”
Timer A0 interrupt “1”
“0”
request bit
Timer A1 interrupt
request bit
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
“1”
“0”
Cleared to “0” when interrupt request is accepted, or cleared by software
Figure 3.3.1. Operation timing of delayed one-shot output
TA0IN pin input
f1
f8
Used for one-shot timer mode
Timer A0
Timer A0 interrupt request bit
Timer A1
Timer A1 interrupt request bit
f32
fC32
Used for one-shot timer mode
Figure 3.3.2. Connection diagram of delayed one-shot output
465
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Setting timer A0
Selecting one-shot timer mode and functions
b7
0
b0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
Timer A0 mode register [Address 039616]
TA0MR
Selection of one-shot timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TA0OUT pin is normal port pin)
External trigger select bit
0 : Falling edge of TA0IN pin's input signal
Trigger select bit
1 : Selected by event/trigger select register
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Setting one-shot start flag
(Select TA0IN pin to input TA0 trigger)
b7
b0
One-shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
Timer A0 event/trigger select bit
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected (Note)
Note: Set the corresponding port direction register to “0”.
Setting delay time
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
3E16
b0
8016
Timer A0 register [Address 038716, 038616]
TA0
Continued to the next page
Figure 3.3.3. Set-up procedure of delayed one-shot output (1)
466
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Continued from the previous page
Setting timer A1
Selecting one-shot timer mode and functions
b7
0
b0
0
0
1
0
1
1
Timer A1 mode register [Address 039716]
TA1MR
0
Selection of one-shot timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
1 : Pulse is output (TA1OUT pin is pulse output pin)
External trigger select bit
Invalid when choosing timer's overflow
Trigger select bit
1 : Selected by event/trigger select register
0 (Must always be “0” in one-shot timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Setting trigger select register
(Set timer A0 to trigger timer A1)
b7
b0
Trigger select register [Address 038316]
TRGSR
1 0
Timer A1 event/trigger select bit
b1 b0
1 0 : TA0 overflow is selected
Setting one-shot timer's time
(b15)
b7
(b8)
b0 b7
b0
2016
0316
Timer A1 register [Address 038916, 038816]
TA1
Setting count start flag
b7
b0
1
1
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Timer A1 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Start counting
Figure 3.3.4. Set-up procedure of delayed one-shot output (2)
467
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.4 Buzzer Output
Overview The timer mode is used to make the buzzer ring. Figure 3.4.1 shows the operation timing, and
Figure 3.4.2 shows the set-up procedure.
Use the following peripheral function:
• The pulse-outputting function in timer mode of timer A.
Specifications
(1) Sound a 2-kHz buzz beep by use of timer A0.
(2) Effect pull-up in the relevant port by use of a pull-up resistor. When the buzzer is off, set the
port high-impedance, and stabilize the potential resulting from pulling up.
(3) Connect a 16-MHz oscillator to XIN.
Operation (1) The microcomputer begins performing a count on timer A0. Timer A0 has disabled interrupts.
(2) The microcomputer begins pulse output by setting the pulse output function select bit to
“Pulse output effected”. P70 changes into TA0OUT pin and outputs 2-kHz pulses.
(3) The microcomputer stops outputting pulses by setting the pulse output function select bit to
“Pulse output not effected”. P70 goes to an input pin, and the output from the pin becomes
high-impedance.
(1) Start count
(2) Buzzer output ON
(3) Buzzer output OFF
Timer A0
overflow timing
“1”
Count start flag
“0”
Pulse output
function select bit
“1”
“0”
“1”
P70 output
“0”
High-impedance
Figure 3.4.1. Operation timing of buzzer output
468
High-impedance
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Initialization of timer A0
b7
0 0
b0
0
0
0
0 0
Timer A0 mode register
TA0MR [Address 039616 ]
0
Selection of timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TA0out pin is a normal port pin)
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
0 0 : Gate function not available
0 (Must always be “0” in timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
b15
b8
b7
b0
0F16
b7
9F16
b7 b6
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
Timer A0 register
TA0 [Address 038716, 038616]
b0
b7
b0
1
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Initialization of port P7 direction register
b7
b0
0
Port P7 direction register [Address 03EF16]
PD7
Port P70 direction register
0 : Input mode
Buzzer ON
b7
b0
1
Timer A0 mode register [Address 039616 ]
TA0MR
Pulse output function select bit
1 : Pulse is output (Port P70 is TA0OUT output pin)
Buzzer OFF
b7
b0
0
Timer A0 mode register [Address 039616 ]
TA0MR
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output
Figure 3.4.2. Set-up procedure of buzzer output
469
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Timer A Applications
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.5 Solution for External Interrupt Pins Shortage
Overview The following are solution for external interrupt pins shortage. Figure 3.5.1 shows the set-up
procedure.
Use the following peripheral function:
• Event counter mode of timer A
Specifications
(1) Inputting a falling edge to the TA0IN pin generates a timer A0 interrupt.
Operation
470
(1) Set timer A0 to event counter mode, set timer to “0”, and set interrupt priority levels in timer A0.
(2) Inputting a falling edge to the TA0IN pin generates a timer A0 interrupt.
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Timer A Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Initialization of timer A0
b7
b0
0
0 0
0
0 0
0
Timer A0 mode register
TA0MR [Address 039616 ]
1
Selection of event counter mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TA0out pin is a normal port pin)
Count polarity select bit
0 : Counts external signal's falling edge
Up/down switching cause select bit
0 : Up/down flag's content
0 (Must always be “0” in event counter mode)
Count operation type select bit
0 : Reload type
0 (Must always be “0” in event counter mode)
b15
b8
b7
b0
0016
b7
0016
Timer A0 register
TA0 [Address 038716, 038616]
b0
b7
b0
Up/down flag [Address 038416]
UDF
0
Timer A0 up/down flag
0 : Down count
b7
0
b0
One shot start flag [Address 038216]
ONSF
Timer A0 event/trigger select flag
0
b7 b6
0 0 : Input on TA0IN is selected
b7
b0
1
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Setting interrupt priority levels in timer A0
b7
b0
Timer A0 interrupt control register [Address 005516]
TA0IC
Interrupt control level (set a value 1 to 7)
Initialization of port P7 direction register
b7
b0
0
Port P7 direction register [Address 03EF16]
PD7
Port P71 direction register
0 : Input mode
Setting interrupt enable flag (I flag)
Figure 3.5.1. Set-up procedure of solution for a shortage of external interrupt pins
471
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
DMAC Applications
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.6 Memory to Memory DMA Transfer
Overview The following are steps for changing both source address and destination address to transfer
data from memory to another. The DMA transfer utilizes the workings that assign a higher priority
to the DMA0 transfer if transfer requests simultaneously occur in two DMA channels. Figure
3.6.1 shows the operation timing, Figure 3.6.2 shows the block diagram, and Figures 3.6.3 and
3.6.4 show the set-up procedure.
Use the following peripheral functions:
• Timer mode of timer A
• Two DMAC channels
• One-byte temporary RAM (address 080016)
Specifications
(1) Transfer the content of memory extending over 128 bytes from address A000016 to a 128byte area starting from address C000016. Transfer the content every time a timer A0 interrupt
request occurs.
(2) Use DMA0 for a transfer from the source to built-in memory, and DMA1 for a transfer from
built-in memory to the destination.
Operation (1) A timer A interrupt request occurs. Though both a DMA0 transfer request and a DMA1 transfer request occur simultaneously, the former is executed first.
(2) DMA0 receives a transfer request and transfers data from the source to the built-in memory.
At this time, the source address is incremented.
(3) Next, DMA1 receives a transfer request and transfers data involved from built-in memory to
the destination. At this time, the destination address is incremented.
(1) Transfer request generation
(3) Start DMA1 transferring
(2) Start DMA0 transferring
“1”
Timer A0
transfer request “0”
Source address
A000016
Address bus
Source address
080016
Destination address
080016
C000016
Destination address
“1”
RD signal
“0”
“1”
WR signal
“0”
Instruction cycle
DMA0 operation
DMA1 operation
Note 1: The DMA0 operation and DMA1 operation are not necessarily executed in succession
due to the a cycle steal operation.
Note 2: The instruction cycle varies from instruction to instruction.
Note 3: Since the parts of the RD and WR signals shown in short-dash lines vary in step with
writing to the internal RAM, waveforms are not output to the RD and WR pins.
Figure 3.6.1. Operation timing of memory to memory DMA transfer
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Source area
Destination area
A00016 content
A000016
C000016
A00116 content
A00216 content
Temporary RAM
A007F16
A007F16 content
C007F16
80016
Data transfer by DMA0
Data transfer by DMA1
Figure 3.6.2. Block diagram of memory to memory DMA transfer
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Initialization of DMA0
b7
b0
0
0
0
1
0
DMA0 request cause select register
DM0SL [Address 03B816]
b7
b0
0
1
1
0
DMA0 control register
DM0CON [Address 002C16]
1 1
Transfer unit bit select bit
1 : 8 bits
DMA request cause select bit
b3 b2 b1 b0
0 0 1 0 : Timer A0
Repeat transfer mode select bit
1 : Repeat transfer
Software DMA request bit
0 : Software is not generated
DMA request bit
0 : DMA not requested
DMA enable bit
1 : Enabled
Source address direction select bit
1 : Forward
Destination address direction
select bit
0 : Fixed
b16 b15
b23
b8
b0 b7
b7
b8
b7
0816
0016
b0 b7
b7
b0
0016
DMA0 source pointer
SAR0
[Address 002216, 002116, 002016]
DMA0 destination
pointer
DAR0
[Address 002616, 002516, 002416]
DMA0 transfer counter
TCR0
[Address 002916, 002816]
b0
b16 b15
b23
b7
0016
0A16
b0
0016
b0
b15
b8
b7
0016
b7
b0
7F16
b0
Initialization of DMA1
b7
b0
0
0 0 1 0
b7
DMA0 request cause select register
DM1SL [Address 03BA16]
b0
DMA1 control register
DM1CON [Address 003C16]
1 0 1 0 1 1
Transfer unit bit select bit
1 : 8 bits
DMA request cause select bit
b3 b2 b1 b0
0 0 1 0 : Timer A0
Repeat transfer mode select bit
1 : Repeat transfer
Software DMA request bit
0 : Software is not generated
DMA request bit
0 : DMA not requested
DMA enable bit
1 : Enabled
Source address direction select bit
0 : Fixed
Destination address direction
select bit
1 : Forward
b16 b15
b23
b0 b7
b16 b15
b7
b23
b7
b0
b8 b7
b0 b7
b8
0016
DMA1 source pointer
SAR1 [Address 003216, 003116, 003016]
DMA1 destination
pointer
DAR1 [Address 003616, 003516, 003416]
b0
0016
b0
b15
b7
b0
0016
0016
0C16
b7
b8
0816
0016
b7
b0
7F16
DMA1 transfer counter TCR1
[Address 003916, 003816]
b0
Continued to the next page
Figure 3.6.3. Set-up procedure of memory to memory DMA transfer (1)
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Continued from the previous page
Initialization of timer A0
b7
0
b0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Timer A0 mode register
TA0MR [Address 039616 ]
Selection of timer mode
Pulse output function select bit
0 : Pulse is not output (TA0OUT pin is a normal port pin)
Gate function select bit
b4 b3
0 0 : Gate function not available (TA0IN pin is a normal port pin)
0 (Must always be fixed to “0” in timer mode)
Count source select bit
b7 b6
0 0 : f1
b15
b8
3E16
b7
b7
b7
b7 b6
Count source period
Count
source f(XIN) : 16MHZ f(XcIN) : 32.768kHZ
0
0
f1
62.5ns
0
1
f8
500ns
1
0
f32
1
1
fC32
2µs
976.56µs
b0
0F16
b0
Timer A0 register
TA0 [Address 0387, 038616 ]
b0
1
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
Timer A0 count start flag
1 : Starts counting
Figure 3.6.4. Set-up procedure of memory to memory DMA transfer (2)
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.7 Controlling Power Using Stop Mode
Overview
The following are steps for controlling power using stop mode. Figure 3.7.1 shows the operation
timing, Figure 3.7.2 shows an example of circuit, and Figures 3.7.3 and 3.7.4 show the set-up
procedure.
Use the following peripheral functions:
• Key-input interrupts
• Stop mode
• Pull-up function
Specifications
_____
(1) Use P100 through P103 for the scan output pins of a key matrix. Use the input pins (KI0
_____
through KI3) of the key-input interrupt function for the key-input reading pins. The pull-up
function is also used.
(2) If a key-input interrupt request occurs, clear the stop mode and read a key.
_____
_____
Operation (1) Enable a key-input interrupt and set the pull-up function to pins KI0 through KI3. Change the
output of P100 through P103 to “L” and enter stop mode.
_____
_____
(2) If a key is pressed, “L” is input to one of pins KI0 through KI3 to clear stop mode. A key-input
interrupt occurs to execute the key-input interrupt handling routine.
(3) Sequentially set P100 through P103 to “L” to determine which key was pressed.
(4) When the process to determine the key pressed is completed, change the output from P100
through P103 to “L” again and enter stop mode.
AAAAAA
AAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
(1) Shift to stop mode
(2) Cancel a stop mode
(3) Key scan
(4) Shift to stop mode
P100 output
P101 output
P102 output
P103 output
P104 to P107 input
Key input
Key OFF
Key ON
Key OFF
Key ON
Key input
interrupt processing
CPU clock
Stop mode
Stop mode
Figure 3.7.1. Operation timing of controlling power using stop mode
476
Key matrix scan
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
P100
VREF
P101
P102
P103
I/O port
P104 / KI0
P105 / KI1
P106 / KI2
P107 / KI3
Figure 3.7.2. Example of circuit of controling power using stop mode
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Main
Initial condition
b7
Pull-up control register 2
[Address 03FE16]
PUR2
b0
1
b7
0
b0
0
0 0
1
1
1 1
Key scan output port
P104 to P107 pulled high
b7
0 0
Key scan input port
Port P10 register
[Address 03F416]
P10
b0
0
0
Port P10 direction register
[Address 03F616]
PD10
b7
b0
Key scan data
0 0
1
Key input interrupt control register
[Address 004D16]
KUPIC
Interrupt priority level select bit
Set higher value than the present IPL
Interrupt enable level (IPL) = 0
Interrupt enable flag (I) =0
Setting interrupt except stop mode cancel
Interrupt control register TBiIC(i=3 to 5) [Address 004516 to 004716]
b7
0
BCNIC
DMiIC(i=0, 1)
ADIC
SiTIC(i=0 to 2)
SiRIC(i=0 to 2)
b0 TAiIC(i=0 to 4)
0 0 TBiIC(i=0 to 2)
[Address 004A16]
[Address 004B16, 004C16]
[Address 004E16]
[Address 005116, 005316, 004F16]
[Address 005216, 005416, 005016]
b7
[Address 005516 to 005916]
[Address 005A16 to 005C16]
b0
0
0
0
0 INTiIC(i=0 to 2)
[Address 005D16 to 005F16]
Interrupt priority level select bit
000 : Interrupt disabled
Always set to “0”
Interrupt priority level select bit
000 : Interrupt disabled
Canceling protect
b7
b0
1
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1
(addresses 000616 and 000716)
1 : Write-enabled
Setting operation clock after returning from stop mode
(When operating with XIN after returning)
b7
b0
0
0
System clock control register 0
[Address 000616]
CM0
Main clock (XIN-XOUT) stop bit
On
(When operating with XCIN after returning)
b7
1
b0
1
System clock select bit
XIN, XOUT
As this register becomes setting mentioned above when
operating with XIN (count source of BCLK is XIN),
the user does not need to set it again.
Interrupt enable flag (I flag)
System clock control register 0
[Address 000616]
CM0
Port XC select bit
XCIN-XCOUT generation
System clock select bit
XCIN, XCOUT
As this register becomes setting mentioned above when operating with XCIN
(count source of BCLK is XCIN), the user does not need to set it again.
When operating with XIN, set port Xc select bit to “1” before setting system
clock select bit to “1”. The both bits cannot be set at the same time.
“1”
All clocks off (stop mode)
b7
b0
0
0 0
0
1
System clock control register 1 [Address 000716]
CM1
All clock stop control bit
1 : All clocks off (stop mode)
Reserved bit
Always set to “0”
NOP instruction X 5
Key input interrupt request generation
Figure 3.7.3. Set-up procedure of controlling power using stop mode (1)
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Key-input interrupt
Store the registers
Key matrix scan
b7
b0
Port P10 register [Address 03F416]
P10
Key scan data
1110, 1101, 1011, 0111
Decision of key-input data
b7
b0
0 0 0 0
Port P10 register [Address 03F416]
P10
Key scan data
Restore the registers
REIT instruction
Figure 3.7.4. Set-up procedure of controlling power using stop mode (2)
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
3.8 Controling Power Using Wait Mode
Overview The following are steps for controling power using wait mode. Figure 3.8.1 shows the operation
timing, and Figures 3.8.2 to 3.8.4 show the set-up procedure.
Use the following peripheral functions:
• Timer mode of timer B
• Wait mode
A flag named “F-WIT” is used in the set-up procedure. The purpose of this flag is to decide
whether or not to clear wait mode. If F_WIT = “1” in the main program, the wait mode is entered;
if F_WIT = “0”, the wait mode is cleared.
Specifications
(1) Connect a 32.768-kHz oscillator to XCIN to serve as the timer count source. As interrupts
occur every one second, which is a count the timer reaches, the controller returns from wait
mode and count the clock using a program.
________
(2) Clear wait mode if a INT0 interrupt request occurs.
Operation (1) Switch the system clock from XIN to XCIN to get low-speed mode.
_______
(2) Stop XIN and enter wait mode. In this instance, enable the timer B2 interrupt and the INT0 interrupt.
(3) When a timer B2 interrupt request occurs (at 1-second intervals), start supplying the BCLK
from XCIN.
At this time, count the clock within the routine that handles the timer B2 interrupts and enter wait
mode again.
_______
(4) If a INT0 interrupt occurs, start supplying the BCLK from XCIN. Start the XIN oscillation within
_______
the INT0 interrupt, and switch the system clock to XIN.
(1) Shift to low-speed mode
(2) Stop XIN
(3) Timer B2 interrupt
(4) INT0 interrupt
XOUT
XCIN
Timer B overflow
Timer B2
interrupt processing
INT0
“H”
“L”
BCLK
High-speed
Low-speed
High-speed
Low-speed
Low-speed
Figure 3.8.1. Operation timing of controling power using wait mode
480
Low-speed
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SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Main
Initial condition
b7
b0
0
0
System clock control register 0 [Address 000616]
CM0
WAIT state internal clock stop bit
1
XCIN-XCOUT drive capacity select bit
Port Xc select bit
1 : Functions as XCIN-XCOUT oscillator
Main clock (XIN-XOUT) stop bit
0 : Oscillating
Main clock divide ratio select bit 0
System clock select bit
0 : XIN-XOUT
b7
1
b0
Timer B2 mode register [Address 039D16]
TB2MR
0 0
1
Operation mode select bit
b1 b0
0 0 : Timer mode
Count source select bit
b7 b6
1 1 : fC32 (f(XCIN) divided by 32)
b15
b8
b7
b0
0316
FF16
b7
b0
1
Timer B2 register [Address 039516, 039416]
TB2
Clock prescaler reset flag [Address 038116]
CPSRF
Rrescaler is reset
b7
b0
Count start flag [Address 038016]
TABSR
TB2 start counting
1
b7
b0
0
0
0
0 1
b7
1
b0
0
Timer B2 interrupt control register [Address 005C16]
TB2IC
TB2 interrupt priority level
INT0 interrupt control register [Address 005D16]
INT0IC
INT0 interrupt priority level
Interrupt priority level (IPL) = 0
Interrupt enable flag (I) = 0
Setting interrupt except clearing wait mode
Interrupt control register
b7
0
TBiIC(i=3 to 5)
BCNIC
DMiIC (i = 0, 1)
KUPIC
ADIC
SiTIC (i = 0 to 2)
b0
SiRIC (i = 0 to 2)
0 0
TAiIC (i = 0 to 4)
Interrupt priority level select bit TBiIC (i = 0, 1)
INTiIC (i =3)
b2 b1 b0
SiIC/INTjIC (i =4 to 3)
0 0 0 : Interrupt disabled
(j=3, 4)
INTiIC (i =1 to 2)
[Address 004516 to 004716]
[Address 004A16]
[Address 004B16, 004C16]
[Address 004D16]
[Address 004E16]
[Address 005116, 005316, 004F16]
[Address 005216, 005416, 005016]
[Address 005516 to 005916]
[Address 005A16, 005B16]
[Address 004416]
[Address 004816 to 004916]
[Address 004816 to 004916]
[Address 005E16 to 005F16]
Continued to the next page
Figure 3.8.2. Set-up procedure of controlling power using wait mode (1)
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Continued from the previous page
Canceling protect
b7
b0
Protect register [Address 000A16]
PRCR
1
Enables writing to system clock control registers 0 and 1 (address 000616 and 000716)
1 : write-enabled
Switching system clock
b7
b0
System clock control register 0 [Address 000616]
CM0
1
System clock select bit
1 : XCIN-XCOUT
Stopping main clock
b7
b0
System clock control register 0 [Address 000616]
CM0
1
Main clock (XIN-XOUT) stop bit
1 : Off
[F_WIT] = 1
Interrupt enable flag (I flag)
“1”
WAIT instruction
NOP instruction X 5
INT0 interrupt request generated
TB2 interrupt request generated
=
[F_WIT] : 1
Starting main clock oscillator
b7
b0
System clock control register 0 [Address 000616]
CM0
0
Main clock (XIN-XOUT) stop bit
0 : On
Wait until the main clock has stabilized
Switching system clock
b7
0
b0
System clock control register 0 [Address 000616]
CM0
System clock select bit
0 : XIN-XOUT
Figure 3.8.3. Set-up procedure of controlling power using wait mode (2)
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INT0 interrupt
Timer B2 interrupt
Store the registers
Store the registers
[F_WIT] = 0
Counting clock
Restore the registers
Restore the registers
REIT instruction
REIT instruction
Figure 3.8.4. Set-up procedure of controlling power using wait mode (3)
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Chapter 4
Interrupt
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
4.1 Overview of Interrupt
4.1.1 Type of Interrupts
Figure 4.1.1 lists the types of interrupts.










Hardware
Special
Peripheral I/O (Note)
















Interrupt
Software
Undefined instruction (UND instruction)
Overflow (INTO instruction)
BRK instruction
INT instruction
Reset
NMI
________
DBC
Watchdog timer
Single step
Address matched
_______
Note: Peripheral I/O interrupts are generated by the peripheral functions built into the microcomputer system.
Figure 4.1.1. Classification of interrupts
• Maskable interrupt :
• Non-maskable interrupt :
486
An interrupt which can be enabled (disabled) by the interrupt enable flag
(I flag) or whose interrupt priority can be changed by priority level.
An interrupt which cannot be enabled (disabled) by the interrupt enable
flag (I flag) or whose interrupt priority cannot be changed by priority level.
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4.1.2 Software Interrupts
A software interrupt occurs when executing certain instructions. Software interrupts are non-maskable
interrupts.
• Undefined instruction interrupt
An undefined instruction interrupt occurs when executing the UND instruction.
• Overflow interrupt
An overflow interrupt occurs when executing the INTO instruction with the overflow flag (O flag) set to
“1”. The following are instructions whose O flag changes by arithmetic:
ABS, ADC, ADCF, ADD, CMP, DIV, DIVU, DIVX, NEG, RMPA, SBB, SHA, SUB
• BRK interrupt
A BRK interrupt occurs when executing the BRK instruction.
• INT interrupt
An INT interrupt occurs when assiging one of software interrupt numbers 0 through 63 and executing
the INT instruction. Software interrupt numbers 0 through 31 are assigned to peripheral I/O interrupts,
so executing the INT instruction allows executing the same interrupt routine that a peripheral I/O
interrupt does.
The stack pointer (SP) used for the INT interrupt is dependent on which software interrupt number is
involved.
So far as software interrupt numbers 0 through 31 are concerned, the microcomputer saves the stack
pointer assignment flag (U flag) when it accepts an interrupt request. If change the U flag to “0” and
select the interrupt stack pointer (ISP), and then execute an interrupt sequence. When returning from
the interrupt routine, the U flag is returned to the state it was before the acceptance of interrupt request. So far as software numbers 32 through 63 are concerned, the stack pointer does not make a
shift.
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4.1.3 Hardware Interrupts
Hardware interrupts are classified into two types — special interrupts and peripheral I/O interrupts.
(1) Special interrupts
Special interrupts are non-maskable interrupts.
• Reset
____________
Reset occurs if an “L” is input to the RESET pin.
_______
• NMI interrupt
_______
_______
An NMI interrupt occurs if an “L” is input to the NMI pin.
________
• DBC interrupt
This interrupt is exclusively for the debugger, do not use it in other circumstances.
• Watchdog timer interrupt
Generated by the watchdog timer.
• Single-step interrupt
This interrupt is exclusively for the debugger, do not use it in other circumstances. With the debug
flag (D flag) set to “1”, a single-step interrupt occurs after one instruction is executed.
• Address match interrupt
An address match interrupt occurs immediately before the instruction held in the address indicated by
the address match interrupt register is executed with the address match interrupt enable bit set to “1”.
If an address other than the first address of the instruction in the address match interrupt register is set,
no address match interrupt occurs. For address match interrupt, see 2.11 Address match Interrupt.
(2) Peripheral I/O interrupts
A peripheral I/O interrupt is generated by one of built-in peripheral functions. Built-in peripheral functions are dependent on classes of products, so the interrupt factors too are dependent on classes of
products. The interrupt vector table is the same as the one for software interrupt numbers 0 through
31 the INI instruction uses. Peripheral I/O interrupts are maskable interrupts.
• Bus collision detection interrupt
This is an interrupt that the serial I/O bus collision detection generates.
• DMA0 interrupt, DMA1 interrupt
These are interrupts DMA generates.
• Key-input interrupt
___
A key-input interrupt occurs if an “L” is input to the KI pin.
• A-D conversion interrupt
This is an interrupt that the A-D converter generates.
• UART0, UART1 and UART2 transmission interrupt
These are interrupts that the serial I/O transmission generates.
• UART0, UART1 and UART2 reception interrupt
These are interrupts that the serial I/O reception generates.
• Timer A0 interrupt through timer A4 interrupt
These are interrupts that timer A generates
• Timer B0 interrupt through timer B2 interrupt
These are interrupts that timer B generates.
________
________
• INT0 interrupt through INT2 interrupt
______
______
An INT interrupt occurs if either a rising edge or a falling edge is input to the INT pin.
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4.1.4 Interrupts and Interrupt Vector Tables
If an interrupt request is accepted, a program branches to the interrupt routine set in the interrupt
vector table. Set the first address of the interrupt routine in each vector table. Two types of interrupt
vector tables are available — fixed vector table in which addresses are fixed and variable vector
table in which addresses can be varied by the setting.
• Fixed vector tables
The fixed vector table is a table in which addresses are fixed. The vector tables are located in an area
extending from FFFDC16 to FFFFF16. One vector table comprises four bytes. Set the first address of
interrupt routine in each vector table. Table 4.1.1 shows the interrupts assigned to the fixed vector
tables and addresses of vector tables.
Table 4.1.1. Interrupts assigned to the fixed vector tables and addresses of vector tables
Interrupt source
Undefined instruction
Overflow
BRK instruction
Vector table addresses
Address (L) to address (H)
FFFDC16 to FFFDF16
FFFE016 to FFFE316
FFFE416 to FFFE716
Remarks
Interrupt on UND instruction
Interrupt on INTO instruction
If the vector contains FF16, program execution starts from
the address shown by the vector in the variable vector table
There is an address-matching interrupt enable bit
Do not use
Address match
FFFE816 to FFFEB16
Single step (Note)
FFFEC16 to FFFEF16
Watchdog timer
FFFF016 to FFFF316
________
DBC (Note)
FFFF416 to FFFF716
Do not use
_______
NMI
FFFF816 to FFFFB16
External interrupt by input to NMI pin
Reset
FFFFC16 to FFFFF16
Note: Interrupts used for debugging purposes only.
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• Variable vector tables
The addresses in the variable vector table can be modified, according to the user’s settings. Indicate
the first address using the interrupt table register (INTB). The 256-byte area subsequent to the address the INTB indicates becomes the area for the variable vector tables. One vector table comprises
four bytes. Set the first address of the interrupt routine in each vector table. Table 4.1.2 shows the
interrupts assigned to the variable vector tables and addresses of vector tables.
Table 4.1.2. Interrupts assigned to the variable vector tables and addresses of vector tables
Software interrupt number
Vector table address
Interrupt source
Address (L) to address (H)
Software interrupt number 0
+0 to +3 (Note 1)
BRK instruction
Software interrupt number 4
+16 to +19 (Note 1)
INT3
Software interrupt number 5
+20 to +23 (Note 1)
Timer B5
Software interrupt number 6
+24 to +27 (Note 1)
Timer B4
Software interrupt number 7
+28 to +31 (Note 1)
Timer B3
Software interrupt number 8
+32 to +35 (Note 1)
SI/O4/INT5
(Note 2)
(Note 2)
Software interrupt number 9
+36 to +39 (Note 1)
SI/O3/INT4
Software interrupt number 10
+40 to +43 (Note 1)
Bus collision detection
Software interrupt number 11
+44 to +47 (Note 1)
DMA0
Software interrupt number 12
+48 to +51 (Note 1)
DMA1
Software interrupt number 13
+52 to +55 (Note 1)
Key input interrupt
Software interrupt number 14
+56 to +59 (Note 1)
A-D
Software interrupt number 15
+60 to +63 (Note 1)
UART2 transmit/NACK (Note 3)
Software interrupt number 16
+64 to +67 (Note 1)
UART2 receive/ACK (Note 3)
Software interrupt number 17
+68 to +71 (Note 1)
UART0 transmit
Software interrupt number 18
+72 to +75 (Note 1)
UART0 receive
Software interrupt number 19
+76 to +79 (Note 1)
UART1 transmit
Software interrupt number 20
+80 to +83 (Note 1)
UART1 receive
Software interrupt number 21
+84 to +87 (Note 1)
Timer A0
Software interrupt number 22
+88 to +91 (Note 1)
Timer A1
Software interrupt number 23
+92 to +95 (Note 1)
Timer A2
Software interrupt number 24
+96 to +99 (Note 1)
Timer A3
Software interrupt number 25
+100 to +103 (Note 1)
Timer A4
Software interrupt number 26
+104 to +107 (Note 1)
Timer B0
Software interrupt number 27
+108 to +111 (Note 1)
Timer B1
Software interrupt number 28
+112 to +115 (Note 1)
Timer B2
Software interrupt number 29
+116 to +119 (Note 1)
INT0
Software interrupt number 30
+120 to +123 (Note 1)
INT1
Software interrupt number 31
+124 to +127 (Note 1)
INT2
Software interrupt number 32
+128 to +131 (Note 1)
to
Software interrupt number 63
to
+252 to +255 (Note 1)
Software interrupt
Remarks
Cannot be masked I flag
Cannot be masked I flag
Note 1: Address relative to address in interrupt table register (INTB).
Note 2: It is selected by interrupt request cause bit (bit 6, 7 in address 035F16 ).
Note 3: When IIC mode is selected, NACK and ACK interrupts are selected.
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4.2 Interrupt Control
Descriptions are given here regarding how to enable or disable maskable interrupts and how to set the
priority to be accepted. What is described here does not apply to non-maskable interrupts.
Enable or disable a non-maskable interrupt using the interrupt enable flag (I flag), interrupt priority level
selection bit, or processor interrupt priority level (IPL). Whether an interrupt request is present or absent is
indicated by the interrupt request bit. The interrupt request bit and the interrupt priority level selection bit
are located in the interrupt control register of each interrupt. Also, the interrupt enable flag (I flag) and the
IPL are located in the flag register (FLG).
Table 4.2.1 shows the memory map of the interrupt control registers, and Table 4.2.2 shows the interrupt
control registers.
004416
004516
004616
004716
004816
004916
INT3 interrupt control register (INT3IC)
Timer B5 interrupt control register (TB5IC)
Timer B4 interrupt control register (TB4IC)
Timer B3 interrupt control register (TB3IC)
SI/O4 interrupt control register (S4IC)
INT5 interrupt control register (INT5IC)
SI/O3 interrupt control register (S4IC)
INT4 interrupt control register (INT4IC)
004A16
Bus collision detection interrupt control register (BCNIC)
004B16
DMA0 interrupt control register (DM0IC)
DMA1 interrupt control register (DM1IC)
Key input interrupt control register(KUPIC)
A-D conversion interrupt control register (ADIC)
UART2 transmit interrupt control register (S2TIC)
UART2 receive interrupt control register (S2RIC)
UART0 transmit interrupt control register (S0TIC)
UART0 receive interrupt control register (S0RIC)
UART1 transmit interrupt control regster(S1TIC)
UART1 receive interrupt control register(S1RIC)
Timer A0 interrupt control register (TA0IC)
Timer A1 interrupt control register (TA1IC)
Timer A2 interrupt control register (TA2IC)
Timer A3 interrupt control register (TA3IC)
Timer A4 interrupt control register (TA4IC)
Timer B0 interrupt control register (TB0IC)
Timer B1 interrupt control register (TB1IC)
Timer B2 interrupt control register (TB2IC)
INT0 interrupt control register (INT0IC)
INT1 interrupt control register (INT1IC)
INT2 interrupt control register (INT2IC)
004C16
004D16
004E16
004F16
005016
005116
005216
005316
005416
005516
005616
005716
005816
005916
005A16
005B16
005C16
005D16
005E16
005F16
Table 4.2.1. Memory map of the interrupt control registers
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Interrupt control register (Note2)
AAAA
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
TBiIC(i=3 to 5)
BCNIC
DMiIC(i=0, 1)
KUPIC
ADIC
SiTIC(i=0 to 2)
SiRIC(i=0 to 2)
TAiIC(i=0 to 4)
TBiIC(i=0 to 2)
Bit symbol
ILVL0
Address
004516 to 004716
004A16
004B16, 004C16
004D16
004E16
005116, 005316, 004F16
005216, 005416, 005016
005516 to 005916
005A16 to 005C16
Bit name
Interrupt priority level
select bit
ILVL2
IR
Function
b2 b1 b0
000:
001:
010:
011:
100:
101:
110:
111:
ILVL1
Interrupt request bit
When reset
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
XXXXX0002
AA
AAAA
AAAA
R
W
Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Level 4
Level 5
Level 6
Level 7
0 : Interrupt not requested
1 : Interrupt requested
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
(Note 1)
Note 1: This bit can only be accessed for reset (= 0), but cannot be accessed for set (= 1).
Note 2: To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that dose not generate the
interrupt request for that register. For details, see the precautions for interrupts.
AAA
AAA
b7
b6
b5
0
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
Address
INTiIC(i=3)
004416
SiIC/INTjIC (i=4, 3)
004816, 004916
(j=5, 4)
004816, 004916
INTiIC(i=0 to 2)
005D16 to 005F16
Bit symbol
ILVL0
Bit name
Interrupt priority level
select bit
ILVL1
ILVL2
IR
POL
When reset
XX00X0002
XX00X0002
XX00X0002
XX00X0002
Interrupt request bit
Polarity select bit
Reserved bit
Function
b2 b1 b0
R
W
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
0 0 0 : Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
0 0 1 : Level 1
0 1 0 : Level 2
0 1 1 : Level 3
1 0 0 : Level 4
1 0 1 : Level 5
1 1 0 : Level 6
1 1 1 : Level 7
0: Interrupt not requested
1: Interrupt requested
0 : Selects falling edge
1 : Selects rising edge
Always set to “0”
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
(Note 1)
Note 1: This bit can only be accessed for reset (= 0), but cannot be accessed for set (= 1).
Note 2: To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that dose not generate the
interrupt request for that register. For details, see the precautions for interrupts.
Figure 4.2.2. Interrupt control registers
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4.2.1 Interrupt Enable Flag
The interrupt enable flag (I flag) controls the enabling and disabling of maskable interrupts. Setting this
flag to “1” enables all maskable interrupts; setting it to “0” disables all maskable interrupts. This flag is set
to “0” after reset.
The content is changed when the I flag is changed causes the acceptance of the interrupt request in the
following timing:
• When changing the I flag using the REIT instruction, the acceptance of the interrupt takes
effect as the REIT instruction is executed.
• When changing the I flag using one of the FCLR, FSET, POPC, and LDC instructions, the
acceptance of the interrupt is effective as the next instruction is executed.
When changed by REIT instruction
Interrupt request generated
Determination whether or not to
accept interrupt request
Time
Previous
instruction
REIT
Interrupt sequence
(If I flag is changed from 0 to 1 by REIT instruction)
When changed by FCLR, FSET, POPC, or LDC instruction
Determination whether or not to
accept interrupt request
Interrupt request generated
Time
Previous
instruction
FSET I
Next instruction
Interrupt sequence
(If I flag is changed from 0 to 1 by FSET instruction)
Figure 4.2.3. The timing of reflecting the change in the I flag to the interrupt
4.2.2 Interrupt Request Bit
The interrupt request bit is set to "1" by hardware when an interrupt is requested. After the interrupt is
accepted and jumps to the corresponding interrupt vector, the request bit is set to "0" by hardware. The
interrupt request bit can also be set to "0" by software. (Do not set this bit to "1").
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4.2.3 Interrupt Priority Level Select Bit and Processor Interrupt Priority Level (IPL)
Set the interrupt priority level using the interrupt priority level select bit, which is one of the component bits
of the interrupt control register. When an interrupt request occurs, the interrupt priority level is compared
with the IPL. The interrupt is enabled only when the priority level of the interrupt is higher than the IPL.
Therefore, setting the interrupt priority level to “0” disables the interrupt.
Table 4.2.1 shows the settings of interrupt priority levels and Table 4.2.2 shows the interrupt levels enabled, according to the consist of the IPL.
The following are conditions under which an interrupt is accepted:
· interrupt enable flag (I flag) = 1
· interrupt request bit = 1
· interrupt priority level > IPL
The interrupt enable flag (I flag), the interrupt request bit, the interrupt priority select bit, and the IPL are
independent, and they are not affected by one another.
Table 4.2.1. Settings of interrupt priority levels
Interrupt priority
level select bit
Interrupt priority
level
Table 4.2.2. Interrupt levels enabled according
to the contents of the IPL
Priority
order
b2 b1 b0
IPL
Enabled interrupt priority levels
IPL2 IPL1 IPL0
0
0
0
Level 0 (interrupt disabled)
0
0
1
Level 1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
Interrupt levels 1 and above are enabled
0
0
1
Interrupt levels 2 and above are enabled
Level 2
0
1
0
Interrupt levels 3 and above are enabled
1
Level 3
0
1
1
Interrupt levels 4 and above are enabled
0
0
Level 4
1
0
0
Interrupt levels 5 and above are enabled
1
0
1
Level 5
1
0
1
Interrupt levels 6 and above are enabled
1
1
0
Level 6
1
1
0
Interrupt levels 7 and above are enabled
1
1
1
Level 7
1
1
1
All maskable interrupts are disabled
Low
High
When either the IPL or the interrupt priority level is changed, the new level is reflected to the interrupt in
the following timing:
• When changing the IPL using the REIT instruction, the reflection takes effect as of the instruction
that is executed in 2 clock cycles after the last clock cycle in volved in the REIT instruction.
• When changing the IPL using either the POPC, LDC or LDIPL instruction, the reflection takes
effect as of the instruction that is executed in 3 cycles after the last clock cycle involved in the
instruction used.
• When changing the interrupt priority level using the MOV or similar instruction, the reflection takes
effect as of the instruction that is executed in 2 clock cycles after the last clock cycle involved in
the instruction used.
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4.2.4 Rewrite the interrupt control register
To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that does not generate the interrupt request for
that register. If there is possibility of the interrupt request occur, rewrite the interrupt control register after
the interrupt is disabled. The program examples are described as follow:
Example 1:
INT_SWITCH1:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
NOP
NOP
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Four NOP instructions are required when using HOLD function.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 2:
INT_SWITCH2:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
MOV.W MEM, R0
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Dummy read.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 3:
INT_SWITCH3:
PUSHC FLG
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
POPC FLG
; Push Flag register onto stack
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Enable interrupts.
The reason why two NOP instructions (four when using the HOLD function) or dummy read are inserted
before FSET I in Examples 1 and 2 is to prevent the interrupt enable flag I from being set before the
interrupt control register is rewritten due to effects of the instruction queue.
When a instruction to rewrite the interrupt control register is executed but the interrupt is disabled, the
interrupt request bit is not set sometimes even if the interrupt request for that register has been generated. This will depend on the instruction. If this creates problems, use the below instructions to change
the register.
Instructions : AND, OR, BCLR, BSET
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4.3 Interrupt Sequence
An interrupt sequence — what are performed over a period from the instant an interrupt is accepted to the
instant the interrupt routine is executed — is described here.
If an interrupt occurs during execution of an instruction, the processor determines its priority when the
execution of the instruction is completed, and transfers control to the interrupt sequence from the next
cycle. If an interrupt occurs during execution of either the SMOVB, SMOVF, SSTR or RMPA instruction,
the processor temporarily suspends the instruction being executed, and transfers control to the interrupt
sequence.
In the interrupt sequence, the processor carries out the following in sequence given:
(1) CPU gets the interrupt information (the interrupt number and interrupt request level) by reading address 0000016.
(2) Saves the content of the flag register (FLG) as it was immediately before the start of interrupt sequence
in the temporary register (Note) within the CPU.
(3) Sets the interrupt enable flag (I flag), the debug flag (D flag), and the stack pointer select flag (U flag) to
“0” (the U flag, however does not change if the INT instruction, in software interrupt numbers 32
through 63, is executed)
(4) Saves the content of the temporary register (Note 1) within the CPU in the stack area.
(5) Saves the content of the program counter (PC) in the stack area.
(6) Sets the interrupt priority level of the accepted instruction in the IPL.
After the interrupt sequence is completed, the processor resumes executing instructions from the first
address of the interrupt routine.
Note: This register cannot be utilized by the user.
4.3.1 Interrupt Response Time
'Interrupt response time' is the period between the instant an interrupt occurs and the instant the first
instruction within the interrupt routine has been executed. This time comprises the period from the
occurrence of an interrupt to the completion of the instruction under execution at that moment (a) and the
time required for executing the interrupt sequence (b). Figure 4.3.1 shows the interrupt response time.
Interrupt request generated
Interrupt request acknowledged
Time
Instruction
(a)
Interrupt sequence
(b)
Interrupt response time
Figure 4.3.1. Interrupt response time
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Time (a) is dependent on the instruction under execution. Thirty cycles is the maximum required for the
DIVX instruction (without wait).
Time (b) is as shown in Table 4.3.1.
Table 4.3.1. Time required for executing the interrupt sequence
Interrupt vector address
Stack pointer (SP) value
16-Bit bus, without wait
8-Bit bus, without wait
Even
Even
18 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
Even
Odd
19 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
Odd (Note 2)
Even
19 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
Odd (Note 2)
Odd
20 cycles (Note 1)
20 cycles (Note 1)
________
Note 1: Add 2 cycles in the case of a DBC interrupt; add 1 cycle in the case either of an address coincidence
interrupt or of a single-step interrupt.
Note 2: Locate an interrupt vector address in an even address, if possible.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
BCLK
Address
0000
Address bus
Interrupt
information
Data bus
R
Indeterminate
Indeterminate
SP-2
SP-2
contents
SP-4
SP-4
contents
vec
vec+2
vec
contents
PC
vec+2
contents
Indeterminate
W
The indeterminate segment is dependent on the queue buffer.
If the queue buffer is ready to take an instruction, a read cycle occurs.
Figure 4.3.2. Time required for executing the interrupt sequence
4.3.2 Variation of IPL when Interrupt Request is Accepted
If an interrupt request is accepted, the interrupt priority level of the accepted interrupt is set in the IPL.
If an interrupt request, that does not have an interrupt priority level, is accepted, one of the values shown
in Table 4.3.2 is set in the IPL.
Table 4.3.2. Relationship between interrupts without interrupt priority levels and IPL
Interrupt sources without priority levels
Value set in the IPL
_______
Watchdog timer, NMI
7
Reset
0
Other
Not changed
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4.3.3 Saving Registers
In the interrupt sequence, only the contents of the flag register (FLG) and that of the program counter
(PC) are saved in the stack area.
First, the processor saves the four higher-order bits of the program counter, and 4 upper-order bits and 8
lower-order bits of the FLG register, 16 bits in total, in the stack area, then saves 16 lower-order bits of the
program counter. Figure 4.3.3 shows the state of the stack as it was before the acceptance of the
interrupt request, and the state the stack after the acceptance of the interrupt request.
Save other necessary registers at the beginning of the interrupt routine using software. Using the
PUSHM instruction alone can save all the registers except the stack pointer (SP).
Address
MSB
Stack area
Address
MSB
LSB
Stack area
LSB
m–4
m–4
Program counter (PCL)
m–3
m–3
Program counter (PCM)
m–2
m–2
Flag register (FLGL)
m–1
m–1
m
Content of previous stack
m+1
Content of previous stack
Stack status before interrupt request
is acknowledged
[SP]
Stack pointer
value before
interrupt occurs
Flag register
(FLGH)
Program
counter (PCH)
m
Content of previous stack
m+1
Content of previous stack
Stack status after interrupt request
is acknowledged
Figure 4.3.3. State of stack before and after acceptance of interrupt request
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The operation of saving registers carried out in the interrupt sequence is dependent on whether the
content of the stack pointer, at the time of acceptance of an interrupt request, is even or odd. If the
content of the stack pointer (Note) is even, the content of the flag register (FLG) and the content of the
program counter (PC) are saved, 16 bits at a time. If odd, their contents are saved in two steps, 8 bits at
a time. Figure 4.3.4 shows the operation of the saving registers.
Note: When any INT instruction in software numbers 32 to 63 has been executed, this is the stack pointer
indicated by the U flag. Otherwise, it is the interrupt stack pointer (ISP).
(1) Stack pointer (SP) contains even number
Address
Stack area
Sequence in which order
registers are saved
[SP] – 5 (Odd)
[SP] – 4 (Even)
Program counter (PCL)
[SP] – 3(Odd)
Program counter (PCM)
[SP] – 2 (Even)
Flag register (FLGL)
[SP] – 1(Odd)
[SP]
Flag register
(FLGH)
Program
counter (PCH)
(2) Saved simultaneously,
all 16 bits
(1) Saved simultaneously,
all 16 bits
(Even)
Finished saving registers
in two operations.
(2) Stack pointer (SP) contains odd number
Address
Stack area
Sequence in which order
registers are saved
[SP] – 5 (Even)
[SP] – 4(Odd)
Program counter (PCL)
(3)
[SP] – 3 (Even)
Program counter (PCM)
(4)
[SP] – 2(Odd)
Flag register (FLGL)
[SP] – 1 (Even)
[SP]
Flag register
(FLGH)
Program
counter (PCH)
Saved simultaneously,
all 8 bits
(1)
(2)
(Odd)
Finished saving registers
in four operations.
Note: [SP] denotes the initial value of the stack pointer (SP) when interrupt request is acknowledged.
After registers are saved, the SP content is [SP] minus 4.
Figure 4.3.4. Operation of saving registers
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4.4 Returning from an Interrupt Routine
Executing the REIT instruction at the end of an interrupt routine returns the contents of the flag register
(FLG) as it was immediately before the start of interrupt sequence and the contents of the program counter
(PC), both of which have been saved in the stack area. Then control returns to the program that was being
executed before the acceptance of the interrupt request, so that the suspended process resumes.
Return the other registers saved by software within the interrupt routine using the POPM or similar instruction before executing the REIT instruction.
4.5 Interrupt Priority
If there are two or more interrupt requests occurring at a point in time within a single sampling (checking
whether interrupt requests are made), the interrupt assigned a higher priority is accepted.
Assign an arbitrary priority to maskable interrupts (peripheral I/O interrupts) using the interrupt priority level
select bit. If the same interrupt priority level is assigned, however, the interrupt assigned a higher hardware
priority is accepted (see Figure 4.5.1).
Priorities of the special interrupts, such as Reset (dealt with as an interrupt assigned the highest priority),
watchdog timer interrupt, etc. are regulated by hardware.
Figure 4.5.2 shows the priorities of hardware interrupts.
Software interrupts are not affected by the interrupt priority. If an instruction is executed, control branches
invariably to the interrupt routine.
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INT1
High
Timer B2
Timer B0
Timer A3
Timer A1
Timer B4
INT3
INT2
INT0
Timer B1
Timer A4
Timer A2
Timer B3
Timer B5
UART1 reception
UART0 reception
UART2 reception/ACK
Priority of peripheral I/O interrupts
(if priority levels are same)
A-D conversion
DMA1
Bus collision detection
Serial I/O4/INT5
Timer A0
UART1 transmission
UART0 transmission
UART2 transmission/
NACK
Key input interrupt
DMA0
Serial I/O3/INT4
Low
Figure 4.5.1. Maskable interrupts priorities (peripheral I/O interrupts)
_______
________
Reset > NMI > DBC > Watchdog timer > Peripheral I/O > Single step > Address match
Figure 4.5.2. Hardware interrupts priorities
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4.6 Multiple Interrupts
The state when control branched to an interrupt routine is described below:
· The interrupt enable flag (I flag) is set to “0” (the interrupt is disabled).
· The interrupt request bit of the accepted interrupt is set to “0”.
· The processor interrupt priority level (IPL) is assigned to the same interrupt priority level as assigned to
the accepted interrupt.
Setting the interrupt enable flag (I flag) to “1” within an interrupt routine allows an interrupt request assigned
a priority higher than the IPL to be accepted. Figure 4.6.1 shows the scheme of multiple interrupts.
An interrupt request that is not accepted because of low priority will be held. If the condition following is met
when the REIT instruction returns the IPL and the interrupt priority is determined, then the interrupt request
being held is accepted.
Interrupt priority level of the interrupt request being held
502
>
Returned the IPL
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Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Interrupt request
generated
Time
Reset
Nesting
Main routine
I=0
IPL = 0
Interrupt 1
I=1
Interrupt priority level = 3
Interrupt 1
I=0
IPL = 3
Multiple interrupts
Interrupt 2
I=1
Interrupt priority level = 5
Interrupt 2
I=0
IPL = 5
Interrupt 3
REIT
Interrupt priority level = 2
I=1
IPL = 3
Interrupt 3
REIT
I=1
Not acknowledged because
of low interrupt priority
IPL = 0
Main routine instructions
are not executed.
Interrupt 3
I=0
IPL = 2
REIT
I=1
IPL = 0
I : Interrupt enable flag
IPL : Processor interrupt priority level
: Automatically executed.
: Be sure to set in software.
Figure 4.6.1. Multiple interrupts
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4.7 Precautions for Interrupts
(1) Reading address 0000016
• When maskable interrupt is occurred, CPU read the interrupt information (the interrupt number and
interrupt request level) in the interrupt sequence.
The interrupt request bit of the certain interrupt written in address 0000016 will then be set to “0”.
Reading address 0000016 by software sets enabled highest priority interrupt source request bit to “0”.
Though the interrupt is generated, the interrupt routine may not be executed.
Do not read address 0000016 by software.
(2) Setting the stack pointer
• The value of the stack pointer immediately after reset is initialized to 000016. Accepting an interrupt
before setting a value in the stack pointer may become a factor of runaway. Be sure to set a value in
_______
the stack pointer before accepting an interrupt. When using the NMI interrupt, initialize the stack point
at the beginning of a program. Concerning the first instruction immediately after reset, generating any
_______
interrupts including the NMI interrupt is prohibited.
_______
(3) The NMI interrupt
_______
_______
•The NMI interrupt can not be disabled. Be sure to connect NMI pin to Vcc via a pull-up resistor if
unused.
_______
• The NMI pin also serves as P85, which is exclusively input. Reading the contents of the P8 register
allows reading the pin value. Use the reading of this pin only for establishing the pin level at the time
_______
when the NMI interrupt is input.
_______
• Do not reset the CPU with the input to the NMI pin being in the “L” state.
_______
• Do not attempt to go into stop mode with the input to the NMI pin being in the “L” state. With the input to
_______
the NMI being in the “L” state, the CM10 is fixed to “0”, so attempting to go into stop mode is turned
down.
_______
• Do not attempt to go into wait mode with the input to the NMI pin being in the “L” state. With the input to
_______
the NMI pin being in the “L” state, the CPU stops but the oscillation does not stop, so no power is saved.
In this instance, the CPU is returned to the normal state by a later interrupt.
_______
• Signals input to the NMI pin require an “L” level of 1 clock or more, from the operation clock of the CPU.
(4) External interrupt
• Either an “L” level or an “H” level of at least 250 ns width is necessary for the signal input to pins INT0
through INT2 regardless of the CPU operation clock.
• When the polarity of the INT0 to INT2 pins is changed, the interrupt request bit is sometimes set to “1”.
After changing the polarity, set the interrupt request bit to “0”. Figure 4.7.1 shows the procedure for
______
changing the INT interrupt generate factor.
504
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
Interrupt
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Set the interrupt priority level to level 0
(Disable INTi interrupt)
Set the polarity select bit
Clear the interrupt request bit to “0”
Set the interrupt priority level to level 1 to 7
(Enable the accepting of INTi interrupt request)
______
Figure 4.7.1. Switching condition of INT interrupt request
(5) Rewrite the interrupt control register
• To rewrite the interrupt control register, do so at a point that does not generate the interrupt request for
that register. If there is possibility of the interrupt request occur, rewrite the interrupt control register after
the interrupt is disabled. The program examples are described as follow:
Example 1:
INT_SWITCH1:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
NOP
NOP
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Four NOP instructions are required when using HOLD function.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 2:
INT_SWITCH2:
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
MOV.W MEM, R0
FSET
I
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Dummy read.
; Enable interrupts.
Example 3:
INT_SWITCH3:
PUSHC FLG
FCLR
I
AND.B #00h, 0055h
POPC FLG
; Push Flag register onto stack
; Disable interrupts.
; Clear TA0IC int. priority level and int. request bit.
; Enable interrupts.
The reason why two NOP instructions (four when using the HOLD function) or dummy read are inserted
before FSET I in Examples 1 and 2 is to prevent the interrupt enable flag I from being set before the
interrupt control register is rewritten due to effects of the instruction queue.
• When a instruction to rewrite the interrupt control register is executed but the interrupt is disabled, the
interrupt request bit is not set sometimes even if the interrupt request for that register has been generated. This will depend on the instruction. If this creates problems, use the below instructions to change
the register.
Instructions : AND, OR, BCLR, BSET
505
Mitsubishi microcomputers
Interrupt
506
M16C / 62 Group
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Chapter 5
External Buses
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.1 Overview of External Buses
Memory and I/O external expansion can be attained in either the memory expansion mode or the microprocessor mode. When accessing an external area in either mode, 8-bit data bus width or 16-bit data bus
width can be selected, based on the BYTE pin level. 16-bit width is used to access an internal area,
regardless of the level of the BYTE pin.
Fix the BYTE pin either to “H” or “L” level. 8-bit and 16-bit data bus widths cannot be used together in an
external area.
Addresses (A0 through A19) for accessing a memory space of up to 1M bytes, as well as chip selects
_______
_______
(CS0 through CS3) which indicate areas resulting from dividing a 1M bytes space into four, can be output
in both the memory expansion mode and microprocessor mode.
Table 5.1.1. Memory space expansion mode and memory spaces
508
Expansion mode
Accesible memory space
Normal mode
Up to 1M byte
Expansion mode 1
Up to 1.2M byte
Expansion mode 2
Up to 4M byte
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.2 Data Access
5.2.1 Data Bus Width
If the voltage level input to the BYTE pin is “H”, the external data bus width becomes 8 bits, and P10 (/
D8) through P17 (/D15) can be used as I/O ports (Figure 5.2.1).
If the voltage level input to the BYTE pin is “L”, the external data bus width becomes 16 bits, and P10
(/D8) through P17 (/D15) operate as a data bus (D8 through D15) (Figure 5.2.1).
Bus width : 8-bit (BYTE = “H”)
External device
Microcomputer
P00 to P07
Data bus D0 to D7
P10 to P17
AAAA
P20 to P27
P30 to P37
Address bus A0 to A15
P40 to P43
Address bus A16 to A19 (Note 1)
P44 to P47
Chip select CS0 to CS3 (Note 2)
P50 to P52
RD, WRL, WRH / RD, BHE, WR (Note 3)
P53 to P57
BCLK, HLDA, HOLD, ALE, RDY
I/O port
Bus width : 16-bit (BYTE = “L”)
Microcomputer
External device
P00 to P07
Data bus D0 to D7
P10 to P17
Data bus D8 to D15
P20 to P27
P30 to P37
Address bus A0 to A15
P40 to P43
Address bus A16 to A19 (Note 1)
P44 to P47
Chip select CS0 to CS3 (Note 2)
P50 to P52
RD, WRL, WRH / RD, BHE, WR (Note 3)
P53 to P57
BCLK, HLDA, HOLD, ALE, RDY
Note 1: Can be switched to I/O port using the port P40 to P43 function select bits of processor mode register 0 (address 000416).
Note 2: When reset, only CS0 outputs a chip select signal. CS1 through CS3 become input ports.
I/O ports can be switched using the CSi output enable bit of the chip select control register (address 000816).
Note 3: The feature can be switched using the R/W mode select bit of processor mode register 0 (address 000416).
Figure 5.2.1. Level of BYTE pin and external data bus width
509
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.2.2 Chip Selects and Address Bus
_______
_______
Chip selects (P44/CS0 through P47/CS3) are output in areas resulting from dividing a 1-M byte
memory space into four. To use the chip select, the chip select output must be enabled by setting the
chip select control register. Figure 5.2.2 shows addresses in which chip selects become active (“L”).
Since the extent of the internal area and the external area in memory expansion mode is different from
_______
those in microprocessor mode, there is a difference between areas for which CS0 is output. When an
internal ROM/RAM area is being accessed, no chip select is output, and the address bus does not
change (the address of the external area that was accessed previously is held).
0000016
003FF16
0040016
SFR area
Internal RAM area
M30622MC
M30624MG/FG
XXXXX16
03FFF16
Type No.
M30622M4
M30620M8
M30620MC/EC
M30622M8/E8
M30622MA
Address XXXXX16
00FFF16
02BFF16
02BFF16
013FF16
017FF16
017FF16
053FF16
Address YYYYY16
F800016
F000016
E000016
F000016
E800016
E000016
C000016
Internal reserved area
0400016
07FFF16
0800016
27FFF16
CS3
0400016 to 07FFF16 (16K)
CS3
0400016 to 07FFF16 (16K)
CS2
0800016 to 27FFF16 (128K)
CS2
0800016 to 27FFF16 (128K)
CS1
2800016 to 2FFFF16 (32K)
CS1
2800016 to 2FFFF16 (32K)
2800016
2FFFF16
3000016
CS0
3000016 to CFFFF16 (640K)
3000016 to F7FFF16 (800K)
CFFFF16
CS0
3000016 to FFFFF16 (832K)
D000016
Internal reserved area
YYYYY16
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
Note 1: This memory maps show an instance in which PM13 is set to 0; but in the case of M30624MG/FG, they show
an instance in which PM13 is set to 1.
Note 2: This memory map show the address in normal mode.
Figure 5.2.2. Addresses in which chip selects turn active (“L”)
510
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Chip select control register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
CSR
Address
000816
Bit name
Bit symbol
CS0
CS1
CS0 output enable bit
CS1 output enable bit
CS2
CS2 output enable bit
CS3
CS3 output enable bit
CS0W
CS0 wait bit
CS1W
CS1 wait bit
CS2W
CS2 wait bit
CS3W
CS3 wait bit
When reset
0116
Function
AA
AA
AA
A
A
AA
A
A
AA
AA
RW
0 : Chip select output disabled
(Normal port pin)
1 : Chip select output enabled
0 : Wait state inserted
1 : No wait state
Figure 5.2.3. Chip select control register
5.2.3 Bus Types
The M16C/62 Group has two types of buses: a separate bus where separate pins are used for address
output and data input/output and a multiplexed bus where pins are time- multiplexed and switched between address output and data input/output to save the number of pins used.
A separate bus is used to access devices such as ROM and RAM which have separate buses. The areas
accessed via separate buses can be allocated for programs and data.
A multiplexed bus is used to access devices such as ASSPs which have multiplexed buses. The areas
accessed via a multiplexed bus can only be allocated for data. Programs cannot be located in these areas.
_______
______
The area accessed via a multiplex bus can be selected from three types of area CS2 area, CS1 area, and
entire space by setting the multiplexed bus select bits (bits 4 and 5) of the processor mode register 0 (address
000416). However, the entire space cannot be selected when operating in the microprocessor mode.
Areas not accessed via multiplexed bus are accessed through separate buses.
When accessing an area set for access via a multiplexed bus the data bus is 8 bits wide, the data bus D0
to D7 is multiplexed with address bus A0 to A7.
If the data bus is 16 bits wide, the data bus D0 to D7 is multiplexed with address bus A1 to A8. In either
case, the bus is switched between data and address separated only in time.
In the latter case, however, the addresses of connected devices are mapped into even addresses (every
other addresses) of the M16C/62. Therefore, be sure to access the M16C/62's even addresses in length
of bytes when accessing a connected device.
5.2.4 R/W Modes
_____
The read/write signal that is output when accessing an external area can be selected between the RD/
_______ ______
_____ _________ ________
BHE/WR and the RD/WRH/WRL modes by setting the R/W mode select bit (bit 2) of the processor mode
_____ ________ ______
_____ _________
register 0 (address 000416). Use the RD/BHE/WR mode to access a 16-bit wide RAM and the RD/WRH/
________
WRL mode to access an 8-bit wide RAM.
_____ ________ ______
When the M16C/62 is reset, the RD/BHE/WR mode is selected by default. To switch over the R/W mode,
_____ ________ ______
_____ _________ ________
change the RD/BHE/WR to the RD/WRH/WRL mode before accessing an external RAM.
_____ ________ ______
_____ _________ ________
Refer to the connection examples of RD/BHE/WR and RD/WRH/WRL shown in Section 5.4, "Connection
Examples."
511
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.3 Memory Space Expansion Features
Here follows the description of the memory space expansion function.
(1) Normal Mode
1M byte memory space
(2) Memory space expansion mode1 1.2M byte memory space
(3) Memory space expansion mode2 4M byte memory space
Use bits 5 and 4(PM15,PM14) of processor mode register 1 to select a desired mode.Figure 5.3.1 shows
the processor mode register 1.
Processor mode register 1 (Note 1)
b7
b6
0
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
0
Symbol
PM1
Address
000516
Bit symbol
When reset
00000XX02
Bit name
Reserved bit
Function
Must always be set to “0”
Nothing is assigned.
AA
R W
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns
out to be indeterminate.
PM13
Internal reserved area
expansion bit (Note 2)
PM14
Memory area
expansion bit (Note 3)
PM15
Reserved bit
PM17
b5 b4
0 0 : Normal mode
(Do not expand)
0 1 : Inhibited
1 0 : Memory area expansion
mode 1
1 1 : Memory area expansion
mode 2
Must always be set to “0”
Wait bit
AAA
A
AA
AA
AA
0: The same internal reserved
area as that of M16C/60 and
M16C/61 group
1: Expands the internal RAM area
and internal ROM area to 23 K
bytes and to 256K bytes
respectively. (Note 2)
0 : No wait state
1 : Wait state inserted
Note 1: Set bit 1 of the protect register (address 000A16) to “1” when writing new values to this register.
Note 2: Be sure to set this bit to 0 except products whose RAM size and ROM size exceed 15K bytes
and 192K bytes respectively.
In using M30624MG/FG, a product having a RAM of more than 15K bytes and a ROM of more
than 192K bytes, set this bit to 1 at the beginning of user program.
Specify D000016 or a subsequent address, which becomes an internal ROM area if PM13 is set
to “0” at the time reset is revoked, for the reset vector table of user program.
Note 3: With the processor running in memory expansion mode or in microprocessor mode, setting this
bit provides the means of expanding the external memory area. (Normal mode: up to 1M byte,
expansion mode 1: up to 1.2 M bytes, expansion mode 2: up to 4M bytes)
For details, see “Memory space expansion functions”.
Figure 5.3.1. Processor mode register 1
512
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.3.1 Normal Mode
In normal mode, a maximum 1 Mbyte of memory space can be accessed in memory expansion and
microprocessor modes. Programs and data can be located in any external area.
Normal mode (memory area = 1M bytes for PM15 = 0, PM14 = 0)
Memory expansion mode
0000016
Microprocessor mode
SFR area
SFR area
0040016
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
AAAA
Internal RAM area
Internal RAM area
XXXXX16
Internal area reserved
0400016
Internal area reserved
CS3
0800016
CS2
2800016
CS1
3000016
External area
Internal area reserved
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
Address XXXXX16
00FFF16
02BFF16
02BFF16
013FF16
017FF16
017FF16
053FF16
CS2
128K bytes
CS1
32K bytes
CS0
YYYYY16
Type No.
M30622M4
M30620M8
M30620MC/EC
M30622M8/E8
M30622MA
M30622MC
M30624MG/FG
16K bytes
External area
CS0
D000016
CS3
Memory expansion mode: 640K bytes
Microprocessor mode: 832K bytes
Address YYYYY16
F800016
F000016
E000016
F000016
E800016
E000016
C000016
Note 1: These memory maps show an instance in which PM13 is set to 0; but in the case of M30624MG/FG, they show an
instance in which PM13 is set to 1.
Note 2: The memory maps in single-chip mode are omitted.
Figure 5.3.2. Memory Map in Nomal Mode
513
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.3.2 Memory Space Expansion Mode 1
In memory space extension mode 1, the accessible area is extended to the memory space that can be
accessed in normal mode plus 176 Kbytes. This 176-Kbyte area ranges from address 0400016 to address 2FFFF16.
Memory expansion mode
Microprocessor mode
A
AAAAA
A
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAA
AAAAA
AAAAAAAAA
0000016
SFR area
SFR area
Internal RAM area
Internal RAM area
Internal area reserved
Internal area reserved
CS3
CS3
0040016
0400016
0800016
CS2
CS2
2800016
CS1
3000016
External area
CS0
Program exclusive area
176K bytes
area of memory
expanded
CS1
External area
16K bytes
128K bytes
32K bytes
CS3 area
CS2 area
CS1 area
CS0
program/data area
D000016
Internal area reserved
Data exclusive area
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
CS0 area
Figure 5.3.3. Memory Map in Memory space expansion mode 1
When fetching a program from the area consisting of these addresses 0400016 through 2FFFF16, the
______
CPU reads program code from memory locations selected by the CS0 chip select signal. Also, when
______
______
______
accessing this area for data, the CPU accesses memory locations selected by the CS1, CS2, or CS3 chip
select signal.
In areas following address 3000016, for both program fetch and data access, the CPU accesses memory
______
locations selected by the CS0 chip select signal.
514
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.3.3 Memory Space Expansion Mode 2
In memory space extension mode 2, the maximum 1 Mbyte of memory space accessible in normal mode
is extended to 4 Mbytes. The extended area consists of a 512 Kbytes of area at addresses 4000016
______
through BFFFF16 selectable by CS0. With this area comprising one bank, a total of seven banks from
bank 0 to bank 6 can be used exclusively for data access.
Memory expansion mode
0000016
SFR area
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
0040016
Internal RAM area
Internal area reserved
0400016
0800016
CS3
The bank to use is selected by a
bank select bit.
CS2
program/data area
2800016
CS1
4000016
D000016
AA
AA
AAA
AAA
4000016
External area
CS0 area
expand
7FFFF16
Bank 7
BFFFF16
Bank 6
5 4
Internal area reserved
3 2
1 0
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
Data exclusive area
Microprocessor mode
0000016
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
SFR area
0040016
Internal RAM area
Internal area reserved
0400016
0800016
The bank to use is selected by a
bank select bit.
CS3
CS2
CS1
4000016
FFFFF16
AAA
AA
AAA
AAA
AAA
program/data area
2800016
External area
4000016
CS0
7FFFF16
Bank 7
Bank 6
CS0 area
expand
4000016
5 4
3 2
1 0
BFFFF16
C000016
FFFFF16
Bank 7
Data exclusive area
Figure 5.3.4. Memory Map in Memory space expansion mode 2
In memory expansion mode, in addition to the seven banks from bank 0 to bank 6, another bank, bank 7,
comprised of a 256 Kbytes of area from address 4000016 to address 7FFFF16 can be used. In microprocessor mode, in addition to the seven banks from bank 0 to bank 6, another bank, bank 7, comprised of
a 256 Kbytes of area from address C000016 to address FFFFF16 can be used. Programs and data can be
placed in bank 7.
To choose each bank, use the Data bank register’s bank select bits (bits 3, 4, and 5 at address 0000B16).
_______
When accessing this extended area for data, the device outputs a chip select signal from the CS0 pin and
______
______
______
a bank number from the CS1, CS2, and CS3 pins each that has been set by the bank select bits.
When fetching a program from the area of bank 7 comprised of addresses 4000016 through 7FFFF16, the
515
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
______
______
______
device automatically outputs bank 7 (1, 1, 1) from the CS1, CS2, and CS3 pins each, no matter what bank
number has been set by the bank select bits. When accessing this same area for data, choose bank 7 by
setting the bank select bits first. For the area of bank 7 comprised of addresses C000016 through
______
______
______
FFFFF16, the device automatically outputs bank 7 (1, 1, 1) from the CS1, CS2, and CS3 pins each, for
either program fetch or data access.
When accessing the area comprised of addresses 0400016 through 3FFFF16, for both program fetch and
______
______
______
data access, the device outputs the same chip select signal from the CS1, CS2, and CS3 pins each as
output conventionally.
Figure 5.3.5 shows the Data bank register.
Data bank register
b7
b6
b5
b4
b3
b2
b1
b0
Symbol
DBR
Address
000B16
Bit symbol
When reset
0016
Bit name
Description
R W
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
OFS
Offset bit
BSR
Bank selection bits
0: Not offset
1: Offset
b5 b4 b3
0 0 0: Bank 0
0 1 0: Bank 2
1 0 0: Bank 4
1 1 0: Bank 6
b5 b4 b3
0 0 1: Bank 1
0 1 1: Bank 3
1 0 1: Bank 5
1 1 1: Bank 7
Nothing is assigned.
In an attempt to write to these bits, write “0”. The value, if read, turns out to be “0”.
Figure 5.3.5. Data bank register
When alternately accessing areas across the bank boundary, you need to rewrite the bank select bits
each time. In this case, you can avoid this inconvenience by setting the Data bank register’s offset bit (bit
2 at address 0000B16) to 1, because this allows you to access said areas without having to rewrite the
bank select bits.
516
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(1)4-Mbyte ROM and 128-Kbyte SRAM Connection Example
Figure 5.3.6 shows how to connect 4-Mbyte ROM and 128-Kbyte SRAM in microprocessor mode. Locate
_______
the 4-Mbyte ROM in the CS0 area that has been extended in memory space extension mode 2 and the
______
128-Kbyte SRAM in the CS2 area.
CNVss
BYTE
CS0
CS1
CS2
CS3
A0 to A19
CS3
A21
CS2
A20
CS1
A19
A16
A16
to to
A0
A0
A19
CS2
CS0
RD
WR
S1
S2
OE
A17 to A0
D0
DQ1
to
to
D7
DQ8
CS0
RD
W
A18
A17 to A0
DQ0 D0
CE
to to
D7
DQ7
OE
4M bytes ROM
128K bytes SRAM
RD
WR
D0 to D7
M16C/62
Figure 5.3.6. 4-Mbyte ROM and 128-Kbyte SRAM Connection Example
______
______
Connect CS0 to the 4-Mbyte ROM’s chip enable pin and CS1, CS2, and CS to the address pins A19, A20,
and A21, respectively. Connect the M16C’s A19 to the 4-Mbyte ROM’s A18, leaving the M16C’s A18
unused.
In the above diagram, an SRAM with two chip select signal inputs is used. When using memory with only
one chip select signal input, you need to have an external circuit to decode the address.
Addresses in 4-Mbyte ROM with regard to M16C settings are shown in Table 5.3.1.
517
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Table 5.3.1. Address of 4M-byte ROM
Setting of M16C/62
M16C pin output
Bank No.
Access area
Chip select(bank no.) output
Address output
CS3
CS2
CS1
A19
A18
A17
A16
40000
80000
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0000
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0000
000000
010000
BFFFF
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
FFFF
07FFFF
080000
0FFFFF
100000
17FFFF
180000
1FFFFF
200000
27FFFF
280000
2FFFFF
300000
37FFFF
380000
3BFFFF
3C0000
3FFFFF
4M bytes ROM
access areas
0
A15 to A0
B
0
40000
BFFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
7FFFF
C0000
FFFFF
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
7
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0000
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
FFFF
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0000
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
FFFF
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0000
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
FFFF
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0000
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
FFFF
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0000
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
FFFF
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0000
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
FFFF
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0000
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
FFFF
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0000
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
FFFF
A21
A20
A19
A18
N.C.
A17
A16
4M bytes ROM address input
A15 to A0
4M bytes ROM access areas
M16C/62 memory space
(microprocessor mode)
0000016
SFR area
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAA
AAAAA
AAA
AAAAA
AAAAA
AAA
AAAAAAAA
0040016
Internal RAM area
Internal area reserved
0400016
0800016
CS3
CS2
4M bytes ROM memory map
128K bytes SRAM area
2800016
CS1
External area
4000016
CS0
Bank 7
Bank 6
FFFFF16
5 4
3 2
1 0
Bank 7
4M bytes ROM area
00000016
08000016
10000016
18000016
20000016
28000016
30000016
38000016
3FFFFF16
Bank 0
Bank 1
Bank 2
Bank 3
Bank 4
Bank 5
Bank 6
Bank 7
AAA
Data area
Program/Data area
Bank No. in case of offset bit = 0
Figure 5.3.7. Memory map
The area in 4-Mbyte ROM ranging from address 00000016 to address 37FFFF16 is a data-only area. No
program can be placed in this area. The 512-Kbyte area in 4-Mbyte ROM from address 38000016 to
address 3FFFFF16 can be used to locate both programs and data.
518
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(2)2-Mbyte ROM and 256-Kbyte SRAM Connection Example
Figure 5.3.8 shows how to connect 2-Mbyte ROM and 256-Kbyte SRAM in microprocessor mode. Locate
both the 2-Mbyte ROM and 256-Kbyte SRAM in the CS0 area that has been extended in memory space
extension mode 2.
Specifically, locate the 2-Mbyte ROM in the area comprised of banks 4 though 7 and the 256-Kbyte
SRAM in the area of bank 0.
CNVss
BYTE
CS0
CS1
CS2
CS3
A0 to A19
A16
A1
to
to
A0
A0
CS0
CS2
A20
CS1
A19
A19
A18
A17 to A0
S1
CS3
RD
WR
S2
DQ1
D0
OE
to
DQ8
to
D7
D0
CE
CS3
RD
W
256K bytes SRAM
A17 to A0
CS0
OE
DQ0
to
to
D7
DQ7
2M bytes ROM
RD
WR
D0 to D7
M16C/62
Figure 5.3.8. 2-Mbyte ROM and 256-Kbyte SRAM Connection Example
_______
_______
_______
Enter the signal decoded from outputs CS0 and CS3 to the 2-Mbyte ROM’s chip enable pin. Connect CS1
_______
and CS2 to the address pins A19 and A20. Connect the M16C’s A19 to the 2-Mbyte ROM’s A18, leaving
the M16C’s A18 unused.
_______
_______
Enter the signal decoded from outputs CS0 and CS3 to the 256-Kbyte SRAM’s chip enable pin.
Access areas in 2-Mbyte ROM and 256-Kbyte SRAM with regard to M16C settings are shown in Table
5.3.2.
519
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Table 5.3.2. Access area of 2M-byte ROM and 256K-byte SRAM
Setting of M16C/62
M16C pin output
Bank No. Access area
0
4
5
6
7
Chip select output
Address output
Bank No.
CS0
CS3
CS2
CS1
A19
A18
A17
A16 A15 to A0
40000
7FFFF
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0000
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
FFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
BFFFF
40000
7FFFF
C0000
FFFFF
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0000
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
FFFF
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0000
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
FFFF
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0000
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
FFFF
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0000
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
FFFF
0
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0000
0
1
1
A20
1
A19
1
A18
1
N.C.
1
A17
FFFF
1
A16 A15 to A0
Address input of 2M-byte ROM and 256K-byteSRAM
0
1
SRAM
1
000000
03FFFF SRAM
0
000000
07FFFF
080000
0FFFFF
100000
17FFFF
180000
1BFFFF
1C0000
1FFFFF
ROM
CS
ROM
real Address
Access area and input of Memory
M16C/62 memory space
(microprocessor mode)
0000016
0040016
SFR area
Internal RAM area
Memory map
Internal area reserved
0400016
0800016
2800016
CS3
CS2
CS1
4000016
AAA
AA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
AAA
SRAM
00000016
Bank0
CS0
C000016
Bank6 5
4
256K-byte
SRAM area
00000016
08000016
10000016
FFFFF16
Data area
ROM
Bank7
External
7FFFF16
area
bank0
03FFFF16
2M-byte ROM area
18000016
Bank4
Bank5
Data area
Bank6
Bnak7
Program/Data
area
1FFFFF16
Bank No. in case of offset bit = 0
Figure 5.3.9. Memory map
The area in 2-Mbyte ROM ranging from address 00000016 to address 17FFFF16 is a data-only area. No
program can be placed in this area. The 512-Kbyte area in 2-Mbyte ROM from address 18000016 to
address 1FFFFF16 can be used to locate both programs and data.
520
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4 Connection Examples
5.4.1 16-bit Memory to 16-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example
Figure 5.4.1 shows an example of connecting M5M51016BTP (16-bits SRAM) to a 16-bit data bus.In this
diagram, when reset the microcomputer starts operating in single-chip mode. Change this mode to
memory expansion mode in a program.
M16C/62 group
CNVSS
WR
BHE
BYTE
A0 to A16
A16
to
A1
A15
to
A0
RD
CS
RD
BC2
A0
BHE
WR
W
CS1
CS1
BC1
OE
D0
DQ1
to
to
D15
DQ16
M5M51016BTP
D0 to D15
Figure 5.4.1. Example of connecting M5M51016BTP to a 16-bit data bus
521
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4.2 8-bit Memory to 16-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example
Figure 5.4.2 shows an example of connecting two M5M5278's (8-bits SRAM) to a 16-bit data bus.In this
diagram, when reset the microcomputer starts operating in single-chip mode. Change this mode to
memory expansion mode in a program.
M16C/62 group
CNVSS
WRH
WRL
BYTE
D0 to D15
CS0
CS0
RD
S
RD
W
OE
A15
A14
to
to
A1
A0
DQ1
to
DQ8
WRL
D0
to
D7
CS0
RD
OE
A15
A14
to to
A1
A0
M5M5278D
A1 to A15
Figure 5.4.2. Example of connecting two M5M5278's to a 16-bit data bus
522
S
W
WRH
D8
DQ1
to
to
D15
DQ8
M5M5278D
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Figure 5.4.3 shows how to connect two Am29LV008B (8-bits flash memory). In 16-bit bus mode, the
______
______
______
BHE/WRH pin functions as BHE. When connecting 8-bit flash memory chips to the 16-bit bus, make sure
______
______
the microcomputer’s WRL pin is connected to the WR pins on both flash memory chips, and that data is
written to the flash memory in units of 16 bits beginning with an even address.
M16C/62 group
CNVSS
WRL
BYTE
D0 to D15
CS0
CS0
RD
CS0
CE
RD
OE
A19
A18
to
to
A1
A0
CE
WE
DQ0
to
DQ7
Am29LV008B
D0
to
D7
RD
OE
A19
A18
to
to
A1
A0
WE
D8
DQ0
to
to
D15
DQ7
Am29LV008B
A1 to A19
Figure 5.4.3. Example of connecting two Am29LV008B's to a 16-bit data bus
523
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4.3 8-bit Memory to 8-bit Width Data Bus Connection Example
Figure 5.4.4 shows an example of connecting two M5M5278's (8-bits SRAM) to an 8-bit data bus.In this
diagram, when reset the microcomputer starts operating in single-chip mode. Change this mode to
memory expansion mode in a program.
M16C/62 group
CNVSS
WR
BYTE
D0 to D7
CS0
CS0
S
W
CS1
RD
RD
OE
A14
to
A0
DQ1
to
DQ8
WR
D0
to
D7
CS1
RD
M5M5278D
A0 to A14
Figure 5.4.4. Example of connecting two M5M5278's to an 8-bit data bus
524
W
S
OE
A14
to
A0
WR
D0
DQ1
to
to
D7
DQ8
M5M5278D
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4.4 Two 8-bit and 16-Bit Memory to 16-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example
Figure 5.4.5 shows an example of connecting M5M28F102 (16-bit flash memory) and two M5M5278's (8bits SRAM) to a 16-bit data bus.
M16C/62 group
CNVSS
BYTE
WRH
WRL
A1 to A16
A15
to
A1
A14 W
RD
to
A0 OE CS1
S
D0
D1
to to
D8 D7
D0 to D15
M5M5278D
A15
to A14 W
RD
to
A1
OE
A0
CS1
CS0
S
D8
D1
to to
D8 D15
M5M5278D
RD
VPP A15 A16
to to
CE
A0 A1
D15
to
D0
OE
WE
M5M28F102
CS1
CS0
RD
Figure 5.4.5. Example of connection of two 8-bit memories and one 16-bit memory to 16-bit width data bus
525
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4.5 16-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 1
Figure 5.4.6 shows how to connect the M5M29GB/T160 (16-Mbit flash memory), M5M51016B (1-Mbit
SRAM) when operating with a 3 V power supply voltage in microprocessor mode.
CNVss
BYTE
CS0
CS1
CS2
CS3
A0 to A19
A16
A1
CS2
A15
OE
A0
BC1
WR
A1
A0
CS
RD
BHE
A19
BC2
CS0
DQ1
DQ16
W
M5M51016B
D0
D15
A18
A0
CE
RD
OE
WR
WE
RP
BYTE
DQ0
D0
DQ15
D15
M5M29GB/T160
RD
BHE
WR
D0 to D15
M16C/62
Figure 5.4.6. 16-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 1
526
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4.6 8-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 1
Figure 5.4.7 shows how to connect the M5M29GB/T160 (16-Mbit flash memory), M5M5256D (256-Kbit
SRAM), and M5M51008B (1-Mbit SRAM) when operating with a 3 V power supply voltage in microprocessor mode.
CNVss
CS0
CS1
BYTE
CS2
CS3
A0 to A19
A14
A0
A14
A14
A0
A0
A16
A14
A0
A19
A16
A0
A0
CS2
S1
A1
A0
CS3
RD
WR
S
OE
DQ1
D0
CS1
RD
DQ8
W
M5M5256D
D7
WR
S
OE
DQ1
D0
S2
RD
DQ8
W
M5M5256D
D7
WR
OE
DQ1
DQ8
W
M5M51008B
D0
A18
A0
A-1
CS0
CE
RD
OE
WR
WE
D7
RP
BYTE
DQ0
DQ7
D0
D7
M5M29GB/T160
RD
WR
D0 to D7
M16C/62
Figure 5.4.7. 8-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 1
527
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4.7 8-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 2
Figure 5.4.8 shows how to connect the Am29F032B (32-Mbit flash memory), M5M5256D (256-Kbit
SRAM), and M5M51008B (1-Mbit SRAM) when operating with a 5 V power supply voltage in microprocessor mode.
CNVss
BYTE
CS0
CS1
CS2
CS3
A0 to A19
A14
A0
CS3
RD
WR
A16
A14
A0
S
OE
DQ1
D0
DQ8
D7
A0
A0
CS2
S1
CS0
S2
RD
W
M5M5256D
WR
A16
A16
OE
A0
DQ1
D0
DQ8
D7
W
M5M51008B
A0
CS1
S1
CS0
S2
RD
WR
CS3
CS2
CS1
A19
A17
A16
A21
A20
A19
A18
A17
RESET
A0
A0
CS0
W
CE
OE
WE
M5M51008B
Am29F032B
OE
DQ1
D0
DQ8
D7
RD
RD
WR
D0 to D7
M16C/62
Figure 5.4.8. 8-Bit Width Data Bus Connection Example in Memory Space Expansion Mode 2
528
RESET input
DQ0
D0
DQ7
D7
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.4.8 Chip Selects and Address Bus
When there are insufficient chip select signals, it is necessary to generate chip selects externally. Figure
5.4.9 shows an example of a connection in which the CS2 area is divided into four 32K byte areas.
M16C/62 Group
CNVS
S
WR
RD
A0 to A17
IC0
BYTE
A15
A16
A17
CS2
1
A8
2
3
A9
16
Y1
A7
14
4
13
5
12
6
11
Y2
Y3
A6
A5
Y4
A4
A3
A2
8
A1
74HC138
A0
D0
D1
D2
IC3
1
28
2
27
3
26
4
25
5
24
6
23
7
8
22
21
9
20
10
19
11
18
12
17
13
16
14
15
M5M5278
A0 to A14
A10
A11
A12
A13
.....
A14
Y1
Y4
D7
D6
D0 to D7
D5
D4
D3
M5M5278
D0 to D7
Memory map
0000016
0800016
IC0
0FFFF16
1000016
IC1
17FFF16
1800016
CS2
IC2
1FFFF16
2000016
IC3
2FFFF16
3000016
FFFFF16
Figure 5.4.9. Chip selects and address bus
529
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.5 Connectable Memories
5.5.1 Operation Frequency and Access Time
Connectable memories depend upon the BCLK frequency f(BCLK). The frequency of f(BCLK) is equal to
that of the BCLK , and is contingent on the oscillator's frequency and on the settings in the system clock
select bits (bit 6 of address 000616, and bits 6 and 7 of address 000716).
The following are the conditional equations for the connections. Meet these conditions minimally. Figures 5.5.1 and 5.5.2 show the relation between the frequency of BCLK and memory.
(1) Read cycle time (tCR)/write cycle time (tCW)
Read cycle time (tCR) and write cycle time (tCW) must satisfy the following conditional expressions:
• With the Wait option cleared
tCR < 109/f(BCLK) and tCW < 109/f(BCLK)
• With the Wait option selected
tCR < 2 X 109/f(BCLK) and tCW < 2 X 109/f(BCLK)
(2) Address access time [ta(A)]
Address access time [ta(A)] must satisfy the following conditional expressions:
(a) Vcc = 5V
• With the Wait option cleared
ta(A) < 109/f(BCLK) – 65(ns)*
• With the Wait option selected
ta(A) < 2 X 109/f(BCLK) – 65(ns)*
* 65(ns)
= td(BCLK – AD) + tsu(DB – RD) – th(BCLK – RD)
= (address output delay time) + (data input setup time) – (RD signal output hold time)
(b) Vcc = 3V
• With the Wait option cleared
ta(A) < 109/f(BCLK) – 140(ns)*
• With the Wait option selected
ta(A) < 2 X109/f(BCLK) – 140(ns)*
* 140(ns) = td(BCLK-AD) + tsu(DB – RD) – th(BCLK – RD)
= (address output delay time) + (data input setup time) – (RD signal output hold time)
(3) Chip select access time [ta(S)]
Chip select access time [ta(S)] must satisfy the following conditional expressions:
(a) Vcc = 5V
• With the Wait option cleared
ta(S) < 109/f(BCLK) – 65(ns)*
• With the Wait option selected
ta(S) < 2 X109/f(BCLK) – 65(ns)*
* 65(ns)
530
= td(BCLK – CS) + tsu(DB – RD) – th(BCLK – RD)
= (chip select output delay time) + (data input setup time) – (RD signal output hold time)
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
(b) Vcc = 3V
• With the Wait option cleared
ta(S) < 109/f(BCLK) – 140(ns)*
• With the Wait option selected
ta(S) < 2 X109/f(BCLK) – 140(ns)*
* 140(ns) = td(BCLK – CS) + tsu(DB – RD) – th(BCLK – RD)
= (chip select output delay time) + (data input setup time) – (RD signal output hold time)
(4) Output enable time [ta(OE)]
Output enable time [ta(OE)] must satisfy the following conditional expressions:
(a) Vcc = 5V
• With the Wait option cleared
ta(OE) < 109/(f(BCLK) X 2) – 45(ns) = tac1(RD-DB)
• With the Wait option selected
ta(OE) < 3 X 109/(f(BCLK) X 2) – 45(ns) = tac2(RD-DB)
(b) Vcc = 3V
• With the Wait option cleared
ta(OE) < 109/(f(BCLK) X 2) – 90(ns) = tac1(RD-DB)
• With the Wait option selected
ta(OE) < 3X109/(f(BCLK) X 2) – 90(ns) = tac2(RD-DB)
(5) Data setup time [tsu(D)]
Data setup time [tsu(D)] must satisfy the following conditional expressions:
(a) Vcc = 5V
• With the Wait option cleared
tsu(D) < 109/(f(BCLK) X 2) – 40(ns)*
• With the Wait option selected
tsu(D) < 109/f(BCLK) – 40(ns)*
* 40(ns)
= td(BCLK – DB) – th(BCLK – WR)
= (data output delay time) – (WR signal output hold time)
(b) Vcc = 3V
• With the Wait option cleared
tsu(D) < 109/(f(BCLK) X 2) – 80(ns)*
• With the Wait option selected
tsu(D) < 109/f(BCLK) – 80(ns)*
* 80(ns)
= td(BCLK – DB) – th(BCLK – WR)
= (data output delay time) – (WR signal output hold time)
531
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Access time
2500
2000
Without wait
1935
With wait
1500
1000
935
935
602
500
435
435
268
185
335
268
135
102
221
78
185 157
60
0
46
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
135
117
35
26
10
11
102
18
89
78
12
68
6
12
13
2
14
60
-3
15
16
MHz
OE access time
1600
1455
1400
Without wait
With wait
1200
1000
800
705
600
455
400
455
330
255
205
200
121
80
55
205
169
142
38
26
17
121
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
105
5
10
91
80
70
62
55
0
-3
-7
-9
-12
11
12
13
14
15
48
-14
16
MHz
Data set up time
1200
1000
Without wait
960
With wait
800
600
460
460
400
293
210
200
210
127
160
85
127
43
60
103
31
85
23
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
71
60
51
43
16
10
5
2
10
11
12
37
-2
13
14
MHz
Figure 5.5.1. Relation between the frequency of BCLK and memory (Vcc = 5V)
532
31
27
-4
-7
15
23
-9
16
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
Access time
2,000
1860
Without wait
With wait
1,500
1,000
860
860
527
500
360
360
193
260
110
193
60
146
27
0
110
82
-29
-15
1
2
3
4
5
60
3
6
7
8
-40
9
10
MHz
OE access time
1600
1410
1400
Without wait
With wait
1200
1000
800
660
600
410
410
400
285
210
160
200
76
35
0
1
2
3
160
124
97
76
10
4
5
6
-18
-7
7
8
-27
9
60
-40
10
-34
MHz
Data set up time
1,000
920
Without wait
800
With wait
600
420
400
420
253
200
170
87
170
120
45
20
87
63
45
0
-9
1
2
3
4
5
31
3
6
7
-24
-18
8
20
9
-30
10
MHz
Figure 5.5.2. Relation between the frequency of BCLK and memory (Vcc = 3V)
533
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.5.2 Connecting Low-Speed Memory
To connect memory with long access time [ta(A)], either decrease the frequency of BCLK or set a soft________
ware wait. Using the RDY feature allows you to connect memory having the timing that precludes connection though you set software wait.
(1) Using software wait
Set software wait by using either of bit 7 (PM17) of processor mode register 1 or bits 4 through 7
(CS0W through CS3W) of the chip select control register. With software wait set, if an address space
is accessed in which a separate bus is selected, the bus cycle results in two cycles of BCLK; if an
address space is accessed in which a multiplex bus is selected, the bus cycle results in three cycles of
BCLK.
If bit 7 (PM17) of processor mode register 1 is set to “Wait selected”, the microcomputer accesses
every area with this option in effect. If bit 7 (PM17) of processor mode register 1 is set to “Wait
cleared”, the Wait option can be either selected or cleared, chip select by chip select, by setting bits
4 through 7 (CS0W through CS3W) of the chip select control register. Figures 5.5.3 through 5.5.5
show relation of processor mode and the wait bit (PM17, CSiW).
In case of M30620MA
Single-chip mode
(When, PM17 = “0”)
0000016
0040016
Single-chip mode
(When, PM17 = “1”)
0000016
SFR area
BCLK X 2
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 1
0040016
02C0016
02C0016
E800016
E800016
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
BCLK X 1
SFR area
BCLK X 2
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 2
Internal ROM area
BCLK X 2
FFFFF16
Figure 5.5.3. Relation of processor mode and the wait bit (PM17, CSiW) (1)
534
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
In case of M30620MA
Memory expansion mode
Memory expansion mode
When,
PM17 = “0”
PM04, PM05 = “00”
CS0 = “1”
CS3 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS3W = “1”
When,
PM17 = “1”
PM04, PM05 = “00”
CS0 = “1”
CS3 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS3W = “1”
0000016
0000016
SFR area
0040016
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 2
BCLK X 1
02C0016
0400016
0040016
CS3 external area
Separate bus
0400016
BCLK X 1
0800016
1000016
1000016
3000016
CS0 external area
Separate bus
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 2
CS3 external area
3000016
CS0 external area
BCLK X 2
D000016
Separate bus
BCLK X 2
Separate bus
BCLK X 2
D000016
E800016
E800016
Internal ROM area
Internal ROM area
BCLK X 1
BCLK X 2
FFFFF16
FFFFF16
Memory expansion mode
Memory expansion mode
When,
PM17 = “0”
PM04, PM05 = “10”
CS0 = “1”
CS2 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS2W = “0”
When,
PM17 = “1”
PM04, PM05 = “10”
CS0 = “1”
CS2 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS2W = “0”
0000016
SFR area
BCLK X 2
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 1
0000016
0040016
02C0016
02C0016
0400016
0400016
0800016
CS2 external area
Multiplex bus
SFR area
BCLK X 2
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 2
0800016
CS2 external area
BCLK X 3
2800016
Multiplex bus
BCLK X 3
2800016
3000016
CS0 external area
Separate bus
3000016
CS0 external area
BCLK X 2
D000016
Separate bus
BCLK X 2
D000016
E800016
E800016
Internal ROM area
FFFFF16
BCLK X 2
02C0016
0800016
0040016
SFR area
Internal ROM area
BCLK X 1
BCLK X 2
FFFFF16
Figure 5.5.4. Relation of processor mode and the wait bit (PM17, CSiW) (2)
535
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
In case of M30620MA
0000016
0040016
Microprocessor mode
Microprocessor mode
When,
PM17 = “0”
PM04, PM05 = “00”
CS0 = “1”
CS3 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS3W = “1”
When,
PM17 = “1”
PM04, PM05 = “00”
CS0 = “1”
CS3 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS3W = “1”
SFR area
BCLK X 2
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 1
02C0016
0400016
0000016
0040016
CS3 external area
Separate bus
0400016
BCLK X 1
0800016
1000016
1000016
3000016
3000016
CS0 external area
Separate bus
BCLK X 2
CS3 external area
Separate bus
Microprocessor mode
Microprocessor mode
When,
PM17 = “0”
PM04, PM05 = “10”
CS0 = “1”
CS2 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS2W = “0”
When,
PM17= “1”
PM04, PM05 = “10”
CS0 = “1”
CS2 = “1”
CS0W = “0”
CS2W = “0”
SFR area
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 2
BCLK X 1
0000016
0040016
02C0016
0400016
0400016
0800016
CS2 external area
Multiplex bus
Separate bus
BCLK X 2
SFR area
BCLK X 2
Internal RAM area
BCLK X 2
0800016
CS2 external area
BCLK X 3
2800016
2800016
3000016
3000016
CS0 external area
Separate bus
CS0 external area
BCLK X 2
FFFFF16
Figure 5.5.5. Relation of processor mode and the wait bit (PM17, CSiW) (3)
536
BCLK X 2
FFFFF16
02C0016
FFFFF16
Internal RAM area
CS0 external area
BCLK X 2
FFFFF16
0040016
BCLK X 2
02C0016
0800016
0000016
SFR area
Multiplex bus
BCLK X 3
Separate bus
BCLK X 2
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
________
(2) RDY function usage
________
To use the RDY function, set a software wait.
________
________
The RDY function operates when the BCLK signal falls with the RDY pin at “L”; the bus does not vary
for 1 BCLK, and the state at that moment is held.
________
________
The RDY function holds the state of bus for the period in which the RDY pin is at “L”, and releases it
________
________
when the BCLK signal falls with the RDY pin at “H”. Figure 5.5.6 shows an example of RDY circuit
that holds the state of bus for 1 BCLK.
BCLK
S
CK
S
1Q
CK
2Q
1Q
D
2Q
D
R
RDY
R
CS0
RD
• Timings in separate bus
BCLK
CS0
RD
1Q
2Q
RDY
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
• Timings in multiplex bus
BCLK
CS0
RD
1Q
2Q
RDY
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1) RDY accepted
(2) RDY cleared
The state of data bus and that of address bus are held for the period between (1) and (2).
________
Figure 5.5.6. Example of RDY circuit holding state of bus for 1 BCLK
537
Mitsubishi microcomputers
M16C / 62 Group
External Buses
SINGLE-CHIP 16-BIT CMOS MICROCOMPUTER
5.5.3 Connectable Memories
Connectable memories and their maximum frequencies are given here;
M16C/62 group maximum frequency is
16MHz(without the wait) for Vcc=5V,
10MHz(with the one wait;Mask version and flash 5V version) for Vcc=3V
7MHz(with the one wait;One time PROM version) for Vcc=3V
(1) Flash memories(Read only mode)
(a) 5V without wait
Maximum
frequency (MHz)
5.26
5.55
5.88
Model No.
M5M28F101AFP,J,VP,RV-10
M5M28F102AFP,J,VP,RV-10
M5M29JB/T160AVP-10
M5M28F101AFP,J,VP,RV-85
M5M28F102AFP,J,VP,RV-85
M5M29JB/T160AVP-80
(b) 5V with wait
Maximum
frequency (MHz)
12.12
13.33
13.79
Model No.
M5M28F101AFP,J,VP,RV-10
M5M28F102AFP,J,VP,RV-10
M5M29JB/